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Sample records for bimetallic ni-fe catalysts

  1. CO methanation over supported bimetallic Ni-Fe catalysts: From computational studies towards catalyst optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kustov, Arkadii; Frey, Anne Mette; Larsen, Kasper Emil

    2007-01-01

    DFT calculations combined with a computational screening method have previously shown that bimetallic Ni-Fe alloys should be more active than the traditional Ni-based catalyst for CO methanation. That was confirmed experimentally for a number of bimetallic Ni-Fe catalysts supported on MgAl2O4. He...

  2. Alloyed Ni-Fe nanoparticles as catalysts for NH3 decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Chakraborty, Debasish; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2012-01-01

    temperatures and a low NH3-to-H2 ratio, the catalytic activity of the best Ni-Fe/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be comparable or even better to that of a more expensive Ru-based catalyst. Small Ni-Fe nanoparticle sizes are crucial for an optimal overall NH3 conversion because of a structural effect favoring...

  3. Remediation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil using Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles: Influencing factors, kinetics and mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yingying [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 51006 (China); Guangdong Technology Research Center for Ecological Management and Remediation of Urban Water System, Guangzhou 51006 (China); Fang, Zhanqiang, E-mail: zhqfang@scnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 51006 (China); Guangdong Technology Research Center for Ecological Management and Remediation of Urban Water System, Guangzhou 51006 (China); Cheng, Wen [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 51006 (China); Guangdong Technology Research Center for Ecological Management and Remediation of Urban Water System, Guangzhou 51006 (China); Tsang, Pokeung Eric [Department of Science and Environmental Studies, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong 00852 (China); Zhao, Dongye [Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are commonly used as additive flame retardants in all kinds of electronic products. PBDEs are now ubiquitous in the environment, with soil as a major sink, especially in e-waste recycling sites. This study investigated the degradation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) in a spiked soil using Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles. The results indicated that Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles are able to degrade BDE209 in soil at ambient temperature and the removal efficiency can reach 72% when an initial pH of 5.6 and at a Ni/Fe dosage of 0.03 g/g. A declining trend in degradation was noticed with decreasing Ni loading and increasing of initial BDE209 concentration. The degradation products of BDE209 were analyzed by GC-MS, which showed that the degradation of BDE209 was a process of stepwise debromination from nBr to (n − 1)Br. And a possible debromination pathway was proposed. At last, the degradation process was analyzed as two-step mechanism, mass transfer and reaction. This current study shows the potential ability of Ni/Fe nanoparticles to be used for removal of PBDEs in contaminated soil. - Highlights: • Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles could effectively degradate BDE209 in soil. • The effects of various factors on remediation of BDE209 in soil using Ni/Fe were considered. • The degradation of BDE209 was a process of stepwise debromination from nBr to (n − 1)Br. • A possible debromination pathway and mechanism about removal of BDE209 in soil were proposed.

  4. Alloyed Ni-Fe nanoparticles as catalysts for NH3 decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Chakraborty, Debasish; Chorkendorff, Ib;

    2012-01-01

    A rational design approach was used to develop an alloyed Ni-Fe/Al2O3 catalyst for decomposition of ammonia. The dependence of the catalytic activity is tested as a function of the Ni-to-Fe ratio, the type of Ni-Fe alloy phase, the metal loading and the type of oxide support. In the tests with high...

  5. Dechlorination of chlorinated hydrocarbons by bimetallic Ni/Fe immobilized on polyethylene glycol-grafted microfiltration membranes under anoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshetti, Ganesh K; Doong, Ruey-an

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the dechlorination of chlorinated hydrocarbons including trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and carbon tetrachloride (CT) by bimetallic Ni/Fe nanoparticles immobilized on four different membranes was investigated under anoxic conditions. Effects of several parameters including the nature of membrane, initial concentration, pH value, and reaction temperature on the dechlorination efficiency were examined. The scanning electron microscopic images showed that the Ni/Fe nanoparticles were successfully immobilized inside the four membranes using polyethylene glycol as the cross-linker. The agglomeration of Ni/Fe were observed in poly(vinylidene fluoride), Millex GS and mixed cellulose ester membranes, while a relatively uniform distribution of Ni/Fe was found in nylon-66 membrane because of its hydrophilic nature. The immobilized Ni/Fe nanoparticles exhibited good reactivity towards the dechlorination of chlorinated hydrocarbons, and the pseudo-first-order rate constant for TCE dechlorination by Ni/Fe in nylon-66 were 3.7-11.7 times higher than those in other membranes. In addition, the dechlorination efficiency of chlorinated hydrocarbons followed the order TCE>PCE>CT. Ethane was the only end product for TCE and PCE dechlorination, while dichloromethane and methane were found to be the major products for CT dechlorination, clearly indicating the involvement of reactive hydrogen species in dechlorination. In addition, the initial rate constant for TCE dechlorination increased upon increasing initial TCE concentrations and the activation energy for TCE dechlorination by immobilized Ni/Fe was 34.9 kJ mol(-1), showing that the dechlorination of TCE by membrane-supported Ni/Fe nanoparticles is a surface-mediated reaction.

  6. Effect of La on Partial Oxidation of Ethanol to Hydrogen over Ni/Fe Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The partial oxidation of ethanol to hydrogen was investigated over Ni/Fe/La catalysts prepared by the co-precipitation method. The effects of introduction of La promoter and the reaction temperature on the catalytic performance were studied. It was found that the introduction of La into Ni/Fe catalysts is helpful to increase the selectivity to hydrogen and the stability of the catalysts. The results of XRD and XPS characterization show that the structure of the catalyst was changed during the reaction. The existence of LaFeO3 species is possibly the main reason of the increase of the catalyst stability.

  7. Cu2O Photocathode for Low Bias Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Enabled by NiFe-Layered Double Hydroxide Co-Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Huan; Wolfe, Jonathan; Fichou, Denis; Chen, Zhong

    2016-08-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are bimetallic hydroxides that currently attract considerable attention as co-catalysts in photoelectrochemical (PEC) systems in view of water splitting under solar light. A wide spectrum of LDHs can be easily prepared on demand by tuning their chemical composition and structural morphology. We describe here the electrochemical growth of NiFe-LDH overlayers on Cu2O electrodes and study their PEC behavior. By using the modified Cu2O/NiFe-LDH electrodes we observe a remarkable seven-fold increase of the photocurrent intensity under an applied voltage as low as -0.2 V vs Ag/AgCl. The origin of such a pronounced effect is the improved electron transfer towards the electrolyte brought by the NiFe-LDH overlayer due to an appropriate energy level alignment. Long-term photostability tests reveal that Cu2O/NiFe-LDH photocathodes show no photocurrent loss after 40 hours of operation under light at -0.2 V vs Ag/AgCl low bias condition. These improved performances make Cu2O/NiFe-LDH a suitable photocathode material for low voltage H2 production. Indeed, after 8 hours of H2 production under -0.2 V vs Ag/AgCl the PEC cell delivers a 78% faradaic efficiency. This unprecedented use of Cu2O/NiFe-LDH as an efficient photocathode opens new perspectives in view of low biasd or self-biased PEC water splitting under sunlight illumination.

  8. Surface Structure and Catalytic Performance of Ni-Fe Catalyst for Low-Temperature CO Hydrogenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanhui Meng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalysts 16NixFe/Al2O3 (x is 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method and the catalytic performance for the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG from CO hydrogenation in slurry-bed reactor were studied. The catalysts were characterized by BET, XRD, UV-Vis DRS, H2-TPR, CO-TPD, and XPS, and the results showed that the introduction of iron improved the dispersion of Ni species, weakened the interaction between Ni species and support and decreased the reduction temperature and that catalyst formed Ni-Fe alloy when the content of iron exceeded 2%. Experimental results revealed that the addition of iron to the catalyst can effectively improve the catalytic performance of low-temperature CO methanation. Catalyst 16Ni4Fe/Al2O3 with the iron content of 4% exhibited the best catalytic performance, the conversion of CO and the yield of CH4 reached 97.2% and 84.9%, respectively, and the high catalytic performance of Ni-Fe catalyst was related to the property of formed Ni-Fe alloy. Further increase of iron content led to enhancing the water gas shift reaction.

  9. NiFe(C2O4)x as a heterogeneous Fenton catalyst for removal of methyl orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yucan; Zhang, Guangming; Chong, Shan; Zhang, Nan; Chang, Huazhen; Huang, Ting; Fang, Shunyan

    2017-05-01

    This paper studies a heterogeneous Fenton catalyst NiFe(C2O4)x, which showed better catalytic activity than Ni(C2O4)x and better re-usability than Fe(C2O4)x. The methyl orange removal efficiency was 98% in heterogeneous Fenton system using NiFe(C2O4)x. The prepared NiFe(C2O4)x had a laminated shape and the size was in the range of 2-4 μm, and Ni was doped into catalyst's structure successfully. The NiFe(C2O4)x had a synergistic effect of catalyst of 24.7 for methyl orange removal, and the dope of Ni significantly reduced the leaching of Fe by 77%. The reaction factors and kinetics were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, 0.4 g/L of catalyst dose and 10 mmol/L of hydrogen peroxide concentration, 98% of methyl orange was removed within 20 min. Analysis showed that hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radicals participated in the reaction. With NiFe(C2O4)x catalyst, the suitable pH range for heterogeneous Fenton system was wide from 3 to 10. The catalyst showed good efficiency after five times re-use. NiFe(C2O4)x provided great potential in treatment of refractory wastewater with excellent property.

  10. Multilayer Ni/Fe thin films as oxygen evolution catalysts for solar fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biset-Peiró, M.; Murcia-López, S.; Fàbrega, C.; Morante, J. R.; Andreu, T.

    2017-03-01

    The slow kinetics and high overpotential of the oxygen evolution reaction is one of the main limiting factors to achieve the minimum required performances of the so-called photoelectrochemical water splitting systems. An oxygen evolution catalyst (OEC) becomes essential in order to perform this process with higher efficiency. Herein, we report the physical, optical and electrochemical characterization of multilayer Ni/Fe thin films as earth-abundant OEC, to avoid the use of platinum group metals (PGM). Uniform films of thicknesses ranging from 1 to 10 nm were fabricated by sequential and alternate thermal evaporation of Ni and Fe. It was found that the successive deposition allows the fabrication of a Ni terminated surface that does not need activation due to the Fe underlayer. The lowest overpotential achieved for NiFe was 370 mV at 10 mA cm‑2 and a Tafel slope of 37 mV dec‑1 with 1 nm thickness and 95% transmittance. Finally, NiFe OEC was implemented on top of Mo:BiVO4 photoanodes which resulted in a reduction of the open circuit potential of 0.2 V and up to five fold increase of the oxidation efficiency at 0.7 VRHE. The results presented facilitate the practical implementation of BiVO4 photoanodes in tandem configuration for bias free photoassisted water splitting.

  11. Montmorillonite supported Ni-Fe catalysts for hydrogen production from steam reforming of ethanol%Ni-Fe/蒙脱土催化剂催化乙醇水蒸气重整制氢的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝茹; 殷雪梅; 吴旭; 安霞; 谢鲜梅

    2016-01-01

    采用浸渍法制备了一系列Ni-Fe/蒙脱土( MMT)催化剂,并应用于乙醇水蒸气重整制氢反应( ESR)。采用X射线衍射( XRD)、N2吸附脱附分析和H2-程序升温还原( H2-TPR)表征手段对催化剂的物理化学性质、还原性能、碳沉积等进行了研究。结果表明,Ni-Fe/MMT催化剂中,Ni、Fe高度分散在载体MMT层间及表面,而且Fe的加入降低了Ni颗粒的粒径,增强了Ni2+与载体的相互作用力。以10Ni5Fe/MMT为催化剂,在反应温度为500℃、水醇比为3:1、空速为12 h-1,反应进行30 h后,乙醇转化率为100%,氢气选择性仍保持72%,副产物CO和CH4含量明显降低。这是因为催化助剂Fe的引入,一方面,提高了Ni的分散度,使得ESR低温活性较好;另一方面,减小了Ni颗粒粒径,小颗粒的Ni有利于抑制甲烷的生成,并且Fe的加入加强了甲烷重整和水煤气变换反应,提高产物中氢气的选择性。%Ni-Fe/montmorillonite ( MMT ) catalysts were prepared by impregnation method for hydrogen production via ethanol steam reforming. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, H2-TPR, and N2 adsorption-desorption . It was found that Ni-Fe bimetallic catalysts exhibited higher activities and stability than single metallic catalysts due to the well dispersed Ni-Fe, small nickel crystallites and stronger interaction between Ni2+ and carrier. The conversion and selectivity were affected by the ratio of Ni to Fe. The 10Ni5Fe/MMT catalyst showed the optimum catalytic performance, its ethanol conversion was 100%, the selectivity of hydrogen gas remained at 72%, and selectivity of CO and CH4 were significantly decreased at 500℃ during 30 h testing. This could be attributed to the promoter Fe, which improves the dispersion of Ni and results in a good ESR activity at low reaction temperature. Small Ni particles can suppress methane formation and Fe addition can enhance the methane reforming with water and water gas shift reaction, resulting in higher

  12. Effects of particle composition and environmental parameters on catalytic hydrodechlorination of trichloroethylene by nanoscale bimetallic Ni-Fe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianjun; Qian, Yajing; Liu, Wenjuan; Wang, Lutao; Ge, Yijie; Zhang, Jianghao; Yu, Jiang; Ma, Xingmao

    2014-05-01

    Catalytic nickel was successfully incorporated into nanoscale iron to enhance its dechlorination efficiency for trichloroethylene (TCE), one of the most commonly detected chlorinated organic compounds in groundwater. Ethane was the predominant product. The greatest dechlorination efficiency was achieved at 22 molar percent of nickel. This nanoscale Ni-Fe is poorly ordered and inhomogeneous; iron dissolution occurred whereas nickel was relatively stable during the 24-hr reaction. The morphological characterization provided significant new insights on the mechanism of catalytic hydrodechlorination by bimetallic nanoparticles. TCE degradation and ethane production rates were greatly affected by environmental parameters such as solution pH, temperature and common groundwater ions. Both rate constants decreased and then increased over the pH range of 6.5 to 8.0, with the minimum value occurring at pH 7.5. TCE degradation rate constant showed an increasing trend over the temperature range of 10 to 25°C. However, ethane production rate constant increased and then decreased over the range, with the maximum value occurring at 20°C. Most salts in the solution appeared to enhance the reaction in the first half hour but overall they displayed an inhibitory effect. Combined ions showed a similar effect as individual salts.

  13. Degradation of aniline by heterogeneous Fenton's reaction using a Ni-Fe oxalate complex catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yucan; Zhang, Guangming; Fang, Shunyan; Chong, Shan; Zhu, Jia

    2016-11-01

    A Ni-Fe oxalate complex catalyst was synthesized and characterized by means of Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) method, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). The catalyst showed good catalytic activity for aniline degradation by heterogeneous Fenton's reaction, in which the synergetic index was 9.3. The effects of reaction temperature, catalyst dosage, hydrogen peroxide concentration and initial pH were investigated. Under the optimum conditions (T = 293 K, catalyst dosage = 0.2 g/L, H2O2 concentration = 4 mmol/L and initial pH = 5.4), 100% aniline could be removed within 35 min, and approximately 88% deamination efficiency was achieved in 60 min. The aniline degradation process followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic (k = 0.177 min(-1)) with activation energy (Ea) of 49.4 kJ mol(-1). Aniline could be removed in a broad initial pH (3-8) due to the excellent pH-tolerance property of the catalyst. The detected ammonium ion indicated that deamination occurred during aniline degradation. It was proposed that deamination synchronized with aniline removal, and aniline was attacked by free radicals to generate benzoquinonimine and phenol. This system is promising for the removal of aniline from water.

  14. High pressure CO hydrogenation over bimetallic Pt-Co catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Medford, Andrew James; Studt, Felix

    2014-01-01

    The potential of bimetallic Pt-Co catalysts for production of higher alcohols in high pressure CO hydrogenation has been assessed. Two catalysts (Pt3Co/SiO2 and PtCo/SiO2) were tested, and the existing literature on CO hydrogenation over Pt-Co catalysts was reviewed. It is found that the catalyst...

  15. Synthesis and characterization of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–Pd magnetically recyclable catalyst for hydrogenation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaoğlu, E., E-mail: ekaraoglu@fatih.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Fatih University, 34500 B. Cekmece, Istanbul (Turkey); Özel, U.; Caner, C.; Baykal, A.; Summak, M.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Fatih University, 34500 B. Cekmece, Istanbul (Turkey); Sözeri, H. [TUBITAK-UME, National Metrology Institute, PO Box 54, 41470 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Novel superparamagnetic NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–Pd magnetically recyclable catalyst was fabricated through co-precipitation. ► It could be reused several times without significant loss in catalytic activity for hydrogenation reaction. ► No further modification of the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–Pd magnetically recyclable catalyst is necessary for utilization as catalyst. -- Abstract: Herein we report the fabrication and characterization magnetically recyclable catalysts of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–Pd nanocomposite as highly effective catalysts for reduction reactions in liquid phase. The reduction Pd{sup 2+} was accomplished with polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG-400) instead of sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was prepared by sonochemically using FeCI{sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O and NiCl{sub 2}. The chemical characterization of the product was done with X-ray diffractometry, Infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV–Vis spectroscopy, thermal gravimetry and inductively coupled plasma. Thus formed NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–Pd MRCs showed a very high activity in reduction reactions of 4-nitro aniline and 1,3-dinitrobenzene in liquid phase. It was found out that the catalytic activity of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–Pd MRCs on the reduction of 4-nitro aniline and 1,3-dinitrobenzene in liquid phase are between 99–93% and 98–93%, respectively. Magnetic character of this system allowed recovery and multiple use without significant loss of its catalytic activity. It is found that NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–Pd MRCs showed very efficient catalytic activity and multiple usability.

  16. Effect of mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles Fe, Ni, & Fe/Ni based on carbon nanocomposites on electrocatalytic properties of anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranabhat, K.; Pylinina, A. I.; Skripkin, K. S.; Sofronova, E. A.; Revina, A. A.; Kasatkin, V. E.; Patrikeev, L. N.; Lapshinsky, V. A.

    2016-10-01

    The optical properties of metallic Fe nanoparticles (NPs), Ni NPs and bimetallic Fe/Ni NPs produced under radiolysis in anaerobic condition based on a chemical reduction in the presence of oxygen and quercetin in reversed micellar solutions, and electrokinetic properties of nanoparticles carbon-based nanocomposites were studied. The possibility of the preparation of coating using different nanocomposites with anomalous electrocatalytic is addressed.

  17. Mechanochemical synthesis of TiO{sub 2}/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} magnetic catalysts for operation under RF field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlding, Thomas K. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Gao, Pengzhao [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Degirmenci, Volkan; Tchabanenko, Kirill [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Rebrov, Evgeny V., E-mail: e.rebrov@warwick.ac.uk [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Novel NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–TiO{sub 2} composite magnetic catalysts have been prepared by mechanochemical synthesis. • The synthesis time of 30 min provides the highest specific absorption rate (SAR) in RF heating. • Formation of NiTiO{sub 3} phase during calcination decreases the SAR of the catalysts. • High stability of the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–TiO{sub 2} catalyst was observed in a continuous amide bond synthesis under RF heating. - Abstract: Composite NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}–TiO{sub 2} magnetic catalysts were prepared by mechanochemical synthesis from a mixture of titania supported nickel ferrite nanoparticles and P25 titania (Evonic). The former provides fast and efficient heating under radiofrequency field, while the latter serves as an active catalyst or catalyst support. The highest heating rate was observed over a catalyst prepared for a milling time of 30 min. The catalytic activity was measured over the sulfated composite catalysts in the condensation of aniline and 3-phenylbutyric acid in a stirred tank reactor and in a continuous RF heated flow reactor in the 140–170 °C range. The product yield of 47% was obtained over the sulfated P25 titania catalyst in the flow reactor.

  18. Catalytic carbon deposition-oxidation over Ni, Fe and Co catalysts: a new indirect route to store and transport gas hydrocarbon fuels.

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Patrícia E. F.; Ribeiro, Leandro Passos; Rosmaninho, Marcelo Gonçalves; Ardisson, José Domingos; Dias, Anderson; Oliveira,Luiz Carlos Alves; Lago, Rochel Montero

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a new two-step route to store and transport associated natural gas, promoted by Ni, Fe and Co supported catalyst was presented. Initially, CH4 is converted into carbon deposits (M/C composite), being Fe catalyst the most active catalyst. In Step 2, M/C composite reacts with H2O producing H2, CO and CH4. TPO experiments showed that efficiency and selectivity of oxidation depends on the metal. Ni catalyst produced mainly H2 and CO, while Fe system was more selective to convert car...

  19. Various conformations of carbon nanocoils prepared by supported Ni-Fe/molecular sieve catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaoming; Chen, Xiuqin; Takeuchi, K; Motojima, Seiji

    2006-01-01

    The carbon nanocoils with various kinds of conformations were prepared by the catalytic pyrolysis of acetylene using the Ni metal catalyst supported on molecular Sieves which was prepared using Fe-containing kaolin as the raw material. There are four kinds of carbon nanocoils conformations produced by this catalyst. The influences of reaction temperature and gas conditions on the conformations of the nanocoils were investigated and the reasons of forming nano-size coils were discussed by comparison with pure Ni metal catalyst.

  20. Bimetallic Nanoparticles as Efficient Catalysts: Facile and Green Microwave Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Blosi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the development of a green and versatile synthesis of stable mono- and bi-metallic colloids by means of microwave heating and exploiting ecofriendly reagents: water as the solvent, glucose as a mild and non-toxic reducer and polyvinylpirrolidone (PVP as the chelating agent. Particle size-control, total reaction yield and long-term stability of colloids were achieved with this method of preparation. All of the materials were tested as effective catalysts in the reduction of p-nitrophenol in the presence of NaBH4 as the probe reaction. A synergistic positive effect of the bimetallic phase was assessed for Au/Cu and Pd/Au alloy nanoparticles, the latter showing the highest catalytic performance. Moreover, monoand bi-metallic colloids were used to prepare TiO2- and CeO2-supported catalysts for the liquid phase oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfufural (HMF to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA. The use of Au/Cu and Au/Pd bimetallic catalysts led to an increase in FDCA selectivity. Finally, preformed Pd/Cu nanoparticles were incorporated into the structure of MCM-41-silica. The resulting Pd/Cu MCM-41 catalysts were tested in the hydrodechlorination of CF3OCFClCF2Cl to CF3OCF=CF2. The effect of Cu on the hydrogenating properties of Pd was demonstrated.

  1. Bimetallic Catalysts Containing Gold and Palladium for Environmentally Important Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alshammari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Supported bimetallic nanoparticles (SBN are extensively used as efficient redox catalysts. This kind of catalysis particularly using SBN has attracted immense research interest compared to their parent metals due to their unique physico-chemical properties. The primary objective of this contribution is to provide comprehensive overview about SBN and their application as promising catalysts. The present review contains four sections in total. Section 1 starts with a general introduction, recent progress, and brief summary of the application of SBN as promising catalysts for different applications. Section 2 reviews the preparation and characterization methods of SBN for a wide range of catalytic reactions. Section 3 concentrates on our own results related to the application of SBN in heterogeneous catalysis. In this section, the oxidation of cyclohexane to adipic acid (an eco-friendly and novel approach will be discussed. In addition, the application of bimetallic Pd catalysts for vapor phase toluene acetoxylation in a fixed bed reactor will also be highlighted. Acetoxylation of toluene to benzyl acetate is another green route to synthesize benzyl acetate in one step. Finally, Section 4 describes the summary of the main points and also presents an outlook on the application of SBN as promising catalysts for the production of valuable products.

  2. The selective hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde over bimetallic catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeb, Ann M. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-10-17

    The selective hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde has been investigated over a monometallic Pt/SiO2 catalyst and platinum bimetallic catalysts where the second metal was either silver, copper, or tin. The effects of addition of a second metal to the Pt/SiO2 system on the selectivity to crotyl alcohol were investigated. The Pt-Sn bimetallic catalysts were characterized by hydrogen chemisorption, 1H NMR and microcalorimetry. The Pt-Ag/SiO2 and Pt-Cu/SiO2 catalysts were characterized by hydrogen chemisorption. Pt-Sn/SiO2 catalysts selectively hydrogenated crotonaldehyde to crotyl alcohol and the method of preparation of these catalysts affected the selectivity. The most selective Pt-Sn/SiO2 catalysts for the hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde to crotyl alcohol were those in which the Sn precursor was dissolved in a HCl solution. Sn increased both the rate of formation of butyraldehyde and the rate of formation of crotyl alcohol. The Pt/SiO2, Pt-Ag/SiO2 and Pt-Cu/SiO2 catalysts produced only butyraldehyde. Initial heats of adsorption (~90 kJ/mol) measured using microcalorimetry were not affected by the presence of Sn on Pt. We can conclude that there is no through metal electronic interaction between Pt and Sn at least with respect to hydrogen surface bonds since the Pt and Pt-Sn at least with respect to hydrogen surface bonds since the Pt and Pt-Sn had similar initial heats of adsorption coupled with the invariance of the 1H NMR Knight shift.

  3. Exploration of Nanotube Structure Selectivity Using Bimetallic Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferle, Lisa

    2007-10-01

    Achieving selectivity for nanotube chirality is one of the holy grails for single-walled carbon nanotube research. One approach we are following is based on the ability to engineer the size and state of the initiating metal particle to constrain the type of cap formed. The chirality/structure of a nanotube is controlled by carbon cap formation on the metal particle during the nucleation step. It has been proposed that varying the carbon-metal catalyst binding energy could help lead to structure selectivity. One reason theoretically proposed for the favoring of armchair nanotubes, for example, is the proximity of low energy binding locations for two carbon atoms. Thus blocking sites or perturbing the binding energy on adjacent sites could in theory affect the structure of the carbon cap formed in the nucleation step. Our goal is to demonstrate structure selectivity in the growth of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) using a bimetallic catalyst. The catalyst used was a bimetallic CoCr-MCM 41 and the effect of different molecular ratios between the two metals on the SWNT diameter distribution was studied. We have found that by adding Cr to the Co-MCM 41 monometallic catalyst the diameter distribution shifted in a systematic manner correlated to the development of a bimetallic phase as characterized by X-Ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). We have also found that the shift is accompanied by suppression of metallic SWNT, particularly those with diameter over 0.9 nm. We are also currently exploring the possibility of a further narrowing of the distribution by lowering the reaction temperatures.

  4. Regeneration of sulfur-fouled bimetallic Pd-based catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Brian P; Shapley, John R; Werth, Charles J

    2007-08-01

    Pd-based catalysts provide efficient and selective reduction of several drinking water contaminants, but their long-term application requires effective treatments for catalyst regeneration following fouling by constituents in natural waters. This studytested alumina-supported Pd-Cu and Pd-In bimetallic catalysts for nitrate reduction with H2 after sulfide fouling and oxidative regeneration procedures. Both catalysts were severely deactivated after treatment with microM levels of sulfide. Regeneration was attempted with dissolved oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, and heated air. Only sodium hypochlorite and heated air were effective regenerants, specifically restoring nitrate reduction rates for a Pd-In/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst from 20% to between 39 and 60% of original levels. Results from ICP-MS revealed that sodium hypochlorite caused dissolution of Cu from the Pd-Cu catalyst but that the Pd-In catalyst was chemically stable over a range of sulfide fouling and oxidative regenerative conditions. Analysis byXPS indicated that PdS and In2S3 complexes form during sulfide fouling, where sulfur is present as S2-, and that regeneration with sodium hypochlorite converts a portion of the S2- to S6+, with a corresponding increase in reduction rates. These results indicate that Pd-In catalysts show exceptional promise for being robust under fouling and regeneration conditions that may occur when treating natural waters.

  5. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan, Song; Kirby, S.; Schmidt, E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to explore bimetallic dispersed catalysts for more efficient coal liquefaction. Coal liquefaction involves cleavage of methylene, dimethylene and ether bridges connecting various aromatic units and the reactions of various oxygen functional groups. This paper describes recent results on (1) hydrodeoxygenation of O-containing polycyclic model compounds using novel organometallic catalyst precursors; and (2) activity and selectivity of dispersed Fe catalysts from organometallic and inorganic precursors for hydrocracking of 4-(1-naphthylmethyl) bibenzyl. The results showed that some iron containing catalysts have higher activity in the sulfur-free form, contrary to conventional wisdom. Adding sulfur to Fe precursors with Cp-ligands decreased the activity of the resulting catalyst. This is in distinct contrast to the cases with iron pentacarbonyl and superfine Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, where S addition increased their catalytic activity substantially. A positive correlation between sulfur addition and increased activity can be seen, but a reversed trend between Fe cluster size and hydrocracking conversion could be observed, for carbonyl-type Fe precursors. It is apparent that the activity and selectivity of Fe catalysts for NMBB conversion depends strongly on both the type of ligand environment, the oxidation state and the number of intermetal bonds in the molecular precursor.

  6. Bimetallic Au-decorated Pd catalyst for the liquid phase hydrodechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Juan [School of the Environment, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Chen, Huan, E-mail: hchen404@njust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Jiangsu Province for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental & Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Chen, Quanyuan; Huang, Zhaolu [School of the Environment, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Graphical abstract: 2,4-Dichlorophenol can be converted to phenol via the catalytic HDC method over Pd-Au/CNTs and the catalytic activity first increased and then decreased with Au content. - Highlights: • Bimetallic catalysts had smaller metal particles and larger number of exposed active site than the monometallic catalysts. • The cationization of Pd particles increased with Au content in the bimetallic catalysts. • The bimetallic catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activities for HDC of 2,4-DCP than the monometallic counterparts. • The concerted pathway for HDC of 2,4-DCP was more predominant with increasing Au content in the bimetallic catalyst. - Abstract: Monometallic and bimetallic Pd-Au catalysts supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with varied Au cooperation amounts were prepared using the complexing-reduction method in the presence of tetrahydrofuran (THF). The liquid phase catalytic hydrodechlorination (HDC) of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) was investigated over these bimetallic catalysts. The catalysts were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and H{sub 2} chemisorption. Characterization results showed that the co-reduction of Pd and Au mainly formed alloy-like structure. The bimetallic catalysts had smaller metal particles and larger numbers of exposed active site than that of monometallic catalysts. In addition, compared with Pd(1.7)/CNTs and Au(0.4)/CNTs, the binding energies of Pd 3d{sub 5/2} shifted to higher positions while that of Au 4f{sub 7/2} had negative shifts in the Pd-Au bimetallic catalysts, which can be ascribed to the electrons transferred from metal Pd to Au and the cationization of Pd particles was enhanced. Accordingly, the bimetallic Pd-Au particles with different Au contents in the catalysts exhibited varied synergistic effects for the catalytic HDC of 2,4-DCP, with Pd(1.8)Au(0.4)/CNTs having the highest

  7. Direct Comparison of the Performance of a Bio-inspired Synthetic Nickel Catalyst and a [NiFe]-Hydrogenase, Both Covalently Attached to Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Macia, Patricia; Dutta, Arnab; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Shaw, Wendy J.; Rudiger, Olaf

    2015-10-12

    The active site of hydrogenases has been a source of inspiration for the development of molecular catalysts. However, direct comparisons between molecular catalysts and enzymes have not been possible because different techniques are used to evaluate both types of catalysts, minimizing our ability to determine how far we’ve come in mimicking the impressive enzymatic performance. Here we directly compare the catalytic properties of the [Ni(PCy2NGly2)2]2+ complex with the [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Desulfobivrio vulgaris Miyazaki F (DvMF) immobilized to a functionalized electrode under identical conditions. At pH=7, the enzyme has higher performance in both activity and overpotential, and is more stable, while at low pH, the molecular catalyst outperforms the enzyme in all respects. The Ni complex also has increased tolerance to CO. This is the first direct comparison of enzymes and molecular complexes, enabling a unique understanding of the benefits and detriments of both systems, and advancing our understanding of the utilization of these bioinspired complexes in fuel cells. AD and WJS acknowledge the Office of Science Early Career Research Program through the US Department of Energy (US DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle for the US DOE.

  8. Enantioselective Epoxide Polymerization Using a Bimetallic Cobalt Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Thomas, Renee M.

    2010-11-24

    A highly active enantiopure bimetallic cobalt complex was explored for the enantioselective polymerization of a variety of monosubstituted epoxides. The polymerizations were optimized for high rates and stereoselectivity, with s-factors (kfast/kslow) for most epoxides exceeding 50 and some exceeding 300, well above the threshold for preparative utility of enantiopure epoxides and isotactic polyethers. Values for mm triads of the resulting polymers are typically greater than 95%, with some even surpassing 98%. In addition, the use of a racemic catalyst allowed the preparation of isotactic polyethers in quantitative yields. The thermal properties of these isotactic polyethers are presented, with many polymers exhibiting high T m values. This is the first report of the rapid synthesis of a broad range of highly isotactic polyethers via the enantioselective polymerization of racemic epoxides. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  9. Fundamental studies of hydrogen interaction with supported meta and bimetallic catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, S.

    1993-12-07

    The thesis is divided into 3 parts: interaction of H with silica supported Ru catalysts (high pressure in situ NMR), in situ NMR study of H interaction with supported Ru-group IB bimetallic catalysts, and in-situ NMR study of H effects on silica-supported Pt, Rh and Ru catalysts.

  10. Bimetallic Au-decorated Pd catalyst for the liquid phase hydrodechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Juan; Chen, Huan; Chen, Quanyuan; Huang, Zhaolu

    2016-11-01

    Monometallic and bimetallic Pd-Au catalysts supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with varied Au cooperation amounts were prepared using the complexing-reduction method in the presence of tetrahydrofuran (THF). The liquid phase catalytic hydrodechlorination (HDC) of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) was investigated over these bimetallic catalysts. The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and H2 chemisorption. Characterization results showed that the co-reduction of Pd and Au mainly formed alloy-like structure. The bimetallic catalysts had smaller metal particles and larger numbers of exposed active site than that of monometallic catalysts. In addition, compared with Pd(1.7)/CNTs and Au(0.4)/CNTs, the binding energies of Pd 3d5/2 shifted to higher positions while that of Au 4f7/2 had negative shifts in the Pd-Au bimetallic catalysts, which can be ascribed to the electrons transferred from metal Pd to Au and the cationization of Pd particles was enhanced. Accordingly, the bimetallic Pd-Au particles with different Au contents in the catalysts exhibited varied synergistic effects for the catalytic HDC of 2,4-DCP, with Pd(1.8)Au(0.4)/CNTs having the highest catalytic activity. For the bimetallic catalysts, a disproportional increase of turnover frequency (TOF) was observed with increasing Au content due to the enhanced cationization of Pd particles. Moreover, the dechlorination of 2,4-DCP over the supported monometallic and bimetallic catalysts proceeded via both the stepwise and concerted pathway, and the concerted pathway became predominant with Au decoration amount in the catalyst.

  11. An in-depth understanding of the bimetallic effects and coked carbon species on an active bimetallic Ni(Co)/Al2O3 dry reforming catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xin; Gerdts, Rihards; Parker, Stewart F; Chi, Lina; Zhao, Yongxiang; Hill, Martyn; Guo, Junqiu; Jones, Martin O; Jiang, Zheng

    2016-06-29

    Ni/Al2O3, Co/Al2O3 and bimetallic Ni(Co)/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared using an impregnation method and employed in CO2 dry reforming of methane under coking-favored conditions. The spent catalysts were carefully characterized using typical characterization technologies and inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy. The bimetallic catalyst exhibited a superior activity and anti-coking performance compared to Ni/Al2O3, while the most resistant to coking behavior was Co/Al2O3. The enhanced activity of the Ni(Co)/Al2O3 bimetallic catalyst is attributed to the reduced particle size of metallic species and resistance to forming stable filamentous carbon. The overall carbon deposition on the spent bimetallic catalyst is comparable to that of the spent Ni/Al2O3 catalyst, whereas the carbon deposited on the bimetallic catalyst is mainly less-stable carbonaceous species as confirmed by SEM, TPO, Raman and INS characterization. This study provides an in depth understanding of alloy effects in catalysts, the chemical nature of coked carbon on spent Ni-based catalysts and, hopefully, inspires the creative design of a new bimetallic catalyst for dry reforming reactions.

  12. Passivation of bimetallic catalysts used in water treatment: prevention and reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianming; Gillham, Robert W; Gui, Lai

    2013-01-01

    With respect to degradation rates and the range in contaminants treated, bimetals such as Ni-Fe or Pd-Fe generally outperform unamended granular iron. However, the catalytic enhancement is generally short-lived, lasting from a few days to months. To take advantage of the significant benefits of bimetals, this study aims at developing an effective method for the rejuvenation of passivated bimetals and alternatively, the prevention of rapid reactivity loss of bimetals. Because the most likely cause of Ni-Fe and Pd-Fe passivation is the deposition of iron oxide films over the catalyst sites, it is hypothesized that removal of the iron oxide films will restore the lost reactivity or avoiding the deposition of iron oxide films will prevent passivation. Two organic ligands (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and [s,s]-ethylenediaminedisuccinate acid ([s,s]-EDDS)) and two acids (citric acid and sulphuric acid) were tested as possible chemical reagents for both passivation rejuvenation and prevention. Trichloroethene (TCE) and Ni-Fe were chosen as probes for chlorinated solvents and bimetals respectively. The test was carried out using small glass columns packed with Ni-Fe. TCE solution containing a single reagent at various concentrations was pumped through the Ni-Fe columns with a residence time in the Ni-Fe of about 6.6 min. TCE concentrations in the influent and effluent were measured to evaluate the performance of each chemical reagent. The results show that (i) for passivated Ni-Fe, flushing with a low concentration of acid or ligand solution without mechanical mixing can fully restore the lost reactivity; and (ii) for passivation prevention, adding a small amount of a ligand or an acid to the feed solution can successfully prevent or at least substantially reduce Ni-Fe passivation. All four chemicals tested are effective in both rejuvenation and prevention, but sulphuric acid and citric acid are considered to be the most practical reagents due to their

  13. Direct decomposition of methane over SBA-15 supported Ni, Co and Fe based bimetallic catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pudukudy, Manoj, E-mail: manojpudukudy@gmail.com [Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Yaakob, Zahira, E-mail: zahirayaakob65@gmail.com [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Akmal, Zubair Shamsul [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM, Bangi 43600, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of Ni, Co and Fe based bimetallic catalysts supported over SBA-15. • Thermocatalytic decomposition of methane over the SBA-15 supported bimetallic catalysts. • Enhanced catalytic efficiency of the bimetallic catalysts for the production of CO{sub x} free hydrogen and nanocarbon. • Production of value added open tip hollow multi-walled carbon nanotubes. • Crystalline characterization of carbon nanotubes by XRD, Raman and thermogravimetric analysis. - Abstract: Thermocatalytic decomposition of methane is an alternative route for the production of CO{sub x}-free hydrogen and carbon nanomaterials. In this work, a set of novel Ni, Co and Fe based bimetallic catalysts supported over mesoporous SBA-15 was synthesized by a facile wet impregnation route, characterized for their structural, textural and reduction properties and were successfully used for the methane decomposition. The fine dispersion of metal oxide particles on the surface of SBA-15, without affecting its mesoporous texture was clearly shown in the low angle X-ray diffraction patterns and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. The nitrogen sorption analysis showed the reduced specific surface area and pore volume of SBA-15, after metal loading due to the partial filling of hexagonal mesopores by metal species. The results of methane decomposition experiments indicated that all of the bimetallic catalysts were highly active and stable for the reaction at 700 °C even after 300 min of time on stream (TOS). However, a maximum hydrogen yield of ∼56% was observed for the NiCo/SBA-15 catalyst within 30 min of TOS. A high catalytic stability was shown by the CoFe/SBA-15 catalyst with 51% of hydrogen yield during the course of reaction. The catalytic stability of the bimetallic catalysts was attributed to the formation of bimetallic alloys. Moreover, the deposited carbons were found to be in the form of a new set of hollow

  14. Non-Precious Bimetallic Catalysts for Selective Dehydrogenation of an Organic Chemical Hydride System

    KAUST Repository

    Shaikh Ali, Anaam

    2015-07-06

    Methylcyclohexane (MCH)-Toluene (TOL) chemical hydride cycles as a hydrogen carrier system is successful with the selective dehydrogenation reaction of MCH to TOL, which has been achieved only using precious Pt-based catalysts. Herein, we report improved selectivity using non-precious metal nickel-based bimetallic catalysts, where the second metal occupies the unselective step sites.

  15. Direct decomposition of methane over SBA-15 supported Ni, Co and Fe based bimetallic catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudukudy, Manoj; Yaakob, Zahira; Akmal, Zubair Shamsul

    2015-03-01

    Thermocatalytic decomposition of methane is an alternative route for the production of COx-free hydrogen and carbon nanomaterials. In this work, a set of novel Ni, Co and Fe based bimetallic catalysts supported over mesoporous SBA-15 was synthesized by a facile wet impregnation route, characterized for their structural, textural and reduction properties and were successfully used for the methane decomposition. The fine dispersion of metal oxide particles on the surface of SBA-15, without affecting its mesoporous texture was clearly shown in the low angle X-ray diffraction patterns and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. The nitrogen sorption analysis showed the reduced specific surface area and pore volume of SBA-15, after metal loading due to the partial filling of hexagonal mesopores by metal species. The results of methane decomposition experiments indicated that all of the bimetallic catalysts were highly active and stable for the reaction at 700 °C even after 300 min of time on stream (TOS). However, a maximum hydrogen yield of ∼56% was observed for the NiCo/SBA-15 catalyst within 30 min of TOS. A high catalytic stability was shown by the CoFe/SBA-15 catalyst with 51% of hydrogen yield during the course of reaction. The catalytic stability of the bimetallic catalysts was attributed to the formation of bimetallic alloys. Moreover, the deposited carbons were found to be in the form of a new set of hollow multi-walled nanotubes with open tips, indicating a base growth mechanism, which confirm the selectivity of SBA-15 supported bimetallic catalysts for the formation of open tip carbon nanotubes. The Raman spectroscopic and thermogravimetric analysis of the deposited carbon nanotubes over the bimetallic catalysts indicated their higher graphitization degree and oxidation stability.

  16. Methods to synthesize NiPt bimetallic nanoparticles by a reversed-phase microemulsion, deposition of NiPt bimetallic nanoparticles on a support, and application of the supported catalyst for CO.sub.2 reforming of methane

    KAUST Repository

    Biausque, Gregory

    2015-04-28

    Methods to synthesize NiPt bimetallic nanoparticles by a reversed-phase microemulsion, deposition of NiPt bimetallic nanoparticles on a support, and application of the supported catalyst for CO.sub.2 reforming of methane

  17. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Schobert, H.H.; Parfitt, D.P. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on exploring novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction and the effectiveness of temperature-programmed liquefaction using dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research was to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that could be used in low concentrations but exhibit relatively high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. We have synthesized and tested various catalyst precursors in liquefaction of subbituminous and bituminous coals and in model compound studies to examine how do the composition and structure of the catalytic precursors affect their effectiveness for coal liquefaction under different reaction conditions, and how do these factors affect their catalytic functions for hydrogenation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, for cleavage of C-C bonds in polycyclic systems such as 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, for hydrogenolysis of C-O bond such as that in dinaphthylether, for hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds and other oxygen-containing compounds such as xanthene, and for hydrodesulfurization of polycyclic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene. The novel bimetallic and monometallic precursors synthesized and tested in this project include various Mo- and Fe-based compounds.

  18. Levulinic acid hydrogenolysis on Al2O3-based Ni-Cu bimetallic catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iker Obregón; Eriz Corro; Urko Izquierdo; Jesus Requies; Pedro L. Arias

    2014-01-01

    Inexpensive γ-alumina-based nickel-copper bimetallic catalysts were studied for the hydrogenolysis of levulinic acid, a key platform molecule for biomass conversion to biofuels and other valued chemicals, into γ-valerolactone as a first step towards the production of 2-methyltetrahydrofurane. The activities of both monometallic and bimetallic catalysts were tested. Their textural and chemical characteristics were determined by nitrogen physisorption, elemental analysis, temperature-pro-grammed ammonia desorption, and temperature-programmed reduction. The monometallic nickel catalyst showed high activity but the highest by-product production and significant amounts of carbon deposited on the catalyst surface. The copper monometallic catalyst showed the lowest activity but the lowest carbon deposition. The incorporation of the two metals generated a bimetal-lic catalyst that displayed a similar activity to that of the Ni monometallic catalyst and significantly low by-product and carbon contents, indicating the occurrence of important synergetic effects. The influence of the preparation method was also examined by studying impregnated- and sol-gel-derived bimetallic catalysts. A strong dependency on the preparation procedure and calcina-tion temperature was observed. The highest activity per metal atom was achieved using the sol-gel-derived catalyst that was calcined at 450 °C. High reaction rates were achieved;the total levulinic acid conversion was obtained in less than 2 h of reaction time, yielding up to 96%γ-valerolactone, at operating temperature and pressure of 250 °C and 6.5 MPa hydrogen, respec-tively.

  19. A Highly Efifcient and Selective Water-Soluble Bimetallic Catalyst for Hydrogenation of Chloronitrobenzene to Chloroaniline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yafen; Yang Wenjuan; Zhou Limei; Wang Manman; Ma Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    Selective hydrogenation of chloronitrobenzene (CNB) to chloroaniline (CAN) catalyzed by water-soluble Ru/Pt bimetallic catalyst in an aqueous-organic biphasic system was studied. It was found that the catalytic activity increased ob-viously due to the addition of platinum. Ru/Pt bimetallic catalysts exhibited a strong synergistic effect when the molar ratio of Pt was in the range of 5%—80%. Under the mild conditions including a temperature of 25℃, a hydrogen pressure of 1.0 MPa and a Pt molar ratio of 20%, the conversion of p-chloronitrobenzene (p-CNB) reached 99.9%, with the selectivity to p-chloroaniline (p-CAN) equating to 99.4%. The Ru/Pt catalyst also showed high activity and selectivity for the hydrogena-tion of other chloro-and dichloro-nitrobenzenes with different substituted positions. In addition, the catalyst can be recycled ifve times without signiifcant loss of activity.

  20. Bimetallic Pt-Ni catalysts supported on usy zeolite for n-hexane isomerization

    OpenAIRE

    F. V. Barsi; Cardoso,D.

    2009-01-01

    Isomerization of linear alkanes has had considerable importance for the refining industry because the isomers formed in this reaction have high octane number. Most works reported in the literature studied the use of bifunctional catalysts, i.e., ones that have acid sites and metallic sites. In this study, bifunctional monometallic (Ni or Pt) and bimetallic catalysts (Pt-Ni), using HUSY zeolite as the support, were prepared in order to verify the role of the metal content and composition on th...

  1. Controlled surface segregation leads to efficient coke-resistant nickel/platinum bimetallic catalysts for the dry reforming of methane

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lidong

    2015-02-03

    Surface composition and structure are of vital importance for heterogeneous catalysts, especially for bimetallic catalysts, which often vary as a function of reaction conditions (known as surface segregation). The preparation of bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure is very challenging. In this study, we synthesize a series of Ni/Pt bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure using a method derived from surface organometallic chemistry. The evolution of the surface composition and structure of the obtained bimetallic catalysts under simulated reaction conditions is investigated by various techniques, which include CO-probe IR spectroscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis, X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis, XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the structure of the bimetallic catalyst is evolved from Pt monolayer island-modified Ni nanoparticles to core-shell bimetallic nanoparticles composed of a Ni-rich core and a Ni/Pt alloy shell upon thermal treatment. These catalysts are active for the dry reforming of methane, and their catalytic activities, stabilities, and carbon formation vary with their surface composition and structure. The reform of reforming: A series of alumina-supported Ni/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) with controlled surface composition and structure are prepared. Remarkable surface segregation for these bimetallic NPs is observed upon thermal treatment. These bimetallic NPs are active catalysts for CO2 reforming of CH4, and their catalytic activities, stabilities, and carbon formation vary with their surface composition and structure.

  2. Bimetallic Pt-Ni catalysts supported on usy zeolite for n-hexane isomerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. V. Barsi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Isomerization of linear alkanes has had considerable importance for the refining industry because the isomers formed in this reaction have high octane number. Most works reported in the literature studied the use of bifunctional catalysts, i.e., ones that have acid sites and metallic sites. In this study, bifunctional monometallic (Ni or Pt and bimetallic catalysts (Pt-Ni, using HUSY zeolite as the support, were prepared in order to verify the role of the metal content and composition on the catalytic properties for n-hexane isomerization. The method used for metal dispersion in the zeolite was competitive ion exchange using ammine complexes [Ni(NH36]Cl2 and [Pt(NH34]Cl2 as precursors. Four series of catalysts with constant atomic metal content had total metal amounts between 130 and 280 µmol M/g cat. Catalysts were characterized by temperature programmed reduction (TPR and subjected to catalytic evaluation for n-hexane isomerization at 250 ºC and 1 atm using H2/C6 = 9 molar ratio. TPR results show an easier reducibility of Ni+2 cations in the presence of Pt, which was evidenced by the displacement of the reduction peak of those cations towards lower temperatures in bimetallic catalysts. The bimetallic catalysts presented a higher activity in the isomerization of n-hexane when compared to the monometallic ones, as well better stability as the Pt content in the solid increases. The results of the activity as a function of the Pt content in the bimetallic catalysts show a maximum value around 50% of Pt. An addition of Pt above this critical value leads to a small decrease of the catalytic activity.

  3. PROPERTIES OF POLYMER SUPPORTED Ni-Cu BIMETALLIC CATALYSTS PREPARED BY SOLVATED METAL ATOM IMPREGNATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shihua; ZHU Changying; HUANG Wenqiang

    1996-01-01

    D-72 resin supported nickel-copper catalysts prepared by solvated metal atom impregnation (SMAI) were studied by magnetic measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Ni particles on the catalysts are very highly dispersed and display superparamagnetic behaviour. Ni-Cu alloy clusters were found to be formed. The surface compositions are different from the bulk concentrations. In contrast with the surface enrichment in copper generally observed on conventional Ni-Cu catalysts, the surfaces of these catalysts are enriched in nickel. The nickel is in both zero and valent states, while copper is mainly in metallic state. Catalytic data show that the formation of Ni-Cu alloy clusters has a profound effect on the catalytic activities of the catalysts in the hydrogenation of furfural. The activity of the Ni:Cu ratio of one bimetallic catalysts is much higher than that of the Ni or Cu monometallic catalyst.

  4. Using Mechanical Alloying to Create Bimetallic Catalysts for Vapor-Phase Carbon Nanofiber Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guevara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanofibers were generated over bimetallic catalysts in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD reactor. Catalyst compositions of Fe 30 at%, Cu and Ni 30 at% and Cu were mechanically alloyed using high-energy ball milling over durations of 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 h. The catalyst powders were then used to produce carbon nanofibers in ethylene and hydrogen (4:1 at temperatures of 500, 550, and 600 °C. The microstructures of the catalysts were characterized as a function of milling time as well as at deposition temperature. The corresponding carbon deposition rates were assessed and are correlated to the microstructural features of each catalyst. The milling process directly determines the performance of each catalyst toward carbon deposition, and both catalysts performed comparably to those made by traditional co-precipitation methods. Considerations in miscible and immiscible nanostructured alloy systems are discussed.

  5. Controlled Surface Segregation Leads to Efficient Coke-Resistant Nickel/Platinum Bimetallic Catalysts for the Dry Reforming of Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lidong [King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Zhou, Lu [King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Ould-Chikh, Samy [King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Anjum, Dalaver H. [King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Kanoun, Mohammed B. [King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Scaranto, Jessica [SABIC Corporate Research and Innovation Center, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Hedhili, Mohamed N. [King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Khalid, Syed [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Laveille, Paco V. [King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); D' Souza, Lawrence [SABIC Corporate Research and Innovation Center, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Clo, Alain [King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Basset, Jean-Marie [King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-02-03

    The surface composition and structure are of vital importance for heterogeneous catalysts, especially for bimetallic catalysts, which often vary as a function of reaction conditions (known as surface segregation). The preparation of bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure is very challenging. In this study, we synthesize a series of Ni/Pt bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure using a method derived from surface organometallic chemistry. Moreover, the evolution of the surface composition and structure of the obtained bimetallic catalysts under simulated reaction conditions is investigated by various techniques, which include CO-probe IR spectroscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis, X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis, XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the structure of the bimetallic catalyst is evolved from Pt monolayer island-modified Ni nanoparticles to core–shell bimetallic nanoparticles composed of a Ni-rich core and a Ni/Pt alloy shell upon thermal treatment. The catalysts are active for the dry reforming of methane, and their catalytic activities, stabilities, and carbon formation vary with their surface composition and structure.

  6. Nanosegregated bimetallic oxide anode catalyst for proton exchange membrane electrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilovic, Nemanja; Kang, Yijin; Markovic, Nenad; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Myers, Deborah J.; Subbaraman, Ram

    2016-08-23

    A surface segregated bimetallic composition of the formula Ru.sub.1-xIr.sub.x wherein 0.1.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.75, wherein a surface of the material has an Ir concentration that is greater than an Ir concentration of the material as a whole is provided. The surface segregated material may be produced by a method including heating a bimetallic composition of the formula Ru.sub.1-xIr.sub.x, wherein 0.1.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.75, at a first temperature in a reducing environment, and heating the composition at a second temperature in an oxidizing environment. The surface segregated material may be utilized in electrochemical devices.

  7. STUDY ON POLYMER- Ru- Co BIMETALLIC COMPLEXES CATALYSTS Ⅱ. X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Huijuan; TANG Qi; CHEN Zonghan; JIANG Yingyan

    1991-01-01

    Polymer-Ru-Co bimetallic complexes have been examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.The catalyst is highly active only when the mole ratio of Co/Ru is 4:3. The activity of catalysts does not depend on the total Co/Ru ratio, but on the surface stoichiometry of Co and Ru. When the relative intensities of Co2p and Ru3d of XP S peaks are close to each other and both are high, the catalyst exhibits its maximum activity.The mechanism of catalytic hydroformylation has been discussed.

  8. SULFUR-RESISTANT BIMETALLIC NOBLE METAL CATALYSTS FOR AROMATIC HYDROGENATION OF DIESEL FUEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Y zeolite supporting noble metal catalysts, as the important industrial catalysts for aromatics hydrogenation, have received increasing attention in recent years. Pd-M/Y bimetallic catalysts, where M is non-noble metal element, were prepared to investigate the effects of the addition of a second metal. Pd-M/Y catalysts were evaluated under the following conditions: H2 pressure 4.2 MPa, MHSV 4.0 h-1, sulfur content in feed 3000 μg/g. The microreactor results indicated that the second metal remarkably affects the hydrogenation activity of Pd/Y catalysts. Among them, Cr and W improve the sulfur resistance of Pd/Y, but La, Mn, Mo and Ag make the sulfur resistance worse and the second metals have no evident influence on product selectivity and acidic properties of the catalysts.

  9. Selective hydrogenation of citral over Au-based bimetallic catalysts in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Selective hydrogenation of citral was investigated over Au-based bimetallic catalysts in the environmentally benign supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) medium.The catalytic performances were different in citral hydrogenation when Pd or Ru was mixed (physically and chemically) with Au.Compared with the corresponding monometallic catalyst,the total conversion and the selectivity to citronellal (CAL) were significantly enhanced over TiO2 supported Pd and Au bimetallic catalysts (physically and chemically mixed);however,the conversion and selectivity did not change when Ru was physically mixed with Au catalyst compared to the monometallic Ru/TiO2,and the chemically mixed Ru-Au/TiO2 catalyst did not show any activity.The effect of CO2 pressure on the conversion of citral and product selectivity was significantly different over the Au/TiO2,Pd-Au/TiO2,and Pd/TiO2 catalysts.It was assumed to be ascribed to the difference in the interactions between Au,Pd nanoparticles and CO2 under different CO2 pressures.

  10. Exceptional methanol electro-oxidation activity by bimetallic concave and dendritic Pt-Cu nanocrystals catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Xia; Zhou, Hui-Jing; Sun, Ping-Chuan; Chen, Tie-Hong

    2014-01-01

    PtCux (x = 1, 2 and 3) bimetallic nanocrystals with concave surface and dendritic morphology were prepared and used as electrocatalysts in methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The bimetallic nanocrystals were synthesized via one-pot co-reduction of H2PtCl6 and Cu(acac)2 by oleylamine and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) in an autoclave at 180 °C. The concave dendritic bimetallic nanostructure consisted of a core rich in Cu and nanodendrites rich in Pt, which was formed via galvanic replacement of Cu by Pt. It was found that PVP played an important role in initiating, facilitating, and directing the replacement reaction. The electrochemical properties of the PtCux were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). The concave dendritic PtCu2/C nanocrystals exhibited exceptionally high activity and strong poisoning resistance in MOR. At 0.75 V (vs. reversible hydrogen electrode, RHE) the mass activity and specific activity of PtCu2/C were 3.3 and 4.1 times higher than those of the commercial Pt/C catalysts, respectively. The enhanced catalytic activity could be attributed to the unique concave dendritic morphology of the bimetallic nanocrystals.

  11. Enantioselective polymerization of epoxides using biaryl-linked bimetallic cobalt catalysts: A mechanistic study

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Syud M.

    2013-12-18

    The enantioselective polymerization of propylene oxide (PO) using biaryl-linked bimetallic salen Co catalysts was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Five key aspects of this catalytic system were examined: (1) the structural features of the catalyst, (2) the regio- and stereoselectivity of the chain-growth step, (3) the probable oxidation and electronic state of Co during the polymerization, (4) the role of the cocatalyst, and (5) the mechanism of monomer enchainment. Several important insights were revealed. First, density functional theory (DFT) calculations provided detailed structural information regarding the regio- and stereoselective chain-growth step. Specifically, the absolute stereochemistry of the binaphthol linker determines the enantiomer preference in the polymerization, and the interaction between the salen ligand and the growing polymer chain is a fundamental aspect of enantioselectivity. Second, a new bimetallic catalyst with a conformationally flexible biphenol linker was synthesized and found to enantioselectively polymerize PO, though with lower enantioselectivity than the binaphthol linked catalysts. Third, DFT calculations revealed that the active form of the catalyst has two active exo anionic ligands (chloride or carboxylate) and an endo polymer alkoxide which can ring-open an adjacent cobalt-coordinated epoxide. Fourth, calculations showed that initiation is favored by an endo chloride ligand, while propagation is favored by the presence of two exo carboxylate ligands. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  12. STUDY ON POLYMER-Ru-Co-BIMETALLIC COMPLEXES CATALYSTS I. SYNTHESIS OF CATALYSTS AND THEIR USE FOR THE HYDROFORMYLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Qi; ZONG Huijuan; CHEN Zonghan; JIANG Yingyan

    1991-01-01

    Six kinds of polymer ligands, supported on SiO2, containing coordinating atoms P, S and N respectively, have been synthesized. The Ru(Ⅲ)-Co(Ⅱ) bimetallic complexes of these polymer ligands have been obtained and examined as catalysts for the hydroformylation of cyclohexene. The effects of reaction temperature, pressure and Co/Ru ratio etc. on the activities of catalysts were investigated in detail. The catalysts are all polymer-noncarbonyl-metal complexes, easily to be prepared, active and stable. From the experimental results it can be suggested that under reaction conditions such polymer-noncarbonyl-metal complexes convert "in situ" to polymer-carbonyl-metal complexes, thus become active catalysts. The course of this conversion is supposed as a preliminary approach.

  13. Effects of bimetallic catalysts on synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as nanoscale energetic materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Liu; Yong Zhang; Ruying Li; Xueliang Sun; Hakima Abou-Rachid

    2011-01-01

    Well aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (CNx-NTs),as energetic materials,are synthesized on a silicon substrate by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition.Tungsten (W) and molybdenum (Mo) metals are respectively introduced to combine with iron (Fe) to act as a bimetallic co-catalyst layer.Correlations between the composition and shape of the co-catalyst and morphology,size,growth rate and nitrogen doping amount of the synthesized CNx-NTs are investigated by secondary and backscattered electron imaging in a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS).Compared to pure iron catalyst.W-Fe co-catalyst can result in lower growth rate,larger diameter and wider size distribution of the CNx-NTs; while incorporation of molybdenum into the iron catalyst layer can reduce the diameter and size distribution of the nanotubes.Compared to the sole iron catalyst,Fe-W catalyst impedes nitrogen doping while Fe-Mo catalyst promotes the incorporation of nitrogen into the nanotubes.The present work indicates that CNx-NTs with modulated size,growth rate and nitrogen doping concentration are expected to be synthesized by tuning the size and composition of co-catalysts,which may find great potential in producing CNx-NTs with controlled structure and properties.

  14. Effect of support texture properties on Ni-Fe/γ-Al2O3 catalyst structure and catalytic performance for CO methanation%载体织构对Ni-Fe/γ-Al2O3催化剂结构和甲烷化活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 孟凡会; 钟朋展; 吉可明; 李忠

    2013-01-01

    Ni-Fe/γ-Al2O3 catalysts with four different γ-Al2O3 supports were prepared by incipient impregnation and characterized by XRD, BET and H2-TPR. Catalytic behaviors of the catalysts for low-temperature CO methanation were investigated in a slurry reactor. The results showed that the surface texture properties of γ-Al2O3 supports had great impact on distribution of Ni reactive species and methanation activity. Moderate specific surface area (192m2/g) and pore size (5.8 nm) of γ-Al2O3 was favor for the dispersion of active component, resulting in a higher amount of β-NiO and smaller Ni crystal particle size, which increased active sites, thus having better methanation activity and stability, with a CO conversion of 97.0% and a CH 4 selectivity of 89.0%. However, the catalyst prepared by high silica γ-Al2O3 support with larger specific surface area contained a great amount of α-NiO, which was inclined to agglomerate in the reduction process, resulting in low catalytic activity and stability, with a CO initial conversion of 85.5%and rapid deactivation after 17 hours.%采用等体积浸渍法制备了4种不同γ-Al2O3为载体的负载型Ni-Fe/γ-Al2O3催化剂,通过BET、XRD和H2-TPR等表征手段对载体和催化剂进行了表面微观结构分析,并考察了其低温浆态床催化CO甲烷化反应的活性和稳定性。结果表明,载体γ-Al2O3的表面织构性质对Ni-Fe/γ-Al2O3催化剂活性物质Ni的分布和甲烷化活性影响较大。比表面积和平均孔径分别为192m2/g和5.8nm的γ-Al2O3载体具有较好的低温浆态床CO甲烷化活性,有利于活性组分的分散,且与γ-Al2O3表面作用较强的β-NiO含量较多,还原后活性物质Ni晶粒较小,形成的活性中心数量多,甲烷化活性及稳定性较好,CO的平均转化率和CH4平均选择性分别达到97.0%和89.0%。而以比表面积较大的高硅γ-Al2O3载体制备的催化剂,游离态α-NiO含量较多,还原过程中容易迁移

  15. Using supported Au nanoparticles as starting material for preparing uniform Au/Pd bimetallic catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Alberto [Universita di Milano, Italy; Prati, Laura [Universita di Milano, Italy; Su, Dangshen [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin, Germany; Wang, Di [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin, Germany; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    One of the best methods for producing bulk homogeneous (composition) supported bimetallic AuPd clusters involves the immobilization of a protected Au seed followed by the addition of Pd. This paper investigates the importance of this gold seed in controlling the resulting bimetallic AuPd clusters structures, sizes and catalytic activities by investigating three different gold seeds. Uniform Au-Pd alloy were obtained when a steric/electrostatic protecting group, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), was used to form the gold clusters on activated carbon (AC). In contrast Au/AC precursors prepared using Au nanoparticles with only electrostatic stabilization (tetrakis(hydroxypropyl)phosphonium chloride (THPC)), or no stabilization (magnetron sputtering) produced inhomogeneous alloys and segregation of the gold and palladium. The uniform alloyed catalyst (Pd{at}Au{sub PVA}/AC) is the most active and selective catalyst, while the inhomogenous catalysts are less active and selective. Further study of the PVA protected Au clusters revealed that the amount of PVA used is also critical for the preparation of uniform alloyed catalyst, their stability, and their catalytic activity.

  16. Synthesis gas production by methane partial oxidation on Ni Fe3O4-Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 catalysts: kinetic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa Vasquez, M.I.; Salinas Gutierrez, J.; Delgado Vigil, D.; Collins-Martinez, V.; Lopez Ortiz, A.

    2011-01-15

    FeCZ is an oxygen carrier material aimed to produce syngas through methane partial oxidation in absence of oxygen gas feed. This research studies the catalytic effect of Ni on FeCZ using an evaluation of the global kinetics (activation energy, reaction rate, order and constant) of its reaction with methane for syngas production. The kinetic study of this material is crucial to realistically determine the feasibility of a potential process and to provide better understanding of the influence of reaction conditions over the material and to help postulate a possible future reaction mechanism that fits the kinetic results of the process. The initial reaction rate was obtained from the slope of the linear region of the weight change signal as a function of time. Results indicate a first order global reaction rate for all materials. Activation energies for samples FeCZ, 0.05NiFeCZ and 2NiFeCZ were 52.2, 39.5 and 28.3 respectively, reflecting the catalytic effect of Ni over the FeCZ global reaction rate.

  17. Final technical report. Bimetallic complexes as methanol oxidation catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElwee-White, Lisa

    2002-01-21

    Our work on the electrocatalyzed oxidation of methanol was initially motivated by the interest in methanol as an anodic reactant in fuel cells. The literature on electrochemical oxidation of alcohols can be roughly grouped into two sets: fuel cell studies and inorganic chemistry studies. Work on fuel cells primarily focuses on surface-catalyzed oxidation at bulk metal anodes, usually Pt or Pt/Ru alloys. In the surface science/electrochemistry approach to these studies, single molecule catalysts are generally not considered. In contrast, the inorganic community investigates the electrooxidation of alcohols in homogeneous systems. Ruthenium complexes have been the most common catalysts in these studies. The alcohol substrates are typically either secondary alcohols (e.g., isopropanol) such that the reaction stops after 2 e{sup -} oxidation to the aldehyde and 4 e{sup -} oxidation to the carboxylic acid can be observed. Methanol, which can also undergo 6 e{sup -} oxidation to CO{sub 2}, rarely appears in the homogeneous catalysis studies. Surface studies have shown that two types of metal centers with different functions result in more effective catalysts than a single metal; however, application of this concept to homogeneous systems has not been demonstrated. The major thrust of the work is to apply this insight from the surface studies to homogeneous catalysis. Even though homogeneous systems would not be appropriate models for active sites on Pt/Ru anodes, it is possible that heterobimetallic catalysts could also utilize two metal centers for different roles. Starting from that perspective, this work involves the preparation and investigation of heterobinuclear catalysts for the electrochemical oxidation of methanol.

  18. Glycerol conversion into value added chemicals over bimetallic catalysts in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, Luthfiana N.; Sudiyarmanto, Adilina, Indri B.

    2017-01-01

    Development of alternative energy from biomass encourage the experiments and production of biodiesel lately. Biodiesel industries widely expand because biodiesel as substitute of fossil fuel recognized as promising renewable energy. Glycerol is a byproduct of biodiesel production, which is resulted 10% wt average every production. Meanwhile, carbon dioxide is a gas that is very abundant amount in the atmosphere. Glycerol and carbon dioxide can be regarded as waste, possibly will produce value-added chemical compounds through chemically treated. In this preliminary study, conversion of glycerol and carbon dioxide using bimetallic catalyst Ni-Sn with various catalyst supports : MgO, γ-Al2O3, and hydrotalcite. Catalysts which have been prepared, then physically characterized by XRD, surface area and porosity analysis, and thermal gravity analysis. Catalytic test performance using supercritical carbon dioxide conditions. Furthermore, the products were analyzed by GC. The final product mostly contained of propylene glycol and glycerol carbonate.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Cluster-Derived Supported Bimetallic Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Richard D; Amiridis, Michael D

    2008-10-10

    New procedures have been developed for synthesizing di- and tri-metallic cluster complexes. The chemical properties of the new complexes have been investigated, particularly toward the activation of molecular hydrogen. These complexes were then converted into bi- and tri-metallic nanoparticles on silica and alumina supports. These nanoparticles were characterized by electron microscopy and were then tested for their ability to produce catalytic hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons and for the preferential oxidation of CO in the presence of hydrogen. The bi- and tri-metallic nanoparticles exhibited far superior activity and selectivity as hydrogenation catalysts when compared to the individual metallic components. It was found that the addition of tin greatly improved the selectivity of the catalysts for the hydrogenation of polyolefins. The addition of iron improves the catalysts for the selective oxidation of CO by platinum in the presence of hydrogen. The observations should lead to the development of lower cost routes to molecules that can be used to produce polymers and plastics for use by the general public and for procedures to purify hydrogen for use as an alternative energy in the hydrogen economy of the future.

  20. Synergetic effects leading to coke-resistant NiCo bimetallic catalysts for dry reforming of methane

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lidong

    2015-01-08

    A new dry reforming of methane catalyst comprised of NiCo bimetallic nanoparticles and a Mgx(Al)O support that exhibits high coke resistance and long-term on-stream stability is reported. The structural characterization by XRD, TEM, temperature-programmed reduction, and BET analysis demonstrates that the excellent performance of this catalyst is ascribed to the synergy of various parameters, including metal-nanoparticle size, metal-support interaction, catalyst structure, ensemble size, and alloy effects.

  1. Nanocrystalline MgO supported nickel-based bimetallic catalysts for carbon dioxide reforming of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshkani, Fereshteh [Catalyst and Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran); Rezaei, Mehran [Catalyst and Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran); Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran)

    2010-10-15

    Nanocrystalline magnesium oxide with high surface area and plate-like shape was employed as catalyst support for preparation of nickel-based bimetallic catalysts in methane reforming with carbon dioxide. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption (BET), Temperature programmed oxidation and desorption (TPO-TPD), Thermal gravimetric and differential thermal gravimetric (TGA-DTG), H{sub 2} chemisorption and Transmission and electron microscopies (TEM and SEM) analyses. CO{sub 2}-TPD data showed the high CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of catalysts which improves the resistance of catalysts against the carbon formation. The H{sub 2} chemisorption results also indicated that the addition of Pt to nickel catalyst improved the nickel dispersion. The obtained results revealed that the prepared catalysts showed a high activity and stability during the reaction with a low amount of deposited carbon. Addition of Pt to nickel catalyst improved both the activity and resistivity against carbon formation. (author)

  2. Porous bimetallic PdNi catalyst with high electrocatalytic activity for ethanol electrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yue; Bin, Duan; Yan, Bo; Du, Yukou; Majima, Tetsuro; Zhou, Weiqiang

    2017-05-01

    Porous bimetallic PdNi catalysts were fabricated by a novel method, namely, reduction of Pd and Ni oxides prepared via calcining the complex chelate of PdNi-dimethylglyoxime (PdNi-dmg). The morphology and composition of the as-prepared PdNi were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Furthermore, the electrochemical properties of PdNi catalysts towards ethanol electrooxidation were also studied by electrochemical impedance spectrometry (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) measurement. In comparison with porous Pd and commercial Pd/C catalysts, porous structural PdNi catalysts showed higher electrocatalytic activity and durability for ethanol electrooxidation, which may be ascribed to Pd and Ni property, large electroactive surface area and high electron transfer property. The Ni exist in the catalyst in the form of the nickel hydroxides (Ni(OH)2 and NiOOH) which have a high electron and proton conductivity enhances the catalytic activity of the catalysts. All results highlight the great potential application of the calcination-reduction method for synthesizing high active porous PdNi catalysts in direct ethanol fuel cells.

  3. High-performance PdRu bimetallic catalyst supported on mesoporous silica nanoparticles for phenol hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chao [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province and The Key Laboratory for New Energy of Guangdong Universities, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Yang, Xu [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Yang, Hui; Huang, Peiyan; Song, Huiyu [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province and The Key Laboratory for New Energy of Guangdong Universities, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Liao, Shijun, E-mail: chsjliao@scut.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province and The Key Laboratory for New Energy of Guangdong Universities, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-10-01

    Graphical abstract: The addition of Ru could significantly improve the performance of the mesoporous silica nanoparticles supported PdRu/MSN catalyst, which showed over 5 times higher mass activity than the mono-Pd/MSN towards the liquid-phase hydrogenation of phenol. The improved dispersion and the electronic interaction contributed to the enhanced catalytic activity for the catalyst towards phenol hydrogenation. - Highlights: • PdRu bimetal catalyst supported on mesoporous silica nanoparticles was prepared. • The average sizeof PdRu alloy is smaller than that of mono-Pd. • The addition of Ru to Pd modulates the electronic properties between Pd and Ru. • PdRu/MSN catalyst shows superior activity on phenol hydrogenation than Pd/MSN. • PdRu/MSN catalyst shows good selectivity for cyclohexanol to some extent. - Abstract: A high-performance PdRu bimetallic catalyst supported on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN), PdRu/MSN, was prepared by a facile impregnation–hydrogen reduction method. It was found that PdRu/MSN showed 5 times higher activity than that of Pd/MSN towards the liquid-phase hydrogenation of phenol. The catalysts were characterized comprehensively by multiple techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and hydrogen temperature program reduction (TPR). It was revealed that adding Ru could effectively improve the Pd dispersion and promote the electronic interaction between the Pd and Ru, both of which contribute to enhancing the catalytic activity.

  4. A superlattice of alternately stacked Ni-Fe hydroxide nanosheets and graphene for efficient splitting of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Ma, Renzhi; Wang, Chengxiang; Liang, Jianbo; Liu, Xiaohe; Zhou, Kechao; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2015-02-24

    Cost-effective electrocatalysts based on nonprecious metals for efficient water splitting are crucial for various technological applications represented by fuel cell. Here, 3d transition metal layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with varied contents of Ni and Fe were successfully synthesized through a homogeneous precipitation. The exfoliated Ni-Fe LDH nanosheets were heteroassembled with graphene oxide (GO) as well as reduced graphene oxide (rGO) into superlattice-like hybrids, in which two kinds of oppositely charged nanosheets are stacked face-to-face in alternating sequence. Heterostructured composites of Ni2/3Fe1/3 LDH nanosheets and GO (Ni2/3Fe1/3-GO) exhibited an excellent oxygen evolution reaction (OER) efficiency with a small overpotential of about 0.23 V and Tafel slope of 42 mV/decade. The activity was further improved via the combination of Ni2/3Fe1/3 LDH nanosheets with more conductive rGO (Ni2/3Fe1/3-rGO) to achieve an overpotential as low as 0.21 V and Tafel plot of 40 mV/decade. The catalytic activity was enhanced with an increased Fe content in the bimetallic Ni-Fe system. Moreover, the composite catalysts were found to be effective for hydrogen evolution reaction. An electrolyzer cell powered by a single AA battery of 1.5 V was demonstrated by using the bifunctional catalysts.

  5. Exploration of Cocatalyst Effects on a Bimetallic Cobalt Catalyst System: Enhanced Activity and Enantioselectivity in Epoxide Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Widger, Peter C. B.

    2011-07-26

    Organic ionic compounds were synthesized and investigated as cocatalysts with a bimetallic cobalt complex for enantioselective epoxide polymerization. The identities of both the cation and the anion were systematically varied, and the subsequent reactivity was studied. The nature of the ionic cocatalyst dramatically impacted the rate and enantioselectivity of the catalyst system. The ionic cocatalyst [P(N=P(N(CH2)4)3) 4 +][tBuCO2 -] in combination with a bimetallic cobalt complex produced a catalyst system that exhibited the greatest activity and selectivity for a variety of monosubstituted epoxides. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  6. CATALYSIS SCIENCE INITIATIVE: From First Principles Design to Realization of Bimetallic Catalysts for Enhanced Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAVRIKAKIS, MANOS

    2007-05-03

    In this project, we have integrated state-of-the-art Density Functional Theory (DFT) models of heterogeneous catalytic processes with high-throughput screening of bimetallic catalytic candidates for important industrial problems. We have studied a new class of alloys characterized by a surface composition different from the bulk composition, and investigated their stability and activity for the water-gas shift reaction and the oxygen reduction reaction. The former reaction is an essential part of hydrogen production; the latter is the rate-limiting step in low temperature H2 fuel cells. We have identified alloys that have remarkable stability and activity, while having a much lower material cost for both of these reactions. Using this knowledge of bimetallic interactions, we have also made progress in the industrially relevant areas of carbohydrate reforming and conversion of biomass to liquid alkanes. One aspect of this work is the conversion of glycerol (a byproduct of biodiesel production) to synthesis gas. We have developed a bifunctional supported Pt catalyst that can cleave the carbon-carbon bond while also performing the water-gas shift reaction, which allows us to better control the H2:CO ratio. Knowledge gained from the theoretical metal-metal interactions was used to develop bimetallic catalysts that perform this reaction at low temperature, allowing for an efficient coupling of this endothermic reaction with other reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch or methanol synthesis. In our work on liquid alkane production from biomass, we have studied deactivation and selectivity in these areas as a function of metal-support interactions and reaction conditions, with an emphasis on the bifunctionality of the catalysts studied. We have identified a stable, active catalyst for this process, where the selectivity and yield can be controlled by the reaction conditions. While complete rational design of catalysts is still elusive, this work demonstrates the power of

  7. Ag-Sn Bimetallic Catalyst with a Core-Shell Structure for CO2 Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luc, Wesley; Collins, Charles; Wang, Siwen; Xin, Hongliang; He, Kai; Kang, Yijin; Jiao, Feng

    2017-02-08

    Converting greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) to value-added chemicals is an appealing approach to tackle CO2 emission challenges. The chemical transformation of CO2 requires suitable catalysts that can lower the activation energy barrier, thus minimizing the energy penalty associated with the CO2 reduction reaction. First-row transition metals are potential candidates as catalysts for electrochemical CO2 reduction; however, their high oxygen affinity makes them easy to be oxidized, which could, in turn, strongly affect the catalytic properties of metal-based catalysts. In this work, we propose a strategy to synthesize Ag-Sn electrocatalysts with a core-shell nanostructure that contains a bimetallic core responsible for high electronic conductivity and an ultrathin partially oxidized shell for catalytic CO2 conversion. This concept was demonstrated by a series of Ag-Sn bimetallic electrocatalysts. At an optimal SnOx shell thickness of ∼1.7 nm, the catalyst exhibited a high formate Faradaic efficiency of ∼80% and a formate partial current density of ∼16 mA cm(-2) at -0.8 V vs RHE, a remarkable performance in comparison to state-of-the-art formate-selective CO2 reduction catalysts. Density-functional theory calculations showed that oxygen vacancies on the SnO (101) surface are stable at highly negative potentials and crucial for CO2 activation. In addition, the adsorption energy of CO2(-) at these oxygen-vacant sites can be used as the descriptor for catalytic performance because of its linear correlation to OCHO* and COOH*, two critical intermediates for the HCOOH and CO formation pathways, respectively. The volcano-like relationship between catalytic activity toward formate as a function of the bulk Sn concentration arises from the competing effects of favorable stabilization of OCHO* by lattice expansion and the electron conductivity loss due to the increased thickness of the SnOx layer.

  8. thesis of high-purity carbon nanotubes over alumina and silica supported bimetallic catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Ratković

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs were synthesized by a catalytic chemical vapor deposition method (CCVD of ethylene over alumina and silica supported bimetallic catalysts based on Fe, Co and Ni. The catalysts were prepared by a precipitation method, calcined at 600 °C and in situ reduced in hydrogen flow at 700 °C. The CNTs growth was carried out by a flow the mixture of C2H4 and nitrogen over the catalyst powder in a horizontal oven. The structure and morphology of as-synthesized CNTs were characterized using SEM. The as-synthesized nanotubes were purified by acid and basic treatments in order to remove impurities such as amorphous carbon, graphite nanoparticles and metal catalysts. XRD and DTA/TG analyses showed that the amounts of by-products in the purified CNTs samples were reduced significantly. According to the observed results, ethylene is an active carbon source for growing high-density CNTs with high yield but more on alumina-supported catalysts than on their silica- supported counterparts. The last might be explained by SMSI formed in the case of alumina-supported catalysts, resulting in higher active phase dispersion.

  9. Electrocatalysis of fuel cells reaction on Pt and Pt-bimetallic anode catalysts: A selective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Vojislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review we selectively summarize recent progress, primarily from our laboratory, in the development of interrelationships between the kinetics of the fuel cells reactions and the structure/composition of anode catalysts. The focus is placed on two types of metallic surfaces: platinum single crystals and bimetallic surfaces based on Pt. In the first part it was illustrated that the hydcogen reaction is structure sensitive process, with Pt(110 being an order of magnitude more active than either of the atomically "flatter" (100 and (111 surfaces. The hydrogen reaction on Pt(hkl modified by pseudomorphic Pd (submonolayers shows the "volcano-like" behavior, having the maximum rate on Pt(111 modified by 1 ML of Pd. The Pt(111-Pd system is used to demonstrate how the energetics of intermediates formed in the hydrogen reaction is affected by interfacial bonding and energetic constraints produced between pseudomorphic Pd films and the Pt(111 substrate. In the second part it was shown that the oxidation of Ha in the presence of CO occurs concurrently with CO oxidation on Pt and Pt bimetallic surfaces. The Pt-Ru system is used to demonstrate that both the bifunctional effect and the ligand effect contribute to the influence of Ru on the CO oxidation rate and for Hz oxidation process in the presence of CO. The knowledge is then used to create the real-life catalyst with the catalytic activities which are, to the greatest extend possible similar to the tailor-made surface.

  10. First principles investigations of small bimetallic PdGa clusters as catalysts for hydrogen dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Indu; Ghosh, Prasenjit

    2017-04-01

    Using first principles density functional theory based calculations, we have studied hydrogen dissociation on sub nanometer bimetallic clusters formed from d-block (Pd) and p-block (Ga) elements in gas phase to explore the feasibility of using them as cheap catalysts for hydrogen dissociation. Our calculations show that the dimers, trimers and tetramers of these clusters are thermodynamically more stable than the pure ones for all Ga concentrations. For a given cluster size, we find that the clusters containing equal amount of Pd and Ga are the most stable ones. In contrast to bulk PdGa, the contribution of Pd-d states to the highest occupied molecular orbitals of the bimetallic clusters are either very small or absent. Study of adsorption of hydrogen molecule on these clusters show that hydrogen binds in an activated form only on the Pd rich clusters. From the calculations of hydrogen dissociation barriers on tetramers of pure Pd, 25% Ga (Pd3Ga) and 50% Ga (Pd2Ga2) we find that Pd3Ga is the most efficient catalyst for hydrogen dissociation with barriers even lower than that on the PdGa surfaces.

  11. Surface-Bound Ligands Modulate Chemoselectivity and Activity of a Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Vu, Khanh B.

    2015-04-03

    "Naked" metal nanoparticles (NPs) are thermodynamically and kinetically unstable in solution. Ligands, surfactants, or polymers, which adsorb at a particle\\'s surface, can be used to stabilize NPs; however, such a mode of stabilization is undesirable for catalytic applications because the adsorbates block the surface active sites. The catalytic activity and the stability of NPs are usually inversely correlated. Here, we describe an example of a bimetallic (PtFe) NP catalyst stabilized by carboxylate surface ligands that bind preferentially to one of the metals (Fe). NPs stabilized by fluorous ligands were found to be remarkably competent in catalyzing the hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde; NPs stabilized by hydrocarbon ligands were significantly less active. The chain length of the fluorous ligands played a key role in determining the chemoselectivity of the FePt NP catalysts. (Chemical Presented). © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  12. High-performance PdRu bimetallic catalyst supported on mesoporous silica nanoparticles for phenol hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Yang, Xu; Yang, Hui; Huang, Peiyan; Song, Huiyu; Liao, Shijun

    2014-10-01

    A high-performance PdRu bimetallic catalyst supported on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN), PdRu/MSN, was prepared by a facile impregnation-hydrogen reduction method. It was found that PdRu/MSN showed 5 times higher activity than that of Pd/MSN towards the liquid-phase hydrogenation of phenol. The catalysts were characterized comprehensively by multiple techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and hydrogen temperature program reduction (TPR). It was revealed that adding Ru could effectively improve the Pd dispersion and promote the electronic interaction between the Pd and Ru, both of which contribute to enhancing the catalytic activity.

  13. Pt-based Bi-metallic Monolith Catalysts for Partial Upgrading of Microalgae Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawal, Adeniyi [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States); Manganaro, James [Anasyn LLC, Princeton, NJ (United States); Goodall, Brian [Valicor Renewables LLC, Dexter, MI (United States); Farrauto, Robert [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2015-03-24

    Valicor’s proprietary wet extraction process in conjunction with thermochemical pre-treatment was performed on algal biomass from two different algae strains, Nannochloropsis Salina (N.S.) and Chlorella to produce algae oils. Polar lipids such as phospholipids were hydrolyzed, and metals and metalloids, known catalyst poisons, were separated into the aqueous phase, creating an attractive “pre-refined” oil for hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) upgrading by Stevens. Oil content and oil extraction efficiency of approximately 30 and 90% respectively were achieved. At Stevens, we formulated a Pt-based bi-metallic catalyst which was demonstrated to be effective in the hydro-treating of the algae oils to produce ‘green’ diesel. The bi-metallic catalyst was wash-coated on a monolith, and in conjunction with a high throughput high pressure (pilot plant) reactor system, was used in hydrotreating algae oils from N.S. and Chlorella. Mixtures of these algae oils and refinery light atmospheric gas oil (LAGO) supplied by our petroleum refiner partner, Marathon Petroleum Corporation, were co-processed in the pilot plant reactor system using the Pt-based bi-metallic monolith catalyst. A 26 wt% N.S. algae oil/74 wt % LAGO mixture hydrotreated in the reactor system was subjected to the ASTM D975 Diesel Fuel Specification Test and it met all the important requirements, including a cetane index of 50.5. An elemental oxygen analysis performed by an independent and reputable lab reported an oxygen content of trace to none found. The successful co-processing of a mixture of algae oil and LAGO will enable integration of algae oil as a refinery feedstock which is one of the goals of DOE-BETO. We have presented experimental data that show that our precious metal-based catalysts consume less hydrogen than the conventional hydrotreating catalyst NiMo Precious metal catalysts favor the hydrodecarbonylation/hydrodecarboxylation route of HDO over the dehydration route preferred by base metal

  14. Pt-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles on MWCNTs: catalyst for hydrogen peroxide electrosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix-Navarro, R. M., E-mail: moi6salazar@hotmail.com; Beltran-Gastelum, M.; Salazar-Gastelum, M. I.; Silva-Carrillo, C.; Reynoso-Soto, E. A.; Perez-Sicairos, S.; Lin, S. W. [Centro de Graduados e Investigacion, Instituto Tecnologico de Tijuana (Mexico); Paraguay-Delgado, F. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (Mexico); Alonso-Nunez, G. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia (Mexico)

    2013-08-15

    Bimetallic nanoparticles of Pt-Pd were deposited by the microemulsion method on a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) to obtain a Pt-Pd/MWCNTs for electrocatalytic reduction of O{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The activity and selectivity of the catalyst was determined qualitatively by the rotating disk electrode method in acidic medium. The catalyst was spray-coated onto a reticulated vitreous carbon substrate and quantitatively was tested in bulk electrolysis for 20 min under potentiostatic conditions (0.5 V vs Ag/AgCl) in a 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte using dissolved O{sub 2}. The bulk electrolysis experiments show that the Pt-Pd/MWCNTs catalyst is more efficient for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} electrogeneration than a MWCNTs catalyst. Nitrobenzene degradation by electrogenerated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} alone and Electro-Fenton process were also tested. Our results show that both processes decompose nitrobenzene, but the Electro-Fenton process does it more efficiently. The prepared nanoparticulated catalyst shows a great potential in environmental applications.

  15. Enhancement of bimetallic Fe-Mn/CNTs nano catalyst activity and product selectivity using microemulsion technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zahra; Zolfaghari; Ahmad; Tavasoli; Saber; Tabyar; Ali; Nakhaei; Pour

    2014-01-01

    Bimetallic Fe-Mn nano catalysts supported on carbon nanotubes(CNTs) were prepared using microemulsion technique with water-to-surfactant ratios of 0.4-1.6. The nano catalysts were extensively characterized by different methods and their activity and selectivity in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis(FTS) have been assessed in a fixed-bed microreactor. The physicochemical properties and performance of the nanocatalysts were compared with the catalyst prepared by impregnation method. Very narrow particle size distribution has been produced by the microemulsion technique at relatively high loading of active metal. TEM images showed that small metal nano particles in the range of 3–7 nm were not only confined inside the CNTs but also located on the outer surface of the CNTs. Using microemulsion technique with water to surfactant ratio of0.4 decreased the average iron particle sizes to 5.1 nm. The reduction percentage and dispersion percentage were almost doubled. Activity and selectivity were found to be dependent on the catalyst preparation method and average iron particle size. CO conversion and FTS rate increased from 49.1% to 71.0% and 0.144 to 0.289 gHC/(gcat h), respectively. While the WGS rate decreased from 0.097 to 0.056 gCO2/(gcat h). C5+liquid hydrocarbons selectivity decreased slightly and olefins selectivity almost doubled.

  16. Bimetallic Catalysts and Platinum Surfaces Studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roenning, Magnus

    2000-07-01

    Bimetallic catalyst systems used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (Co-Re/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and in the naphtha reforming process (Pt-Re/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) have been studied in situ using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS). Additionally, the adsorption of ethene on platinum single crystal surfaces has been investigated using scanning tunnelling microscopy. In situ EXAFS at the cobalt K absorption edge have been carried out at 450{sup o}C on the hydrogen reduction of a rhenium-promoted Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. Reductions carried out using 100% hydrogen and 5% hydrogen in helium gave different results. Whereas the reduction using dilute hydrogen leads to bulk-like metallic cobalt particles (hcp or fcc), reaction with pure hydrogen yields a more dispersed system with smaller cobalt metal particles (< 40 A). The results are rationalised in terms of different degrees of reoxidation of cobalt by the higher and lower concentrations of water generated during the reduction of cobalt oxide by 100% and 5% hydrogen, respectively. Additionally, in both reduction protocols a small fraction (3 -4 wt%) of the cobalt content is randomly dispersed over the tetrahedral vacancies of the alumina support. This dispersion occurs during reduction and not calcination. The cobalt in these sites cannot be reduced at 450 {sup o}C. The local environments about the rhenium atoms in Co-Re/{gamma}-A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst after different reduction periods have been studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. A bimetallic catalyst containing 4.6 wt% cobalt and 2 wt% rhenium has been compared with a corresponding monometallic sample with 2 wt% rhenium on the same support. The rhenium L{sub III} EXAFS analysis shows that bimetallic particles are formed after reduction at 450{sup o}C with the average particle size being 10-15 A. Rhenium is shown to be reduced at a later stage than cobalt. The fraction of cobalt atoms entering the support obstructs the access to the support for the

  17. Bimetallic Catalysts and Platinum Surfaces Studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roenning, Magnus

    2000-07-01

    Bimetallic catalyst systems used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (Co-Re/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and in the naphtha reforming process (Pt-Re/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) have been studied in situ using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS). Additionally, the adsorption of ethene on platinum single crystal surfaces has been investigated using scanning tunnelling microscopy. In situ EXAFS at the cobalt K absorption edge have been carried out at 450{sup o}C on the hydrogen reduction of a rhenium-promoted Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. Reductions carried out using 100% hydrogen and 5% hydrogen in helium gave different results. Whereas the reduction using dilute hydrogen leads to bulk-like metallic cobalt particles (hcp or fcc), reaction with pure hydrogen yields a more dispersed system with smaller cobalt metal particles (< 40 A). The results are rationalised in terms of different degrees of reoxidation of cobalt by the higher and lower concentrations of water generated during the reduction of cobalt oxide by 100% and 5% hydrogen, respectively. Additionally, in both reduction protocols a small fraction (3 -4 wt%) of the cobalt content is randomly dispersed over the tetrahedral vacancies of the alumina support. This dispersion occurs during reduction and not calcination. The cobalt in these sites cannot be reduced at 450 {sup o}C. The local environments about the rhenium atoms in Co-Re/{gamma}-A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst after different reduction periods have been studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. A bimetallic catalyst containing 4.6 wt% cobalt and 2 wt% rhenium has been compared with a corresponding monometallic sample with 2 wt% rhenium on the same support. The rhenium L{sub III} EXAFS analysis shows that bimetallic particles are formed after reduction at 450{sup o}C with the average particle size being 10-15 A. Rhenium is shown to be reduced at a later stage than cobalt. The fraction of cobalt atoms entering the support obstructs the access to the support for the

  18. Structural, electronic and adsorption properties of Rh(111)/Mo(110) bimetallic catalyst: A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palotás, K.; Bakó, I.; Bugyi, L.

    2016-12-01

    Geometric and electronic characterizations of one monolayer rhodium with Nishiyama-Wassermann (NW) structure on Mo(110) substrate have been performed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In the NW structure the Rh atoms form a wavy structure propagating along the [001] direction, characterized by an amplitude of 0.26 Å in the [110] direction and by 0.10 Å in the [110] direction of the Mo(110) substrate. Strain and ligand effects operating in the rhodium film are distinguished and found to be manifested in the downward shift of the d-band center of the electron density of states (DOS) by 0.11 eV and 0.18 eV, respectively. The shift in the d-band center of Rh DOS predicts a decrease in the surface reactivity toward CO adsorption, which has been verified by detailed calculations of bond energies of CO located at on-top, bridge and hollow adsorption sites. The CO adsorption energies are decreased by about 35% compared to those reported for pure Rh(111), offering novel catalytic pathways for the molecule. An in-depth analysis of the charge transfer and the partial DOS characters upon CO adsorption on the NW-structured Rh(111)/Mo(110) bimetallic catalyst and on the pure Rh(111) surface sheds light on the bonding mechanism of CO and on the governing factors determining its lowered bond energy on the bimetallic surface.

  19. Ag-Cu Bimetallic Nanoparticles Prepared by Microemulsion Method as Catalyst for Epoxidation of Styrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Kui Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ag/Cu bimetallic nanocatalysts supported on reticulate-like γ-alumina were prepared by a microemulsion method using N2H4·H2O as the reducing agent. The catalysts were activated by calcination followed with hydrogen reduction at 873K, and the properties were confirmed using various characterization techniques. Compared with metal oxides particles, Ag-Cu particles exhibited smaller sizes (<5 nm after calcination in H2 at 873K. XPS results indicated that the binding energies changed with the Ag/Cu ratios, suggesting that increasing the copper content gave both metals a greater tendency to lose electrons. Furthermore, Ag-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles supported on γ-alumina showed better catalytic activity on the epoxidation of styrene as compared with the corresponding monometallic silver or copper. The styrene oxide selectivity could reach 76.6% at Ag/Cu molar ratio of 3/1, while the maximum conversion (up to 94.6% appeared at Ag/Cu molar ratio of 1/1 because of the maximum interaction between silver and copper.

  20. Characterization and reactivity of Pd Pt bimetallic supported catalysts obtained by laser vaporization of bulk alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, J. L.; Cadete Santos Aires, F. J.; Bornette, F.; Cattenot, M.; Pellarin, M.; Stievano, L.; Renouprez, A. J.

    2000-09-01

    Bimetallic Pd-Pt clusters produced by laser vaporization of bulk alloy have been deposited on high surface alumina. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show that they have a perfectly well-defined stoichiometry and a narrow range of size. Therefore, they constitute ideal systems to investigate alloying effects towards reactivity. Pd-Pt alloys are already known for their applications in the hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons, especially aromatics, because this system is highly resistant to sulfur and nitrogen poisoning. In this context, the catalytic properties of this system have been investigated in the hydrogenation of tetralin in the presence of hydrogen sulfide. Preliminary results show that this model catalyst is more sulfur-resistant than each of the pure supported metals prepared by chemical methods.

  1. Desorption of Furfural from Bimetallic Pt-Fe Oxides/Alumina Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Lourdes Dimas-Rivera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the desorption of furfural, which is a competitive intermediate during the production of biofuel and valuable aromatic compounds, was studied using pure alumina, as well as alumina impregnated with iron and platinum oxides both individually and in combination, using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The bimetallic sample exhibited the lowest desorption percentage for furfural. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM imaging revealed the intimate connection between the iron and platinum oxide species on the alumina support. The mechanism of furfural desorption from the Pt-Fe/Al2O3 0.5%-0.5% sample was determined using physisorbed furfural instead of chemisorbed furfural; this mechanism involved the oxidation of the C=O group on furfural by the catalyst. The oxide nanoparticles on γ-Al2O3 support helped to stabilize the furfural molecule on the surface.

  2. Synthesis and Electrochemical Evaluation of Carbon Supported Pt-Co Bimetallic Catalysts Prepared by Electroless Deposition and Modified Charge Enhanced Dry Impregnation

    OpenAIRE

    John Meynard M. Tengco; Bahareh Alsadat Tavakoli Mehrabadi; Yunya Zhang; Akkarat Wongkaew; John R. Regalbuto; Weidner, John W.; John R. Monnier

    2016-01-01

    Carbon-supported bimetallic Pt-Co cathode catalysts have been previously identified as higher activity alternatives to conventional Pt/C catalysts for fuel cells. In this work, a series of Pt-Co/C catalysts were synthesized using electroless deposition (ED) of Pt on a Co/C catalyst prepared by modified charge enhanced dry impregnation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) characterization of the base catalyst showed highly dispersed particles. A basic E...

  3. Effect of Ni, Fe and Fe-Ni alloy catalysts on the synthesis of metal contained carbon nano-onions and studies of their electrochemical hydrogen storage properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenguang Zhang; Jiajun Li; Chunsheng Shi; Chunnian He; Enzuo Liu; Naiqin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Three types of carbon nano-onions (CNOs) including Ni@CNOs, Fe3C@CNOs and Fe0.64Ni0.36@CNOs nanoparticles have been synthesized by catalytic decomposition of methane at 850◦C using nickel, iron and iron-nickel alloy catalysts. Comparative and systematic studies have been carried out on the morphology, structural characteristics and graphitic crystallinity of these CNOs products. Furthermore, the electro-chemical hydrogen storage properties of three types of CNOs have been investigated. Measurements show that the Ni@CNOs have the highest discharge capacity of 387.2 mAh/g, corresponding to a hydrogen storage of 1.42%. This comparison study shows the advantages of each catalyst in the growth of CNOs, enabling the controllable synthesis and tuning the properties of CNOs by mediating different metals and their alloy for using in the fuel cell system.

  4. Pd-Au bimetallic catalysts: understanding alloy effects from planar models and (supported) nanoparticles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Feng; Goodman, Wayne D.

    2012-12-21

    Pd-Au bimetallic catalysts often display enhanced catalytic activities and selectivities compared with Pd-alone catalysts. This enhancement is often caused by two alloy effects, i.e., ensemble and ligand effects. The ensemble effect is dilution of surface Pd by Au. With increasing surface Au coverages, contiguous Pd ensembles disappear and isolated Pd ensembles form. For certain reactions, for example vinyl acetate synthesis, this effect is responsible for reaction rate enhancement via the formation of highly active surface sites, e.g., isolated Pd pairs. The disappearance of contiguous Pd ensembles also switches off side reactions catalyzed by these sites. This explains selectivity increase of certain reactions, for example direct H2O2 synthesis. The ligand effect is electronic perturbation of Au to Pd. By direct charge transfer or affecting bond length, the ligand effect causes the Pd d band to be more filled and the d-band center away from the Fermi level. Both changes make Pd more "atomic like" therefore binding reactants and products weaker. For certain reactions, this eliminates the so-called "self poisoning" and enhances activity/selectivity.

  5. Surface structure and reaction performances of highly dispersed and supported bimetallic catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林励吾; 杨维慎; 贾继飞; 徐竹生; 张涛; 范以宁; 寇元; 沈俭一

    1999-01-01

    Surface structures of Pt-Sn and Pt-Fe bimetallic catalysts have been investigated by means of Mssbauer spectroscopy, Pt-LⅢ-edge EXAFS and H2-adsorption. The results showed that the second component, such as Sn or Fe, remained in the oxidative state and dispersed on the γ-Al2O3 surface after reduction, while Pt was completely reduced to the metallic state and dispersed on either the metal oxide surface or the γ-Al2O3 surface. By correlating the distribution of Pt species on different surfaces with the reaction and adsorption performances, it is proposed that two kinds of active Pt species existed on the surfaces of both catalysts, named M1 sites and M2 sites. M1 sites are the sites in which Pt directly anchored on the γ-Al2O3 surface, while M2 sites are those in which Pt anchored on the metal oxide surface. M1 sites are favorable for low temperature H2 adsorption, and responsible for the hydrogenolysis reaction and carbon deposition, while M2 sites which adsorb more H2 at higher tem

  6. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, July--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E.; Song, C.; Schobert, H.H.

    1994-01-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts can be superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. The primary objective of this research is to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from heterometallic molecular precursors, that can be used in low concentrations but exhibit high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. This quarterly report describes the preparation of two precursors. The first is a heterometallic complex consisting of two transition metals, Mo and Ni, and sulfur in a single molecule synthesized. The second is a thiocubane type cluster consisting of iron and sulfur.

  7. Electronic Structure and Reactivity of TM-Doped La1-xSrxCoO3 (TM=Ni, Fe Heterogeneous Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Jones

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic properties of LaCoO3 in aqueous oxidation are explored as a function of doping. Both Sr substitution for La and Fe/Ni substitution for Co are studied. The reaction of interest is the aqueous epoxidation of crotyl alcohol with hydrogen peroxide. The reaction products are measured using GC, and the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is studied using the volume of oxygen evolved during reaction. Strong variations in the activity to epoxide formation are observed, with Fe-doped samples being rather inactive in the reaction. SR VUV photoemission is used to explore the surface reactivity of the ceramic catalysts in aqueous solution, using H2O as a probe molecule. These measurements are complemented by XANES measurements designed to probe the local defect structure and XPS measurements of surface composition. We relate the observed catalytic activity to the defect structure of the doped materials. In Ni-doped materials, oxygen vacancies appear to be the predominant defect, whereas in Fe-doped samples, electron holes are stabilized on Fe, leading to very different catalytic behaviour. Surface studies in combination with AA measurements reveal some dissolution of the catalyst into solution during the reaction. The surface reactivity to water is influenced by the TM d electron count, with water binding more strongly to Fe-doped materials than to those containing Ni. The influence of these factors on the rate of the unwanted hydrogen peroxide decomposition reaction and hence on activity in epoxidation is discussed.

  8. Rational design of Mg-Al mixed oxide-supported bimetallic catalysts for dry reforming of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsyganok, Andrey I. [Centre for Catalysis Research and Innovation, Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, D' Iorio Hall, 10 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ont. (Canada); Inaba, Mieko [Natural Gas Technology Development Team, Teikoku Oil Co., 9-23-30 Kitakarasuyama, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-0061 (Japan); Tsunoda, Tatsuo; Uchida, Kunio; Suzuki, Kunio; Hayakawa, Takashi [Institute for Materials and Chemical Process, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Central 5, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8565 (Japan); Takehira, Katsuomi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)

    2005-09-18

    A novel synthetic strategy for preparing bimetallic Ru-M (M=Cr, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) catalysts, supported on Mg-Al mixed oxide, has been introduced. It was based on a 'memory effect', i.e. on the ability of Mg-Al mixed oxide to reconstruct a layered structure upon rehydration with an aqueous solution. By repeated calcinations-rehydration cycles, layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursors of catalysts containing two different metals were synthesized. Bimetallic catalysts were then generated (1) in situ from LDH under methane reforming reaction conditions and (2) from mixed metal oxides obtained by preliminary LDH calcination. Among all the LDH-derived catalysts, a Ru{sup 0.1%}-Ni{sup 5.0%}/MgAlO{sub x} sample revealed the highest activity and selectivity to syngas, a suitable durability and a low coking capacity. A promoting effect of ruthenium on catalytic function of supported nickel was demonstrated. Preliminary LDH calcination was shown to markedly affect the catalytic activity of the derived catalysts and especially their coking properties.

  9. Designing supported palladium-on-gold bimetallic nano-catalysts for controlled hydrogenation of acetylene in large excess of ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malla, Pavani

    Ethylene is used as a starting point for many chemical intermediates in the petrochemical industry. It is predominantly produced through steam cracking of higher hydrocarbons (ethane, propane, butane, naphtha, and gas oil). During the cracking process, a small amount of acetylene is produced as a side product. However, acetylene must be removed since it acts as a poison for ethylene polymerization catalysts at even ppm concentrations (>5 ppm). Thus, the selective hydrogenation of acetylene to ethylene is an important process for the purification of ethylene. Conventional, low weight loading Pd catalysts are used for this selective reaction in high concentration ethylene streams. Gold was initially considered to be catalytically inactive for a long time. This changed when gold was seen in the context of the nanometric scale, which has indeed shown it to have excellent catalytic activity as a homogeneous or a heterogeneous catalyst. Gold is proved to have high selectivity to ethylene but poor at conversion. Bimetallic Au and Pd catalysts have exhibited superior activity as compared to Pd particles in semi-hydrogenation. Hydrogenation of acetylene was tested using this bimetallic combination. The Pd-on-Au bimetallic catalyst structure provides a new synthesis approach in improving the catalytic properties of monometallic Pd materials. TiO 2 as a support material and 0.05%Pd loading on 1%Au on titania support and used different treatment methods like washing plasma and reduction between the two metal loadings and was observed under 2:1 ratio. In my study there were two set of catalysts which were prepared by a modified incipient wetness impregnation technique. Out of all the reaction condition the catalyst which was reduced after impregnating gold and then impregnating palladium which was further treated in non-thermal hydrogen plasma and then pretreated in hydrogen till 250°C for 1 hour produced the best activity of 76% yield at 225°C. Stability tests were conducted

  10. Preparation and characterization of planar Ni–Au bimetallic model catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fan, E-mail: fan.yang@chem.tamu.edu; Yao, Yunxi; Yan, Zhen; Min, Hlaing; Goodman, D. Wayne

    2013-10-15

    Ni–Au bimetallic model catalysts were prepared as thin films on Re(0 0 0 1) or Ru(0 0 0 1) single crystal substrates. Surface compositions and electronic structures of the Ni–Au thin films were characterized by low energy ion scattering spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Surface alloys were prepared by annealing Ni–Au thin films from 500 to 800 K, resulting in substantial surface enrichment of Au. Annealing a Ni–Au thin film with a 1:1 bulk composition ratio at 700 K for 10 min resulted in a surface alloy with 84% (atomic concentration) of Au in the outermost surface layer. The surface atomic structure was investigated using CO as probe molecules, which exclusively adsorbs on the Ni atoms rather than on the Au atoms at room temperature. Polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy of CO adsorption on Ni–Au surface alloys showed that CO adsorption on two-fold bridge sites decreased and finally disappeared with an increase of Au surface concentration. The absence of Ni bridge site CO adsorption indicated that Ni atoms were isolated by Au atoms on Ni–Au alloyed surface.

  11. Solid state reaction synthesis of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceylan, Abdullah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Physics Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Ozcan, Sadan [Physics Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Ni, C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Ismat Shah, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)], E-mail: ismat@udel.edu

    2008-03-15

    Ni-ferrite (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles have been synthesized via a solid state reaction process. Ni and Fe bi-metallic nanoparticles in the form of Ni{sub 33}Fe{sub 67} alloy nanopowder are first synthesized by simultaneous evaporation of the required amounts of pure Ni and Fe metals followed by rapid condensation of the evaporated metal flux into solid state by means of an inert gas, helium, using the process of inert gas condensation (IGC). In order to form the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} structure, as-synthesized samples (Ni{sub 33}Fe{sub 67}) are annealed for 12 h in ambient conditions at different annealing temperatures. Structural analyses show that NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} starts to form at around 450 deg. C and gets progressively well defined with increasing annealing temperatures yielding particle with size ranging between 15 and 50 nm. Besides successfully forming NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, NiO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core/shell nanoparticles have also been synthesized by adjusting the annealing conditions. Three different structures, Ni{sub 33}Fe{sub 67}, NiO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, obtained in this study are compared with respect to their structural and magnetic properties.

  12. Facile synthesis of Pd-based bimetallic nanocrystals and their application as catalysts for methanol oxidation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Pinxian; Cao, Yang; Yang, Fengchun; Ma, Cai; Chen, Fengjuan; Yu, Sha; Wang, Shuai; Zeng, Zhengzhi; Zhang, Xin

    2013-06-01

    We employed an efficient and facile route to synthesise monodisperse Pd-based bimetallic nanocrystals (MPd: M = Cu, Co and Ni) via a controlled co-reduction of Pd(ii) chloride and M(ii) nitrate at 200-230 °C in the presence of oleylamine (OAm). These monodisperse Pd-based nanocrystals have small dimensions, unique structures and homogeneous morphology, thus exhibit efficient catalytic activities for methanol oxidation in alkaline solution, which is much better than commercial Pd/C with same amount of palladium. The catalytic activities of these nanocrystals followed the order of NiPd/C > CoPd/C > CuPd/C > commercial Pd/C, due to the different synergistic effects. Our results show that these Pd-based bimetallic nanocrystals can be promising as practical catalysts for methanol oxidation reactions and other catalytic reactions in further investigations.We employed an efficient and facile route to synthesise monodisperse Pd-based bimetallic nanocrystals (MPd: M = Cu, Co and Ni) via a controlled co-reduction of Pd(ii) chloride and M(ii) nitrate at 200-230 °C in the presence of oleylamine (OAm). These monodisperse Pd-based nanocrystals have small dimensions, unique structures and homogeneous morphology, thus exhibit efficient catalytic activities for methanol oxidation in alkaline solution, which is much better than commercial Pd/C with same amount of palladium. The catalytic activities of these nanocrystals followed the order of NiPd/C > CoPd/C > CuPd/C > commercial Pd/C, due to the different synergistic effects. Our results show that these Pd-based bimetallic nanocrystals can be promising as practical catalysts for methanol oxidation reactions and other catalytic reactions in further investigations. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00912b

  13. Preparation and Properties of Amorphous NiFe/Cu/NiFe Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Yun; JIANG Ya-dong; HU Wen-cheng; ZENG Hong-juan

    2004-01-01

    The amorphous of Permalloy on the copper subtract was studied using composite electroplating method. A portion of hydrogen brings the counteraction on the surface of cathode leading nickel-iron alloys to be anomalous in the process of co-depositing. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) show that the Ni-Fe alloys layer is amorphous. The Giant Magneto -Impedance (GMI) effect of Ni-Fe alloys was obtained under the optimal conditions, dependence on the soft magnetic property of Ni-Fe amorphous thin film. As a result, the ratios△ Z/Z of NiFe/Cu/NiFe amorphous thin film are 30% at 40 kHz which is in low frequency. Furthermore, the GMI value of NiFe/Cu/NiFe amorphous thin film with a sandwich structure is higher than that of single-layer ferromagnetic films of the same thickness.

  14. [NiFe] hydrogenase structural and functional models: new bio-inspired catalysts for hydrogen evolution; Modeles structuraux et fonctionnels du site actif des hydrogenases [NiFe]: de nouveaux catalyseurs bio-inspires pour la production d'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudart, Y

    2006-09-15

    Hydrogenase enzymes reversibly catalyze the oxidation and production of hydrogen in a range close to the thermodynamic potential. The [NiFe] hydrogenase active site contains an iron-cyano-carbonyl moiety linked to a nickel atom which is in an all sulphur environment. Both the active site originality and the potential development of an hydrogen economy make the synthesis of functional and structural models worthy. To take up this challenge, we have synthesised mononuclear ruthenium models and more importantly, nickel-ruthenium complexes, mimicking some structural features of the [NiFe] hydrogenase active site. Ruthenium is indeed isoelectronic to iron and some of its complexes are well-known to bear hydrides. The compounds described in this study have been well characterised and their activity in proton reduction has been successfully tested. Most of them are able to catalyze this reaction though their electrocatalytic potentials remain much more negative compared to which of platinum. The studied parameters point out the importance of the complexes electron richness, especially of the nickel environment. Furthermore, the proton reduction activity is stable for several hours at good rates. The ruthenium environment seems important for this stability. Altogether, these compounds represent the very first catalytically active [NiFe] hydrogenase models. Important additional results of this study are the synergetic behaviour of the two metals in protons reduction and the evidence of a protonation step as the limiting step of the catalytic cycle. We have also shown that a basic site close to ruthenium improves the electrocatalytic potential of the complexes. (author)

  15. Catalytic activity of bimetallic catalysts highly sensitive to the atomic composition and phase structure at the nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Shiyao; Petkov, Valeri; Prasai, Binay; Wu, Jinfang; Joseph, Pharrah; Skeete, Zakiya; Kim, Eunjoo; Mott, Derrick; Malis, Oana; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2015-12-07

    The ability to determine the atomic arrangement in nanoalloy catalysts and reveal the detailed structural features responsible for the catalytically active sites is essential for understanding the correlation between the atomic structure and catalytic properties, enabling the preparation of efficient nanoalloy catalysts by design. Herein we describe a study of CO oxidation over PdCu nanoalloy catalysts focusing on gaining insights into the correlation between the atomic structures and catalytic activity of nanoalloys. PdCu nanoalloys of different bimetallic compositions are synthesized as a model system and are activated by a controlled thermochemical treatment for assessing their catalytic activity. The results show that the catalytic synergy of Pd and Cu species evolves with both the bimetallic nanoalloy composition and temperature of the thermochemical treatment reaching a maximum at a Pd : Cu ratio close to 50 : 50. The nanoalloys are characterized structurally by ex situ and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction, including atomic pair distribution function analysis. The structural data show that, depending on the bimetallic composition and treatment temperature, PdCu nanoalloys adopt two different structure types. One features a chemically ordered, body centered cubic (B2) type alloy consisting of two interpenetrating simple cubic lattices, each occupied with Pd or Cu species alone, and the other structure type features a chemically disordered, face-centered cubic (fcc) type of alloy wherein Pd and Cu species are intermixed at random. The catalytic activity for CO oxidation is strongly influenced by the structural features. In particular, it is revealed that the prevalence of chemical disorder in nanoalloys with a Pd : Cu ratio close to 50 : 50 makes them superior catalysts for CO oxidation in comparison with the same nanoalloys of other bimetallic compositions. However, the catalytic synergy can be diminished if the Pd50Cu50 nanoalloys undergo

  16. Hydrogen production from the steam reforming of bio-butanol over novel supported Co-based bimetallic catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weijie; de la Piscina, Pilar Ramirez; Homs, Narcis

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports the hydrogen production through the steam reforming of a bioresource-derived butanol mixture (butanol:acetone:ethanol=6:3:1 mass ratio) over supported cobalt-based catalysts. The support plays an important role for the catalytic behavior and Co/ZnO exhibits the best catalytic performance compared to Co/TiO(2) and Co/CeO(2). Moreover, a higher hydrogen yield is obtained over bimetallic Co-Ir/ZnO, which shows an increase in H(2) selectivity and a decrease in CH(4) selectivity under steam reforming conditions, compared to Co/ZnO. Raman results of the used catalysts indicate that the addition of Ir could prevent the coke formation to prolong the catalyst stability.

  17. Application of a Re-Pd bimetallic catalyst for treatment of perchlorate in waste ion-exchange regenerant brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinyong; Choe, Jong Kwon; Sasnow, Zachary; Werth, Charles J; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Concentrated sodium chloride (NaCl) brines are often used to regenerate ion-exchange (IX) resins applied to treat drinking water sources contaminated with perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)), generating large volumes of contaminated waste brine. Chemical and biological processes for ClO(4)(-) reduction are often inhibited severely by high salt levels, making it difficult to recycle waste brines. Recent work demonstrated that novel rhenium-palladium bimetallic catalysts on activated carbon support (Re-Pd/C) can efficiently reduce ClO(4)(-) to chloride (Cl(-)) under acidic conditions, and here the applicability of the process for treating waste IX brines was examined. Experiments conducted in synthetic NaCl-only brine (6-12 wt%) showed higher Re-Pd/C catalyst activity than in comparable freshwater solutions, but the rate constant for ClO(4)(-) reduction measured in a real IX waste brine was found to be 65 times lower than in the synthetic NaCl brine. Through a series of experiments, co-contamination of the IX waste brine by excess NO(3)(-) (which the catalyst reduces principally to NH(4)(+)) was found to be the primary cause for deactivation of the Re-Pd/C catalyst, most likely by altering the immobilized Re component. Pre-treatment of NO(3)(-) using a different bimetallic catalyst (In-Pd/Al(2)O(3)) improved selectivity for N(2) over NH(4)(+) and enabled facile ClO(4)(-) reduction by the Re-Pd/C catalyst. Thus, sequential catalytic treatment may be a promising strategy for enabling reuse of waste IX brine containing NO(3)(-) and ClO(4)(-).

  18. Synergy between Two Metal Catalysts: A Highly Active Silica-Supported Bimetallic W/Zr Catalyst for Metathesis of n-Decane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samantaray, Manoja K; Dey, Raju; Kavitake, Santosh; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Bendjeriou-Sedjerari, Anissa; Hamieh, Ali; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-07-13

    A well-defined, silica-supported bimetallic precatalyst [≡Si-O-W(Me)5≡Si-O-Zr(Np)3] (4) has been synthesized for the first time by successively grafting two organometallic complexes [W(Me)6 (1) followed by ZrNp4 (2)] on a single silica support. Surprisingly, multiple-quantum NMR characterization demonstrates that W and Zr species are in close proximity to each other. Hydrogenation of this bimetallic catalyst at room temperature showed the easy formation of zirconium hydride, probably facilitated by tungsten hydride which was formed at this temperature. This bimetallic W/Zr hydride precatalyst proved to be more efficient (TON = 1436) than the monometallic W hydride (TON = 650) in the metathesis of n-decane at 150 °C. This synergy between Zr and W suggests that the slow step of alkane metathesis is the C-H bond activation that occurs on Zr. The produced olefin resulting from a β-H elimination undergoes easy metathesis on W.

  19. Synergy between Two Metal Catalysts: A Highly Active Silica Supported Bimetallic W/Zr Catalyst for Metathesis of n-Decane

    KAUST Repository

    Samantaray, Manoja

    2016-06-01

    A well-defined, silica supported, bimetallic precatalyst [≡Si-O-W(Me)5 ≡Si-O-Zr(Np)3](4) has been synthesized for the first time via successively grafting two organometallic complexes [W(CH3)6 (1) followed by ZrNp4 (2)] on a single silica support. Surprisingly, multiple quantum NMR characterization demonstrates that W and Zr species are in close proximity to each other. Hydrogenation of this bimetallic catalyst at room temperature showed the easy formation of Zirconium hydride, probably facilitated by tungsten hydride which was formed at this temperature. This bimetallic W/Zr hydride precatalyst proved to be more efficient (TON: 1436) than the monometallic W hydride (TON: 650) in metathesis of n-decane at 150 0C. This synergy between Zr and W suggests that the slow step of alkane metathesis is the C-H bond activation which occurs on Zr. The produced olefin resulting from a ß–H elimination undergoes easy metathesis on W.

  20. Influence of complexing agents on the preparation of bimetallic platinum-ruthenium catalysts supported on O-functionalized graphite cloths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieben, J.M., E-mail: jmsieben@uns.edu.a [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion (INIEC), Universidad Nacional del Sur., Av. Alem 1253, (B8000CPB) Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Duarte, M.M.E.; Mayer, C.E. [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion (INIEC), Universidad Nacional del Sur., Av. Alem 1253, (B8000CPB) Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2010-02-18

    Electrodeposition of bimetallic Pt-Ru catalysts on O-functionalized graphite cloths from H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} and RuCl{sub 3} solutions containing trisodium citrate (Cit) and disodium dihydrogen ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Na{sub 2}H{sub 2}EDTA) was investigated. SEM analysis of the electrode prepared without complexant showed a relatively compact and rough deposit displaying a 'tree cortex' structure, whereas uniform size and globular shape particles regularly distributed over the support surface were obtained using citrate and Na{sub 2}H{sub 2}EDTA as complexants. In addition, XRD diffraction and EDX analysis revealed that the catalysts prepared using the complexants showed smaller size particles and lower Ru content. Electrocatalytic activity measurements indicated that the most active electrode for methanol oxidation was obtained with Na{sub 2}H{sub 2}EDTA as additive.

  1. Polymer stabilized Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe alloy nanoclusters: Structural and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, L.; Mandal, A.R. [Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan-731 235 (India); Mandal, S.K., E-mail: sk_mandal@hotmail.co [Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan-731 235 (India)

    2010-04-15

    We report here the structural and magnetic behaviors of nickel-silver (Ni-Ag) and nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) nanoclusters stabilized with polymer (polypyrrole). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates Ni-Ag nanoclusters to stabilize in core-shell configuration while that of Ni-Fe nanoclusters in a mixed type of geometry. Structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal the possibility of alloying in such bimetallic nanoclusters to some extent even at temperatures much lower than that of bulk alloying. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra clearly reveal two different absorption behaviors: one is ascribed to non-isolated Ni{sup 2+} clusters surrounded by either silver or iron giving rise to a broad signal, other (very narrow signal) being due to the isolated superparamagnetic Ni{sup 2+} clusters or bimetallic alloy nanoclusters. Results obtained for Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe nanoclusters have been further compared with the behavior exhibited by pure Ni nanoclusters in polypyrrole host. Temperature dependent studies (at 300 and 77 K) of EPR parameters, e.g. linewidth, g-value, line shape and signal intensity indicating the significant influence of surrounding paramagnetic silver or ferromagnetic iron within polymer host on the EPR spectra have been presented.

  2. Selective aerobic oxidation of 1,3-propanediol to 3-hydroxypropanoic acid using hydrotalcite supported bimetallic gold nanoparticle catalyst in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Mujahid; Nishimura, Shun; Ebitani, Kohki

    2015-02-01

    Selective oxidation of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) to 3-hydroxypropanoic acid (3-HPA), an important industrial building block, was successfully achieved using hydrotalcite-supported bimetallic Au nanoparticle catalysts in water at 343 K under aerobic and base-free conditions. The highest yield of 42% with 73% selectivity towards 3-HPA was afforded by 1wt% Au0.8Pd0.2-PVP/HT catalyst.

  3. Enhanced Hydrodeoxygenation of m -Cresol over Bimetallic Pt–Mo Catalysts through an Oxophilic Metal-Induced Tautomerization Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Allison; Ferguson, Glen Allen; Gallagher, James R.; Cheah, Singfoong; Beckham, Gregg T.; Schaidle, Joshua A.; Hensley, Jesse E.; Medlin, J. Will

    2016-07-01

    Supported bimetallic catalysts consisting of a noble metal (e.g., Pt) and an oxophilic metal (e.g., Mo) have received considerable attention for the hydrodeoxygenation of oxygenated aromatic compounds produced from biomass fast pyrolysis. Here, we report that PtMo can catalyze m-cresol deoxygenation via a pathway involving an initial tautomerization step. In contrast, the dominant mechanism on monometallic Pt/Al2O3 was found to be sequential Pt-catalyzed ring hydrogenation followed by dehydration on the support. Bimetallic Pt10Mo1 and Pt1Mo1 catalysts were found to produce the completely hydrogenated and deoxygenated product, methylcyclohexane (MCH), with much higher yields than monometallic Pt catalysts with comparable metal loadings and surface areas. Over an inert carbon support, MCH formation was found to be slow over monometallic Pt catalysts, while deoxygenation was significant for PtMo catalysts even in the absence of an acidic support material. Experimental studies of m-cresol deoxygenation together with density functional theory calculations indicated that Mo sites on the PtMo bimetallic surface dramatically lower the barrier for m-cresol tautomerization and subsequent deoxygenation. The accessibility of this pathway arises from the increased interaction between the oxygen of m-cresol and the Mo sites in the Pt surface. This interaction significantly alters the configuration of the precursor and transition states for tautomerization. A suite of catalyst characterization techniques including X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) indicate that Mo was present in a reduced state on the bimetallic surface under conditions relevant for reaction. Overall, these results suggest that the use of bifunctional metal catalysts can result in new reaction pathways that are unfavorable on monometallic noble metal catalysts.

  4. Suppression of carbon formation in CH4–CO2 reforming by addition of Sr into bimetallic Ni–Co/γ-Al2O3 catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Fatesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bimetallic catalysts, containing 5 wt% Ni + 5 wt% Co supported on γ-Al2O3 combined with different amounts of Sr promoter ranging from 0 to 1 wt%, for dry reforming reaction were prepared by the impregnation method. The dry reforming reaction was carried out at atmospheric pressure using CO2/CH4/N2 feed ratio of 17/17/2, F/W = 60 mL/min gcat and reaction temperature range of 500–700 °C. The performance of the developed catalyst was evaluated by estimating the CH4 and CO2 conversions, and by performing a long run stability test. The fresh and spent catalysts were characterized by BET, TGA, TPD, TPR, and TPO. The bimetallic catalysts provided higher activity than the monometallic-catalysts. When the bimetallic was promoted with Sr, the activity decreased slightly however, the stability enhanced. The best stability, estimated by the deactivation factor, and less carbon deposition, measured by TGA, were obtained when 5Ni5CoSr0.75 catalyst was used.

  5. Catalytic activity of mono and bimetallic Zn/Cu/MWCNTs catalysts for the thermocatalyzed conversion of methane to hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdelyi, B.; Oriňak, A.; Oriňaková, R.; Lorinčík, J.; Jerigová, M.; Velič, D.; Mičušík, M.; Omastová, M.; Smith, R. M.; Girman, V.

    2017-02-01

    Mono and bimetallic multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) fortified with Cu and Zn metal particles were studied to improve the efficiency of the thermocatalytic conversion of methane to hydrogen. The surface of the catalyst and the dispersion of the metal particles were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It was confirmed that the metal particles were successfully dispersed on the MWCNT surface and XPS analysis showed that the Zn was oxidised to ZnO at high temperatures. The conversion of methane to hydrogen during the catalytic pyrolysis was studied by pyrolysis gas chromatography using different amounts of catalyst. The best yields of hydrogen were obtained using pyrolysis conditions of 900 °C and 1.2 mg of Zn/Cu/MWCNT catalyst for 1.5 mL of methane.The initial conversion of methane to hydrogen obtained with Zn/Cu/MWCNTs was 49%, which represent a good conversion rate of methane to hydrogen for a non-noble metal catalyst.

  6. EXAFS as a tool to interrogate the size and shape of mono and bimetallic catalyst nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beale, A.M.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of atom packing and the geometric arrangement of atoms on the coordination number(s) and resultant simulated EXAFS spectra for face centrered cubic (fcc), hexagonal close packed (hcp) and body centered cubic (bcc) monometallic structures and fcc bimetallic structures, has been examined

  7. EXAFS Peaks and TPR Characterizing Bimetallic Interactions: Effects of Impregnation Methods on the Structure of Pt-Ru/C Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-Yu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate bimetallic interactions, Pt-Ru/C catalysts were prepared by coimpregnation (Pt-Ruco/C and successive impregnation (Ru-Ptse/C, while Pt/C, Ru/C, and reduced Pt-Rublack were used as reference. Those samples were characterized by XAS and TPR. When Pt(absorber-Ru(backscatter phase-and-amplitude correction is applied to Fourier transformed (FT EXAFS of Pt-Rublack at Pt edge, the characteristic peak of Pt-Ru interactions appears at 2.70 Å´, whereas, when Pt-Pt correction is applied, the peak appears at about 2.5 Å´. Detailed EXAFS analysis for Pt-Ruco/C and Pt-Ruse/C confirms the nature of the characteristic peak and further indicates that the interactions can semiquantitatively be determined by the relative intensity between Pt-Ru and Pt-Pt characteristic peaks. This simple method in determining bimetallic interaction can be extended to characterize Pt-Pd/γ-Al2O3. However, for Pt-Re/γ-Al2O3, Pt-Re interactions cannot be determined by the method because of the overlap of Pt-Pt and Pt-Re characteristic peaks due to similar phase functions.

  8. Remarkable effect of bimetallic nanocluster catalysts for aerobic oxidation of alcohols: combining metals changes the activities and the reaction pathways to aldehydes/carboxylic acids or esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizuka, Kosuke; Miyamura, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Shū

    2010-11-01

    Selective oxidation of alcohols catalyzed by novel carbon-stabilized polymer-incarcerated bimetallic nanocluster catalysts using molecular oxygen has been developed. The reactivity and the selectivity were strongly dependent on the combination of metals and solvent systems; aldehydes and ketones were obtained by the gold/platinum catalyst in benzotrifluoride, and esters were formed by the gold/palladium catalyst in methanol. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example that the reaction pathway has been changed dramatically in gold catalysis by combining with a second metal. The differences in the activity and the selectivity are considered to be derived from the difference in the structure of the bimetallic clusters.

  9. Bimetallic PtAu superlattice arrays: Highly electroactive and durable catalyst for oxygen reduction and methanol oxidation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiu-Ju; He, Li-Li; Fang, Rui; Wang, Qiao-Li; Yuan, Junhua; Wang, Ai-Jun

    2016-10-01

    Superlattice arrays, an important type of nanomaterials, have wide applications in catalysis, optic/electronics and energy storage for the synergetic effects determined by both individual metals and collective interactions. Herein, a simple one-pot solvothermal coreduction approach is developed for facile preparation of bimetallic PtAu alloyed superlattice arrays (PtAu SLAs) in oleylamine, with the assistance of urea via hydrogen bonding induced self-assembly. Urea is essential in morphology-controlled process and prevents PtAu nanoparticles from the disordered aggregation. The characterization and formation mechanism of PtAu SLAs are investigated in details. The as-synthesized hybrid nanocrystals exhibit enhanced electrocatalytic performances for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in alkaline electrolyte in comparison with commercial Pt-C (50%, wt.%) and Pt black catalysts.

  10. Effects of doping in 25-atom bimetallic nanocluster catalysts for carbon–carbon coupling reaction of iodoanisole and phenylacetylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We here report the catalytic effects of foreign atoms (Cu, Ag, and Pt doped into well-defined 25-gold-atom nanoclusters. Using the carbon-carbon coupling reaction of p-iodoanisole and phenylacetylene as a model reaction, the gold-based bimetallic MxAu25−x(SR18 (–SR=–SCH2CH2Ph nanoclusters (supported on titania were found to exhibit distinct effects on the conversion of p-iodoanisole as well as the selectivity for the Sonogashira cross-coupling product, 1-methoxy-4-(2-phenylethynylbenzene. Compared to Au25(SR18, the centrally doped Pt1Au24(SR18 causes a drop in catalytic activity but with the selectivity retained, while the AgxAu25−x(SR18 nanoclusters gave an overall performance comparable to Au25(SR18. Interestingly, CuxAu25−x(SR18 nanoclusters prefer the Ullmann homo-coupling pathway and give rise to product 4,4′-dimethoxy-1,1′-biphenyl, which is in opposite to the other three nanocluster catalysts. Our overall conclusion is that the conversion of p-iodoanisole is largely affected by the electronic effect in the bimetallic nanoclusters’ 13-atom core (i.e., Pt1Au12, CuxAu13−x, and Au13, with the exception of Ag doping, and that the selectivity is primarily determined by the type of atoms on the MxAu12−x shell (M=Ag, Cu, and Au in the nanocluster catalysts.

  11. Desorption of Furfural from Bimetallic Pt-Fe Oxides/Alumina Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Lourdes Dimas-Rivera; Javier Rivera de la Rosa; Carlos J. Lucio-Ortiz; José Antonio De los Reyes Heredia; Virgilio González González; Tomás Hernández

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the desorption of furfural, which is a competitive intermediate during the production of biofuel and valuable aromatic compounds, was studied using pure alumina, as well as alumina impregnated with iron and platinum oxides both individually and in combination, using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The bimetallic sample exhibited the lowest desorption percentage for furfural. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging revealed the intimate connection betwe...

  12. Selective hydrogenation of acetylene on SiO2 supported Ni-In bimetallic catalysts: Promotional effect of In

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanjun; Chen, Jixiang

    2016-11-01

    Ni/SiO2 and the bimetallic NixIn/SiO2 catalysts with different Ni/In ratios were tested for the selective hydrogenation of acetylene, and their physicochemical properties before and after the reaction were characterized by means of N2-sorption, H2-TPR, XRD, TEM, XPS, H2 chemisorption, C2H4-TPD, NH3-TPD, FT-IR of adsorbed pyridine, and TG/DTA and Raman. A promotional effect of In on the performance of Ni/SiO2 was found, and NixIn/SiO2 with a suitable Ni/In ratio gave much higher acetylene conversion, ethylene selectivity and catalyst stability than Ni/SiO2. This is ascribed to the geometrical isolation of the reactive Ni atoms with the inert In ones and the charge transfer from the In atoms to Ni ones, both of which are favorable for reducing the adsorption strength of ethylene and restraining the Csbnd C hydrogenolysis and the polymerizations of acetylene and the intermediate compounds. On the whole, Ni6In/SiO2 and Ni10In/SiO2 had better performance. Nevertheless, with increasing the In content, the selectivity to the C4+ hydrocarbons tended to increase due to the enhanced catalyst acidity because of the charge transfer from the In atoms to Ni ones. As the Lewis acid ones, the In sites could promote the polymerization. The catalyst deactivation was also analyzed. We propose that the Ni/SiO2 deactivation is mainly attributed to the phase change from metallic Ni to nickel carbide. The introduction of In inhibited the formation of nickel carbide. However, as the In content increased, the carbonaceous deposit became the main reason for the NixIn/SiO2 deactivation due to the enhanced catalyst acidity.

  13. Development of Fe-Ni/YSZ-GDC electro-catalysts for application as SOFC anodes. XRD and TPR characterization, and evaluation in ethanol steam reforming reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz Fiuza, Raigenis da; Silva, Marcos Aurelio da; Boaventura, Jaime Soares [UFBA, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil). Energy and Materials Science Group

    2010-07-01

    Electro-catalysts based on Fe-Ni alloys were prepared using physical mixture and modified Pechini methods; they were supported on a composite of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and Gadolinia Doped Ceria (GDC). The composites had compositions of 35% metal load and 65% support (70% wt. YSZ and 30% wt. GDC mixture) (cermets). The samples were characterized by Temperature-Programmed Reduction (TPR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and evaluated in ethanol steam reforming at 650 C for six hours and in the temperature range 300 - 900 C. The XRD results showed that the bimetallic sample calcined at 800 C formed a mixed oxide (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) in spinel structure; after reducing the sample in hydrogen, Ni-Fe alloys were formed. The presence of Ni decreased the final reduction temperature of the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} species. The addition of Fe to Ni anchored to YSZ-GDC increased the hydrogen production and inhibits the carbon deposition. The bimetallic 30Fe5Ni samples reached an ethanol conversion of about 95%, and a hydrogen yield up to 48% at 750 C. In general, the ethanol conversion and hydrogen production were independent of the metal content in the electro-catalyst. However, the substitution of Ni for Fe significantly reduced the carbon deposition on the electro-catalyst: 74, 31 and 9 wt. % in the 35Ni, 20Fe15Ni, and 30Fe5Ni samples, respectively. (orig.)

  14. Bimetallic Nickel/Ruthenium Catalysts Synthesized by Atomic Layer Deposition for Low-Temperature Direct Methanol Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Heonjae; Kim, Jun Woo; Park, Joonsuk; An, Jihwan; Lee, Tonghun; Prinz, Fritz B; Shim, Joon Hyung

    2016-11-09

    Nickel and ruthenium bimetallic catalysts were heterogeneously synthesized via atomic layer deposition (ALD) for use as the anode of direct methanol solid oxide fuel cells (DMSOFCs) operating in a low-temperature range. The presence of highly dispersed ALD Ru islands over a porous Ni mesh was confirmed, and the Ni/ALD Ru anode microstructure was observed. Fuel cell tests were conducted using Ni-only and Ni/ALD Ru anodes with approximately 350 μm thick gadolinium-doped ceria electrolytes and platinum cathodes. The performance of fuel cells was assessed using pure methanol at operating temperatures of 300-400 °C. Micromorphological changes of the anode after cell operation were investigated, and the content of adsorbed carbon on the anode side of the operated samples was measured. The difference in the maximum power density between samples utilizing Ni/ALD Ru and Pt/ALD Ru, the latter being the best catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells, was observed to be less than 7% at 300 °C and 30% at 350 °C. The improved electrochemical activity of the Ni/ALD Ru anode compared to that of the Ni-only anode, along with the reduction of the number of catalytically active sites due to agglomeration of Ni and carbon formation on the Ni surface as compared to Pt, explains this decent performance.

  15. Sn surface-enriched Pt-Sn bimetallic nanoparticles as a selective and stable catalyst for propane dehydrogenation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Haibo

    2014-12-01

    A new one pot, surfactant-free, synthetic route based on the surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC) concept has been developed for the synthesis of Sn surface-enriched Pt-Sn nanoparticles. Bu3SnH selectively reacts with [Pt]-H formed in situ at the surface of Pt nanoparticles, Pt NPs, obtained by reduction of K2PtCl4 by LiB(C2H5)3H. Chemical analysis, 1H MAS and 13C CP/MAS solid-state NMR as well as two-dimensional double-quantum (DQ) and triple-quantum (TQ) experiments show that organo-tin moieties Sn(n-C4H9) are chemically linked to the surface of Pt NPs to produce, in fine, after removal of most of the n-butyl fragment, bimetallic Pt-Sn nanoparticles. The Sn(n-CH2CH2CH2CH3) groups remaining at the surface are believed to stabilize the as-synthesized Pt-Sn NPs, enabling the bimetallic NPs to be well dispersed in THF. Additionally, the Pt-Sn nanoparticles can be supported on MgAl2O4 during the synthesis of the nanoparticles. Some of the Pt-Sn/MgAl2O4 catalyst thus prepared exhibits high activity in PROX of CO and an extremely high selectivity and stability in propane dehydrogenation to propylene. The enhanced activity in propane dehydrogenation is associated with the high concentration of inactive Sn at the surface of Pt nanoparticles which ”isolates” the active Pt atoms. This conclusion is confirmed by XRD, NMR, TEM, and XPS analysis.

  16. Ni-Based Catalysts for Low Temperature Methane Steam Reforming: Recent Results on Ni-Au and Comparison with Other Bi-Metallic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Venezia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Steam reforming of light hydrocarbons provides a promising method for hydrogen production. Ni-based catalysts are so far the best and the most commonly used catalysts for steam reforming because of their acceptably high activity and significantly lower cost in comparison with alternative precious metal-based catalysts. However, nickel catalysts are susceptible to deactivation from the deposition of carbon, even when operating at steam-to-carbon ratios predicted to be thermodynamically outside of the carbon-forming regime. Reactivity and deactivation by carbon formation can be tuned by modifying Ni surfaces with a second metal, such as Au through alloy formation. In the present review, we summarize the very recent progress in the design, synthesis, and characterization of supported bimetallic Ni-based catalysts for steam reforming. The progress in the modification of Ni with noble metals (such as Au and Ag is discussed in terms of preparation, characterization and pretreatment methods. Moreover, the comparison with the effects of other metals (such as Sn, Cu, Co, Mo, Fe, Gd and B is addressed. The differences of catalytic activity, thermal stability and carbon species between bimetallic and monometallic Ni-based catalysts are also briefly shown.

  17. Treatment of ammonia by catalytic wet oxidation process over platinum-rhodium bimetallic catalyst in a trickle-bed reactor: effect of pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chang-Mao; Lin, Wei-Bang; Ho, Ching-Lin; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Hsia, Shao-Yi

    2010-08-01

    This work adopted aqueous solutions of ammonia for use in catalytic liquid-phase reduction in a trickle-bed reactor with a platinum-rhodium bimetallic catalyst, prepared by the co-precipitation of chloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) and rhodium nitrate [Rh(NO3)3]. The experimental results demonstrated that a minimal amount of ammonia was removed from the solution by wet oxidation in the absence of any catalyst, while approximately 97.0% of the ammonia was removed by wet oxidation over the platinum-rhodium bimetallic catalyst at 230 degrees C with an oxygen partial pressure of 2.0 MPa. The oxidation of ammonia has been studied as a function of pH, and the main reaction products were determined. A synergistic effect is manifest in the platinum-rhodium bimetallic structure, in which the material has the greatest capacity to reduce ammonia. The reaction pathway linked the oxidizing ammonia to nitric oxide, nitrogen, and water.

  18. NiFe layered double hydroxide/reduced graphene oxide nanohybrid as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution and reduction reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Tianrong; Zhang, Yumei; Liu, Xiaolin; Lu, SiSi; Hou, Wanguo

    2016-11-01

    Highly active and low-cost bifunctional electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution and reduction reactions (OER and ORR) hold a heart position for the renewable energy technologies such as metal-air batteries and fuel cells. Here, we reported the synthesis of NiFe layered double hydroxide/reduced graphene oxide (NiFe-LDH/rGO) nanohybrid via the facile solvothermal method followed by chemical reduction. The template role of surfactant and the hybridization of rGO supplied the NiFe-LDH/rGO catalyst with a porous nanostructure and an enhanced conductivity, favoring both mass transport and charge communication of electrocatalytic reactions. The NiFe-LDH/rGO composite not only displayed highly efficient OER activity in alkaline solution with a low onset overpotential of 240 mV, but also only needed an overpotential of 250 mV to reach the 10 mA cm-2 current density. The NiFe-LDH/rGO nanohybrid also offered excellent ORR catalytic activity with onset potential at 0.796 V in alkaline media. The rotating-disk and rotating-ring-disk electrodes both revealed that the ORR on NiFe-LDH/rGO mainly involved a direct four-electron reaction pathways accompanying part of the two-electron process. The excellent bifunctional activity of the NiFe-LDH/rGO nanohybrid could be attributed to the synergistic effects of rGO and NiFe-LDH components due to the strongly coupled interactions.

  19. Purification of Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized by Catalytic Decomposition of Methane using Bimetallic Fe-Co Catalysts Supported on MgO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Beh Hoe; Ramli, Irmawati [Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yahya, Noorhana [Fundamental and Applied Science Department Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Pah, Lim Kean, E-mail: irmawati@science.upm.edu.my [Physics department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    This work reports the synthesis of carbon nanotubes by catalytic decomposition of methane using bimetallic Fe-Co catalysts supported on MgO. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show the as-prepared carbon nanotubes are multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with diameter in the range of 15nm to 45nm. Purification of as-prepared MWCNTs was carried out by acid and heat treatment method. EDX results show the Fe, Co and MgO catalysts were successfully removed by refluxing the as-prepared MWCNTs in 3M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}.

  20. Purification of Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized by Catalytic Decomposition of Methane using Bimetallic Fe-Co Catalysts Supported on MgO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Beh Hoe; Ramli, Irmawati; Yahya, Noorhana; Kean Pah, Lim

    2011-02-01

    This work reports the synthesis of carbon nanotubes by catalytic decomposition of methane using bimetallic Fe-Co catalysts supported on MgO. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show the as-prepared carbon nanotubes are multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with diameter in the range of 15nm to 45nm. Purification of as-prepared MWCNTs was carried out by acid and heat treatment method. EDX results show the Fe, Co and MgO catalysts were successfully removed by refluxing the as-prepared MWCNTs in 3M H2SO4.

  1. Selective Oxidation of 1,6-Hexanediol to 6-Hydroxycaproic Acid over Reusable Hydrotalcite-Supported Au-Pd Bimetallic Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Jaya; Nishimura, Shun; Choudhary, Hemant; Ebitani, Kohki

    2015-06-08

    Selective oxidation of 1,6-hexanediol into 6-hydroxycaproic acid was achieved over hydrotalcite-supported Au-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles as heterogeneous catalyst using aqueous H2 O2 . N,N-dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide (DDAO) was used as an efficient capping agent. Spectroscopic analyses by UV/Vis, TEM, XPS, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy suggested that interactions between gold and palladium atoms are responsible for the high activity of the reusable Au40 Pd60 -DDAO/HT catalyst.

  2. Cu-Sn Bimetallic Catalyst for Selective Aqueous Electroreduction of CO2 to CO

    KAUST Repository

    Sarfraz, Saad

    2016-03-23

    We report a selective and stable electrocatalyst utilizing non-noble metals consisting of Cu and Sn for the efficient and selective reduction of CO2 to CO over a wide potential range. The bimetallic electrode was prepared through the electrodeposition of Sn species on the surface of oxide-derived copper (OD-Cu). The Cu surface, when decorated with an optimal amount of Sn, resulted in a Faradaic efficiency (FE) for CO greater than 90% and a current density of −1.0 mA cm−2 at −0.6 V vs. RHE, compared to the CO FE of 63% and −2.1 mA cm−2 for OD-Cu. Excess Sn on the surface caused H2 evolution with a decreased current density. X-ray diffraction (XRD) suggests the formation of Cu-Sn alloy. Auger electron spectroscopy of the sample surface exhibits zero-valent Cu and Sn after the electrodeposition step. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that replacing a single Cu atom with a Sn atom leaves the d-band orbitals mostly unperturbed, signifying no dramatic shifts in the bulk electronic structure. However, the Sn atom discomposes the multi-fold sites on pure Cu, disfavoring the adsorption of H and leaving the adsorption of CO relatively unperturbed. Our catalytic results along with DFT calculations indicate that the presence of Sn on reduced OD-Cu diminishes the hydrogenation capability—i.e., the selectivity towards H2 and HCOOH—while hardly affecting the CO productivity. While the pristine monometallic surfaces (both Cu and Sn) fail to selectively reduce CO2, the Cu-Sn bimetallic electrocatalyst generates a surface that inhibits adsorbed H*, resulting in improved CO FE. This study presents a strategy to provide a low-cost non-noble metals that can be utilized as a highly selective electrocatalyst for the efficient aqueous reduction of CO2.

  3. CuAu–ZnO–graphene nanocomposite: A novel graphene-based bimetallic alloy-semiconductor catalyst with its enhanced photocatalytic degradation performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Hong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ye, Xiaoliang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Duan, Kaiyue; Xue, Muyin; Du, Yongling; Ye, Weichun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Chunming, E-mail: wangcm@lzu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-07-05

    Graphical abstract: In this work, we have successfully synthesized a novel graphene-based bimetallic alloy-semiconductor catalyst: CuAu–ZnO–Gr nanocomposite, and which behaved an enhanced photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • A bimetallic alloy-based catalyst: CuAu–ZnO–Gr is synthesized. • CuAu–ZnO–Gr behaves an enhanced photocatalytic activity. • The detailed explanation of photocatalytic mechanism of CuAu–ZnO–Gr. - Abstract: The bimetallic alloy CuAu nanoparticles (NPs) can produce more photogenerated electrons when compared with single metal Au NPs. Moreover, graphene (Gr) sheets can help the charge separation and slow down the recombination of the electron hole pairs of ZnO. Hence, a novel graphene-based bimetallic alloy-semiconductor catalyst: CuAu–ZnO–Gr nanocomposite is synthesized. Due to the synergistic effect among CuAu NPs, ZnO nanopyramids, and Gr sheets, CuAu–ZnO–Gr behaves an enhanced photocatalytic activity for the photocatalytic degradation of synthetic colorants methyl orange (MO), methylene blue (MB), indigotin (IN), sunset yellow (SY), and tartrazine (TT) under the simulated sunlight irradiation. Furthermore, the apparent rate constants (k{sub app}) of MO, MB, IN, SY, and TT degradation are estimated respectively. In addition, the as-prepared CuAu–ZnO–Gr nanocomposite is characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV–vis spectrum, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and EDX mapping. As a result of the facile synthesis route and the enhanced photocatalytic activity, this new material CuAu–ZnO–Gr can be a promising photocatalyst for the degradation of dyes.

  4. An anodic alumina supported Ni-Pt bimetallic plate-type catalysts for multi-reforming of methane, kerosene and ethanol

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lu

    2014-05-01

    An anodic alumina supported Ni-Pt bimetallic plate-type catalyst was prepared by a two-step impregnation method. The trace amount 0.08 wt% of Pt doping efficiently suppressed the nickel particle sintering and improved the nickel oxides reducibility. The prepared Ni-Pt catalyst showed excellent performance during steam reforming of methane, kerosene and ethanol under both 3000 h stationary and 500-time daily start-up and shut-down operation modes. Self-activation ability of this catalyst was evidenced, which was considered to be resulted from the hydrogen spillover effect over Ni-Pt alloy. In addition, an integrated combustion-reforming reactor was proposed in this study. However, the sintering of the alumina support is still a critical issue for the industrialization of Ni-Pt catalyst. Copyright © 2014, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Performance Comparison of Two Newly Developed Bimetallic (X-Mo/Al2O3, X=Fe or Co) Catalysts for Reverse Water Gas Shift Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abolfazl Gharibi Kharaji; Ahmad Shariati

    2016-01-01

    The performance of the two newly developed bimetallic catalysts based on the precursor, Mo/Al2O3, was com-pared for reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. The structures of the precursor and the catalysts were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spec-trometry (ICP-AES), CO chemisorption, temperature programmed reduction of hydrogen (H2-TPR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The activity of Fe-Mo and Co-Mo catalysts was compared in a ifxed bed reactor at different temperatures. It is shown that the Co-Mo catalyst has higher CO2 conversion at all temperature level. The time-on-stream (TOS) analysis of the activity of catalysts for the RWGS reaction was carried out over a continuous period of 60 h for both catalysts. The Fe-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst exhibits good stability within a period of 60 h, however, the Co-Mo/Al2O3 is gradually deactivated after 50 h of reaction time. Existence of Fe2(MoO4)3 phase in Fe-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst makes this catalyst more stable for RWGS reaction.

  6. Production of Renewable Hydrogen from Glycerol Steam Reforming over Bimetallic Ni-(Cu,Co,Cr Catalysts Supported on SBA-15 Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Carrero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol steam reforming (GSR is a promising alternative to obtain renewable hydrogen and help the economics of the biodiesel industry. Nickel-based catalysts are typically used in reforming reactions. However, the choice of the catalyst greatly influences the process, so the development of bimetallic catalysts is a research topic of relevant interest. In this work, the effect of adding Cu, Co, and Cr to the formulation of Ni/SBA-15 catalysts for hydrogen production by GSR has been studied, looking for an enhancement of its catalytic performance. Bimetallic Ni-M/SBA-15 (M: Co, Cu, Cr samples were prepared by incipient wetness co-impregnation to reach 15 wt % of Ni and 4 wt % of the second metal. Catalysts were characterized by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES, N2-physisorption, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, hydrogen temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA, and tested in GSR at 600 °C and atmospheric pressure. The addition of Cu, Co, and Cr to the Ni/SBA-15 catalyst helped to form smaller crystallites of the Ni phase, this effect being more pronounced in the case of the Ni-Cr/SBA-15 sample. This catalyst also showed a reduction profile shifted towards higher temperatures, indicating stronger metal-support interaction. As a consequence, the Ni-Cr/SBA-15 catalyst exhibited the best performance in GSR in terms of glycerol conversion and hydrogen production. Additionally, Ni-Cr/SBA-15 achieved a drastic reduction in coke formation compared to the Ni/SBA-15 material.

  7. Magnetic properties of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/carbon nanofibers from Venezuelan petcoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briceño, Sarah, E-mail: sbriceno@ivic.gob.ve [Laboratorio de Física de la Materia Condensada, Centro de Física, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas IVIC, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Silva, Pedro; Molina, Wilmer; Brämer-Escamilla, Werner; Alcalá, Olgi [Laboratorio de Física de la Materia Condensada, Centro de Física, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas IVIC, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Cañizales, Edgard [Área de Análisis Químico Inorgánico, PDVSA, INTEVEP, Los Teques 1070-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/carbon nanofibers (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/CNFs) have been successfully synthesized by hydrotermal method using Venezuelan petroleum coke (petcoke) as carbon source and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} as catalyst. The morphology, structural and magnetic properties of nanocomposite products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). XRD analysis revealed a cubic spinel structure and ferrite phase with high crystallinity. HR-TEM reveals the presence of CNFs with diameters of 4±2 nm. At room temperature, NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/CNFs show superparamagnetic behavior with a maximum magnetization of 15.35 emu/g. Our findings indicate that Venezuelan petroleum coke is suitable industrial carbon source for the growth of magnetic CNFs. - Highlights: • NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/CNFs have been synthesized by hydrothermal method using petroleum coke. • Nickel ferrite nanoparticles were used as the catalyst. • HR-TEM reveals the presence of CNFs with diameters of 4±2 nm. • The size of the nanoparticles defines the diameter of the CNFs.

  8. XPS study of Cu-Ni bimetallic catalyst%Cu-Ni双金属催化剂的XPS研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    采用XPS方法研究了以不同方式引入Ni的Cu-Ni/Al2O3双金 属催化剂的表面结构及不同处理条件对催化剂表面结构的影响。发现催化剂表面存在表面铝 酸盐物种,且Ni的存在会促进表面铝酸盐物种的生成。催化剂经H2还原处理或经CO2加 氢反应后均要发生表面重构。Ni的存在会影响表面重构过程从而影响催化剂的活性和选择性 ,在所研究的含Ni催化剂上,CO2加氢反应经历了生成双齿表面吸附中间物的过程。%The surface structure of Cu-Ni bimetallic catalysts and its variation with diff erent treatment conditions were studied by XPS techique.The effect of the chemi cal state of Ni before the impregnation of Cu in catalyst preparation on the sur f ace structure and its variation were also investigated.It is found that Cu atom approaches the surface of Al2O3 when it is supported.Surface aluminates a re formed on the surface of the catalysts and the presence of Ni favorites the f ormation of surface aluminates.The surface content of Cu is increased when Ni e x isted in reduced form before the introduction of Cu,while the opposite is true w hen Ni existed in oxidized form before introduction of Cu.Surface reconstructio n is observed when the samples studied are reduced in H2 or treated under CO 2 hydrogenation condition.The hydrogenation of CO2 enriches the surface c ontenrt of Cu species comparing to reduction.After CO2 hydrogenation treat ment,Cu species is observed to migrate to the surface of the catalyst in the abs ence of Ni,while in the presence of Ni surface is remarkably decreased.Bidentat e CO2 adsorptive species with the two O of CO2 cooordinated to metal atom s is a possible intermediate in the hydrogenation of CO2 over Ni containing c atalyst studied.

  9. Carbon-supported bimetallic Pd–Fe catalysts for vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Junming; Karim, Ayman M.; Zhang, He; Kovarik, Libor; Li, Xiaohong Shari; Hensley, Alyssa J.; McEwen, Jean-Sabin; Wang, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Abstract Carbon supported metal catalysts (Cu/C, Fe/C, Pd/C, Pt/C, PdFe/C and Ru/C) have been prepared, characterized and tested for vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of guaiacol (GUA) at atmospheric pressure. Phenol was the major intermediate on all catalysts. Over the noble metal catalysts saturation of the aromatic ring was the major pathway observed at low temperature (250 °C), forming predominantly cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol. Substantial ring opening reaction was observed on Pt/C and Ru/C at higher reaction temperatures (e.g., 350 °C). Base metal catalysts, especially Fe/C, were found to exhibit high HDO activity without ring-saturation or ring-opening with the main products being benzene, phenol along with small amounts of cresol, toluene and trimethylbenzene (TMB). A substantial enhancement in HDO activity was observed on the PdFe/C catalysts. Compared with Fe/C, the yield to oxygen-free aromatic products (i.e., benzene/toluene/TMB) on PdFe/C increased by a factor of four at 350 °C, and by approximately a factor of two (83.2% versus 43.3%) at 450 °C. The enhanced activity of PdFe/C is attributed to the formation of PdFe alloy as evidenced by STEM, EDS and TPR.

  10. High-pressure vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation of lignin-derived oxygenates to hydrocarbons by a PtMo bimetallic catalyst: Product selectivity, reaction pathway, and structural characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yohe, Sara L.; Choudhari, Harshavardhan J.; Mehta, Dhairya D.; Dietrich, Paul J.; Detwiler, Michael D.; Akatay, Cem M.; Stach, Eric A.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Delgass, W. Nicholas; Agrawal, Rakesh; Ribeiro, Fabio H.

    2016-12-01

    High-pressure, vapor-phase, hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reactions of dihydroeugenol (2-methoxy-4-propylphenol), as well as other phenolic, lignin-derived compounds, were investigated over a bimetallic platinum and molybdenum catalyst supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (5%Pt2.5%Mo/MWCNT). Hydrocarbons were obtained in 100% yield from dihydroeugenol, including 98% yield of the hydrocarbon propylcyclohexane. The final hydrocarbon distribution was shown to be a strong function of hydrogen partial pressure. Kinetic analysis showed three main dihydroeugenol reaction pathways: HDO, hydrogenation, and alkylation. The major pathway occurred via Pt catalyzed hydrogenation of the aromatic ring and methoxy group cleavage to form 4-propylcyclohexanol, then Mo catalyzed removal of the hydroxyl group by dehydration to form propylcyclohexene, followed by hydrogenation of propylcyclohexene on either the Pt or Mo to form the propylcyclohexane. Transalkylation by the methoxy group occurred as a minor side reaction. Catalyst characterization techniques including chemisorption, scanning transmission electron microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were employed to characterize the catalyst structure. Catalyst components identified were Pt particles, bimetallic PtMo particles, a Mo carbide-like phase, and Mo oxide phases.

  11. How to Determine the Core-Shell Nature in Bimetallic Catalyst Particles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Westsson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanometer-sized materials have significantly different chemical and physical properties compared to bulk material. However, these properties do not only depend on the elemental composition but also on the structure, shape, size and arrangement. Hence, it is not only of great importance to develop synthesis routes that enable control over the final structure but also characterization strategies that verify the exact nature of the nanoparticles obtained. Here, we consider the verification of contemporary synthesis strategies for the preparation of bimetallic core-shell particles in particular in relation to potential particle structures, such as partial absence of core, alloying and raspberry-like surface. It is discussed what properties must be investigated in order to fully confirm a covering, pin-hole free shell and which characterization techniques can provide such information. Not uncommonly, characterization strategies of core-shell particles rely heavily on visual imaging like transmission electron microscopy. The strengths and weaknesses of various techniques based on scattering, diffraction, transmission and absorption for investigating core-shell particles are discussed and, in particular, cases where structural ambiguities still remain will be highlighted. Our main conclusion is that for particles with extremely thin or mono-layered shells—i.e., structures outside the limitation of most imaging techniques—other strategies, not involving spectroscopy or imaging, are to be employed. We will provide a specific example of Fe-Pt core-shell particles prepared in bicontinuous microemulsion and point out the difficulties that arise in the characterization process of such particles.

  12. Selective hydrogenation of acetylene on SiO{sub 2} supported Ni-In bimetallic catalysts: Promotional effect of In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yanjun; Chen, Jixiang, E-mail: jxchen@tju.edu.cn

    2016-11-30

    Graphical abstract: A suitable Ni/In ratio remarkably enhanced the acetylene conversion, the selectivity to ethylene and the catalyst stability. Display Omitted - Highlights: • There was a promotional effect of In on the performance of Ni/SiO{sub 2}. • A suitable Ni/In ratio was required for good performance of Ni{sub x}In/SiO{sub 2}. • Both geometrical and electronic effects of In contributed to good performance. • Ni/SiO{sub 2} deactivation is mainly owing to phase change from Ni to nickel carbide. • The carbonaceous deposit was the main reason for Ni{sub x}In/SiO{sub 2} deactivation. - Abstract: Ni/SiO{sub 2} and the bimetallic Ni{sub x}In/SiO{sub 2} catalysts with different Ni/In ratios were tested for the selective hydrogenation of acetylene, and their physicochemical properties before and after the reaction were characterized by means of N{sub 2}-sorption, H{sub 2}-TPR, XRD, TEM, XPS, H{sub 2} chemisorption, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}-TPD, NH{sub 3}-TPD, FT-IR of adsorbed pyridine, and TG/DTA and Raman. A promotional effect of In on the performance of Ni/SiO{sub 2} was found, and Ni{sub x}In/SiO{sub 2} with a suitable Ni/In ratio gave much higher acetylene conversion, ethylene selectivity and catalyst stability than Ni/SiO{sub 2}. This is ascribed to the geometrical isolation of the reactive Ni atoms with the inert In ones and the charge transfer from the In atoms to Ni ones, both of which are favorable for reducing the adsorption strength of ethylene and restraining the C−C hydrogenolysis and the polymerizations of acetylene and the intermediate compounds. On the whole, Ni{sub 6}In/SiO{sub 2} and Ni{sub 10}In/SiO{sub 2} had better performance. Nevertheless, with increasing the In content, the selectivity to the C4+ hydrocarbons tended to increase due to the enhanced catalyst acidity because of the charge transfer from the In atoms to Ni ones. As the Lewis acid ones, the In sites could promote the polymerization. The catalyst deactivation was also analyzed

  13. Mono- and Bimetallic Ruthenium—Arene Catalysts for Olefin Metathesis: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borguet, Yannick; Sauvage, Xavier; Demonceau, Albert; Delaude, Lionel

    In this chapter, we summarize the main achievements of our group toward the development of easily accessible, highly efficient ruthenium—arene catalyst precursors for olefin metathesis. Major advances in this field are presented chronologically, with an emphasis on catalyst design and mechanistic details. The first part of this survey focuses on monometallic complexes with the general formula RuCl2(p-cymene)(L), where L is a phosphine or N-heterocyclic carbene ancillary ligand. In the second part, we disclose recent developments in the synthesis and catalytic applications of homobimetallic ruthenium—arene complexes of generic formula (p-cymene)Ru(μ-Cl)3RuCl(η2-C2H4)(L) and their derivatives resulting from the substitution of the labile ethylene moiety with vinylidene, allenylidene, or indenylidene units

  14. Temperature dependence of electrocatalytic and photocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction rates using NiFe oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Nurlaela, Ela

    2016-01-25

    The present work compares oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in electrocatalysis and photocatalysis in aqueous solutions using nanostructured NiFeOx as catalysts. The impacts of pH and reaction temperature on the electrocatalytic and photocatalytic OER kinetics were investigated. For electrocatalysis, a NiFeOx catalyst was hydrothermally decorated on Ni foam. In 1 M KOH solution, the NiFeOx electrocatalyst achieved 10 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 260 mV. The same catalyst was decorated on the surface of Ta3N5 photocatalyst powder. The reaction was conducted in the presence of 0.1 M Na2S2O8 as a strong electron scavenger, thus likely leading to the OER being kinetically relevant. When compared with the bare Ta3N5, NiFeOx/Ta3N5 demonstrated a 5-fold improvement in photocatalytic activity in the OER under visible light irradiation, achieving a quantum efficiency of 24 % at 480 nm. Under the conditions investigated, a strong correlation between the electrocatalytic and photocatalytic performances was identified: an improvement in electrocatalysis corresponded with an improvement in photocatalysis without altering the identity of the materials. The rate change at different pH was likely associated with electrocatalytic kinetics that accordingly influenced the photocatalytic rates. The sensitivity of the reaction rates with respective to the reaction temperature resulted in an apparent activation energy of 25 kJ mol-1 in electrocatalysis, whereas that in photocatalysis was 16 kJ mol-1. The origin of the difference in these activation energy values is likely attributed to the possible effects of temperature on the individual thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of the reaction process. The work described herein demonstrates a method of “transferring the knowledge of electrocatalysis to photocatalysis” as a strong tool to rationally and quantitatively understand the complex reaction schemes involved in photocatalytic reactions.

  15. Enhanced dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol by recoverable Ni/Fe-Fe3O4 nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cancan; Liu, Rui; Chen, Lvjun; Tang, Jialu

    2016-10-01

    Ni/Fe-Fe3O4 nanocomposites were synthesized for dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). The effects of the Ni content in Ni/Fe-Fe3O4 nanocomposites, solution pH, and common dissolved ions on the dechlorination efficiency were investigated, in addition to the reusability of the nanocomposites. The results showed that increasing content of Ni in Ni/Fe-Fe3O4 nanocomposites, from 1 to 5wt.%, greatly increased the dechlorination efficiency; the Ni/Fe-Fe3O4 nanocomposites had much higher dechlorination efficiency than bare Ni/Fe nanoparticles. Ni content of 5wt.% and initial pH below 6.0 was found to be the optimal conditions for the catalytic dechlorination of 2,4-DCP. Both 2,4-DCP and the intermediate product 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) were completely removed, and the concentration of the final product phenol was close to the theoretical phenol production from complete dechlorination of 20mg/L of 2,4-DCP, after 3hr reaction at initial pH value of 6.0, 3g/L Ni/Fe-Fe3O4, 5wt.% Ni content in the composite, and temperature of 22°C. 2,4-DCP dechlorination was enhanced by Cl(-) and inhibited by NO3(-) and SO4(2-). The nanocomposites were easily separated from the solution by an applied magnetic field. When the catalyst was reused, the removal efficiency of 2,4-DCP was almost 100% for the first seven uses, and gradually decreased to 75% in cycles 8-10. Therefore, the Ni/Fe-Fe3O4 nanocomposites can be considered as a potentially effective tool for remediation of pollution by 2,4-DCP.

  16. Synthesis of nanostructured lean-NO x catalysts by direct laser deposition of monometallic Pt-, Rh- and bimetallic PtRh-nanoparticles on SiO2 support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastenko, N.; Volpp, H.-R.; Gerlach, O.; Strehlau, W.

    2008-02-01

    Monometallic Pt and Rh and bimetallic PtRh catalysts with a highly dispersed noble metal weight loading of ca. 1 wt% were produced via the direct deposition of nanoparticles on different SiO2 supports by means of pulsed ultra-violet (248 nm) excimer laser ablation of Pt, Rh bulk metal and PtRh alloy targets. Backscattered electron microscopy (BSE), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to characterize the deposited nanoparticles, which were found to exhibit narrow size distribution centred around 2.5 nm. The catalytic activities for lean NO x reduction of the monometallic and bimetallic catalyst samples were investigated in a flow reactor setup in the temperature range 100-400°C using a test gas mixture representative of oxygen rich diesel engine exhaust gas. For comparison a Rh/SiO2 reference catalyst prepared by a conventional impregnation method was also tested. Further experiments were performed in which PtRh nanoparticles were deposited on a Rh/SiO2 reference catalyst sample to study the possibility for controlled modification of its activity. The catalytic activity measurements revealed that among the samples solely prepared by laser deposition the PtRh-SiO2 nanoparticle catalyst showed the highest activity for NO x reduction at low temperatures 100-300°C. In addition, it could be demonstrated that the initially low NO x reduction activity and the N2 selectivity of the Rh/SiO2 reference catalyst sample for temperatures below 250°C can be enhanced by post laser deposition of PtRh nanoparticles.

  17. Synthesis and Electrochemical Evaluation of Carbon Supported Pt-Co Bimetallic Catalysts Prepared by Electroless Deposition and Modified Charge Enhanced Dry Impregnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Meynard M. Tengco

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-supported bimetallic Pt-Co cathode catalysts have been previously identified as higher activity alternatives to conventional Pt/C catalysts for fuel cells. In this work, a series of Pt-Co/C catalysts were synthesized using electroless deposition (ED of Pt on a Co/C catalyst prepared by modified charge enhanced dry impregnation. X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM characterization of the base catalyst showed highly dispersed particles. A basic ED bath containing PtCl62− as the Pt precursor, dimethylamine borane as reducing agent, and ethylenediamine as stabilizing agent successfully targeted deposition of Pt on Co particles. Simultaneous action of galvanic displacement and ED resulted in Pt-Co alloy formation observed in XRD and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (XEDS mapping. In addition, fast deposition kinetics resulted in hollow shell Pt-Co alloy particles while particles with Pt-rich shell and Co-rich cores formed with controlled Pt deposition. Electrochemical evaluation of the Pt-Co/C catalysts showed lower active surface but much higher mass and surface activities for oxygen reduction reaction compared to a commercial Pt/C fuel cell catalyst.

  18. Preparation of highly dispersed Ru-Sn bimetallic supported catalysts from the single source precursors Cp(PPh32Ru-SnX3 (X = Cl or Br

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Bernardes Silva

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work highly dispersed Ru-Sn bimetallic catalysts have been prepared from organobimetallic Cp(PPh32Ru-SnX3 (X = Cl or Br complexes. These single source precursors can be easily impregnated in high surface area supports, such as activated carbon and sol-gel SiO2, and upon controlled thermal treatment the ligands are released as volatile products resulting in the formation of the bimetallic system Ru-Sn. Catalytic reactions, such as hydrodechlorination of CCl4 and chlorobenzene and TPR (Temperature Programmed Reduction experiments carried out with these RuSn catalysts suggested a strong interaction between Ruthenium and Tin. Mössbauer measurements showed that these materials when exposed to air are immediately oxidized to form Sn (IV. It was shown that upon controlled reduction conditions with H2 it is possible to reduce selectively Sn to different oxidation states and different phases. The Sn oxidation state showed significant effect on the catalytic hydrogenation of 1,5-cyclooctadiene. The use of these single source precursors with a controlled decomposition/reduction procedure allows the preparation of unique catalysts with an intimate interaction between the components ruthenium and tin and the possibility of varying the Sn oxidation state around the Ru metal.

  19. From First Principles Design to Realization of Bimetallic Catalysts for Enhanced Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Raul F.; Crooks, Richard M.; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2014-04-08

    “Catalysis by design” has been a dream for decades. To specify the composition and structure of matter to effect a desired catalytic transformation with desired and predicted rate and selectivity remains a monumental challenge, especially in heterogeneous catalysis. Our research thrusts have been chosen not only for their practical and scientific relevance, e.g. for more efficient and sustainable chemicals and fuels production, but also because they provide a foundation for developing and exploring broadly applicable principles and strategies for catalyst design.

  20. A Ni-Fe Layered Double Hydroxide-Carbon Nanotube Complex for Water Oxidation

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Ming; Wang, Hailiang; Liang, Yongye; Wu, Justin Zachary; Zhou, Jigang; Wang, Jian; Regier, Tom; Wei, Fei; Dai, Hongjie

    2013-01-01

    Highly active, durable and cost-effective electrocatalysts for water oxidation to evolve oxygen gas hold a key to a range of renewable energy solutions including water splitting and rechargeable metal-air batteries. Here, we report the synthesis of ultrathin nickel iron layered double hydroxide nanoplates on mildly oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Incorporation of Fe into the nickel hydroxide induced the formation of NiFe-layered double hydroxide. The nanoplates were covalently attached to a network of nanotubes, affording excellent electrical wiring to the nanoplates. The ultra-thin Ni-Fe layered double hydroxide nanoplates/carbon nanotube complex was found to exhibit unusually high electro-catalytic activity and stability for oxygen evolution and outperformed commercial precious metal Ir catalysts.

  1. Structure and function of [NiFe] hydrogenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Hideaki; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Higuchi, Yoshiki

    2016-11-01

    Hydrogenases catalyze the reversible conversion of molecular hydrogen to protons and electrons via a heterolytic splitting mechanism. The active sites of [NiFe] hydrogenases comprise a dinuclear Ni-Fe center carrying CO and CN(-) ligands. The catalytic activity of the standard (O2-sensitive) [NiFe] hydrogenases vanishes under aerobic conditions. The O2-tolerant [NiFe] hydrogenases can sustain H2 oxidation activity under atmospheric conditions. These hydrogenases have very similar active site structures that change the ligand sphere during the activation/catalytic process. An important structural difference between these hydrogenases has been found for the proximal iron-sulphur cluster located in the vicinity of the active site. This unprecedented [4Fe-3S]-6Cys cluster can supply two electrons, which lead to rapid recovery of the O2 inactivation, to the [NiFe] active site.

  2. Template-grown NiFe/Cu/NiFe nanowires for spin transfer devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piraux, L.; Renard, K.; Guillemet, R.;

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a new reliable method combining template synthesis and nanolithography-based contacting technique to elaborate current perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance spin valve nanowires, which are very promising for the exploration of electrical spin transfer phenomena....... The method allows the electrical connection of one single nanowire in a large assembly of wires embedded in anodic porous alumina supported on Si substrate with diameters and periodicities to be controllable to a large extent. Both magnetic excitations and switching phenomena driven by a spin......-polarized current were clearly demonstrated in our electrodeposited NiFe/Cu/ NiFe trilayer nanowires. This novel approach promises to be of strong interest for subsequent fabrication of phase-locked arrays of spin transfer nano-oscillators with increased output power for microwave applications. © 2007 American...

  3. Magnetoresistance Effect in NiFe/BP/NiFe Vertical Spin Valve Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D layered materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides are emerging candidates for spintronic applications. Here, we report magnetoresistance (MR properties of a black phosphorus (BP spin valve devices consisting of thin BP flakes contacted by NiFe ferromagnetic (FM electrodes. The spin valve effect has been observed from room temperature to 4 K, with MR magnitudes of 0.57% at 4 K and 0.23% at 300 K. In addition, the spin valve resistance is found to decrease monotonically as temperature is decreased, indicating that the BP thin film works as a conductive interlayer between the NiFe electrodes.

  4. Final Technical Report: Tandem and Bimetallic Catalysts for Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Light Hydrocarbon with Renewable Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Omar, Mahdi [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2017-01-06

    An estimated 490 million metric tons of lignocellulosic biomass is available annually from U.S. agriculture and forestry. With continuing concerns over greenhouse gas emission, the development of efficient catalytic processes for conversion of biomass derived compounds is an important area of research. Since carbohydrates and polyols are rich in oxygen, approximately one oxygen atom per carbon, removal of hydroxyl groups via deoxygenation is needed. The necessary hydrogen required for hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) would either come from reforming biomass itself or from steam reforming of natural gas. Both processes contribute to global CO2 emission. The hope is that eventually renewable sources such as wind and solar for hydrogen production will become more viable and economic in the future. In the meantime, unconventional natural gas production in North America has boomed. As a result, light hydrocarbons present an opportunity when coupled with biomass derived oxygenates to generate valuable products from both streams without co-production of carbon dioxide. This concept is the focus of our current funding period. The objective of the project requires coupling two different types of catalysis, HDO and dehydrogenation. Our hypothesis was formulated around our success in establishing oxorhenium catalysts for polyol HDO reactions and known literature precedence for the use of iridium hydrides in alkane dehydrogenation. To examine our hypothesis we set out to investigate the reaction chemistry of binuclear complexes of oxorhenium and iridium hydride.

  5. One-pot fabrication of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles on α-Ni(OH)2 nanosheet for enhanced water oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Yan, Junqing; Wu, Huan; Zhang, Yunxia; Liu, Shengzhong (Frank)

    2016-08-01

    Water splitting has been intensively investigated as a promising solution to resolve the future environmental and energy crises. The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) of the photo- and electric field-induced water splitting limits the development of other reactions, including hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Fe, Ni and NiFe (hydro) oxide-based catalysts are generally acknowledged among the best candidates of OER catalysts for water splitting. Herein, we developed a one-pot simple hydrothermal process to assemble NiFe2O4 nanoparticles onto the α-Ni(OH)2 nanosheets. The first formed NiFe2O4 under high temperature and pressure environment induces and assists the α-Ni(OH)2 formation without any further additives, because the distance between the neighboring Ni atoms in the cubic NiFe2O4 is similar to that in the α-Ni(OH)2 {003} facets. We have synthesized a series of NiFe2O4/α-Ni(OH)2 compounds and find that the overpotential decreases with the increase of Ni(OH)2 content while the OER kinetics stays unchanged, suggesting that Ni(OH)2 plays a major role in overpotential while NiFe2O4 mainly affects the OER kinetics. The obtained NiFe2O4/α-Ni(OH)2 compounds is also found to be a promising co-catalyst for the photocatalytic water oxidation. In fact, it is even more active than the noble PtOx with acceptable stability for the oxygen generation.

  6. Electrical resistivity of NiFe2O4 ceramic and NiFe2O4 based cermets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田忠良; 赖延清; 李劼; 张刚; 刘业翔

    2004-01-01

    NiFe2O4 ceramic and NiFe2O4 based cermets, expected to be used as the inert anodes in aluminum electrolysis, were prepared and their electrical resistivities were measured at different temperatures. The effects of temperature and composition on their electrical resistivities were investigated. The results indicate that the electrical resistivities of NiFe2O4 based cermets mainly depend on temperature, resistivity of ceramic matrix, composition and dispersion of the metal phase among ceramic matrix. The electrical resistivity of NiFe2O4 ceramic decreases from 10. 094 Ω · cm to 0. 475 Ω · em with increasing temperature from 573 K to 1 233 K. The electrical resistivities of NiFe2O4 based cermets are greatly lowered, but decrease with increasing the temperature with similar trend compared to that of NiFe2O4 ceramic. The resistivities of NiFe2O4 based cermets containing 5 % Ni, 5 % Cu and 5 % CuNi alloy are 0. 046 8, 0.066 8 and 0. 0532 Ω · cm at 1 233 K, respectively, which are all acceptable as inert anode materials compared to that of the current carbon anode used for aluminum electrolysis.

  7. Magnetic behaviour investigation on symmetric spin valves of Co/Cu/NiFe and NiFe/Cu/Co

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铁; 沈鸿烈

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we have obtained and investigated the magnetic behaviours of the ferromagnetic layer in thesymmetric spin valves of Co/Cu/NiFe and NiFe/Cu/Co by measuring with a vibrating sample magnetometer andanalysing in terms of the multi-domain Ising models. It has been found that some magnetic layer can have quitedifferent magnetic behaviours in different structures of spin valves, depending on the properties of the under-layer. Inour investigation, we have found that the magnetic behaviour of a Co layer depends mainly on the magnetization of theunder-layer, whereas this is not the case for the NiFe layer.

  8. Study on the Corrosion Resistance of Electroless Plating Ni-Fe-P and Ni-Fe-P-B Alloy Depsits%化学镀Ni-Fe-P和Ni-Fe-P-B合金的耐蚀性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳芝

    2002-01-01

    利用失重法和电化学测试法,对比研究以铝合金为基体化学镀Ni-Fe-P和Ni-Fe-P-B合金的耐蚀性.结果表明:这两种镀层浸泡在3.5%NaCl和10%NaOH溶液中均比浸泡在0.1mol/L H2SO4和1mol/L HCl中有更好的耐蚀性.另外,在3.5%NaCl和10%NaOH溶液中,Ni-Fe-P-B镀层合金比Ni-Fe-P有更好的耐蚀性;但是在0.1mol/L H2SO4和1mol/L HCl溶液中,Ni-Fe-P镀层合金却比Ni-Fe-P-B有更好的耐蚀性;

  9. 水热合成纳米NiFe2O4的光催化性能%Photocatalytic Properties of Nano-NiFe204 Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓华; 娄向东; 李新莉

    2011-01-01

    利用水热法在160℃下反应8 h后合成纳米NiFe2O4粉体.利用X射线衍射(XRD)、透射电镜(TEM)等对样品进行表征,测试了样品对B-GFF黑、K-GL翠蓝、B-RN蓝等活性染料的光催化性能,研究了光源、初始染料浓度、光照时间及催化剂的回收等对染料降解率的影响.结果表明,制备的NiFe2O4粉体为圆形晶粒,平均粒径在15 am左右.无光照条件下,NiFeO4对三种活性染料有一定的催化降解.氙灯照射6 h后,NiFe2O4对B-GFF黑、B-RN蓝及K-GL翠蓝分别可达到93%、85%及58%以上的降解.紫外灯照射效果最好,紫外光照2 h后,该催化剂对B-GFF黑及B-RN蓝基本可达到100%的降解,对K-GL翠蓝也可达到75%的降解.回收后的NiFe2O4催化剂对B-GFF黑溶液仍具有75%的降解率.%Nano-NiFe2O4 was prepared by hydrothermal method synthesized at 160 ℃ for 8 h. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The sample photocatalytic activity was studied by probing the degradation date of reactive dyes including Black B-GFF, Turquoise Blue K-GL and Blue B-RN. The effects of light source, initial dyes concentrations, illumination time and reclaimed catalyst on degradation rate of dyes were also investigated. The results show that the NiFe204 powem as-prepared were circled shape and the average grain size of the powders was about 15 nm. All the dyes could be partly degraded by NiFe2O4 without illumination. After irradiation 6 h with xenon lamp, the Black B-GFF, Blue B-RN and Turquoise Blue K-GL could be degraded to above 93%, 85% and 58%, respectively. While under the UV light irradiation, the NiFe2O4 catalyst have the highest photodegradation activity, the degradation rates of Black B-GFF and Blue B-RN may achieve nearly 100% after 2 h illumination, also, the degradation rate of Turquoise Blue K-GL could reach 75%. In addition, with reclaimed NiFe2O4 catalyst, the degradation rate of Black B-GFF was 75%.

  10. Modelling NiFe hydrogenases: nickel-based electrocatalysts for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canaguier, S.; Artero, V.; Fontecave, M. [CEA, DSV, iRTSV, Lab Chim Biol Metaux, CEA-CNRS-Univ Grenoble 1, UMR 5249, F-38054 Grenoble 9 (France)

    2008-07-01

    NiFe hydrogenases are unique enzymes that catalyze the H{sup +}/H{sub 2} interconversion with remarkable efficiency. The determination of the tridimensional structure of their active site (a sulfur-rich dinuclear nickel-iron cluster with diatomic cyanide and carbonyl ligands) has stimulated the synthesis of a variety of nickel-based complexes as potential electrocatalysts for hydrogen production. These catalysts may provide an adequate alternative to platinum. This paper gives an historical perspective of this biomimetic structural approach and then focusses on recently reported bio-inspired functional mimics displaying electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen production. (authors)

  11. Polymer Film Supported Bimetallic Au-Ag Catalysts for Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Ammonia Borane in Alkaline Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Şükriye Ulubay Karabiberoglu; ÇagrCeylan Koçak; Süleyman Kocak; Zekerya Dursun

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia borane is widely used in most areas including fuel cell applications. The present paper describes electrochemical behavior of ammonia borane in alkaline media on the poly(p-aminophenol) film modified with Au and Ag bimetallic nanoparticles. The glassy carbon electrode was firstly covered with polymeric film electrochemically and then, Au, Ag, and Au–Ag nanoparticles were deposited on the polymeric film, respectively. The surface morphology and chemical composition of these electrodes were examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that alloyed Au–Ag bimetallic nanoparticles are formed. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the developed electrode modified by Au–Ag bimetallic nanoparticles exhibit the highest electrocatalytic activity for ammonia borane oxidation in alkaline media. The rotating disk electrode voltammetry demonstrates that the developed electrode can catalyze almost six-electron oxidation pathway of ammonia borane. Our results may be attractive for anode materials of ammonia borane fuel cells under alkaline conditions.

  12. Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Free-Standing Sandwiched NiFe/C for High-Efficiency Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yangyang; Zhang, Huijuan; Zhang, Yan; Li, Xiao; Wang, Yu

    2015-05-06

    A NiFe-based compound is considered one of the most promising candidates for the highest oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalytic activities among all nonprecious metal-based electrocatalysts. In this report, a unique catalyst of free-standing sandwiched NiFe nanoparticles encapsulated by graphene sheets is first devised and fabricated. In this method, we use low-cost, sustainable, and environmentally friendly glucose as a carbon source, ultrathin Fe-doped Ni(OH)2 nanosheets as a precursor, and a sacrificial template. This special nanoarchitecture with a conductive network around active catalysts can accelerate electron transfer and prevent NiFe nanoparticles from aggregation and peeling off during long-time electrochemical reactions, thereby exhibiting an excellent OER activity and stability in basic solutions. In this work, our sandwiched catalyst presents well activities of a low onset of ∼1.44 V (vs RHE) and Tafel slope of ∼30 mV/decade in 1 M KOH at a scan rate of 5 mV/s.

  13. Comparison of P-containing {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported Ni-Mo bimetallic carbide, nitride and sulfide catalysts for HDN and HDS of gas oils derived from Athabasca bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaramurthy, V.; Dalai, A.K. [Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratories, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Adjaye, J. [Syncrude Edmonton Research Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-09-01

    Phosphorus containing {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported bimetallic Ni-Mo carbide, nitride and sulfide catalysts have been synthesized from an oxide precursor containing 12.73wt.% Mo, 2.54wt.% Ni and 2.38wt.% P and characterized by elemental analysis, pulsed CO chemisorption, surface area measurements, X-ray diffraction, temperature-programmed reduction and DRIFT spectroscopy of CO adsorption. DRIFT spectroscopy of adsorbed CO on activated catalysts showed that carbide and nitride catalysts have surface exposed sites of Mo{sup o+} (0bimetallic Ni-Mo carbide, nitride and sulfide catalysts were compared against commercial Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst in a trickle bed reactor using light gas oil and heavy gas oil derived from Athabasca bitumen in the temperature range 340-370 and 375-400{sup o}C respectively at 8.8MPa. The gradual transformation of Ni-Mo carbide and nitride phases into Ni-Mo sulfide phases was observed during precoking period, and the formed Ni-Mo sulfide phases enhanced the HDN and HDS activities of carbide and nitride catalysts. The {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported Ni-Mo bimetallic sulfide catalyst was found to be more active for HDN and HDS of light gas oil and heavy gas oil than the corresponding carbide and nitride catalysts on the basis of unit weight. (author)

  14. Wear mechanism of electrodeposited amorphous Ni-Fe-P alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高诚辉; 赵源

    2004-01-01

    The wear mechanism of amorphous Ni-Fe-P coating was discussed. The wear resistance of the amor phous Ni-Fe-P coatings was tested on a Timken wear apparatus, and the wear track of the amorphous Ni-Fe-P coat ings as-deposited and heated at various temperatures was observed by SEM. The results show that the wear resistthe coating will change with the heating temperature increasing from pitting+plowing at 200 ℃ to pitting at 400 ℃,and to plowing at 600 ℃. The pits on the worn surface of the amorphous Ni-Fe-P coating result from the tribo-fatigue fracture. The cracks of spalling initiate at pits and propagate at certain angle with the sliding direction on sur face, and then extend into sub-surface along the poor P layers or the interface between layers. Finally under repeated action of the stress in the rubbing process the cracks meet and the debris forms. The generation of the pits and spal-ling is related with the internal stress, brittleness and layer structure of the amorphous Ni-Fe-P coating.

  15. Catalysis on singly dispersed bimetallic sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiran; Nguyen, Luan; Liang, Jin-Xia; Shan, Junjun; Liu, Jingyue; Frenkel, Anatoly I.; Patlolla, Anitha; Huang, Weixin; Li, Jun; Tao, Franklin

    2015-08-01

    A catalytic site typically consists of one or more atoms of a catalyst surface that arrange into a configuration offering a specific electronic structure for adsorbing or dissociating reactant molecules. The catalytic activity of adjacent bimetallic sites of metallic nanoparticles has been studied previously. An isolated bimetallic site supported on a non-metallic surface could exhibit a distinctly different catalytic performance owing to the cationic state of the singly dispersed bimetallic site and the minimized choices of binding configurations of a reactant molecule compared with continuously packed bimetallic sites. Here we report that isolated Rh1Co3 bimetallic sites exhibit a distinctly different catalytic performance in reduction of nitric oxide with carbon monoxide at low temperature, resulting from strong adsorption of two nitric oxide molecules and a nitrous oxide intermediate on Rh1Co3 sites and following a low-barrier pathway dissociation to dinitrogen and an oxygen atom. This observation suggests a method to develop catalysts with high selectivity.

  16. Effect of Reaction Temperature in the Selective Synthesis of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWNT) on a Bimetallic CoCr-MCM-41 Catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoican Loebick, C.; Abanulo, D; Majewska, M; Haller, G; Pfefferle, L

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) on a CoCr-MCM-41 bimetallic catalyst by CO disproportionation has been carried out at five different temperatures between 500 and 900 C. A series of methods have been employed for a comprehensive assessment effect of temperature on the size-controllability of the catalyst particles and the morphology of the resultant SWNT. By extended fine structure X-ray absorption, thermogravimetric analysis, resonance Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence excitation (PLE) mapping and transmission electron microscopy we found an optimal synthesis temperature window between 600 and 800 C. In this window, modifying the reaction temperature leads to significant changes in the SWNT yield, diameter and chirality distribution. Decrease in reaction temperature favored the selective synthesis of very small diameter carbon nanotubes (as low as 0.6 nm). Chirality dependence of SWNT on temperature has been measured by PLE. A progressive suppression of larger diameter SWNT identities in the measured SWNT population was noted when reaction temperature decreased. In the measured PL maps, two near armchair structures (6,5) and (7,3) were dominant at 600 and 700 C.

  17. Insight on the Interaction of Methanol-Selective Oxidation Intermediates with Au- or/and Pd-Containing Monometallic and Bimetallic Core@Shell Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czelej, Kamil; Cwieka, Karol; Colmenares, Juan Carlos; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J

    2016-08-02

    Using density functional theory (DFT), the interaction of crucial molecules involved in the selective partial oxidation of methanol to methyl formate (MF) with monometallic Au and Pd and bimetallic Au/Pd and Pd/Au core@shell catalysts is systematically investigated. The core@shell structures modeled in this study consist of Au(111) and Pd(111) cores covered by a monolayer of Pd and Au, respectively. Our results indicate that the adsorption strength of the molecules examined as a function of catalytic surface decreases in the order of Au/Pd(111) > Pd(111) > Au(111) > Pd/Au(111) and correlates well with the d-band center model. The preadsorption of oxygen is found to have a positive impact on the selective partial oxidation reaction because of the stabilization of CH3OH and HCHO on the catalyst surface and the simultaneous intensification of MF desorption. On the basis of a dynamical matrix approach combined with statistical thermodynamics, we propose a simple route for evaluating the Gibbs free energy of adsorption as a function of temperature. This method allows us to anticipate the relative temperature stability of molecules involved in the selective partial oxidation of methanol to MF in terms of catalytic surface.

  18. Structural and functional models for [NiFe] hydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angamuthu, Raja

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of the research presented in this thesis is the synthesis of suitable structural and functional models for the enzyme [NiFe] hydrogenase, which can reduce protons into dihydrogen. A brief survey of the roles of all the known nickel containing enzymes in biological systems with a focus

  19. A Novelγ-Alumina Supported Fe-Mo Bimetallic Catalyst for Reverse Water Gas Shift Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abolfazl Gharibi Kharaji; Ahmad Shariati; Mohammad Ali Takassi

    2013-01-01

    In reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction CO2 is converted to CO which in turn can be used to pro-duce beneficial chemicals such as methanol. In the present study, Mo/Al2O3, Fe/Al2O3 and Fe-Mo/Al2O3 catalysts were synthesised using impregnation method. The structures of catalysts were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), CO chemisorption, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Kinetic properties of all catalysts were investigated in a batch re-actor for RWGS reaction. The results indicated that Mo existence in structure of Fe-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst enhances its activity as compared to Fe/Al2O3. This enhancement is probably due to better Fe dispersion and smaller particle size of Fe species. Stability test of Fe-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst was carried out in a fixed bed reactor and a high CO yield for 60 h of time on stream was demonstrated. Fe2(MoO4)3 phase was found in the structures of fresh and used catalysts. TPR results also indicate that Fe2(MoO4)3 phase has low reducibility, therefore the Fe2(MoO4)3 phase significantly inhibits the reduction of the remaining Fe oxides in the catalyst, resulted in high stability of Fe-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst. Overall, this study introduces Fe-Mo/Al2O3 as a novel catalyst with high CO yield, almost no by-products and fairly stable for RWGS reaction.

  20. Effect of promoter and noble metals and suspension pH on catalytic nitrate reduction by bimetallic nanoscale Fe(0) catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sungjun; Hamid, Shanawar; Jung, Junyoung; Sihn, Youngho; Lee, Woojin

    2016-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of experimental factors (types of promotor and noble metals, H2 injection, and suspension pH) on catalytic nitrate reduction by bimetallic catalysts supported by nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI). NZVI without H2 injection showed 71% of nitrate reduction in 1 h. Cu/NZVI showed the almost complete nitrate reduction (96%) in 1 h, while 67% of nitrate was reduced by Ni/NZVI. The presence of noble metals (Pd and Pt) on Cu/NZVI without H2 injection resulted in the decrease of removal efficiency to 89% and 84%, respectively, due probably to the electron loss of NZVI for formation of metallic Pd and Pt. H2 injection into Cu-Pd/NZVI suspension significantly improved both catalytic nitrate reduction (>97% in 30 min) and N2 selectivity (18%), indicating that adsorbed H on active Pd sites played an important role for the enhanced nitrate reduction and N2 selectivity. The rapid passivation of NZVI surface resulted in a dramatic decrease in nitrate reduction (79-28%) with an increase in N2 selectivity (8-66%) as the suspension pH increased from 8 to 10.

  1. Bimetallic NiCo functional graphene: an efficient catalyst for hydrogen-storage properties of MgH₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Guang; An, Cuihua; Li, Li; Qiu, Fangyuan; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2014-09-01

    Bimetallic NiCo functional graphene (NiCo/rGO) was synthesized by a facile one-pot method. During the coreduction process, the as-synthesized ultrafine NiCo nanoparticles (NPs), with a typical size of 4-6 nm, were uniformly anchored onto the surface of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The NiCo bimetal-supported graphene was found to be more efficient than their single metals. Synergetic catalysis of NiCo NPs and rGO was confirmed, which can significantly improve the hydrogen-storage properties of MgH2. The apparent activation energy (E(a)) of the MgH2-NiCo/rGO sample decreases to 105 kJ mol(-1), which is 40.7% lower than that of pure MgH2. More importantly, the as-prepared MgH2-NiCo/rGO sample can absorb 5.5 and 6.1 wt% hydrogen within 100 and 350 s, respectively, at 300 °C under 0.9 MPa H2 pressure. Further cyclic kinetics investigation indicates that MgH2-NiCo/rGO nanocomposites have excellent cycle stability.

  2. Chirality specific and spatially uniform synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes from a sputtered Co-W bimetallic catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hua; Kumamoto, Akihito; Takezaki, Hiroki; Ohyama, Shinnosuke; Qian, Yang; Inoue, Taiki; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Chiashi, Shohei; Xiang, Rong; Maruyama, Shigeo

    2016-07-01

    Synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with well-defined atomic arrangements has been widely recognized in the past few decades as the biggest challenge in the SWNT community, and has become a bottleneck for the application of SWNTs in nano-electronics. Here, we report a selective synthesis of (12, 6) SWNTs with an enrichment of 50%-70% by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using sputtered Co-W as a catalyst. This is achieved under much milder reduction and growth conditions than those in the previous report using transition-metal molecule clusters as catalyst precursors (Nature, 2014, 510, 522). Meanwhile, in-plane transmission electron microscopy unambiguously identified an intermediate structure of Co6W6C, which is strongly associated with selective growth. However, most of the W atoms disappear after a 5 min CVD growth, which implies that anchoring W may be important in this puzzling Co-W system.Synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with well-defined atomic arrangements has been widely recognized in the past few decades as the biggest challenge in the SWNT community, and has become a bottleneck for the application of SWNTs in nano-electronics. Here, we report a selective synthesis of (12, 6) SWNTs with an enrichment of 50%-70% by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using sputtered Co-W as a catalyst. This is achieved under much milder reduction and growth conditions than those in the previous report using transition-metal molecule clusters as catalyst precursors (Nature, 2014, 510, 522). Meanwhile, in-plane transmission electron microscopy unambiguously identified an intermediate structure of Co6W6C, which is strongly associated with selective growth. However, most of the W atoms disappear after a 5 min CVD growth, which implies that anchoring W may be important in this puzzling Co-W system. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Raman spectroscopy (G-band) of SWNTs grown from Co and Co-W catalyst; Kataura plot for chirality

  3. [NiFe] dithiolene diphosphine complex for hydrogen gas activation: a Theoretic Insight

    CERN Document Server

    GuYan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A diphosphino-nickel-iron dithiolene complex, [Ni(bdt)(dppf)] (bdt = 1,2-benzenedithiolate, dppf = 1,1-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene), has been recently found to be reasonably active on proton reduction to dihydrogen (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 1109). Interestingly, this exceptional complex was found to be also reactive towards dihydrogen activation as indicated by the electrochemical investigation. However, a pure nickel dithiolene diphosphine theoretical mode, excluding the contributions from iron moiety, was applied to attribute the experimental catalytic observation. We have re-visited the theoretical approach in details for this [NiFe] catalyst and compared it with the non-active nickel dithiolene diphosphine complexes. We found that both nickel and iron moieties in this newly developed complex were imperative for the observed catalytic per-formance, particularly towards the activation of dihydrogen.

  4. Magneto-thermoelectric effects in NiFe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Maximilian

    2015-11-01

    In this thesis magneto-thermoelectric effects are investigated in a systematic way to separate the transverse spin Seebeck effect from other parasitic effects like the anomalous Nernst effect. In contrast to the first studies found in the literature, in NiFe thin films a contribution of the transverse spin Seebeck effect can be excluded. This surprising outcome was crosschecked in a variety of different sample layouts and collaborations with other universities to ensure the validity of these results. In general, this thesis solves a long time discussion about the existence of the transverse spin Seebeck effect in NiFe films and supports the importance of control measurements for the scientific community. Even if such ''negative'' results may not be the award winning ones, new discoveries should be treated with constructive criticism and be checked carefully by the scientific community.

  5. FTIR study of CO adsorption on Rh/MgO modified with Co, Ni, Fe, or CeO2 for the catalytic partial oxidation of methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dalin; Sakai, Shigemasa; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2012-07-07

    The surface state of Rh/MgO catalysts modified with Co, Ni, Fe, or CeO(2) after the reduction and partial oxidation pretreatments as well as during the catalytic partial oxidation of methane has been investigated by FTIR of adsorbed CO. The results of CO adsorption on the reduced catalysts suggest the formation of Rh-M alloy on Rh-M/MgO (M = Co, Ni, Fe) and Rh particles partially covered with reduced ceria on Rh-CeO(2)/MgO. The strength of CO adsorption on Rh/MgO is weakened by the modification with Co, Ni, Fe, or CeO(2). Partial oxidation pretreatment of Rh/MgO leads to a significant decrease in the CO adsorption due to the oxidation of Rh. In contrast, on partially oxidized Rh-M/MgO (M = Co, Ni, Fe) and Rh-CeO(2)/MgO, the preferential oxidation of the surface M atoms or reduced ceria maintains the metallic Rh and preserves the CO adsorbed on the surface Rh atoms. The CO adsorption during the reaction of catalytic partial oxidation of methane on Rh/MgO and Rh-Ni/MgO is similar to that on the reduced catalysts. On the other hand, the CO adsorption during the reaction on Rh-Co/MgO, Rh-Fe/MgO, and Rh-CeO(2)/MgO is different from that on the reduced catalysts, and this is related to the structural change of these catalysts during the reaction.

  6. Synthesis and consolidation of γ-Ni-Fe nanoalloy powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. S.; Nam, J. G.; Knorr, P.

    1999-04-01

    The present work studies the synthesis and consolidation of γ-Ni-Fe nanoalloy powder by the mechano-chemical process comprising high-energy ball-milling of NiO-Fe2O3 powder and a subsequent hydrogen reduction process. To examine the formation mechanism of the nanoalloy powder, the effect of the oxide powder char-acteristics on the reduction process and alloying was investigated by varying the ball-milling time. The reduction process and the alloying of the γ-Ni-Fe phase proved to accelerate as the ball-milling time increased. However, prolonged milling (for 30 hours) retarded the reduction of Fe2O3 as well as the alloying process. The densification process of the Ni-Fe nanoalloy powder strongly depended on the degree of agglomeration which results in enhancing homogeneous sintering. The limited densification of the nanoalloy powder originates from the high degree of particle agglomeration. While intra-agglomerate porosity is easily eliminated in the course of sintering, it is found to resist densification. The limitation of the sintered density could be overcome by increasing the green density of the powder compacts. Full density was achieved by starting with a green density of 72% theoretical density.

  7. Magnetization dynamics in rare earth doped NiFe films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiessling, Matthias; Woltersdorf, Georg; Back, Christian [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, D- 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Thiele, Jan-Ulrich; Schabes, Manfred [Hitachi Global Storage Technologies, 3403 Yerba Buena Road, San Jose, CA 95135 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The influence of rare earth dopants on the damping parameter and the resulting possibility to control this parameter were investigated. In our experiments NiFe films were doped with Dysprosium, Holmium, Terbium, and Gadolinium. The magnetization dynamics of these rare earth doped films was mainly studied by means of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and network-analyzer ferromagnetic resonance. It is demonstrated that the doping of a NiFe film by a small amount of rare earth elements (Holmium, Terbium and Dysprosium) greatly effects its magnetic relaxation rate. This additional damping is proportional to the doping level. Compared to the pure NiFe film it is possible to increase the damping parameter of the magnetic film by two orders of magnitude. On the other hand Gadolinium as a dopant has no influence on the damping parameter. For small dopant concentrations the in and out-of-plane FMR measurements at various frequencies can be well described by the same damping parameter. This is expected for the Gilbert damping term in the equation of motion. Therefore the increased damping can be attributed to an increased rate of transfer of angular momentum from the spin system to the lattice.

  8. The effects of cerium doping concentration on the properties and photocatalytic activity of bimetallic Mo/Ce catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaedini, Ghazaleh; Tasirin, Siti Masrinda; Aminayi, Payam

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the characterization and photocatalytic activity of MoO3 nanoparticles doped with various doping concentrations of cerium have been investigated. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of the prepared catalysts confirmed that MoO3 particles have been successfully doped by cerium. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was performed to visualize the surface morphology of the obtained catalysts. The XRD patterns suggested that the crystallinity of the sample with the lowest doping concentration of 15 mol % was higher in comparison with samples of higher doping concentrations. The volume-averaged crystal sizes of the obtained catalysts were calculated to be 25, 28, and 32 nm for 15, 35, and 60 mol % samples, respectively. The photocatalytic activity along with the reaction kinetics of Ce-doped MoO3 nanoparticles have also been investigated through the dye degradation of methyl orange. The synthesized Ce-doped MoO3 particles with the lowest dopant concentration of 15 mol % exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for methyl orange dye degradation. It was observed that photo-degradation activity decreased with an increase in the doping concentration of cerium. The predicted rate constants for samples with 15, 35, and 60 mol % doping concentrations were found to be 0.0432, 0.035, and 0.029 min-1, respectively.

  9. Science Letters: Structure relationship of nitrochlorobenzene catalytic degradation process in water over palladium-iron bimetallic catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Shao-feng; ZHOU Hong-yi; AO Xu-ping; XU Xin-hua; LOU Zhang-hua

    2006-01-01

    Two isomers of nitrochlorobenzene (o-, and p-NCB) were treated by a Pd/Fe catalyst in aqueous solutions through catalytic amination and dechlorination. Nitrochlorobenzenes are rapidly converted to form chloroanilines (CAN) first through an amination process, and then rapidly dechlorinated to become aniline (AN) and Cl-, without the involvement of any other intermediate reaction products. The amination and dechlorination reaction are believed to take place predominantly on the surface site of the Pd/Fe catalysts. The dechlorination rate of the reductive degradation of the two isomers of nitrochlorobenzene (o-, and p-NCB) in the presence of Pd/Fe as a catalyst was measured experimentally. In all cases, the reaction rate constants were found to increase with the decrease in the Gibbs free energy (correlation with the activation energy) of NCBs formation; the activation energy of each dechlorination reaction was measured to be 95.83 and 77.05 kJ/mol, respectively for o- and p-NCB. The results demonstrated that p-NCBs were reduced more easily than o-NCBs.

  10. Catalyst for Ammonia Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation, a method for producing a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation and a method for tuning the catalytic activity of a transition metal. By depositing an overlayer of less catalytic active metal onto a more catalytic...

  11. Interface-assisted magnetoresistance behavior for ultrathin NiFe films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Shao-Long; Chen, Xi; Yang, Kang [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Han, Gang [Institute for Advanced Materials and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Teng, Jiao; Li, Xu-Jing; Yang, Guang; Liu, Qian-Qian; Liu, Yi-Wei [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Ding, Lei [School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China); Yu, Guang-Hua, E-mail: ghyu@mater.ustb.edu.cn [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-11-01

    Interface-assisted magnetoresistance (MR) behavior has been studied in Ta/MgO/NiFe/MgO/Ta multilayers by inserting a Mg metal layer between the NiFe layer and the top MgO layer. It is shown that MR ratio is about 31% larger than that in the films without Mg insertion. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscope analyses show that the enhanced MR is primarily ascribed to effective control of chemical states at the NiFe/MgO interface and crystallization of the top MgO layer. - Highlights: • We studied magnetic and electric transport properties of ultrathin NiFe films. • Interface chemical states have strong influence on MR in NiFe films. • Crystallization of the top MgO layer has influence on MR in NiFe films.

  12. Kinetics on NiZn Bimetallic Catalysts for Hydrogen Evolution via Selective Dehydrogenation of Methylcyclohexane to Toluene

    KAUST Repository

    Shaikh Ali, Anaam

    2017-01-18

    Liquid organic chemical hydrides are effective hydrogen storage media for easy and safe transport. The chemical couple of methylcyclohexane (MCH) and toluene (TOL) has been considered one of the feasible cycles for a hydrogen carrier, but the selective dehydrogenation of MCH to TOL has been reported using only Pt-based noble metal catalysts. This study reports MCH dehydrogenation to TOL using supported NiZn as a selective, non-noble-metal catalyst. A combined experimental and computational study was conducted to provide insight into the site requirements and reaction mechanism for MCH dehydrogenation to TOL, which were compared with those for cyclohexane (CH) dehydrogenation to benzene (BZ). The kinetic measurements carried out at 300-360°C showed an almost zero order with respect to MCH pressure in the high-pressure region (≥10 kPa) and nearly a positive half order with respective to H pressure (≤40 kPa). These kinetic data for the dehydrogenation reaction paradoxically indicate that hydrogenation of a strongly chemisorbed intermediate originating from TOL is the rate-determining step. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation confirms that the dehydrogenated TOL species at the aliphatic (methyl) position group (CHCH) were strongly adsorbed on the surface, which must be hydrogenated to desorb as TOL. This hydrogen-assisted desorption mechanism explains the essential role of excess H present in the feed in maintaining the activity of the metallic surface for hydrogenation. The rate of the CH to BZ reaction was less sensitive to H pressure than that of MCH to TOL, which can be explained by the absence of a methyl group in the structure, which in turn reduces the binding energy of the adsorbed species. DFT suggests that the improved TOL selectivity by adding Zn to Ni was due to Zn atoms preferentially occupying low-coordination sites on the surface (the corner and edge sites), which are likely the unselective sites responsible for the C-C dissociation of the

  13. FMR measurements on CoCr/NiFe double layers

    OpenAIRE

    Stam, M.T.H.C.W.; Gerritsma, G.J.; Lodder, J. C.; Popma, Th.J.A.

    1988-01-01

    CoCr/NiFe double layers were measured by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) for different angles of the applied field. Several resonance curves were observed for CoCr, which are attributed to the different layers of a magnetically stratified CoCr. This was investigated by carrying out FMR measurements on a single CoCr sample and removing successive layers by ion beam milling. The origin of some of the curves is still unclear. One resonance curve is attributed to the top or bulk layer and another t...

  14. Combustion of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using bimetallic chromium-copper supported on modified H-ZSM-5 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Bakar, Mohamad Zailani Abu; Bhatia, Subhash

    2006-02-28

    The paper reports on the performance of chromium or/and copper supported on H-ZSM-5(Si/Al = 240) modified with silicon tetrachloride (Cr1.5/SiCl4-Z, Cu1.5/SiCl4-Z and Cr1.0Cu0.5/SiCl4-Z) as catalysts in the combustion of chlorinated VOCs (Cl-VOCs). A reactor operated at a gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 32,000 h(-1), a temperature between 100 and 500 degrees C with 2500 ppm of dichloromethane (DCM), trichloromethane (TCM) and trichloroethylene (TCE) is used for activity studies. The deactivation study is conducted at a GHSV of 3800 h(-1), at 400 degrees C for up to 12 h with a feed concentration of 35,000 ppm. Treatment with silicon tetrachloride improves the chemical resistance of H-ZSM-5 against hydrogen chloride. TCM is more reactive compared to DCM but it produces more by-products due to its high chlorine content. The stabilization of TCE is attributed to resonance effects. Water vapor increases the carbon dioxide yield through its role as hydrolysis agent forming reactive carbocations and acting as hydrogen-supplying agent to suppress chlorine-transfer reactions. The deactivation of Cr1.0Cu0.5/SiCl4-Z is mainly due to the chlorination of its metal species, especially with higher Cl/H feed. Coking is limited, particularly with DCM and TCM. In accordance with the Mars-van Krevelen model, the weakening of overall metal reducibility due to chlorination leads to a loss of catalytic activity.

  15. A photoactive bimetallic framework for direct aminoformylation of nitroarenes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A bimetallic catalyst, AgPd@g-C3N4, synthesized by reducing silver and palladium salts over graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), enables the concerted reductive...

  16. Phase equilibria in the Ni-Fe-Ga alloy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducher, R. [Department of Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-02 Aoba-yama, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kainuma, R. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: kainuma@tagen.tohoku.ac.jp; Ishida, K. [Department of Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-02 Aoba-yama, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2008-09-08

    The phase equilibria, A2/B2 and B2/L2{sub 1} (or D0{sub 3}) order-disorder transitions and martensitic transformation on the Ni-Fe side of the Ni-Fe-Ga system were examined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) measurement. The equilibrium compositions of interrelations mainly among the {alpha} (A2), {beta} (B2), {beta}' (L2{sub 1} or D0{sub 3}), {gamma} (A1) and {gamma}' (L1{sub 2}) phases were determined using diffusion triples which were fabricated by two-step diffusion coupling. It was confirmed that a bcc single-phase region composed of {alpha}, {beta} and {beta}' at 850-1000 deg. C exists in a wide composition range and that the critical temperature of the B2/L2{sub 1} order-disorder transformation in the Fe{sub 3}Ga-Ni{sub 3}Ga pseudo-binary section gradually increases with increasing Ni content. The existing composition region of the martensite phase at room temperature was also determined by the diffusion triple method.

  17. Electrical, magnetic, and corrosion resistance properties of TiO2 nanotubes filled with NiFe2O4 quantum dots and Ni-Fe nanoalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahgat, Mohamed; Farghali, Ahmed A.; Moustafa, Ahmed F.; Khedr, Mohamed H.; Mohassab-Ahmed, Mohassab Y.

    2013-06-01

    This work was carried out as an integral part of a project aiming to improve the catalytic, electrical, magnetic, and mechanical properties of synthesized TiO2NTs filled with metal ferrites. TiO2 nanotubes in the anatase-phase (TiO2NTs) were prepared using a hydrothermal method followed by ion exchange and phase transformation. The obtained TiO2NTs were filled with NiFe2O4 quantum dots (QDs) and then reacted at 600 °C in a reducing atmosphere to produce TiO2NTs filled with Ni-Fe nanoalloy. The effect of the TiO2NTs' coating on the dissolution rate of Ni-Fe nanoalloy in 0.5 M HCl solution was monitored chemically using a weight-loss technique that was performed at different temperatures. The TiO2NTs' coating exhibited high protective performance and amazing corrosion resistance. The magnetic properties of the TiO2NTs filled with NiFe2O4 QDs and Ni-Fe nanoalloy compacts were analyzed by a vibrating sample magnetometer. The electrical conductivity-temperature dependence of anatase TiO2NTs, anatase TiO2NTs filled with NiFe2O4 quantum dots, anatase TiO2NTs filled with Ni-Fe nanoalloy, and NiFe2O4 was measured in the temperature range of 25-850 °C. The conductivity increased with temperature, indicating the semiconductor-like nature of the sample. During cooling, the conductivity retains values higher than that obtained during heating.

  18. Magnetic properties of electroplated nano/microgranular NiFe thin films for rf application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhuang, Y.; Vroubel, M.; Rejaei, B.; Burghartz, J.N.; Attenborough, K.

    2005-01-01

    A granular NiFe thin film with large in-plane magnetic anisotropy and high ferromagnetic-resonance frequency developed for radio-frequency integrated circuit (IC) applications is presented. During the deposition, three-dimensional (3D) growth occurs, yielding NiFe grains (ϕ ∼ 1.0 μm). Nanonuclei (ϕ

  19. NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposites with tunable magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidari, Elham Kamali [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong); Ataie, Abolghasem, E-mail: aataie@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sohi, Mahmoud Heydarzadeh [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kim, Jang-Kyo [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)

    2015-04-01

    Novel NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposites were synthesized via facile, one-pot solvothermal route, and the effects of processing conditions and composition on their magnetic properties have been studied. The nanocomposites consisted of monolayer graphene sheets decorated with uniformly dispersed NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles of 6 nm in diameter. Increases in solvothermal temperature and time gave rise to improved crystallinity of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and thus enhanced magnetic properties, while a high NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} content resulted in a similar ameliorating effect on saturation magnetization, demonstrating tailored functional properties. A magnetic interaction between NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene was observed. - Highlights: • NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposites were synthesized via solvothermal route. • 6 nm NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles uniformly dispersed on monolayer graphene sheets. • Magnetic properties were tailored by changing the processing parameters. • A magnetic interaction between NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/grahene was observed.

  20. Study of the interfacial magnetism in NiO/NiFe system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tafur, Miguel, E-mail: umiguelt@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150 - Urca - Rio de Janeiro - 22290-180 RJ (Brazil); Alayo, W. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150 - Urca - Rio de Janeiro - 22290-180 RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, V.P. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo, Rua Humberto de Almeida Francklin 257 - Bairro Universitario, Sao Mateus - 29933-415 ES (Brazil); Xing, Y.T.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150 - Urca - Rio de Janeiro - 22290-180 RJ (Brazil)

    2010-05-31

    The interfacial magnetism of NiO/NiFe bilayers with different NiFe layer thicknesses, produced by DC and RF magnetron sputtering, has been studied by magnetometry and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). In magnetic hysteresis loops, the exchange bias field was found to be inversely proportional to the NiFe layer thickness. The fit using the Meiklejohn and Bean model gives a coupling energy at the NiO/NiFe interface of approximately 0.027 mJ/m{sup 2}. The analysis of the XMCD spectra of Fe and Ni, using the sum rules, shows a reduction of the effective spin magnetic moments in bilayers with NiFe thickness less than 4 nm. This reduction is attributed to hybridization of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic atoms d orbitals near the interface and/or formation of antiferromagnetic alloys due to atomic diffusion at the interfaces.

  1. Orthogonal experiment of a supported bimetallic catalyst prepared by homogeneous precipitation method*%均匀沉淀法制备负载型双金属催化剂的正交实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    别妙; 陈龙; 黄涛; 何贠; 罗凡; 李建芬

    2011-01-01

    以NiCl2·6H2O和Co(NO3)2·6H2O为原料,CO(NH2)2为沉淀剂,Al2O3为载体,采用均匀沉淀法制备了负载型双金属催化剂(Ni-Co/γ-Al2O3).利用正交实验探讨了不同工艺参数对催化剂合成的影响,并得出了最佳制备工艺.实验得出的最佳工艺参数为:n(NiCl2·6H2O)/n(Co(NO3)2·6H2O)为4∶1,n(CO(NH2)2)/n(Ni2+Co2+)为6∶1,均匀沉淀反应的温度和时间分别为115%和2.5h.同时运用XRD、SEM等分析手段对催化剂的物相结构和形貌进行了表征.结果显示催化剂外壳由复合的Ni-Co金属氧化物包裹,分散性良好,呈现多层立体结构.%The supported bimetallic catalysts (nano-Ni-Co/γ-Al2O3) were prepared by a homogeneous precipitation method involving an aqueous solution of nickel chloride hexahydrate, cobalt nitrate hexahydrate and urea, with alumina as the catalyst carrier. The effects of various technical parameters on the synthesis yield of catalysts were investigated and the optimum processing conditions were found through orthogonal experiments. The optimum processing conditions to prepare Ni-Co/γ-A12O3 bimetallic catalysts were as follows: the molar ratio of nickel chloride hexahydrate to cobalt nitrate hexahydrate was 4:1, the molar ratio of urea to metal salts was 6:1, the reaction temperature was 115℃, the reaction time was 2.5h. Different approaches such as XRD and SEM were adopted to characterize the crystalline structure and morphology of the supported catalysts. The analytical results indicated that the supported catalysts had the composite nanoparticle of nickel and cobalt oxide on the surfaee of γ-A12O3 carrier, which is a multi-layered structure with well dispersed.

  2. 利用NiFeCr种子层提高AMR薄膜信噪比研究%Strongly suppressed 1/f noise and enhanced SNR in permalloy films using NiFeCr seeds layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建伟; 赵崇军; 滕蛟; 于广华

    2013-01-01

    NiFeCr种子层可以明显降低NiFe薄膜的低频噪声,提高信噪比.制备态下NiFeCr为种子层的NiFe薄膜的低频噪声比以Ta打底的NiFe薄膜的低频噪声下降10倍,250℃下保温2h退火后以Ta打底的NiFe薄膜的低频噪声因扩散而明显上升,而NiFeCr为种子层的NiFe薄膜的低频噪声则有小幅下降.电镜分析表明NiFeCr种子层与NiFe层形成良好的晶格匹配关系,可以基本实现NiFe完全外延式的生长.%Permalloy films have very low 1/f noise and high SNR using NiFeCr seeds.1/f noise in NiFeCr/NiFe/Ta films is only 10 percent as that in Ta/NiFe/Ta films in deposited shape.1/f noise in Ta/NiFe/Ta films would be greatly improved after 250℃ 2h annealing because of the diffusion in Ta/NiFe interface.While 1/f noise in NiFeCr/NiFe/Ta films would only a little reduced after the same annealing procedure.The TEM result reveals that NiFe layer has good lattice match with NiFeCr seeds layer,and has less defects than that in Ta/NiFe/Ta films.

  3. Effect of sintering atmosphere on composition and properties of NiFe2O4 ceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田忠良; 张腾; 刘恺; 赖延清; 李劼

    2015-01-01

    NiFe2O4 ceramics were prepared in different sintering atmospheres. The phase compositions, microstructures and mechanical properties were studied. The results show that the stoichiometric compound NiFe2O4 cannot be obtained in vacuum or atmospheres with oxygen contents of 2×10−5, 2×10−4 and 2×10−3, respectively. All the samples sintered in above-mentioned atmospheres contain phases of NiFe2O4 and NiO. With increasing oxygen content, NiFe2O4 content in the ceramic increases, while NiO content appears a contrary trend. In vacuum, NiFe2O4 ceramic has average grain size of 3.94μm, and bending strength of 85.12 MPa. The changes of the phase composition and mechanical properties of NiFe2O4 based cermets are mainly caused by the alteration of their properties of NiFe2O4 ceramic.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and low temperature electrical conductivity of Polyaniline/NiFe2O4 nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, G. D.; Prasad, V. B.; Jayanna, H. S.

    2015-02-01

    Conducting polymer/ferrite nanocomposites with an organized structure provide a new functional hybrid between organic and inorganic materials. The most popular among the conductive polymers is the polyaniline (PANI) due to its wide application in different fields. In the present work nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel citrate-nitrate method with an average size of 21.6nm. PANI/NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple general and inexpensive in-situ polymerization in the presence of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles. The effects of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles on the dc-electrical properties of polyaniline were investigated. The structural components in the nanocomposites were identified from Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The crystalline phase of nanocomposites was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) reveals that there was some interaction between the NiFe2O4 particles and polyaniline and the nanocomposites are composed of polycrystalline ferrite nanoparticles and PANI. The dc conductivity of polyaniline/NiFe2O4 nanocomposites have been measured as a function of temperature in the range of 80K to 300K. It is observed that the room temperature conductivity cRT decreases with increase in the relative content of NiFe2O4. The experimental data reveals that the resistivity increases for all composites with decrease of temperature exhibiting semiconductor behaviour.

  5. 常压下Pt-Bi双金属催化剂上甘油选择性氧化%Glycerol Oxidation with Oxygen over Bimetallic Pt-Bi Catalysts under Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁丹; 崔世玉; 高静; 王军华; 陈平; 侯昭胤

    2011-01-01

    制备了一系列活性碳(AC)负载的Pt-Bi双金属催化剂,考察了催化剂中Bi含量对其催化甘油选择性氧化反应性能的影响.结果表明,适量Bi的添加可以改善催化剂中Pt的氧化还原性能,从而有利于催化剂活性的提高和二羟基丙酮(DIHA)产物的生成.当Bi的含量为5%时,该催化剂的活性最高,甘油转化率和DIHA选择性分别达到91.5%和49.0%.表征结果显示,Pt-Bi颗粒的平均粒径为3.8 nm,且高度分散在催化剂表面,这是该催化剂具有较高活性的主要原因.%A series of bimetallic Pt-Bi catalysts with a constant platinum content of 5.0 wt% and a varied bismuth content (3.0-7.0 wt%)supported on active carbon were prepared and used for glycerol oxidation with oxygen under atmospheric pressure.The bimetallic Pt-Bi/C was efficient for the selective oxidation of glycerol to dihydroxyacetone (DIHA) and the selectivity for DIHA reached 49.0% at a 91.5%conversion of glycerol over the 5%Pt-5%Bi/C catalyst.X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that the specially configured Pt-Bi nanoparticles in 5%Pt-5%Bi/C were highly dispersed (3.8 nm) over the active carbon support,which is proposed to contribute to the improved performance.

  6. Hydrogen production using Ag-Pd/TiO2 bimetallic catalysts: is there a combined effect of surface plasmon resonance with the Schottky mechanism on the photo-catalytic activity?(Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Muhammad Amtiaz; Idriss, Hicham; Al-Oufi, Maher; Ahmed, Khaja Wahab; Anjum, Dalaver H.

    2016-10-01

    A series of Ag-Pd/TiO2 catalysts have been prepared, characterized and tested for H2 production activities from water in the presence of organic sacrificial agents. The synergistic effect of metallic properties (plasmonic and Schottky mechanisms) was investigated. XPS results indicated that silver is present in the form of its oxides (Ag2O and AgO) at 0.2-0.4 wt. % loading while palladium is present as PdO and Pd metal at similar loading. However, metallic character for silver particles increases while that of palladium metal particles decreases with increasing their % in the investigated range (0-1 wt. %). HRTEM results coupled with EDX analyses indicated the presence of two types of Ag containing particles (large ones with about 4-6 nm and smaller ones with ca. 1nm in size). Palladium was only found forming Ag-Pd alloy/composite with a wide size distribution range between 10-60 nm. Both particles are composed of silver and palladium, however. Optimal photocatalytic H2 production rates were obtained for catalysts with a palladium to silver ratios between 4 and 1.5 in the case of bimetallic catalysts. In addition, H2 production rates showed linear dependency on plasmonic response of Ag. The study demonstrates that increased H2 production rates can be achieved from an understanding of plasmonic and Schottky properties of metals loaded on top of the semiconductor.

  7. Effects of ultrasonic field in pulse electrodeposition of NiFe film on Cu substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balachandran, R. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya Campus, 63100, Cyberjaya (Malaysia); Yow, H.K. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya Campus, 63100, Cyberjaya (Malaysia)], E-mail: hkyow@mmu.edu.my; Ong, B.H. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya Campus, 63100, Cyberjaya (Malaysia); Manickam, R. [Electronics Faculty, Tyndale Education Group Pte Ltd., 188942 (Singapore); Saaminathan, V. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore); Tan, K.B. [Department of Chemistry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, 43400 (Malaysia)

    2009-07-29

    NiFe film was pulse electrodeposited on conductive Cu substrate under galvanostatic mode in the presence of an ultrasonic field. The NiFe film electrodeposited was subjected to structural and surface analyses by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, surface profiling and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results show that the ultrasonic field has significantly improved the surface roughness, reduced the spherical grain size in the range from 490-575 nm to 90-150 nm, and increased the Ni content from 76.08% to 79.74% in the NiFe film electrodeposited.

  8. Impact Factors on Removal of Perchloroethylene with Nano-Ni/Fe Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fei; HUANG Yuanying; CUI Weihua

    2006-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons are widely detected in groundwater, but conventional removal methodologies are not time-and-cost effective. With the development of iron reducing technology in recent years, research on nano-iron and nano-bimetal has become a hot spot. The paper presents the results of impact factors on perchloroethylene (PCE) removal by nano-Ni/Fe method. The data show that the reaction rate of unexposed nano-Ni/Fe is 4 times higher than exposed one; and temperature is one of the important controlling factors. Reaction rate constant KsA increases by 2-3 times with every 10℃ increment of temperature. Within a specific range, higher Ni/Fe ratio favors dechlorination process. When the Ni/Fe is 8%, the dechlorination process reaches the highest rate. Dissoved oxygen in the solution does not favor the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons.

  9. Evaluation of Young's Modulus and Residual Stress of NiFe Film by Microbridge Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhimin ZHOU; Yong ZHOU; Mingjun WANG; Chunsheng YANG; Ji'an CHEN; Wen DING; Xiaoyu GAO; Taihua ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Microbridge testing was used to measure the Young's modulus and residual stress of metallic films. Samples of freestanding NiFe film microbridge were fabricated by microelectromechanical systems. Special ceramic shaft structure was designed to solve the problem of getting the load-deflection curve of NiFe film microbridge by the Nanoindenter XP system with normal Berkovich probe. Theoretical analysis of load-deflection curves of the microbridges was proposed to evaluate the Young's modulus and residual stress of the films simultaneously. The calculated results based on experimental measurements show that the average Young's modulus and residual stress for the electroplated NiFe films are 203.2 GPa and 333.0 MPa, respectively, while the Young's modulus measured by the Nano-hardness method is 209.6±11.8 GPa for the thick NiFe film with silicon substrate.

  10. Nanocrystal and surface alloy properties of bimetallic Gold-Platinum nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mott Derrick

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe report on the correlation between the nanocrystal and surface alloy properties with the bimetallic composition of gold-platinum(AuPt nanoparticles. The fundamental understanding of whether the AuPt nanocrystal core is alloyed or phase-segregated and how the surface binding properties are correlated with the nanoscale bimetallic properties is important not only for the exploitation of catalytic activity of the nanoscale bimetallic catalysts, but also to the general exploration of the surface or interfacial reactivities of bimetallic or multimetallic nanoparticles. The AuPt nanoparticles are shown to exhibit not only single-phase alloy character in the nanocrystal, but also bimetallic alloy property on the surface. The nanocrystal and surface alloy properties are directly correlated with the bimetallic composition. The FTIR probing of CO adsorption on the bimetallic nanoparticles supported on silica reveals that the surface binding sites are dependent on the bimetallic composition. The analysis of this dependence further led to the conclusion that the relative Au-atop and Pt-atop sites for the linear CO adsorption on the nanoparticle surface are not only correlated with the bimetallic composition, but also with the electronic effect as a result of the d-band shift of Pt in the bimetallic nanocrystals, which is the first demonstration of the nanoscale core-surface property correlation for the bimetallic nanoparticles over a wide range of bimetallic composition.

  11. Giant Magnetoresistance Effect in Ni-Fe-Mo Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shih-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of ferroelectricity and ferromagnetic in the magnetic materials have been extensively discussed recently. These magnetic materials can be used to fabricate novel microelectronic devices. In this study, the electrical properties of the magnetic materials consisting of nickel (Ni, iron (Fe and molybdenum (Mo were investigated. The chemical compositions of these Ni-Fe-Mo magnetic materials were measured with energy diffraction spectroscopy (EDS, while their crystalline structures were determined from X-ray diffraction (XRD. Magnetic shielding has been observed in the magnetic materials sintered at temperatures 400°C and 600°C. Both FeNi3 and MoNi crystal structures were found in the magnetic materials as determined from X-ray diffraction (XRD. In addition, giant magnetic resistance (GMR effect was observed in the low magnetic field in these magnetic materials. The MR ratio is about 15% in the magnetic material sintered at 600°C. It reveals that both FeNi3 and MoNi crystal structures contribute to the giant magnetic resistance (MR in these magnetic materials.

  12. Preparation of NiFe binary alloy nanocrystals for nonvolatile memory applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this work,an idea which applies binary alloy nanocrystal floating gate to nonvolatile memory application was introduced.The relationship between binary alloy’s work function and its composition was discussed theoretically.A nanocrystal floating gate structure with NiFe nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 dielectric layers was fabricated by magnetron sputtering.The micro-structure and composition deviation of the prepared NiFe nanocrystals were also investigated by TEM and EDS.

  13. Effect of interlayer anions on [NiFe]-LDH nanosheet water oxidation activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, B. M.; Hieringer, W.; Winkler, J.R.; Gray, H B; Müller, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    We synthesized nickel–iron layered double hydroxide ([NiFe]-LDH) nanosheets with different interlayer anions to probe their role in water oxidation catalysis. In alkaline electrolyte in ambient air, carbonate rapidly replaced other interlayer anions and catalytic activity was highest. Electrocatalytic water oxidation in virtually carbonate-free alkaline electrolyte revealed that activity was a function of anion basicity. Our [NiFe]-LDH nanosheets, prepared by pulsed laser ablation in liquids,...

  14. AgRu Bimetallic Catalysts for the Selectively Hydrogenation of Ethylene Glycol%AgRu双金属催化剂在乙二醇选择加氢中的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余思莹; 王芸芸; 史瑞安; 陆思帆; 李嵘嵘

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is an important organic solvent and raw material in chemical production. The catalysts in the research were AgRu bimetallic catalysts, which were prepared by the ammonia evaporation method, catalytic properties of catalysts were systemically investigated, using the technologies of XRD, BET, TEM and the evaluation of catalytic activity was conducted in a autoclave. Investigate Ru impact on the catalytic hydrogenation in ethylene glycol in the performance of Ag / SiO2 catalyst. Under the conditions of reaction temperature of 175 ℃, reaction pressure of 2. 0 MPa, the reaction activity with the addition of Ru was inhibitory, but promoting the selective hydrogenation of C-C. The main reason of this result may be due to add Ru, which changed the activation ability of Ag nanoparticles on the C-O.%乙醇是化工生产中重要的有机溶剂和生产原料。通过氨蒸法制备新型的 AgRu 双金属负载 SiO2催化剂,采用 XRD、BET 和 TEM 等对催化剂进行表征,考察 Ru 的加入对 Ag/ SiO2催化剂在乙二醇加氢中催化性能的影响。当在反应温度175℃,压力2 MPa 条件下, Ru 的加入,对反应活性起到抑制作用,但可促进 C-C 键的选择加氢。产生这个结果的主要原因可能是由于当Ru 的加入,改变了 Ag 纳米颗粒对 C-O 键的活化能力。

  15. Mechanism and Microstructure of Electroless Ni-Fe-P Plating on CNTs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Ru-jun; WU Yu-cheng

    2007-01-01

    Electroless Ni-Fe-P alloy plating on the surface of CNTs was carried out with a bath using citrate salt and lactic acid as complex agents. We proposed a chemical reaction mechanism. The morphology, structure and chemical composition of the Ni-Fe-P/CNTs were studied with the aid of a scanning electronic microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and an energy-dispersive X-ray spectral analysis (EDS). The results show that through a correct pretreatment and electroless plating, Ni-Fe-P/CNTs composite particles can be obtained. The optimum electroless plating parameters of 35-42 ℃ and pH of 8.5-9.7 were achieved. The as-plated Ni-Fe-P alloy is amorphous. After a heat treat-ment at 500 ℃ for 90 min in H2, the coating is transformed into crystalloid Ni3P, Fe2NiP and (Fe,Ni)3P. The Ni-Fe-P al-loy coating on the surface of CNTs is smooth and unique. The amount of Ni on the surface (mass fraction) of the Ni-Fe-P/CNTs composite particles is 29.13%, that of Fe 3.19% and that of P 2.28%.

  16. Methanol Oxidation on Model Elemental and Bimetallic Transition Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tritsaris, G. A.; Rossmeisl, J.

    2012-01-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells are a key enabling technology for clean energy conversion. Using density functional theory calculations, we study the methanol oxidation reaction on model electrodes. We discuss trends in reactivity for a set of monometallic and bimetallic transition metal surfaces, flat...... sites on the surface and to screen for novel bimetallic surfaces of enhanced activity. We suggest platinum copper surfaces as promising anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells....

  17. Interplay between out-of-plane anisotropic L1{sub 1}-type CoPt and in-plane anisotropic NiFe layers in CoPt/NiFe exchange springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, P. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Hsu, Jen-Hwa, E-mail: jhhsu@phys.ntu.edu.tw; Tsai, C. L. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Tsai, C. Y.; Lin, Y. H. [Graduate Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Kuo, C. Y.; Wu, J.-C. [Department of Physics, National Chang Hua University of Education, Chang Hua 50000, Taiwan (China); Lee, C.-M. [Graduate School of Materials Science, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliou 64002, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-28

    Films of L1{sub 1}-type CoPt/NiFe exchange springs were grown with different NiFe (Permalloy) layer thickness (t{sub NiFe} = 0–10 nm). X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the characteristic peak position of NiFe(111) is not affected by the CoPt-layer—confirming the absence of any inter-diffusion between the CoPt and NiFe layers. Magnetic studies indicate that the magnetization orientation of NiFe layer can be tuned through varying t{sub NiFe} and the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of L1{sub 1}-type CoPt/NiFe films cannot sustain for t{sub NiFe} larger than 3.0 nm due to the existence of exchange interaction at the interface of L1{sub 1}-CoPt and NiFe layers. Magnetic force microscopy analysis on the as-grown samples shows the changes in morphology from maze-like domains with good contrast to hazy domains when t{sub NiFe} ≥ 3.0 nm. The three-dimensional micro-magnetic simulation results demonstrate that the magnetization orientation in NiFe layer is not uniform, which continuously increases from the interface to the top of NiFe layer. Furthermore, the tilt angle of the topmost NiFe layers can be changed over a very wide range from a small number to about 75° by varying t{sub NiFe} from 1 to 10 nm. It is worth noting that there is an abrupt change in the magnetization direction at the interface, for all the t{sub NiFe} investigated. The results of present study demonstrate that the tunable tilted exchange springs can be realized with L1{sub 1}-type CoPt/NiFe bilayers for future applications in three-axis magnetic sensors or advanced spintronic devices demanding inclined magnetic anisotropy.

  18. Production of biohydrogen by recombinant expression of [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jaoon YH

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrogenases catalyze reversible reaction between hydrogen (H2 and proton. Inactivation of hydrogenase by exposure to oxygen is a critical limitation in biohydrogen production since strict anaerobic conditions are required. While [FeFe]-hydrogenases are irreversibly inactivated by oxygen, it was known that [NiFe]-hydrogenases are generally more tolerant to oxygen. The physiological function of [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 is still ambiguous. We herein investigated the H2 production potential of [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 of Escherichia coli in vivo and in vitro. The hyaA and hyaB genes corresponding to the small and large subunits of [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 core enzyme, respectively, were expressed in BL21, an E. coli strain without H2 producing ability. Results Recombinant BL21 expressing [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 actively produced H2 (12.5 mL H2/(h·L in 400 mL glucose minimal medium under micro-aerobic condition, whereas the wild type BL21 did not produce H2 even when formate was added as substrate for formate hydrogenlyase (FHL pathway. The majority of recombinant protein was produced as an insoluble form, with translocation of a small fraction to the membrane. However, the membrane fraction displayed high activity (~65% of total cell fraction, based on unit protein mass. Supplement of nickel and iron to media showed these metals contribute essentially to the function of [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 as components of catalytic site. In addition, purified E. coli [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 using his6-tag displayed oxygen-tolerant activity of ~12 nmol H2/(min·mg protein under a normal aeration environment, compared to [FeFe]-hydrogenase, which remains inactive under this condition. Conclusions This is the first report on physiological function of E. coli [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 for H2 production. We found that [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 has H2 production ability even under the existence of oxygen. This oxygen-tolerant property is a significant advantage because it is

  19. [NiFe]Hydrogenase from Citrobacter sp. S-77 surpasses platinum as an electrode for H2 oxidation reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takahiro; Eguchi, Shigenobu; Nakai, Hidetaka; Hibino, Takashi; Yoon, Ki-Seok; Ogo, Seiji

    2014-08-18

    Reported herein is an electrode for dihydrogen (H2) oxidation, and it is based on [NiFe]Hydrogenase from Citrobacter sp. S-77 ([NiFe]S77). It has a 637 times higher mass activity than Pt (calculated based on 1 mg of [NiFe]S77 or Pt) at 50 mV in a hydrogen half-cell. The [NiFe]S77 electrode is also stable in air and, unlike Pt, can be recovered 100 % after poisoning by carbon monoxide. Following characterization of the [NiFe]S77 electrode, a fuel cell comprising a [NiFe]S77 anode and Pt cathode was constructed and shown to have a a higher power density than that achievable by Pt.

  20. Interface chemical states of NiO/NiFe films and their effects on magnetic properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于广华; 柴春林; 朱逢吾; 赖武彦

    2002-01-01

    Ta/NiOx/Ni81Fe19/Ta multilayers were prepared by rf reactive and dc magnetron sputtering.The exchange coupling field (Hex) and the coercivity (Hc) of NiOx/Ni81Fe19 as a function of the ratio of Ar to O2 during the deposition process were studied.The composition and chemical states at the interface region of NiOx/NiFe were also investigated using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and peak decomposition technique.The results show that the ratio of Ar to O2 has great effect on the nickel chemical states in NiOx film.When the ratio of Ar to O2 is equal to 7 and the argon sputtering pressure is 0.57 Pa,the x value is approximately 1 and the valence of nickel is +2.At this point,NiOx is antiferromagnetic NiO and the corresponding Hex is the largest.As the ratio of Ar/O2 deviates from 7,the exchange coupling field (Hex) will decrease due to the presence of magnetic impurities such as Ni+3 or metallic Ni at the interface region of NiOx/NiFe,while the coercivity (Hc) will increase due to the metallic Ni.XPS studies also show that there are two thermodynamically favorable reactions at the NiO/NiFe interface: NiO+Fe=Ni+FeO and 3NiO+2Fe=3Ni+Fe2O3.These interface reaction products are magnetic impurities at the interface region of NiO/NiFe.It is believed that these magnetic impurities would have effect on the exchange coupling field (Hex) and the coercivity (Hc) of NiO/NiFe.

  1. Use of Hydrogen Chemisorption and Ethylene Hydrogenation as Predictors for Aqueous Phase Reforming of Lactose over Ni@Pt and Co@Pt Bimetallic Overlayer Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Qinghua; Skoglund, Michael D.; Zhang, Chen; Morris, Allen R.; Holles, Joseph H.

    2016-10-20

    Overlayer Pt on Ni (Ni@Pt) or Co (Co@Pt) were synthesized and tested for H2 generation from APR of lactose. H2 chemisorption descriptor showed that Ni@Pt and Co@Pt overlayer catalysts had reduced H2 adsorption strength compared to a Pt only catalyst, which agree with computational predictions. The overlayer catalysts also demonstrated lower activity for ethylene hydrogenation than the Pt only catalyst, which likely resulted from decreased H2 binding strength decreasing the surface coverage of H2. XAS results showed that overlayer catalysts exhibited higher white line intensity than the Pt catalyst, which indicates a negative d-band shift for the Pt overlayer, further providing evidence for overlayer formation. Lactose APR studies showed that lactose can be used as feedstock to produce H2 and CO under desirable reaction conditions. The Pt active sites of Ni@Pt and Co@Pt overlayer catalysts showed significantly enhanced H2 production selectivity and activity when compared with that of a Pt only catalyst. The single deposition overlayer with the largest d-band shift showed the highest H2 activity. The results suggest that overlayer formation using directed deposition technique could modify the behavior of the surface metal and ultimately modify the APR activity.

  2. Effect of Cu surface segregation on the exchange coupling field of NiFe/FeMn bilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The NiFe/FeMn bilayers with different buffer layers (Ta or Ta/Cu) were prepared by magnetron sputtering.Results show that the exchange coupling field of NiFe/FeMn films with Ta buffer is higher than that of the films with Ta/ Cu buffer. We analysed the reasons by investigating the crystallographic texture, surface roughness and surface segregation of both films, respectively. We found that the decrease of the exchange coupling fields of NiFe/FeMn films with Ta/Cu buffer layers was mainly caused by the Cu surface segregation on NiFe surface.

  3. Purification and Characterization of [NiFe]-Hydrogenase of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Liang; Belchik, Sara M.; Plymale, Andrew E.; Heald, Steve M.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Sybirna, Kateryna; Bottin, Herve; Squier, Thomas C.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2011-08-02

    The γ-proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 possesses a periplasmic [NiFe]-hydrogenase (MR-1 [NiFe]-H2ase) that was implicated in both H2 production and oxidation as well as technetium [Tc(VII)] reduction. To characterize the roles of MR-1 [NiFe]-H2ase in these proposed reactions, the genes encoding both subunits of MR-1 [NiFe]-H2ase were cloned into a protein expression vector. The resulting plasmid was transformed into a MR-1 mutant deficient in H2 formation. Expression of MR-1 [NiFe]-H2ase in trans restored the mutant’s ability to produce H2 at 37% of that for wild type. Following expression, MR-1 [NiFe]-H2ase was purified to near homogeneity. The purified MR-1 [NiFe]-H2ase could couple H2 oxidation to reduction of Tc(VII) and methyl viologen directly. Change of the buffers used affected MR-1 [NiFe]-H2ase-mediated Tc(VII) but not methyl viologen reductions. Under the conditions tested, Tc(VII) reduction was complete in Tris buffer but not in HEPES buffer. The reduced Tc(IV) was soluble in Tris buffer but insoluble in HEPES buffer. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that Tc(IV) precipitates formed in HEPES buffer were packed with crystallites. Although X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy measurements confirmed that the reduction products found in both buffers were Tc(IV), extended X-ray adsorption fine-structure measurements revealed that these products were very different. While the product in Tris buffer could not be determined, the Tc(IV) product in HEPES buffer was very similar to Tc(IV)O2•nH2O. These results shows for the first time that MR-1 [NiFe]-H2ase is a bidirectional enzyme that catalyzes both H2 formation and oxidation as well as Tc(VII) reduction directly by coupling H2 oxidation.

  4. Physical and electrical characteristics of NiFe thin films using ultrasonic assisted pulse electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa Deepthi, K.; Balachandran, R.; Ong, B. H.; Tan, K. B.; Wong, H. Y.; Yow, H. K.; Srimala, S.

    2016-01-01

    Nickel iron (NiFe) thin films were prepared on the copper substrate by ultrasonic assisted pulse electrodeposition under galvanostatic mode. Careful control of the thin films deposition is essential as the electrical properties of the films could be greatly affected, particularly if low quality films are produced. The preparation of NiFe/Cu thin films was aimed to reduce the grain size of NiFe particles, surface roughness and electrical resistivity of the copper substrates. Various parameters were systematically studied including current magnitude, deposition time and ultrasonic bath temperature. The optimized conditions to obtain NiFe permalloy, which subsequently applied to all investigated samples, were found at a current magnitude of 70 mA deposited for a duration of 2 min under ultrasonic bath temperature of 27 °C. The composition of NiFe permalloy was as close as Ni 80.71% and Fe 19.29% and the surface roughness was reduced from 12.76 nm to 2.25 nm. The films electrical resistivity was decreased nearly sevenfold from an initial value of 67.32 μΩ cm to 9.46 μΩ cm.

  5. Catalytic hydrodechlorination of monochloroacetic acid in wastewater using Ni-Fe bimetal prepared by ball milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Xu, Fuyuan; Zhao, Jianzhuang; Jia, Linfang; Wu, Kunming

    2015-09-01

    Monochloroacetic acid (MCA) is a chemically stable and biologically toxic pollutant. It is often generated during the production of the pesticide dimethoate. Conventional wastewater treatment processes have difficulty degrading it. In this work, the dechlorination effects of Ni-Fe bimetal prepared using ball milling (BM) technology for the high concentrations of MCA in wastewater were examined. The MCA in aqueous solution was found to be degraded efficiently by the Ni-Fe bimetal. However, S-(methoxycarbonyl) methyl O, O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate (SMOPD) in wastewater, a by-product of the dimethoate production process, significantly inhibited the reductive dechlorination activity of Ni-Fe bimetal. Increasing the reaction temperature in the MCA wastewater enhanced the reduction activity of the Ni-Fe bimetal effectively. Oxygen was found to be unfavorable to dechlorination. Sealing the reaction to prevent oxidation was found to render the degradation process more efficient. The process retained over 88% efficiency after 10 treatment cycles with 50 g/L of Ni-Fe bimetal under field conditions.

  6. 多功能NiFeAu纳米粒子的合成与表征%Synthesis and characterization of multi-functional NiFeAu nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓燕; 金邻豫; 侯澎; 吴君华; 李敏; 刘红玲

    2012-01-01

    采用一罐纳米乳液法,以聚乙二醇聚丙二醇聚乙二醇(PEOPPO-PEO)三嵌段共聚物为表面活性剂,通过还原前驱体乙酰丙酮镍、乙酰丙酮铁(Ⅱ)和醋酸金,成功制备了NiFeAu纳米粒子.采用透射电镜和X射线衍射仪分析了NiFeAu纳米粒子的形貌和结构;采用傅立叶变换红外光谱仪分析了三嵌段共聚物在NiFeAu纳米颗粒表面的覆盖情况;采用紫外-可见吸收光谱仪和振动样品磁强计测试了纳米粒子的光学和磁学特性.结果表明,三嵌段共聚物成功地结合于NiFeAu纳米颗粒表面;所制备的纳米粒子粒径分布较窄、结晶性能良好,并兼具光学和磁学特性.%NiFeAu nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via a one-pot nanoemulsion route involving simultaneous reduction of precursors nickel acetylacetonate, iron( II ) acetylacetonate and gold acetate in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(propylene glycol)-poly(ethylene glycol) triblock copolymer (denoted as PEOPPOPEO) as the surfactant. The morphology and structure of as-prepared nanoparticles were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The coverage of the triblock copolymer on the surface of as-prepared nanoparticles was examined by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry; and the optical and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles were investigated using an ultraviolet-visible light ab-sorbance spectrometer and a vibrating sample magnetometer, respectively. Results indicate that PEO-PPOPEO triblock copolymer is successfully combined onto the surface of the inorganic nanoparticles. As-prepared NiFeAu nanoparticles have a narrow size distribution and good crystallinity; and they possess optical and magnetic properties as well, showing promising applications as multi-functional materials in the fields of optical and biomedical engineering.

  7. Molybdenum sulfide/carbide catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Gabriel; Chianelli, Russell R.; Fuentes, Sergio; Torres, Brenda

    2007-05-29

    The present invention provides methods of synthesizing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2) and carbon-containing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2-xC.sub.x) catalysts that exhibit improved catalytic activity for hydrotreating reactions involving hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrogenation. The present invention also concerns the resulting catalysts. Furthermore, the invention concerns the promotion of these catalysts with Co, Ni, Fe, and/or Ru sulfides to create catalysts with greater activity, for hydrotreating reactions, than conventional catalysts such as cobalt molybdate on alumina support.

  8. Electric-field tunable spin diode FMR in patterned PMN-PT/NiFe structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietek, Slawomir; Ogrodnik, Piotr; Skowroński, Witold; Stobiecki, Feliks; van Dijken, Sebastiaan; Barnaś, Józef; Stobiecki, Tomasz

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic properties of NiFe thin films on PMN-PT piezoelectric substrate are investigated using the spin-diode method. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra of microstrips with varying width are measured as a function of magnetic field and frequency. The FMR frequency is shown to depend on the electric field applied across the substrate, which induces strain in the NiFe layer. Electric field tunability of up to 100 MHz per 1 kV/cm is achieved. An analytical model based on total energy minimization and the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, taking into account the magnetostriction effect, is used to explain the measured dynamics. Based on this model, conditions for optimal electric-field tunable spin diode FMR in patterned NiFe/PMN-PT structures are derived.

  9. A study on electrodeposited NiFe1− alloy films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Bedir; Ö F Bakkaloğlu; İ H Karahan; M Öztaş

    2006-06-01

    NiFe1− (0.22 ≤ ≤ 0.62) alloy films were grown by electrodeposition technique. A shift in diffraction peaks of NiFe and Ni3Fe was detected with increasing Ni content. The highest positive magnetoresistance ratio was detected as 5% in Ni0.51Fe0.49. Positive and negative anisotropic magnetoresistance were observed in longitudinal and transverse geometries respectively. The highest anisotropic magnetoresistance ratio of 9.8% was also detected in Ni0.51Fe0.49. The angular variation of magnetoresistance was studied. Magnetisation loop curves show that NiFe alloy films have a linear decreasing anisotropy constant with increasing Ni deposit content and show a decreasing behavior of coercivity which indicates soft magnetic property with increasing Ni deposit content.

  10. Electroless Plating of Ni-Fe-P Alloy and Corrosion Resistance of the Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Senlin WANG

    2005-01-01

    Electroless Ni-Fe-P alloys in an alkaline bath were plated. Theeffects of deposition parameters on the plating rate and the coating composition were examined. The weight loss test and the anodic polarization measurement of the deposits in 3.5 wt pct NaCl solution (pH7.0) showed that the deposits with the mole ratio of NiSO4/FeSO4 being 0.07:0.03, pH8.0 and 7.5 possess better corrosion resistance than that of the other deposits and the Ni-Fe-P deposits did not form passive films in this environment. In 5.0 wt pct NaOH solution, the Ni-Fe-P deposits have better corrosion resistance and formed passive films.

  11. Tensile Properties and Deformation Characteristics of a Ni-Fe-Base Superalloy for Steam Boiler Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhihong; Gu, Yuefeng; Yuan, Yong; Shi, Zhan

    2014-01-01

    Ni-Fe-base superalloys due to their good manufacturability and low cost are the proper candidates for boiler materials in advanced power plants. The major concerns with Ni-Fe-base superalloys are the insufficient mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. In this paper, tensile properties, deformation, and fracture characteristics of a Ni-Fe-base superalloy primarily strengthened by γ' precipitates have been investigated from room temperature to 1073 K (800 °C). The results showed a gradual decrease in the strength up to about 973 K (700 °C) followed by a rapid drop above this temperature and a ductility minimum at around 973 K (700 °C). The fracture surfaces were studied using scanning electron microscopy and the deformation mechanisms were determined by the observation of deformed microstructures using transmission electron microscopy. An attempt has been made to correlate the tensile properties and fracture characteristics at different temperatures with the observed deformation mechanisms.

  12. Electrical manipulation of ferromagnetic NiFe by antiferromagnetic IrMn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshitoyan, V.; Ciccarelli, C.; Mihai, A. P.; Ali, M.; Irvine, A. C.; Moore, T. A.; Jungwirth, T.; Ferguson, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate that an antiferromagnet can be employed for a highly efficient electrical manipulation of a ferromagnet. In our study, we use an electrical detection technique of the ferromagnetic resonance driven by an in-plane ac current in a NiFe/IrMn bilayer. At room temperature, we observe antidampinglike spin torque acting on the NiFe ferromagnet, generated by an in-plane current driven through the IrMn antiferromagnet. A large enhancement of the torque, characterized by an effective spin-Hall angle exceeding most heavy transition metals, correlates with the presence of the exchange-bias field at the NiFe/IrMn interface. It highlights that, in addition to the strong spin-orbit coupling, the antiferromagnetic order in IrMn governs the observed phenomenon.

  13. Effect of the kind of fuel in the synthesis of the catalyzer NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} to displacement reaction of water gas (WGRS); Efeito do tipo de combustivel na sintese do catalisador NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} para reacao de deslocamento do gas agua (WGRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, P.T.A.; Barros, B.S.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Gama, L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais], e-mail: anacristina@dema.ufcg.edu.br; Jesus, A.A.; Andrade, H.M.C. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2006-07-01

    This work has as objective synthesizes and to characterize the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} catalyst by combustion reaction using different fuels: urea and glycine seeking your application in the water gas shift reaction (WGSR), promoting the purification of the methane for the elimination of the carbon monoxide. The powders were prepared in agreement with the chemistry of the propellants using as recipient a vitreous silica crucible; the maximum temperature and the medium time of flame were verified. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (DRX), Scanning electronic microscopy and catalytic tests. The results show that the catalysts presented inverse spinel structure as majority phase for the two types of fuels. However, it was observed that using the urea, there was the presence of a second phase of NiO and when the glycine was used, there was the presence of lines of Ni. The catalyst NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} using urea as fuel, presented better catalytic acting. (author)

  14. Optimization of planar Hall effect sensor for magnetic bead detection using spin-valve NiFe/Cu/NiFe/IrMn structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui Dinh Tu; Do Thi Huong Giang; Tran Mau Danh; Nguyen Huu Duc [Department of Nano Magnetic Materials and Devices, Faculty of Engineering Physics, College of Technology, Vietnam National University, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Le Viet Cuong [Laboratory for Micro-Nano Technology, College of Technology, Vietnam National University, Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail: buidinhtu@vnu.edu.vn

    2009-09-01

    Present paper deals with the planar Hall effect (PHE) of Ta(5 nm)/NiFe(t{sub f})/Cu(1.2 nm)/NiFe(t{sub p})/IrMn(15 nm)/Ta(5 nm) spin-valve structures. Experimental investigations are performed for 50 x 50 {mu}m{sup 2} junctions with various thicknesses of free and pinned layer t{sub f} = 4, 8, 10, 15, 20 nm and t{sub p} = 2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 12 nm. The results show that the thicker free layers, the higher PHE signal is obtained. In addition, the thicker pinned layers, the lower PHE signal. The highest PHE sensitivity S of 15.6 m{omega}/Oe is obtained in the spin-valve configuration with t{sub f} = 20 nm and t{sub p} = 2 nm. This optimum structure is rather promising for micro magnetic bead detections.

  15. Optimization of planar Hall effect sensor for magnetic bead detection using spin-valve NiFe/Cu/NiFe/IrMn structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Bui Dinh; Viet Cuong, Le; Thi Huong Giang, Do; Mau Danh, Tran; Duc, Nguyen Huu

    2009-09-01

    Present paper deals with the planar Hall effect (PHE) of Ta(5 nm)/NiFe(tf)/Cu(1.2 nm)/NiFe(tp)/IrMn(15 nm)/Ta(5 nm) spin-valve structures. Experimental investigations are performed for 50 × 50 μm2 junctions with various thicknesses of free and pinned layer tf = 4, 8, 10, 15, 20 nm and tp = 2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 12 nm. The results show that the thicker free layers, the higher PHE signal is obtained. In addition, the thicker pinned layers, the lower PHE signal. The highest PHE sensitivity S of 15.6 mΩ/Oe is obtained in the spin-valve configuration with tf = 20 nm and tp = 2 nm. This optimum structure is rather promising for micro magnetic bead detections.

  16. Coupling of Carbon Dioxide with Epoxides Efficiently Catalyzed by Thioether-Triphenolate Bimetallic Iron(III) Complexes: Catalyst Structure-Reactivity Relationship and Mechanistic DFT Study

    KAUST Repository

    Della Monica, Francesco

    2016-08-25

    A series of dinuclear iron(III)I complexes supported by thioether-triphenolate ligands have been prepared to attain highly Lewis acidic catalysts. In combination with tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) they are highly active catalysts in the synthesis of cyclic organic carbonates through the coupling of carbon dioxide to epoxides with the highest initial turnover frequencies reported to date for the conversion of propylene oxide to propylene carbonate for iron-based catalysts (5200h-1; 120°C, 2MPa, 1h). In particular, these complexes are shown to be highly selective catalysts for the coupling of carbon dioxide to internal oxiranes affording the corresponding cyclic carbonates in good yield and with retention of the initial stereochemical configuration. A density functional theory (DFT) investigation provides a rational for the relative high activity found for these Fe(III) complexes, showing the fundamental role of the hemilabile sulfur atom in the ligand skeleton to promote reactivity. Notably, in spite of the dinuclear nature of the catalyst precursor only one metal center is involved in the catalytic cycle. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Purification and characterization of the [NiFe]-hydrogenase of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liang; Belchik, Sara M; Plymale, Andrew E; Heald, Steve; Dohnalkova, Alice C; Sybirna, Kateryna; Bottin, Hervé; Squier, Thomas C; Zachara, John M; Fredrickson, James K

    2011-08-15

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 possesses a periplasmic [NiFe]-hydrogenase (MR-1 [NiFe]-H(2)ase) that has been implicated in H(2) production and oxidation as well as technetium [Tc(VII)] reduction. To characterize the roles of MR-1 [NiFe]-H(2)ase in these proposed reactions, the genes encoding both subunits of MR-1 [NiFe]-H(2)ase were cloned and then expressed in an MR-1 mutant without hyaB and hydA genes. Expression of recombinant MR-1 [NiFe]-H(2)ase in trans restored the mutant's ability to produce H(2) at 37% of that for the wild type. Following purification, MR-1 [NiFe]-H(2)ase coupled H(2) oxidation to reduction of Tc(VII)O(4)(-) and methyl viologen. Change of the buffers used affected MR-1 [NiFe]-H(2)ase-mediated reduction of Tc(VII)O(4)(-) but not methyl viologen. Under the conditions tested, all Tc(VII)O(4)(-) used was reduced in Tris buffer, while in HEPES buffer, only 20% of Tc(VII)O(4)(-) was reduced. The reduced products were soluble in Tris buffer but insoluble in HEPES buffer. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that Tc precipitates reduced in HEPES buffer were aggregates of crystallites with diameters of ∼5 nm. Measurements with X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy revealed that the reduction products were a mixture of Tc(IV) and Tc(V) in Tris buffer but only Tc(IV) in HEPES buffer. Measurements with extended X-ray adsorption fine structure showed that while the Tc bonding environment in Tris buffer could not be determined, the Tc(IV) product in HEPES buffer was very similar to Tc(IV)O(2)·nH(2)O, which was also the product of Tc(VII)O(4)(-) reduction by MR-1 cells. These results shows for the first time that MR-1 [NiFe]-H(2)ase catalyzes Tc(VII)O(4)(-) reduction directly by coupling to H(2) oxidation.

  18. Bonding Strength of Ni-Fe-W-P Alloy Brush Plating%Ni-Fe-W-P合金镀层结合强度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远明

    2004-01-01

    镀层与基体之间的结合强度是功能镀层能否实际使用的首要指标,由于Ni-Fe-W-P合金镀层是一种新型的代铬镀层,故以铬镀层的结合强度为对比,通过静态和动态加载来研究Ni-Fe-W-P合金镀层的结合强度.试验结果表明,Ni-Fe-W-P合金刷镀层在冲击、疲劳或几种复合载荷下都具有优良的结合强度;该刷镀层具有优良的结合强度的主要机理是:镀层与基体存在扩散层并形成韧性合金,过渡层缩小了工作镀层与过渡层、过渡层与基体的晶格错配度,同时机械铆接效应也起一定的作用;合理的工艺参数可获得高结合强度的合金镀层.试验还表明,Ni-Fe-W-P合金镀层的结合强度优于铬镀层,因此,该镀层用作代铬镀层可以达到使用要求.

  19. Bimetallic-catalyst-mediated syntheses of nanomaterials (nanowires, nanotubes, nanofibers, nanodots, etc) by the VQS (vapor-quasiliquid-solid, vapor- quasisolid-solid) growth mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, S. N.

    2016-12-01

    The enhanced synergistic, catalytic effect of bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs), as compared to monometallic nanoparticles (NPs), on the nanomaterials (nanowires, nanotubes, nanodots, nanofibers, etc) synthesed by chemical vapor deposition has been investigated. A theoretical model for this catalytic effect and hence for nanomaterial growth, has been developed. The key element of the model is the diffusion of the nanomaterial source species through the nanopores of quasiliquid (quasisolid) BNP, rather than through the liquid or solid BNP, for nanomaterial growth. The role of growth parameters such as temperature, pressure and of the BNP material characteristics such as element mole fraction of BNP, has been studied. The cause of enhanced catalytic activity of BNPs as compared to NPs as a function of temperature has been explored. The dependence of growth rate on the nanomaterial diameter has also been examined. The calculated results have been extensively compared with available experiments. Experimental supports for the growth mechanism have been presented as well. Close correspondence between the calculated and experimental results attests to the validity of the proposed model. The wide applicability of the proposed model to nanowires, nanotubes, nanofibers, nanodots, etc suggests that it is general and has broad appeal.

  20. Preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity of NiFe2O4/PAMA/Ag-TiO2 nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allafchian, Alireza; Jalali, Seyed Amir Hossein; Bahramian, Hamid; Ahmadvand, Hossein

    2016-04-01

    We have described a facile fabrication of silver deposited on the TiO2, Poly Acrylonitrile Co Maleic Anhydride (PAMA) polymer and nickel ferrite composite (NiFe2O4/PAMA/Ag-TiO2) through a three-step procedure. A pre-synthesized NiFe2O4 was first coated with PAMA polymer and then Ag-TiO2 was deposited on the surface of PAMA polymer shell. After the characterization of this three-component composite by various techniques, such as FTIR, XRD, FESEM, BET, TEM and VSM, it was impregnated in standard antibiotic discs. The antibacterial activity of NiFe2O4/PAMA/Ag-TiO2 nanocomposite was investigated against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria by employing disc diffusion assay and then compared with that of naked NiFe2O4, NiFe2O4/Ag, AgNPs and NiFe2O4/PAMA. The results demonstrated that the AgNPs, when embedded in TiO2 and combined with NiFe2O4/PAMA, became an excellent antibacterial agent. The NiFe2O4/PAMA/Ag-TiO2 nanocomposite could be readily separated from water solution after the disinfection process by applying an external magnetic field.

  1. Supported bimetallic nano-alloys as highly active catalysts for the one-pot tandem synthesis of imines and secondary amines from nitrobenzene and alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meenakshisundaram, Sankar; He, Qian; Dawson, Simon; Nowicka, Ewa; Lu, Li; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.; Beale, Andrew M.; Kiely, Christopher J.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and functionalization of imines and amines are key steps in the preparation of many fine chemicals and for pharmaceuticals in particular. Traditionally, metal complexes are used as homogeneous catalysts for these organic transformations. Here we report gold-palladium and ruthenium-pall

  2. Nickel recovery from electronic waste II electrodeposition of Ni and Ni-Fe alloys from diluted sulfate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotin, B; Ispas, A; Coman, V; Bund, A; Ilea, P

    2013-11-01

    This study focuses on the electrodeposition of Ni and Ni-Fe alloys from synthetic solutions similar to those obtained by the dissolution of electron gun (an electrical component of cathode ray tubes) waste. The influence of various parameters (pH, electrolyte composition, Ni(2+)/Fe(2+) ratio, current density) on the electrodeposition process was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) were used to provide information about the obtained deposits' thickness, morphology, and elemental composition. By controlling the experimental parameters, the composition of the Ni-Fe alloys can be tailored towards specific applications. Complementarily, the differences in the nucleation mechanisms for Ni, Fe and Ni-Fe deposition from sulfate solutions have been evaluated and discussed using cyclic voltammetry and potential step chronoamperometry. The obtained results suggest a progressive nucleation mechanism for Ni, while for Fe and Ni-Fe, the obtained data points are best fitted to an instantaneous nucleation model.

  3. Thermal annealing and magnetic anisotropy of NiFe thin films on n{sup +}-Si for spintronic device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Q.H. [School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Physics, Semiconductor Photonics Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, People’s Republic of China (China); Gansu Key Laboratory of Sensor and Sensor Technology, Institute of Sensor Technology, Gansu Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Huang, R. [Department of Physics, Semiconductor Photonics Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, People’s Republic of China (China); Wang, L.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wu, Z.G., E-mail: zgwu@lzu.edu.cn [School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, C., E-mail: lich@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Semiconductor Photonics Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, People’s Republic of China (China); Luo, Q. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zuo, S.Y. [School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, J. [Department of Physics, Semiconductor Photonics Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, People’s Republic of China (China); Peng, D.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Han, G.L. [Gansu Key Laboratory of Sensor and Sensor Technology, Institute of Sensor Technology, Gansu Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yan, P.X. [School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-11-15

    To ensure that the magnetic metal electrodes can meet the requirements of the spin injection, NiFe films prepared both on HfO{sub 2} dielectric layer and n{sup +}-Si directly by sputtering deposition, and treated by conventional furnace annealing and/or high vacuum magnetic field annealing were investigated. It was found that thermal annealing at 250 °C improved the crystalline quality and reduced surface roughness of the NiFe films, thus enhancing its saturation magnetization intensity. The 100 nm thick NiFe films had too large coercive force and saturation magnetization intensity in vertical direction to meet the requirements of Hanle curve detection. While, 30 nm thick NiFe films showed paramagnetic hysteresis loops in vertical direction, and the magnetization intensity of the sample after annealing at 250 °C for 30 min was less than 2% to the parallel when the external magnetic field was given between ±10 Oe. This was preferred to Hanle curve detection. The thin HfO{sub 2} dielectric layer between metal and Si partially suppressed the diffusion of Ni in NiFe into Si substrate and formation of NiSi, greatly enhancing the saturation magnetization intensity of the Al/NiFe/HfO{sub 2}/Si sample by thermal annealing. Those results suggest that Al/NiFe/HfO{sub 2}/Si structure, from the point view of magnetic electrodes, would be suitable for spin injection and detection applications. - Highlights: • The saturation magnetization intensity of NiFe thin-film was enhanced by thermal annealing. • A paramagnetic hysteresis loop of NiFe thin-film was observed in vertical direction. • The thin HfO{sub 2} dielectric layer between NiFe and Si partially suppressed the diffusion of Ni into Si.

  4. Structure-Property Relationship in Metal Carbides and Bimetallic Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jingguan [University of Delaware

    2014-03-04

    The primary objective of our DOE/BES sponsored research is to use carbide and bimetallic catalysts as model systems to demonstrate the feasibility of tuning the catalytic activity, selectivity and stability. Our efforts involve three parallel approaches, with the aim at studying single crystal model surfaces and bridging the “materials gap” and “pressure gap” between fundamental surface science studies and real world catalysis. The utilization of the three parallel approaches has led to the discovery of many intriguing catalytic properties of carbide and bimetallic surfaces and catalysts. During the past funding period we have utilized these combined research approaches to explore the possibility of predicting and verifying bimetallic and carbide combinations with enhanced catalytic activity, selectivity and stability.

  5. A DFT Calculation Screening of Pt-Based Bimetallic Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction%Pt基合金氧还原催化剂设计的密度泛函理论计算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧利辉; 陈胜利

    2013-01-01

    Developing Pt-lean catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is the key for the large-scale application of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). In this paper, we have proposed a multiple-descriptor strategy for screening efficient and durable ORR alloy catalysts of low Pt content. We demonstrate that an ideal Pt-based bimetallic alloy catalyst for ORR should possess simultaneously negative alloy formation energy, negative surface segregation energy of Pt and a lower oxygen binding ability than pure Pt. By performing detailed DFT calculations on the thermodynamics, surface chemical and electronic properties of various Pt-M alloys (M refers to non-precious transition metals in the periodic table), Pt-V,Pt-Fe,Pt-Co,Pt-Ni,Pt-Cu,Pt-Zn, Pt-Mo, Pt-W alloys are predicted to have improved catalytic activity and durability for ORR, most of which have indeed been reported to have excellent ORR catalytic performance in the literature. It is suggested that the ORR performance of Pt-Zn and Pt-Mo systems deserve detailed theoretical and experimental investigations.%本文提出以合金形成能、Pt表面偏析能和氧原子吸附能作为依据筛选具有高活性和高稳定性的表面富Pt氧还原合金催化剂.利用DFT计算对Pt与各种过渡金属形成的合金的热力学、表面化学和电子性质进行了系统研究,在此基础上预测Pt-V、Pt-Fe、Pt-Co、Pt-Ni、Pt-Cu、Pt-Zn、Pt-Mo和Pt-W等合金可能具有好的氧还原催化活性和稳定性.所预期的大部分催化剂已有文献研究结果支持.另外,Pt-Zn和Pt-Mo体系目前报道尚不多,值得进一步细致研究.

  6. [NiFe]-hydrogenases: spectroscopic and electrochemical definition of reactions and intermediates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. Armstrong; S.P.J. Albracht

    2005-01-01

    Production and usage of di-hydrogen, H2, in micro-organisms is catalysed by highly active, 'ancient' metalloenzymes known as hydrogenases. Based on the number and identity of metal atoms in their active sites, hydrogenases fall into three main classes, [NiFe]-, [FeFe]- and [Fe]-. All contain the unu

  7. Point Contact Andreev Reflection Measurement of the Spin Polarization of Ferromagnetic Alloy NiFeSb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李壮志; 陶宏杰; 闻海虎; 张铭; 柳祝红; 崔玉亭; 吴光恒

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the temperature-dependent and barrier-strength-dependent Andreev reflection tunnelling spectroscopy with point contacts consisting of the newly synthesized half-metallic alloy NiFeSb and a Nb tip. By fitting the data to the generalized Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk theory, a spin polarization P = 0.52 has been obtained.

  8. Facile synthesis of inverse spinel NiFe2O4 nanocrystals and their superparamagnetic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Tan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinel NiFe2O4 nanocrystals have been obtained by means of a novel composite-hydroxide-salt-mediated approach, which is based on a reaction between metallic salt and metallic oxide in the solution of composite-hydroxide-salt eutectic at ~225 ºC and normal atmosphere without any organic dispersant or capping agent. The obtained products are characterized by an X-ray diffraction (XRD, a transmission electron microscopy (TEM and an alternating gradient magnetometer (AGM. The formation process of NiFe2O4 nanosheet is proposed to begin with a ‘‘dissolution-recrystallization’’ which is followed by an ‘‘Ostwald ripening’’ mechanism. The NiFe2O4 nano-octahedrons can be obtained through adjusting the reaction water content in the hydroxide melts at constant temperature. At 300 K, magnetic hysteresis loops at an applied field of 15 kOe show zero coercivity, indicating the superparamagnetic behavior of the as-prepared NiFe2O4 nanocrystals.

  9. FCC/BCC competition and enhancement of saturation magnetization in nanocrystalline Co-Ni-Fe films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chechenin, N. G.; Khomenko, E. V.; de Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2007-01-01

    The structure, chemical composition, and magnetic properties of electrochemically deposited nanocrystalline Co-Ni-Fe films were investigated using a number of techniques. A high saturation magnetic induction up to B-s = 21 kG was attained. An enhancement of the saturation magnetization compared to t

  10. Facile synthesis of inverse spinel NiFe2O4 nanocrystals and their superparamagnetic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Tan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Spinel NiFe2O4 nanocrystals have been obtained by means of a novel composite-hydroxide-salt-mediated approach, which is based on a reaction between metallic salt and metallic oxide in the solution of composite-hydroxide-salt eutectic at ~225 ºC and normal atmosphere without any organic dispersant or capping agent. The obtained products are characterized by an X-ray diffraction (XRD, a transmission electron microscopy (TEM and an alternating gradient magnetometer (AGM. The formation process of NiFe2O4 nanosheet is proposed to begin with a ‘‘dissolution-recrystallization’’ which is followed by an ‘‘Ostwald ripening’’ mechanism. The NiFe2O4 nano-octahedrons can be obtained through adjusting the reaction water content in the hydroxide melts at constant temperature. At 300 K, magnetic hysteresis loops at an applied field of 15 kOe show zero coercivity, indicating the superparamagnetic behavior of the as-prepared NiFe2O4 nanocrystals.

  11. Dye-Sensitized Cu2 XSnS4 (X=Zn, Ni, Fe, Co, and Mn) Nanofibers for Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonce, Mehmet Kerem; Aslan, Emre; Ozel, Faruk; Hatay Patir, Imren

    2016-03-21

    The photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activities of low-cost and noble-metal-free Cu2 XSnS4 (X=Zn, Ni, Fe, Co, and Mn) nanofiber catalysts have been investigated using triethanolamine as an electron donor and eosin Y as a photosensitizer under visible-light irradiation. The rates of hydrogen evolution by Cu2 XSnS4 (X=Zn, Ni, Fe, Co, and Mn) nanofibers have been compared with each other and with that of the noble metal Pt. The hydrogen evolution rates for the nanofibers change in the order Cu2 NiSnS4 >Cu2 FeSnS4 >Cu2 CoSnS4 >Cu2 ZnSnS4 >Cu2 MnSnS4 (2028, 1870, 1926, 1420, and 389 μmol g(-1) h(-1) , respectively). The differences between the hydrogen evolution rates of the nanofibers could be attributed to their energy levels. Moreover, Cu2 NiSnS4, Cu2 FeSnS4 , and Cu2 CoSnS4 nanofibers show higher and more stable photocatalytic hydrogen production rates than that of the noble metal Pt under long-term irradiation with visible light.

  12. The Structure and Microhardness of Ni-Fe-P and Ni-Fe-P-B Alloy Deposits Prepared by Electroless Plating%化学沉积Ni-Fe-P及Ni-Fe-P-B合金膜的结构和显微硬度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲玲; 赵立华; 黄维清; 黄桂芳; 张建勇

    2001-01-01

    利用X射线衍射方法研究了不同NaH2PO2的质量浓度以及热处理温度条件下化学镀三元Ni-Fe-P和四元Ni-Fe-P-B镀层的结构.在温度为200~700℃范围内加热镀层产生结构变化.当热处理温度等于或低于400℃时,镀层的显微硬度随温度增加,这与从Ni-Fe-P镀层非晶基底中析出(Fe,Ni)固溶体,Ni3P相以及从Ni-Fe-P-B镀层(Fe,Ni)固溶体基底中析出Fe2B等相有关.热处理温度大于或等于500℃时,Ni3P,Fe3P,Fe2B等相析出,同时随温度增加颗粒逐渐粗化,引起镀层软化.在Ni-Fe-P镀层中加入KBH4,经300℃热处理引起镀层显微硬度增加.低于300℃热处理对镀层硬度影响不明显.该现象可由B与Ni-Fe固溶体基底形成了晶化相加以证实.

  13. Nano-sized Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} reinforced NiFe nanocomposites by electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaochun; Li Zhiwei

    2003-10-15

    Permalloy NiFe/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposite layers were electroplated on a copper substrate. The volume fraction of nano-sized Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} particles in NiFe matrix was controlled by the addition of various percentages of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} particles in the NiFe electrolyte. The nanocomposite layers of up to 400 {mu}m were analyzed by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Microhardness test was performed. With nano-sized Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} particles in the NiFe matrix, the microhardness of NiFe was improved. The samples were then annealed at 800 deg. C for about 20 h. The microhardness declined more with more Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} particles in the NiFe matrix. The analysis result from energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) in the SEM showed that the hardness declination could be caused by the segregation of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} in the NiFe matrix. Finally, this paper presents nanocomposite micromolds fabricated by electroplating onto polymer molds that were fabricated by micro-stereolithgraphy.

  14. Role of the antiferromagnetic pinning layer on spin wave properties in IrMn/NiFe based spin-valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbiotti, G., E-mail: gubbiotti@fisica.unipg.it; Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del CNR (IOM-CNR), Unità di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Del Bianco, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Department of Physics and Earth Sciences and CNISM, University of Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Bonfiglioli, E.; Giovannini, L.; Spizzo, F.; Zivieri, R. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences and CNISM, University of Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Tamisari, M. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences and CNISM, University of Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2015-05-07

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) was exploited to study the spin wave properties of spin-valve (SV) type samples basically consisting of two 5 nm-thick NiFe layers (separated by a Cu spacer of 5 nm), differently biased through the interface exchange coupling with an antiferromagnetic IrMn layer. Three samples were investigated: a reference SV sample, without IrMn (reference); one sample with an IrMn underlayer (10 nm thick) coupled to the bottom NiFe film; one sample with IrMn underlayer and overlayer of different thickness (10 nm and 6 nm), coupled to the bottom and top NiFe film, respectively. The exchange coupling with the IrMn, causing the insurgence of the exchange bias effect, allowed the relative orientation of the NiFe magnetization vectors to be controlled by an external magnetic field, as assessed through hysteresis loop measurements by magneto-optic magnetometry. Thus, BLS spectra were acquired by sweeping the magnetic field so as to encompass both the parallel and antiparallel alignment of the NiFe layers. The BLS results, well reproduced by the presented theoretical model, clearly revealed the combined effects on the spin dynamic properties of the dipolar interaction between the two NiFe films and of the interface IrMn/NiFe exchange coupling.

  15. Synthesis of Supported NiPt Bimetallic Nanoparticles, Methods for Controlling the Surface Coverage of Ni Nanoparticles With Pt, Methods Of Making NiPt Multilayer Core-Shell Structures and Application of the Supported Catalysts for CO2 Reforming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lidong

    2015-06-25

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for supported Ni/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles, compositions including supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of making supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of using supported NiPt nanoparticles, and the like.

  16. Ultrasound enhanced heterogeneous activation of peroxymonosulfate by a bimetallic Fe-Co/SBA-15 catalyst for the degradation of Orange II in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chun; Zhang, Hui; Zhong, Xing; Hou, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous silica SBA-15 supported iron and cobalt (Fe-Co/SBA-15) was prepared and used as catalyst in the ultrasound (US) enhanced heterogeneous activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS, HSO5(-)) process. The effects of some important reaction parameters on the removal of Orange II by US/Fe-Co/SBA-15/PMS process were investigated. The results indicated that the removal rate of Orange II was not significantly affected by the initial pH, and it increased with the higher PMS concentration, reaction temperature, Fe-Co/SBA-15 dosage and ultrasonic power. Furthermore, sulfate radicals (SO4(-)) were assumed to be the dominating reactive species for the Orange II decolorization. Moreover, the Fe-Co/SBA-15 catalyst showed high activity during the repeated experiments. The intermediate products were identified by GC-MS, thereby a plausible degradation pathway is proposed. In addition, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies at 2 and 24h were 56.8% and 80.1%, respectively and the corresponding total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiencies were 33.8 and 53.3%. Finally, toxicity tests with activated sludge showed that the toxicity of the solution increased during the first stage and then decreased significantly with the progress of the oxidation.

  17. Facile Synthesis of Highly Active and Robust Ni-Mo Bimetallic Electrocatalyst for Hydrocarbon Oxidation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hua, B.; Li, M.; Zhang, Y.-Q.; Chen, J.; Sun, Y.-F.; Yan, N.; Li, J.; Luo, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel Ni–Mo bimetallic alloy decorated with multimicrocrystals as an efficient anode catalyst for hydrocarbon-fueled solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). We show that these Ni–Mo bimetallic alloys are highly active, thermally stable, and sulfur/coke tolerant electrocatalysts for hydrocarbon o

  18. Grain size effect on the Neel temperature and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline $NiFe{_2}O{_4}$ spinel

    OpenAIRE

    Chinnasamy, CN; Narayanasamy, A.; Ponpandian, N; Joseyphus, RJ; Jeyadevan, B.; Tohji, K.; Chattopadhyay, K.

    2002-01-01

    Nanocrystalline NiFe2O4 spinel ferrites with various grain sizes have been synthesized by ball milling the bulk NiFe2O4. The average grain sizes were estimated from the X-ray line broadening of the (3 1 1) reflection. The Neel temperatures of NiFe2O4 for various grain sizes were determined by magneto thermogravimetric method. The magnetic behaviour has been explained by combining the effects of changes in cation distribution on milling and finite size scaling. The shift in B-H loops has been ...

  19. Biosensors Incorporating Bimetallic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rick

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review of electrochemical bio-sensing for target analytes based on the use of electrocatalytic bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs, which can improve both the sensitivity and selectivity of biosensors. The review moves quickly from an introduction to the field of bio-sensing, to the importance of biosensors in today’s society, the nature of the electrochemical methods employed and the attendant problems encountered. The role of electrocatalysts is introduced with reference to the three generations of biosensors. The contributions made by previous workers using bimetallic constructs, grouped by target analyte, are then examined in detail; following which, the synthesis and characterization of the catalytic particles is examined prior to a summary of the current state of endeavor. Finally, some perspectives for the future of bimetallic NPs in biosensors are given.

  20. KARAKTERISTIK MAGNETIK LAPISAN TIPIS NI-FE SEBAGAI FLAT CORE FLUX GATE SENSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Purnama

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKKarakteristik magnetik lapisan tipis Ni-Fe hasil elektrodeposisi sebagai flat core flux gate sensor didiskusikan pada makalah ini.  Lapisan tipis Ni-Fe dideposisi di atas substrat printed circuit board (PCB dengan variasi komposisi Ni dan rapat arus J.  Untuk memperoleh kualitas lapisan tipis yang baik, zat aditif vanily digunakan untuk mengurangi laju deposisi untuk keseluruhan ekperimen.  Hasil menunjukkan modifikasi karakteristik magnetik hasil vibrating sample magnetometer karena perubahan parameter penumbuhannya. Koersif field (Hc meningkat dengan kenaikan prosentase komposisi Ni pada lapisan tipis yang terbentuk.  Sedangkan Hc tidak membentuk pola tertentu dengan modifikasi apat arus J. Akhirnya magnetisasi jenuh maksimum mS = 0.72 emu/gr diperoleh untuk prosentase Ni = 51%, dan mS = 0.43 emu/gr untuk J = 5 mA/cm2.  Klarifikasi dengan STM, hal ini akibat perubahan struktur mikroskopik lapisan tipis Ni-Fe.ABSTRACTThis paper discusses magnetic characteristic of Ni-Fe permalloy thin film produced by electro deposited as flat core flux gate sensor.  Ni-Fe thin films were deposited on printed circuit board (PCB substrates with variation of composition in Ni percentage and current density J.  In order to obtain high quality thin films, an additive ingredient of vanily was used to reduce rate deposition for whole experimental procedure. Experiment results showed that modified of magnetic characteristic evaluated by vibrating sample magnetometer was caused by the modified of deposition parameters.  Coersive field (Hc increased with the increase of percentage of Ni composition, while the Hc did not form any particular pattern by modifying current density J. Finally, maximum saturated magnetization mS = 0.72 emu/gr was attained for percentage Ni of 51% and mS = 0.43 emu/gr for J = 5 mA/cm2. Clarification by using STM showed that this was caused by the change of microscopic structure in Ni-Fe thin films.

  1. Influence of static and dynamic dipolar fields in bulk YIG/thin film NiFe systems probed via spin rectification effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Wee Tee; Tay, Z. J.; Yakovlev, N. L.; Peng, Bin; Ong, C. K.

    2017-03-01

    The characteristics of the static and dynamic components of the dipolar fields originating from a bulk polycrystalline yttrium iron garnet (YIG) substrate are probed by depositing a NiFe (Permalloy) layer on it, which acts as a detector. By measuring dc voltages generated via spin rectification effect (SRE) within the NiFe layer under microwave excitation, we characterize the influence of dipolar fields from bulk YIG on the NiFe layer. It is found that the dynamic YIG dipolar fields modify the self-SRE of NiFe, driving its own rectification voltages within the NiFe layer, an effect we term as non-local SRE. This non-local SRE only occurs near the simultaneous resonance of both YIG and NiFe. On the other hand, the static dipolar field from YIG manifests itself as a negative anisotropy in the NiFe layer which shifts the latter's ferromagnetic resonance frequency.

  2. Preyssler heteropolyacid supported on silica coated NiFe2O4 nanoparticles for the catalytic synthesis of bis(dihydropyrimidinone)benzene and 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Eshghi; Ali Javid; Amir Khojastehnezhad; Farid Moeinpour; Fatemeh F. Bamoharram; Mehdi Bakavoli; Masoud Mirzaei

    2015-01-01

    A novel magnetic acidic catalyst comprising Preyssler (H14[NaP5W30O110]) heteropoly acid support‐ed on silica coated nickel ferrite nanoparticles (NiFe2O4@SiO2) was prepared. The catalyst was characterized by Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X‐ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrum, VSM and particle size neasurement. Its catalytic activity was investigated for the synthesis of bis(dihydropyrimidinone)benzene and 3,4‐dihydropyrimidin‐2(1H)‐ones derivatives by the Biginelli reaction. With the catalyst, the reac‐tions occurred in less than 1 h with good to excellent yields. More importantly, the catalyst was easily separated from the reaction mixture by an external magnet and reused at least five times without degradation in the activity.

  3. Angle-resolved XPS Studies of Magnetic Multilayers Ta/NiO/NiFe/Ta%磁性多层膜Ta/NiO/NiFe/Ta角分辨XPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于广华; 朱逢吾; 马纪东; 王安荣

    2002-01-01

    磁性多层膜Ta/NiO/NiFe/Ta由磁控溅射方法制备.采用角分辨X射线光电子能谱(XPS)研究了反铁磁(NiO)/铁磁(NiFe)界面.结果表明,在NiO/NiFe界面发生了化学反应: NiO+Fe = Ni+FeO和3NiO+2Fe =3Ni+Fe2O3,此反应深度约为1~1.5 nm.反应产物将影响NiO对NiFe的交换耦合.

  4. Fe-Ni/NiFe2O4纳米复合颗粒的制备与磁性研究∗%The preparation and magnetic characterization of Fe-Ni/NiFe2 O4 nanocomposite particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 何峻; 安静; 赵栋梁

    2015-01-01

    结合共沉淀法和氢气还原法成功制备出Fe-Ni/NiFe2 O4纳米复合颗粒,所制备的纳米复合颗粒包含NiFe2 O4和 Fe-Ni 合金,其中 Fe-Ni 合金具有体心立方和面心立方两种结构。用 XRD 和 TEM对所得样品进行结构分析。用 SQUID 测量样品在室温时的磁滞回线,发现 Fe-Ni/NiFe2 O4纳米复合颗粒的矫顽力和饱和磁化强度与制备态 NiFe2 O4纳米颗粒相比随着退火时间的增加呈现出逐渐增加的趋势。为了进一步研究所制备的纳米复合颗粒的磁性特征,测量退火时间相同而退火温度不同的两个样品在零磁场冷却(ZFC)和带磁场冷却(FC)条件下的M-T 曲线。%NiFe2 O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method and Fe-Ni/NiFe2 O4 nanocom-posite particles were obtained by reducing NiFe2 O4 nanoparticles under hydrogen atmosphere.The as-prepared nanoparticles contain NiFe2 O4 with spinel phase and Fe-Ni alloy with body centered cubic and face-centered cu-bic phase.The structure and morphology of Fe-Ni/NiFe2 O4 nanocomposite particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy.The room temperature magnetization was analyzed by SQUID. We found that with the increase of annealing time,the coercivity and saturation magnetization of Fe-Ni/NiFe2 O4 nanocomposite particles exhibit a gradually increasing trend compared with as-quenched NiFe2 O4 nano-particles.In order to further study magnetic characteristics of as-prepared nanoparticles,we measured the M-T curves under the condition of zero field cooling (ZFC)and field cooling (FC)of two different samples which have different annealing temperature but the same annealing time.

  5. Magnetic property and interface structure of Ta/NiO/NiFe/Ta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ta/NiO/NiFe/Ta multilayers, utilizing Ta as buffer layer, were prepared by rf reactive and dc magnetron sputtering. The exchange coupling field between NiO and NiFe reached a maximum value of 9.6×103 A/m at a NiO film thickness of 50 nm. The composition and chemical states at interface region of Ta/NiO/Ta were studied by using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and peak decomp- osition technique. The results show that there is an "inter- mixing layer" at the Ta/NiO (and NiO/Ta) interface due to a thermodynamically favorable reaction 2Ta + 5NiO = 5Ni + Ta2O5. This interface reaction has a great effect on exchange coupling. The thickness of Ni+NiO estimated by XPS depth- profiles is about 8-10 nm.

  6. Effects of saccharin on microstructure and property of electro-deposited Ni-Fe alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jin-ku; WANG Ming-zhi; LI Qun; YANG Jun; LIU Lian

    2009-01-01

    The Ni-Fe alloy coatings were prepared by electro-deposited method, and the effects of the saccharin content in the electrolytes on the microstructure of the coatings were studied by using X-ray diffractometry(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and transmission electron microscopy(TEM). The results show that the saccharin content in the bath affects the plating rates and the current efficiency remarkably. As the saccharin content increases, the grain size of the Ni-Fe alloys decreases. The average grain size of the deposits varies from 13 nm to 10.8 nm as the saccharin content increases from 0 g/L to 8 g/L. Accordingly, the microhardness of the as-cold deformed samples increases from Hv 600 to Hv 656.

  7. Effects of Sodium Citrate Concentration on Electroless Ni-Fe Bath Stability and Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Won; Kang, Sung K.; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2014-01-01

    In this research, electroless Ni-Fe bath stability and deposition characteristics were investigated for various sodium citrate concentrations. Complexing agents such as sodium citrate are one of the main components of such electroless plating baths. Since they could play various roles such as maintaining pH stability, preventing precipitation of metal salts, and reducing the concentrations of free metal ions, the concentration of complexing agents in the plating bath is an important parameter for electroless deposition processes. In this research, unstable baths were obtained for insufficient sodium citrate concentrations, and these phenomena were analyzed with ChemEQL. Moreover, the deposition characteristics of electroless Ni-Fe for under bump metallurgy diffusion barriers were also investigated using energy-dispersive spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of NiFe2O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles by Combustion Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Kooti; A. Naghdi Sedeh

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles of nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) have been successfully synthesized by microwave-assisted combustion method using stable ferric and nickel salts as precursors and glycine as fuel.The as-synthesized samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR),X-ray diffraction (XRD),transmission electron microscopy (TEM),vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM).The effect of different dose of glycine on the structural parameters and magnetic properties of the prepared NiFe2O4 nanoparticles was also investigated.This study revealed that it was possible to produce larger size of nanoparticles with lower saturation magnetization by using higher dose of fuel.

  9. Giant magnetoimpedance effect of ac-dc Joule annealed electroplated NiFe/Cu composite wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanaatshoar, M.; Shokri, B. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azad, N. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Banitaba, M.H. [Departments of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    In this article, we investigate the influence of ac-dc Joule annealing of NiFe microtubes on their giant magnetoimpedance effect. NiFe magnetic layers were electroplated onto 100-{mu}m-diameter copper wires and then submitted to dc or ac-dc current annealing for 8 minutes. Both annealing and cooling down processes were performed in argon atmosphere. Results show that the presence of ac part of Joule treatment leads to higher induced anisotropy and increases the MI ratio. It is conjectured that the ac component through wall movement and moment fluctuation increases the tendency of the magnetic domains to lie circumferentially. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. High-temperature Mossbauer spectroscopy of mechanically milled NiFe2O4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgason, O.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    2002-01-01

    Oxide spinels, in particular those containing iron, often exhibit technically important electrical- and magnetic-properties. We report here on X-ray powder diffraction and Mossbauer studies of nanostructured NiFe2O4 particles prepared by high-energy ball milling from bulk NiFe2O4, which...... is an inverse spinel. The Mossbauer spectra were recorded in situ at different temperatures in the range of 300-850 K. The Mossbauer spectra of the milled samples show a broad distribution of magnetic hyperfine fields together with a paramagnetic state at room temperature. Initially, at 700 K the spectrum...... is mainly paramagnetic, but during the process of annealing, magnetic sextets emerge. The treatment results in a significant change in the B/A area ratio of the ferrite. The Neel temperature of the samples is estimated from the B(T) relation to be in the range of 800-850 K....

  11. Nanocrystalline Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films: A selective ethanol gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pratibha; Godbole, R. V.; Bhagwat, Sunita

    2016-10-01

    In this work, Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films were investigated for the detection of reducing gases. These films were fabricated using spray pyrolysis technique and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) to confirm the crystal structure. The surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Magnetization measurements were carried out using SQUID VSM, which shows ferrimagnetic behavior of the samples. These thin film sensors were tested against methanol, ethanol, hydrogen sulfide and liquid petroleum gas, where they were found to be more selective to ethanol. The fabricated thin film sensors exhibited linear response signal for all the gases with concentrations up to 5 w/o Pd. Reduction in optimum operating temperature and enhancement in response was also observed. Pd:NiFe2O4 thin films exhibited faster response and recovery characteristic. These sensors have potential for industrial applications because of their long-term stability, low power requirement and low production cost.

  12. Influences of Composition and Annealing on the Martensitic Transformation in Ni-Fe-Ga Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Huajun; XIE Yingmao; SHEN Hong

    2012-01-01

    A series of Ni-Fe-Ga alloys near the prototype Heusler composition (X2YZ) were prepared through arc-melting suction-casting method.The dependences of the transformation behavior on the alloy composition and annealing treatment were studied in detail by an optical microscope,X-ray diffraction,and differential scanning calorimeters methods.The experimental results show that the martensitic transformation temperatures increase almost linearly with increasing Ni content in all the NiFeGa alloys.Annealing the Ni55.5Fe18Ga26.5 alloy at 100-500 ℃ for 3 h and at 300 ℃ for 1-10 h shifts the martensitic transformation start temperature by almost 20 ℃ to high temperature.The variations in the martensitic transformation temperatures in these alloys are discussed in terms of structural differences resulting from alloy composition and annealing treatment.

  13. Mechanism of H2 Production by Models for the [NiFe]-Hydrogenases: Role of Reduced Hydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Olbelina A; Huynh, Mioy T; Richers, Casseday P; Bertke, Jeffery A; Nilges, Mark J; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Rauchfuss, Thomas B

    2016-07-27

    The intermediacy of a reduced nickel-iron hydride in hydrogen evolution catalyzed by Ni-Fe complexes was verified experimentally and computationally. In addition to catalyzing hydrogen evolution, the highly basic and bulky (dppv)Ni(μ-pdt)Fe(CO)(dppv) ([1](0); dppv = cis-C2H2(PPh2)2) and its hydride derivatives have yielded to detailed characterization in terms of spectroscopy, bonding, and reactivity. The protonation of [1](0) initially produces unsym-[H1](+), which converts by a first-order pathway to sym-[H1](+). These species have C1 (unsym) and Cs (sym) symmetries, respectively, depending on the stereochemistry of the octahedral Fe site. Both experimental and computational studies show that [H1](+) protonates at sulfur. The S = 1/2 hydride [H1](0) was generated by reduction of [H1](+) with Cp*2Co. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that [H1](0) is best described as a Ni(I)-Fe(II) derivative with significant spin density on Ni and some delocalization on S and Fe. EPR spectroscopy reveals both kinetic and thermodynamic isomers of [H1](0). Whereas [H1](+) does not evolve H2 upon protonation, treatment of [H1](0) with acids gives H2. The redox state of the "remote" metal (Ni) modulates the hydridic character of the Fe(II)-H center. As supported by DFT calculations, H2 evolution proceeds either directly from [H1](0) and external acid or from protonation of the Fe-H bond in [H1](0) to give a labile dihydrogen complex. Stoichiometric tests indicate that protonation-induced hydrogen evolution from [H1](0) initially produces [1](+), which is reduced by [H1](0). Our results reconcile the required reductive activation of a metal hydride and the resistance of metal hydrides toward reduction. This dichotomy is resolved by reduction of the remote (non-hydride) metal of the bimetallic unit.

  14. Exchange bias and spin glass behavior in biphasic NiFe2O4/NiO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebley, Andrew C.; Fuks, Preston E.; Pollock, Tresa M.; Gordon, Michael J.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic exchange bias and coercivity of nanogranular NiFe2O4/NiO thin films, prepared using flow-stabilized microplasmas and post-deposition annealing, have been investigated as a function of ferrimagnet/antiferromagnet phase fraction, grain size, and temperature. Exchange bias (EB) and vertical shifts in hysteresis loops observed in the as-deposited and low-T annealed (≤600 °C) films were attributed to exchange coupling between nanocrystalline NiFe2O4 (~8-10 nm) and a structurally-disordered spin glass (SG)-like phase. At higher annealing temperature (850 °C), the observed EB was found to arise from exchange coupling between NiFe2O4 and NiO, rather than a SG phase, most likely due to reduction of structurally-disordered interfaces and a substantial increase in NiFe2O4 grain size (~26 nm).

  15. Bamboo-like Te Nanotubes with Tailored Dimensions Synthesized from Segmental NiFe Nanowires as Sacrificial Templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Ho Young; Jung, Hyun Sung; Myung, No Sang [University of California-Riverside, Riverside (United States); Hong, Kim In [KICET, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Bamboo-like Te nanotubes were synthesized via the galvanic displacement reaction of NiFe nanowires with Ni-rich and Fe-rich segments. The thick and thin components of the synthesized Te nanotubes were converted from the Ni-rich and Fe-rich segments in the NiFe nanowires respectively. The dimensions of the Te nanotubes were controlled by employing sacrificial NiFe nanowires with tailored dimensions as the template for the galvanic displacement reaction. The segment lengths of the Te nanotubes were found to be dependent on those of the sacrificial NiFe nanowires. The galvanic displacement reaction was characterized by analyzing the open circuit potential and the corrosion resistance.

  16. Variations in the saturation magnetization of nanosized NiFe2O4 particles on adsorption of carboxylic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Kurosawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated magnetization changes in NiFe2O4 nanoparticles induced by the adsorption of a series of carboxylic acids. The application of formic acid resulted in a significant 8.6% decrease in the magnetization of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles at 18,000 Oe. With increasing carbon bond number in the saturated carboxylic acids, reductions in the magnetization of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles became around 4%. All unsaturated carboxylic acids produced approximately equivalent reductions in the magnetization, regardless of their double bond content. Based on these results, the observed NiFe2O4 magnetization changes appear to depend on either the polarity or the molecular size of the carboxylic acids and are believed to be caused by canting or pinning of spins in the vicinity of particle surfaces following adsorption of the acids.

  17. Parallel ferromagnetic resonance and spin-wave excitation in exchange-biased NiFe/IrMn bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Marcos Antonio de, E-mail: marcossharp@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 74001-970 (Brazil); Pelegrini, Fernando [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, 74001-970 (Brazil); Alayo, Willian [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, 96010-900 (Brazil); Quispe-Marcatoma, Justiniano; Baggio-Saitovitch, Elisa [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro, 22290-180 (Brazil)

    2014-10-01

    Ferromagnetic Resonance study of sputtered Ru(7 nm)/NiFe(t{sub FM})/IrMn(6 nm)/Ru(5 nm) exchange-biased bilayers at X and Q-band microwave frequencies reveals the excitation of spin-wave and NiFe resonance modes. Angular variations of the in-plane resonance fields of spin-wave and NiFe resonance modes show the effect of the unidirectional anisotropy, which is about twice larger for the spin-wave mode due to spin pinning at the NiFe/IrMn interface. At Q-band frequency the angular variations of in-plane resonance fields also reveal the symmetry of a uniaxial anisotropy. A modified theoretical model which also includes the contribution of a rotatable anisotropy provides a good description of the experimental results.

  18. Preparation of NiFe2O4 nanopowder via EDTA precursor and study of its properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit B.Rajput; Subhenjit Hazra; Niharika B.Krishna; Pavani Chavali; Sneha Datla; Narendra Nath Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    An ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) precursor-based chemical method is reported for preparing single-phase nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanopowder.The synthesized powder was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis,differential scanning calorimetric analysis,X-ray diffraction,particle size analysis and scanning electron microscopy.DC electrical resistivity and magnetic property of the synthesized NiFe2O4 were measured by using a two-probe method and a vibrating sample magnetometer respectively.The DC resistivity behaviour of the NiFe2O4 nanopowder was correlated with the change of microstructure,during sintering.This EDTA precursor-based method is capable of producing nanostructured single-phase NiFe2O4 powder at a comparatively low calcination temperature and offers the potential of a simple and cost-effective route,including the preparation of other ferrite nanoparticles.

  19. Thermal and structural study of Ni-Fe-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado-Hernandez, F.; Soto-Parra, D.E.; Ochoa-Gamboa, R.; Castillo-Villa, P.O. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S.C. 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Flores-Zuniga, H. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S.C. 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico)], E-mail: horacio.flores@cimav.edu.mx; Rios-Jara, D. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, 78216, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico)

    2008-08-25

    Some thermal and structural characteristics of Ni-Fe-Ga alloys were studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermo mechanical analysis (TMA), and X-ray diffraction techniques. It was observed that martensitic transition temperature rapidly decreases and Curie temperature increases with Fe content. The order-disorder transition temperature from a L2{sub 1} to A2 structures grows linearly with iron content, as measured by TMA. TMA has been found as a useful tool to perform these characterizations.

  20. Vibrational spectroscopy of the double complex salt Pd(NH3)4(ReO4)2, a bimetallic catalyst precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Simon T.; Lamb, H. Henry; Delley, Bernard; Franzen, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Tetraamminepalladium(II) perrhenate, a double complex salt, has significant utility in PdRe catalyst preparation; however, the vibrational spectra of this readily prepared compound have not been described in the literature. Herein, we present the infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of tetraamminepalladium(II) perrhenate and several related compounds. The experimental spectra are complemented by an analysis of normal vibrational modes that compares the experimentally obtained spectra with spectra calculated using DFT (DMol3). The spectra are dominated by features due to the ammine groups and the Resbnd O stretch in Td ReO4-; lattice vibrations due to the D4h Pd(NH3)42+ are also observed in the Raman spectrum. Generally, we observe good agreement between ab initio calculations and experimental spectra. The calculated IR spectrum closely matches experimental results for peak positions and their relative intensities. The methods for calculating resonance Raman intensities are implemented using the time correlator formalism using two methods to obtain the excited state displacements and electron-vibration coupling constants, which are the needed inputs in addition to the normal mode wave numbers. Calculated excited state energy surfaces of Raman-active modes correctly predict relative intensities of the peaks and Franck-Condon activity; however, the position of Raman bands are predicted at lower frequencies than observed. Factor group splitting of Raman peaks observed in spectra of pure compounds is not predicted by DFT.

  1. Structural, Magnetic and Magnetoresistive Properties of Ternary Film Ni-Fe-Co Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ia.M. Lytvynenko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the experimental studies of the structural and phase state, magnetic and magnetoresistive properties of thin films of Ni-Fe-Co alloy with the initial concentration of components сNi  40, сFe  10, and сCo  50 at.% in the annealing temperature range of Тa  300-1000 K are presented. It is shown that as-deposited alloy films have a two-phase structure fcc-Ni3Fe + hcp-Co. The fcc-phase with the lattice parameter of 0,354 nm, which corresponds to Ni-Fe-Co solid solution, is observed after heat treatment at 900 K. Thin films based on Ni-Fe and Co exhibit anisotropic magnetoresistance with the highest value (0,35% observed in the perpendicular measurement geometry. The value of magnetoresistance tends to rise with increasing annealing temperature. The results of the magnetic and magnetoresistive measurements indicate the presence of the easy axis of magnetization in plane of the sample.

  2. Magnetic properties of Ni-Fe nanowire arrays: effect of template material and deposition conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aravamudhan, Shyan [U OF SOUTH FL; Goddard, Paul A [U OF OXFORD; Bhansali, Shekhar [U OF SOUTH FL

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study the magnetic properties of arrays of Ni-Fe nanowires electrodeposited in different template materials such as porous silicon, polycarbonate and alumina. Magnetic properties were studied as a function of template material, applied magnetic field (parallel and perpendicular) during deposition, wire length, as well as magnetic field orientation during measurement. The results show that application of magnetic field during deposition strongly influences the c-axis preferred orientation growth of Ni-Fe nanowires. The samples with magnetic field perpendicular to template plane during deposition exhibits strong perpendicular anisotropy with greatly enhanced coercivity and squareness ratio, particularly in Ni-Fe nanowires deposited in polycarbonate templates. In case of polycarbonate template, as magnetic field during deposition increases, both coercivity and squareness ratio also increase. The wire length dependence was also measured for polycarbonate templates. As wire length increases, coercivity and squarness ratio decrease, but saturation field increases. Such magnetic behavior (dependence on template material, magnetic field, wire length) can be qualitatively explained by preferential growth phenomena, dipolar interactions among nanowires, and perpendicular shape anisotropy in individual nanowires.

  3. Electrodeposited Nanolaminated CoNiFe Cores for Ultracompact DC-DC Power Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J; Kim, M; Herrault, F; Park, JY; Allen, MG

    2015-09-01

    Laminated metallic alloy cores (i.e., alternating layers of thin film metallic alloy and insulating material) of appropriate lamination thickness enable suppression of eddy current losses at high frequencies. Magnetic cores comprised of many such laminations yield substantial overall magnetic volume, thereby enabling high-power operation. Previously, we reported nanolaminated permalloy (Ni-80 Fe-20) cores based on a sequential electrodeposition technique, demonstrating negligible eddy current losses at peak flux densities up to 0.5 T and operating at megahertz frequencies. This paper demonstrates improved performance of nanolaminated cores comprising tens to hundreds of layers of 300-500-nm-thick CoNiFe films that exhibit superior magnetic properties (e.g., higher saturation flux density and lower coercivity) than permalloy. Nanolaminated CoNiFe cores can be operated up to a peak flux density of 0.9 T, demonstrating improved power handling capacity and exhibiting 30% reduced volumetric core loss, attributed to lowered hysteresis losses compared to the nanolaminated permalloy core of the same geometry. Operating these cores in a buck dc-dc power converter at a switching frequency of 1 MHz, the nanolaminated CoNiFe cores achieved a conversion efficiency exceeding 90% at output power levels up to 7 W, compared to an achieved permalloy core conversion efficiency below 86% at 6 W.

  4. NiFe2O4/activated carbon nanocomposite as magnetic material from petcoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Sarah; Brämer-Escamilla, W.; Silva, P.; García, J.; Del Castillo, H.; Villarroel, M.; Rodriguez, J. P.; Ramos, M. A.; Morales, R.; Diaz, Y.

    2014-06-01

    Nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) was supported on activated carbon (AC) from petroleum coke (petcoke). Potassium hydroxide (KOH) was employed with petcoke to produce activated carbon. NiFe2O4 were synthesized using PEG-Oleic acid assisted hydrothermal method. The structural and magnetic properties were determined using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (IR-FT), surface area (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). XRD analysis revealed the cubic spinel structure and ferrite phase with high crystallinity. IR-FT studies showed that chemical modification promoted the formation of surface oxygen functionalities. Morphological investigation by SEM showed conglomerates of spherical nanoparticles with an average particle size of 72 nm and TEM showed the formation of NiFe2O4/carbon nanofibers. Chemical modification and activation temperature of 800 °C prior to activation dramatically increased the BET surface area of the resulting activated carbon to 842.4 m2/g while the sulfur content was reduced from 6 to 1%. Magnetic properties of nanoparticles show strong dependence on the particle size.

  5. Elemental redistribution in a nanocrystalline Ni-Fe alloy induced by high-pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, S. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Sha, G., E-mail: gang.sha@sydney.edu.au [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Wang, Y.B. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Liao, X.Z., E-mail: xiaozhou.liao@sydney.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Alhajeri, S.N. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, College of Technological Studies, PAAET, Shuwaikh 70654 (Kuwait); Li, H.Q. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Zhu, Y.T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27659-7919 (United States); Langdon, T.G. [Materials Research Group, School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Departments of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 (United States); Ringer, S.P. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2011-09-25

    Highlights: {center_dot} Elemental distribution of a nc Ni-Fe alloy before and after high-pressure torsion. {center_dot} The supersaturated Ni-Fe solid solution was stable under HPT. {center_dot} C and S atoms further segregated to the remaining GBs during grain growth. {center_dot} GB diffusion and the motion of defects facilitate the elemental redistribution. - Abstract: An electrochemically deposited nanocrystalline supersaturated face-centred-cubic Ni-21 at.% Fe alloy with an initial average grain size of {approx}21 nm was processed using high-pressure torsion (HPT) that resulted in grain growth via grain rotation and coalescence to an average grain size of {approx}53 nm. Atom probe tomography investigations revealed that the supersaturated Ni-Fe solid solution was stable under HPT and that C and S atoms, which are the major impurities in the material and segregated to the grain boundaries (GBs) of the as-deposited material, migrated from disappearing GBs to the remaining GBs during HPT. We propose that the elemental redistribution was facilitated by GB diffusion and the motion of a large volume of HPT-induced defects at the GB regions during the grain growth process. This elemental redistribution process is different from other HPT-induced elemental redistribution processes reported in the literature.

  6. Lightweight NiFe2O4 with controllable 3D network structure and enhanced microwave absorbing properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fen; Wang, Xing; Zhu, Jianfeng; Yang, Haibo; Kong, Xingang; Liu, Xiao

    2016-11-01

    3D network structure NiFe2O4 was successfully synthesized by a templated salt precipitation method using PMMA colloid crystal as templates. The morphology, phase composition and microwave absorbing properties of as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vector network analyzer (VNA), and so on. The results revealed that the 3D network structure was configurated with smooth spherical walls composed of NiFe2O4 nanocrystals and their pore diameters being in the range of 80–250 nm. The microwave absorption properties of the 3D network structure NiFe2O4 were crucially determined by the special structure. The synergy of intrinsic magnetic loss of magnetic NiFe2O4 and the interfacial polarization enhanced by 3D network structure and the interaction of multiple mechanisms endowed the sample with the feature of strong absorption, broad bandwidth and lightweight. There is more than one valley in the reflection loss curves and the maximum reflection loss is 27.5 dB with a bandwidth of 4 GHz. Moreover, the 3D network structure NiFe2O4 show a greater reflection loss with the same thickness comparing to the ordinary NiFe2O4 nanoparticles, which could achieve the feature of lightweight of the microwave absorbing materials.

  7. Microstructures of NiFe/nonmagnetic metal spacer/FeMn films and their influences on exchange coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Minghua(李明华); YU; Guanghua(于广华); ZHU; Fengwu(朱逢吾); HE; Ke(何珂); LAI; Wuyan(赖武彦)

    2003-01-01

    Ta/NiFe/nonmagnetic metal spacer/FeMn films were prepared by magnetron sputtering. The dependences of the exchange coupling field (Hex) between an antiferromagnetic FeMn layer and a ferromagnetic NiFe layer on the thickness of nonmagnetic metal spacer layers were systematically studied. The results show that the Hex dramatically decreases with the increase in the thicknesses of Bi and Ag spacer layers. However, it gradually decreases with the increase in the thickness of a Cu spacer layer. For a Cu space layer, its crystalline structure is the same as that of NiFe and the lattice parameters of them are close to each other. The Cu layer and FeMn layer will epitaxially grow on the NiFe layer in succession, so the (111) texture of the FeMn layer will not be damaged. As a result, the Hex gradually decreases with the deposition thickness of a Cu layer. For an Ag space layer, its crystalline structure is the same as that of NiFe, but its lattice parameter is very different from that of NiFe. Thus, neither an Ag nor an FeMn layer will epitaxially grow on the NiFe layer and the (111) texture of the FeMn layer will be damaged. The Hex rapidly decreases with the increase in the deposition thickness of an Ag layer. For a Bi spacer layer, not only its crystalline structure but also its lattice parameter is greatly different from that of NiFe. For the same reason, the Bi and FeMn layer cannot epitaxially grow on the NiFe layer. The texture of the FeMn layer will also be damaged. Therefore, the Hex rapidly decreases with the increase in the deposition thickness of a Bi layer as well. However, the research result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that a very small amount of surfactant Bi atoms will migrate to the FeMn layer surface when they are deposited on the NiFe/FeMn interface. Thus, the Hex will hardly decrease.

  8. Magnetic hybride layers. Magnetic properties of locally exchange-coupled NiFe/IrMn layers; Magnetische Hybridschichten. Magnetische Eigenschaften lokal austauschgekoppelter NiFe/IrMn-Schichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, Christine

    2010-10-06

    By the lateral modification of the magnetic properties of exchange-coupled NiFe/IrMn layers soft-magnetic layers were produced, which show both new static and dynamic properties. As lateral structuration methods hereby the localoxidation as well as ion implantation were applied. By means of thes procedures it has been succeeded to mould specific magnetic domain configurations with strp structure into the layers. In dependence of the structure orientation as well as strip period the remagnetization behavior as well as the magnetic-resonance frequency and damping of the layers could directly be modified. The new dynamical properties are hereby discussed in the framework of the coupling via dynamical charges and the direct affection of the effective field of the artificially inserted domain state. The presented results prove by this the large potential of the lateral magneto-structuration for the tuning of specifical static as well as dynamic properties of magnetically thin layers.

  9. Biosupported Bimetallic Pd Au Nanocatalysts for Dechlorination of Environmental Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Corte, S.; Fitts, J.; Hennebel, T.; Sabbe, T.; Bliznuk, V.; Verschuere, S.; van der Lelie, D.; Verstraete, W.; Boon, N.

    2011-08-30

    Biologically produced monometallic palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd) have been shown to catalyze the dehalogenation of environmental contaminants, but fail to efficiently catalyze the degradation of other important recalcitrant halogenated compounds. This study represents the first report of biologically produced bimetallic Pd/Au nanoparticle catalysts. The obtained catalysts were tested for the dechlorination of diclofenac and trichloroethylene. When aqueous bivalent Pd(II) and trivalent Au(III) ions were both added to concentrations of 50 mg L{sup -1} and reduced simultaneously by Shewanella oneidensis in the presence of H{sub 2}, the resulting cell-associated bimetallic nanoparticles (bio-Pd/Au) were able to dehalogenate 78% of the initially added diclofenac after 24 h; in comparison, no dehalogenation was observed using monometallic bio-Pd or bio-Au. Other catalyst-synthesis strategies did not show improved dehalogenation of TCE and diclofenac compared with bio-Pd. Synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction, (scanning) transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that the simultaneous reduction of Pd and Au supported on cells of S. oneidensis resulted in the formation of a unique bimetallic crystalline structure. This study demonstrates that the catalytic activity and functionality of possibly environmentally more benign biosupported Pd-catalysts can be improved by coprecipitation with Au.

  10. Anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe cores integrated into microinductors for high-frequency dc-dc power conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jooncheol; Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Jung-Kwun; Herrault, Florian; Allen, Mark G.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a rectangular, anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe core that possesses a magnetically hard axis in the long geometric axis direction. Previously, we have developed nanolaminated cores comprising tens to hundreds of layers of 300-1000 nm thick metallic alloys (i.e. Ni80Fe20 or Co44Ni37Fe19) based on sequential electrodeposition, demonstrating suppressed eddy-current losses at MHz frequencies. In this work, magnetic anisotropy was induced to the nanolaminated CoNiFe cores by applying an external magnetic field (50-100 mT) during CoNiFe film electrodeposition. The fabricated cores comprised tens to hundreds of layers of 500-1000 nm thick CoNiFe laminations that have the hard-axis magnetic property. Packaged in a 22-turn solenoid test inductor, the anisotropic core showed 10% increased effective permeability and 25% reduced core power losses at MHz operation frequency, compared to an isotropic core of the identical geometry. Operating the anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe core in a step-down dc-dc converter (15 V input to 5 V output) demonstrated 81% converter efficiency at a switching frequency of 1.1 MHz and output power of 6.5 W. A solenoid microinductor with microfabricated windings integrated with the anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe core was fabricated, demonstrating a constant inductance of 600 nH up to 10 MHz and peak quality factor exceeding 20 at 4 MHz. The performance of the microinductor with the anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe core is compared with other previously reported microinductors.

  11. Anisotropy Magnetoresistance of Nanometer Permalloy Films with New Seed Layer NiFeNb%以NiFeNb为新种子层的纳米级坡莫合金薄膜的各向异性磁电阻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊; 郑瑞伦; 陈希明

    2004-01-01

    Using Ternary alloy NiFeNb as a new seed layer, the (Ni82 Fe18 ) 1 -x Nbx (t nm)/Ni82 Fe18 (d nm)/Ta(3 nm)films are prepared with a DC magnetron sputtering system. Anisotropy Magnetoresistance and microstructures are measured for as-grown and annealed films. Effects of x, t, d and annealing on AMR are studied systematically from experiment. Rresults show that: 1. as a function of x or t, AMR has a topped peak at x=23.8% or t=2.75 nm, respectively; 2. in improving AMR, NiFeNb is superior to Ta;3. in enhancing AMR through moderate or high temperature-annealing, NiFeNb is superior to Ta and NiFeCr significantly.%以三元合金NiFeNb作新种子层,采用直流磁控多靶设备制备了具有不同Nb含量(x)、NiFeNb厚度(t)和坡英合金厚度(d)的纳米级(Ni82Fe18)1-xNbx(tnm)/Ni82Fe18(d nm)/Ta(3 nm)坡莫合金系列膜.测量了样品的各向异性磁电阻和微结构.从实验角度详细研究了AMR随x,t,d和退火等工艺条件的变化.结果表明:①作为x或t的函数,AMR在x=23.8%或x=2.75 nm处分别最大;②NiFeNb作为种子层在提高坡莫合金薄膜各向异性磁电阻方面优于Ta;③在通过中高温退火来改善坡莫合金薄膜AMR方面,NiFeNb种子层明显好于Ta和NiFeCr.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of niobium-promoted cobalt/iron catalysts supported on carbon nanotubes for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zahra Gholami; Noor Asmawati Mohd Zabidi; Fatemeh Gholami; Mohammadtaghi Vakili

    2016-01-01

    Bimetallic Co/Fe catalysts supported on carbon nanotubes ( CNTs) were prepared, and niobium ( Nb) was added as promoter to the 70Co:30Fe/CNT catalyst. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized, and the catalytic performances were analyzed at the same operation conditions (H2:CO (volume ratio)= 2:1, p = 1 MPa, and t = 260℃) in a tubular fixed-bed microreactor system. The addition of Nb to the bimetallic catalyst decreases the average size of the oxide nanoparticles and improves the reducibility of the bimetallic catalyst. Evaluation of the catalyst performance in a Fischer-Tropsch reaction shows that the catalyst results in high selectivity to methane, and the selectivity to C5+ increased slightly in the bimetallic catalyst unlike that in the monometallic catalysts. The addition of 1% Nb to the bimetallic catalyst increases CO conversion and selectivity to C5+. Meanwhile, a decrease in methane selectivity is observed.

  13. Estudo da oxidação total do etanol usando óxidos tipo perovskita LaBO3 (B= Mn, Ni, Fe Study of total oxidation of ethanol using the perovskite-type oxides LaBO3 (B= Mn, Ni, Fe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Brígida Soares

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the effect of coprecipitation-oxidant synthesis on the specific surface area of perovskite-type oxides LaBO3 (B= Mn, Ni, Fe for total oxidation of ethanol. The perovskite-type oxides were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption (BET method, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTA, TPR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Through method involving the coprecipitation-oxidant was possible to obtain catalysts with different BET specific surface areas, of 33-51 m²/g. The results of the catalytic test confirmed that all oxides investigated in this work have specific catalytic activity for total oxidation of ethanol, though the temperatures for total conversion change for each transition metal.

  14. Bimetallic redox synergy in oxidative palladium catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, David C; Ritter, Tobias

    2012-06-19

    (II/IV) catalysis has guided the successful development of many reactions. Herein we discuss differences between monometallic Pd(IV) and bimetallic Pd(III) redox catalysis. We address whether appreciation of the relevance of bimetallic Pd(III) redox catalysis is of academic interest exclusively, serving to provide a more nuanced description of catalysis, or if the new insight regarding bimetallic Pd(III) chemistry can be a platform to enable future reaction development. To this end, we describe an example in which the hypothesis of bimetallic redox chemistry guided reaction development, leading to the discovery of reactivity distinct from monometallic catalysts.

  15. Novel multifunctional NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids for dye removal by adsorption, photocatalysis and magnetic separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hua-Yue [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000 (China); Jiang, Ru, E-mail: jiangru0576@163.com [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000 (China); Fu, Yong-Qian [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000 (China); Li, Rong-Rong [College of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000 (China); Yao, Jun; Jiang, Sheng-Tao [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou, Zhejiang 318000 (China)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was decorated on ZnO surface by a hydrothermal method. • NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids show high adsorption capacity and excellent photostability. • The main active species in dye decolorization by NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids are ·OH and h{sup +}. • NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids can be easily separated by an external magnet. - Abstract: Novel multifunctional NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids were prepared by a hydrothermal method and their physicochemical properties were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, TGA, VSM, BET and UV–vis DRS. The adsorption and photocatalytic performance of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids were systematically investigated using congo red as a model contaminant. With the introduction of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids can absorb the whole light from 300 nm to 700 nm. The adsorption capacity (221.73 mg g{sup −1}) of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids is higher than those of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, ZnO and mechanically mixed NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids. The removal of congo red solution (20 mg L{sup −1}) by NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids was about 94.55% under simulated solar light irradiation for 10 min. ·OH and h{sup +} play important roles in the decolorization of congo red solution by NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids under simulated solar light irradiation. The decolorization efficiency of congo red solution is 97.23% for the fifth time by NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids under simulate solar light irradiation, indicating the high photostability and durability. NO{sub 3}{sup −} and Cl{sup −} anions which are ubiquitous components in dye-containing wastewater have negligible influence on the effectiveness of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids. Moreover, the magnetic NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/ZnO hybrids can be easily separated from the reacted solution by an external magnet.

  16. Non-local detection of spin dynamics via spin rectification effect in yttrium iron garnet/SiO2/NiFe trilayers near simultaneous ferromagnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Tee Soh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The spin rectification effect (SRE, a phenomenon that generates dc voltages from ac microwave fields incident onto a conducting ferromagnet, has attracted widespread attention due to its high sensitivity to ferromagnetic resonance (FMR as well as its relevance to spintronics. Here, we report the non-local detection of yttrium iron garnet (YIG spin dynamics by measuring SRE voltages from an adjacent conducting NiFe layer up to 200 nm thick. In particular, we detect, within the NiFe layer, SRE voltages stemming from magnetostatic surface spin waves (MSSWs of the adjacent bulk YIG which are excited by a shorted coaxial probe. These non-local SRE voltages within the NiFe layer that originates from YIG MSSWs are present even in 200 nm-thick NiFe films with a 50 nm thick SiO2 spacer between NiFe and YIG, thus strongly ruling out the mechanism of spin-pumping induced inverse spin Hall effect in NiFe as the source of these voltages. This long-range influence of YIG dynamics is suggested to be mediated by dynamic fields generated from YIG spin precession near YIG/NiFe interface, which interacts with NiFe spins near the simultaneous resonance of both spins, to generate a non-local SRE voltage within the NiFe layer.

  17. Non-local detection of spin dynamics via spin rectification effect in yttrium iron garnet/SiO2/NiFe trilayers near simultaneous ferromagnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Wee Tee; Peng, Bin; Ong, C. K.

    2015-08-01

    The spin rectification effect (SRE), a phenomenon that generates dc voltages from ac microwave fields incident onto a conducting ferromagnet, has attracted widespread attention due to its high sensitivity to ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) as well as its relevance to spintronics. Here, we report the non-local detection of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) spin dynamics by measuring SRE voltages from an adjacent conducting NiFe layer up to 200 nm thick. In particular, we detect, within the NiFe layer, SRE voltages stemming from magnetostatic surface spin waves (MSSWs) of the adjacent bulk YIG which are excited by a shorted coaxial probe. These non-local SRE voltages within the NiFe layer that originates from YIG MSSWs are present even in 200 nm-thick NiFe films with a 50 nm thick SiO2 spacer between NiFe and YIG, thus strongly ruling out the mechanism of spin-pumping induced inverse spin Hall effect in NiFe as the source of these voltages. This long-range influence of YIG dynamics is suggested to be mediated by dynamic fields generated from YIG spin precession near YIG/NiFe interface, which interacts with NiFe spins near the simultaneous resonance of both spins, to generate a non-local SRE voltage within the NiFe layer.

  18. Non-local detection of spin dynamics via spin rectification effect in yttrium iron garnet/SiO{sub 2}/NiFe trilayers near simultaneous ferromagnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soh, Wee Tee, E-mail: a0046479@u.nus.edu; Ong, C. K. [Center for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117551 (Singapore); Peng, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2015-08-15

    The spin rectification effect (SRE), a phenomenon that generates dc voltages from ac microwave fields incident onto a conducting ferromagnet, has attracted widespread attention due to its high sensitivity to ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) as well as its relevance to spintronics. Here, we report the non-local detection of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) spin dynamics by measuring SRE voltages from an adjacent conducting NiFe layer up to 200 nm thick. In particular, we detect, within the NiFe layer, SRE voltages stemming from magnetostatic surface spin waves (MSSWs) of the adjacent bulk YIG which are excited by a shorted coaxial probe. These non-local SRE voltages within the NiFe layer that originates from YIG MSSWs are present even in 200 nm-thick NiFe films with a 50 nm thick SiO{sub 2} spacer between NiFe and YIG, thus strongly ruling out the mechanism of spin-pumping induced inverse spin Hall effect in NiFe as the source of these voltages. This long-range influence of YIG dynamics is suggested to be mediated by dynamic fields generated from YIG spin precession near YIG/NiFe interface, which interacts with NiFe spins near the simultaneous resonance of both spins, to generate a non-local SRE voltage within the NiFe layer.

  19. Direct observation of domain walls in NiFe films using high-resolution Lorentz microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Bunsen Y.; Laughlin, David E.

    1996-04-01

    A novel approach to observe the interaction between magnetic domain wall and nanoscale microstructural features is demonstrated. The method is based on Focault mode Lorentz microscopy and utilizes a Gatan energy image filter to provide additional magnification. A postexperimental image processing technique was applied to separate lattice diffraction from that induced by magnetic domains. The effect of NiFe thickness on the width of a 180° Néel wall has been studied. It was found that the thickness dependence has a similar profile to the theoretically predicted trend but the actual wall thickness is smaller than the calculated values.

  20. Structural and magnetic properties of NiFe 2O 4-SnO 2 nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, A. S.; Ardisson, J. D.; Macedo, W. A. A.; Plivelic, T. S.; Torriani, I. L.; Larrea J., J.; Saitovitch, E. B.

    2004-05-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of the NiFe 2O 4-SnO 2 composite, obtained by ball-milling during different times, were investigated by X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, Mössbauer spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results showed the reduction of the crystalline particle size and modification in the nature of the system interfaces as a consequence of the mechanical treatment. Specimens with smaller particles displayed strong superparamagnetism. Large variation of the hysteresis loops for the different milling times was observed.

  1. Effects of interfacial Fe electronic structures on magnetic and electronic transport properties in oxide/NiFe/oxide heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qianqian; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Jing-Yan [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang, Meiyin [SKLSM, Institute of Semiconductors, CAS, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Xu-Jing; Jiang, Shao-Long; Liu, Yi-Wei; Cao, Yi [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Wu, Zheng-Long [Analytical and Testing Center, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Feng, Chun [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Ding, Lei [School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China); Yu, Guang-Hua, E-mail: ghyu@mater.ustb.edu.cn [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The magnetic and transport properties of oxide/NiFe/oxide films were studied. • The oxide (SiO{sub 2}, MgO and HfO{sub 2}) has different elemental electronegativity. • Redox reaction at different NiFe/oxide interface is dependent on the oxide layer. • Different interfacial electronic structures shown by XPS influence the properties. - Abstract: We report that the magnetic and electronic transport properties in oxide/NiFe(2 nm)/oxide film (oxide = SiO{sub 2}, MgO or HfO{sub 2}) are strongly influenced by the electronic structure of NiFe/oxide interface. Magnetic measurements show that there exist magnetic dead layers in the SiO{sub 2} sandwiched film and MgO sandwiched film, whereas there is no magnetic dead layer in the HfO{sub 2} sandwiched film. Furthermore, in the ultrathin SiO{sub 2} sandwiched film no magnetoresistance (MR) is detected, while in the ultrathin MgO sandwiched film and HfO{sub 2} sandwiched film the MR ratios reach 0.35% and 0.88%, respectively. The investigation by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the distinct interfacial redox reactions, which are dependent on the oxide layers, lead to the variation of magnetic and transport properties in different oxide/NiFe/oxide heterostructures.

  2. Effects of annealing temperature on the magnetoresistance in Ta/NiFe/Ta films by ZnO intercalations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Lei, E-mail: Lding@hainu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Tropical Island Resources, Ministry of Education, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China); Yu, Guang-hua; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Chong-jun; Teng, Jiao [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Xiang, Dao-ping [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Tropical Island Resources, Ministry of Education, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China)

    2015-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) exhibiting many superior physical properties was inserted into the Ta/NiFe/Ta films as nano-oxide intercalations. Different annealing temperatures and ZnO thickness significantly affected the magnetoresistance (MR) in NiFe films. The 4-nm thick ZnO film annealed at 200 °C had a MR of 2.41%, which was more than 70% higher than that of the 1-nm thick ZnO annealed film (MR=1.40%). However, the further increase in annealing temperature to 300 °C rapidly deteriorated the MR performance of the films. Diffusion and interface reactions occur between the crystal ZnO and the adjacent NiFe layer. Lower-temperature annealing improved the interface, increasing the specular reflection of spin-polarized electrons to some extent. However, higher-temperature annealing induced severe diffusion and interface reactions, which led to a sharp decline in MR performance. - Highlights: • Combining NiFe with ZnO, thereby producing NiFe/ZnO interfaces. • Investigating the effects of annealing temperatures on the magnetoresistance. • Explaining the corresponding relationship between MR and microstructure.

  3. A flexible alkaline rechargeable Ni/Fe battery based on graphene foam/carbon nanotubes hybrid film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jilei; Chen, Minghua; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Jian; Yan, Jiaxu; Huang, Yizhong; Lin, Jianyi; Fan, Hong Jin; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2014-12-10

    The development of portable and wearable electronics has promoted increasing demand for high-performance power sources with high energy/power density, low cost, lightweight, as well as ultrathin and flexible features. Here, a new type of flexible Ni/Fe cell is designed and fabricated by employing Ni(OH)2 nanosheets and porous Fe2O3 nanorods grown on lightweight graphene foam (GF)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) hybrid films as electrodes. The assembled f-Ni/Fe cells are able to deliver high energy/power densities (100.7 Wh/kg at 287 W/kg and 70.9 Wh/kg at 1.4 kW/kg, based on the total mass of active materials) and outstanding cycling stabilities (retention 89.1% after 1000 charge/discharge cycles). Benefiting from the use of ultralight and thin GF/CNTs hybrid films as current collectors, our f-Ni/Fe cell can exhibit a volumetric energy density of 16.6 Wh/l (based on the total volume of full cell), which is comparable to that of thin film battery and better than that of typical commercial supercapacitors. Moreover, the f-Ni/Fe cells can retain the electrochemical performance with repeated bendings. These features endow our f-Ni/Fe cells a highly promising candidate for next generation flexible energy storage systems.

  4. Self-assembled NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/carbon nanotubes sponge for enhanced glucose biosensing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yingchun; Zhao, Minggang, E-mail: zhaomg@ouc.edu.cn; Chen, Jing; Fan, Sisi; Liang, Jingjing; Ding, Longjiang; Chen, Shougang, E-mail: sgchen@ouc.edu.cn

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Self-assembled NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/CNTs sponge was prepared by ice-templating method. • The mechanism of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} modified CNTs relied on π-π interactions and static cling. • The porous structure made for GO{sub x} load, electrons transport and reactants diffusion. • Double catalysis and enhanced glucose sensing were achieved with elements Ni and Fe. - Abstract: In this work, self-assembled NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) sponge was prepared by ice-templating method. The device synergized the advantageous features of both the 3D porous nanostructure and the catalytic properties of CNTs with GOx and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The porous network construction of the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/CNTs sheets offered enlarged specific surface for GOx immobilization and opened channels for facilitating the electrons transport and reactants diffusion. With the help of the abnormal-valence elements Ni and Fe, double catalysis has happened and the enhanced glucose biosensing performance has been achieved. The fabricated glucose biosensor exhibited two large linear ranges (0–3.0 and 3.2–12.4 mM) and distinct sensitivities (84.1 and 24.6 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}).

  5. Ni-Fe-Mo三元系1373K等温截面的研究%Determination of Isothermal Sections of the Ni-Fe-Mo Ternary System at 1373 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯艳; 王日初; 文丹华; 李庆勇; 魏圣明

    2006-01-01

    采用三元扩散偶技术测定了Ni-Fe-Mo三元系1373 K的等温截面,借助电子探针微区成分分析方法分析了Ni-Fe-Mo三元扩散偶的相区成分,并对其相关系进行了研究.测得Ni-Fe-Mo三元扩散偶在1373 K下存在2个二元中间化合物:μ和NiMo.该三元系在1373 K存在3个三相区:μ+bcc(Mo)+NiMo;μ+NiMo+fcc;bcc(Fe)+μ+fcc;在此温度的扩散偶中未发现三元中间化合物.

  6. Synthesis of supported bimetallic nanoparticles with controlled size and composition distributions for active site elucidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakim, Sikander H.; Sener, Canan; Alba Rubio, Ana C.; Gostanian, Thomas M.; O' neill, Brandon J; Ribeiro, Fabio H.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Dumesic, James A

    2015-08-01

    Elucidation of active sites in supported bimetallic catalysts is complicated by the high level of dispersity in the nanoparticle size and composition that is inherent in conventional methods of catalyst preparation. We present a synthesis strategy that leads to highly dispersed, bimetallic nanoparticles with uniform particle size and composition by means of controlled surface reactions. We demonstrate the synthesis of three systems, RhMo, PtMo, and RhRe, consisting of a highly reducible metal with an oxophilic promoter. These catalysts are characterized by FTIR, CO chemisorption, STEM/EDS, TPR, and XAS analysis. The catalytic properties of these bimetallic nanoparticles were probed for the selective CO hydrogenolysis of (hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran to produce 1,6 hexanediol. Based on the characterization results and reactivity trends, the active sites in the hydrogenolysis reaction are identified to be small ensembles of the more noble metal (Rh, Pt) adjacent to highly reduced moieties of the more oxophilic metal (Mo, Re).

  7. Novel synthesis of Ni-ferrite (NiFe2O4) electrode material for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, V.; Jayavel, R.

    2015-06-01

    Novel nanocrystalline NiFe2O4 has been synthesized through combustion route using citric acid as a fuel. Phase of the synthesized material was analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction. The XRD study revealed the formation of spinel phase cubic NiFe2O4 with high crystallinity. The average crystallite size of NiFe2O4 nanomaterial was calculated from scherrer equation. The electrochemical properties were realized by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrode material shows a maximum specific capacitance of 454 F/g with pseudocapacitive behavior. High capacitance retention of electrode material over 1000 continuous charging-discharging cycles suggests its excellent electrochemical stability. The results revealed that the nickel ferrite electrode is a potential candidate for energy storage applications in supercapacitor.

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase from Allochromatium vinosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellers, Petra; Ogata, Hideaki; Lubitz, Wolfgang, E-mail: lubitz@mpi-muelheim.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Bioanorganische Chemie, Stiftstrasse 34-36, D-45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2008-08-01

    This article describes the first successful crystallization of a membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase isolated from a photosynthetic organism (A. vinosum). The crystals obtained produced diffraction patterns up to 2.5 Å resolution. The membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase is a unique metalloprotein that is able to catalyze the reversible oxidation of hydrogen to protons and electrons during a complex reaction cycle. The [NiFe] hydrogenase was isolated from the photosynthetic purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum and its crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis are reported. It was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using sodium citrate and imidazole as crystallization agents. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 205.00, b = 217.42, c = 120.44 Å. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 2.5 Å resolution.

  9. Formation of magnetic microstructure of the nanosized NiFe2O4 synthesized via solid-state reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žák T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic NiFe2O4 structure formation was studied through structural, compositional and magnetic characterization of obtained reaction products of a simple, high yielding and low-cost solid-state reaction. Initial annealing of the starting oxides mixture at 700ºC did not allow us to observe formation of the desired magnetic phase. In contrast, subsequent thermomagnetic measurements up to 800ºC indicated the considerable increase of the magnetic moment, which can be reasonably assigned to the changes in phase composition and formation of magnetic NiFe2O4 structure during the heating cycle of measurements. Nanosized NiFe2O4 phase formation has been confirmed by the following XRD and MS phase analyses and its nanocrystalline structure by XRD and SEM/TEM techniques. The obtained hysteresis loop taken after TM measurements suggest the increased volume of magnetically active material and thus additionally support the previous findings.

  10. A study on the electrodeposition of NiFe alloy thin films using chronocoulometry and electrochemical quartz crystal microgravimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Myung, N S

    2001-01-01

    Ni, Fe and NiFe alloy thin films were electrodeposited at a polycrystalline Au surface using a range of electrolytes and potentials. Coulometry and EQCM were used for real-time monitoring of electroplating efficiency of the Ni and Fe. The plating efficiency of NiFe alloy thin films was computed with the aid of ICP spectrometry. In general, plating efficiency increased to a steady value with deposition time. Plating efficiency of Fe was lower than that of Ni at -0.85 and -1.0 V but the efficiency approached to the similar plateau value to that of Ni at more negative potentials. The films with higher content of Fe showed different stripping behavior from the ones with higher content of Ni. Finally, compositional data and real-time plating efficiency are presented for films electrodeposited using a range of electrolytes and potentials.

  11. Novel synthesis of Ni-ferrite (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) electrode material for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatachalam, V.; Jayavel, R., E-mail: rjvel@annauniv.edu [Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Anna University, Chennai-600025 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Novel nanocrystalline NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been synthesized through combustion route using citric acid as a fuel. Phase of the synthesized material was analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction. The XRD study revealed the formation of spinel phase cubic NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with high crystallinity. The average crystallite size of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanomaterial was calculated from scherrer equation. The electrochemical properties were realized by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrode material shows a maximum specific capacitance of 454 F/g with pseudocapacitive behavior. High capacitance retention of electrode material over 1000 continuous charging-discharging cycles suggests its excellent electrochemical stability. The results revealed that the nickel ferrite electrode is a potential candidate for energy storage applications in supercapacitor.

  12. Spin-driven ordering of Cr in the equiatomic high entropy alloy NiFeCrCo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, C.; Zaddach, A. J.; Oni, A. A.; Sang, X.; LeBeau, J. M.; Koch, C. C.; Irving, D. L., E-mail: dlirving@ncsu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Hurt, J. W. [Department of Physics, Furman University, Greenville, South Carolina 29613 (United States)

    2015-04-20

    Spin-driven ordering of Cr in an equiatomic fcc NiFeCrCo high entropy alloy (HEA) was predicted by first-principles calculations. Ordering of Cr is driven by the reduction in energy realized by surrounding anti-ferromagnetic Cr with ferromagnetic Ni, Fe, and Co in an alloyed L1{sub 2} structure. The fully Cr-ordered alloyed L1{sub 2} phase was predicted to have a magnetic moment that is 36% of that for the magnetically frustrated random solid solution. Three samples were synthesized by milling or casting/annealing. The cast/annealed sample was found to have a low temperature magnetic moment that is 44% of the moment in the milled sample, which is consistent with theoretical predictions for ordering. Scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements were performed and the presence of ordered nano-domains in cast/annealed samples throughout the equiatomic NiFeCrCo HEA was identified.

  13. Magnetic field induced strain assisted by stress in Ni-Fe-GaCo single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chumlyakov Y.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMA have the possibility to induced a strain by applying a magnetic field. The main advantage of the FSMA is that the strain cycling frequency is two orders of magnitude higher than coventional shape memory alloys. The best alloy showing this effect is the Ni-Mn-Ga system, with a high mobility of its martensite variants and high magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant. Nevertheless, due to the high brittleness of this alloy, other systems (Ni-Fe-Ga, Co-Ni-Al, Co-Ni-Ga, ... are being investigated as an alternative to Ni-Mn-Ga. In the current work, Ni-Fe-Ga-Co single crystals have been studied. In spite of the formation of L10 martensite (low mobility of the variants, the [001] crystals exhibited magnetic-field-induced strains (in tension larger than 2%, under an assisting tensile stress around 16 MPa and fields below 15 kOe. In martensitic samples previously compressed, application of a constant tensile stress along the same axis together with a perpendicular magnetic field produces the elongation of the sample by variant reorientation, as one of the variants rotates its c axis from the field direction to the stress-axis direction. An estimated magnetostress of ~0.8 MPa is in good agreement with the theoretical value given by the ratio of magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant and twinning shear.

  14. Constraints on explosive silicon burning in core-collapse supernovae from measured Ni/Fe ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Jerkstrand, A; Magkotsios, G; Sim, S A; Fransson, C; Spyromilio, J; Heger, A; Müller, B; Sollerman, J; Smartt, S J

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of explosive nucleosynthesis yields in core-collapse supernovae provide tests for explosion models. We investigate constraints on explosive conditions derivable from measured amounts of nickel and iron after radioactive decays using nucleosynthesis networks with parameterized thermodynamic trajectories. The Ni/Fe ratio is for most regimes dominated by the production ratio of 58Ni/(54Fe + 56Ni), which tends to grow with higher neutron excess and with higher entropy. For SN 2012ec, a supernova that produced a Ni/Fe ratio of $3.4\\pm1.2$ times solar, we find that burning of a fuel with neutron excess $\\eta \\approx 6\\times 10^{-3}$ is required. Unless the progenitor metallicity is over 5 times solar, the only layer in the progenitor with such a neutron excess is the silicon shell. Supernovae producing large amounts of stable nickel thus suggest that this deep-lying layer can be, at least partially, ejected in the explosion. We find that common spherically symmetric models of $M_{\\rm ZAMS} \\lesssim 13$...

  15. Atomically thin layered NiFe double hydroxides assembled 3D microspheres with promoted electrochemical performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomin; Zai, Jiantao; Liu, Yuanyuan; He, Xiaobo; Xiang, Shijie; Ma, Zifeng; Qian, Xuefeng

    2016-09-01

    LDHs in atomic thickness (mono-/bi-layers) usually exhibit novel physicochemical properties, especially in surface-dependent energy storage and catalysis areas. However, the thickness of the commonly reported 2D LDHs is in nanoscale and the bottom-up synthesis of atomically thin LDHs is rarely reported. Herein, high-quality atomically thin layered NiFe-LDHs assembled 3D microspheres were synthesized via a rational designed reaction system, where the formation of atomically thin building blocks was controlled by the synergetic effects of released carbonate anions and butanol. Furthermore, the complexant and solvents played important effects on the process of coprecipitation and the assembling of LDHs. Due to the nature of atomically thin LDHs nanosheets and unique 3D hierarchical structures, the obtained microspheres exhibited excellent electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity in alkaline medium with an onset overpotential (0.435 V, which is lower than that of common LDHs) and good durability. The as-prepared 3D NiFe-LDHs microspheres were also firstly used as supercapacitor materials and displayed a high specific capacitance of 1061 F g-1 at the current density of 1 A g-1.

  16. Isotopic fractionation associated with [NiFe]- and [FeFe]-hydrogenases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hui; Gandhi, Hasand; Cornish, Adam J.; Moran, James J.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Ostrom, Nathaniel; Hegg, Eric L.

    2016-01-30

    Hydrogenases catalyze the reversible formation of H2 from electrons and protons with high efficiency. Understanding the relationships between H2 production, H2 uptake, and H2-H2O exchange can provide insight into the metabolism of microbial communities in which H2 is an essential component in energy cycling. In this manuscript, we used stable H isotopes (1H and 2H) to probe the isotope effects associated with three [FeFe]-hydrogenases and three [NiFe]-hydrogenases. All six hydrogenases displayed fractionation factors for H2 formation that were significantly less than 1, producing H2 that was severely depleted in 2H relative to the substrate, water. Consistent with differences in their active site structure, the fractionation factors for each class appear to cluster, with the three [NiFe]-hydrogenases (α = 0.27-0.40) generally having smaller values than the three [FeFe]-hydrogenases (α = 0.41-0.55). We also obtained isotopic fractionation factors associated with H2 uptake and H2-H2O exchange under conditions similar to those utilized for H2 production, providing us with a more complete picture of the three reactions catalyzed by hydrogenases. The fractionation factors determined in our studies can be used as signatures for different hydrogenases to probe their activity under different growth conditions and to ascertain which hydrogenases are most responsible for H2 production and/or uptake in complex microbial communities.

  17. Supersolar Ni/Fe production in the Type IIP SN 2012ec

    CERN Document Server

    Jerkstrand, Anders; Sollerman, Jesper; Inserra, Cosimo; Fraser, Morgan; Spyromilio, Jason; Fransson, Claes; Chen, Ting-Wan; Barbarino, Cristina; Dall'Ora, Massimo; Botticella, Maria Teresa; Della Valle, Massimo; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Valenti, Stefano; Maguire, Kate; Mazzali, Paolo; Tomasella, Lina

    2014-01-01

    SN 2012ec is a Type IIP supernova (SN) with a progenitor detection and comprehensive photospheric-phase observational coverage. Here, we present Very Large Telescope and PESSTO observations of this SN in the nebular phase. We model the nebular [O I] 6300, 6364 lines and find their strength to suggest a progenitor main-sequence mass of 13-15 Msun. SN 2012ec is unique among hydrogen-rich SNe in showing a distinct and unblended line of stable nickel [Ni II] 7378. This line is produced by 58Ni, a nuclear burning ash whose abundance is a sensitive tracer of explosive burning conditions. Using spectral synthesis modelling, we use the relative strengths of [Ni II] 7378 and [Fe II] 7155 (the progenitor of which is 56Ni) to derive a Ni/Fe production ratio of 0.19pm0.07, which is a factor 3.5pm1.2 times the solar value. High production of stable nickel is confirmed by a strong [Ni II] 1.939 micron line. This is the third reported case of a core-collapse supernova producing a Ni/Fe ratio far above the solar value, which...

  18. Effect of Al addition on properties of TiNiFe shape memory alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Li; LIU Fu-shun; XU Hui-bin

    2006-01-01

    A little amount of aluminum substituting for Ni was added to Ti50Ni48Fe2 and Ti50Ni47.5Fe2.5 alloys to improve the mechanical properties, especially the yield stress of the TiNiFe alloys. The martensitic transformation temperature and mechanical properties of Ti50Ni48-xFe2Alx and Ti50Ni47.5-xFe2.5Alx (x=0, 0.5, 1) alloys were examined, and it was revealed that 0.5% and 1%(mole fraction) aluminum addition lead to about 10℃ and 60-80 ℃ martensitic transformation temperature (MS) decrease, respectively. 1%(mole fraction) aluminum addition enhances remarkably the yield stresses of Ti50Ni47Fe2Al1 and Ti50Ni46.5Fe2.5Al1 to 560 and 580 MPa, respectively. The systemic microstructure analysis indicates that the second phase Ti2Ni at the grain boundaries plays an important role in improving the mechanical properties of TiNiFe shape memory alloys.

  19. Large enhancement of magnetoresistance in NiFe film with MgO layers sandwiched after annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhi-Duo; Li, Ming-Hua [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, Chong-Jun, E-mail: zhaocj@bj-nmc.cn [Beijing Nmc Co., Ltd., Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang, Guang; Zhang, Jing-Yan; Jiang, Shao-Long; Zhao, Yun-Chi; Cui, Xiao-Peng [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Yu, Guang-Hua, E-mail: ghyu@mater.ustb.edu.cn [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-12-01

    Highlights: • Ta/MgO/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19}/MgO/Ta and Ta/Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19}/Ta were prepared by magnetron sputtering. • The electronic transport properties were studied. • The microstructure of NiFe film (100 nm) with MgO sandwiched was measured by HRTEM. • The average grain size and the crystallinity were determined from X-ray diffraction studies. • Δρ and ρ for samples as function of the NiFe thickness were analyzed. - Abstract: A large enhancement of magnetoresistance (MR) up to 6.0% has been observed in NiFe sandwiched by MgO layers, which is 50% larger than the highest MR (4%) in bulk materials. The great improvement of MR derives from the slight increase in corresponding resistivity change Δρ and the great decrease in resistivity ρ. The enhancement of Δρ is attributed to the strengthened spin-dependent scattering of the interfacial conductive electrons but the contribution will be slight with the increase in NiFe thickness. The main contribution is from the significant decrease in ρ, originating from confinement effect on electrons from well-formed oxide/metal interfaces after annealing. Surprisingly, this effect still exists when the NiFe thickness reaches 100 nm. Meanwhile, the oxide (MgO) layers inserted prevents the atomic interdiffusion of Ta and NiFe at the interfaces, which decreases the thickness of magnetic dead layer.

  20. Progress, Challenge, and Perspective of Bimetallic TiO2-Based Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zielińska-Jurek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bimetallic TiO2-based photocatalysts have attracted considerable attention in recent years as a class of highly active catalysts and photocatalysts under both UV and Vis light irradiation. Bimetallic noble metal structures deposited on TiO2 possess the ability to absorb visible light, in a wide wavelength range (broad LSPR peak, and therefore reveal the highest level of activity as a result of utilization of a large amount of incident photons. On the other hand they can enhance the rate of trapping photoexcited electrons and inhibit the recombination process due to the capability of the storage of photoexcited electrons. Based on literature two groups of bimetallic photocatalysts were distinguished. The first group includes bimetallic TiO2 photocatalysts (BMOX, highly active under UV and Vis light irradiation in a variety of oxidation reactions, and the second group presents bimetallic photocatalysts (BMRED exceptionally active in hydrogenation reactions. This review summarizes recent advances in the preparation and environmental application of bimetallic TiO2-based photocatalysts. Moreover, the effects of various parameters such as particle shape, size, amount of metals, and calcination on the photocatalytic activity of bimetallic TiO2-based photocatalysts are also discussed.

  1. Efficient Nd Promoted Rh Catalysts for Vapor Phase Methanol Carbonylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Feng ZHANG; Qing Li QIAN; Ping Lai PAN; Yi CHEN; Guo Qing YUAN

    2005-01-01

    A Nd promoted-Rh catalysts supported on polymer-derived carbon beads for vapor-phase methanol carbonylation was developed. Rh-Nd bimetallic catalysts obviously have higher activity than that of supported Rh catalyst under similar reaction condition. The difference between the activity of above two catalyst systems is clearly caused by the intrinsic properties generated by the introduction of Nd.

  2. 铝合金化学镀Ni-Fe-P-B工艺研究%A Study of Electroless Ni-Fe-P-B Plating on Aluminium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳芝

    2002-01-01

    研究了以铝合金为基体,化学镀Ni-Fe-P-B合金工艺及镀速、镀层组成和耐蚀性.通过控制NaH2PO2、KBH4、丁二酸的浓度,金属盐的比率(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2/[(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2+NiSO4]及pH值得到理想的镀层.在NaH2PO2 30 g/L、KBH4 1.0g/L、金属盐的比率0.4、丁二酸8 g/L,pH值9.0~10时,镀速最高,镀层主要为非晶态结构,且与基体结合力优良;耐蚀性良好,在10%NaOH溶液中的耐蚀性能优于在1 mol/L HCl和3.5%NaCl溶液中的耐蚀性能;该镀层合金中铁、磷和硼的质量分数分别为27.14%、2.57%和6.07%.

  3. Fabrication of bimetallic nanostructures via aerosol-assisted electroless silver deposition for catalytic CO conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Jang-Woo

    2014-03-12

    Bimetallic nanostructures were fabricated via aerosol-assisted electroless silver deposition for catalytic CO conversion. An ambient spark discharge was employed to produce nanocatalysts, and the particles were directly deposited on a polytetrafluoroethylene substrate for initiating silver deposition to form Pd-Ag, Pt-Ag, Au-Ag bimetallic nanostructures as well as a pure Ag nanostructure. Kinetics and morphological evolutions in the silver deposition with different nanocatalysts were comparatively studied. The Pt catalyst displayed the highest catalytic activity for electroless silver deposition, followed by the order Pd > Au > Ag. Another catalytic activity of the fabricated bimetallic structures in the carbon monoxide conversion was further evaluated at low-temperature conditions. The bimetallic systems showed significantly higher catalytic activity than that from a pure Ag system.

  4. Microstructure, AC impedance and DC electrical conductivity characteristics of NiFe2-xGdxO4 (x = 0, 0.05 and 0.075

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kamala Bharathi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure and electrical characteristics of Gd doped Ni ferrite materials, namely NiFe1.95Gd0.05O4 and NiFe1.925Gd0.075O4, are reported to demonstrate their improved electrical properties compared to that of pure NiFe2O4. NiFe1.95Gd0.05O4 and NiFe1.925Gd0.075O4 compounds crystallize in the cubic inverse spinel phase with a very small amount of GdFeO3 additional phase while pure NiFe2O4 crystallize in inverse spinel phase without any impurity phase. The back scattered electron imaging analysis indicate the primary and secondary formation in NiFe1.95Gd0.05O4 and NiFe1.925Gd0.075O4 compounds. Atomic force microscopy measurements indicate that the bulk grains are ∼2-5 micron size while the grain boundaries are thin compared to bulk grains. Impedance spectroscopic analysis at different temperature indicates the different relaxation mechanisms and their variation with temperature, bulk grain and grain-boundary contributions to the electrical conductivity (Rg and capacitance (Cg of these materials. The conductivity in pure NiFeO4 is found to be predominantly due to intrinsic bulk contribution (Rg=213 kΩ and Cg=4.5 x 10-8 F. In the case of NiFe1.95Gd0.05O4 and NiFe1.925Gd0.075O4 compounds, grain and grain-boundary contributions to the conductivity are clearly observed. The DC conductivity values (at 300 K of NiFe2O4, NiFe1.95Gd0.05O4 and NiFe1.925Gd0.075O4 compounds are found to be 1.06 x 10-7 Ω-1 cm-1, 5.73 x 10-8 Ω-1 cm-1 and 1.28 x 10-8 Ω-1 cm-1 respectively.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Spongy NiFe2O4 Clusters%海绵状NiFe2O4团簇的合成与表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶; 杨巧珍; 董平; 张俊玲

    2011-01-01

    Spongy NiFe2O4 clusters were synthesized via solvothermal process with poly (vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) as additives. The samples were characterized by XRD, VSM, SEM, TEM,BET and ICP. The results show that when PVP and HMTA are added to the reaction system together, the as-synthesized spongy NiFe2O4 clusters have spinel crystal structure with small crystal size, their saturation magnetization is 57. 30emu/g and specific surface area and pore volume are 91. 57m2/g and 0. 26cm3/g, respectively.%以乙醇-水为混合溶剂,六亚甲基四胺(HMTA)与聚乙烯吡咯烷酮(PVP)为添加剂,通过溶剂热法合成海绵状的镍铁氧体( NiFe2O4)团簇,并对其进行了XRD、VSM、SEM、TEM、BET与ICP表征.结果表明,在反应体系中同时引入PVP与HMTA时,合成的海绵状NiFe2O4团簇具有尖晶石晶体结构,晶粒均匀细小,比饱和磁化强度为57.30emu/g,比表面积与孔容分别为91.57m2/g、0.26cm3/g.

  6. Structure of an Actinobacterial-Type [NiFe]-Hydrogenase Reveals Insight into O2-Tolerant H2 Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Caspar; Bommer, Martin; Hennig, Sandra E; Jeoung, Jae-Hun; Dobbek, Holger; Lenz, Oliver

    2016-02-01

    A novel group of bacterial [NiFe]-hydrogenases is responsible for high-affinity H2 uptake from the troposphere, and is therefore thought to play an important role in the global H2 cycle. Here we present the first crystal structure at 2.85-Å resolution of such an actinobacterial-type hydrogenase (AH), which was isolated from the dihydrogen oxidizing bacterium, Ralstonia eutropha. The enzyme has a dimeric structure carrying two active [NiFe] sites that are interconnected by six [4Fe4S] clusters over a range of approximately 90 Å. Unlike most other [NiFe]-hydrogenases, the [4Fe4S] cluster proximal to the [NiFe] site is coordinated by three cysteines and one aspartate. Mutagenesis experiments revealed that this aspartate residue is related to the apparent O2 insensitivity of the AH. Our data provide first structural insight into specialized hydrogenases that are supposed to consume atmospheric H2 under challenging conditions, i.e. at high O2 concentration and wide temperature and pH ranges.

  7. Ferromagnetic resonance studies and magnetization curvesof Co-Cr and Co-Cr/Ni-Fe thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, Maria Theresia Helena Clasina Wilhelmina

    1989-01-01

    In this thesis CoCr and CoCr/NiFe double layers are studied by ferromagnetic resonance. The coercivity and the initial susceptibility of these layers are measured. An approximation of the Kooy and Enz model which is suitable for calculating the initial suceptibility is presented [3.36]. A theoretica

  8. Characterization of nanostructured spinel NiFe2O4 obtained by soft mechanochemical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Z.Ž.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Powdery nickel ferrite, NiFe2O4 has been obtained by soft mechanochemical synthesis in a planetary ball mill. Ni(OH2 and Fe(OH3 are used as initial compounds. This mixture was mechanically activated for 25h, uniaxial pressed and sintered at 1100°C for 2h. The phase composition of the sintered sample was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS and Raman spectroscopy. Morphologies were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The electrical DC/resistivity/conductivity at different temperatures was measured using a Source Meter Keithley 2410. An Impedance/Gain-Phase Analyzer (HP-4194 was used to measure the impedance spectra (100Hz - 10MHz at different temperatures. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45003 i br. III 45015

  9. Peculiarities of magnetoelastic coupling in Ni-Fe-Ga-Co ferromagnetic martensite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kustov, S; Corro, M L; Cesari, E [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra. Valldemossa, km 7.5, 07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Perez-Landazabal, J I; Recarte, V, E-mail: Sergey.Kustov@uib.ca [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de ArrosadIa, 31006 Pamplona (Spain)

    2010-05-05

    The reversible stress-induced magnetization (inverse magnetostriction or Villari effect) has been measured in a polycrystalline Ni-Fe-Ga-Co ferromagnetic martensite. The samples were mechanically excited using longitudinal resonant oscillations at frequencies close to 100 kHz, and experiments were performed over the temperature range 170-350 K under variable polarizing fields. It has been found that the reversible inverse magnetostriction changes its sign under low polarizing fields over a certain temperature range with its upper limit close to the Curie temperature. We argue that the variations of sign of the reversible inverse magnetostriction effect are related in the present experiments with the change in the sign of magnetostriction, as has additionally been verified in test measurements performed for pure Ni and Fe. The observed peculiarity of magnetoelastic coupling is also reflected in the temperature dependence of electrical resistance and even produces a minor effect in calorimetry scans. Possible origins of these features of magnetoelastic coupling are discussed.

  10. Mesoscale Compositionally Modulated Nanocrystalline Ni-Fe Electrodeposits for Nanopatterning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Egberts

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A considerable range of surface nanostructures can be fabricated by the selective dissolution of elements or phases from metallic alloys. Selectively etched electrodeposited multilayers may find useful application in optoelectronic and MEMS devices. One issue with electrodeposited multilayers is that the fine-scale multilayer structure can often exhibit significant waviness if the band layer spacing is on the same order of magnitude as the grain size. In the present study, the mean grain size was reduced to below 10 nm in a compositionally modulated Ni-Fe alloy. Preferential etching on the electroform cross-section resulted in highly uniform and directional surface channels. The evolution of this nanopatterned surface morphology was characterized by atomic force microscopy and directional roughness parameters were obtained.

  11. Magnetocaloric effect in Ni-Fe-Ga Heusler alloys with Co and Al substitutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolea F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The functionality of the ferromagnetic shape memory alloys is related to the martensitic and magnetic order-disorder transformations, both of which may be tailored by doping with other elements or by suitable thermal treatments, so that alloys with concomitant (or sequential but close structural and magnetic phase transitions may be obtained. Concerning the magnetocaloric applications, it is assumed that the thin melt-spun ribbons assure a more efficient heat transfer. In the present work we investigate the influence of Co and Al substitutions on magnetocaloric effect characteristics of NiFeGa in bulk and also in ribbons prepared by melt spinning method and subjected to different thermal treatments. X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, magnetocaloric and magnetoresistive characterizations have been performed. The results highlight the differences between the bulk and the ribbons (both as prepared and annealed and the role of substitutions.

  12. Magneto-optical response of Cu/NiFe/Cu nanostructure under surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi, S.; Moradi, M.; Mohseni, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we present theoretical and experimental studies about the surface plasmon resonance effects on the magneto-optical activity of Cu/NiFe/Cu nanostructures as a function of layers thickness and light incident angle. Device fabrication was done by an oblique deposition technique with RF magnetron sputtering to carefully cover fine step thickness variation of all constituted layers. Angular dependent transverse Kerr response of samples was measured in the Kretschmann configuration at a fixed wavelength of 632 nm. At an optimum layer thickness and incident angle, significant amplification of the transverse Kerr effect was observed. Enhancement in the transverse Kerr effect can be realized by hybridization of surface plasmon excitation and cavity resonance in the plasmonic nanostructure. Experimental results were in qualitative agreement with modeling based on the 4×4 transfer matrix formalism.

  13. Synthesis and magnetic properties of multilayer Ni/Cu and NiFe/Cu nanowires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Liu; S C Chang; I Baginskiy; S F Hu; C Y Huang

    2006-07-01

    Highly ordered composite nanowires with multilayer Ni/Cu and NiFe/Cu have been fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition into nanoporous alumina membrane. The diameter of wires can be easily varied by pore size of alumina, ranging from 30 to 100 nm. The applied potential and the duration of each potential square pulse determine the thickness of the metal layers. The nanowires have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), magnetic force microscopy (MFM), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements. The MFM images indicate that every ferromagnetic layer separated by Cu layer was present as single isolated domain-like magnet. This technique has potential use in the measurement and application of magnetic nanodevices.

  14. Superparamagnetic behavior and AC-losses in NiFe2O4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelenich, O. V.; Solopan, S. O.; Kolodiazhnyi, T. V.; Dzyublyuk, V. V.; Tovstolytkin, A. I.; Belous, A. G.

    2013-06-01

    Crystallographic, microstructural and magnetic properties of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by precipitation from nonaqueous solutions have been studied in the work. The transmission electron microscopy studies reveal particle sizes ˜5 nm for the as-prepared particles which increase up to ˜20 nm upon annealing at 500 °C. Quasistatic magnetic measurements show superparamagnetic behavior with blocking temperature below room temperature for both the as-prepared and annealed particles. Characteristic magnetic parameters of the particles including average magnetic moment of an individual nanoparticle and effective anisotropy constant have been determined. The specific loss power which is released on the exposure of an ensemble of synthesized particles to an electromagnetic field is calculated and measured experimentally.

  15. Synthesis and characteristics of W-Ni-Fe nano-composite powders prepared by mechanical alloying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The mixture of 90W-7Ni-3Fe(mass fraction, %) powders was milled in a planetary ball mill. Its structurechanged during milling, the surface characteristics and thermal stability of the milled powders were studied with X-raydiffraction(XRD), Brunaure-Emmett-Teller (BET) nitrogen adsorption technique and differential thermal analysis(DTA). The results show that high-energy ball milling leads to the formation of composite powders with amorphousbinder phase and supersaturated W(Ni, Fe) nano-crystalline grains in which great lattice distortion exists. The crystallization temperature of the amorphous binder phase during heating decreases with milling time. The specific surface area andthe pore size of the powder mixtures decreases with milling time due to agglomeration and welding hetween particles

  16. ELECTRONIC AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PD IN BIMETALLIC SYSTEMS: HOW MUCH DO WE KNOW ABOUT HETERONUCLEAR METAL-METAL BONDING?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RODRIGUEZ,J.A.

    2001-09-27

    The experimental and theoretical studies described above illustrate the complex nature of the heteronuclear metal-metal bond. In many cases, bimetallic bonding induces a significant redistribution of charge around the bonded metals. This redistribution of charge is usually linked to the strength of the bimetallic bond, affects the position of the core and valence levels of the metals, and can determine the chemical reactivity of the system under study. New concepts are emerging [22,23,34,36] and eventually the coupling of experiment and theory can be useful for designing more efficient bimetallic catalysts [98,106,107].

  17. Kinetics and Mechanism of Carbon Tetrachloride Rapid Reduction by Nanoscale Ni-Fe Particles Using Scanning Electron Microscope%利用扫描电镜技术研究纳米Ni-Fe 颗粒对四氯化碳快速脱氯的机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄园英; 王倩; 韩子金; 刘菲

    2015-01-01

    for treatment of CT is the low yield of chlorinated by-product.Due to the presence of catalyst (Ni)on the surface,dechlorination rate was significantly increased and production of chlorinated byproducts was notably reduced.Catalytic metal Ni from the nanoscale Ni-Fe particles would not dissolve into water so that it would not form a secondary contamination of water body.The laboratory-synthesized nanoscale particles are quite stable under ambient conditions.For nano-scale Ni-Fe particles system, the end-product CH4 were reduced by 13% compared with nanoscale Pd-Fe particles.Although tnano-scale Pd-Fe particles are effective in dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds,nano-scale Ni-Fe particles are more economically viable which made it possible for the large scale remediation of water and soil contaminated by chlorinated organic compounds.

  18. Effect of MnO2 on properties of NiFe2O4 spinel based inert anode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI; Jin-hui; YAO; Guang-chun; LIU; Yi-han; ZHANG; Xiao-ming

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the properties of NiFe2O4 spinel based inert anode, some additive MnO2 were added to raw materials. NiFe2O4 spinel with MnO2 was made by solid-phase reaction at 1200℃for 6 h. XRD were carried out and the effects of MnO2 on density, conductivity and corrosion resistance were measured. XRD shows when MnO2 was added no new phases exist and MnO2 and NiFe2O4 formed solid solution; Mn4+ replaced parts of Fe3+ and the sample still had the structure of NiFe2O4 spinel. The crystal lattice of NiFe2 O4 spinel became aberrated when MnO2 was added, which can promote sintering, and improve density. Because Mn4+ replaces parts of Fe3+ and produces conduction electron, which can improve conductivity.The corrosion resistance of the samples was enhanced. When MnO2 is 1.0%, the sample's corrosion rate is 1/5 of that of the sample without MnO2. The reason is that Al2 O3 in the melt reacts with Mn4+ in the sample to produce MnAl2O4. MnAl2 O4 forms a dense protecting coat, which can prevent melt from eroding further.Because the key problem with inert anodes is anode corrosion, so we consider the optimal amount of MnO2 is 1.0%.

  19. Interlayer Coupling of Co/NM/FM(NiFe and Co) Nano-Sandwich Films%Co/NM/FM(NiFe and Co)纳米多层膜的层间耦合效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓艳; 毕晓昉; 宫声凯; 徐惠彬

    2003-01-01

    巨磁电阻自旋阀多层膜作为磁敏传感器材料与磁随机存储器(MRAM)材料,具有高的可靠性与灵敏度,在航空航天等高科技领域有着极大的应用前景.研究多层膜各层间的耦合效应与各层厚度、磁学性能之间的内在关系,对提高自旋阀的巨磁电阻效应、磁灵敏性等具有重要的作用.本研究采用磁控溅射沉积制备了(Cu/Co、Cu/NiFe, Ta/NiFe双层膜与 Co/Cu/Co、Co/Cu/NiFe、Co/Ta/NiFe)三明治结构薄膜.采用振动样品磁强计对薄膜磁性、四探针法对薄膜磁阻性能进行了测试研究,采用洛仑兹电子显微镜法观察了薄膜的磁畴结构.研究结果表明,层间耦合效应不仅与非磁性中间层的厚度相关,而且与中间层材料的特性相关.磁阻与磁畴观察均表明层间耦合效应随中间层厚度的增加而减小,而Cu作为中间层的多层膜的层间耦合大于Ta作为中间层的层间耦合.%Cu/Co, Cu/NiFe, Ta/NiFe bilayers and Co/Cu/Co, Co/Cu/NiFe, Co/Ta/NiFe sandwich films were deposited by a magnetron sputtering method. Magnetic properties were evaluated by VSM and spin valve magnetoresistance was investigated by a four-probe method to study the interlayer coupling of the two magnetic layers. It has been found that the interlayer coupling depended not only on the layer thickness of the nonmagnetic spacer but also on the nature of the spacer. The interlayer coupling was reduced as the spacer layer thickness increased. The result was consistent with those from observations of the magnetic domain for the trilayers by means of Lorentz Electron Microscope. The trilayers with Cu spacer layer have shown a stronger coupling than those with Ta spacer layer.

  20. Coupling Molecularly Ultrathin Sheets of NiFe-Layered Double Hydroxide on NiCo2O4 Nanowire Arrays for Highly Efficient Overall Water-Splitting Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Sha; Liu, Weihong; Wang, Xingwang; Li, Qingwen; Zhao, Zhigang; Geng, Fengxia

    2017-01-18

    Developing efficient but nonprecious bifunctional electrocatalysts for overall water splitting in basic media has been the subject of intensive research focus with the increasing demand for clean and regenerated energy. Herein, we report on the synthesis of a novel hierarchical hybrid electrode, NiFe-layered double hydroxide molecularly ultrathin sheets grown on NiCo2O4 nanowire arrays assembled from thin platelets with nickel foam as the scaffold support, in which the catalytic metal sites are more accessible and active and most importantly strong chemical coupling exists at the interface, enabling superior catalytic power toward both oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and additionally hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in the same alkaline KOH electrolyte. The behavior ranks top-class compared with documented non-noble HER and OER electrocatalysts and even comparable to state-of-the-art noble-metal electrocatalysts, Pt and RuO2. When fabricated as an integrated alkaline water electrolyzer, the designed electrode can deliver a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) at a fairly low cell voltage of 1.60 V, promising the material as efficient bifunctional catalysts toward whole cell water splitting.

  1. Computational Design of Iron Diphosphine Complexes with Pendant Amines for Hydrogenation of CO2 to Methanol: A Mimic of [NiFe] Hydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangyang; Jing, Yuanyuan; Yang, Xinzheng

    2016-06-20

    Inspired by the active-site structure of the [NiFe] hydrogenase, we have computationally designed the iron complex [P(tBu) 2 N(tBu) 2 )Fe(CN)2 CO] by using an experimentally ready-made diphosphine ligand with pendant amines for the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the rate-determining step in the whole catalytic reaction is the direct hydride transfer from the Fe center to the carbon atom in the formic acid with a total free energy barrier of 28.4 kcal mol(-1) in aqueous solution. Such a barrier indicates that the designed iron complex is a promising low-cost catalyst for the formation of methanol from CO2 and H2 under mild conditions. The key role of the diphosphine ligand with pendent amine groups in the reaction is the assistance of the cleavage of H2 by forming a Fe-H(δ-) ⋅⋅⋅H(δ+) -N dihydrogen bond in a fashion of frustrated Lewis pairs.

  2. Standard Specification for Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-N Low-Carbon Alloys (UNS N08925, UNS N08031, UNS N08354, and UNS N08926), and Cr-Ni-Fe-N Low-Carbon Alloy (UNS R20033) Bar and Wire, and Ni-Cr-Fe-Mo-N Alloy (UNS N08936) Wire

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2016-01-01

    Standard Specification for Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu-N Low-Carbon Alloys (UNS N08925, UNS N08031, UNS N08354, and UNS N08926), and Cr-Ni-Fe-N Low-Carbon Alloy (UNS R20033) Bar and Wire, and Ni-Cr-Fe-Mo-N Alloy (UNS N08936) Wire

  3. Effect of the partial oxygen pressure on Cu-NiFe2O4 cermet phase%氧分压对Cu-NiFe2O4金属陶瓷相成份的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明霞

    2009-01-01

    用高温固相法合成的NiFe2O4陶瓷粉末,选取Cu为金属陶瓷的金属相成分,研究了氧分压对Cu-NiFe2O4金属陶瓷的相成份的影响,结果表明:当烧结温度为1150℃,氧分压大于2.23Pa时,Cu被大量氧化;氧分压小于4.2×10-3Pa时,Cu和离解的Ni反应生产Cu3.8Ni合金,试样的导电性或抗氧化性都会降低,1150℃下烧结制备Cu-NiFe2O4金属陶瓷的最佳氧分压是( 0.3-42.0)×10-2Pa.

  4. 钴含量对铁钴双金属催化剂的费-托合成催化性能的影响%Performance of Fe-Co bimetallic catalysts with different and low Co contents for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾榜; 金亚美; 徐程; 李金林

    2012-01-01

    A series of Fe-Co bimetallic catalysts with different and low Co contents of 0. 5wt% , 1. 0wt% , 1. 5wt% have been synthesized. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) , X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, hydrogen temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), hydrogen temperature programmed desorption (H2-TPD) and oxygen titration, and their catalytic activities for FTS were measured in a fixed bed reactor. The addition of a small amount of Co promoted the reduction of Fe. However, catalyst with higher Co content (1.5 wt%) leads to formation of some CoFe2O4 species on the surface. The stronger interaction between Fe and Co decreased the reducibility but increased the dispersion of catalyst. The surface properties of the catalysts have been changed by the mixing of Fe and Co. The addition of Co increased the absorption ability of hydrogen at low temperature.%制备了一系列钴含量为0.5wt%、1.0wt%、1.5wt%的铁钴双金属催化剂,并结合X-射线衍射、X-射线光电子能谱、氢气程序升温还原、氢气程序升温脱附和氧滴定等一系列表征手段,研究了不同含量的钴对铁钴双金属催化剂的结构和费-托合成反应催化性能的影响.结果表明少量钴的加入促进了铁的还原,但较高含量(1.5 wt%)的钴使得催化剂表面形成了少量的CoFe2O4物种,钴铁之间相互作用增强导致1.5Co-Fe的还原度降低但分散得更好.铁钴的混合改变了催化剂表面的化学性质,钴的加入使催化剂的低温氢气吸附性能增强.

  5. Effect of CaO doping on mechanical properties and thermal shock resistance of 10NiO-NiFe2O4 composite ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Yan-qing; ZHANG Yong; ZHANG Gang; TIAN Zhong-liang; LI Jie

    2008-01-01

    The CaO doped 10NiO-NiFe2O4 composite ceramics were prepared by the cold isostatic pressing-sintering process, and the effects of CaO content on the phase composition, mechanical property and thermal shock resistance of 10NiO-NiFe2O4 composite ceramics were studied. The results show that the samples mainly consist of NiO and NiFe2O4 when content of CaO is less than4%(mass fraction), bending strength increases obviously by CaO doping. Bending strength of the samples doped with 2% CaO is above 185 Mpa, but that of the samples without CaO is only 60 Mpa. Fracture toughness is improved obviously by CaO doping, the undoped ceramics. CaO doping is bad to thermal shock resistance of 10NiO-NiFe2O4 composite ceramics.

  6. Study on sintering technique of NiFe2O4/SiCp used as matrix of inert anodes in aluminium electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Shu-ting; YAO; Guang-chun; LIU; Yi-han

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve deficiencies of NiFe2O4 spinel used as matrix of inert anode in aluminium electrolysis, NiFe2O4/SiCp were prepared by the solid state reaction for the first time. Microstructural changes were observed by scanning electronic microscope and phase was determined with X-ray detector. Effect of sintering temperature and times on density, porosity and microstructure were researched, and the reasons that caused the difference were discussed deeply. At the same time the thermodynamical compatibility of NiFe2O4 and SiC was proved under 1200℃ by DTA.The results showed that the microstructure was more homogeneous when the sintering temperature reached 1 180℃and the density attained their maximum about 6 h sintering. The appropriate sintering technique of NiFe2 O4/SiCw composite materials was 1180℃× 6 h.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of multilayered BaTiO3/NiFe2O4 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Bajac

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Presented research was focused on the fabrication of multiferroic thin film structures, composed of ferrielectric barium titanate perovskite phase and magnetostrictive nickel ferrite spinel phase. The applicability of different, solution based, deposition techniques (film growth from solution, dip coating and spin coating for thefabrication of multilayered BaTiO3 /NiFe2O4 thin films was investigated. It was shown that only spin coating produces films of desired nanostructure, thickness and smooth and crackfree surfaces.

  8. NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/activated carbon nanocomposite as magnetic material from petcoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briceño, Sarah, E-mail: sbriceno@ivic.gob.ve [Laboratorio de Física de la Materia Condensada, Centro de Física, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas IVIC, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Brämer-Escamilla, W., E-mail: wbramer@ivic.gob.ve [Laboratorio de Física de la Materia Condensada, Centro de Física, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas IVIC, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Silva, P. [Laboratorio de Física de la Materia Condensada, Centro de Física, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas IVIC, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); García, J.; Del Castillo, H.; Villarroel, M. [Laboratorio de Cinética y Catálisis, Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes ULA, Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Rodriguez, J.P. [Laboratorio de Microscopia Electrónica. Instituto de Estudios Científicos y Tecnológicos IDECYT. Apartado 47925 - Caracas 1041-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Ramos, M.A.; Morales, R. [Instituto Zuliano de Investigaciones Tecnológicas INZIT. Apdo. Postal 331. La Cañada-Maracaibo (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Diaz, Y. [Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas IVIC, Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Nickel ferrite (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was supported on activated carbon (AC) from petroleum coke (petcoke). Potassium hydroxide (KOH) was employed with petcoke to produce activated carbon. NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were synthesized using PEG-Oleic acid assisted hydrothermal method. The structural and magnetic properties were determined using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TGA–DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (IR-FT), surface area (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). XRD analysis revealed the cubic spinel structure and ferrite phase with high crystallinity. IR-FT studies showed that chemical modification promoted the formation of surface oxygen functionalities. Morphological investigation by SEM showed conglomerates of spherical nanoparticles with an average particle size of 72 nm and TEM showed the formation of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/carbon nanofibers. Chemical modification and activation temperature of 800 °C prior to activation dramatically increased the BET surface area of the resulting activated carbon to 842.4 m{sup 2}/g while the sulfur content was reduced from 6 to 1%. Magnetic properties of nanoparticles show strong dependence on the particle size. - Highlights: • TEM showed the formation of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/carbon nanofibers. • Nanoparticles were supported on the activated carbon from petcoke. • Activation dramatically increased the BET surface area to 842 m{sup 2}/g. • Magnetic properties show strong dependence on the particle size. • Sulphur content was reduced from 6 to 1% with the petcoke activation.

  9. Synthesis, structural and magnetic characterization of nanocrystalline nickel ferrite-NiFe2O4 obtained by reactive milling

    OpenAIRE

    Marinca, Traian,; Chicinas, Ionel; Isnard, Olivier; Viorel POP; Popa, Florin

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Nanocrystalline nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) has been synthesized from a stoichiometric mixture of oxides NiO and alpha-Fe2O3 in a high energy planetary mill. An annealing at 350 degrees C, after milling, was used to improve the solid state reaction. The obtained powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction, magnetic measurements, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The particles size distribution was analyzed using a ...

  10. Microstructure Modeling of a Ni-Fe-Based Superalloy During the Rotary Forging Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyda, A.; Hernández-Muñoz, G. M.; Reyes, L. A.; Zambrano-Robledo, P.

    2016-06-01

    The microstructure evolution of Ni-Fe superalloys has a great influence on the mechanical behavior during service conditions. The rotary forging process offers an alternative to conventional bulk forming processes where the parts can be rotary forged with a fraction of the force commonly needed by conventional forging techniques. In this investigation, a numerical modeling of microstructure evolution for design and optimization of the hot forging operations has been used to manufacture a heat-resistant nickel-based superalloy. An Avrami model was implemented into finite element commercial platform DEFORM 3D to evaluate the average grain size and recrystallization during the rotary forging process. The simulations were carried out considering three initial temperatures, 980, 1000, and 1050 °C, to obtain the microstructure behavior after rotary forging. The final average grain size of one case was validated by comparing with results of previous experimental work of disk forging operation. This investigation was aimed to explore the influence of the rotary forging process on microstructure evolution in order to obtain a homogenous and refined grain size in the final component.

  11. Magnetic characteristics of a high-layer-number NiFe/FeMn multilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, G. W., E-mail: gary.paterson@glasgow.ac.uk; Gonçalves, F. J. T.; McFadzean, S.; Stamps, R. L. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); O' Reilly, S.; Bowman, R. [ANSIN, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-28

    We report the static and dynamic magnetic characteristics of a high-layer-number NiFe/FeMn multilayer test structure with potential applications in broadband absorber and filter devices. To allow fine control over the absorption linewidths and to understand the mechanisms governing the resonances in a tailored structure similar to that expected to be used in real world applications, the multilayer was intentionally designed to have layer thickness and interface roughness variations. Magnetometry measurements show that the sample has complex hysteresis loops with features consistent with single ferromagnetic film reversals. Characterisation by transmission electron microscopy allows us to correlate the magnetic properties with structural features, including the film widths and interface roughnesses. Analysis of resonance frequencies from broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements as a function of field magnitude and orientation provide values of the local exchange bias, rotatable anisotropy, and uniaxial anisotropy fields for specific layers in the stack and explain the observed mode softening. The linewidths of the multilayer are adjustable around the bias field, approaching twice that seen at larger fields, allowing control over the bandwidth of devices formed from the structure.

  12. The fabrication of ordered arrays of exchange biased Ni/FeF2 nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovylina, M; Erekhinsky, M; Morales, R; Schuller, I K; Labarta, A; Batlle, X

    2010-04-30

    The fabrication of ordered arrays of exchange biased Ni/FeF(2) nanostructures by focused ion beam lithography is reported. High quality nano-elements, with controlled removal depth and no significant re-deposition, were carved using small ion beam currents (30 pA), moderate dwell times (1 micros) and repeated passages over the same area. Two types of nanostructures were fabricated: square arrays of circular dots with diameters from 125 +/- 8 to 500 +/- 12 nm and periodicities ranging from 200 +/- 8 to 1000 +/- 12 nm, and square arrays of square antidots (207 +/- 8 nm in edge length) with periodicities ranging from 300 +/- 8 to 1200 +/- 12 nm. The arrays were characterized using scanning ion and electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The effect of the patterning on the exchange bias field (i.e., the shift in the hysteresis loop of ferromagnetic Ni due to proximity to antiferromagnetic FeF(2)) was studied using magneto-transport measurements. These high quality nanostructures offer a unique method to address some of the open questions regarding the microscopic origin of exchange bias. This is not only of major relevance in the fabrication and miniaturization of magnetic devices but it is also one of the important proximity phenomena in nanoscience and materials science.

  13. Current induced magnetization switching in Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar with orange peel coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravinthan, D.; Daniel, M. [Centre for Nonlinear Dynamics, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli - 620 024 (India); Sabareesan, P. [Centre for Nonlinear Science and Engineering, School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur - 613 401 (India)

    2015-07-15

    The impact of orange peel coupling on spin current induced magnetization switching in a Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar device is investigated by solving the switching dynamics of magnetization of the free layer governed by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski (LLGS) equation. The value of the critical current required to initiate the magnetization switching is calculated analytically by solving the LLGS equation and verified the same through numerical analysis. Results of numerical simulation of the LLGS equation using Runge-Kutta fourth order procedure shows that the presence of orange peel coupling between the spacer and the ferromagnetic layers reduces the switching time of the nanopillar device from 67 ps to 48 ps for an applied current density of 4 × 10{sup 12}Am{sup −2}. Also, the presence of orange peel coupling reduces the critical current required to initiate switching, and in this case, from 1.65 × 10{sup 12}Am{sup −2} to 1.39 × 10{sup 12}Am{sup −2}.

  14. Current induced magnetization switching in Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar with orange peel coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Aravinthan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of orange peel coupling on spin current induced magnetization switching in a Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar device is investigated by solving the switching dynamics of magnetization of the free layer governed by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski (LLGS equation. The value of the critical current required to initiate the magnetization switching is calculated analytically by solving the LLGS equation and verified the same through numerical analysis. Results of numerical simulation of the LLGS equation using Runge-Kutta fourth order procedure shows that the presence of orange peel coupling between the spacer and the ferromagnetic layers reduces the switching time of the nanopillar device from 67 ps to 48 ps for an applied current density of 4 × 1012Am−2. Also, the presence of orange peel coupling reduces the critical current required to initiate switching, and in this case, from 1.65 × 1012Am−2 to 1.39 × 1012Am−2.

  15. Martensitic transformation and magnetic properties of Heusler alloy Ni-Fe-Ga ribbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z.H. [Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: zhliu@aphy.iphy.ac.cn; Liu, H. [Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Zhang, X.X. [Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Zhang, M. [State Key Laboratory for Magnetism, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Dai, X.F. [State Key Laboratory for Magnetism, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Hu, H.N. [State Key Laboratory for Magnetism, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Chen, J.L. [State Key Laboratory for Magnetism, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Wu, G.H. [State Key Laboratory for Magnetism, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)]. E-mail: userm201@aphy.iphy.ac.cn

    2004-08-23

    The martensitic transformation and magnetic properties of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni{sub 50+x}Fe{sub 25-x}Ga{sub 25} (x=-1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4) ribbons have been systematically studied. It has been found that with the increase of Ni concentration, the martensitic transformation temperature increases, but the Curie temperature decreases. Both the two-step thermally induced structural transformation and the one-step transition have been observed in NiFeGa alloys with different compositions. It is found that the two-step transition became the one-step transition after the ribbon being heat treated at 873 K or higher. X-ray diffraction patterns show that only L21->B2 transition occurs in the samples treated at 873 K, while the {gamma} phase will form in the samples treated at higher temperature. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies show that the alloys with martensitic transformation temperature above the room temperature are non-modulated martensite with the large domain size, being different from the stoichiometric Ni{sub 2}FeGa alloy that is a modulated martensite with small domain size. The influences of Fe substitution for Ni in Ni{sub 2}FeGa on the saturation magnetization and exchange interaction are also discussed.

  16. Three different [NiFe] hydrogenases confer metabolic flexibility in the obligate aerobe Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berney, Michael; Greening, Chris; Hards, Kiel; Collins, Desmond; Cook, Gregory M

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium smegmatis is an obligate aerobe that harbours three predicted [NiFe] hydrogenases, Hyd1 (MSMEG_2262–2263), Hyd2 (MSMEG_2720-2719) and Hyd3 (MSMEG_3931-3928). We show here that these three enzymes differ in their phylogeny, regulation and catalytic activity. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Hyd1 groups with hydrogenases that oxidize H2 produced by metabolic processes, and Hyd2 is homologous to a novel group of putative high-affinity hydrogenases. Hyd1 and Hyd2 respond to carbon and oxygen limitation, and, in the case of Hyd1, hydrogen supplementation. Hydrogen consumption measurements confirmed that both enzymes can oxidize hydrogen. In contrast, the phylogenetic analysis and activity measurements of Hyd3 are consistent with the enzyme evolving hydrogen. Hyd3 is controlled by DosR, a regulator that responds to hypoxic conditions. The strict dependence of hydrogen oxidation of Hyd1 and Hyd2 on oxygen suggests that the enzymes are oxygen tolerant and linked to the respiratory chain. This unique combination of hydrogenases allows M. smegmatis to oxidize hydrogen at high (Hyd1) and potentially tropospheric (Hyd2) concentrations, as well as recycle reduced equivalents by evolving hydrogen (Hyd3). The distribution of these hydrogenases throughout numerous soil and marine species of actinomycetes suggests that oxic hydrogen metabolism provides metabolic flexibility in environments with changing nutrient fluxes.

  17. Phase transformation behaviors and shape memory effects of TiNiFeAl shape memory alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiao; Fushun Liu; Huibin Xu

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of electrical resistivity, X-ray diffraction, and tensile test at room temperature and -196℃ were performed to investigate the effects of Al addition substituting Ni on the phase transformation behaviors, the mechanical properties, and the shape memory effects of Ti50Ni47Fe2Al1 and Ti50Ni46.5Fe2.5Al1 alloys. It is found that 1at% Al addition dramatically decreases the martensitic start transformation temperature and expands the transformation temperature range of R-phase for TiNiFeAl alloys. The results of tensile test indicate that 1at% Al improves the yield strength of Ti50Ni47Fe2Al1 and Ti50Ni46.5Fe2.5Al1 alloys by 40% and 64%, but decreases the plasticity to 11% and 12% from 26% and 27% respectively. Moreover, excellent shape memory effect of 6.6% and 7.5% were found in Ti50Ni47Fe2Al1 and Ti50Ni46.5Fe2.sAl1 alloys, which results from the stress-induced martensite transformation from the R-phase.

  18. Anodic behaviour of oxidised Ni-Fe alloys in cryolite-alumina melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Vivien, E-mail: v.singleton@student.unsw.edu.a [Centre for Electrochemical and Mineral Processing, School of Chemical Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Welch, Barry J. [Welbank Consulting Ltd., PO Box 207, Whitianga 3542 (New Zealand); Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria [Centre for Electrochemical and Mineral Processing, School of Chemical Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2011-01-01

    Nickel-iron alloys have been identified as promising inert anode candidates for the Hall-Heroult process. In this study, binary Ni-Fe alloys of various compositions were subjected to short-term galvanostatic electrolysis in a cryolite-alumina bath at 960 {sup o}C. Prior to electrolysis, the anodes were oxidised at 800 {sup o}C for 48 h, forming a protective scale. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ni{sub x}Fe{sub 3-x}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub x}Fe{sub 1-x}O were identified as the major scale components using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Anodes having Ni content of 50-65 wt% performed adequately during short-term electrolysis, operating at a steady potential of 3-3.5 V vs. AlF{sub 3}/Al. Overall, it was found that the pre-formed oxide scale was effective in reducing anode wear and fluoridation. In the absence of a pre-formed scale, anodes were shown to undergo appreciable internal corrosion and/or passivation due to metal fluoride formation. Analysis of the anodes following electrolysis was performed using XRD and electron microprobe analysis (EPMA).

  19. INTERACTION OF SULPHUR WITH BIMETALLIC SURFACES: EFFECTS OF STRUCTURAL, ELECTRONIC AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RODRIGUEZ,J.A.; HRBEK,J.

    2001-10-04

    In recent years, several new interesting phenomena have been discovered when studying the interaction of sulphur with bimetallic surfaces using the modern techniques of surface science. Very small amounts of sulphur can induce dramatic changes in the morphology of bimetallic surfaces. The electronic perturbations associated with the formation of a heteronuclear metal-metal bond affect the reactivity of the bonded metals toward sulphur. This can be a very important issue to consider when trying to minimize the negative effects of sulphur poisoning or dealing with the design of desulfurization catalysts.

  20. Magnetostriction of fcc(110 single-crystal films of Ni-Fe, Ni, and Co under rotating magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohtani Taiki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ni-Fe, Ni, and Co(110 single-crystal films with uniaxial magnetic anisotropies are prepared on MgO(110 substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The magnetostriction behavior under rotating magnetic fields is investigated. The Ni-Fe film shows waveforms consisting of a mixture of sinusoidal and triangular shapes under fields lower than 200 Oe. The peak of sinusoidal shape is observed when the field is applied along the easy magnetization axis, whereas that of triangular shape appears when the field is applied along the hard axis. With increasing the field from 200 to 300 Oe, the waveform changes to a usual sinusoidal shape. The waveform variation is related to the difference between the directions of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and magnetization of magnetically unsaturated film. Waveforms consisting of sinusoidal and triangular shapes are also observed for the Ni and the Co films under low rotating fields. The threshold magnetic field where the shape changes to sinusoidal increases in the order of Ni-Fe < Ni < Co. The waveform is influenced by the symmetry and the strength of magnetic anisotropy.

  1. High performance NiFe layered double hydroxide for methyl orange dye and Cr(VI) adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Jiang, Bin; Fang, Liang; Ling, Faling; Gao, Jiemei; Wu, Fang; Zhang, Xihua

    2016-06-01

    The NiFe layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with different mole ratio of Ni/Fe (4:1, 3:1, 7:3 and 1:1) were prepared by a simple coprecipitation method. The adsorption performance were evaluated by the removal of methyl orange (MO) dye and hexavalent chromium(VI) heavy metal ion. It is found that Ni4Fe1-LDH can remove more than 92% of MO in 10 min at the 10 mg/L MO initial concentration, and 97% of Cr(VI) in 1 h at 4 mg/L Cr2O7(2-) initial concentration. The saturated adsorption capacity of Ni4Fe1-LDH is found to be as large as 205.76 mg/g for MO and 26.78 mg/g for Cr(VI). The adsorption behavior of this new adsorbent is fitted well with Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicative of a monolayer and chemical adsorption that synergistically originates from exchangeable anions mechanism and layer charge density. Due to the excellent removal capacity of MO and Cr(VI), the NiFe-LDHs could be a promising adsorbent for wastewater treatment.

  2. Identification, cloning and heterologous expression of active [NiFe]-hydrogenase 2 from Citrobacter sp. SG in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Johannes A H; Ragozin, Sergey; Jeltsch, Albert

    2015-04-10

    Hydrogen (H2) is a potential alternative energy carrier which only produces water and heat upon combustion. Today, industrial hydrogen production mainly uses thermochemical processes based on fossil fuels or electrolysis of water. Therefore, biotechnological approaches to produce H2 from biomass are an interesting alternative. We introduce here a novel direct hydrogen measurement system using a semiconducting device specific for hydrogen detection. Using this device, a bacterium producing considerable amounts of hydrogen under aerobic cultivation was isolated and identified by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing as Citrobacter sp. The enzyme responsible for the observed hydrogenase activity was partially purified by 3 chromatographic purification steps and could be identified by peptide mass fingerprinting to be a type 2 [NiFe]-hydrogenase. Expression of the [NiFe]-hydrogenase 2 containing operon from Citrobacter sp. SG in Escherichia coli allowed recombinant hydrogen production. The [NiFe]-hydrogenase 2 identified here may be useful for biotechnological hydrogen production. We speculate that the expression of the hydrogenase in Citrobacter may be an adaptation to growth in acidic conditions.

  3. Electrical conductivity of Cu/(10NiO-NiFe2O4) cermet inert anode for aluminum electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Cu/(10NiO-NiFe2O4) cermets containing mass fractions of Cu of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% were prepared, and their electrical conductivities were measured at different temperatures. The effects of temperature and content of metal Cu on the electrical conductivity were investigated especially. The results indicate that the metallic phase Cu distributes evenly in 10NiO-NiFe2O4 ceramic matrix. The mechanism of electrical conductivity of Cu/(10NiO-NiFe2O4) cermets obeys the rule of electrical mechanism of semiconductor, the electrical conductivity for cermet containing 5% Cu increases from 2.70 to 20.41 S/cm with temperature increasing from 200 to 900 ℃. The change trend of electrical conductivity with temperature is similar with each other and it increases with increasing temperature and content of metal Cu. At 960 ℃, the electrical conductivity of cermet increases from 2.88 to 82.65 S/cm with the content of metal Cu increasing from 0 to 20%.

  4. Surface structure and catalytic activity of electrodeposited Ni-Fe-Co-Mo alloy electrode by partially leaching Mo and Fe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Bei-ping; GONG Zhu-qing; REN Bi-ye; YANG Yu-fang; CHEN Meng-jun

    2006-01-01

    Ni-Fe-Mo-Co alloy electrode was prepared in a citrate solution by electrodeposition, and then Mo and Fe were partially leached out from the electrode in 30% KOH solution. The unique surface micromorphology of a hive-like structure was obtained with an average pore size of about 50 nm. The electrode has a very large real surface area and a stable structure. The effects of sodium molybdate concentration on the composition, surface morphology, and structure of electrodes were analyzed by EDS, SEM and XRD. The polarization curves of the different electrodes show that the catalytic activity of electrodes is strongly correlated with the mole fraction of alloy elements (Ni, Fe, Mo, Co), and the addition of cobalt element to Ni-Fe-Mo alloy improves the catalytic activity. The Ni35.63Fe24.67Mo23.52Co16.18 electrode has the best activity for hydrogen evolution reaction(HER), with an over-potential of 66.2 mV, in 30% KOH at 80 ℃ and 200 mA/cm2. The alloy maintains its good catalytic activity for HER during continuous or intermittent electrolysis. Its electrochemical activity and catalytic stability are much higher than the other iron-group with Mo alloy electrodes.

  5. Controllable Catalysis with Nanoparticles: Bimetallic Alloy Systems and Surface Adsorbates

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tianyou

    2016-05-16

    Transition metal nanoparticles are privileged materials in catalysis due to their high specific surface areas and abundance of active catalytic sites. While many of these catalysts are quite useful, we are only beginning to understand the underlying catalytic mechanisms. Opening the “black box” of nanoparticle catalysis is essential to achieve the ultimate goal of catalysis by design. In this Perspective we highlight recent work addressing the topic of controlled catalysis with bimetallic alloy and “designer” adsorbate-stabilized metal nanoparticles.

  6. Removal of Methyl Orange Dye from Aqueous Solutions using NiFe2O4 Nanoparticles: Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sobhanardakani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Dyes are important pollutants that lead to producing serious hazards to human, other animals and organisms. Dyes are not biodegradable by aerobic treatment processes. Therefore, their removal from industrial effluents before discharging into the environment requires extreme and great attention. The aim of this research was to evaluate removal efficacy of methyl orange dye from aqueous solutions using NiFe2O4 nanoparticles. Materials and Methods: This study was an empirical investigation in which NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method and were used as an adsorbent for the removal of methyl orange from aqueous solution. NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM, pHpzc and SEM-EDX elemental analysis methods. Experiments were conducted discontinuously using 20 mL methyl orange solution of 40 mg/L. The effect of variables such as pH (2-8, amount of adsorbent (0.009-0.07 g and contact time (2-70 min on the efficacy of dye removal was studied. Finally, experimental data were compared by Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherms and pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Results: TEM images showed that the NiFe2O4 nanoparticles had spherical shapes with the size of 12 nm. The results indicated that removal efficiency increased up to 0.04 g adsorbent and 20 min contact time. The optimum pH for methyl range removal was 2. Moreover, under these conditions, the adsorption process followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm with a correlation coefficient of 0.995 and pseudo-second-order kinetic model with a correlation coefficient of 0.999. Also, the maximum adsorption capacity of the prepared adsorbent was 135 (mg/g for Langmuir isotherm. Conclusion: The NiFe2O4 nanoparticles are effective and available adsorbents for the removal of methyl orange from industrial wastewater.

  7. Monometallic Pd and Pt and Bimetallic Pd-Pt/Al2O3-TiO2 for the HDS of DBT: Effect of the Pd and Pt Incorporation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Martínez Guerrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the preparation method of monometallic Pd and Pt and bimetallic Pd-Pt/Al2O3-TiO2 catalysts on the hydrodesulfurization (HDS of dibenzothiophene (DBT was investigated in this study. The synthesis was accomplished using three methods: (A impregnation, (B metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD, and (C impregnation-MOCVD. The bimetallic Pd-Pt catalyst prepared by the impregnation-MOCVD method was most active for the HDS of DBT compared to those prepared by the single impregnation or MOCVD method due to the synergetic effect between both noble metals. The greater selectivity toward biphenyl indicated that this bimetallic Pd-Pt catalyst preferentially removes sulfur via the direct desulfurization mechanism. However, the bimetallic Pd-Pt catalyst prepared using the single MOCVD method did not produce any cyclohexylbenzene, which is most likely associated with the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation sites.

  8. Kinetics of Oxidation of L-Leucine by Mono-and Bimetallic Gold and Silver Nanoparticles in Hydrogen Peroxide Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.VENKATESAN; J.SANTHANALAKSHMI

    2012-01-01

    The catalytic activity of surfactant stabilized mono- and bimetallic Au and Ag nanoparticles for the oxidation of an amino acid,L-leucine,was studied using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant.The Au and Ag nanoparticle catalysts exhibited very good catalytic activity and the kinetics of the reaction were found to be pseudo-first order with respect to the amino acid.The effects of several factors,such as oxidant concentration,ionic strength,pH,and catalyst concentration on the reaction,were also investigated.In particular,optimal oxidant and catalyst concentrations were determined.Very high concentrations of the metal nano-catalysts or the oxidant led to a dramatic increase in reaction rate.Moreover,bimetallic Au-Ag catalysts provided higher selectivity than pure Au or Ag.

  9. Ni-based Ni-Fe-B-Si-Ta bulk metallic glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The glass-forming ability and properties of Ni-based Ni-Fe-B-Si-Ta bulk metallic glasses are explored in this work. The alloy compositions are determined by using a combination of the cluster line approach, the multi-alloying strategy and the substitutions of similar elements. Bulk metallic glasses with diameters of 3 mm take shape at compositions formulated under the clus- ter-plus-glue-atom model [M9B]B~[(Ni1-xFex)7.71(Si0.66Ta0.34)1.29B]B0.94=(Ni1-xFex)70.5B17.7Si7.8Ta4, x=0.35–0.45, where the bracketed part is the cluster and the unbracketed part is the glue atoms. These alloys exhibit good magnetic properties. The maximum Is is found in the (Ni0.55Fe0.45)70.5B17.7Si7.8Ta4 alloy which reaches 0.51 T, with its Hc as low as 8.5 A/m. Interestingly, these alloys display dual glass transitions at (Ni0.65Fe0.35)70.5B17.7Si7.8Ta4, (Ni0.60Fe0.4)70.5B17.7Si7.8Ta4 and (Ni0.55Fe0.45)70.5B17.7- Si7.8Ta4 as unveiled by Temperature-Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry.

  10. Characterization and Preparation of Bimetallic Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing; Joe; Hwang; Ching; Hsiang; Chen; Loka; Subramanyam; Sarma; Din-gao; Liu; Jyh; Fu; Lee

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Bimetallic particles in the nanometer size range are of substantial interest due to their vast applications in catalysis[1].The synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles with definite size with a well-control over their nanostructure remains a challenging problem.Thus there exists a great demand for both synthesis and atomic level characterization of nanostructure of bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs).With the recent advent of high-intensity tunable sources of X-rays,now available at synchrotron radia...

  11. Preliminary testing of NiFe2O4-NiO as ceramic matrix of cermet inert anode in aluminum electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦庆伟; 赖延清; 肖劲; 李劼; 刘业翔

    2003-01-01

    Sintered samples of nickel ferrite-nickel oxide ceramic, usually used as the ceramic phase of cermet inert anode in aluminum electrolysis, were prepared and characterized. The solubilities of NiFe2O4-NiO ceramics were measured using an equilibration technique in the Na3AlF6-10%AlF3-5%CaF2-5 %Al2O3 melts at 960 ℃. Electrical resistivity was also measured for NiFe2O4-NiO ceramic samples prepared using the usual ceramic technique as function of temperature and content of NiO with an improved pyroconductivity test device, consisting of a specially constructed closed furnace and a Potentiostat/Galvanostat, based on the conventional direct current four-probe technique. Results show that, under the experimental conditions, the solubility of Fe from NiFe2O4 is 0.06% and Ni from NiFe2O4 is 0.008%. The solubility of Fe and Ni from NiFe2O4-NiO ceramic is inversely related to each other. The solubility of Ni increases but overall solubility of NiFe2O4-NiO ceramics decreases with increasing NiO content. The studied ceramic samples have a semiconductor behavior where electrical resistivity ρ decreases with increasing temperature and the resistivity ρ increases with increasing porosity. The resistivity ρ of NiFe2O4-NiO ceramic shows a minimum with increasing the content of NiO at various temperatures.

  12. Controllable synthesis and enhanced microwave absorbing properties of Fe3O4/NiFe2O4/Ni heterostructure porous rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yana; Wu, Tong; Jin, Keying; Qian, Yao; Qian, Naxin; Jiang, Kedan; Wu, Wenhua; Tong, Guoxiu

    2016-11-01

    We developed a coordinated self-assembly/precipitate transfer/sintering method that allows the controllable synthesis of Fe3O4/NiFe2O4/Ni heterostructure porous rods (HPRs). A series of characterizations confirms that changing [Ni2+] can effectively control the crystal size, internal strain, composition, textural characteristics, and properties of HPRs. Molar percentages of Ni and NiFe2O4 in HPRs increase with [Ni2+] in various Boltzmann function modes. Saturation magnetization Ms and coercivity Hc show U-shaped change trends because of crystal size, composition, and interface magnetic coupling. High magnetic loss is maintained after decorating NiFe2O4 and Ni on the surface of Fe3O4 PRs. Controlling the NiFe2O4 interface layers and Ni content can improve impedance matching and dielectric losses, thereby leading to lighter weight, stronger absorption, and broader absorption band of Fe3O4/NiFe2O4/Ni HPRs than Fe3O4 PRs. An optimum EM wave absorbing property was exhibited by Fe3O4/NiFe2O4/Ni HPRs formed at [Ni2+] = 0.05 M. The maximum reflection loss (RL) reaches -58.4 dB at 13.68 GHz, which corresponds to a 2.1 mm matching thickness. The absorbing bandwidth (RL ≤ -20 dB) reaches 14.4 GHz with the sample thickness at 1.6-2.4 and 2.8-10.0 mm. These excellent properties verify that Fe3O4/NiFe2O4/Ni HPRs are promising candidates for new and effective absorptive materials.

  13. A novel material Li{sub 2}NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}: Preparation and performance as anode of lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Keqiang, E-mail: dkeqiang@263.net [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050024 (China); Zhao, Jing [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050024 (China); Zhou, Jinming, E-mail: zhoujm@iccas.ac.cn [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050024 (China); Zhao, Yongbo; Chen, Yuying; Liu, Likun [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050024 (China); Wang, Li [Institute of Nuclear & New Energy Technology, Beijing Key Lab of Fine Ceramics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); He, Xiangming, E-mail: hexm@tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear & New Energy Technology, Beijing Key Lab of Fine Ceramics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Guo, Zhanhu, E-mail: zguo10@utk.edu [Integrated Composites Laboratory (ICL), Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, University of Tennessee Knoxville, Knoxville, NT, 37996 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    For the first time, the preparation and characterization of a novel anode material Li{sub 2}NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} are reported in this work. The preparation of Li{sub 2}NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is conducted under the air conditions by using a subsection calcination method. The influence of annealing periods on the properties of the resultant materials is thoroughly explored. The characteristics of the materials are mainly examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results of the XRD patterns effectively demonstrate the formation of crystalline Li{sub 2}NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and the SEM images indicate that particles with octahedron crystal morphology are prepared and the 9 h-annealed sample has the smallest particle size among all the prepared samples. The results of electrochemical measurements reveal that 9 h-calcined sample delivers a high specific capacity of 203 mAh g{sup −1} after 20 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}. The successful preparation of Li{sub 2}NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is believed to be able to trigger the research work concerning the novel group of Li{sub 2}MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} materials. - Highlights: • A novel anode material Li{sub 2}NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was prepared under the air conditions. • Li{sub 2}NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed well-defined octahedron crystal morphology. • 9 h-annealed Li{sub 2}NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} delivered a capacity of 203 mAh g{sup −1}.

  14. Facile Fabrication of Composition-Tuned Ru-Ni Bimetallics in Ordered Mesoporous Carbon for Levulinic Acid Hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ying; Gao, Guang; Zhang, Xin; Li, Fuwei [ChinaU - Petroleum; (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2016-02-04

    Bimetallic catalysts are of great importance due to their unique catalytic properties. However, their conventional synthesis requires tedious multistep procedures and prolonged synthetic time, and the resulting bimetallics usually disperse unevenly and show poor stability. It is challenging to develop a facile and step-economic synthetic methodology for highly efficient bimetallic catalysts. In this study, we report an elegant metal complex-involved multicomponent assembly route to highly efficient Ru–Ni bimetallics in ordered mesoporous carbons (OMC). The fabrication of composition-tuned Ru–Ni bimetallics in OMC (RuxNi1–x–OMC, x = 0.5–0.9) was facilely realized via in situ construction of CTAB-directed cubic Ia3d chitosan-ruthenium–nickel–silica mesophase before pyrolysis and silica removal. The resulting RuxNi1–x–OMC materials are in-depth characterized with X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption–desorption, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectrum, and X-ray absorption fine structure. This facile fabrication method renders homogeneously dispersed Ru–Ni bimetallics embedded in the mesoporous carbonaceous framework and creates a highly active and stable Ru0.9Ni0.1–OMC catalyst for the hydrogenation of levulinic acid (LA) to prepare γ-valerolactone (GVL), a biomass-derived platform molecule with wide application in the preparation of renewable chemicals and liquid transportation fuels. A high TOF (>2000 h–1) was obtained, and the Ru0.9Ni0.1–OMC catalyst could be used at least 15 times without obvious loss of its catalytic performance.

  15. Efficiency of bimetallic PtPd on polydopamine modified on various carbon supports for alcohol oxidations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinithchaisakula, A.; Ounnunkad, K.; Themsirimongkon, S.; Promsawan, N.; Waenkaew, P.; Saipanya, S.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, the preparation, characterization, and electrocatalytic analysis of the catalysts on various carbon substrates for direct alcohol fuel cells were studied. Selected carbons were modified with/without polydopamine (labelled as PDA-C and C) and further metal electrodeposited incorporated onto the glassy carbon (labelled as 5Pt1Pd/PDA-C and 5Pt1Pd/C). Four various carbon materials were used e.g. graphite (G), carbon nanotube (CNT), graphene (GP) and graphene oxide (GO) and the carbons were modified with PDA denoted as PDA-G, PDA-CNT, PDA-GP and PDA-GO, respectively. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) experimental observation showed narrow size distribution of metal anchored on the PDA-C and C materials. Chemical compositions and oxidation states of the catalysts were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The catalytic performances for small organic electro-oxidation (e.g. methanol and ethanol) were measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Among different PDA-C and C catalysts, monometallic Pt showed less activity than the bimetallic catalysts. Among catalysts with PDA, the 5Pt1Pd/PDA-GO catalyst facilitated methanol and ethanol oxidations with high oxidation currents and If/Ib value and stability with low potentials while among catalysts without PDA, the 5Pt1Pd/CNT provides highest activity and stability. It was found that the catalysts with PDA provided high activity and stability than the catalysts without PDA. The improved catalytic performance of the prepared catalysts could be related to the higher active surface area from polymer modification and bimetallic catalyst system in the catalyst composites.

  16. Thermo-therapeutic applications of chitosan- and PEG-coated NiFe2O4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjura Hoque, S.; Tariq, Mehrin; Liba, S. I.; Salehin, F.; Mahmood, Z. H.; Khan, M. N. I.; Chattopadhayay, K.; Islam, Rafiqul; Akhter, S.

    2016-07-01

    The paper reports the thermo-therapeutic applications of chitosan- and PEG-coated nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanoparticles. In this study NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method, tuning the particle size through heat treatment in the temperature range from 200-800 °C for 3 h. XRD and TEM analysis revealed that the the ultrafine nanoparticles were of size 2-58 nm. Crystallinity of the NiFe2O4 nanoparticles in the as-dried condition with the particle size ˜2-3 nm was confirmed from the presence of a lattice fringe in the HRTEM image. VSM measurements showed that a superparamagnetic/ferromagnetic transition occurs with increasing particle size, which was further confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The nickel ferrite nanoparticles with optimum particle size of 10 nm were then coated with materials commonly used for biomedical applications, i.e. chitosan and PEG, to form homogeneous suspensions. The hydrodynamic diameter and the polydispersity index (PDI) were analyzed by dynamic light scattering at the physiological temperature of 37 °C and found to be 187 nm and 0.21 for chitosan-coated nanoparticles and 285 nm and 0.32 for PEG-coated ones. The specific loss power of rf induction heating by the set-up for hyperthermia and r 2 relaxivity by the nuclear magnetic resonance were determined. The results of induction heating measurements showed that the temperature attained by the nanoparticles of size 10 nm and concentration of about 20 mg ml-1 was >70 °C (for chitosan) and >64 °C (for PEG). It has been demonstrated that the required temperature for hyperthermia heating could be tuned by tuning the particle size, shape and magnetization and the concentration of solution. For other potential biomedical applications of the NiFe2O4 nanoparticle solution, e.g. magnetic resonance imaging, the NMR studies yielded the T 1 and T 2 relaxivities as 0.348 and 89 mM-1 s-1 respectively. The fact that the T 2 relaxivity is orders of magnitude higher

  17. Structural and magnetic properties of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SnO{sub 2} nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, A.S. E-mail: asa@cdtn.br; Ardisson, J.D.; Macedo, W.A.A.; Plivelic, T.S.; Torriani, I.L.; Larrea J, J.; Saitovitch, E.B

    2004-05-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-SnO{sub 2} composite, obtained by ball-milling during different times, were investigated by X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, Moessbauer spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results showed the reduction of the crystalline particle size and modification in the nature of the system interfaces as a consequence of the mechanical treatment. Specimens with smaller particles displayed strong superparamagnetism. Large variation of the hysteresis loops for the different milling times was observed.

  18. First-principles study of ferroelectricity induced by p-d hybridization in ferrimagnetic NiFe2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Un-Gi; Yu, Chol-Jun; Park, Yong-Su; Ri, Chong-Suk

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the ferrimagnetism and ferroelectricity of bulk NiFe2O4 with tetragonal P41 22 symmetry by means of density functional theory calculations using generalized gradient approximation + Hubbard U approach. Special attention is paid to finding the most energetically favorable configuration on magnetic ordering and further calculating the reliable spontaneous electric polarization. With the fully optimized crystalline structure of the most stable configuration, the spontaneous polarization is obtained to be 23 μC/cm2 along the z direction, which originates from the hybridization between the 3d states of the Fe3+ cation and the 2p states of oxygen induced by Jahn-Teller effect.

  19. One step electrochemical synthesis of bimetallic PdAu supported on nafion–graphene ribbon film for ethanol electrooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shendage, Suresh S., E-mail: sureshsshendage@gmail.com; Singh, Abilash S.; Nagarkar, Jayashree M., E-mail: jm.nagarkar@ictmumbai.edu.in

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Electrochemical deposition of bimetallic PdAu NPs. • Highly loaded PdAu NPs are obtained. • Nafion–graphene supported PdAu NPs shows good activity for ethanol electrooxidation. - Abstract: A nafion–graphene ribbon (Nf–GR) supported bimetallic PdAu nanoparticles (PdAu/Nf–GR) catalyst was prepared by electrochemical codeposition of Pd and Au at constant potential. The prepared catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The average particle size of PdAu nanoparticles (NPs) determined from XRD was 3.5 nm. The electrocatalytic activity of the PdAu/Nf–GR catalyst was examined by cyclic voltametry. It was observed that the as prepared catalyst showed efficient activity and good stability for ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline medium.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of bimetallic Cu-Ni/ZrO{sub 2} nanocatalysts: H{sub 2} production by oxidative steam reforming of methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Hernandez, R.; Mondragon Galicia, G.; Mendoza Anaya, D.; Palacios, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares; Carretera Mexico-Toluca S/N La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico C.P. 52750 (Mexico); Angeles-Chavez, C. [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas, No. 152, C.P. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Arenas-Alatorre, J. [Instituto de Fisica-UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364, C.P. 01000, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-09-15

    Cu/ZrO{sub 2}, Ni/ZrO{sub 2} and bimetallic Cu-Ni/ZrO{sub 2} catalysts were prepared by deposition-precipitation method to produce hydrogen by oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM) reaction in the range of 250-360 C. TPR analysis of the Cu-Ni/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst showed that the presence of Cu facilitates the reduction of the Ni at lower temperatures. In addition, this sample showed two reduction peaks, the former peak was attributed to the reduction of the adjacent Cu and Ni atoms which could be forming a bimetallic Cu-rich phase, and the second was assigned to the remaining Ni atoms forming bimetallic Ni-rich nanoparticles. Transmission Electron Microscopy revealed Cu or Ni nanoparticles on the monometallic samples, while bimetallic nanoparticles were identified on the Cu-Ni/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst. On the other hand, Cu-Ni/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst exhibited better catalytic activity than the monometallic samples. The difference between them was related to the Cu-Ni nanoparticles present on the former catalyst, as well as the bifunctional role of the bimetallic phase and the support that improve the catalytic activity. All the catalysts showed the same selectivity toward H{sub 2} at the maximum reaction temperature and it was {proportional_to}60%. The high selectivity toward CO is associated to the presence of the bimetallic Ni-rich nanoparticles, as evidenced by TEM-EDX analysis, since this behavior is similar to the one showed by the monometallic Ni-catalyst. (author)

  1. 化学镀Ni-Fe-P-B合金的稳定剂醋酸铅研究%Stabilizer Pb (Ac) of Electroless Plating Ni-Fe-P-B Deposit Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余祖孝; 孙亚丽; 黄新; 饶志由

    2008-01-01

    用失重腐蚀、电化学和热处理方法,研究了稳定剂醋酸铅对化学镀Ni-Fe-P-B合金的孔隙率、失重腐蚀速率、腐蚀电流密度和硬度等影响.结果表明:当醋酸铅浓度为1.0 mg/L时,Ni-Fe-P-B合金镀层的腐蚀电流密度最小(1.259 mA/cm2),孔隙率最低(0.33个/cm2),失重腐蚀速率最小.经200~600℃热处理后,合金耐蚀性有不同程度的下降,当CPb(Ac)2=1.0 mg/L时,耐蚀性下降程度最小.然而合金硬度和耐磨性提高了(200~400℃),当CPb(Ac)2=1.0 mg/L,400℃热处理后,合金硬度高达939 HV,是镀态的2倍.

  2. Influence of NiFeNb seed layer on hysteresis loops of permalloy films%NiFeNb种子层对坡莫合金磁滞回线的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翠玲; 郑瑞伦; 滕蛟

    2005-01-01

    NiFeNb为种子层,制备(Ni79Fe21)1-xNbx(5nm)/(Ni79Fe21)(20nm)/Ta(3nm)系列膜,并对其颗粒大小、磁滞回线及表面粗糙度等进行测量,探讨种子层中Nb含量x对坡莫合金磁滞回线的影响.结果表明,以NiFeNb作种子层能更好地改善坡莫合金的微结构.Nb含量为23%时的磁滞回线有最小的最大磁能积、矫顽力.种子层影响坡莫合金磁滞回线的一个重要原因是脱附激活能等因素造成种子层具有不同的表面粗糙度,进而使坡莫合金具有不同的微结构和磁性能.

  3. Influence of the Seed Layer NiFeNb on Hysteresis Loops of Permalloy Films%NiFeNb种子层对坡莫合金磁滞回线的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑瑞伦; 刘俊; 代波; 张翠玲

    2004-01-01

    采用NiFeNb为种子层,制备(Ni82Fe18)1-xNbx(35A)/(Ni82Fe18)(150A)/Ta(30A)系列膜,并对其颗粒大小和磁滞回线等进行测量,探讨种子层中Nb含量x对坡莫合金磁滞回线的影响.结果表明:以NiFeNb作种子层能更好地改善坡莫合金的微结构.种子层厚度为20A,Nb含量为24.4%时,磁滞回线有最小的回线面积、矫顽力和较小的不对称性.种子层影响坡莫合金磁滞回线的一个重要原因是脱附激活能等因素造成种子层具有不同的表面粗糙度,进而使坡莫合金具有不同的微结构.

  4. Porous Diatomite-Immobilized Cu–Ni Bimetallic Nanocatalysts for Direct Synthesis of Dimethyl Carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of diatomite-immobilized Cu–Ni bimetallic nanocatalysts was prepared under ultrasonication and evaluated for the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate under various conditions. Upon being fully characterized by TPR, TPD, BET, SEM, XRD, and XPS methodologies, it is found that the bimetallic composite is effectively alloyed and well immobilized inside or outside the pore of diatomite. Under the optimal conditions of 1.2 MPa and 120∘C, the prepared catalyst with loading of 15% exhibited the highest methanol conversion of 6.50% with DMC selectivity of 91.2% as well as more than 10-hour lifetime. The possible reaction mechanism was proposed and discussed in detail. To our knowledge, this is the first report to use diatomite as a catalyst support for direct DMC synthesis from methanol and CO2.

  5. Preferred site occupation and magnetic properties of Ni-Fe-Ga-Co ferromagnetic shape memory alloys by first-principles calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Bai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available First-principles calculations have been used to investigate the effects of Co addition on the preferred site occupation and magnetic properties of Ni-Fe-Ga-Co ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. The formation energy results indicate that the excess Ni constituent preferentially occupies the Fe sites in the off-stoichiometric Ni-Fe-Ga ternary alloy. The added Co tends to take the normal-Ni sites in the Ni-Fe-Ga-Co quaternary alloy during composition adjustment process. The total magnetic moment increases with Co content of the Ni36-xFe12Ga16Cox (x=0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 alloys. The difference between the up and down electronic density of states at the Fermi level gives rise to the increased magnetic property.

  6. Microstructural evolution of NiFe2O4-10NiO powder prepared by high temperature solid state reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; ZHOU Ke-chao; LI Zhi-you; YANG Wen-jie

    2006-01-01

    The NiFe2O4-10NiO powder for inert anode of aluminium electrolysis was prepared by high temperature solid state reaction. The microstructural evolution from the raw materials NiO and Fe2O3 to the NiFe2O4-10NiO powder was studied by SEM. The results show that the domain structure making up of the agglomerate particles of Fe2O3 remains after high temperature solid state reaction, and the diffusion of Ni2+ into Fe2O3 structure is the control step of the reaction process. A microstructure with compact structure and fine grain inside the particle results from the sintering of NiFe2O4-10NiO powder.

  7. Preferred site occupation and magnetic properties of Ni-Fe-Ga-Co ferromagnetic shape memory alloys by first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jing; Chen, Yue; Li, Ze; Jiang, Pan; Wei, Pu; Zhao, Xiang

    2016-12-01

    First-principles calculations have been used to investigate the effects of Co addition on the preferred site occupation and magnetic properties of Ni-Fe-Ga-Co ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. The formation energy results indicate that the excess Ni constituent preferentially occupies the Fe sites in the off-stoichiometric Ni-Fe-Ga ternary alloy. The added Co tends to take the normal-Ni sites in the Ni-Fe-Ga-Co quaternary alloy during composition adjustment process. The total magnetic moment increases with Co content of the Ni36-xFe12Ga16Cox (x=0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) alloys. The difference between the up and down electronic density of states at the Fermi level gives rise to the increased magnetic property.

  8. Quantification of site disorder and its role on spin polarization in the nearly half-metallic Heusler alloy NiFeMnSn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukadam, M. D.; Roy, Syamashree; Meena, S. S.; Bhatt, Pramod; Yusuf, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    The electronic structure and magnetism of the quaternary Heusler alloy NiFeMnSn are studied using the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FPLAPW) method. The calculation for the perfectly LiMgPdSn-type ordered crystal structure (type I) of NiFeMnSn shows a high spin polarization (˜76 %) with a ferromagnetic ground state. The total spin magnetic moment is in good agreement with the Slater-Pauling rule. The structural investigations using neutron diffraction at 500 K, and Mössbauer spectroscopy at 300 K on the NiFeMnSn alloy, prepared using an arc melting, show the presence of atomic site disorder. The electronic structure calculation for the disordered structure shows that the site disorder destroys the nearly half-metallic nature of this alloy. The magnetization measurements indicate that the Curie temperature is well above room temperature (˜405 K) as desired for the spintronics application.

  9. Nanopore and nanoparticle catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J M; Raja, R

    2001-01-01

    The design, atomic characterization, performance, and relevance to clean technology of two distinct categories of new nanocatalysts are described and interpreted. Exceptional molecular selectivity and high activity are exhibited by these catalysts. The first category consists of extended, crystallographically ordered inorganic solids possessing nanopores (apertures, cages, and channels), the diameters of which fall in the range of about 0.4 to about 1.5 nm, and the second of discrete bimetallic nanoparticles of diameter 1 to 2 nm, distributed more or less uniformly along the inner walls of mesoporous (ca. 3 to 10 nm diameter) silica supports. Using the principles and practices of solid-state and organometallic chemistry and advanced physico-chemical techniques for in situ and ex situ characterization, a variety of powerful new catalysts has been evolved. Apart from those that, inter alia, simulate the behavior of enzymes in their specificity, shape selectivity, regio-selectivity, and ability to function under ambient conditions, many of these new nanocatalysts are also viable as agents for effecting commercially significant processes in a clean, benign, solvent-free, single-step fashion. In particular, a bifunctional, molecular sieve nanopore catalyst is described that converts cyclohexanone in air and ammonia to its oxime and caprolactam, and a bimetallic nanoparticle catalyst that selectively converts cyclic polyenes into desirable intermediates. Nanocatalysts in the first category are especially effective in facilitating highly selective oxidations in air, and those in the second are well suited to effecting rapid and selective hydrogenations of a range of organic compounds.

  10. Evidence of spin phonon coupling in magnetoelectric NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/PMN-PT composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlawat, Anju; Satapathy, S., E-mail: srinu73@rrcat.gov.in, E-mail: srinusatapathy@gmail.com; Gupta, P. K. [Nano Functional Materials Laboratory, Laser Materials Development and Devices Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Sathe, V. G.; Choudhary, R. J. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore 452017 (India)

    2013-12-16

    The coupling of phonon with spin in strain coupled magnetoelectric NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (NFO)/0.65Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–0.35PbTiO{sub 3} (PMN-PT) composite was investigated by temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy and magnetic measurements in the range 30–350 °C. Pure NFO shows usual ferromagnetic behaviour in this temperature range while NFO/PMN-PT composite show dramatic change in magnetic moment across ferroelectric transition temperature (T{sub c} ∼ 180 °C) of PMN-PT. The temperature evolution of the Raman spectra for the composite shows significant phonon anomalies in T-site (Fe-O) and O-site (Ni/Fe-O) phonon modes at ferroelectric transition temperature is attributed to spin phonon coupling in NFO/PMN-PT composite. The strain mediated magnetoelectric coupling mechanism in this composite is apparent from the observed spin phonon interaction.

  11. Improved purification, crystallization and crystallographic study of Hyd-2-type [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Citrobacter sp. S-77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhd Noor, Noor Dina; Nishikawa, Koji; Nishihara, Hirofumi; Yoon, Ki Seok; Ogo, Seiji; Higuchi, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    The purification procedure of Hyd-2-type [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Citrobacter sp. S-77 was improved by applying treatment with trypsin before chromatography. Purified protein samples both with and without trypsin treatment were successfully crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with polyethylene glycol as a precipitant. Both crystals belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.90, b = 118.89, c = 96.70 Å, β = 100.61° for the protein subjected to trypsin treatment and a = 65.38, b = 121.45, c = 98.63 Å, β = 102.29° for the sample not treated with trypsin. The crystal obtained from the trypsin-treated protein diffracted to 1.60 Å resolution, which is considerably better than the 2.00 Å resolution obtained without trypsin treatment. The [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Citrobacter sp. S-77 retained catalytic activity with some amount of O2, indicating that it has clear O2 tolerance.

  12. Modified combustion synthesis of Nano-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}: Optimization using Taguchi experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norouzbeigi, Reza, E-mail: norouzbeigi@iust.ac.ir [Cement Research Center, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16765-163, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Chemical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.B. 16765-163, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Majdabadi Farahani, Shahrzad [School of Chemical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.B. 16765-163, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Abstarct: Nano-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders were prepared by modified combustion of DTPA as a new fuel. Three factors such as fuel to oxidizer ratio (F/O), added fuel type and added to the main fuel ratio were evaluated under Taguchi L{sub 8} experimental design and analysis. Urea and EDTA were selected as added fuels and sterile gauze was used as a template for the first time. The crystal sizes were optimized as the responses of the experiments. Optimum condition for production of smaller crystals was determined as using EDTA as added fuel and added/main fuels molar ratio of 0.75. The structural and morphological properties of the products were characterized using, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy mapping, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD). FESEM and TEM micrographs showed agglomerated spherical and cubic nanoparticles with an average particle size of 60 nm. XRD analysis revealed the cubic spinel structure and ferrite phase with high crystallinity in the range of 13–23 nm. - Highlights: • Highly pure Nano-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were prepared by modified combustion of Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid as a new fuel. • Sterile gauze was used as template for the first time. • Nickel ferrite powders with average particle size of 60 nm have been successfully synthesized.

  13. Fabrication and evaluation of the thin NiFe supported solid oxide fuel cell by co-firing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyeong Hyun; Kim, Haekyoung [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Min [Fuel Cell Project, Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang 790-330 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Metal supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are one of the most promising candidates for power plants as well as portable applications due to their good mechanical and thermal properties. In this study, the thin NiFe supported SOFC, which consisted of thin metal support (NiFe, {proportional_to}70 {mu}m), anode functional layer (Ni-YSZ, {proportional_to}30 {mu}m), electrolyte (YSZ, {proportional_to}15 {mu}m), and cathode (LSCF, {proportional_to}30 {mu}m), was fabricated through tape casting and co-firing method. The cell showed 1.05-1.1 V of open circuit voltage and 1.4 W cm{sup -2} of maximum power density at 800 C with the ohmic resistance (R{sub ohm}) of 0.12 {omega} cm{sup 2} and the polarization resistance (R{sub p}) of 0.38 {omega} cm{sup 2}. The high performance and the successful measurement of thin metal supported cell showed the possibility for mobile applications through the large area cell fabrications. (author)

  14. Effect of metallic content on mechanical property of Ni/(10NiO-NiFe2O4) cermets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; ZHANG Gang; YE Shao-long; LAI Yan-qing; TIAN Zhong-liang; SUN Xiao-gang

    2006-01-01

    Ni/ (10NiO-NiFe2O4 ) cermets were fabricated by using cold pressing-sintering method. The phase composition and effect of metallic content on the mechanical properties such as bending strength, Vickers' hardness,fracture toughness and thermal shock resistance were studied. The results show that the cermets consist of Ni, NiO and NiFe2O4. Within the range of metallic content from 0 to 17% (mass fraction), the relative density decreases with the increase of metallic content and the decrease of sintering temperature, Vickers' hardness decreases from 7 097 MPa to 4 814 MPa and the bending strength increases from 110 MPa to 157 MPa, and the fracture toughness mal shock testing falls sharply as the thermal shock temperature difference is above 200℃. The cermets samples,whose metallic content is 10% and 15%, respectively, exhibit promising property of thermal shock resistance at 960 ℃ with six cycles of heating and quenching testing.

  15. Amorphous-crystalline Ni-Fe powder mixture: Hydrogenation and annealing effects on microstructure and electrical and magnetic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milinčić Radovan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogenation of a crystalline Ni-Fe (80 wt.% Ni, 20 wt.% Fe powder mixture leads to the formation of a mixture of Face Centered Cubic (FCC-Ni and FCC-Fe phase nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous matrix. The magnetic susceptibility of the nanostructured powder is 2.1 times higher than that of the as-produced crystalline mixture. Heating in the temperature range 420-590 K causes structural relaxation in the hydrogenated powder, resulting in an increase of the magnetic susceptibility and a decrease of the electrical resistivity. During the heating procedure, the reorientation of magnetic domains in nickel and iron takes place in the temperature range 580-650 K and 790-850 K, respectively. In the pressed sample from the powder mixture, the crystallization of the amorphous phase of nickel and its FCC lattice crystalline grain growth occurs in the temperature range 620-873 K causing a decrease in the magnetic susceptibility of the nickel FCC phase and a sudden drop in the electrical resistivity. Prolonged heating of the mixed powders at 873K results in the formation of a Ni-Fe solid solution with higher magnetic susceptibility than the starting mixture. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172057

  16. The effect of annealing on microstructure and cation distribution of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvejić, Ž., E-mail: zeljkac@uns.ac.rs [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovića 4, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Đurđić, E.; Ivković Ivandekić, G. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovića 4, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Bajac, B. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bulevar Cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Postolache, P.; Mitoseriu, L. [Faculty of Physics, University “Al. I. Cuza”, Bv. Carol I Nr 11, RO-Iasi 700506 (Romania); Srdić, V.V. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bulevar Cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Rakić, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovića 4, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2015-11-15

    Nickel ferrite nanopowder was synthesized using a co-precipitation method, and further annealed at three different temperatures of 500 °C, 750 °C and 900 °C. The effect of annealing process was explored on particle size, cation distribution and magnetic properties of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and with the use of a vibrating sample magnetometer. The X-ray diffraction patterns at different annealing temperatures demonstrated the existence of only spinel phase of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The results of Rietveld analysis showed that the sample annealed at 750 °C possesses inverse spinel structure, while the others have partially inverted spinel structure. The SEM analysis indicated a change of particle size and morphology at higher annealing temperature. The change in Raman modes was observed with the change of particle size and cation distribution. The highest value of the saturation magnetization (38 emu g{sup −1}) was obtained at annealing temperatures of 900 °C. - Highlights: • Nickel ferrite nanopowders were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. • The particle size, cation distribution and magnetic properties were explored. • The intensity of obtained Raman spectra is closely related to the grains size. • The magnetic saturation depends on the cation distribution and on a grain size.

  17. EFFECT OF MnO2 ADDITIVE ON PERFORMANCES OF NiFe2O4 SPINEL BASED INERT ANODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.L. Jiao; L. Zhang; G. C. Yao

    2005-01-01

    The NiFe2O4 inert anode is synthesized by high-temperature solid-state reaction method using NiO and Fe2O3 as main raw materials and adding MnO2 powder as additive. Archimedes method using water immersion technique is used to measure the sintering performances of samples. The static thermal corrosion rates of samples are measured by weight loss. SEM is employed for the observation of material microstructure, and phase structure of the sample surface after corrosion is determined by XRD. The experimental results indicate that a suitable MnO2additive content is 2%, while the sintering performance is the best, and the static thermal corrosion rate is the lowest. Because of MnO2 dopant enriching at crystal boundary, the corrosion reaction of molten salt to crystal grain creates Mn2AlO4 phase, which is denser than NiFe2O4phase, and prevents the cryolite molten salt to penetrate into the inert anode, thus reducing the corrosion.

  18. One Step Quick Detection of Cancer Cell Surface Marker by Integrated NiFe-based Magnetic Biosensing Cell Cultural Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenchen Bao; Lei Chen; Tao Wang; Chong Lei; Furong Tian; Daxiang Cui; Yong Zhou

    2013-01-01

    RGD peptides has been used to detect cell surface integrin and direct clinical effective therapeutic drug selection. Herein we report that a quick one step detection of cell surface marker that was realized by a specially designed NiFe-based magnetic biosensing cell chip combined with functionalized magnetic nanoparti-cles. Magnetic nanoparticles with 20-30 nm in diameter were prepared by coprecipitation and modified with RGD-4C, and the resultant RGD-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were used for targeting cancer cells cul-tured on the NiFe-based magnetic biosensing chip and distinguish the amount of cell surface receptor-integrin. Cell lines such as Calu3, Hela, A549, CaFbr, HEK293 and HUVEC exhibiting different integrin expression were chosen as test samples. Calu3, Hela, HEK293 and HUVEC cells were successfully identified. This approach has advantages in the qualitative screening test. Compared with traditional method, it is fast, sensitive, low cost, easy-operative, and needs very little human intervention. The novel method has great potential in applications such as fast clinical cell surface marker detection, and diagnosis of early cancer, and can be easily extended to other biomedical applications based on molecular recognition.

  19. Dielectric and magnetic properties of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} at 2.45 GHz and heating capacity for potential uses under microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polaert, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.polaert@insa-rouen.fr [LSPC (Laboratoire de Sécurité des Procédés Chimiques). Institut National des Sciences Appliquées INSA Rouen (France); Bastien, Samuel [Département de génie chimique et de génie biotechnologique, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada J1K 2R1 (Canada); Legras, Benoit [LSPC (Laboratoire de Sécurité des Procédés Chimiques). Institut National des Sciences Appliquées INSA Rouen (France); Département de génie chimique et de génie biotechnologique, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada J1K 2R1 (Canada); Estel, Lionel [LSPC (Laboratoire de Sécurité des Procédés Chimiques). Institut National des Sciences Appliquées INSA Rouen (France); Braidy, Nadi [Département de génie chimique et de génie biotechnologique, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada J1K 2R1 (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    This paper presents the dielectric and magnetic properties, measured at 2.45 GHz, of a new nickel ferrite, NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, synthetized by plasma technology. These properties were measured by the small perturbation method in a resonant cavity, from 293 to 513 K. Using these values, the adiabatic heating of nanoparticles of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} under microwave irradiation was also modeled. The wave propagation equation (Maxwell's equation) coupled to the heat transfer in the solid was numerically solved. The influence of parameters such as the bed volume, its porosity, the microwave incident power or the microwave system geometry is discussed. This study demonstrates that NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles can be rapidly heated up to at least 513 K under microwaves and can probably achieve higher temperatures according to the thermal insulation. The magnetic contribution to heating overcomes the dielectric one in the explored temperature range. Very efficient energy yield (>90%) can then be achieved when the magnetic field position is centered over the bed. - Highlights: • A new nickel ferrite, NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, was synthetized by plasma technology. • Its dielectric and magnetic properties were measured at 2.45 GHz. • The adiabatic heating of nanoparticles of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} under microwave was modeled. • NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles can be rapidly heated up to at least 513 K. • The magnetic contribution to heating overcomes the dielectric one from 293 K to 513 K.

  20. Interface chemical states of NiO/NiFe films and their effects on magnetic properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    [1]Dieny,B.J.,Giant magnetoresistance in spin-valve multilayers,Magn.Magn.Mater.,1994,136: 335-359.[2]Meiklejohn,W.H.,Bean,C.P.,New magnetic anisotropy,Phys.Rev.B,1956,102: 1423-1428.[3]Malozemoff,A.P.,Random-field model of exchange anisotropy at rough ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic interfaces,Phys.Rev.B,1987,35: 3679-3682.[4]Mauri,D.,Kay,E.,Scholl,D.et al.,Simple model for thin ferromagnetic films exchange coupled to an antiferromagnetic substrate,J.Appl.Phys.,1987,62: 3047-3050.[5]Koon,N.C.,Calculations of exchange bias in thin films with ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic interface,Phys.Rev.Lett.,1997,78(25): 4865-4868.[6]Hong,T.M.,Consequences of spin-flop coupling in exchange biased films,Phys.Rev.B.,1998,58: 97-100.[7]Hwang,D.G.,Lee,S.S.,Park,C.M.,Effect of roughness slope on exchange biasing in NiO spin valves,Appl.Phys.Lett.,1998,72 (17): 2162-2164.[8]Shen,J.X.,Kief,M.T.,Exchange coupling between NiO and NiFe thin films,J.Appl.Phys.,1996,79(8): 5008-5010.[9]Michel,R.P.,Chaiken,A.,Kim,Y.K.et al.,NiO exchange bias layers grown by direct ion beam sputtering of a nickel oxide target,IEEE Trans.Magn.,1996,32: 4651-4653.[10]Shang,C.H.,Berera,G.P.,Moodera,J.S.,Exchange-biased ferromagnetic tunnel junctions via reactive evaporation of nickel oxide films,Appl.Phys.Lett.,1998,72: 605-607.[11]Wagner,C.D.,Riggs,W.M.,Davis,L.E.et al.,Handbook of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,U.S.A.,Perkin-Elmer,1979,76,80.[12]Atanassova,E.,Dimitrova,T.,Koprinarova,J.,AES and XPS study of thin RF-sputtered Ta2O5 layers,Appl.Surf.Sci.,1995,84: 193-202.[13]Tanuma,S.,Powell,C.J.,Penn,D.R.,Calculations of electron inelastic mean free paths for 31 materials,Surf.Interface Anal.,1988,11: 577-589.[14]Kubaschewski,O.,Alcock,C.B.,Spencer,P.J.,Materials Thermochemistrys,New York: Pergamon Press,1993,278,300.[15]Kools,J.C.S.,Effect of energetic particle bombardment during sputter deposition on the properties of exchange-biased spin

  1. 负载型钌-钇双金属催化剂催化萜烯树脂加氢反应研究%Study on the hydrogenation of terpene resin with supported ruthenium-yttrium bimetallic catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑惠榕; 林嘉渭; 郑国才; 林棋

    2016-01-01

    采用浸渍法制备了负载型Ru-Y/TiO2催化剂,并考察了其在萜烯树脂加氢反应中的催化性能。结果表明,负载型Ru-Y/TiO2催化剂对萜烯树脂加氢反应具有较高的催化活性,在150℃,氢气压力4 MPa,反应时间6 h,制得了无色或浅色萜烯树脂,加氢反应前、后萜烯树脂的色差可达82%以上,且催化剂稳定性较好,循环使用5次后,其催化萜烯树脂加氢反应前后的色差仍高于75%。合成的无色或浅色萜烯树脂具有无毒、稳定和抗老化等特性,可广泛应用于塑料、油墨、涂料、黏合剂、电子产品、食品加工和医药材料等领域。%The supported Ru-Y/TiO2 catalysts was prepared by impregnation and characterized by XRD and SEM. The catalytic ac-tivity on the hydrogenation of terpene resin to colorless terpene resin was explored. The results indicated that,the hydrogenation of terpene resin exhibited higher activity under the optimal reaction conditions as:terpene resin 1. 000 g,2. 5%Ru-2. 5%Y/TiO2 0. 040 g,n-hexane 2 mL,150℃,4 MPa,6 h. Color-difference of terpene resin was up to 82. 7%before and after hydrogenation. Mo-reover,the products were conveniently separated from the catalyst by simple decantation, and the catalyst could be reused five times,the color-difference of terpene resin is higher 75%before and after hydrogenation. The decolorized terpene resins might be used as plastics,printing inks,paintings,adhesive,electronic products,food processing and health goods because it was innocuous, stable and aging-resistant.

  2. Mechanical alloying of a hydrogenation catalyst used for the remediation of contaminated compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Aitken, Brian S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A hydrogenation catalyst including a base material coated with a catalytic metal is made using mechanical milling techniques. The hydrogenation catalysts are used as an excellent catalyst for the dehalogenation of contaminated compounds and the remediation of other industrial compounds. Preferably, the hydrogenation catalyst is a bimetallic particle including zero-valent metal particles coated with a catalytic material. The mechanical milling technique is simpler and cheaper than previously used methods for producing hydrogenation catalysts.

  3. Dehalogenation of Aryl Halides Catalyzed by Montmorillonite Immobilized Bimetal Catalyst in Aqueous System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel bisupported bimetal catalyst PVP-PdCl2-FeSO4/Al-Mont-PEG600 was prepared by immobilization of PVP (poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)) supported bimetallic catalyst using alumina pillared inartificial montmorillonite as the carrier. This catalyst has good dehalogenation activity and selectivity to aryl halides-o-chlorotoluene in aqueous system in the presence of phase transfer catalyst (PEG) and sodium formate as hydrogen source. The catalyst also shows good reusability.

  4. 聚丙烯酰胺凝胶法制备NiFe2O4纳米颗粒及性能%Preparation and Properties of NiFe2O4 Nanoparticles by a Polyacrylamide Gel Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东方; 杨华; 县涛; 王伟鹏; 魏智强; 李瑞山; 冯旺军; 姜金龙

    2013-01-01

    采用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶法制备了NiFe2O4纳米颗粒,利用XRD、SEM、紫外-可见漫反射光谱、FTIR、XPS、VSM等对样品进行了表征分析.结果表明:分别以EDTA和乙酸作络合剂时,在600℃烧结温度下可制得单相NiFe2O4纳米颗粒;两个样品的颗粒形貌较为规整,主要以类球形为主,粒度分布较为均匀,平均粒径分别为55 nm和75nm.根据紫外-可见漫反射光谱求得样品的带隙为1.85 eV.Fe2p3/2和Ni2p3/2的XPS谱分析表明:样品为反尖晶石型结构,其化学通式可表示为(Fe3+)[Ni2+ Fe3+]O4.磁滞回线测量结果表明:样品具有良好的软磁特性,颗粒尺寸较小的样品其饱和磁化强度、剩余磁化强度和矫顽力相对较小.%A polyacrylamide gel route was used to prepare NiFe2O4 nanoparticles. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) , scanning electron microscope (SEM) , ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) , X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) , and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). It is demonstrated that single-phase NiFe2O4 nanoparticles can be prepared separately using ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and acetic acid as the chelating agent at a calcining temperature of 600 ℃. The two as-prepared samples have regular spherical particle shapes and uniform particle sizes with an average diameter of 55 run and 75 nm, respectively. The energy bandgap of the samples is estimated to be 1.85 eV by ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Fe 2p3/2 and Ni 2p3/2 XPS spectra reveal that the samples have an inverse spinel-type structure with the chemical formula (Fe3+ ) [Ni2+Fe3+ ]O4. Magnetic hysteresis loop measurements indicate that the samples exhibit good soft magnetic properties, and their saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity have a decrease with decrease in particle size.

  5. New Technology of Electroless Ni-Fe-P-B Plating on ABS Plastic at Lower Temperature%ABS塑料低温化学镀Ni-Fe-P-B合金工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳芝

    2002-01-01

    通过实验研究发现,ABS塑料经过一系列恰当的预处理之后,可以采用以柠檬酸钠为主络合剂(配以适量的加速剂、稳定剂)的低温碱性化学镀的方法,得到Ni-Fe-P-B磁性镀层.该镀液稳定,镀速高(16.8μm/h).该镀层主要为非晶态结构;耐蚀性良好;镀层合金中铁、磷和硼的质量分数分别为35.8%、2.8%、6.1%.

  6. The annealing temperature dependences of microstructures and magnetic properties in electro-chemical deposited CoNiFe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suharyadi, Edi; Riyanto, Agus; Abraha, Kamsul

    2016-04-01

    CoNiFe thin films with various compositions had been successfully fabricated using electro-chemical deposition method. The crystal structure of Co65Ni15Fe20, Co62Ni15Fe23, and Co55Ni15Fe30 thin films was fcc, bcc-fcc mix, and bcc, respectively. The difference crystal structure results the difference in magnetic properties. The saturation magnetic flux density (Bs) of Co65Ni15Fe20, Co62Ni15Fe23, and Co55Ni15Fe30 thin films was 1.89 T, 1.93 T, and 2.05 T, respectively. An optimal annealing temperature was determined for controlling the microstructure and magnetic properties of CoNiFe thin films. Depending on annealing temperature, the ratio of bcc and fcc structure varied without changing the film composition. By annealing at temperature of T ≥ 350°C, the intensity ratio of X-ray diffraction peaks for bcc(110) to fcc(111) increased. The increase of phase ratio of bcc(110) to fcc(111) caused the increase of Bs, from 1.89 T to 1.95 T. Coercivity (Hc) also increased after annealing, from 2.6 Oe to 18.6 Oe for fcc phase thin films, from 2.0 Oe to 12.0 Oe for fcc-bcc mix phase thin films, and 7.8 Oe to 8 Oe for bcc phase thin films. The changing crystal structures during annealing process indicated that the thermal treatment at high temperature cause the changing crystallinity and atomic displacement. The TEM bright-field images with corresponding selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns showed that there are strongly effects of thermal annealing on the size of fcc and bcc phase crystalline grain as described by size of individual spot and discontinuous rings. The size of crystalline grains increased by thermal annealing. The evolution of bcc and fcc structures of CoNiFe during annealing is though to be responsible for the change of magnetic properties.

  7. Zero field resistivity of nanometer permalloy films with new seed layer NiFeNb%以NiFeNb为新种子层的纳米级坡莫合金薄膜的零场电阻率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊; 郑瑞伦; 段昌奎; 代波

    2004-01-01

    NiFeNb为新种子层,采用直流磁控溅射法制备了具有不同Nb含量(x)、种子层厚度(d)和NiFe厚度(t)的(Ni82Fe18)(1-x)Nbx(d A)/Ni82Fe18(t A)/Ta(30 A)纳米级坡莫合金系列膜,并对部分样品进行了中温退火.测量了样品的磁电阻曲线和微结构.从实验角度研究了零场电阻率(ρ)随x、d、t及退火的变化.结果表明,NiFeNb作为种子层能较大地提高坡莫合金薄膜的ρ;一定厚度坡莫合金薄膜的ρ极大的最佳工艺条件是x约为27.5%,d约为27.5 A;不同Nb含量、种子层厚度等工艺条件引起坡莫合金薄膜具有不同颗粒粒径分布,从而引起4s↓电子受到的内禀散射、颗粒表面和边界散射及其关系的不同,再加上织构、4s↓电子球对称性受破坏程度和薄膜均匀程度的不同导致了零场电阻率随工艺条件的变化.

  8. Determination of Quantity of Silicon Contained in Amorphous Ni-Fe-Si-B by Photometric Method%钼兰光度法测定Ni-Fe-Si-B非晶中硅含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱佳

    2011-01-01

    The determination of the quantity of silicon contained in amorphous Ni-Fe-Si-B has been investigated according to applied photometric method. The sample is put into the thin acid solution , and silicic acid can be reacted with molybdic acid to generate silicon-molybdenum heteropoly acid in thin acid solution. After the saturated boric acid is mixed with extra fluoride ions, ferrous ammonium sulphate can be reduced to silicon-molybdenum blue with the help of oxalic acid, and then the colorimetric analysis can be obtained at the wavelength of 680 nm. The experiment showed that the data by means of the appied photometric method is the same as that by the gravimetric determination. The applied photometric method can be used to measure the quantity of silicon in middle content.%本文应用光度法对Ni-Fe-Si-B非晶中硅含量的测定进行了研究.试样料在微酸性溶液中,硅酸与钼酸铵生成硅钼杂多酸,饱和硼酸络合过量氟离子,再用草酸-硫酸亚铁铵还原成硅钼蓝,在680 nm波长条件下进行比色分析.实验结果表明,本方法测定结果与重量法测定结果相符吻合,能满足非晶中中硅含量的测定.

  9. Facile hybridization of Ni@Fe2O3 superparticles with functionalized reduced graphene oxide and its application as anode material in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backert, Gregor; Oschmann, Bernd; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Mueller, Franziska; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Balke, Benjamin; Tremel, Wolfgang; Passerini, Stefano; Zentel, Rudolf

    2016-09-15

    In our present work we developed a novel graphene wrapping approach of Ni@Fe2O3 superparticles, which can be extended as a concept approach for other nanomaterials as well. It uses sulfonated reduced graphene oxide, but avoids thermal treatments and use of toxic agents like hydrazine for its reduction. The modification of graphene oxide is achieved by the introduction of sulfate groups accompanied with reduction and elimination reactions, due to the treatment with oleum. The successful wrapping of nanoparticles is proven by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The developed composite material shows strongly improved performance as anode material in lithium-ion batteries (compared to unwrapped Ni@Fe2O3) as it offers a reversible capacity of 1051mAhg(-1) after 40 cycles at C/20, compared with 460mAhg(-1) for unwrapped Ni@Fe2O3. The C rate capability is also improved by the wrapping approach, as specific capacities for wrapped particles are about twice of those offered by unwrapped particles. Additionally, the benefit for the use of the advanced superparticle morphology is demonstrated by comparing wrapped Ni@Fe2O3 particles with wrapped Fe2O3 nanorice.

  10. The role of the (111) texture on the exchange bias and interlayer coupling effects observed in sputtered NiFe/IrMn/Co trilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, I. L.; Nascimento, V. P.; Passamani, E. C.; Takeuchi, A. Y.; Larica, C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES 29075-910 (Brazil); Tafur, M. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, Campus Itabira, Itabira, MG 37500-903 (Brazil); Pelegrini, F. [Universidade Federal de Goias, Goiania, GO 74001-970 (Brazil)

    2013-05-28

    Magnetic properties of sputtered NiFe/IrMn/Co trilayers grown on different seed layers (Cu or Ta) deposited on Si (100) substrates were investigated by magnetometry and ferromagnetic resonance measurements. Exchange bias effect and magnetic spring behavior have been studied by changing the IrMn thickness. As shown by X-ray diffraction, Ta and Cu seed layers provoke different degrees of (111) fcc-texture that directly affect the exchange bias and indirectly modify the exchange spring coupling behavior. Increasing the IrMn thickness, it was observed that the coupling angle between the Co and NiFe ferromagnetic layers increases for the Cu seed system, but it reduces for the Ta case. The results were explained considering (i) different anisotropies of the Co and IrMn layers induced by the different degree of the (111) texture and (ii) the distinct exchange bias set at the NiFe/IrMn and IrMn/Co interfaces in both systems. The NiFe and Co interlayer coupling angle is strongly correlated with both exchange bias and exchange magnetic spring phenomena. It was also shown that the highest exchange bias field occurs when an unstressed L1{sub 2} IrMn structure is stabilized.

  11. Preparation of Magnetic Photocatalyst TiO2 Supported on NiFe2O4 and Effect of Magnetic Carrier on Photocatalytic Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shi-Hong; FENG Dao-Lun; LI Deng-Xin; SHANGGUAN Wen-Feng

    2008-01-01

    A magnetic photocatalyst TiO2/NiFe2O4(TN)with typical ferromagnetic hysteresis was prepared by a sol-gel method,which is easy to be separated from a slurry-type photoreactor under the application of an external magnetic field,being one of promising photocatalysts for wastewater treatment.The analysis of XRD indicated that the highly dispersed NiFe2O4 nanoparticles prevented the formation of futile phase to some extent.A transmission elec.tron microscope(TEM)was used to characterize the structure of the photocatalyst,indicating that the NiFe2O4 nanoparticles highly dispersed among TiO2 nanoparticles.The prepared photocatalyst showed high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange in water.The degradation results revealed that the NiFe2O4 nanoparticles played the role of recombination centre of photogenerated electrons and holes for the TN photocatalyst.which gave rise to the decrease in photocatalytic activity.Moreover,the experiment on recycled use of TN demonstrated a good repeatability of the photocatalytic activity.

  12. Science Letters:Dechlorination mechanism of 2,4-dichlorophenol by Ni/Fe nanoparticles in the presence of humic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-jing WO; Zhen ZHANG; Xin-hua XU

    2009-01-01

    To understand the feasibility of its application to the in situ remediation of contaminated groundwater, the dechlori-nation of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) by Ni/Fe nanoparticles in the presence of humic acid (HA) was investigated. We found that, as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used, the 2,4-DCP was first quickly reduced to o-chlorophenol (o-CP) andp-chlorophenol (p-CP), and then reduced to phenol as the final product. Our experimental results indicated that HA had an adverse effect on the dechlorination of 2,4-DCP by Ni/Fe nanoparticles, as the HA concentration increased, the removal rate decreased evidently. It also demonstrated that 2,4-DCP was reduced more easily to o-CP than to p-CP, and that the sequence of the tendency in dechlorination of intermediates was p-CP>o-CP. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that HA could act as an adsorbate to compete reactive sites on the surface of Ni/Fe nanoparticles to decrease the dechlorination rate. Also we con-cluded that the dechlorination reaction of 2,4-DCP over Ni/Fe nanoparticles progressed through catalytic reductive dechlorination.

  13. Directional alignment of FeCo crystallites in Si/NiFe/Ru/FeCoB multilayer with high anisotropy field above 500 Oe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Ken-Ichiro; Gomi, Shunsuke; Nakagawa, Shigeki

    2011-03-01

    In-plane magnetic anisotropy and crystal structure of FeCoB layer on Si/NiFe/Ru underlayer were investigated by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) measurement. A pole-figure measurement of XRD showed directionally tilted alignment of FeCo crystallites in Si/NiFe/Ru/FeCoB multilayered film with high in-plane anisotropy field H(k) but no directional alignment was found in FeCoB single layered film. The higher H(k) appeared in the Si/NiFe/Ru/FeCoB multilayered configuration with the thicker FeCoB layer. Since Ru crystallites in a multiunderlayer configuration exhibited no directional alignment, the surface structure of underlayer should be no main reason for the directional alignment of FeCo crystallites deposited on it. The dependence of hickness of FeCoB layer in Si/NiFe/Ru/FeCoB film on H(k) indicated that the in-plane magnetic anisotropy is caused by not only the structure of Ru underlayer but also oblique incidence effect of sputtered particles, which is attained in configuration of Facing Targets Sputtering (FTS) system. From these experimental results, remarkably high H(k) of 540 Oe was obtained.

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis and properties of NiFe2O4@BaTiO3 composites with well-matched interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Ping Zhou, Li Lv, Qian Liu, Yu-Xiang Zhang and Peng Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available NiFe2O4@BaTiO3 multiferroic composite particles were produced by a simple hydrothermal method in two steps: preparing NiFe2O4 nanoparticles and then synthesizing core-shell nanocomposites. Multiferroic composite ceramics were sintered from these powders. X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering and energy dispersive x-ray analyses indicated that the core-shell composites with a NiFe2O4 core and BaTiO3 shell were formed in the hydrothermal environment. Different types of sharp interfaces were self-assembled owing to the minimization of direct elastic energy. The saturation magnetization of the composites linearly increased with the NiFe2O4 content while the dielectric constant decreased. A dielectric peak appeared at around 460 °C because of the oxygen vacancies in the BaTiO3 ceramics. It resulted in an enhancement of magnetic permeability in the composites, indicating magnetoelectric coupling that was also observed by direct magnetoelectric measurements.

  15. N-doped graphene layers encapsulated NiFe alloy nanoparticles derived from MOFs with superior electrochemical performance for oxygen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yi; Yu, Xin-Yao; Paik, Ungyu

    2016-01-01

    Water splitting, an efficient approach for hydrogen production, is often hindered by unfavorable kinetics of oxygen evolution reaction (OER). In order to reduce the overpotential, noble metal oxides-based electrocatalysts like RuO2 and IrO2 are usually utilized. However, due to their scarcity, the development of cost-effective non-precious OER electrocatalysts with high efficiency and good stability is urgently required. Herein, we report a facile one-step annealing of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) strategy to synthesize N-doped graphene layers encapsulated NiFe alloy nanoparticles (NiFe@C). Through tuning the nanoparticle size and calcination temperature, NiFe@C with an average size of around 16 nm obtained at 700 °C exhibits superior OER performance with an overpotential of only 281 mV at 10 mA cm−2 and high durability. The facile synthesis method and excellent electrochemical performance show great potential of NiFe@C in replacing the precious metal-based electrocatalysts in the OER. PMID:27658968

  16. Screening of NiFe2O4 Nanoparticles as Oxygen Carrier in Chemical Looping Hydrogen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Shuai; He, Fang; Huang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to systematically investigate the influences of different preparation methods on the properties of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles as oxygen carrier in chemical looping hydrogen production (CLH). The solid state (SS), coprecipitation (CP), hydrothermal (HT), and sol-gel (SG...

  17. Improving performance of catalysts for water electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Rasmus

    This Ph.D. thesis presents work on non-noble metal oxide catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction, OER. This reaction is currently a bottleneck in electrolyzer technologies, which are promising for energy storage purposes. In particular, Polymer Electrolyte Membrane, PEM, cells are attractive...... for decentralised hydrogen stations. PEM electrolyzers rely on scarce noble metals to achieve high effciency and durability, which limits the scalability of the technology. Finding new catalysts for OER is therefore a thriving research field with new materials being reported frequently. However, many of these new...... in evaluating novel materials for the OER. Unfortunately, most non-noble metal based OER catalysts reported to this date work in alkaline solutions, where cheap NiFe electrodes are already utilized in commercial systems. For acidic media, relevant for the acidic membrane in PEM electrolyzers, there is a lack...

  18. Bimetallic Nanocatalysts in Mesoporous Silica for Hydrogen Production from Coal-Derived Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuila, Debasish [North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States); Ilias, Shamsuddin [North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2013-02-13

    In steam reforming reactions (SRRs) of alkanes and alcohols to produce H2, noble metals such as platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) are extensively used as catalyst. These metals are expensive; so, to reduce noble-metal loading, bi-metallic nanocatalysts containing non-noble metals in MCM-41 (Mobil Composition of Material No. 41, a mesoporous material) as a support material with high-surface area were synthesized using one-pot hydrothermal procedure with a surfactant such as cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template. Bi-metallic nanocatalysts of Pd-Ni and Pd-Co with varying metal loadings in MCM-41 were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The BET surface area of MCM-41 (~1000 m2/g) containing metal nanoparticles decreases with the increase in metal loading. The FTIR studies confirm strong interaction between Si-O-M (M = Pd, Ni, Co) units and successful inclusion of metal into the mesoporous silica matrix. The catalyst activities were examined in steam reforming of methanol (SRM) reactions to produce hydrogen. Reference tests using catalysts containing individual metals (Pd, Ni and Co) were also performed to investigate the effect of the bimetallic system on the catalytic behavior in the SRM reactions. The bimetallic system remarkably improves the hydrogen selectivity, methanol conversion and stability of the catalyst. The results are consistent with a synergistic behavior for the Pd-Ni-bimetallic system. The performance, durability and thermal stability of the Pd-Ni/MCM-41 and Pd-Co/MCM-41 suggest that these materials may be promising catalysts for hydrogen production from biofuels. A part of this work for synthesis and characterization of Pd-Ni-MCM-41 and its activity for SRM reactions has been published (“Development of Mesoporous Silica Encapsulated Pd-Ni Nanocatalyst for Hydrogen Production” in “Production and Purification of Ultraclean

  19. Microfabrication of magnetostrictive beams based on NiFe film doped with B and Mo for integrated sensor systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2012-03-09

    This paper reports the development of integrated micro-sensors consisting of 1 -µm-thick magnetostrictive cantilevers or bridges with 500 µm in length and conducting interrogation elements. The thin films are fabricated by sputter deposition of NiFe doped with B and Mo, and the magnetic properties are enhanced by field annealing, resulting in a coercivity of 2.4 Oe. In operation, an alternating current applied to the interrogation elements magnetizes the magnetostrictive structures. The longitudinal resonant frequency is detected as an impedance change of the interrogation elements. The magnetostrictive micro-beams provide high resonant frequencies—2.95 MHz for the cantilever and 5.46 MHz for the bridge—which can be exploited to develop sensors of high sensitivity.

  20. Plasticity of nanocrystalline alloys with chemical order: on the strength and ductility of nanocrystalline Ni-Fe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Jonathan; Albe, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Plastic deformation and alloying of nanocrystalline Ni-Fe is studied by means of atomic scale computer simulations. By using a combination of Monte-Carlo and molecular dynamics methods we find that solutes have an ordering tendency even if grain sizes are in the nanometer regime, where the phase field of the ordered state is widened as compared to larger grain sizes. Tensile testing of disordered structures with various elemental distributions and the simultaneous analysis of intragranular defects reveal that solid solution strengthening is absent for the studied grain sizes. The composition and relaxation state of the grain boundary control the strength of the material, which is also found for ordered structures (L12), where dislocation activity is suppressed.

  1. Structure-Property Relationship of Cu-Al-Ni-Fe Shape Memory Alloys in Different Quenching Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saud, Safaa N.; Hamzah, E.; Abubakar, T.; Farahany, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of heat treatments using various quenching media on the phase transformation parameters and microstructure parameters. The effects of different quenching methods, step-quenched and up-quenched, in various media were evaluated by using differential scanning calorimetry, field emission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Vicker's hardness. The variations of the structure and properties of Cu-Al-Ni-Fe shape memory alloys were linked to the variations of morphology, type, and stabilization of the obtained phase. From the DSC results, the use of ice water as a quenching medium produced the highest transformation temperatures, while a brine solution-quenching medium resulted in the highest change of the entropy and enthalpy. Additionally, it was found that the best grain refinement was observed through the use of an oil-quenching medium, due to its high cooling rate.

  2. Tunneling conductance studies in the ion-beam sputtered CoFe/Mg/MgO/NiFe magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Braj Bhusan; Chaudhary, Sujeet [Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2013-06-03

    Magnetic tunnel junctions consisting of CoFe(10 nm)/Mg(1 nm)/MgO(3.5 nm)/NiFe(10 nm) are grown at room temperature using dual ion beam sputtering via in-situ shadow masking. The effective barrier thickness and average barrier height are estimated to be 3.5 nm (2.9 nm) and 0.69 eV (1.09 eV) at 290 K (70 K), respectively. The tunnel magnetoresistance value of 0.2 % and 2.3 % was observed at 290 K and 60 K, respectively. The temperature dependence of tunneling conductance revealed the presence of localized states present within the forbidden gap of the MgO barrier leading to finite inelastic spin independent tunneling contributions, which degrade the TMR value.

  3. Modulation of Active Site Electronic Structure by the Protein Matrix to Control [NiFe] Hydrogenase Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Dayle MA; Raugei, Simone; Squier, Thomas C.

    2014-09-30

    Control of the reactivity of the nickel center of the [NiFe] hydrogenase and other metalloproteins commonly involves outer coordination sphere ligands that act to modify the geometry and physical properties of the active site metal centers. We carried out a combined set of classical molecular dynamics and quantum/classical mechanics calculations to provide quantitative estimates of how dynamic fluctuations of the active site within the protein matrix modulate the electronic structure at the catalytic center. Specifically we focused on the dynamics of the inner and outer coordination spheres of the cysteinate-bound Ni–Fe cluster in the catalytically active Ni-C state. There are correlated movements of the cysteinate ligands and the surrounding hydrogen-bonding network, which modulate the electron affinity at the active site and the proton affinity of a terminal cysteinate. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesize a coupling between protein dynamics and electron and proton transfer reactions critical to dihydrogen production.

  4. Exchange biased FeNi/FeMn bilayers with coercivity and switching field enhanced by FeMn surface oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Svalov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available FeNi/FeMn bilayers were grown in a magnetic field and subjected to heat treatments at temperatures of 50 to 350 °C in vacuum or in a gas mixture containing oxygen. In the as-deposited state, the hysteresis loop of 30 nm FeNi layer was shifted. Low temperature annealing leads to a decrease of the exchange bias field. Heat treatments at higher temperatures in gas mixture result in partial oxidation of 20 nm thick FeMn layer leading to a nonlinear dependence of coercivity and a switching field of FeNi layer on annealing temperature. The maximum of coercivity and switching field were observed after annealing at 300 °C.

  5. Electrokinetic properties of PMAA functionalized NiFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by thermal plasma route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, Shivaji V.; Mhaske, Pravin; Kanhe, N.; Navale, A. B.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L.; Bhatt, S. K.

    2014-04-01

    The magnetic nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanoparticles with an average size of 30nm were synthesised by Transferred arc DC Thermal Plasma route. The synthesized nickel ferrite nanoparticles were characterized by TEM and FTIR techniques. The synthesized nickel ferrite nanoparticles were further functionalized with PMAA (polymethacrylic acid) by self emulsion polymerization method and subsequently were characterized by FTIR and Zeta Analyzer. The variation of zeta potential with pH was systematically studied for both PMAA functionalized (PNFO) and uncoated nickel ferrite nanoparticles (NFO). The IEP (isoelectric points) for PNFO and NFO was determined from the graph of zeta potential vs pH. It was observed that the IEP for NFO was at 7.20 and for PNFO it was 2.52. The decrease in IEP of PNFO was attributed to the COOH functional group of PMAA.

  6. Shear-Coupled Grain Growth and Texture Development in a Nanocrystalline Ni-Fe Alloy during Cold Rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Ungár, Tamás; Toth, Laszlo S.; Skrotzki, Werner; Wang, Yan Dong; Ren, Yang; Choo, Hahn; Fogarassy, Zsolt; Zhou, X. T.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2016-12-01

    The evolution of texture, grain size, grain shape, dislocation, and twin density has been determined by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and line profile analysis in a nanocrystalline Ni-Fe alloy after cold rolling along different directions related to the initial fiber and the long axis of grains. The texture evolution has been simulated by the Taylor-type relaxed-constraints viscoplastic polycrystal model. The simulations were based on the activity of partial dislocations in correlation with the experimental results of dislocation density determination. The concept of stress-induced shear coupling is supported and strengthened by both the texture simulations and the experimentally determined evolution of the microstructure parameters. Grain growth and texture evolution are shown to proceed by the shear coupling mechanism supported by dislocation activity as long as the grain size is not smaller than about 20 nm.

  7. A feasibility study on SnO{sub 2}/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites as anodes for Li ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaji, S., E-mail: sbalaji@tce.edu [Department of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai 625 015 (India); Vasuki, R. [Department of Physics, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai (India); Mutharasu, D. [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2013-03-25

    Highlights: ► The morphological analysis performed has shown the existence of nanocomposite. ► Sp. capacity after 50 cycles of pure NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, 5 and 10 wt.% SnO{sub 2} are 450, 750 and 780 mA h/g. ► The results are higher than the theoretical capacity of graphite (374 mA h/g). ► The capacity retention is also found to increase with SnO{sub 2} addition in the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. ► Charge and discharge capacities of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} vs. 10 wt.% SnO{sub 2}/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} are 232 and 138 mA h/g. -- Abstract: The SnO{sub 2}/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite samples with varying concentration of SnO{sub 2} such as 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% were synthesized via urea assisted combustion synthesis. The kinetics of the combustion reactions were studied using thermo gravimetry analysis and from which the compound formation temperature of all the samples were observed to be below 400 °C. From the morphological analysis the grain size of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, 5 wt.% SnO{sub 2}/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 10 wt.% SnO{sub 2}/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples were observed to be around 1.7, 2.3 and 3.5 μm. The chrono potentiometry analyses of the samples were performed against lithium metal electrode. The capacity retention was found to be higher for composite with 10 wt.% SnO{sub 2}. The discharge capacity of 10 wt.% SnO{sub 2} sample with respect to Li metal and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} electrode was observed to be around 980 mA h/g and 138 mA h/g respectively.

  8. Heterologous expression and maturation of an NADP-dependent [NiFe]-hydrogenase: a key enzyme in biofuel production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsong Sun

    Full Text Available Hydrogen gas is a major biofuel and is metabolized by a wide range of microorganisms. Microbial hydrogen production is catalyzed by hydrogenase, an extremely complex, air-sensitive enzyme that utilizes a binuclear nickel-iron [NiFe] catalytic site. Production and engineering of recombinant [NiFe]-hydrogenases in a genetically-tractable organism, as with metalloprotein complexes in general, has met with limited success due to the elaborate maturation process that is required, primarily in the absence of oxygen, to assemble the catalytic center and functional enzyme. We report here the successful production in Escherichia coli of the recombinant form of a cytoplasmic, NADP-dependent hydrogenase from Pyrococcus furiosus, an anaerobic hyperthermophile. This was achieved using novel expression vectors for the co-expression of thirteen P. furiosus genes (four structural genes encoding the hydrogenase and nine encoding maturation proteins. Remarkably, the native E. coli maturation machinery will also generate a functional hydrogenase when provided with only the genes encoding the hydrogenase subunits and a single protease from P. furiosus. Another novel feature is that their expression was induced by anaerobic conditions, whereby E. coli was grown aerobically and production of recombinant hydrogenase was achieved by simply changing the gas feed from air to an inert gas (N2. The recombinant enzyme was purified and shown to be functionally similar to the native enzyme purified from P. furiosus. The methodology to generate this key hydrogen-producing enzyme has dramatic implications for the production of hydrogen and NADPH as vehicles for energy storage and transport, for engineering hydrogenase to optimize production and catalysis, as well as for the general production of complex, oxygen-sensitive metalloproteins.

  9. Exchange bias in sputtered FeNi/FeMn systems: Effect of short low-temperature heat treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savin, Peter, E-mail: peter.savin@urfu.ru [Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Laboratory of Magnetic Sensors, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Guzmán, Jorge [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid-CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lepalovskij, Vladimir [Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Laboratory of Magnetic Sensors, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Svalov, Andrey; Kurlyandskaya, Galina [Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Laboratory of Magnetic Sensors, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48940 Leioa, Vizcaya (Spain); Asenjo, Agustina [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid-CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vas’kovskiy, Vladimir [Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Laboratory of Magnetic Sensors, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Vazquez, Manuel [Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Laboratory of Magnetic Sensors, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid-CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    Short (5 min) post-deposition thermal treatments under magnetic field at low temperature (up to 200 °C) performed in exchange-coupled FeNi(40 nm)/FeMn(20 nm) bilayer thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering are shown to be effective to significantly modify their exchange field (from around 40 Oe down to 27 Oe) between FeNi and FeMn layers. A similar exchange field decrease was observed for the first deposited FeNi layer of the FeNi(40 nm)/FeMn(20 nm)/FeNi(40 nm) trilayer films after the same thermal treatments. The exchange field value for the second FeNi layer was not substantially changed. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicates that such a heat treatment has no effect on the grain size and crystalline texture of the films, while atomic force microscope studies reveal an increase of the surface roughness after the treatment which is more noticeable in the case of the trilayer film. Analysis of the experimental results leads us to conclude that the variations of the exchange field after heat treatment are likely caused by a modification of interfacial roughness and/or interfacial magnetic structure, but unlikely by the changes in the microstructure and/or changes of composition of the antiferromagnetic FeMn layer. - Highlights: • FeNi/FeMn bilayers and FeNi/FeMn/FeNi trilayers were prepared by magnetron sputtering. • Post-deposition heat treatments at the temperatures below 200 °C during 5 min were made. • Annealing reduces the exchange field for the first FeNi layer in trilayers. • The exchange field value for the second FeNi layer was not substantially changed. • Exchange field changes are most likely caused by a modification of interface roughness.

  10. In search of metal hydrides: an X-ray absorption and emission study of [NiFe] hydrogenase model complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenbruch, Stefan; Shafaat, Hannah S; Krämer, Tobias; Delgado-Jaime, Mario Ulises; Weber, Katharina; Neese, Frank; Lubitz, Wolfgang; DeBeer, Serena

    2016-04-28

    Metal hydrides are invoked as important intermediates in both chemical and biological H2 production. In the [NiFe] hydrogenase enzymes, pulsed EPR and high-resolution crystallography have argued that the hydride interacts primarily at the Ni site. In contrast, in [NiFe] hydrogenase model complexes, it is observed that the bridging hydride interacts primarily with the Fe. Herein, we utilize a combination of Ni and Fe X-ray absorption (XAS) and emission (XES) spectroscopies to examine the contribution of the bridging hydride to the observed spectral features in [(dppe)Ni(μ-pdt)(μ-H)Fe(CO)3](+). The corresponding data on (dppe)Ni(μ-pdt)Fe(CO)3 are used as a reference for the changes that occur in the absence of a hydride bridge. For further interpretation of the observed spectral features, all experimental spectra were calculated using a density functional theory (DFT) approach, with excellent agreement between theory and experiment. It is found that the iron valence-to-core (VtC) XES spectra reveal clear signatures for the presence of a Fe-H interaction in the hydride bridged model complex. In contrast, the Ni VtC XES spectrum largely reflects changes in the local Ni geometry and shows little contribution from a Ni-H interaction. A stepwise theoretical analysis of the hydride contribution and the Ni site symmetry provides insights into the factors, which govern the different metal-hydride interactions in both the model complexes and the enzyme. Furthermore, these results establish the utility of two-color XES to reveal important insights into the electronic structure of various metal-hydride species.

  11. Laser deposition of bimetallic island films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherik, A. O.; Arakelyan, S. M.; Kutrovskaya, S. V.; Osipov, A. V.; Istratov, A. V.; Vartanyan, T. A.; Itina, T. E.

    2016-08-01

    In this work the results of a bimetallic Au-Ag structure deposition from the colloidal system by nanosecond laser radiation are presented. The formation of the extended arrays of gold and silver nanoparticles with controlled morphology is examined. We report the results of formation bimetallic islands films with various electrical and optical properties. The changes in the optical properties of the obtained thin films are found to depend on their morphology.

  12. Green synthesis and applications of Au-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena Kumari, M; Jacob, John; Philip, Daizy

    2015-02-25

    This paper reports for the first time the synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles at room temperature using the fruit juice of pomegranate. Simultaneous reduction of gold and silver ions in different molar ratios leads to the formation of alloy as well as core-shell nanostructures. The nanoparticles have been characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The synthesized alloy particles are used as catalysts in the reduction of 2-, 3-, 4-nitrophenols to the corresponding amines and in the degradation of methyl orange. The reduction kinetics for all the reactions follows pseudo-first order. The rate constants follow the order k4-nitrophenolnanoparticles enhances the thermal conductivity of the base fluid (water) showing nanofluid application. The nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity shown by the nanoparticles promise the potential application in biomedical field.

  13. Reduction of unusual iron-sulfur clusters in the H2-sensing regulatory Ni-Fe hydrogenase from Ralstonia eutropha H16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrke, Thorsten; Löscher, Simone; Lenz, Oliver; Schlodder, Eberhard; Zebger, Ingo; Andersen, Lars K; Hildebrandt, Peter; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Dau, Holger; Friedrich, Bärbel; Haumann, Michael

    2005-05-20

    The regulatory Ni-Fe hydrogenase (RH) from Ralstonia eutropha functions as a hydrogen sensor. The RH consists of the large subunit HoxC housing the Ni-Fe active site and the small subunit HoxB containing Fe-S clusters. The heterolytic cleavage of H(2) at the Ni-Fe active site leads to the EPR-detectable Ni-C state of the protein. For the first time, the simultaneous but EPR-invisible reduction of Fe-S clusters during Ni-C state formation was demonstrated by changes in the UV-visible absorption spectrum as well as by shifts of the iron K-edge from x-ray absorption spectroscopy in the wild-type double dimeric RH(WT) [HoxBC](2) and in a monodimeric derivative designated RH(stop) lacking the C-terminal 55 amino acids of HoxB. According to the analysis of iron EXAFS spectra, the Fe-S clusters of HoxB pronouncedly differ from the three Fe-S clusters in the small subunits of crystallized standard Ni-Fe hydrogenases. Each HoxBC unit of RH(WT) seems to harbor two [2Fe-2S] clusters in addition to a 4Fe species, which may be a [4Fe-3S-3O] cluster. The additional 4Fe-cluster was absent in RH(stop). Reduction of Fe-S clusters in the hydrogen sensor RH may be a first step in the signal transduction chain, which involves complex formation between [HoxBC](2) and tetrameric HoxJ protein, leading to the expression of the energy converting Ni-Fe hydrogenases in R. eutropha.

  14. Catalysts and process for liquid hydrocarbon fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Mark G.; Ranaweera, Samantha A.; Henry, William P.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides a novel process and system in which a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis gas, or syngas, is converted into hydrocarbon mixtures composed of high quality distillates, gasoline components, and lower molecular weight gaseous olefins in one reactor or step. The invention utilizes a novel supported bimetallic ion complex catalyst for conversion, and provides methods of preparing such novel catalysts and use of the novel catalysts in the process and system of the invention.

  15. Bimetallic nanoalloys in heterogeneous catalysis of industrially important reactions: synergistic effects and structural organization of active components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellert, O. G.; Tsodikov, M. V.; Nikolaev, S. A.; Novotortsev, V. M.

    2014-08-01

    The review is concerned with correlations between the synergistic effects and structural organization of the surface of bimetallic alloys that are used as active components of catalysts for selective hydrogenation of organic compounds and for CO oxidation in hydrogen-rich mixtures. Studies on the preparation of novel highly efficient catalysts using modern theoretical approaches, computer-assisted molecular design and original synthetic procedures are considered. It is shown that introduction of the second metal into the monometallic catalyst and subsequent formation of alloy particles with modified structure of the surface and near-surface layers leads to nonadditive enhancement of catalytic activity and/or selectivity. The bibliography includes 203 references.

  16. Structural Characterization of Bimetallic Nanocrystal Electrocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, David A [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Late transition metal nanocrystals find applications in heterogeneous catalysis such as plasmon-enhanced catalysis and as electrode materials for fuel cells, a zero-emission and sustainable energy technology. Their commercial viability for automotive transportation has steadily increased in recent years, almost exclusively due to the discovery of more efficient bimetallic nanocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode. Despite improvements to catalyst design, achieving high activity while maintaining durability is essential to further enhance their performance for this and other important applications in catalysis. Electronic effects arising from the generation of metal-metal interfaces, from plasmonic metals, and from lattice distortions, can vastly improve sorption properties at catalytic surfaces, while increasing durability.[1] Multimetallic lattice-strained nanoparticles are thus an interesting opportunity for fundamental research.[2,3] A colloidal synthesis approach is demonstrated to produce AuPd alloy and Pd@Au core-shell nanoicosahedra as catalysts for electro-oxidations. The nanoparticles are characterized using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (ac-STEM) and large solid angle energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) on an FEI Talos 4-detector STEM/EDS system. Figure 1 shows bright-field (BF) and high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) ac-STEM images of the alloy and core-shell nanoicosahedra together with EDS line-scans and elemental maps. These structures are unique in that the presence of twin boundaries, alloying, and core-shell morphology could create highly strained surfaces and interfaces. The shell thickness of the core-shell structures observed in HAADF-STEM images is tuned by adjusting the ratio between metal precursors (Figure 2a-f) to produce shells ranging from a few to several monolayers. Specific activity was measured in ethanol electro-oxidation to examine the effect of shell thickness on

  17. Correlation between Fischer-Tropsch catalytic activity and composition of catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbarao Duvvuri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of monometallic and bimetallic cobalt and iron nanoparticles supported on alumina. The catalysts were prepared by a wet impregnation method. Samples were characterized using temperature-programmed reduction (TPR, temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO, CO-chemisorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM-EDX and N2-adsorption analysis. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS was carried out in a fixed-bed microreactor at 543 K and 1 atm, with H2/CO = 2 v/v and space velocity, SV = 12L/g.h. The physicochemical properties and the FTS activity of the bimetallic catalysts were analyzed and compared with those of monometallic cobalt and iron catalysts at similar operating conditions. H2-TPR analysis of cobalt catalyst indicated three temperature regions at 506°C (low, 650°C (medium and 731°C (high. The incorporation of iron up to 30% into cobalt catalysts increased the reduction, CO chemisorption and number of cobalt active sites of the catalyst while an opposite trend was observed for the iron-riched bimetallic catalysts. The CO conversion was 6.3% and 4.6%, over the monometallic cobalt and iron catalysts, respectively. Bimetallic catalysts enhanced the CO conversion. Amongst the catalysts studied, bimetallic catalyst with the composition of 70Co30Fe showed the highest CO conversion (8.1% while exhibiting the same product selectivity as that of monometallic Co catalyst. Monometallic iron catalyst showed the lowest selectivity for C5+ hydrocarbons (1.6%.

  18. Synthesis, characterization, and growth simulations of Cu–Pt bimetallic nanoclusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subarna Khanal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Highly monodispersed Cu–Pt bimetallic nanoclusters were synthesized by a facile synthesis approach. Analysis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM and spherical aberration (Cs-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM images shows that the average diameter of the Cu–Pt nanoclusters is 3.0 ± 1.0 nm. The high angle annular dark field (HAADF-STEM images, intensity profiles, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX line scans, allowed us to study the distribution of Cu and Pt with atomistic resolution, finding that Pt is embedded randomly in the Cu lattice. A novel simulation method is applied to study the growth mechanism, which shows the formation of alloy structures in good agreement with the experimental evidence. The findings give insight into the formation mechanism of the nanosized Cu–Pt bimetallic catalysts.

  19. Preparation and performance of ZnO nanowires modified carbon fibers reinforced NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramic matrix composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lei, E-mail: jwlzl77@163.com; Jiao, Wanli

    2013-12-25

    Highlights: •Unlike existing chemical modification, the liquid growth remains fiber’s strength. •ZnO nanowires array are grown on carbon fibers with controllable morphology. •ZnO nanowires array modified carbon fibers can reinforce the strength of ceramic matrix composite. •This research will provide a means to produce multifunctional composites. -- Abstract: The surface of carbon fibers was modified by ZnO nanowires using the liquid growth method. NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramic matrix composites reinforced by the modified carbon fibers were prepared by a high-temperature solid-state reaction method at 1300 °C for 5 h in N{sub 2} atmosphere. The influences of modified carbon fibers on the mechanical performances of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} composites were investigated. The crystal structure of modified carbon fibers and the morphology of modified carbon fibers surface and the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} composites fracture cross-section were observed by meaning of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The results showed that hexagonal wurtzite ZnO nanowires array grew from the surface of carbon fibers vertically, with nanowires diameters ranging from 170 nm to 380 nm and lengths up to 2.8 μm. Unlike existing chemical modification and high temperature oxidation method, the liquid growth allowed morphology control and maintained the single fiber tensile strength substantially unchanged under certain growth procedures. Compared to pure NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramic and bare carbon fibers reinforced NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} composite, the bending strength of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} composite reinforced with ZnO nanowires surface modified carbon fibers was shown to increase by up to 70% and 45%, respectively. The development of an interphase offering control over the morphology will provide a means to produce multifunctional composites.

  20. Models of the Ni-L and Ni-SIa States of the [NiFe]-Hydrogenase Active Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Geoffrey M; Huynh, Mioy T; Li, Yulong; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Rauchfuss, Thomas B; Reijerse, Edward; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2016-01-19

    A new class of synthetic models for the active site of [NiFe]-hydrogenases are described. The Ni(I/II)(SCys)2 and Fe(II)(CN)2CO sites are represented with (RC5H4)Ni(I/II) and Fe(II)(diphos)(CO) modules, where diphos = 1,2-C2H4(PPh2)2(dppe) or cis-1,2-C2H2(PPh2)2(dppv). The two bridging thiolate ligands are represented by CH2(CH2S)2(2-) (pdt(2-)), Me2C(CH2S)2(2-) (Me2pdt(2-)), and (C6H5S)2(2-). The reaction of Fe(pdt)(CO)2(dppe) and [(C5H5)3Ni2]BF4 affords [(C5H5)Ni(pdt)Fe(dppe)(CO)]BF4 ([1a]BF4). Monocarbonyl [1a]BF4 features an S = 0 Ni(II)Fe(II) center with five-coordinated iron, as proposed for the Ni-SIa state of the enzyme. One-electron reduction of [1a](+) affords the S = 1/2 derivative [1a](0), which, according to density functional theory (DFT) calculations and electron paramagnetic resonance and Mössbauer spectroscopies, is best described as a Ni(I)Fe(II) compound. The Ni(I)Fe(II) assignment matches that for the Ni-L state in [NiFe]-hydrogenase, unlike recently reported Ni(II)Fe(I)-based models. Compound [1a](0) reacts with strong acids to liberate 0.5 equiv of H2 and regenerate [1a](+), indicating that H2 evolution is catalyzed by [1a](0). DFT calculations were used to investigate the pathway for H2 evolution and revealed that the mechanism can proceed through two isomers of [1a](0) that differ in the stereochemistry of the Fe(dppe)CO center. Calculations suggest that protonation of [1a](0) (both isomers) affords Ni(III)-H-Fe(II) intermediates, which represent mimics of the Ni-C state of the enzyme.

  1. Hydrogen storage properties of Mg-Ni-Fe composites prepared by hydriding combustion synthesis and mechanical milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Yunfeng, E-mail: yfzhu@njut.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yang Yang; Wei Lingjun; Zhao Zelun; Li Liquan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg-Ni-Fe composite was prepared by the process of HCS + MM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe is favorable to grain and particle refinement of the composite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg-Ni-Fe composite exhibits superior hydrogen storage properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg{sub 2}Ni and Fe have synergistic catalysis on hydrogen storage properties. - Abstract: We reported the structures and superior hydrogen storage properties of the composites Mg{sub 90}Ni{sub 10-x}Fe{sub x} (x = 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8) prepared by the process of HCS + MM, i.e., the hydriding combustion synthesis followed by mechanical milling. By means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) and gas reaction controller (GRC), the crystal structures, surface morphologies and hydriding/dehydriding properties of the composites were studied in detail. The Mg{sub 90}Ni{sub 10-x}Fe{sub x} (x = 2, 4, 6 and 8) composites consist of MgH{sub 2}, Mg, Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4}, Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 0.3} and Fe phases, while Mg{sub 90}Ni{sub 10} is composed of MgH{sub 2}, Mg, Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4} and Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 0.3}. It is found that Mg{sub 90}Ni{sub 2}Fe{sub 8} has the best hydriding properties, requiring only 30 s to absorb 97% of its saturated hydrogen capacity of 4.80 wt.% at 373 K. The best dehydriding result is obtained with Mg{sub 90}Ni{sub 8}Fe{sub 2}, which desorbs 2.02 and 4.40 wt.% hydrogen at 493 and 523 K, respectively. The microstructures of the composites prepared by HCS + MM have remarkable influences on the enhanced hydriding/dehydriding properties. In addition, the catalytic effects of Mg{sub 2}Ni and Fe phases during hydriding/dehydriding were discussed in this study.

  2. Formic acid oxidation at platinum-bismuth catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Ksenija Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of heterogeneous catalysis, specifically catalysis on bimetallic surfaces, has seen many advances over the past few decades. Bimetallic catalysts, which often show electronic and chemical properties that are distinct from those of their parent metals, offer the opportunity to obtain new catalysts with enhanced selectivity, activity, and stability. The oxidation of formic acid is of permanent interest as a model reaction for the mechanistic understanding of the electrooxidation of small organic molecules and because of its technical relevance for fuel cell applications. Platinum is one of the most commonly used catalysts for this reaction, despite the fact that it shows a few significant disadvantages: high cost and extreme susceptibility to poisoning by CO. To solve this problem, several approaches have been used, but generally, they all consist in the modification of platinum with a second element. Especially, bismuth has received significant attention as Pt modifier. According to the results presented in this survey dealing with the effects influencing the formic acid oxidation it was found that two types of Pt-Bi bimetallic catalysts (bulk and low loading deposits on GC showed superior catalytic activity in terms of the lower onset potential and oxidation current density, as well as exceptional stability compared to Pt. The findings in this report are important for the understanding of mechanism of formic acid electrooxidation on a bulk alloy and decorated surface, for the development of advanced anode catalysts for direct formic acid fuel cells, as well as for the synthesis of novel low-loading bimetallic catalysts. The use of bimetallic compounds as the anode catalysts is an effective solution to overcoming the problems of the formic acid oxidation current stability for long term applications. In the future, the tolerance of both CO poisoning and electrochemical leaching should be considered as the key factors in the development

  3. Effect of adding methods of metallic phase on microstructure and thermal shock resistance of Ni/(90NiFe2O4-10NiO) cermets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ball mixing and electroless plating were respectively used as the adding methods of metallic phase to prepare Ni/(90NiFe2O4-10NiO) cermets for the inert anode in aluminum electrolysis. The microstructure and thermal shock resistance of cermet samples were studied. The results show that, for the samples prepared by ball mixing method, aggregation of metallic phase is found in either the green blocks or sintered samples and the extent of aggregation increases with the increase of metal content. For 6.5Ni/(90NiFe2O4-10NiO) cermets prepared with electroless plating method, the homogeneous and fine metallic particles are found in either the green compacts or sintered samples, but the relative density and thermal shock residual strength decrease by 3% and 28%-58% respectively, compared with samples prepared with ball mixing method.

  4. Structural, dielectric and magnetic properties of NiFe2O4 prepared via sol-gel auto-combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Zhang, Ru; Wang, Zhenduo; Ju, Lin; Cao, Ensi; Zhang, Yongjia

    2017-01-01

    Nickelferrite (NiFe2O4)powders were synthesized via sol-gel auto-combustion method and the corresponding temperature dependence of microstructure, dielectric and magnetic properties have been investigated. Results of XRD and SEM indicate that the NiFe2O4 samples exhibit a typical single phase spinel structure and a uniform particle distribution. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss measurements show strong frequency dependence of all the samples. The peak observed in frequency dependence of dielectric loss measurements shifts to higher frequency with the increasing sintering temperature, indicating a Debye-like dielectric relaxation. The remanent magnetization increases with the increasing grain size while the coercivity is just the opposite. The saturation magnetization can achieve 50 emu/g when the sintering temperature is more than 1000 °C, and the lowest coercivity (159.49 Oe) was observed in the NFO sample sintered at 1300 °C for 2 h.

  5. Comparative analysis of termoscale effects, isomerization and stability of TM-nanoclusters (Pd,Ni,Fe and Si in dependence on interatomic potentials. MD-simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galashev А.Е.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the MD-simulated data the comparison of physicochemical properties of TM-nanoclusters (Pd,Ni,Fe, and Si-nanoparticles has been carried on in the purpose to understand the specificity of structure changes in depending on nature of interatomic bonds and initial structures (fcc, bcc, icosahedral – Ih. MDsimulation of thermic evolution including melting of TM- and Si- clusters was carried on up to 2000K.

  6. Deletion of a gene cluster for [Ni-Fe] hydrogenase maturation in the anaerobic hyperthermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii identifies its role in hydrogen metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Minseok; Chung, Daehwan; Westpheling, Janet

    2016-02-01

    The anaerobic, hyperthermophlic, cellulolytic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii grows optimally at ∼80 °C and effectively degrades plant biomass without conventional pretreatment. It utilizes a variety of carbohydrate carbon sources, including both C5 and C6 sugars, released from plant biomass and produces lactate, acetate, CO2, and H2 as primary fermentation products. The C. bescii genome encodes two hydrogenases, a bifurcating [Fe-Fe] hydrogenase and a [Ni-Fe] hydrogenase. The [Ni-Fe] hydrogenase is the most widely distributed in nature and is predicted to catalyze hydrogen production and to pump protons across the cellular membrane creating proton motive force. Hydrogenases are the key enzymes in hydrogen metabolism and their crystal structure reveals complexity in the organization of their prosthetic groups suggesting extensive maturation of the primary protein. Here, we report the deletion of a cluster of genes, hypABFCDE, required for maturation of the [Ni-Fe] hydrogenase. These proteins are specific for the hydrogenases they modify and are required for hydrogenase activity. The deletion strain grew more slowly than the wild type or the parent strain and produced slightly less hydrogen overall, but more hydrogen per mole of cellobiose. Acetate yield per mole of cellobiose was increased ∼67 % and ethanol yield per mole of cellobiose was decreased ∼39 %. These data suggest that the primary role of the [Ni-Fe] hydrogenase is to generate a proton gradient in the membrane driving ATP synthesis and is not the primary enzyme for hydrogen catalysis. In its absence, ATP is generated from increased acetate production resulting in more hydrogen produced per mole of cellobiose.

  7. A threonine stabilizes the NiC and NiR catalytic intermediates of [NiFe]-hydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Hamdan, Abbas; Ceccaldi, Pierre; Lebrette, Hugo; Gutiérrez-Sanz, Oscar; Richaud, Pierre; Cournac, Laurent; Guigliarelli, Bruno; De Lacey, Antonio L; Léger, Christophe; Volbeda, Anne; Burlat, Bénédicte; Dementin, Sébastien

    2015-03-27

    The heterodimeric [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio fructosovorans catalyzes the reversible oxidation of H2 into protons and electrons. The catalytic intermediates have been attributed to forms of the active site (NiSI, NiR, and NiC) detected using spectroscopic methods under potentiometric but non-catalytic conditions. Here, we produced variants by replacing the conserved Thr-18 residue in the small subunit with Ser, Val, Gln, Gly, or Asp, and we analyzed the effects of these mutations on the kinetic (H2 oxidation, H2 production, and H/D exchange), spectroscopic (IR, EPR), and structural properties of the enzyme. The mutations disrupt the H-bond network in the crystals and have a strong effect on H2 oxidation and H2 production turnover rates. However, the absence of correlation between activity and rate of H/D exchange in the series of variants suggests that the alcoholic group of Thr-18 is not necessarily a proton relay. Instead, the correlation between H2 oxidation and production activity and the detection of the NiC species in reduced samples confirms that NiC is a catalytic intermediate and suggests that Thr-18 is important to stabilize the local protein structure of the active site ensuring fast NiSI-NiC-NiR interconversions during H2 oxidation/production.

  8. The effects of fuel type in synthesis of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles by microwave assisted combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcıoğlu Karakaş, Zeynep; Boncukçuoğlu, Recep; Karakaş, İbrahim H.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, it was investigated the effects of the used fuels on structural, morphological and magnetic properties of nanoparticles in nanoparticle synthesis with microwave assisted combustion method with an important method in quick, simple and low cost at synthesis of the nanoparticles. In this aim, glycine, urea and citric acid were used as fuel, respectively. The synthesised nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmet-Teller surface area (BET), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) techniques. We observed that fuel type is quite effective on magnetic properties and surface properties of the nanoparticles. X-ray difractograms of the obtained nanoparticles were compared with standard powder diffraction cards of NiFe2O4 (JCPDS Card Number 54-0964). The results demonstrated that difractograms are fully compatible with standard reflection peaks. According to the results of the XRD analysis, the highest crystallinity was observed at nanoparticles synthesized with glycine. The results demonstrated that the nanoparticles prepared with urea has the highest surface area. The micrographs of SEM showed that all of the nanoparticles have nano-crystalline behaviour and particles indication cubic shape. VSM analysis demonstrated that the type of fuel used for synthesis is highly effective a parameter on magnetic properties of nanoparticles.

  9. Effect of additive on corrosion resistance of NiFe2O4 ceramics as inert anodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Jin-hui; XIE Ying-jie; YAO Guang-chun; LIU Yi-han

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve the corrosion resistance of NiFe2O4 ceramics as inert anode, additive V2O5 was added to raw materials NiO and Fe2O3. The inert anodes of nickel-ferrite ceramics were prepared by powder metallurgic method and the static corrosion rate in Na3AlF6-Al2O3 was determined by mass loss measurement. The effect of V2O5 on sintering property and corrosion resistance was studied. The results show that V2O5 can promote the grain to develop completely and improve sintering property. EDS results show the reaction product Ni2FeVO6 distributes along the grain boundary. The corrosion tests show that V2O5 is beneficial to improving corrosion resistance remarkably. The reasons that V2O5 can improve the corrosion resistance must be V2O5 promoting the gains to develop completely and Ni2FeVO6 distributes along the grain boundary. The stable structure can control the chemical dissolution of ceramics anode and the reinforced grain boundary can control the grain-boundary corrosion rate.

  10. Immiscibility in the NiFe2O4-NiCr2O4 Spinel Binary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S Ziemniak

    2004-08-13

    The solid solution behavior of the Ni(Fe{sub 1-n}Cr{sub n}){sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel binary is investigated in the temperature range 400-1200 C. Non-ideal solution behavior, as exhibited by non-linear changes in lattice parameter with changes in n, is observed in a series of single-phase solids air-cooled from 1200 C. Air-annealing for one year at 600 C resulted in partial phase separation in a spinel binary having n = 0.5. Spinel crystals grown from NiO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} reactants, mixed to give NiCrFeO{sub 4}, by Ostwald ripening in a molten salt solvent, exhibited single phase stability down to about 750 C (the estimated consolute solution temperature, T{sub cs}). A solvus exists below T{sub cs}. The solvus becomes increasingly asymmetric at lower temperatures and extrapolates to n values of 0.2 and 0.7 at 300 C. The extrapolated solvus is shown to be consistent with that predicted using a primitive regular solution model in which free energies of mixing are determined entirely from changes in configurational entropy at room temperature.

  11. Structural and magnetic properties of nano-NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} prepared using green nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yehia, M., E-mail: m6yehia@yahoo.com [Reactor Physics Department, Nuclear Researches Center, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box 13759, Cairo (Egypt); Labib, Sh. [Nuclear Chemistry Department, Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box 13759, Cairo (Egypt); Ismail, S.M. [Reactor Physics Department, Nuclear Researches Center, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box 13759, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-08-01

    Nanocrystalline spinel ferrite NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders were synthesized by a novel green nanotechnology derivative of sol–gel method. The effect of preparation conditions on the particle size (D) and accordingly magnetic properties was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer effect spectrometer (ME) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The obtained results were compared to samples prepared using a standard ceramic method and a sol–gel technique using a citric acid route. XRD measurements reflected the spinel structure of prepared samples. The results confirmed the critical dependence of the particle size on the preparation method and heat treatment. Mössbauer effect spectroscopy measurements indicated a strong impact of the particle size on the measured spectra. A gradual decrease of the hyperfine field with decreasing D was observed. Both the saturation magnetization M{sub S} and the coercivity H{sub c} are found to be influenced by the decrease of the particle size.

  12. Light-driven hydrogen production by a hybrid complex of a [NiFe]-hydrogenase and the cyanobacterial photosystem I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Masaki; Nishihara, Hirofumi; Yoon, Ki-Seok; Lenz, Oliver; Friedrich, Bärbel; Nakamoto, Hitoshi; Kojima, Kouji; Honma, Daisuke; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Okura, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    In order to generate renewable and clean fuels, increasing efforts are focused on the exploitation of photosynthetic microorganisms for the production of molecular hydrogen from water and light. In this study we engineered a 'hard-wired' protein complex consisting of a hydrogenase and photosystem I (hydrogenase-PSI complex) as a direct light-to-hydrogen conversion system. The key component was an artificial fusion protein composed of the membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase from the beta-proteobacterium Ralstonia eutropha H16 and the peripheral PSI subunit PsaE of the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus. The resulting hydrogenase-PsaE fusion protein associated with PsaE-free PSI spontaneously, thereby forming a hydrogenase-PSI complex as confirmed by sucrose-gradient ultracentrifuge and immunoblot analysis. The hydrogenase-PSI complex displayed light-driven hydrogen production at a rate of 0.58 mumol H(2).mg chlorophyll(-1).h(-1). The complex maintained its accessibility to the native electron acceptor ferredoxin. This study provides the first example of a light-driven enzymatic reaction by an artificial complex between a redox enzyme and photosystem I and represents an important step on the way to design a photosynthetic organism that efficiently converts solar energy and water into hydrogen.

  13. Cubic superparamagnetic nanoparticles of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} via fast microwave heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvão, W. S.; Freire, R. M. [Universidade Federal do Ceará–UFC, Grupo de Química de Materiais Avançados (GQMAT), Departamento de Química Analítica e Físico-Química (Brazil); Ribeiro, T. S.; Vasconcelos, I. F. [Universidade Federal do Ceará, Departamento de Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais (Brazil); Costa, L. S. [State University of Campinas–UNICAMP, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry (Brazil); Freire, V. N.; Sales, F. A. M. [Universidade Federal do Ceará, Departamento de Física, Centro de Ciências (Brazil); Denardin, J. C. [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Departamento de Física (Chile); Fechine, P. B. A., E-mail: fechine@ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceará–UFC, Grupo de Química de Materiais Avançados (GQMAT), Departamento de Química Analítica e Físico-Química (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    This study demonstrated the possibility of using microwave heating as a fast and cheap method for synthesizing superparamagnetic nanoparticles. In this sense, NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples were subjected to microwave heating at various temperatures to determine the lowest temperature at which the crystalline phase of the nanoparticles occurs. X-Ray powder diffraction, {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy of the samples were performed to confirm the formed nanoparticles. It was observed a cubic structure of inverse spinel type with good crystallinity. The magnetic properties of the samples were studied using a vibrating sample magnetometer and was found to zero values to remanent magnetization and coercivity field. This behavior suggests superparamagnetic features for all samples. The crystallite size (9, 10, and 12 nm) and saturation magnetization (31–45 emu/g) were used as a function of the increase of the temperature treatment time. Blocking temperature was found by tracing remanent magnetization versus temperature.

  14. Calculation of the free energy of NiFe2O4 nanopoarticles by Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenggang; Landau, D. P.

    2005-03-01

    Magnetic properties of nanoparticles are of great current interest in light of possible applications to high density magnetic storage media. Finite size and surface effect are important for magnetic nanoparticles and differentiate them from their bulk counterparts. We use Monte Carlo simulation to study a model of NiFe2O4 nanopoarticles proposed by Kodama and Berkowitz [1]. The Hamiltonian of the nanoparticle contains superexchanges between magnetic ions modeled by Heisenberg spins, and surface/bulk anisotropy terms. A continuous version of the Wang- Landau algorithm [2] is used to calculate the joint density of states ρ(M, E) efficiently. From ρ(M, E), we can directly evaluate the free energy of the particle, and many other physical quantities. A hysteresis loop for particles with surface disorder and surface anisotropy is observed, in agreement with previous studies [1]. We found that such a hysteresis loop is the result of interplay between surface disorder and surface anisotropy. Compared with micromagnetic modeling, our Monte Carlo simulation treats the thermodynamic effects properly and is capable of calculating physical quantities at all temperatures and magnetic fields with very limited CPU time. [1] R. H. Kodama, et. al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 394 (1996); Phys. Rev. B 59, 6321 (1999). [2] C. Zhou, et al., in preparation.

  15. Probing exotic magnetic phases and electrical transport in Cr-rich γ-NiFeCr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Pampa [S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Majumdar, A.K., E-mail: akm@bose.res.in [S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, PO Belur Math, Howrah 711202 (India); Nigam, A.K. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2015-05-01

    We have identified ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and re-entrant spin-glass-like phases in Cr-rich γ-NiFeCr alloys and studied their critical magnetic behavior. Their electrical resistivity exhibits distinct minima between 10 and 24 K with ρ∞−√T due to electron–electron interaction effects. Electron–phonon and electron–magnon contributions to ρ are isolated. The magnetoresistance shows hysteresis effects, a signature of spin-glass-like phases and a sign reversal with change of magnetic states. We have also observed that the nature of magnetic states strongly depends on the concentration of Fe and Cr. In this system, even a small amount of Fe enhances ferromagnetism a lot while addition of a little bit of Cr suppresses ferromagnetism and takes the system to the antiferromagnetic regime. The correlation between the magnetic and the electrical properties are more meaningful here since both studies were done on the same set of samples which have rather high melting points. - Highlights: • Identified ferro, antiferro, and re-entrant spin-glass phases in Ni–Fe–Cr alloys. • Resistivity ρ~−√T shows minima from 10–24 K due to electron–electron interaction. • Electron–phonon and electron–magnon contributions to ρ are isolated. • Magneto-transport measurements strengthened the magnetic phases identified. • Correlation in magnetic/electrical properties more meaningful if same samples used.

  16. O2-stable membrane-bound [NiFe]hydrogenase from a newly isolated Citrobacter sp. S-77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Shigenobu; Yoon, Ki-Seok; Ogo, Seiji

    2012-11-01

    Hydrogenases are of great interest due to their potential use in H(2)-based technology. However, most hydrogenases are highly sensitive to O(2), which have been the major bottleneck in hydrogenase studies. Here we report an O(2)-stable membrane-bound [NiFe]hydrogenase (MBH) purified from a newly isolated strain, S-77. According to the 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the strain S-77, it belongs to the genus of Citrobacter. In vitro experiments using the cytoplasmic membrane of strain S-77 suggested that a cytochrome b acts as the physiological electron acceptor of the MBH. The purified MBH was composed of a dimer of heterodimers, consisting of two distinct subunits with the molecular weights of 58.5 and 38.5 kDa. The enzyme showed a specific activity for H(2)-oxidation of 661 U/mg, which is 35-fold greater than that for H(2)-production of 18.7 U/mg. Notably, the MBH showed a remarkable O(2)-stability, maintaining almost 95% of its original activity even after incubation for 30 h in air at 4°C. These results suggest that the O(2)-stable MBH may play an important role in the H(2)-metabolic pathway under the aerobic conditions of Citrobacter sp. S-77. This is the first report of the purification and biochemical characterization of an O(2)-stable MBH from the genus of Citrobacter.

  17. Electrochemistry of metalloproteins: protein film electrochemistry for the study of E. coli [NiFe]-hydrogenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rhiannon M; Armstrong, Fraser A

    2014-01-01

    Protein film electrochemistry is a technique which allows the direct control of redox-active enzymes, providing particularly detailed information on their catalytic properties. The enzyme is deposited onto a working electrode tip, and through control of the applied potential the enzyme activity is monitored as electrical current, allowing for direct study of inherent activity as electrons are transferred to and from the enzyme redox center(s). No mediators are used. Because the only enzyme present in the experiment is bound at the electrode surface, gaseous and liquid phase inhibitors can be introduced and removed whilst the enzyme remains in situ. Potential control means that kinetics and thermodynamics are explored simultaneously; the kinetics of a reaction can be studied as a function of potential. Steady-state catalytic rates are observed directly as current (for a given potential) and non-steady-state rates (such as interconversions between different forms of the enzyme) are observed from the change in current with time. The more active the enzyme, the higher the current and the better the signal-to-noise. In this chapter we outline the practical aspects of PFE for studying electroactive enzymes, using the Escherichia coli [NiFe]-hydrogenase 1 (Hyd-1) as an example.

  18. Multiphase and Double-Layer NiFe2O4@NiO-Hollow-Nanosphere-Decorated Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite Powders Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Applying Nanoscale Kirkendall Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi Dae; Cho, Jung Sang; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-08-05

    Multicomponent metal oxide hollow-nanosphere decorated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite powders are prepared by spray pyrolysis with nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion. The double-layer NiFe2O4@NiO-hollow-nanosphere decorated rGO composite powders are prepared using the first target material. The NiFe-alloy-nanopowder decorated rGO powders are prepared as an intermediate product by post-treatment under the reducing atmosphere of the NiFe2O4/NiO-decorated rGO composite powders obtained by spray pyrolysis. The different diffusion rates of Ni (83 pm for Ni(2+)) and Fe (76 pm for Fe(2+), 65 pm for Fe(3+)) cations with different radii during nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion result in multiphase and double-layer NiFe2O4@NiO hollow nanospheres. The mean size of the hollow NiFe2O4@NiO nanospheres decorated uniformly within crumpled rGO is 14 nm. The first discharge capacities of the nanosphere-decorated rGO composite powders with filled NiFe2O4/NiO and hollow NiFe2O4@NiO at a current density of 1 A g(-1) are 1168 and 1319 mA h g(-1), respectively. Their discharge capacities for the 100th cycle are 597 and 951 mA h g(-1), respectively. The discharge capacity of the NiFe2O4@NiO-hollow-nanosphere-decorated rGO composite powders at the high current density of 4 A g(-1) for the 400th cycle is 789 mA h g(-1).

  19. Synthesis and characterization of the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}@TEOS–TPS@Ag nanocomposite and investigation of its antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allafchian, Ali R., E-mail: Allafchian@cc.iut.ac.ir [Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalali, S.A.H., E-mail: ahjalali2002@gmail.com [Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amiri, R., E-mail: razieh.amiri@gmail.com [Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahabadi, Sh., E-mail: shirinshahabadi@rocketmail.com [Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The new NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}@TEOS–TPS@Ag nanocomposite was synthesized and characterized. • The VSM technique was applied for investigation of their magnetic properties. • By using magnetic decantation, they can be easily removed from the disinfected media. • These nanocomposites exhibit good antibacterial activity and high reusability. - Abstract: In this study, the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was embedded in (3–mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane (TPS) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) using the sol–gel method. These compounds were used as the support of Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}@TEOS–TPS@Ag nanocomposites were obtained with the development of bonding between the silver atoms of Ag NPs and the sulfur atoms of TPS molecule. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE–SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X–ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR) were used for the characterization of the Ag nanocomposites. Also, the magnetic properties of these nanocomposites were studied by using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) technique. The disk diffusion, minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) tests were used for the investigation of the antibacterial effect of this nanocomposite against bacterial strains. The synthesized nanocomposite presented high reusability and good antibacterial activity against gram–positive and gram–negative bacteria. Remarkably, this nanocomposite could be easily removed from the disinfected media by magnetic decantation.

  20. Irreversibility in room temperature current-voltage characteristics of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles: A signature of electrical memory effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, P.; Debnath, Rajesh; Singh, Swati; Mandal, S. K.; Roy, J. N.

    2017-01-01

    Room temperature I-V characteristics study, both in presence and absence of magnetic field (1800 Oe), has been performed on NiFe2O4 nanoparticles, having different particle size (V~14, 21 and 31 nm). Our experiments on these nanoparticles provide evidences for: (1) electrical irreversibility or hysteretic behaviour; (2) positive magnetoresistance and (3) magnetic field dependent electrical irreversibility or hysteresis in the sample. "Hysteretic" nature of I-V curve reveals the existence of electrical memory effect in the sample. Significantly, such hysteresis has been found to be tuned by magnetic field. In order to explain the observed electrical irreversibility, we have proposed a phenomenological model on the light of induced polarization in the sample. Both the positive magnetoresistance and the observed magnetic field dependence of electrical irreversibility have been explained through magnetostriction phenomenon. Interestingly, such effects are found to get reduced with increasing particle size. For NiFe2O4 nanoparticles having V=31 nm, we did not observe any irreversibility effect. This feature has been attributed to the enhanced grain surface effect that in turn gives rise to the residual polarization and hence electrical memory effect in NiFe2O4 nanoparticles, having small nanoscopic particle size.

  1. Impact of interface manipulation of oxide on electrical transport properties and low-frequency noise in MgO/NiFe/MgO heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian-wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, Chong-jun; Feng, Chun; Yu, Guang-hua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhou, Zhongfu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Low-frequency noise and magnetoresistance in sputtered-deposited Ta(5 nm)/MgO (3 nm)/NiFe(10 nm)/MgO(3 nm)/Ta(3 nm) films have been measured as a function of different annealing times at 400°C. These measurements did not change synchronously with annealing time. A significant increase in magnetoresistance is observed for short annealing times (of the order of minutes) and is correlated with a relatively small reduction in 1/f noise. In contrast, a significant reduction in 1/f noise is observed for long annealing times (of the order of hours) accompanied by a small change in magnetoresistance. After annealing for 2 hours, the 1/f noise decreases by three orders of magnitude. Transmission electron microscopy and slow positron annihilation results implicate the cause being micro-structural changes in the MgO layers and interfaces following different annealing times. The internal vacancies in the MgO layers gather into vacancy clusters to reduce the defect density after short annealing times, whereas the MgO/NiFe and the NiFe/MgO interfaces improve significantly after long annealing times with the amorphous MgO layers gradually crystallizing following the release of interfacial stress.

  2. Engineering of high performance supercapacitor electrode based on Fe-Ni/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NiO core/shell hybrid nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ashutosh K., E-mail: ashuvishen@gmail.com, E-mail: aksingh@bose.res.in; Mandal, Kalyan [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700098 (India)

    2015-03-14

    The present work reports on fabrication and supercapacitor applications of a core/shell Fe-Ni/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NiO hybrid nanostructures (HNs) electrode. The core/shell Fe-Ni/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NiO hybrid nanostructures have been fabricated through a two step method (nanowire fabrication and their controlled oxidation). The 1D hybrid nanostructure consists of highly porous shell layer (redox active materials NiO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and the conductive core (FeNi nanowire). Thus, the highly porous shell layer allows facile electrolyte diffusion as well as faster redox reaction kinetics; whereas the conductive FeNi nanowire core provides the proficient express way for electrons to travel to the current collector, which helps in the superior electrochemical performance. The core/shell Fe-Ni/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NiO hybrid nanostructures electrode based supercapacitor shows very good electrochemical performances in terms of high specific capacitance nearly 1415 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 2.5 A g{sup −1}, excellent cycling stability and rate capability. The high quality electrochemical performance of core/shell hybrid nanostructures electrode shows its potential as an alternative electrode for forthcoming supercapacitor devices.

  3. Application of mixed colloidal magnetic fluid of single domain Fe3O4 and NiFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles in audio speaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Kemkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ferrofluids are stable suspensions of colloidal ferrimagnetic particles in suitable non – magnetic carrier liquids. They have attracted a lot of attention from scientists and engineers due to their many interesting properties and applications in various branches of engineering. The present work reports the performance of colloidal fluid of single domain nanoparticles of NiFe2O4 and Fe3O4. The thermal properties and its dynamics on magnetization as well as its effect on thermal conductivity on the colloidal fluid are studied here. Advantages of the increased thermal conductivity and optimization of magnetization of mixed colloidal fluid is used to extract the heat from voice coil. Nanoparticles of 21 nm of Fe3O4 and 12 nm of NiFe2O4 are used for mixed colloidal fluid. The suspension of particles is achieved by coating the nanoparticles with mono-corboxylic group on both the types of particles. The higher size (21 nm of Fe3O4 and 12 nm of NiFe2O4 particles are taken for synthesizing colloidal fluid, to have magnetic property of mixed colloidal liquid at elevated temperature of voice coil of speaker (Higher sized particles gives better magnetization. Oil is used as a carrier. Mixed magnetic colloidal fluid is used as a medium for damping so that noise is reduced at higher temperature of voice coil.

  4. Investigation of electronic and local structural changes during lithium uptake and release of nano-crystalline NiFe2O4 by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dong; Permien, Stefan; Rana, Jatinkumar; Krengel, Markus; Sun, Fu; Schumacher, Gerhard; Bensch, Wolfgang; Banhart, John

    2017-02-01

    Nano-crystalline NiFe2O4 particles were synthesized and used as active electrode material for a lithium ion battery that showed a high discharge capacity of 1534 mAh g-1 and charge capacity of 1170 mAh g-1 during the 1st cycle. X-ray absorption spectroscopy including XANES and EXAFS were used to investigate electronic and local structural changes of NiFe2O4 during the 1st lithiation and de-lithiation process. As lithium is inserted into the structure, tetrahedral site Fe3+ ions are reduced to Fe2+ and moved from tetrahedral sites to empty octahedral sites, while Ni2+ ions are unaffected. As a consequence, the matrix spinel structure collapses and transforms to an intermediate rock-salt monoxide phase. Meanwhile, the inserted Li is partially consumed by the formation of SEI and other side reactions during the conversion reaction. With further lithiation, the monoxide phase is reduced to highly disordered metallic Fe/Ni nanoparticles with a number of nearest neighbors of 6.0(8) and 8.1(4) for Fe and Ni, respectively. During subsequent de-lithiation, the metal particles are individually re-oxidized to Fe2O3 and NiO phases instead to the original NiFe2O4 spinel phase.

  5. Characterization of quasi-nano-sized TiCx-Ni-Fe thin composite sheet prepared by using self-propagating high-temperature synthesis reaction and electroforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong

    2014-05-01

    Thin TiCx-Ni-Fe composites sheet was prepared by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) and electroforming. The quasi-nano-sized titanium carbide particles were prepared by self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) followed by mechanical milling and ultrasonic floating agitation for classifying particles. The composite sheet was fabricated by co-deposition of the classified titanium carbide particles in a modified Watts nickel bath containing iron chloride during nickel-iron electro-forming. Neutron diffraction showed that the non-stoichiometric number of titanium carbides formed by the SHS reaction were in the range of 0.68 to 0.97, which depended on the initial carbon sources. X-ray diffraction and electron probe micro-analysis revealed that co-deposition of the carbides in Ni-Fe bath during the electroforming process produced a thin TiCx-Ni-Fe composite sheet, in which quasi-nano-sized titanium carbides were embedded about 7 at.%. The average surface resistance of the thin composite sheet was 1.053 ohm/sq. The corrosion potential and rate of the composites in a 50% NaOH solution were -920.6 mVSHE and 8.4×10-6 Acm-2, respectively.

  6. Effect of Yb2O3 doping on the grain boundary of NiFe2O4-10NiO-based cermets after sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-bing He

    2015-01-01

    xYb2O3–15(20Ni–Cu)/(85−x)(NiFe2O4–10NiO) (x=0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 2.0, and 10.0) cermets for aluminum electrolysis were prepared to investigate the effect of Yb2O3 doping on the grain boundary of the cermets after sintering. The results showed that each interface was very clear and that with increasing Yb2O3 content, most of the Yb was evenly distributed at the grain boundary. Moreover, according to the phase composition and microstructural analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), YbFeO3 was produced along the grain boundary. The YbFeO3 was concluded to not only have formed from the interaction between the NiFe2O4 or Fe2O3 component and Yb2O3 at the grain boundary of the cermets, but also from the decomposition of NiFe2O4 into NiO and Fe2O3 and the subsequent reaction of Fe2O3 with Yb2O3. Thus, the pro-duction of YbFeO3 resulted in a cermet with high relative density, good electrical conductivity, and good corrosion resistance.

  7. Identification of an Isothiocyanate on the HypEF Complex Suggests a Route for Efficient Cyanyl-Group Channeling during [NiFe]-Hydrogenase Cofactor Generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven T Stripp

    Full Text Available [NiFe]-hydrogenases catalyze uptake and evolution of H2 in a wide range of microorganisms. The enzyme is characterized by an inorganic nickel/ iron cofactor, the latter of which carries carbon monoxide and cyanide ligands. In vivo generation of these ligands requires a number of auxiliary proteins, the so-called Hyp family. Initially, HypF binds and activates the precursor metabolite carbamoyl phosphate. HypF catalyzes removal of phosphate and transfers the carbamate group to HypE. In an ATP-dependent condensation reaction, the C-terminal cysteinyl residue of HypE is modified to what has been interpreted as thiocyanate. This group is the direct precursor of the cyanide ligands of the [NiFe]-hydrogenase active site cofactor. We present a FT-IR analysis of HypE and HypF as isolated from E. coli. We follow the HypF-catalyzed cyanation of HypE in vitro and screen for the influence of carbamoyl phosphate and ATP. To elucidate on the differences between HypE and the HypEF complex, spectro-electrochemistry was used to map the vibrational Stark effect of naturally cyanated HypE. The IR signature of HypE could ultimately be assigned to isothiocyanate (-N=C=S rather than thiocyanate (-S-C≡N. This has important implications for cyanyl-group channeling during [NiFe]-hydrogenase cofactor generation.

  8. THE BEHAVIOR OF SOLUBLE METALS ELUTED FROM Ni/Fe-BASED ALLOY REACTORS AFTER HIGH-TEMPERATURE AND HIGH-PRESSURE WATER PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faisal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of heavy metals eluted from the wall of Ni/Fe-based alloy reactors after high-temperature and high-pressure water reaction were studied at temperatures ranging from 250 to 400oC. For this purpose, water and cysteic acid were heated in two reactor materials which are SUS 316 and Inconel 625. Under the tested conditions, the erratic behaviors of soluble metals eluted from the wall of Ni/Fe-based alloy in high temperature water were observed. Results showed that metals could be eluted even at a short contact time. The presence of air also promotes elution at sub-critical conditions. At sub-critical conditions, a significant amount of Cr was extracted from SUS 316, while only traces of Ni, Fe, Mo and Mn were eluted. In contrast, Ni was removed in significant amounts compared to Cr when Inconel 625 was tested. It was observed that eluted metals tend to increased under acidic conditions and most of those metals were over the limit of WHO guideline for drinking water. The results are significant both on the viewpoint of environmental regulation on disposal of wastes containing heavy metals, toxicity of resulting product and catalytic effect on a particular reaction.

  9. Magneto-optical response in bimetallic metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Atmatzakis, Evangelos; Fedotov, Vassili; Vienne, Guillaume; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate resonant Faraday polarization rotation in plasmonic arrays of bimetallic nano-ring resonators consisting of Au and Ni sections. This metamaterial design allows to optimize the trade-off between the enhancement of magneto-optical effects and plasmonic dissipation. Although Ni sections correspond to as little as ~6% of the total surface of the metamaterial, the resulting magneto-optically induced polarization rotation is equal to that of a continuous film. Such bimetallic metamaterials can be used in compact magnetic sensors, active plasmonic components and integrated photonic circuits.

  10. Temperature-programmed oxidation of coked noble metal catalysts after autothermal reforming of n-hexadecane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauppi, E.I.; Linnekoski, J.A.; Krause, A.O.I.; Veringa Niemelae, M.K. [Aalto University, School of Science and Technology, Department of Biotechnology and Chemical Technology, Research Group Industrial Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Kaila, R.K. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, Espoo, P.O. Box 1001, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2010-08-15

    Autothermal reforming (ATR) of n-hexadecane was carried out on zirconia-supported mono- and bimetallic noble metal (Rh, Pt) catalysts at 600, 700, and 800 C. After ATR, the reactivity of coke deposits (2.8-9.9 wt%) on the catalysts was investigated by temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO). Analysis of the results obtained from ATR and TPO experiments at various temperatures and on the different catalysts gave information on the reaction conditions where the detrimental coke can be minimized and allows estimating the nature of carbon deposits. H{sub 2} production increased with temperature on the tested Rh-containing catalysts and the ZrO{sub 2} support, but decreased as a function of temperature on the Pt catalyst. The formation of coke was least at 800 C, evidently due to the intensifying reaction of carbon and steam with increasing temperature, as well as to the better activity of the catalysts. The amount of coke formed was highest at 700 C. Comparison of the TPO profiles obtained for the monometallic Rh and Pt catalysts with the bimetallic RhPt revealed differences in the nature of carbon deposits on their surface. At 600 C, the coke formed on the monometallic Rh and Pt catalysts was located mostly on the support, whereas on the bimetallic RhPt catalyst the formation of this type of coke was suppressed. The bimetallic RhPt catalyst also exhibited better tolerance toward coking at 700 C. Therefore, although the selectivity toward hydrogen was not related to the amount of coke formed, the deactivation patterns differed on the mono- and bimetallic catalysts. (author)

  11. Bi2MoO6/Ni-Fe LDH复合材料的制备及可见光催化性能%Preparation and Visible Light Responsive Photocatalytic Activity of Bi2MoO6/Ni-Fe LDH Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲婷; 黄强; 赵振波

    2015-01-01

    采用水热法和共沉淀法结合制备Bi2MoO6/Ni-Fe LDH复合材料,通过XRD、FT-IR、SEM、TEM、XPS和N2物理吸附等对样品的结构和形貌进行表征。以甲基橙、亚甲基蓝、罗丹明 B和苯酚为目标降解物,在可见光下进行复合材料的光催化性能测试,以降解甲基橙溶液为例研究复合材料的光催化反应机理。结果表明,复合材料的BET比表面积随着Ni-Fe LDH含量的增加而增大,光催化活性明显提高。Bi2MoO6/Ni-Fe LDH复合材料中Ni-Fe LDH的含量为4.5%时具有最好的光催化效果,可见光照射60 min,甲基橙的降解率达91%,较Bi2MoO6和Ni-Fe LDH分别提高52%和16%。Bi2MoO6/Ni-Fe LDH复合材料具有良好的稳定性,循环使用5次,甲基橙(MO)的降解率为88%。复合材料光催化降解甲基橙反应遵循一级反应动力学。%Bi2MoO6/Ni-Fe LDH composites were prepared by hydrothermal method and co-precipitation. The morphology and structure of the sample were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, TEM, XPS and N2-physisorption. Photocatalytic degradation activity and mechanism of the samples were investigated by the photocatalytic degrada-tion of methyl orange (MO), methylene blue, butyl rhodamine B and phenol under visible light irradiation. The re-sults showed that BET specific surface area of the composites increased with the LDH content increase. Photocata-lytic degradation activity of MO under visible irradiation exhibited significant enhancement. After visible light ir-radiation for 60 min, the Bi2MoO6/Ni-Fe LDH composites with LDH content of 4.5wt% showed the highest degra-dation rate of 91%, higher than that of Bi2MoO6and Ni-Fe LDH by 52% and 16%, respectively. And the composites photocatalytic degradation followed first-order reaction kinetics. The composites decolorizing rate still remained 88% after 5 times recycle, showing high catalytic stability.

  12. Catalytic properties of the isolated diaphorase fragment of the NAD-reducing [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Ralstonia eutropha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Lauterbach

    Full Text Available The NAD+-reducing soluble hydrogenase (SH from Ralstonia eutropha H16 catalyzes the H₂-driven reduction of NAD+, as well as reverse electron transfer from NADH to H+, in the presence of O₂. It comprises six subunits, HoxHYFUI₂, and incorporates a [NiFe] H+/H₂ cycling catalytic centre, two non-covalently bound flavin mononucleotide (FMN groups and an iron-sulfur cluster relay for electron transfer. This study provides the first characterization of the diaphorase sub-complex made up of HoxF and HoxU. Sequence comparisons with the closely related peripheral subunits of Complex I in combination with UV/Vis spectroscopy and the quantification of the metal and FMN content revealed that HoxFU accommodates a [2Fe2S] cluster, FMN and a series of [4Fe4S] clusters. Protein film electrochemistry (PFE experiments show clear electrocatalytic activity for both NAD+ reduction and NADH oxidation with minimal overpotential relative to the potential of the NAD+/NADH couple. Michaelis-Menten constants of 56 µM and 197 µM were determined for NADH and NAD+, respectively. Catalysis in both directions is product inhibited with K(I values of around 0.2 mM. In PFE experiments, the electrocatalytic current was unaffected by O₂, however in aerobic solution assays, a moderate superoxide production rate of 54 nmol per mg of protein was observed, meaning that the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS observed for the native SH can be attributed mainly to HoxFU. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for aerobic functioning of the SH and possible control mechanism for the direction of catalysis.

  13. Overproduction of the membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenase in Thermococcus kodakarensis and its effect on hydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamotsu eKanai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis can utilize sugars or pyruvate for growth. In the absence of elemental sulfur, the electrons via oxidation of these substrates are accepted by protons, generating molecular hydrogen (H2. The hydrogenase responsible for this reaction is a membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenase (Mbh. In this study, we have examined several possibilities to increase the protein levels of Mbh in T. kodakarensis by genetic engineering. Highest levels of intracellular Mbh levels were achieved when the promoter of the entire mbh operon (TK2080-TK2093 was exchanged to a strong constitutive promoter from the glutamate dehydrogenase gene (TK1431 (strain MHG1. When MHG1 was cultivated under continuous culture using pyruvate-based medium, a nearly 25 % higher specific hydrogen production rate (SHPR of 35.3 mmol H2 g-dcw-1 h-1 was observed at a dilution rate of 0.31 h-1. We also combined mbh overexpression using an even stronger constitutive promoter from the cell surface glycoprotein gene (TK0895 with disruption of the genes encoding the cytosolic hydrogenase (Hyh and an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT, both of which are involved in hydrogen consumption (strain MAH1. At a dilution rate of 0.30 h-1, the SHPR was 36.2 mmol H2 g-dcw-1 h-1, corresponding to a 28 % increase compared to that of the host T. kodakarensis strain. Increasing the dilution rate to 0.83 h-1 resulted in a SHPR of 120 mmol H2 g-dcw-1 h-1, which is one of the highest production rates observed in microbial fermentation.

  14. Overproduction of the membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenase in Thermococcus kodakarensis and its effect on hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Tamotsu; Simons, Jan-Robert; Tsukamoto, Ryohei; Nakajima, Akihito; Omori, Yoshiyuki; Matsuoka, Ryoji; Beppu, Haruki; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Atomi, Haruyuki

    2015-01-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis can utilize sugars or pyruvate for growth. In the absence of elemental sulfur, the electrons via oxidation of these substrates are accepted by protons, generating molecular hydrogen (H2). The hydrogenase responsible for this reaction is a membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenase (Mbh). In this study, we have examined several possibilities to increase the protein levels of Mbh in T. kodakarensis by genetic engineering. Highest levels of intracellular Mbh levels were achieved when the promoter of the entire mbh operon (TK2080-TK2093) was exchanged to a strong constitutive promoter from the glutamate dehydrogenase gene (TK1431) (strain MHG1). When MHG1 was cultivated under continuous culture conditions using pyruvate-based medium, a nearly 25% higher specific hydrogen production rate (SHPR) of 35.3 mmol H2 g-dcw(-1) h(-1) was observed at a dilution rate of 0.31 h(-1). We also combined mbh overexpression using an even stronger constitutive promoter from the cell surface glycoprotein gene (TK0895) with disruption of the genes encoding the cytosolic hydrogenase (Hyh) and an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT), both of which are involved in hydrogen consumption (strain MAH1). At a dilution rate of 0.30 h(-1), the SHPR was 36.2 mmol H2 g-dcw(-1) h(-1), corresponding to a 28% increase compared to that of the host T. kodakarensis strain. Increasing the dilution rate to 0.83 h(-1) or 1.07 h(-1) resulted in a SHPR of 120 mmol H2 g-dcw(-1) h(-1), which is one of the highest production rates observed in microbial fermentation.

  15. Core-shell Rh-Pt nanocubes: A model for studying compressive strain effects in bimetallic nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harak, Ethan William

    Shape-controlled bimetallic nanocatalysts often have increased activities and stabilities over their monometallic counterparts due to surface strain effects and electron transfer between the two metals. Here, we demonstrate that the degree of surface strain can be manipulated in shape-controlled nanocrystals through a bimetallic core shell architecture. This ability is achieved in a model core shell Rh Pt nanocube system through control of shell thickness. An increase in the Pt shell thickness leads to more compressive strain, which can increase the Pt 4f7/2 binding energy by as much as 0.13 eV. This change in electronic structure is correlated with a weakening of surface-adsorbate interactions, which we exploit to reduce catalyst poisoning by CO during formic acid electrooxidation. In fact, by precisely controlling the Pt shell thickness, the maximum current density achieved with Rh Pt nanocubes was 3.5 times greater than that achieved with similarly sized Pt nanocubes, with decreased CO generation as well. This system serves as a model for how bimetallic architectures can be used to manipulate the electronic structure of nanoparticle surfaces for efficient catalysis. The strategy employed here should enable the performance of bimetallic nanomaterials comprised of more cost-effective metals to be enhanced as well.

  16. Platinum-ruthenium bimetallic clusters on graphite: a comparison of vapor deposition and electroless deposition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhenage, Randima P; Xie, Kangmin; Diao, Weijian; Tengco, John Meynard M; Seuser, Grant S; Monnier, John R; Chen, Donna A

    2015-11-14

    Bimetallic Pt-Ru clusters have been grown on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces by vapor deposition and by electroless deposition. These studies help to bridge the material gap between well-characterized vapor deposited clusters and electrolessly deposited clusters, which are better suited for industrial catalyst preparation. In the vapor deposition experiments, bimetallic clusters were formed by the sequential deposition of Pt on Ru or Ru on Pt. Seed clusters of the first metal were grown on HOPG surfaces that were sputtered with Ar(+) to introduce defects, which act as nucleation sites for Pt or Ru. On the unmodified HOPG surface, both Pt and Ru clusters preferentially nucleated at the step edges, whereas on the sputtered surface, clusters with relatively uniform sizes and spatial distributions were formed. Low energy ion scattering experiments showed that the surface compositions of the bimetallic clusters are Pt-rich, regardless of the order of deposition, indicating that the interdiffusion of metals within the clusters is facile at room temperature. Bimetallic clusters on sputtered HOPG were prepared by the electroless deposition of Pt on Ru seed clusters from a Pt(+2) solution using dimethylamine borane as the reducing agent at pH 11 and 40 °C. After exposure to the electroless deposition bath, Pt was selectively deposited on Ru, as demonstrated by the detection of Pt on the surface by XPS, and the increase in the average cluster height without an increase in the number of clusters, indicating that Pt atoms are incorporated into the Ru seed clusters. Electroless deposition of Ru on Pt seed clusters was also achieved, but it should be noted that this deposition method is extremely sensitive to the presence of other metal ions in solution that have a higher reduction potential than the metal ion targeted for deposition.

  17. Ordered macroporous bimetallic nanostructures: design, characterization, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lehui; Eychmüller, Alexander

    2008-02-01

    Ordered porous metal nanomaterials have current and future potential applications, for example, as catalysts, as photonic crystals, as sensors, as porous electrodes, as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), in separation technology, and in other emerging nanotechnologies. Methods for creating such materials are commonly characterized as "templating", a technique that involves first the creation of a sacrificial template with a specific porous structure, followed by the filling of these pores with desired metal materials and finally the removal of the starting template, leaving behind a metal replica of the original template. From the viewpoint of practical applications, ordered metal nanostructures with hierarchical porosity, namely, macropores in combination with micropores or mesopores, are of particular interest because macropores allow large guest molecules to access and an efficient mass transport through the porous structures is enabled while the micropores or mesopores enhance the selectivity and the surface area of the metal nanostructures. For this objective, colloidal crystals (or artificial opals) consisting of three-dimensional (3D) long-range ordered arrays of silica or polymer microspheres are ideal starting templates. However, with respect to the colloidal crystal templating strategies for production of ordered porous metal nanostructures, there are two challenging questions for materials scientists: (1) how to uniformly and controllably fill the interstitial space of the colloidal crystal templates and (2) how to generate ordered composite metal nanostructures with hierarchical porosity. This Account reports on recent work in the development and applications of ordered macroporous bimetallic nanostructures in our laboratories. A series of strategies have been explored to address the challenges in colloidal crystal template techniques. By rationally tailoring experimental parameters, we could readily and selectively design

  18. 氧化锆负载Pd-Cu双金属催化剂上山梨醇选择性氢解合成乙二醇和丙二醇%Selective hydrogenolysis of sorbitol to ethylene glycol and propylene glycol on ZrO2-supported bimetallic Pd-Cu catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾玉庆; 刘海超

    2015-01-01

    Sorbitol is one of the key building blocks in catalytic conversion of biomass, and its selective hydro-genolysis to ethylene glycol and propylene glycol provides a viable and sustainable route towards the synthesis of the two glycols. Herein, the hydrogenolysis of biomass-derived sorbitol was studied on Pd-modified Cu/monoclinic zirconia (Pd-Cu/ZrO2) catalysts with a wide range of Cu/Pd atomic ratios in the presence of La(OH)3. The bimetallic Pd-Cu/ZrO2 catalysts showed superior activities and selectivities to the two target glycols, compared with the monometallic Cu/ZrO2 and Pd/ZrO2 catalysts under identical conditions. At nearly 100%sorbitol conversion, a combined selectivity of 61.7%to ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and glycerol was obtained on Pd-Cu/ZrO2 (Cu/Pd=5) at 493 K under 5.0 MPa H2. Pd-Cu/ZrO2 was also stable and recyclable, in contrast to Cu/ZrO2, which suffered severe deactivation because of agglomeration of Cu particles during sorbitol hydrogenoly-sis. Clearly, the presence of Pd improved not only the activity and selectivity of the Cu catalyst, but also the hydrothermal stability. Characterization of these catalysts by X-ray diffraction, dif-fuse-reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy of CO adsorption, and H2 tempera-ture-programmed reduction suggests that the Cu particles deposited on the Pd surfaces with close contact and strong interaction between the two metals, most likely involving electron transfer from Pd to Cu. Such structural and electronic effects are proposed as the critical contributors to the sig-nificant promoting effect of Pd on the activity and stability of Pd-Cu catalysts in sorbitol hydrogen-olysis. These findings provide useful information for design of new Cu-based catalysts with higher efficiency and stability for selective hydrogenolysis of polyols and other biomass-derived reactants under hydrothermal conditions.%山梨醇和木糖醇等多元醇是可再生生物质转化合成液体燃料和化学品的重

  19. Investigations of the microstructural stability of wrought Ni-(Fe)-based syperalloys for steam turbine rotor application beyond 700 C; Untersuchungen der Strukturstabilitaet von Ni-(Fe)-Basislegierungen fuer Rotorwellen in Dampfturbinen mit Arbeitstemperaturen ueber 700 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seliga, T.

    2005-07-01

    There is a continuous trend to improve the efficiency of modern power plants with steam turbine require operating steam temperature from 700 to 720 C. For substantial parts like turbine rotors and discs this means increased requirements on the high temperature resistance, which can not longer be fulfilled by the presently used steel. As new materials for the components, which are thermo-mechanically loaded, only Ni-based superalloys are suitable for their fabrication, structure stability and thermo-mechanical characteristics. With view on creep and creep crack growth resistance as suitable candidates in the context a DFG research project wrought Ni-based superalloy Waspaloy and Ni-Fe-based alloy Inconel 706 were selected, which exhibited different hardening mechanisms. Waspaloy is a {gamma}'-hardened material with small portion of carbides on the grain boundaries. Inconel 706 is a particle hardened alloy with a very complex microstructure, it consists of {gamma}', {gamma}{sup ''}-particle, {eta}-phase und carbides. Concerning to their castability, forgeability, creep and creep crack growth and microstructural stability these candidate materials have been investigated and modelled. The knowledge about their long time stability of the microstructure, castability, forgeability and mechanical properties leads to the two new modification (Waspaloy{yields}DT750 and Inconel 706{yields}DT706). The modification of the Waspaloy to DT 750 served better castability (elimination of the Freckle formation). An improvement of the long-term stability of the microstructure was not necessary, by a changed heat treatment was reached a homogeneous, monomodale {gamma}'-particle distribution. The modification of Inconel 706 to DT 706 served to stabilize the {gamma}'-phase and to reduce of the {gamma}{sup ''} phase without suppressing the cellular {eta}-phase colonies on the grain boundaries. This work presents the test results for the structural

  20. Magnetic properties of NiFe{sub 2−x}RE{sub x}O{sub 4} (RE=Dy, Gd) using magnetic Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahariya, Jagrati; Mund, H.S.; Sharma, Arvind [Department of Physics, M.L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur 313001 (India); Dashora, Alpa [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagri, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400098 (India); Itou, M.; Sakurai, Y. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ahuja, B.L., E-mail: blahuja@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, M.L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur 313001 (India)

    2014-06-01

    Temperature dependent spin momentum densities of NiFe{sub 2−x}RE{sub x}O{sub 4} (x=0, 0.05; RE=Dy, Gd) ferrites have been measured using a magnetic Compton spectrometer available at SPring-8, Japan. The experimental profiles of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (NFO) with doping of Dy and Gd show almost similar spin moment as of undoped NFO. The contribution of different constituents in the formation of total spin moment is also deduced from the analysis of Compton line shape. It is seen that 5% doping of Dy{sup 3+} or Gd{sup 3+} ions at Fe{sup 3+} sites leads to a redistribution of spin moment at Fe{sup 3+} and RE{sup 3+} sites. The magnetic Compton data when compared with the magnetization data (using a vibrating sample magnetometer) show almost a constant orbital moment (0.21±0.03 µ{sub B}/f.u.) in the doped and undoped NFO. - Highlights: • Reported first ever magnetic Compton profiles (MCPs) of NiFe{sub 2−x}RE{sub x}O{sub 4} (RE=Dy, Gd). • MCPs are analyzed to determine site specific contributions in total spin moment. • Doping of RE{sup 3+} ions at Fe{sup 3+} sites redistributes the spin moment at Fe{sup 3+} and RE{sup 3+} sites. • The orbital moments in doped and undoped ferrites are found to be almost constant.

  1. The use of mechanical alloying for the preparation of palladized magnesium bimetallic particles for the remediation of PCBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L; Devor, Robert W; Aitken, Brian; Hampton, Michael D; Quinn, Jacqueline W; Clausen, Christian A; Geiger, Cherie L

    2011-09-15

    The kinetic rate of dechlorination of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB-151) by mechanically alloyed Mg/Pd was studied for optimization of the bimetallic system. Bimetal production was first carried out in a small-scale environment using a SPEX 8000M high-energy ball mill with 4-μm-magnesium and palladium impregnated on graphite, with optimized parameters including milling time and Pd-loading. A 5.57-g sample of bimetal containing 0.1257% Pd and ball milled for 3 min resulted in a degradation rate of 0.00176 min(-1)g(-1) catalyst as the most reactive bimetal. The process was then scaled-up, using a Red Devil 5400 Twin-Arm Paint Shaker, fitted with custom plates to hold milling canisters. Optimization parameters tested included milling time, number of ball bearings used, Pd-loading, and total bimetal mass milled. An 85-g sample of bimetal containing 0.1059% Pd and ball-milled for 23 min with 16 ball bearings yielded the most reactive bimetal with a degradation rate of 0.00122 min(-1)g(-1) catalyst. Further testing showed adsorption did not hinder extraction efficiency and that dechlorination products were only seen when using the bimetallic system, as opposed to any of its single components. The bimetallic system was also tested for its ability to degrade a second PCB congener, PCB-45, and a PCB mixture (Arochlor 1254); both contaminants were seen to degrade successfully.

  2. Impact of Electrical Conductivity of NiFe2O4 by Adding Different Content of nano-NiO%添加纳米NiO对NiFe2O4金属陶瓷电导率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗琨琳; 贾贺峰; 吴贤熙

    2008-01-01

    研究了添加不同量的纳米NiO对NiFe2O4金属陶瓷电导率的影响.对添加纳米NiO占NiO总量6%-14%的NiFe2O4金属陶瓷试样的电导率进行测试分析,发现试样的电导率随测试温度的升高而增加.当纳米NiO占NiO总量的10%时有最大电导率,测试温度为980℃时的电导率为90.7S/cm.

  3. Analysis of the influence of fuel on NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystalline obtained by solution combustion synthesis; Influencia do tipo de combustivel sobre NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocristalina obtida a partir da sintese por combustao em solucao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalt, S. Da; Bergmann, C.P., E-mail: silvana.da.dalt@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LACER/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Lab. de Materiais Ceramicos

    2009-07-01

    This paper investigates the effect of different fuels used on a structural properties stoichiometric composition of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} obtained from the combustion synthesis. Precursor solutions were prepared from iron nitrate nonahydrate and nickel nitrate hexahydrate, and complexing agents as maleic anhydride, oxalic acid and sucrose. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction to evaluate the presents phases, and crystallite size from single-line method, specific surface area (BET) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphological analysis of powders. The results indicate that NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} can be obtained after heat treatment at 800 deg C with particle size of approximately 60nm. (author)

  4. Neutron diffraction study of the structure and low-temperature phase transformation in ternary NiAl+M (M = Ni, Fe, Co) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ling [ORNL; Wang, Xun-Li [ORNL; Liu, Chain T [ORNL; Fernandez-Baca, Jaime A [ORNL; Fu, Chong Long [ORNL; Richardson, James W [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Shi, Detang [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    Neutron diffraction was used to study the structure of ternary NiAl + M (M = Ni, Fe, Cc) alloys. The experiment confirmed the predictions by first-principle calculations on site preference by solute atoms. Moreover, a universal structural transformation was observed below 20 K in alloys where Al is partially replaced by M. The extra peaks at low-temperatures do not match those from known martensite phases, but are well indexed by a cubic structure. A possible mechanism for the low-temperature phase is discussed. (c) 2007 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. n-Hexane hydro-isomerization over promoted Pd/HZSM-5 catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoa Dao, Thi Kim; Loc Luu, Cam

    2015-09-01

    A series of Pd/HZSM-5 catalysts modified by various metallic species, including Co, Ni, Fe, Re, and Cu, was prepared by sequential impregnation. Contents of Pd and second metals in modified catalysts were 0.8 and 1.0 wt%, respectively. Physico-chemical characteristics of catalysts were investigated by nitrogen physi-sorption (BET), x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ammonia temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD), temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and hydrogen pulse chemisorption (HPC). Coke formation was studied by the method of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The activities of catalysts in n-hexane isomerization were studied in a micro-flow reactor under atmospheric pressure at 250 °C, and molar ratio of H2: n-hexane of 5.92. It was found that Co, Ni, Fe, and Re additives exhibited geometric and electronic effects toward Pd/HZSM-5 catalyst, leading to an enhancement of its activity and stability. On the contrary, Cu additive caused Pd/HZSM-5 to become poorer in activity and stability.

  6. Performance of NiFe2O4-SiO2-TiO2 Magnetic Photocatalyst for the Effective Photocatalytic Reduction of Cr(VI in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike O. Ojemaye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation into the reduction of Cr(VI in aqueous solution was carried out through some batch photocatalytic studies. The photocatalysts used were silica coated nickel ferrite nanoparticles (NiFe2O4-SiO2, nickel ferrite titanium dioxide (NiFe2O4-TiO2, nickel ferrite silica titanium dioxide (NiFe2O4-SiO2-TiO2, and titanium dioxide (TiO2. The characterization of the materials prepared via stepwise synthesis using coprecipitation and sol-gel methods were carried out with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM. The reduction efficiency was studied as a function of pH, photocatalyst dose, and contact time. The effects of silica interlayer between the magnetic photocatalyst materials reveal that reduction efficiency of NiFe2O4-SiO2-TiO2 towards Cr(VI was higher than that of NiFe2O4-TiO2. However, TiO2 was observed to have the highest reduction efficiency at all batch photocatalytic experiments. Kinetics study shows that photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI obeyed Langmuir-Hinshelwood model and first-order rate kinetics. Regenerability study also suggested that the photocatalyst materials can be reused.

  7. Stainless Steel to Titanium Bimetallic Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaluzny, J. A. [Fermilab; Grimm, C. [Fermilab; Passarelli, D. [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    In order to use stainless steel piping in an LCLS-II (Linac Coherent Light Source Upgrade) cryomodule, stainless steel to titanium bimetallic transitions are needed to connect the stainless steel piping to the titanium cavity helium vessel. Explosion bonded stainless steel to titanium transition pieces and bimetallic transition material samples have been tested. A sample transition tube was subjected to tests and x-ray examinations between tests. Samples of the bonded joint material were impact and tensile tested at room temperature as well as liquid helium temperature. The joint has been used successfully in horizontal tests of LCLS-II cavity helium vessels and is planned to be used in LCLS-II cryomodules. Results of material sample and transition tube tests will be presented.

  8. Gold-platinum bimetallic nanotubes templated from tellurium nanowires as efficient electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chenchen; Kong, Wei; Zhang, Huying; Song, Bo; Wang, Zhenghua

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, gold-platinum (Au-Pt) bimetallic nanotubes with different Au/Pt ratio are successfully synthesized through a simple wet-chemical reduction route in which tellurium (Te) nanowires serve as both sacrificial template and reducing agent. The hollow nanostructure of Au-Pt nanotubes is formed due to Kirkendall effect. The as-prepared Au-Pt nanotubes can be applied as catalyst for methanol oxidation reaction, and the results indicate that the Au-Pt nanotubes with an Au/Pt ratio of 1:1 show the best electrochemical catalytic performances. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of the Au-Pt nanotubes is also better than Pt nanotubes and commercial Pt/C catalyst.

  9. SYNTHESIS OF POLYMER-STABILIZED PLATINUM/RUTHENIUM BIMETALLIC COLLOIDS AND THEIR CATALYTIC PROPERTIES FOR SELECTIVE HYDROGENATION OF CROTONALDEHYDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-xia Tu; Han-fan Liu

    2005-01-01

    Polymer-stabilized platinum/ruthenium bimetallic colloids (Pt/Ru) were synthesized by polyol reduction with microwave irradiation and characterized by TEM and XPS. The colloidal nanoparticles have small and narrow size distributions. Catalytic performance of the Pt/Ru colloidal catalysts was investigated on the selective hydrogenation of crontonaldehyde (CRAL). A suitable amount of the added metal ions and base can improve the selectivity of CRAL to crotylalcohol (CROL) remarkably. The catalytic activity and the selectivity are dependent on the compositions of bimetallic colloids. Thereinto, PVP-stabilized 9Pt/1Ru colloid with a molar ratio of metals Pt:Ru = 9:1 shows the highest catalytic selectivity 77.3% to CROL at 333 K under 4.0 MPa of hydrogen.

  10. Probing the electronic and catalytic properties of a bimetallic surface with 3 nm resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jin-Hui; Jin, Xi; Meng, Lingyan; Wang, Xiang; Su, Hai-Sheng; Yang, Zhi-Lin; Williams, Christopher T.; Ren, Bin

    2016-11-01

    An atomic- and molecular-level understanding of heterogeneous catalysis is required to characterize the nature of active sites and improve the rational design of catalysts. Achieving this level of characterization requires techniques that can correlate catalytic performances to specific surface structures, so as to avoid averaging effects. Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combines scanning probe microscopy with plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering and provides simultaneous topographical and chemical information at the nano/atomic scale from ambient to ultrahigh-vacuum and electrochemical environments. Therefore, it has been used to monitor catalytic reactions and is proposed to correlate the local structure and function of heterogeneous catalysts. Bimetallic catalysts, such as Pd-Au, show superior performance in various catalytic reactions, but it has remained challenging to correlate structure and reactivity because of their structural complexity. Here, we show that TERS can chemically and spatially probe the site-specific chemical (electronic and catalytic) and physical (plasmonic) properties of an atomically well-defined Pd(sub-monolayer)/Au(111) bimetallic model catalyst at 3 nm resolution in real space using phenyl isocyanide as a probe molecule (Fig. 1a). We observe a weakened N≡C bond and enhanced reactivity of phenyl isocyanide adsorbed at the Pd step edge compared with that at the Pd terrace. Density functional theory corroborates these observations by revealing a higher d-band electronic profile for the low-coordinated Pd step edge atoms. The 3 nm spatial resolution we demonstrate here is the result of an enhanced electric field and distinct electronic properties at the step edges.

  11. Converse magnetoelectric coupling in NiFe/Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–PbTiO{sub 3} nanocomposite thin films grown on Si substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Ming [School of Materials Science and Engineering and State Key Lab of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Physics and Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Jilin Normal University, Siping 136000 (China); Hu, Jiamian; Wang, Jianjun; Li, Zheng; Shu, Li; Nan, C. W. [School of Materials Science and Engineering and State Key Lab of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-11-04

    Multiferroic NiFe (∼30 nm)/Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–PbTiO{sub 3}(PMN–PT, ∼220 nm) bilayered thin films were grown on common Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates by a combination of off-axis magnetron sputtering and sol-gel spin-coating technique. By using AC-mode magneto-optical Kerr effect technique, the change in the Kerr signal (magnetization) of the NiFe upon applying a low-frequency AC voltage to the PMN–PT film was in situ acquired at zero magnetic field. The obtained Kerr signal versus voltage loop essentially tracks the electromechanical strain curve of the PMN–PT thin film, clearly demonstrating a strain-mediated converse magnetoelectric coupling, i.e., voltage-modulated magnetization, in the NiFe/PMN–PT nanocomposite thin films.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of the NiFe2O4@TEOS-TPS@Ag nanocomposite and investigation of its antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allafchian, Ali R.; Jalali, S. A. H.; Amiri, R.; Shahabadi, Sh.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the NiFe2O4 was embedded in (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane (TPS) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) using the sol-gel method. These compounds were used as the support of Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The NiFe2O4@TEOS-TPS@Ag nanocomposites were obtained with the development of bonding between the silver atoms of Ag NPs and the sulfur atoms of TPS molecule. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used for the characterization of the Ag nanocomposites. Also, the magnetic properties of these nanocomposites were studied by using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) technique. The disk diffusion, minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) tests were used for the investigation of the antibacterial effect of this nanocomposite against bacterial strains. The synthesized nanocomposite presented high reusability and good antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Remarkably, this nanocomposite could be easily removed from the disinfected media by magnetic decantation.

  13. Temperature dependence of magnetization and anisotropy in uniaxial NiFe2O4 nanomagnets: Deviation from the Callen-Callen power law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Biplab K.; Ghosh, C. K.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2014-10-01

    The thermal variation of magnetic anisotropy (K) and saturation magnetization (MS) for uniaxial nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanomagnets are investigated. Major magnetic hysteresis loops are measured for the sample at temperatures over the range 5-280 K using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The high-field regimes of the hysteresis loops are modeled using the law of approach to saturation, based on the assumption that at sufficiently high field only direct rotation of spin-moment take place, with an additional forced magnetization term that is linear with applied field. The uniaxial anisotropy constant K is calculated from the fitting of the data to the theoretical equation. As temperature increases from 5 K to 280 K, a 49% reduction of K, accompanied by an 85% diminution of MS is observed. Remarkably, K is linearly proportional to MS2.6 in the whole temperature range violating the existing theoretical model by Callen and Callen. The unusual power-law behavior for the NiFe2O4 uniaxial nanomagnets is ascribed to the non-negligible contributions from inter-sublattice pair interactions, Neel surface anisotropy, and higher order anisotropies. A complete realization of the unusual anisotropy-magnetization scaling behavior for nanoscale two-sublattice magnetic materials require a major modification of the existing theory by considering the exact mechanism of each contributions to the effective anisotropy.

  14. Influence of carboxylic acid type on microstructure and magnetic properties of polymeric complex sol-gel driven NiFe2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessien, M. M.; Mostafa, Nasser Y.; Abd-Elkader, Omar H.

    2016-01-01

    Citric, oxalic and tartaric acids were used for synthesis of NiFe2O4 using polymeric complex precursor route. The dry precursor gels were calcined at various temperatures (400-1100 °C) for 2 h. All carboxylic acids produce iron-deficient NiFe2O4 with considerable amount of α-Fe2O3 at 400 °C. Increase in the annealing temperature caused reaction of α-Fe2O3 with iron-deficient ferrite phase. The amount of initially formed α-Fe2O3 is directly correlated with stability constant and inversely correlated with the decomposition temperature of Fe(III) carboxylate precursors. In case of tartaric acid precursor, single phase of the ferrite was obtained at 450 °C. However, in case of oxalic acid and citric acid precursors, single phase ferrite was obtained at 550 °C and 700 °C, respectively. The lattice parameters were increased with increasing annealing temperature and with decreasing the amount of α-Fe2O3. Maximum saturation magnetization (55 emu/g) was achieved using tartaric acid precursor annealed at 1100 °C.

  15. First principles calculation of stable structure and adhesive strength of plated Ni/Fe(100) or Cu/Fe(100) interfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryota NAKANISHI; Koji SUEOKA; Seiji SHIBA; Makoto HINO; Koji MURAKAMI; Ken MURAOKA

    2009-01-01

    A study the with first principles calculation of the interfaces of the Ni layer or Cu layer on the Fe(100) surface formed with metal plating was performed. Ni or Cu atoms were shown to adopt the corresponding position to the bcc structure of the Fe(100) substrate. Other calculations showed that the interfaces of Ni (5 atomic layers)/Fe(100) (5 layers) or Cu (5 atomic layers)/Fe(100) (5 layers) had square lattices. The orientation relationship of Ni/Fe(100) interface corresponds to fcc-Ni(100)//bcc-Fe(100), Ni[011]//Fe[010], and Similar results were obtained for Cu/Fe(100) interfaces. This structure was supported by TEM analysis of plated Ni layer on Fe(100) surfaces. The adhesion strength of the Ni/Fe(100) interface evaluated by first principles calculation was higher than that of the Cu/Fe(100) interface. The experimental results of Hull cell iron plated with Ni or Cu supported the results of the calculation. These results indicate that the first principles calculation, which deals with the ideal interface at the atomic scale, has the potential to evaluate the adhesion strength of metallic material interfaces.

  16. Large enhancement of Blocking temperature by control of interfacial structures in Pt/NiFe/IrMn/MgO/Pt multilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Blocking temperature (TB of Pt/NiFe/IrMn/MgO/Pt multilayers was greatly enhanced from far below room temperature (RT to above RT by inserting 1 nm thick Mg layer at IrMn/MgO interface. Furthermore, the exchange bias field (Heb was increased as well by the control of interfacial structures. The evidence for a significant fraction of Mn-O bonding at IrMn/MgO interface without Mg insertion layer was provided by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The bonding between Mn and O can decrease the antiferromagnetism of IrMn film, leading to lower value of TB in Pt/NiFe/IrMn/MgO/Pt multilayers. Ultrathin Mg film inserted at IrMn/MgO interface acting as an oxygen sinking layer can suppress the oxidation reactions between Mn and O and reduce the formation of Mn-O bonding greatly. The oxidation suppression results in the recovery of the antiferromagnetism of IrMn film, which can enhance TB and Heb. Furthermore, the high resolution transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that the Mg insertion layer can efficiently promote a high-quality MgO (200 texture. This study will enhance the understanding of physics in antiferromagnet-based spintronic devices.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Ni{sub 3}Fe nanocomposite powder and compacts obtained by mechanical milling and spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinca, T.F.; Neamţu, B.V.; Popa, F.; Tarţa, V.F. [Materials Sciences and Engineering Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 103-105, Muncii Avenue, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Pascuta, P. [Physics and Chemistry Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 103-105 Muncii Avenue, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Takacs, A.F. [Faculty of Physics, Babeş-Bolyai University, 1 Mihail Kogălniceanu, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Chicinaş, I., E-mail: Ionel.Chicinas@stm.utcluj.ro [Materials Sciences and Engineering Department, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 103-105, Muncii Avenue, 400641 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-15

    Nanocomposite powder and compacts of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Ni{sub 3}Fe type were synthesized using mechanical milling and spark plasma sintering (SPS) techniques. The samples have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser particles size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). The nanocomposite powder was obtained by mechanical milling in a high planetary ball mill of nanocrystalline NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and nanocrystalline Ni{sub 3}Fe powders. The nanocomposite powder consists from Ni{sub 3}Fe particles covered at the surface with a layer of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} fine particles and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles. The nanocomposite particles have the median diameter d{sub 50} of 1.6 μm. The sintering in 400–600 °C temperature range preserve the nanocomposite phases but lead to a high porosity. The nanocomposite compacts consist in Ni{sub 3}Fe clusters surrounded by NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. A sintering temperature of 800 °C leads to a good density for the nanocomposite compacts and to the new phase formation. The new phase is a wustite type (Fe{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O) and is formed at the metal/ceramic interface. A change in the Ni/Fe ratio, in the spinel structure, was evidenced during sintering. Sintering at a temperature of 800 °C, leads to the formation of a mixed iron–nickel ferrite with a very small amount of nickel, Ni{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  18. Oxidative Esterification of Methacrolein to Methyl Methacrylate over Supported Palladium Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei ZHAO; Wei Guo CHENG; Zeng Xi LI; Lei WANG; Xiang Ping ZHANG; Suo Jiang ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Supported palladium catalysts, which were used in the oxidative esterification of methacrolein to methyl methacrylate, have been prepared with different carriers and Pd precursors.Experimental results revealed that Pd catalysts with γ-Al2O3 support and Na2PdCl4 precursor showed good performance. Pd catalyst modified with Pb and Mg indicated that Pd-Mg bimetallic catalyst exhibited considerably higher activity and Pd-Pb exhibited both higher activity and selectivity. 92.27% methacrolein conversion and 90.57% methyl methacrylate selectivity were obtained on Pd-Pb-Mg catalyst.

  19. Analysis of Manufacturing Bimetallic Tubes by the Cold Drawing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halaczek D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Drawing processes apply to obtain the bimetallic tubes from the different metals and alloys, combined in the solid state, which significantly affects the specificity of this process. The manufacturing of bimetallic tubes by drawing process depends on many factors which include: preparation of the surface of materials joined in the solid state, the geometric parameters of the working tool, technological parameters of the drawing process (drawing speed, type of lubricant, the use of back pull etc.. Generally, the cold drawing process of producing the bimetallic tubes refers to metals which have high ductility (copper, aluminum, etc.. The tube sinking (tube drawing without a mandrel of bimetallic tubes together with joining them at the interface of the two metal in the solid-state is applied for tubes of the diameter range between 6 to 20 mm and based on of the reducing the diameter of the tube. However, a slight increase of wall thickness ca. 0.05 ÷ 0.10 mm can appear, which is not dangerous phenomenon in case of producing the bimetallic tubes by joining in the solid-state. The aim of the research was to investigate the technology of tubes drawing process from non-ferrous metal, drawing process of bimetallic tubes and the production of bimetallic tubes in layers composition: cooper Cu-ETP - brass CuZn37 and CuZn37 brass - copper Cu-ETP in the tube sinking process. The research program included: production of bimetallic tubes with a different composition (Cu- ETP-CuZn37 and CuZn37-Cu-ETP and a different percentage of the cross-section components; analysis of changes of tube wall thickness and the layer composition of the bimetallic tube, based on measurements on the workshop microscope; analysis of the material flow in the process of the bimetallic tubes production based on the measurements results of a profilograph CP-200.

  20. Insight into the Catalytic Mechanism of Bimetallic Platinum–Copper Core–Shell Nanostructures for Nonaqueous Oxygen Evolution Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Lu; Luo, Xiangyi; Kropf, A. Jeremy; Wen, Jianguo; Wang, Xiaoping; Lee, Sungsik; Myers, Deborah J.; Miller, Dean; Wu, Tianpin; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) plays a critical role in multiple energy conversion and storage applications. However, its sluggish kinetics usually results in large voltage polarization and unnecessary energy loss. Therefore, designing efficient catalysts that could facilitate this process has become an emerging topic. Here, we present a unique Pt–Cu core–shell nanostructure for catalyzing the nonaqueous OER. The catalysts were systematically investigated with comprehensive spectroscopic techniques, and applied in nonaqueous Li–O2 electrochemical cells, which exhibited dramatically reduced charging overpotential (<0.2 V). The superior performance is explained by the robust Cu(I) surface sites stabilized by the Pt core in the nanostructure. The insights into the catalytic mechanism of the unique Pt–Cu core–shell nanostructure gained in this work are expected to serve as a guide for future design of other nanostructured bimetallic OER catalysts.

  1. Oxidation catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyer, Sylvia T.; Lahr, David L.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  2. A facile reflux procedure to increase active surface sites form highly active and durable supported palladium@platinum bimetallic nanodendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Li, Yingjun; Liu, Baocang; Xu, Guangran; Zhang, Geng; Zhao, Qi; Zhang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    A series of well-dispersed bimetallic Pd@Pt nanodendrites uniformly supported on XC-72 carbon black are fabricated by using different capping agents. These capping agents are essential for the branched morphology control. However, the surfactant adsorbed on the nanodendrites surface blocks the access of reactant molecules to the active surface sites, and the catalytic activities of these bimetallic nanodendrites are significantly restricted. Herein, a facile reflux procedure to effectively remove the capping agent molecules without significantly affecting their sizes is reported for activating supported nanocatalysts. More significantly, the structure and morphology of the nanodendrites can also be retained, enhancing the numbers of active surface sites, catalytic activity and stability toward methanol and ethanol electro-oxidation reactions. The as-obtained hot water reflux-treated Pd@Pt/C catalyst manifests superior catalytic activity and stability both in terms of surface and mass specific activities, as compared to the untreated catalysts and the commercial Pt/C and Pd/C catalysts. We anticipate that this effective and facile removal method has more general applicability to highly active nanocatalysts prepared with various surfactants, and should lead to improvements in environmental protection and energy production.

  3. Catalytic reduction of nitrate and nitrite ions by hydrogen : investigation of the reaction mechanism over Pd and Pd-Cu catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilinitch, OM; Nosova, LV; Gorodetskii, VV; Ivanov, VP; Trukhan, SN; Gribov, EN; Bogdanov, SV; Cuperus, FP

    2000-01-01

    The catalytic behavior of mono- and bimetallic catalysts with Pd and/or Cu supported over gamma-Al2O3 in the reduction of aqueous nitrate and nitrite ions by hydrogen was investigated. The composition of the supported metal catalysts was analysed using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and X-ra

  4. Development of Cu and Ni catalysts supported on ZrO{sub 2} for the generation of H{sub 2} by means of the reaction of reformed methanol in atmosphere oxidizer; Desarrollo de catalizadores de Cu y Ni soportados en ZrO{sub 2} para la generacion de H{sub 2} mediante la reaccion de reformado de metanol en atmosfera oxidante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez C, P.

    2012-07-01

    ZrO{sub 2} was prepared by the sol-gel method and calcined at 450 C. The prepared zirconia was impregnated with an aqueous solution of Cu(CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}){sub 2}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O or NiNO{sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O at an appropriate concentration to yield 3 wt % of copper or nickel, respectively, in the mono metallic catalysts. Three bimetallic samples were prepared at 80% Cu and 20% Ni respectively to obtain 3 wt % of total metallic phase. Surface area of the Cu-Ni base catalysts supported on ZrO{sub 2} oxide showed differences as a function of the metal addition. Between them, the Cu/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst had the lowest surface area than other catalysts. X-ray diffraction patterns of the bimetallic catalysts did not show diffraction peaks of the Cu, Ni or bimetallic Cu-Ni alloys. In addition, TPR profiles of the bimetallic catalysts had the lowest reduction temperature compared with the mono metallic samples. The reactivity of the catalysts in the range of 250-350 C showed that the samples prepared by successive impregnation had the highest catalytic activity than the other catalysts studied. Also the selectivity for H{sub 2} production was higher for these catalysts. This finding was associated to the presence of the bimetallic Cu-Ni nanoparticles, as was evidenced by Tem-EDX analysis. (Author)

  5. Atomic structure and thermal stability of Pt-Fe bimetallic nanoparticles: from alloy to core/shell architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rao; Wen, Yu-Hua; Shao, Gui-Fang; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2016-06-22

    Bimetallic nanoparticles comprising noble metal and non-noble metal have attracted intense interest over the past few decades due to their low cost and significantly enhanced catalytic performances. In this article, we have explored the atomic structure and thermal stability of Pt-Fe alloy and core-shell nanoparticles by molecular dynamics simulations. In Fe-core/Pt-shell nanoparticles, Fe with three different structures, i.e., body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc), and amorphous phases, has been considered. Our results show that Pt-Fe alloy is the most stable configuration among the four types of bimetallic nanoparticles. It has been discovered that the amorphous Fe cannot stably exist in the core and preferentially transforms into the fcc phase. The phase transition from bcc to hexagonal close packed (hcp) has also been observed in bcc-Fe-core/Pt-shell nanoparticles. In contrast, Fe with the fcc structure is the most preferred as the core component. These findings are helpful for understanding the structure-property relationships of Pt-Fe bimetallic nanoparticles, and are also of significance to the synthesis and application of noble metal based nanoparticle catalysts.

  6. Photoactivation of the Ni-SIr state to the Ni-SIa state in [NiFe] hydrogenase: FT-IR study on the light reactivity of the ready Ni-SIr state and as-isolated enzyme revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Hulin; Xu, Liyang; Inoue, Seiya; Nishikawa, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Hirota, Shun

    2016-08-10

    The Ni-SIr state of [NiFe] hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F was photoactivated to its Ni-SIa state by Ar(+) laser irradiation at 514.5 nm, whereas the Ni-SL state was light induced from a newly identified state, which was less active than any other identified state and existed in the "as-isolated" enzyme.

  7. Effect of NiO content on corrosion behaviour of Ni-xNiO-NiFe2O4 cermets in Na3AlF6-Al2O3 melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李劼; 段华南; 赖延清; 田忠良; 刘业翔

    2004-01-01

    5Ni-xNiO-NiFe2O4 cermets with different NiO contents were prepared and the corrosion behaviour in Na3 AlF6-Al2O3 melts was investigated in laboratory electrolysis tests. The results indicate that adding NiO is unfavorable to the densification of NiFe2O4-xNiO ceramics, while small Ni doping can greatly improve the sintering property. The electrolysis tests show that excess NiO is beneficial to the reduction of Fe while has little effects on that of Ni in the bath; the steady-state concentrations of Ni, Fe are below the corresponding solubilities of NiFe2O4-xNiO, implying that corrosion mechanism changes while electrifying. Post-electrolysis examination of anodes shows that Ni metal leaches at the anode surface, yet the substrate ceramic prevents the penetration of bath and the further loss of metal phase.

  8. The Catalytic Reductive Dechlorination of Ni/Fe Nano-alloy to Trichloro Ethylene(TCE)in Water%纳米Ni/Fe合金对水中三氯乙烯(TCE)的催化还原脱氯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫华; 张春华; 陈保国

    2016-01-01

    利用纳米Ni/Fe合金粉末对水中TCE进行催化还原脱氯研究,结果表明,纳米Ni/Fe合金对水中TCE具有较好的脱氯作用.在Ni含量5wt%、初始pH值为6.5、Ni/Fe粉末投加量为0.4g/L的条件下,TCE的脱氯率在60min内达72%;合金中较高Ni含量、较低初始pH、较大的粉末投加量均有利于脱氯反应;脱氯产物为丁烷、丁烯和乙烷等,可推测该反应是发生在双金属合金表面的加氢脱氯.%Dechlorination rate of TCE is up to 72%within 60 minutes under conditions of 5 wt%Ni,initial pH value 6.5 and 0.4g/L Ni/Fe powder. With the higher Ni content,the lower initial pH value and the more Ni/Fe powder,the Ni/Fe nano-alloy powder can better dechlorinate TCE in the water and produce butane,butene and ethane. This hy-drodechlorination occurrs on the surface of Ni/Fe alloy.

  9. BIMETALLIC LITHIUM BOROHYDRIDES TOWARD REVERSIBLE HYDROGEN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Au, M.

    2010-10-21

    Borohydrides such as LiBH{sub 4} have been studied as candidates for hydrogen storage because of their high hydrogen contents (18.4 wt% for LiBH{sub 4}). Limited success has been made in reducing the dehydrogenation temperature by adding reactants such as metals, metal oxides and metal halides. However, full rehydrogenation has not been realized because of multi-step decomposition processes and the stable intermediate species produced. It is suggested that adding second cation in LiBH{sub 4} may reduce the binding energy of B-H. The second cation may also provide the pathway for full rehydrogenation. In this work, several bimetallic borohydrides were synthesized using wet chemistry, high pressure reactive ball milling and sintering processes. The investigation found that the thermodynamic stability was reduced, but the full rehydrogenation is still a challenge. Although our experiments show the partial reversibility of the bimetallic borohydrides, it was not sustainable during dehydriding-rehydriding cycles because of the accumulation of hydrogen inert species.

  10. Hierachical Ni@Fe2O3 superparticles through epitaxial growth of γ-Fe2O3 nanorods on in situ formed Ni nanoplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Herzberger, Jana; Natalio, Filipe; Köhler, Oskar; Branscheid, Robert; Mugnaioli, Enrico; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Panthöfer, Martin; Kolb, Ute; Frey, Holger; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    One endeavour of nanochemistry is the bottom-up synthesis of functional mesoscale structures from basic building blocks. We report a one-pot wet chemical synthesis of Ni@γ-Fe2O3 superparticles containing Ni cores densely covered with highly oriented γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite) nanorods (NRs) by controlled reduction/decomposition of nickel acetate (Ni(ac)2) and Fe(CO)5. Automated diffraction tomography (ADT) of the Ni-Fe2O3 interface in combination with Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that selective and oriented growth of the γ-Fe2O3 nanorods on the Ni core is facilitated through the formation of a Fe0.05Ni0.95 alloy and the appearance of superstructure features that may reduce strain at the Ni-Fe2O3 interface. The common orientation of the maghemite nanorods on the Ni core of the superparticles leads to a greatly enhanced magnetization. After functionalization with a catechol-functional polyethylene glycol (C-PEG) ligand the Ni@γ-Fe2O3 superparticles were dispersible in water.One endeavour of nanochemistry is the bottom-up synthesis of functional mesoscale structures from basic building blocks. We report a one-pot wet chemical synthesis of Ni@γ-Fe2O3 superparticles containing Ni cores densely covered with highly oriented γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite) nanorods (NRs) by controlled reduction/decomposition of nickel acetate (Ni(ac)2) and Fe(CO)5. Automated diffraction tomography (ADT) of the Ni-Fe2O3 interface in combination with Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that selective and oriented growth of the γ-Fe2O3 nanorods on the Ni core is facilitated through the formation of a Fe0.05Ni0.95 alloy and the appearance of superstructure features that may reduce strain at the Ni-Fe2O3 interface. The common orientation of the maghemite nanorods on the Ni core of the superparticles leads to a greatly enhanced magnetization. After functionalization with a catechol-functional polyethylene glycol (C-PEG) ligand the Ni@γ-Fe2O3 superparticles were dispersible in water. Electronic supplementary

  11. The NiFe2O4-MgFe2O4 series as electrode materials for electrochemical reduction of NOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bræstrup, Frantz Radzik; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2009-01-01

    -three-electrode setup in the temperature range of 400–600 °C. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to characterize the electrochemical behavior in 1% NO and 10% O2. Measurements show that NiFe2O4 has relatively high cathodic activity in both NO and O2, whereas MgFe2O4 shows much...... higher activity in NO compared to O2. MgFe2O4 was also measured with cyclic voltammetry in 1% NO2 and different gas mixtures of NO and O2 at 300 and 400 °C. Results show that the cathodic activities (−0.6 V) are relatively high with current ratios, , ranging from 10.1–167.7 and with a maximum at 400 °C...

  12. Magnetic field induced assembling of nanoparticles in ferrofluidic liquid thin films based on NiFe1-Fe2O4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S Abraham; S Swapna Nair; S Rajesh; U S Sajeev; M R Anantharaman

    2004-04-01

    Ultra fine precursors for ferrofluid synthesis, belonging to the series, NiFe1-Fe2O4 (where `’ varies from `0’ to `0.6’ in steps of 0.1), were synthesized. Ferrofluids based on these fine particles were prepared with oleic acid as surfactant and kerosene as carrier. Ferrofluidic thin films were made on glass substrates and magnetic field induced laser transmission was studied. The pattern exhibited by the films under the influence of a magnetic field was