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Sample records for bimetallic mn-co clusters

  1. Density functional theory study on the structures, electronic and magnetic properties of the MFe3n‑1O4n (n = 1–3) (M=Mn, Co and Ni) clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Zhao, Zhen; Wang, Qi; Yin, Xi-tao

    2018-04-01

    The structures, electronic and magnetic properties of the MFe3n‑1O4n (n = 1–3) (M=Mn, Co and Ni) clusters are obtained by using the GGA-PBE functional. The results found that the CoFe3n‑1O4n (n = 1–3) clusters are more stable than the corresponding NiFe3n‑1O4n and MnFe3n‑1O4n clusters. The NiFe2O4, MnFe5O8 and CoFe5O8 clusters have higher kinetic stability than their neighbors. The average magnetic moments of MFe3n‑1O4n (n = 1–3) (M=Mn, Co and Ni) clusters are successively: NiFe3n‑1O4n > CoFe3n‑1O4n > MnFe3n‑1O4n. For NiFe3n‑1O4n and CoFe3n‑1O4n clusters, the average magnetic moments are decreased with the cluster size increasing while for MnFe3n‑1O4n, the opposite situation is occur. The difference of 3d orbital electrons of M (M=Mn, Co and Ni) atoms influence the magnetic properties of MFe3n‑1O4n clusters.

  2. Structure evolution during the cooling and coalesced cooling processes of Cu-Co bimetallic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guojian; Wang Qiang; Li Donggang; Lue Xiao; He Jicheng

    2008-01-01

    Constant-temperature molecular dynamics with general EAM was employed to study the structure evolutions during the cooling and coalesced cooling processes of Cu-Co bimetallic clusters. It shows that the desired particle morphologies and structures can be obtained by controlling the composition and distribution of hetero atoms during synthesis process

  3. Comparison between XAS, AWAXS and DAFS applied to nanometer scale supported metallic clusters. Pt.2; bimetallic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazin, D.; Sayers, D.

    1993-01-01

    The structural information obtained using three techniques related to synchrotron radiation are compared. XAS (X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy), AWAXS (Anomalous Wide Angle X-ray Scattering) and DAFS (Diffraction Anomalous Fine Structure) are applied to the study of nanometer scale bimetallic clusters. (author)

  4. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of small bimetallic zirconium–palladium clusters: Ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezi Javan, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Electronic and magnetic properties of small Zr n Pd m (n + m ⩽ 5) have been investigated. • Binding energies of the Zr n clusters are significantly higher than Pd n clusters. • Binding energy of the Pd n clusters increase with substituting one or more Zr atom. • HOMO–LUMO gap of the Zr n Pd m clusters increase in comparison with pure states. - Abstract: Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of small bimetallic zirconium–palladium clusters, Zr n Pd m (n + m ⩽ 5), have been investigated using density functional theory with considering generalized gradient approximation and PBE functional. We have determined the ground state conformations of the bimetallic zirconium–palladium clusters by substitution of Zr and Pd atoms in the optimized lowest energy structures of pure zirconium and palladium clusters. Results reveal that binding energies of the pure Zr n clusters are significantly higher than Pd n clusters with the same number of atoms. Also it is found that binding energy of the Zr n and Pd n clusters increase with growth of the number of consisting atoms in the clusters. Results indicate that, for both Zr n and Pd n clusters the binding energy of planar forms is lower than three-dimensional structures. We have also found that the binding energy of the Pd n clusters increase with substituting one or more Zr atoms in these clusters. We have also studied the HOMO–LUMO energy gap and magnetic moment of the pure and combined Zr and Pd clusters. The energy gap analysis of the pure and combined Pd and Zr clusters show that in generally the HOMO–LUMO gap of the bimetallic Zr n Pd m clusters increase in comparison with their corresponding pure clusters with the same number of atoms. According to the spin polarization DFT calculations all of the Zr n Pd m (n + m ⩽ 5) have net magnetic moments as instance the Zr 2 , Pd 2 and ZrPd clusters show a total magnetic moment value of 2 μ B . Some more discussions around charge population

  5. Density functional theory and surface reactivity study of bimetallic AgnYm (n+m = 10) clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Riaz; Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Hussain, Riaz; Hanif, Usman; Ayub, Khurshid

    2018-06-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been performed on pure silver (Agn), yttrium (Ym) and bimetallic silver yttrium clusters AgnYm (n + m = 2-10) for reactivity descriptors in order to realize sites for nucleophilic and electrophilic attack. The reactivity descriptors of the clusters, studied as a function of cluster size and shape, reveal the presence of different type of reactive sites in a cluster. The size and shape of the pure silver, yttrium and bimetallic silver yttrium cluster (n = 2-10) strongly influences the number and position of active sites for an electrophilic and/or nucleophilic attack. The trends of reactivities through reactivity descriptors are confirmed through comparison with experimental data for CO binding with silver clusters. Moreover, the adsorption of CO on bimetallic silver yttrium clusters is also evaluated. The trends of binding energies support the reactivity descriptors values. Doping of pure cluster with the other element also influence the hardness, softness and chemical reactivity of the clusters. The softness increases as we increase the number of silver atoms in the cluster, whereas the hardness decreases. The chemical reactivity increases with silver doping whereas it decreases by increasing yttrium concentration. Silver atoms are nucleophilic in small clusters but changed to electrophilic in large clusters.

  6. Density functional study of structural and electronic properties of bimetallic silver-gold clusters: Comparison with pure gold and silver clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacic-Koutecky, Vlasta; Burda, Jaroslav; Mitric, Roland; Ge, Maofa; Zampella, Giuseppe; Fantucci, Piercarlo

    2002-08-01

    Bimetallic silver-gold clusters offer an excellent opportunity to study changes in metallic versus "ionic" properties involving charge transfer as a function of the size and the composition, particularly when compared to pure silver and gold clusters. We have determined structures, ionization potentials, and vertical detachment energies for neutral and charged bimetallic AgmAun 3[less-than-or-equal](m+n)[less-than-or-equal]5 clusters. Calculated VDE values compare well with available experimental data. In the stable structures of these clusters Au atoms assume positions which favor the charge transfer from Ag atoms. Heteronuclear bonding is usually preferred to homonuclear bonding in clusters with equal numbers of hetero atoms. In fact, stable structures of neutral Ag2Au2, Ag3Au3, and Ag4Au4 clusters are characterized by the maximum number of hetero bonds and peripheral positions of Au atoms. Bimetallic tetramer as well as hexamer are planar and have common structural properties with corresponding one-component systems, while Ag4Au4 and Ag8 have 3D forms in contrast to Au8 which assumes planar structure. At the density functional level of theory we have shown that this is due to participation of d electrons in bonding of pure Aun clusters while s electrons dominate bonding in pure Agm as well as in bimetallic clusters. In fact, Aun clusters remain planar for larger sizes than Agm and AgnAun clusters. Segregation between two components in bimetallic systems is not favorable, as shown in the example of Ag5Au5 cluster. We have found that the structures of bimetallic clusters with 20 atoms Ag10Au10 and Ag12Au8 are characterized by negatively charged Au subunits embedded in Ag environment. In the latter case, the shape of Au8 is related to a pentagonal bipyramid capped by one atom and contains three exposed negatively charged Au atoms. They might be suitable for activating reactions relevant to catalysis. According to our findings the charge transfer in bimetallic

  7. Structure of bimetallic clusters. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) studies of Rh--Cu clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meitzner, G.; Via, G.H.; Lytle, F.W.; Sinfelt, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation of the structure of the bimetallic clusters present in rhodium--copper catalysts was conducted with the use of extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements. Two catalysts were studied, both employing silica as a support for the clusters and both containing 1 wt. % rhodium. In one catalyst the Cu:Rh atomic ratio was 1:2 and in the other 1:1. Studies were made of the EXAFS associated with the K absorption edges of the rhodium and copper. The results of the EXAFS studies indicate that copper concentrates at the surface of the rhodium--copper clusters. In this regard the results are similar to our earlier reported results on ruthenium--copper clusters. However, the extent of surface segregation of the copper appears to be less pronounced for rhodium--copper clusters. This result is reasonable on the basis that rhodium and copper, unlike ruthenium and copper, exhibit at least some miscibility in the bulk

  8. Size and composition dependence of the frozen structures in Co-based bimetallic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guojian; Wang, Qiang; Cao, Yongze; Du, Jiaojiao; He, Jicheng

    2012-01-01

    This Letter studies the size-dependent freezing of Co, Co–Ni, and Co–Cu clusters by using molecular dynamics with embedded atom method. Size effect occurs in these three types of clusters. The clusters with large sizes always freeze to form their bulk-like structures. However, the frozen structures for small sizes are generally related to their compositions. The icosahedral clusters are formed for Co clusters (for ⩽3.2 nm diameter) and also for Co–Ni clusters but at a larger size range (for ⩽4.08 nm). Upon the Co–Cu clusters, decahedral structure is obtained for small size (for 2.47 nm). The released energy induced the structural transformation plays a key role in the frozen structures. These results indicate that the preformed clusters with special structures can be tuned by controlling their compositions and sizes. -- Highlights: ► The size effect occurs in the Co, Co–Ni, and Co–Cu clusters. ► The clusters with large sizes always freeze to form their bulk-like structures. ► The frozen structures for small sizes are generally related to their compositions. ► Icosahedron is formed for Co and also for Co–Ni but at a larger size range. ► Upon the Co–Cu clusters, decahedral structure is obtained for small size.

  9. Density functional calculations on 13-atom Pd12M (M = Sc—Ni) bimetallic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Chun-Mei; Chen Sheng-Wei; Zhu Wei-Hua; Tao Cheng-Jun; Zhang Ai-Mei; Gong Jiang-Feng; Zou Hua; Liu Ming-Yi; Zhu Feng

    2012-01-01

    The geometric structures, electronic and magnetic properties of the 3d transition metal doped clusters Pd 12 M (M = Sc—Ni) are studied using the semi-core pseudopots density functional theory. The groundstate geometric structure of the Pd 12 M cluster is probably of pseudoicosahedron. The I h -Pd 12 M cluster has the most thermodynamic stability in five different symmetric isomers. The energy gap shows that Pd 12 M cluster is partly metallic. Both the absolutely predominant metal bond and very weak covalent bond might exist in the Pd 12 M cluster. The magnetic moment of Pd 12 M varies from 0 to 5 μ B , implying that it has a potential application in new nanomaterials with tunable magnetic properties

  10. Controllable irregular melting induced by atomic segregation in bimetallic clusters with fabricating different initial configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guojian; Liu Tie; Wang Qiang; Lue Xiao; Wang Kai; He Jicheng

    2010-01-01

    The melting process of Co, Co-Cu and Co-Ni clusters with different initial configurations is studied in molecular dynamics by a general embedded atom method. An irregular melting, at which energy decreases as the temperature increase near the melting point, is found in the onion-like Co-Cu-Co clusters, but not in the mixed Co-Cu and onion-like Co-Ni-Co clusters. From the analysis of atomic distributions and energy variation, the results indicate the irregular melting is induced by Cu atomic segregation. Furthermore, this melting can be controlled by doping hetero atoms with different surface energies and controlling their distributions.

  11. Bimetallic Ag-Pt Sub-nanometer Supported Clusters as Highly Efficient and Robust Oxidation Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negreiros, Fabio R. [CNR-ICCOM & IPCF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa Italy; Halder, Avik [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Yin, Chunrong [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Singh, Akansha [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, HBNI, Chhatnag Road Jhunsi Allahabad 211019 India; Barcaro, Giovanni [CNR-ICCOM & IPCF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa Italy; Sementa, Luca [CNR-ICCOM & IPCF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa Italy; Tyo, Eric C. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Pellin, Michael J. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Bartling, Stephan [Institut für Physik, Universität Rostock, Rostock Germany; Meiwes-Broer, Karl-Heinz [Institut für Physik, Universität Rostock, Rostock Germany; Seifert, Sönke [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Sen, Prasenjit [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, HBNI, Chhatnag Road Jhunsi Allahabad 211019 India; Nigam, Sandeep [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay Mumbai- 400 085 India; Majumder, Chiranjib [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay Mumbai- 400 085 India; Fukui, Nobuyuki [East Tokyo Laboratory, Genesis Research Institute, Inc., Ichikawa Chiba 272-0001 Japan; Yasumatsu, Hisato [Cluster Research Laboratory, Toyota Technological Institute: in, East Tokyo Laboratory, Genesis Research Institute, Inc. Ichikawa, Chiba 272-0001 Japan; Vajda, Stefan [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Nanoscience and Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL USA; Institute for Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago IL USA; Fortunelli, Alessandro [CNR-ICCOM & IPCF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa Italy; Materials and Process Simulation Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA USA

    2017-12-29

    A combined experimental and theoretical investigation of Ag-Pt sub-nanometer clusters as heterogeneous catalysts in the CO -> CO2 reaction (COox) is presented. Ag9Pt2 and Ag9Pt3 clusters are size-selected in the gas phase, deposited on an ultrathin amorphous alumina support, and tested as catalysts experimentally under realistic conditions and by first-principles simulations at realistic coverage. Insitu GISAXS/TPRx demonstrates that the clusters do not sinter or deactivate even after prolonged exposure to reactants at high temperature, and present comparable, extremely high COox catalytic efficiency. Such high activity and stability are ascribed to a synergic role of Ag and Pt in ultranano-aggregates, in which Pt anchors the clusters to the support and binds and activates two CO molecules, while Ag binds and activates O-2, and Ag/Pt surface proximity disfavors poisoning by CO or oxidized species.

  12. The effect of metal cluster deposition route on structure and photocatalytic activity of mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles supported on TiO{sub 2} by radiolytic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Marek [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, 80-231 Gdansk (Poland); Nadolna, Joanna, E-mail: joanna.nadolna@ug.edu.pl [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Department of Environmental Technology, University of Gdansk, 80-308 Gdansk (Poland); Gołąbiewska, Anna [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Mazierski, Paweł [Department of Environmental Technology, University of Gdansk, 80-308 Gdansk (Poland); Klimczuk, Tomasz [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Remita, Hynd [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, CNRS-UMR 8000, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, UMR 8000, 91405 Orsay (France); Zaleska-Medynska, Adriana [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Department of Environmental Technology, University of Gdansk, 80-308 Gdansk (Poland)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Pd-Pt decorated TiO{sub 2} shows the highest activity under visible light among all. • Concurrent addition of metal precursors results in rise of BNPs size and Vis-activity. • Subsequent addition of metal precursors enhances UV–vis stability of modified TiO{sub 2}. • Superoxide radicals are responsible for pollutants degradation over BNPs-TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} (P25) was modified with small and relatively monodisperse mono- and bimetallic clusters (Ag, Pd, Pt, Ag/Pd, Ag/Pt and Pd/Pt) induced by radiolysis to improve its photocatalytic activity. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), photoluminescence spectrometry (PL), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), scanning transition electron microscopy (STEM) and BET surface area analysis. The effect of metal type (mono- and bimetallic modification) as well as deposition method (simultaneous or subsequent deposition of two metals) on the photocatalytic activity in toluene removal in gas phase under UV–vis irradiation (light-emitting diodes- LEDs) and phenol degradation in liquid phase under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm) were investigated. The highest photoactivity under Vis light was observed for TiO{sub 2} co-loaded with platinum (0.1%) and palladium (0.1%) clusters. Simultaneous addition of metal precursors results in formation of larger metal nanoparticles (15–30 nm) on TiO{sub 2} surface and enhances the Vis-induced activity of Ag/Pd-TiO{sub 2} up to four times, while the subsequent metal ions addition results in formation of metal particle size ranging from 4 to 20 nm. Subsequent addition of metal precursors results in formation of BNPs (bimetallic nanoparticle) composites showing higher stability in four cycles of toluene degradation under UV–vis. Obtained results indicated that direct electron transfer from the BNPs to the conduction band of the semiconductor is responsible for

  13. Properties of two-dimensional insulators: A DFT study of bimetallic oxide CrW{sub 2}O{sub 9} clusters adsorption on MgO ultrathin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jia, E-mail: jia_zhu@jxnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330022 (China); Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Ling; Xiong, Wei [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330022 (China); Huang, Xin; Wang, Bin [Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350108 (China); Zhang, Yongfan, E-mail: zhangyf@fzu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350108 (China); State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350002 (China)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Completely different properties of CrW{sub 2}O{sub 9} on films compared with that on surface. • The first example of CT by electron tunneling from film to bimetallic oxide cluster. • A progressive Lewis acid site, better catalytic activities for adsorbed CrW{sub 2}O{sub 9}. - Abstract: Periodic density functional theory calculations have been performed to study the electronic properties of bimetallic oxide CrW{sub 2}O{sub 9} clusters adsorbed on MgO/Ag(001) ultrathin films (<1 nm). Our results show that after deposition completely different structures, electronic properties and chemical reactivity of dispersed CrW{sub 2}O{sub 9} clusters on ultrathin films are observed compared with that on the thick MgO surface. On the thick MgO(001) surface, adsorbed CrW{sub 2}O{sub 9} clusters are distorted significantly and just a little electron transfer occurs from oxide surface to clusters, which originates from the formation of adsorption dative bonds at interface. Whereas on the MgO/Ag(001) ultrathin films, the resulting CrW{sub 2}O{sub 9} clusters keep the cyclic structures and the geometries are similar to that of gas-phase [CrW{sub 2}O{sub 9}]{sup −}. Interestingly, we predicted the occurrence of a net transfer of one electron by direct electron tunneling from the MgO/Ag(001) films to CrW{sub 2}O{sub 9} clusters through the thin MgO dielectric barrier. Furthermore, our work reveals a progressive Lewis acid site where spin density preferentially localizes around the Cr atom not the W atoms for CrW{sub 2}O{sub 9}/MgO/Ag(001) system, indicating a potentially good bimetallic oxide for better catalytic activities with respect to that of pure W{sub 3}O{sub 9} clusters. As a consequence, present results reveal that the adsorption of bimetallic oxide CrW{sub 2}O{sub 9} clusters on the MgO/Ag(001) ultrathin films provide a new perspective to tune and modify the properties and chemical reactivity of bimetallic oxide adsorbates as a function of the thickness

  14. Structural and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 7−n}Pt{sub n} with n = 0, 1, 2, . . . 7, bimetallic clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponce-Tadeo, A. P.; Morán-López, J. L., E-mail: joseluis.moran@ipicyt.edu.mx [Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tenológica, División de Materiales Avanzados (Mexico); Ricardo-Chavez, J. L. [Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Laboratorio Nacional de Supercómputo (Mexico)

    2016-11-15

    An exhaustive study of the structural and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 7−n}Pt{sub n} with n = 0, 1, 2, …7, bimetallic clusters is presented. Based on ab initio density functional theory that includes spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and graph theory, the ground state geometry, the local chemical order, and the orbital and spin magnetic moments are calculated. We show how the systems evolves from the 3-d Fe to the quasi-planar Pt clusters. These calculations show that SOC are necessary to describe correctly the composition dependence of the binding energy of these nanoalloys. We observe that the ground state geometries on the Fe rich side resemble the fcc structure adopted by bulk samples. Furthermore, we observe how the spin and orbital magnetic moments depend on the chemical concentration and chemical order. Based on these results, we estimated the magnetic anisotropy energy and found that the largest values correspond to some of the most symmetric structures, Fe{sub 5}Pt{sub 2} and FePt{sub 6}. To determine the degree of non-collinearity, we define an index that shows that in FePt{sub 6} the total magnetic moments, on each atom, are the less collinear.

  15. DFT study on stability and H{sub 2} adsorption activity of bimetallic Au{sub 79−n}Pd{sub n} (n = 1–55) clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xuejing [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Tian, Dongxu, E-mail: tiandx@dlut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Meng, Changgong [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► Stability of Pd substitution type is face > mid-edge > corner > edge. ► H{sub 2} adsorption activity is in contrast with the stability of Pd substitution type. ► Non-activated dissociation of H{sub 2} occurs in Au{sub 36}Pd{sub 43−3} with high thermal stability. ► ε{sub d} agrees with that Pd at edge and corner are more active than face and mid-edge. - Abstract: The stability and H{sub 2} adsorption activity of bimetallic Au{sub 79−n}Pd{sub n} (n = 1–55) clusters were studied by density functional theory with GGA-PW91 functional. The stability order for four Pd substitution types is face > mid-edge > corner > edge, and the stability is improved with increasing Pd content. In contrast with the stability order, H{sub 2} adsorption activity is corner ≈ edge > mid-edge > face. The Au{sub 36}Pd{sub 43} (3) with Au:Pd ≈ 1:1 ratio and twenty-four Pd substitutions at (1 1 1) facets and nineteen Pd substitutions at subshell sites shows high stability and H{sub 2} non-activated dissociation activity. The partial density of d-states and d band center revealed that the electronic properties are closely associated with the geometric characteristic and adsorption activity. Correlating the d band center ε{sub d} and the adsorption energies, the ε{sub d} order agrees with the adsorption activity that the Pd substitution at edge and corner sites are more active than at face and mid-edge sites.

  16. DFT study on stability and H2 adsorption activity of bimetallic Au79−nPdn (n = 1–55) clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xuejing; Tian, Dongxu; Meng, Changgong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Stability of Pd substitution type is face > mid-edge > corner > edge. ► H 2 adsorption activity is in contrast with the stability of Pd substitution type. ► Non-activated dissociation of H 2 occurs in Au 36 Pd 43−3 with high thermal stability. ► ε d agrees with that Pd at edge and corner are more active than face and mid-edge. - Abstract: The stability and H 2 adsorption activity of bimetallic Au 79−n Pd n (n = 1–55) clusters were studied by density functional theory with GGA-PW91 functional. The stability order for four Pd substitution types is face > mid-edge > corner > edge, and the stability is improved with increasing Pd content. In contrast with the stability order, H 2 adsorption activity is corner ≈ edge > mid-edge > face. The Au 36 Pd 43 (3) with Au:Pd ≈ 1:1 ratio and twenty-four Pd substitutions at (1 1 1) facets and nineteen Pd substitutions at subshell sites shows high stability and H 2 non-activated dissociation activity. The partial density of d-states and d band center revealed that the electronic properties are closely associated with the geometric characteristic and adsorption activity. Correlating the d band center ε d and the adsorption energies, the ε d order agrees with the adsorption activity that the Pd substitution at edge and corner sites are more active than at face and mid-edge sites

  17. Enhanced exchange anisotropy in IrMn/CoFeB systems and its correlation with uncompensated interfacial spins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yuqing; Pan, Genhua; Moate, Roy

    2010-01-01

    Bottom pinned exchange bias systems of IrMn/CoFe and IrMn/CoFeB on CoFe seed layers were studied. Enhanced exchange anisotropy has been observed for IrMn/CoFeB samples annealed at 350 °C. The ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic layers of both samples are polycrystalline and textured {110} for the...

  18. Porous MnCo2O4 as superior anode material over MnCo2O4 nanoparticles for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baji, Dona Susan; Jadhav, Harsharaj S.; Nair, Shantikumar V.; Rai, Alok Kumar

    2018-06-01

    Pyro synthesis is a method to coat nanoparticles by uniform layer of carbon without using any conventional carbon source. The resultant carbon coating can be evaporated in the form of CO or CO2 at high temperature with the creation of large number of nanopores on the sample surface. Hence, a porous MnCo2O4 is successfully synthesized here with the same above strategy. It is believed that the electrolyte can easily permeate through these nanopores into the bulk of the sample and allow rapid access of Li+ ions during charge/discharge cycling. In order to compare the superiority of the porous sample synthesized by pyro synthesis method, MnCo2O4 nanoparticles are also synthesized by sol-gel synthesis method at the same parameters. When tested as anode materials for lithium ion battery application, porous MnCo2O4 electrode shows high capacity with long lifespan at all the investigated current rates in comparison to MnCo2O4 nanoparticles electrode.

  19. Preparation of Agcore/Aushell bimetallic nanoparticles from physical mixtures of Au clusters and Ag ions under dark conditions and their catalytic activity for aerobic glucose oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haijun; Toshima, Naoki; Takasaki, Kanako; Okumura, Mitsutaka

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The synthesis, characterization and catalytic activities for glucose oxidation of AgAu bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) with size of less than 2 nm are reported. The catalytic activity of Ag 10 Au 90 BNPs was about two times higher than that of Au NPs, even the BNPs have a larger particle size than that of Au NPs. -- Highlights: • Ag core /Au shell BNPs with size of less than 2.0 nm were prepared. • No any reducing reagents and lights were used for the preparation of the BNPs. • The catalytic activity of the BNPs is about two times higher than that of Au NPs. -- Abstract: AgAu bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs), one of the most extensively studied bimetallic systems in the literatures, could have various structures and compositions depending on their preparation conditions. In the present work, catalytically highly active PVP-protected Ag core /Au shell BNPs of about 2.5 nm in diameter were fabricated from physical mixtures of aqueous dispersions of Au nanoparticles and Ag + ions under dark conditions without using any reducing agents. The prepared Ag core /Au shell BNP colloidal catalysts, which possessed a high activity for aerobic glucose oxidation, were characterized by Ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry (UV–Vis), Inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometer (ICP), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) in High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (HR-STEM). The highest activity (11,360 mol-glucose h −1 mol-metal −1 ) was observed for the BNPs with the Ag/Au atomic ratio of 1/9, the TOF value of which is about two times higher than that of Au nanoparticles with the particle size of 1.3 nm. The enhanced catalytic activity of the prepared Ag core /Au shell BNPs compared to Au NPs can be ascribed to the presence of negatively charged Au atoms resulted from electron donations from neighboring Ag atoms and PVP due to electronic charge

  20. Microstructural and electrical characterization of Mn-Co spinel protective coatings for solid oxide cell interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, S.; Sabato, A. G.; Bindi, M.

    2017-01-01

    Electrophoretic deposition, thermal co-evaporation and RF magnetron sputtering methods are used for the preparation of Mn-Co based ceramic coatings for solid oxide fuel cell steel interconnects. Both thin and relatively thick coatings (1–15 μm) are prepared and characterised for their potential...... protective behaviour. Mn-Co coated Crofer22APU samples are electrically tested for 5000 h at 800 °C under a 500 mA cm−2 current load to determine their Area Specific Resistance increase due to a growing chromia scale. After tests, samples are analysed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy....... Analysis is focused on the potential chromium diffusion to or through the coating, the oxide scale thickness and possible reactions at the interfaces. The relationships between the coating type, thickness and effectiveness are reviewed and discussed. Out of the three Mn-Co coatings compared in this study...

  1. Sb/Mn co-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses for potential applications in photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chaofeng [Key Laboratory of Processing and Testing Technology of Glass & Functional Ceramics of Shandong Province, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353 (China); Laboratoire des Verres et Céramiques, UMR-CNRS 6226, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes 35042 (France); Zhang, Xianghua, E-mail: xiang-hua.zhang@univ-rennes1.fr [Laboratoire des Verres et Céramiques, UMR-CNRS 6226, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes 35042 (France); Ma, Hongli [Laboratoire des Verres et Céramiques, UMR-CNRS 6226, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes 35042 (France)

    2016-03-15

    A series of Sb/Mn co-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses were prepared via the melt-quenching method to explore red luminescent materials for potential applications in photosynthesis of green plants, and these glasses are investigated by means of luminescence decay curves, absorption, emission, and excitation spectra. We find that the as-prepared glasses are transparent in the visible region and can emit strong red light under ultraviolet, purple, and green light excitations. Furthermore, energy transfer from Sb{sup 3+} to Mn{sup 2+} ions occurs in Sb/Mn co-doped glasses. The results demonstrate that the as-prepared Sb/Mn co-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses may serve as a potential candidate for developing glass greenhouse, which can enhance the utilization of solar energy for the photosynthesis of the green plants.

  2. Chemical effect on total mass attenuation coefficients of V, Cr, Mn, Co and Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeguet, Oe.; Colak, S.; Bueyuekkasap, E.; Kuecuekoender, A.

    2002-01-01

    Detailed interpretation of data obtained from X-ray transmission measurements usually depends on the assumption that the contribution of each element is additive. This assumption yields the mixture rule for X-ray attenuation coefficients which is valid if molecular and chemical effects are negligible. Total mass attenuation coefficients of V, Cr, Mn, Co and Ni in various their compounds was measured. Absorption corrections were carried on data for ligands in the compounds. It was found that V, Cr, Mn, Co and Ni had different total mass attenuation coefficients in the different compounds. Results were compared with theoretical values of HUBBELL and SELTZER. (author)

  3. Sintering of MnCo2O4 coatings prepared by electrophoretic deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bobruk, M.; Molin, Sebastian; Chen, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Sintering of MnCo2O4 coatings prepared by electrophoretic deposition on steel substrates has been studied in air and in reducing-oxidizing atmosphere. Effect of temperature and pO2 on the resulting coating density was evaluated from scanning electron microscopy images of polished cross sections...

  4. Morphology-controlled hydrothermal synthesis of MnCO3 hierarchical superstructures with Schiff base as stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, He; Xu, Jie-yan; Yang, Hong; Liang, Jie; Yang, Shiping; Wu, Huixia

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: MnCO3 microcrystals with hierarchical superstructures were synthesized by using the CO2 in atmosphere as carbonate ions source and Schiff base as shape guiding-agent in water/ethanol system under hydrothermal condition. Highlights: → The most interesting in this work is the use of the greenhouse gases CO 2 in atmosphere as carbonate ions source to precipitate with Mn 2+ for producing MnCO 3 crystals. → This work is the first report related to the small organic molecule Schiff base as shape guiding-agent to produce different MnCO 3 hierarchical superstructures. → We are controllable synthesis of the MnCO 3 hierarchical superstructures such as chrysanthemum, straw-bundle, dumbbell and sphere-like microcrystals. → The as-prepared MnCO 3 could be used precursor to fabricate the Mn 2 O 3 hierarchical superstructures after thermal decomposition at high temperature. -- Abstract: MnCO 3 with hierarchical superstructures such as chrysanthemum, straw-bundle, dumbbell and sphere-like were synthesized in water/ethanol system under environment-friendly hydrothermal condition. In the synthesis process, the CO 2 in atmosphere was used as the source of carbonate ions and Schiff base was used as shape guiding-agent. The different superstructures of MnCO 3 could be obtained by controlling the hydrothermal temperature, the molar ratio of manganous ions to the Schiff base, or the volume ratio of water to ethanol. A tentative growth mechanism for the generation of MnCO 3 superstructures was proposed based on the rod-dumbbell-sphere model. Furthermore, the MnCO 3 as precursor could be further successfully transferred to Mn 2 O 3 microstructure after heating in the atmosphere at 500 o C, and the morphology of the Mn 2 O 3 was directly determined by that of the MnCO 3 precursor.

  5. A first-principles study of structure, orbital interactions and atomic oxygen and OH adsorption on Mo-, Sc- and Y-doped nickel bimetallic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Nishith Kumar; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Mo-doped nickel clusters are energetically more stable than the Sc and Y-doped clusters (n ⩾ 10). •Mo atom exhibits center at the cluster rather than edge, while Sc and Y atom sit at the edge. •The metallic s, d orbitals are mainly dominated on the stability of nanoclusters. •The oxygen and OH adsorption energy of Mo-doped cluster are higher than those of other nanoclusters. •2p Orbitals are strongly bonds with Mo 4d, and a weakly interacts with Ni 3d, 4s and Mo 5s orbitals. -- Abstract: Density functional theory (DFT) has been used to study the stability, orbitals interactions and oxygen and hydroxyl chemisorption properties of Ni n M (1 ⩽ n ⩽ 12) clusters. A single atom doped-nickel clusters increase the stability, and icosahedral Ni 12 Mo cluster is the most stable structure. Molybdenum atom prefers to exhibit center at the cluster (n ⩾ 10) rather than edge, while Sc and Y atom remain at the edge. The Ni–Mo bond lengths are smaller than the Ni–Sc and Ni–Y. The pDOS results show that the d–d orbitals interactions are mainly dominating on the stability of clusters, while p orbitals have a small effect on the stability. The Mo-doped nanoclusters have the highest oxygen and OH chemisorption energy, and the most favorable adsorption site is on the top Mo site. The larger cluster distortion is found for the Sc- and Y-doped structures compared to other clusters. The oxygen 2p orbitals are strongly hybridizing with the Mo 4d orbitals (n < 9) and a little interaction between oxygen 2p and Ni 3d, 4s and Mo 5s orbitals. The Mo-doped clusters are significantly increased the chemisorption energies that might improve the passive film adherence of nanoalloys

  6. Evaluation of electrodeposited Mn-Co protective coatings on Crofer 22 APU steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    Interconnects used in Solid Oxide Cells stacks require protective coatings to lower their parabolic rate constant and block chromium evaporation (on the air side). In this work four different protective coatings on steel are evaluated for their high temperature corrosion resistance and electrical...... conductivity. A commercial electroplating process was used for the preparation of coatings with different Mn/Co ratios on Crofer 22 APU steel. Oxidation of samples was performed in air at 800°C for 1000 hours. Postmortem analysis of the coated samples was performed by scanning electron microscopy and x......-ray diffractomettry. Based on the results, influence of the Co/Mn ratio on the resulting corrosion properties are discussed. Parabolic rate constant of the coated samples is the lowest for the MnCo sample, whereas electrical resistance is the lowest for the Co sample, which has a corrosion rate similar to the not-coated...

  7. Driving higher magnetic field sensitivity of the martensitic transformation in MnCoGe ferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S. C.; Ge, Q.; Hu, Y. F.; Wang, L.; Liu, K.; Jiang, Q. Z.; Wang, D. H.; Hu, C. C.; Huang, H. B.; Cao, G. P.; Zhong, Z. C.; Du, Y. W.

    2017-11-01

    The sharp metamagnetic martensitic transformation (MMT) triggered by a low critical field plays a pivotal role in magnetoresponsive effects for ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMAs). Here, a sharper magnetic-field-induced metamagnetic martensitic transformation (MFIMMT) is realized in Mn1-xCo1+xGe systems with a giant magnetocaloric effect around room temperature, which represents the lowest magnetic driving and completion fields as well as the largest magnetization difference around MFIMMT reported heretofore in MnCoGe-based FSMAs. More interestingly, a reversible MFIMMT with field cycling is observed in the Mn0.965Co0.035Ge compound. These results indicate that the consensus would be broken that the magnetic field is difficult to trigger the MMT for MnCoGe-based systems. The origin of a higher degree of sensitivity of martensitic transformation to the magnetic field is discussed based on the X-ray absorption spectroscopic results.

  8. Intra-ring haptotropic rearrangements of Mn(CO3 in fluorenyl ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souhila Laib

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Geometric parameters, and intra-ring haptotropic rearrangements π–π (intra-ring-HRs ŋ5⇌ŋ3 of the manganesetricarbonyl complexes (ŋ5-9-R-C13H8Mn(CO3, R = But and Ph in 18e zero-valence are carried out using density functional theory DFT at PBE/TZP level. The calculated activation barriers to ŋ5⇌ŋ3 intra-ring HR in (ŋ5-9-R-C13H8Mn(CO3, R = But and Ph are (28.5 and 69.5 kcal.mol−1 respectively. The compute of HOMA and FLU indexes indicates the reduction of aromaticity when going from free to coordinated complex. The energy decomposition analysis reveals the dominant ionic character in manganese–Cp bond in the presence of covalent contribution.

  9. High-pressure compressibility and vibrational properties of (Ca,Mn)CO 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jin; Caracas, Razvan; Fan, Dawei; Bobocioiu, Ema; Zhang, Dongzhou; Mao, Wendy L.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of potential carbon carriers such as carbonates is critical for our understanding of the deep-carbon cycle and related geological processes within the planet. Here we investigated the high-pressure behavior of (Ca,Mn)CO3 up to 75 GPa by synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction, laser Raman spectroscopy, and theoretical calculations. MnCO3-rich carbonate underwent a structural phase transition from the CaCO3-I structure into the CaCO3-VI structure at 45–48 GPa, while CaCO3-rich carbonate transformed into CaCO3-III and CaCO3-VI at approximately 2 and 15 GPa, respectively. The equation of state and vibrational properties of MnCO3-rich and CaCO3-rich carbonates changed dramatically across the phase transition. The CaCO3-VI-structured CaCO3-rich and MnCO3-rich carbonates were stable at room temperature up to at least 53 and 75 GPa, respectively. The addition of smaller cations (e.g., Mn2+, Mg2+, and Fe2+) can enlarge the stability field of the CaCO3-I phase as well as increase the pressure of the structural transition into the CaCO3-VI phase.

  10. Magnetic behavior of Co–Mn co-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hengda; Liu, Xinzhong; Zheng, Zhigong

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report on systematic studies of the magnetic properties of Co and Mn co-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by a sol–gel technique. The effect of the concentration of the doping ions on the magnetic properties of Co and Mn co-doped ZnO nanoparticles is presented. X-ray diffraction characterizations (XRD) of co-doped ZnO nanoparticles are all wurtzite structure. The Zn 0.96 Co 0.02 Mn 0.02 O nanoparticles and Zn 0.94 Co 0.02 Mn 0.04 O nanoparticles display ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer figures show that with the concentration of the Mn ions increased, the saturation magnetic moment (M s ) increased, and the magnetic is probably due to the co-doping of the Mn ions. Our results demonstrate that the Mn ions doping concentration play an important role in the ferromagnetic properties of Co–Mn co-doped ZnO nanoparticles at room temperature. - Highlights: • The effect of the doping ions on the magnetic properties is presented. • The magnetic is probably due to the co-doping of the Mn ions. • The Mn ions concentration play an important role in the ferromagnetic properties

  11. The geochemical profile of Mn, Co, Cu and Fe in Kerteh Mangrove Forest, Terengganu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruzzaman, B.Y.; Antotina, A.; Airiza, Z.; Syalindran, S.; Ong, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The geochemical profile of Kerteh mangrove sediments was analyzed for the vertical and horizontal distribution. The 100 cm core sediment sample and 15 surface sediments samples were taken from the field. The geochemical elements of Mn, Co, Cu and Fe of the sediments were analyzed. Geochemical proxy of Mn, Co, Cu and Fe were analyzed by using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The mean concentrations of Mn, Co, Cu and Fe for the vertical distribution were 210.18 μg/ g, 15.55 μg/ g, 43.65 μg/ g and 1.88 μg/ g respectively. on the other hand, the mean concentrations of the geochemical elements for horizontal distributions were 230.50 μg/ g for Mn, 17.57 μg/ g for Co, 43.381 μg/ g for Cu and 2.93 μg/ g for Fe. Enrichment factor and normalization was used to point out the level of pollution. The EF and the normalization indicated that all the geochemical elements were from the natural sources. (author)

  12. Structural and magnetic properties of MnCo1-xVxGe compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, G.H.; Tegus, O.; Zhang, W.G.; Song, L.; Huang, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of MnCo 1-x V x Ge (x = 0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.20 and 0.30) compounds were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and magnetization measurements. The MnCo 1-x V x Ge compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic TiNiSi-type crystal structure for x ≤ 0.02 and in the hexagonal Ni 2 In-type structure for x > 0.02. The magnetization measurements show that the MnCo 1-x V x Ge compounds exhibit a complex magnetic behavior. The Curie temperature can be tuned from 360 K to 148 K by increasing x. The maximal magnetic-entropy change is 3.9 J/kg K for x = 0.06 at a field change from 0 to 1.5 T at about 265 K.

  13. Electric field-controlled magnetization in exchange biased IrMn/Co/PZT multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huong Giang, D T; Duc, N H; Agnus, G; Maroutian, T; Lecoeur, P

    2013-01-01

    Electric-field modulating exchange bias and near 180° deterministic magnetization switching at room temperature are demonstrated in simple antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic/ferroelectric (AFM/FM/FE) exchange-coupled multiferroic multilayers of IrMn/Co/PZT. A rather large exchange bias field shift up to ΔH ex /H ex = 500% was obtained. This change governs mainly the electric-field strength rather than the applied current. It is explained as being realized through the competition between the electric-field induced uniaxial and unidirectional anisotropies. These results show good prospects for low-power spintronic devices. (paper)

  14. Negative thermal expansion and magnetocaloric effect in Mn-Co-Ge-In thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Qiao, K. M.; Zuo, S. L.; Zhang, H. R.; Kuang, H.; Wang, J.; Hu, F. X.; Sun, J. R.; Shen, B. G.

    2018-01-01

    MnCoGe-based alloys with magnetostructural transition show giant negative thermal expansion (NTE) behavior and magnetocaloric effects (MCEs) and thus have attracted a lot of attention. However, the drawback of bad mechanical behavior in these alloys obstructs their practical applications. Here, we report the growth of Mn-Co-Ge-In films with thickness of about 45 nm on (001)-LaAlO3, (001)-SrTiO3, and (001)-Al2O3 substrates. The films grown completely overcome the breakable nature of the alloy and promote its multifunctional applications. The deposited films have a textured structure and retain first-order magnetostructural transition. NTE and MCE behaviors associated with the magnetostructural transition have been studied. The films exhibit a completely repeatable NTE around room temperature. NTE coefficient α can be continuously tuned from the ultra-low expansion (α ˜ -2.0 × 10-7/K) to α ˜ -6.56 × 10-6/K, depending on the growth and particle size of the films on different substrates. Moreover, the films exhibit magnetic entropy changes comparable to the well-known metamagnetic films. All these demonstrate potential multifunctional applications of the present films.

  15. Hydrostatic pressure-tuned magnetostructural transition and magnetocaloric effect in Mn-Co-Ge-In compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, F. X.; Shen, F. R.; Liu, Y.; Li, J.; Qiao, K. M.; Wang, J.; Hu, F. X.; Sun, J. R.; Shen, B. G.

    2018-05-01

    Polycrystalline MnCoGe0.99In0.01 with magnetostructural transition temperature (Tmstr) around 330 K has been prepared by arc-melting technique, and the pressure-tuned magnetostructural transition as well as the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) has been investigated. The experimental results indicate that a pressure (P) smaller than 0.53 GPa can shift Tmstr to lower temperature at a considerable rate of 119 K/GPa with the coupled nature of magnetostructural transition unchanged. However, as P reaches 0.53 GPa, the martensitic structural transition temperature (TM) further shifts to 254 K while the magnetic transition temperature of austenitic phase (TCA) occurs at around 282 K, denoting the decoupling of magnetostructural transition. Further increasing P to 0.87 GPa leads the further shift of TM to a lower temperature while the TCA keeps nearly unchanged. Therefore, the entropy change (ΔS) of the MnCoGe0.99In0.01 under different magnetic fields can be tailored by adjusting the hydrostatic pressure.

  16. Temperature dependence of the Faraday rotation for CdMnCoTe films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, J. Y.; Tanaka, M.; Imamura, M.

    2001-01-01

    The temperature dependence of magneto-optical property in the visible wavelength region has been studied on four-element semimagnetic semiconductor CdMnCoTe films deposited on quartz glass substrates by using MBE equipment. A large dispersion of Faraday rotation was observed, and the peak of the Faraday rotation was shifted to the higher photon energies with increasing Mn concentration at low temperatures. At 180 K, the value of the Faraday rotation observed for the Cd 0.647 Mn 0.34 Co 0.013 Te film on quartz glass was -0.36 deg/cmG at 630 nm. It is equivalent to the value of -0.36 deg/cmG observed at 77 K for the Cd 0.52 Mn 0.48 Te film on quartz glass. At 77 K, the Faraday rotation observed for the Cd 0.647 Mn 0.34 Co 0.013 Te film on quartz glass was -0.49 deg/cmG at 610 nm. The value is approximately two times larger than that of the Cd 0.52 Mn 0.48 Te film deposited on the same quartz glass substrate. The origin of the enhancement of Faraday rotation in CdMnCoTe films has been discussed in terms of the magnetic susceptibility χ. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  17. On factors controlling activity of submonolayer bimetallic catalysts: Nitrogen desorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Wei; Vlachos, Dionisios G., E-mail: vlachos@udel.edu [Center for Catalytic Science and Technology, Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2014-01-07

    We model N{sub 2} desorption on submonolayer bimetallic surfaces consisting of Co clusters on Pt(111) via first-principles density functional theory-based kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We find that submonolayer structures are essential to rationalize the high activity of these bimetallics in ammonia decomposition. We show that the N{sub 2} desorption temperature on Co/Pt(111) is about 100 K higher than that on Ni/Pt(111), despite Co/Pt(111) binding N weaker at low N coverages. Co/Pt(111) has substantially different lateral interactions than single metals and Ni/Pt. The lateral interactions are rationalized with the d-band center theory. The activity of bimetallic catalysts is the result of heterogeneity of binding energies and reaction barriers among sites, and the most active site can differ on various bimetallics. Our results are in excellent agreement with experimental data and demonstrate for the first time that the zero-coverage descriptor, used until now, for catalyst activity is inadequate due not only to lacking lateral interactions but importantly to presence of multiple sites and a complex interplay of thermodynamics (binding energies, occupation) and kinetics (association barriers) on those sites.

  18. Chemical- or radiation-assisted selective dealloying in bimetallic nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattei, G.; De Marchi, G.; Maurizio, C.; Mazzoldi, P.; Sada, C.; Bello, V.; Battaglin, G.

    2003-01-01

    A selective dealloying in bimetallic nanoclusters prepared by ion implantation has been found upon thermal annealing in oxidizing atmosphere or irradiation with light ions. In the first process, the incoming oxygen interacts preferentially with copper promoting Cu 2 O formation, therefore extracting copper from the alloy. In the second process the irradiation with Ne ions promotes a preferential extraction of Au from the alloy, resulting in the formation of Au-enriched 'satellite' nanoparticles around the original Au x Cu 1-x cluster

  19. Study of selective Fischer-Tropsch catalysts synthesized by the destruction of bimetallic carbonyl complexes on activated γ-Al2O3 support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimov, Yu.V.; Matveev, V.V.; Suzdalev, I.P.; Khomenko, T.I.; Kadushin, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The bimetallic catalysts obtained by the deposition of a Fe-Co binuclear cluster on the dehydroxylated γ-Al 2 O 3 are studied and compared to some other relative systems. These bimetallic catalysts are found to be active and selective in olefin synthesis. This is connected with the formation of Fe-Co contact which is detectable by Moessbauer spectroscopy. (orig.)

  20. Effects of pre-deformation on the martensitic transformation and magnetocaloric property in Ni-Mn-Co-Sn ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Sheng-Can; Xuan Hai-Cheng; Zhang Cheng-Liang; Wang Liao-Yu; Cao Qing-Qi; Wang Dun-Hui; Du You-Wei

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the martensitic transformation and magnetocaloric effect in pre-deformed Ni-Mn-Co-Sn ribbons. The experimental results show that the reverse martensitic transformation temperature T M increases with the increasing pre-pressure, suggesting that pre-deformation is another effective way to adjust T M in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. Large magnetic entropy changes and refrigerant capacities are obtained in these ribbons as well. It also discusses the origin of the enhanced martensitic transformation temperature and magnetocaloric property in pre-deformed Ni-Mn-Co-Sn ribbons

  1. Influence of Mn-Co Spinel Coating on Oxidation Behavior of Ferritic SS Alloys for SOFC Interconnect Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venkatachalam, Vinothini; Molin, Sebastian; Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Chromia forming ferritic stainless steels (SS) are being considered for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications. However, protective coatings are in general needed to avoid chromium volatilization and poisoning of cathodes from chromium species. Mn-Co spinel is one...... of the promising candidates to prevent chromium outward diffusion, improve oxidation resistance and ensure high electrical conductivity over the lifetime of interconnects. In the present study, uniform and well adherent Mn-Co spinel coatings were produced on Crofer 22APU using electrophoretic deposition (EPD...

  2. Study of defects and vacancies in structural properties of Mn, co-doped oxides: ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Harish; Kaushik, A.; Alvi, P. A.; Dalela, B.; Dalela, S.

    2018-05-01

    The paper deals with the Structural properties on Mn, Co doped oxides ZnO samples using XRD, Positron Annihilation Lifetime (PAL) Spectra and Raman Spectra. The Mn, Co doped ZnO samples crystallize in a wurtzite structure without any impurity phases in XRD Spectra. The defect state of these samples has been investigated by using positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy technique in which all the relevant lifetime parameters are measured for all the spectra. The results are explained in the direction of doping concentration in these samples in terms of defects structure on Zn lattice site VZn and oxygen defects Vo.

  3. M(II)-dipyridylamide-based coordination frameworks (M=Mn, Co, Ni): Structural transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzeng, Biing-Chiau; Selvam, TamilSelvi; Tsai, Miao-Hsin

    2016-11-15

    A series of 1-D double-zigzag (([M(papx){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}](ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}){sub n}; M=Mn, x=s (1), x=o (3); M=Co, x=s (4), x=o (5); M=Ni, x=s (6), x=o (7)) and 2-D polyrotaxane ([Mn(paps){sub 2}(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}]{sub n} (2)) frameworks were synthesized by reactions of M(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} (M=Mn, Co, and Ni) with papx (paps, N,N’-bis(pyridylcarbonyl)-4,4’-diaminodiphenylthioether; papo, N,N’-bis(pyridylcarbonyl)-4,4’-diaminodiphenyl ether), which have been isolated and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction. Based on powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) experiments, heating the double-zigzag frameworks underwent structural transformation to give the respective polyrotaxane ones. Moreover, grinding the solid samples of the respective polyrotaxanes in the presence of moisture also resulted in the total conversion to the original double-zigzag frameworks. In this study, we have successfully extended studies to Mn{sup II}, Co{sup II}, and Ni{sup II} frameworks from the previous Zn{sup II}, Cd{sup II}, and Cu{sup II} ones, and interestingly such structural transformation is able to be proven experimentally by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies as well. - Graphical abstract: 1-D double-zigzag and 2-D polyrotaxane frameworks of M(II)-papx (x=s, o; M=Mn, Co, Ni) frameworks can be interconverted by heating and grinding in the presence of moiture, and such structural transformation has be proven experimentally by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies.

  4. Adhesive forces at bimetallic interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.P.; Nafari, N.; Ziesche, P.; Kaschner, H.R.

    1987-03-01

    Force concepts in condensed systems have progressed significantly in recent years. In the context of bimetallic interfaces we consider the Pauli-Hellman-Feynman theorem, use it to check the variational calculations of interfacial energies and estimate the force constants. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Hierarchical chestnut-like MnCo2O4 nanoneedles grown on nickel foam as binder-free electrode for high energy density asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Kwun Nam; Hui, Kwan San; Tang, Zikang; Jadhav, V. V.; Xia, Qi Xun

    2016-10-01

    Hierarchical chestnut-like manganese cobalt oxide (MnCo2O4) nanoneedles (NNs) are successfully grown on nickel foam using a facile and cost-effective hydrothermal method. High resolution TEM image further verifies that the chestnut-like MnCo2O4 structure is assembled by numerous 1D MnCo2O4 nanoneedles, which are formed by numerous interconnected MnCo2O4 nanoparticles with grain diameter of ∼10 nm. The MnCo2O4 electrode exhibits high specific capacitance of 1535 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and good rate capability (950 F g-1 at 10 A g-1) in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. An asymmetric supercapacitor is fabricated using MnCo2O4 NNs on Ni foam (MnCo2O4 NNs/NF) as the positive electrode and graphene/NF as the negative electrode. The device shows an operation voltage of 1.5 V and delivers a high energy density of ∼60.4 Wh kg-1 at a power density of ∼375 W kg-1. Moreover, the device exhibits an excellent cycling stability of 94.3% capacitance retention after 12000 cycles at 30 A g-1. This work demonstrates that hierarchical chestnut-like MnCo2O4 NNs could be a promising electrode for the high performance energy storage devices.

  6. Synthesis of Li-Mn-O mesocrystals with controlled crystal phases through topotactic transformation of MnCO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Feng; Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Oaki, Yuya; Hosono, Eiji; Zhou, Haoshen; Imai, Hiroaki

    2013-02-01

    Mesocrystals of Li-Mn-O compounds, such as LiMn2O4, Li2MnO3, and LiMnO2-Li2MnO3, consisting of oriented nanoscale units were selectively produced under hydrothermal conditions from biomimetically prepared MnCO3 mesocrystals. Topotactic transformation through the intermediate phase of Mn5O8 inheriting a hierarchical structure of the MnCO3 precursor was essential for the formation of the mesocrystal compounds. The crystal phases were successfully controlled by varying the conditions for the hydrothermal reactions. The Li-Mn-O mesocrystals have considerable potential as cathodes of Li-ion batteries.Mesocrystals of Li-Mn-O compounds, such as LiMn2O4, Li2MnO3, and LiMnO2-Li2MnO3, consisting of oriented nanoscale units were selectively produced under hydrothermal conditions from biomimetically prepared MnCO3 mesocrystals. Topotactic transformation through the intermediate phase of Mn5O8 inheriting a hierarchical structure of the MnCO3 precursor was essential for the formation of the mesocrystal compounds. The crystal phases were successfully controlled by varying the conditions for the hydrothermal reactions. The Li-Mn-O mesocrystals have considerable potential as cathodes of Li-ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr33767g

  7. Magnetic phase transitions and magnetocaloric effect of MnCoGe{sub 1−x}Si{sub x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, J.W.; Zheng, Z.G.; Montemayor, R.; Zhong, X.C.; Liu, Z.W.; Zeng, D.C., E-mail: medczeng@scut.edu.cn

    2014-12-15

    Here a cheaper alternative magnetic refrigeration material using MnCoGe{sub 1−x}Si{sub x} (x=0, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5) alloys were investigated. The polycrystalline MnCoGe{sub 1−x}Si{sub x} alloys were prepared by arc-melting followed by annealing at 1123 K for 72 h. At a 0.5 at% Si substitution, the Curie temperatures increased by 10% to 374 K, the magnetic entropy change (|ΔS{sub M}|) values decreased by 32% to 2.1 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} in an applied field from 0 to 2 T and by 24% to 4.4 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} in an applied field from 0 to 5 T. However, the refrigeration capacity (RC{sub FWHM}) of this MnCoGe{sub 0.5}Si{sub 0.5} alloy improved by 27% to 282 J kg{sup −1} and the operation temperature range (δT{sub FWHM}) improved by 92% to 96 K in an applied field at 5 T. The MnCoGe{sub 0.5}Si{sub 0.5} alloy can compete with some of the MCE properties of the MnCo{sub 0.95}Ni{sub 0.05}Ge, LaFe{sub 11}Al{sub 2}C{sub 0.5}, (Fe{sub 85}Co{sub 5}Cr{sub 10}){sub 91}Zr{sub 7}B{sub 2}, and even the Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} alloys. The broad operation temperature range (96 K) at a higher Curie temperature (374 K) suggests that the MnCoGe{sub 0.5}Si{sub 0.5} alloy can become a cheaper alternative MCE material (costing 70% less than a MnCoGe alloy). - Highlights: • The economic Si substitutes the noble metal Ge and broadens temperature span(96 K). • The T{sub C} arises when increasing Si in higher room temperature range, 340–374 K. • High thermal stability make them attractive for service temperature of above 300 K. • When Si increases, ΔS{sub M} decreases slightly due to the spontaneous magnetization M{sub S}. • The superior refrigerant capacity indicates that Si substitution benefits the MCE.

  8. A first-principles study of Pt–Ni bimetallic cluster adsorption on the anatase TiO{sub 2} (1 0 1) surface: Probing electron effect of Ni in TiO{sub 2} (1 0 1)-bimetallic cluster (Pt–Ni) on the adsorption and dissociation of methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Feila, E-mail: liufeila@u.washington.edu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Xiao, Peng, E-mail: xiaopeng@cqu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Uchaker, Evan, E-mail: uchaker@u.washington.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); He, Huichao, E-mail: hehuichao985@gmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zhou, Ming, E-mail: Zhoumingcqu2007@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zhou, Xin, E-mail: zhoux@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Institute of Theoretical and Simulation Chemistry, Academy of Fundamental and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Zhang, Yunhuai, E-mail: xp2031@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2014-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Condensed Fukui function is used to predict the regioselectivity of clusters. • Pt–Ni alloy and TiO{sub 2} can effectively oxidize methanol compared with pure Pt. • The methanol dehydrogenation over Pt{sub 3}Ni/TiO{sub 2} is an optimal reaction pathway. • The alloying of Ni can effectively alleviate CO poisoning. - Abstract: A density functional theory (DFT) based method in conjunction with the projector augmented wave and pseudopotential methods have been applied to investigate the adsorption of Pt{sub 4} and Pt{sub 3}Ni on the anatase TiO{sub 2} (1 0 1) surface. Two stable Pt{sub 3}Ni adsorptions with considerable adsorption energies on the anatase TiO{sub 2} (1 0 1) surface were identified. Analysis of the partial density (PDOS) of states and Bader charge suggest that the electronic structure of Pt is modified by Ni due to the electron transfer from Ni to Pt atoms in the Pt{sub 3}Ni clusters. The 2cO (3cO)-PtNi-5cTi conformation of the adsorbed Pt{sub 3}Ni on the anatase TiO{sub 2} (1 0 1) surface provides a more feasible model for electron injection through the Pt{sub 3}Ni/TiO{sub 2} interface. The reactivity of Pt{sub 3}Ni/TiO{sub 2} is superior to Pt{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} and effectively manifests itself in the eased decomposition of O-H bonds derived by methanol and alleviative CO adsorption.

  9. Magneto-optic properties and optical parameter of thin MnCo films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Attaran Kakhki

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Having precise hysterics loop of thin ferroelectric and ferromagnetic layers for optical switching and optical storages are important. A hysterieses loop can be achieved from a phenomenon call the magneto-optic effect. The magneto-optic effect is the rotation of a linear polarized electromagnetic wave propagated through a ferromagnetic medium. When light is transmitted through a layer of magnetic material the result is called the Faraday effects and in the reflection mode Kerr effect. In the present work we prepared a thin layer of MnxCo3-xO4 (0≤ x ≤ 1 and a binary form of MnO/Co3O4 by the spray pyrolysis method. The films have been characterized by a special set up of magneto-optic hysterics loop plotter containing a polarized He- Ne laser beam and a special electronic circuit. Faraday rotation were measured for these films by hysterics loop plotter and their optical properties were also obtained by spatial software designed for this purpose according to Swane Poel theoretical method. The measurements show that the samples at diluted Mn study has are ferromagnetic and the magneto-optic rotation show a good enhance respect to the single Co layers. Also, the study has shown that the MnCo oxide layer have two different energy gaps and by increasing of Mn this energy decreases and fall to 0.13 eV.

  10. Novel detached system to MnCO3 nanowires: A self-sacrificing template for homomorphous Mn3O4 and α-Mn2O3 nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Shuijin; Peng Xiaomin; Li Xiuping; Liang Zhihong; Yang Yi; Cheng Baochang; Xiao Yanhe; Zhou Lang

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A novel detached system along with solvothermal treatment was developed. → Radially aggregated MnCO 3 nanowires were successfully fabricated. → The detached system, solvent, surfactant and reaction time were important. → MnCO 3 nanowires could act as the self-sacrificing template for Mn 3 O 4 and α-Mn 2 O 3 . - Abstract: MnCO 3 , an important raw material, exhibits attractive properties and significant industrial applications. However, few concerns have been raised on the fabrication of its 1D nanostructures. In this paper, a novel detached system was successfully employed for the preparation of MnCO 3 nanowires by a surfactant-assisted solvothermal treatment using N,N-dimethylformamide as the solvent and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the surfactant. X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were employed to study the crystal structure and morphologies of the products. Experiments showed that the detached system, solvent, surfactant and reaction time were critical for the formation of the MnCO 3 nanowires. The thermal characterization was studied by differential scanning calorimetric analysis and thermogravimetric analysis measurements. The experimental results demonstrated that the as-prepared MnCO 3 nanocrystals can act as an efficient precursor for production of homomorphous Mn 3 O 4 and α-Mn 2 O 3 nanostructures by calcination at 400 deg. C under the atmosphere of argon and air, respectively. A possible growth mechanism for the MnCO 3 nanowires was also proposed.

  11. Assesment of (Mn,Co)3O4 powders for possible coating material for SOFC/SOEC interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczewska, D.; Molin, Sebastian; Venkatachalam, Vinothini

    2015-01-01

    In this work (Mn,Co)3O4 spinel powders with different Mn:Co ratio (1:1 and 1:2) and from different commercial suppliers are evaluated for possible powder for production of interconnect coatings. Sinterability of the powders is evaluated on pressed pellets sintered in oxidizing and in reducing/oxidizing...... that with appropriate powder it is possible to produce adherent protective coating with a well-controlled thickness....... atmospheres. For selected powder, coatings are then prepared by the electrophoretic deposition method on Crofer 22 APU stainless steel coupons. Effects of dispersant/iodine content and deposition voltage and times are evaluated. Thickness as a function of deposition parameters is described. Results show...

  12. Assesment of (Mn,Co)33O4 powders for possible coating material for SOFC/SOEC interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymczewska, D.; Jasinski, P.; Molin, S.; Venkatachalam, V.; Chen, M.; Hendriksen, P.V.

    2016-01-01

    In this work (Mn,Co) 3 O 4 spinel powders with different Mn:Co ratio (1:1 and 1:2) and from different commercial suppliers are evaluated for possible powder for production of interconnect coatings. Sinterability of the powders is evaluated on pressed pellets sintered in oxidizing and in reducing/oxidizing atmospheres. For selected powder, coatings are then prepared by the electrophoretic deposition method on Crofer 22 APU stainless steel coupons. Effects of dispersant/iodine content and deposition voltage and times are evaluated. Thickness as a function of deposition parameters is described. Results show that with appropriate powder it is possible to produce adherent protective coating with a well-controlled thickness

  13. Electrocatalysis on bimetallic and alloy surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, M.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    Bimetallic surfaces and alloys are well known to have unique catalytic properties for many important chemical transformations [1]. In electrocatalysis, bimetallic and alloy catalysts have been a particularly active area of research in relation to low-temperature fuel cells [2]. On the anode side,

  14. Catalysis on singly dispersed bimetallic sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiran; Nguyen, Luan; Liang, Jin-Xia; Shan, Junjun; Liu, Jingyue; Frenkel, Anatoly I.; Patlolla, Anitha; Huang, Weixin; Li, Jun; Tao, Franklin

    2015-08-01

    A catalytic site typically consists of one or more atoms of a catalyst surface that arrange into a configuration offering a specific electronic structure for adsorbing or dissociating reactant molecules. The catalytic activity of adjacent bimetallic sites of metallic nanoparticles has been studied previously. An isolated bimetallic site supported on a non-metallic surface could exhibit a distinctly different catalytic performance owing to the cationic state of the singly dispersed bimetallic site and the minimized choices of binding configurations of a reactant molecule compared with continuously packed bimetallic sites. Here we report that isolated Rh1Co3 bimetallic sites exhibit a distinctly different catalytic performance in reduction of nitric oxide with carbon monoxide at low temperature, resulting from strong adsorption of two nitric oxide molecules and a nitrous oxide intermediate on Rh1Co3 sites and following a low-barrier pathway dissociation to dinitrogen and an oxygen atom. This observation suggests a method to develop catalysts with high selectivity.

  15. Transfer factors of some selected radionuclides (radioactive Cs, Sr, Mn, Co and Zn) from soil to leaf vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yanagisawa, Kei

    1995-01-01

    Transfer factors of radionuclides from soil to leaf vegetables (cabbage, Chinese cabbage, komatsuna, spinach and lettuce) have been studied by radiotracer experiments using Andosol as a representative of Japanese soils. The transfer factors of radioactive Cs, Sr, Mn, Co and Zn for edible parts of vegetables (average of five vegetables) were 0.11, 0.24, 0.61, 0.05 and 0.52, respectively. These values should be used in safety assessment for Japanese agricultural environment. The transfer factors of Mn, Co and Zn for spinach were higher than those for the other vegetables. The transfer factors of Cs for different organs of the leaf vegetables were rather homogeneous. The transfer factors of Sr and Mn were higher for older (outer) leaves than younger (inner) ones. In contrast to Sr and Mn, transfer factors of Zn for younger leaves were higher than those for older ones. The distribution ratios of the elements between soil-solution and soil were in the order Sr>Mn>Cs>Co>Zn, whereas the distribution ratios of the elements between plant and soil-solution were in the order Zn>Cs>Mn>Co>Sr. These results indicate that the selectivity for Sr by plants from the soil-solution was low and that for Zn was very high. (author)

  16. The solubility of rhodochrosite (MnCO3) and siderite (FeCO3) in anaerobic aquatic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Boddum, J.K.; Tjell, Jens Christian

    2002-01-01

    Natural groundwaters are often reported to be highly supersaturated with the carbonate minerals siderite (FeCO3) and rhodochrosite (MnCO3). The kinetics of precipitation and dissolution were determined in the light of new determinations of the solubility products of siderite and rhodochrosite...... steady state for rhodochrosite was reached after 140 days. Suspensions of siderite and rhodochrosite crystals reached steady state after 10 and 80 days, respectively. The solubility product of siderite (log KS0(FeCO3)) was 11.03 0.10 for dried crystals and 10.43 0.15 for wet crystals. For rhodochrosite...... the solubility product (log KS0(MnCO3)) was 11.39 0.14 for dried crystals and 12.51 0.07 for wet crystals. The solubility product determined from supersaturated solutions was log KS0(MnCO3)=11.65 0.14. The observed slow precipitation kinetics of siderite and rhodochrosite might explain the apparent...

  17. Preparation of Ag{sub core}/Au{sub shell} bimetallic nanoparticles from physical mixtures of Au clusters and Ag ions under dark conditions and their catalytic activity for aerobic glucose oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haijun, E-mail: zhanghaijun@wust.edu.cn [College of Materials and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430081 (China); Toshima, Naoki; Takasaki, Kanako [Department of Applied Chemistry, Tokyo University of Science Yamaguchi, SanyoOnoda-shi, Yamaguchi 756-0884 (Japan); Okumura, Mitsutaka [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Graphical abstract: The synthesis, characterization and catalytic activities for glucose oxidation of AgAu bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) with size of less than 2 nm are reported. The catalytic activity of Ag{sub 10}Au{sub 90} BNPs was about two times higher than that of Au NPs, even the BNPs have a larger particle size than that of Au NPs. -- Highlights: • Ag{sub core}/Au{sub shell} BNPs with size of less than 2.0 nm were prepared. • No any reducing reagents and lights were used for the preparation of the BNPs. • The catalytic activity of the BNPs is about two times higher than that of Au NPs. -- Abstract: AgAu bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs), one of the most extensively studied bimetallic systems in the literatures, could have various structures and compositions depending on their preparation conditions. In the present work, catalytically highly active PVP-protected Ag{sub core}/Au{sub shell} BNPs of about 2.5 nm in diameter were fabricated from physical mixtures of aqueous dispersions of Au nanoparticles and Ag{sup +} ions under dark conditions without using any reducing agents. The prepared Ag{sub core}/Au{sub shell} BNP colloidal catalysts, which possessed a high activity for aerobic glucose oxidation, were characterized by Ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry (UV–Vis), Inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometer (ICP), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) in High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (HR-STEM). The highest activity (11,360 mol-glucose h{sup −1} mol-metal{sup −1}) was observed for the BNPs with the Ag/Au atomic ratio of 1/9, the TOF value of which is about two times higher than that of Au nanoparticles with the particle size of 1.3 nm. The enhanced catalytic activity of the prepared Ag{sub core}/Au{sub shell} BNPs compared to Au NPs can be ascribed to the presence of negatively charged Au atoms resulted from electron donations

  18. Assembly of MnCO3 nanoplatelets synthesized at low temperature on graphene to achieve anode materials with high rate performance for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kang; Shi, Yan-Hong; Li, Huan-Huan; Wang, Hai-Feng; Li, Xiao-Ying; Sun, Hai-Zhu; Wu, Xing-Long; Xie, Hai-Ming; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Wang, Jia-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel kind of MnCO 3 nanoplatelets-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite was prepared by a simple low temperature reaction route which presented improved rate performance. - Abstract: A novel kind of MnCO 3 nanoplatelets-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites, as an anode material in rechargeable Li-ion battery, was prepared by a simple low temperature reaction route. The graphene not only provided an avenue for the transport of Li-ion, but also buffered the volume expansion of MnCO 3 nanoplatelets during charge and discharge. Compared to pure MnCO 3 nanoplatelets, MnCO 3 -RGO composites presented the improved electrochemical performances. At a low current density of 100 mA g −1 , MnCO 3 -RGO composites delivered a desired performance of 849.1 mAh g −1 after 200 cycles. When at a high current density of 500 mA g −1 , the discharge capacity still maintained at 810.9 mAh g −1 after 700 cycles. Our experimental results suggest that this composite will be a candidate as a novel anode material for the power batteries of electric vehicles and the energy storage batteries of smart grids in the future.

  19. Fabrication of band gap engineered nanostructured tri-metallic (Mn-Co-Ti) oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Muhammad Adil; Yusof, Farazila Binti; Nay-Ming, Huang

    2018-04-01

    In continuation of our previous studies on photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of titanium based composite oxide thin films, an effort is made to develop thin films of 1:1:2 manganese-cobalt-titanium oxide composite, Mn2O3-Co2O3-4TiO2 (MCT), using Co(OAc)2 and a bimetallic manganese-titanium complex, [Mn2Ti4(TFA)8(THF)6(OH)4(O)2].0.4THF (1), where OAc = acetato, TFA = trifluoroacetato and THF = tetrahydrofuran, via aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopic analyses confirmed formation of thin film of Mn2O3-Co2O3-4TiO2 composite material with uniformly distributed agglomerated particles. The average size of 39.5 nm, of the particles embedded inside agglomerates, was estimated by Scherer's equation. Further, UV-Vis spectroscopy was used to estimate the band gap of 2.62 eV for MCT composite thin film.

  20. Oxidation Characteristics and Electrical Properties of Doped Mn-Co Spinel Reaction Layer for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Metal Interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingyi Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To prevent Cr poisoning of the cathode and to retain high conductivity during solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC operation, Cu or La doped Co-Mn coatings on a metallic interconnect is deposited and followed by oxidation at 750 °C. Microstructure and composition of coatings after preparation and oxidation is analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. High energy micro arc alloying process, a low cost technique, is used to prepare Cu or La doped Co-Mn coatings with the metallurgical bond. When coatings oxidized at 750 °C in air for 20 h and 100 h, Co3O4 is the main oxide on the surface of Co-38Mn-2La and Co-40Mn coatings, and (Co,Mn3O4 spinel continues to grow with extended oxidation time. The outmost scales of Co-33Mn-17Cu are mainly composed of cubic MnCo2O4 spinel with Mn2O3 after oxidation for 20 h and 100 h. The average thickness of oxide coatings is about 60–70 μm after oxidation for 100 h, except that Co-40Mn oxide coatings are a little thicker. Area-specific resistance of Cu/La doped Co-Mn coatings are lower than that of Co-40Mn coating. (Mn,Co3O4/MnCo2O4 spinel layer is efficient at blocking the outward diffusion of chromium and iron.

  1. Giant negative thermal expansion in bonded MnCoGe-based compounds with Ni2In-type hexagonal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying-Ying; Hu, Feng-Xia; Bao, Li-Fu; Wang, Jing; Wu, Hui; Huang, Qing-Zhen; Wu, Rong-Rong; Liu, Yao; Shen, Fei-Ran; Kuang, Hao; Zhang, Ming; Zuo, Wen-Liang; Zheng, Xin-Qi; Sun, Ji-Rong; Shen, Bao-Gen

    2015-02-11

    MnCoGe-based compounds undergo a giant negative thermal expansion (NTE) during the martensitic structural transition from Ni2In-type hexagonal to TiNiSi-type orthorhombic structure. High-resolution neutron diffraction experiments revealed that the expansion of unit cell volume can be as large as ΔV/V ∼ 3.9%. The optimized compositions with concurrent magnetic and structural transitions have been studied for magnetocaloric effect. However, these materials have not been considered as NTE materials partially due to the limited temperature window of phase transition. The as-prepared MnCoGe-based compounds are quite brittle and naturally collapse into powders. By using a few percents (3-4%) of epoxy to bond the powders, we introduced residual stress in the bonded samples and thus realized the broadening of structural transition by utilizing the specific characteristics of lattice softening enforced by the stress. As a result, giant NTE (not only the linear NTE coefficient α but also the operation-temperature window) has been achieved. For example, the average α̅ as much as -51.5 × 10(-6)/K with an operating temperature window as wide as 210 K from 122 to 332 K has been observed in a bonded MnCo0.98Cr0.02Ge compound. Moreover, in the region between 250 and 305 K near room temperature, the α value (-119 × 10(-6)/K) remains nearly independent of temperature. Such an excellent performance exceeds that of most other materials reported previously, suggesting it can potentially be used as a NTE material, particularly for compensating the materials with large positive thermal expansions.

  2. Synthesis and properties of bimetallic aluminium alkoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyshinskaya, K.I.; Vasil'ev, G.A.; Vishnyakova, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    A single stage method of aluminium bimetallic alkoxide synthesis, which consists in activated aluminium reaction with metal salts in the relevant alcohols, has been developed. Properties of the compounds prepared are described

  3. Role of Pt(0) in bimetallic (Pt,Fe)-FER catalysts in the N2O decomposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tabor, Edyta; Jíša, Kamil; Nováková, Jana; Bastl, Zdeněk; Vondrová, Alena; Závěta, K.; Sobalík, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 165, JAN 2013 (2013), s. 40-47 ISSN 1387-1811 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1627 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : bimetallic Pt,Fe- FER * Pt- FER * Pt(0) clusters Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.209, year: 2013

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Optically Active Fractal Seed Mediated Silver Nickel Bimetallic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Adeyemi Adekoya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of new seed mediated AgNi allied bimetallic nanocomposites was successfully carried out by the successive reduction of the metal ions in diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, and pentaerythritol solutions, with concomitant precipitation of Ag/Ni bimetal sols. The optical measurement revealed the existence of distinct band edge with surface plasmon resonance (SPR in the region of 400–425 nm and excitonic emission with maximum peak at 382 nm which were reminiscent of cluster-in-cluster surface enriched bimetallic silver-nickel sols. The morphological characterization by transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analyses complimented by surface scan using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy strongly supported the formation of intimately alloyed face-centered silver/nickel nanoclusters.

  5. The hybrid nanostructure of MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle/carbon aerogel for symmetric supercapacitors with high energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Pin; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Li, Liyi; Tuan, Chia-Chi; Li, Haidong; Sang, Yuanhua; Jiang, Huaidong; Wong, C. P.; Liu, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Current applications of carbon-based supercapacitors are limited by their low energy density. One promising strategy to enhance the energy density is to couple metal oxides with carbon materials. In this study, a porous MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle/carbon aerogel hybrid nanostructure was synthesized by assembling MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle arrays on the surface of channel walls of hierarchical porous carbon aerogels derived from chitosan for the supercapacitor application. The synthetic process of the hybrid nanostructure involves two steps, i.e. the growth of Mn-Co precursors on carbon aerogel by a hydrothermal process and the conversion of the precursor into MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedles by calcination. The carbon aerogel exhibits a high electrical conductivity, high specific surface area and porous structure, ensuring high electrochemical performance of the hybrid nanostructure when coupled with the porous MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedles. The symmetric supercapacitor using the MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle/carbon aerogel hybrid nanostructure as the active electrode material exhibits a high energy density of about 84.3 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 600 W kg-1. The voltage window is as high as 1.5 V in neutral aqueous electrolytes. Due to the unique nanostructure of the electrodes, the capacitance retention reaches 86% over 5000 cycles.Current applications of carbon-based supercapacitors are limited by their low energy density. One promising strategy to enhance the energy density is to couple metal oxides with carbon materials. In this study, a porous MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle/carbon aerogel hybrid nanostructure was synthesized by assembling MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedle arrays on the surface of channel walls of hierarchical porous carbon aerogels derived from chitosan for the supercapacitor application. The synthetic process of the hybrid nanostructure involves two steps, i.e. the growth of Mn-Co precursors on carbon aerogel by a hydrothermal process and the conversion of the precursor into MnCo2O4.5 nanoneedles by

  6. A comparative study of metabolism and concentration factors of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Co and Mg in Carcinus maenas and Cancer irroratus ovaries during ovogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.-L.M.

    1975-01-01

    Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Co, and Mg were analysed in the ovary of Carcinus maenas and Cancer irroratus during ovogenesis. In both ovaries, the relatives rates, expressed as parts per millions as a ratio of wet and dry weight, are the following: Mg>Zn>Fe>Cu>Mn>Co, while in the hemolymph of Cancer irroratus these relative rates are the following: Mg>Cu>Zn>Fe>Mn>Co. Compared to concentrations of these metals in sea water, Mg expected, all metals in the ovary of Cancer irroratus have a concentration factor upper than 1. Compared to the concentration of metals in the hemolymph is, for Fe, Mn, and Co, the concentration factor upper than 1, and for Cu, Zn and Mg, the concentration factor lower than 1. A study of correlations was done between the concentrations of metals considered in pairs, and between the concentrations of metals and the parameters: water content and gonad index [fr

  7. High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitors of MnCo2O4 Nanofibers and N-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide Aerogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettong, Tanut; Iamprasertkun, Pawin; Krittayavathananon, Atiweena; Sukha, Phansiri; Sirisinudomkit, Pichamon; Seubsai, Anusorn; Chareonpanich, Metta; Kongkachuichay, Paisan; Limtrakul, Jumras; Sawangphruk, Montree

    2016-12-14

    The working potential of symmetric supercapacitors is not so wide because one type of material used for the supercapacitor electrodes prefers either positive or negative charge to both charges. To address this problem, a novel asymmetrical supercapacitor (ASC) of battery-type MnCo 2 O 4 nanofibers (NFs)//N-doped reduced graphene oxide aerogel (N-rGO AE ) was fabricated in this work. The MnCo 2 O 4 NFs at the positive electrode store the negative charges, i.e., solvated OH - , while the N-rGO AE at the negative electrode stores the positive charges, i.e., solvated K + . An as-fabricated aqueous-based MnCo 2 O 4 //N-rGO AE ASC device can provide a wide operating potential of 1.8 V and high energy density and power density at 54 W h kg -1 and 9851 W kg -1 , respectively, with 85.2% capacity retention over 3000 cycles. To understand the charge storage reaction mechanism of the MnCo 2 O 4 , the synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) technique was also used to determine the oxidation states of Co and Mn at the MnCo 2 O 4 electrode after being electrochemically tested. The oxidation number of Co is oxidized from +2.76 to +2.85 after charging and reduced back to +2.75 after discharging. On the other hand, the oxidation state of Mn is reduced from +3.62 to +3.44 after charging and oxidized to +3.58 after discharging. Understanding in the oxidation states of Co and Mn at the MnCo 2 O 4 electrode here leads to the awareness of the uncertain charge storage mechanism of the spinel-type oxide materials. High-performance ASC here in this work may be practically used in high-power applications.

  8. Evolution of magnetostructural transition and magnetocaloric effect with Al doping in MnCoGe1-xAlx compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Lifu; Hu, Fengxia; Wu, Rongrong; Wang, Jianping; Chen, Liming; Sun, Jirong; Shen, Baogen; Li, Lain-Jong; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Xixiang

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Al doping in MnCoGe1-xAlx compounds has been investigated. The substitution of Al for Ge enhances Mn-Mn covalent bonding by shortening the distance of nearest Mn atom layers, and thus stabilizes the hexagonal structure. As a result, first-order magnetostructural transition between ferromagnetic martensite and paramagnetic austenite takes place for the optimized compositions (x = 0.01, 0.02). Accompanied with the magnetostructural transition, large magnetocaloric effect (MCE) is observed. More doping of Al(x = 0.03, 0.04) leads to the separation of magnetic and structural transitions and remarkable reduction of MCE. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  9. Large reversible magnetostrictive effect of MnCoSi-based compounds prepared by high-magnetic-field solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q. B.; Hu, Y.; Zhang, S.; Tang, W.; He, X. J.; Li, Z.; Cao, Q. Q.; Wang, D. H.; Du, Y. W.

    2018-01-01

    The MnCoSi compound is a potential magnetostriction material since the magnetic field can drive a metamagnetic transition from an antiferromagnetic phase to a high magnetization phase in it, which accompanies a large lattice distortion. However, a large driving magnetic field, magnetic hysteresis, and poor mechanical properties seriously hinder its application for magnetostriction. By substituting Fe for Mn and introducing vacancies of the Mn element, textured and dense Mn0.97Fe0.03CoSi and Mn0.88CoSi compounds are prepared through a high-magnetic-field solidification approach. As a result, large room-temperature and reversible magnetostriction effects are observed in these compounds at a low magnetic field. The origin of this large magnetostriction effect and potential applications are discussed.

  10. Barium isotope fractionation during experimental formation of the double carbonate BaMn[CO3](2) at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Michael E; Geprägs, Patrizia; Neubert, Nadja; von Allmen, Katja; Pretet, Chloé; Samankassou, Elias; Nägler, Thomas F

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we present the first experimental results for stable barium (Ba) isotope ((137)Ba/(134)Ba) fractionation during low-temperature formation of the anhydrous double carbonate BaMn[CO(3)](2). This investigation is part of an ongoing work on Ba fractionation in the natural barium cycle. Precipitation at a temperature of 21±1°C leads to an enrichment of the lighter Ba isotope described by an enrichment factor of-0.11±0.06‰ in the double carbonate than in an aqueous barium-manganese(II) chloride/sodium bicarbonate solution, which is within the range of previous reports for synthetic pure BaCO (3) (witherite) formation.

  11. Evolution of magnetostructural transition and magnetocaloric effect with Al doping in MnCoGe1-xAlx compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Lifu

    2014-01-03

    The effect of Al doping in MnCoGe1-xAlx compounds has been investigated. The substitution of Al for Ge enhances Mn-Mn covalent bonding by shortening the distance of nearest Mn atom layers, and thus stabilizes the hexagonal structure. As a result, first-order magnetostructural transition between ferromagnetic martensite and paramagnetic austenite takes place for the optimized compositions (x = 0.01, 0.02). Accompanied with the magnetostructural transition, large magnetocaloric effect (MCE) is observed. More doping of Al(x = 0.03, 0.04) leads to the separation of magnetic and structural transitions and remarkable reduction of MCE. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  12. Density functional theory study of small X-doped Mg(n) (X = Fe, Co, Ni, n = 1-9) bimetallic clusters: equilibrium structures, stabilities, electronic and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanjie; Hu, Yanfei

    2014-03-01

    The geometries, stabilities, and electronic and magnetic properties of Mg(n) X (X = Fe, Co, Ni, n = 1-9) clusters were investigated systematically within the framework of the gradient-corrected density functional theory. The results show that the Mg(n)Fe, Mg(n)Co, and Mg(n)Ni clusters have similar geometric structures and that the X atom in Mg(n)X clusters prefers to be endohedrally doped. The average atomic binding energies, fragmentation energies, second-order differences in energy, and HOMO-LUMO gaps show that Mg₄X (X = Fe, Co, Ni) clusters possess relatively high stability. Natural population analysis was performed and the results showed that the 3s and 4s electrons always transfer to the 3d and 4p orbitals in the bonding atoms, and that electrons also transfer from the Mg atoms to the doped atoms (Fe, Co, Ni). In addition, the spin magnetic moments were analyzed and compared. Several clusters, such as Mg₁,₂,₃,₄,₅,₆,₈,₉Fe, Mg₁,₂,₄,₅,₆,₈,₉Co, and Mg₁,₂,₅,₆,₇,₉Ni, present high magnetic moments (4 μ(B), 3 μ(B), and 2 μ(B), respectively).

  13. Magneto-optical response in bimetallic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmatzakis, Evangelos; Papasimakis, Nikitas; Fedotov, Vassili; Vienne, Guillaume; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate resonant Faraday polarization rotation in plasmonic arrays of bimetallic nano-ring resonators consisting of Au and Ni sections. This metamaterial design allows the optimization of the trade-off between the enhancement of magneto-optical effects and plasmonic dissipation. Nickel sections corresponding to as little as 6% of the total surface of the metamaterial result in magneto-optically induced polarization rotation equal to that of a continuous nickel film. Such bimetallic metamaterials can be used in compact magnetic sensors, active plasmonic components, and integrated photonic circuits.

  14. Formation of graphene-like 2D spinel MnCo2O4 and its lithium storage properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Guoyong; Guo, Xueyi; Cao, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials fulfill the requirements for fast lithium storage due to the large exposed surface area and the open shortened path for Li insertion/extraction. Novel graphene-like 2D spinel MnCo2O4 powders have been synthesized, which inherit the morphology and structure of specia...

  15. Core/shell structure NiCo2O4@MnCo2O4 nanofibers fabricated by different temperatures for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Qin, Xuefeng; Jiang, Pengcheng; Dai, Jianfeng; Li, Weixue; Gao, Haoran

    2018-03-01

    Core/shell structure NiCo2O4@MnCo2O4 nanofibers (NiCo2O4@MnCo2O4 NFs) were prepared by a facile co-electrospinning method and heat treatment. The composites annealed at 500 °C have a complete, continuously obvious core/shell structure, and clear interface of composites with good morphology, while annealed at 600 °C were stacked on each other and were unable to sustain three-dimensional network structures and 700 °C calcination have completely lost one-dimensional structure. The core NiCo2O4 is about 70 nm in diameter and the MnCo2O4 shell behaves a thickness about 60 nm. When investigated as an electrode material for supercapacitors, the NiCo2O4@MnCo2O4 NFs annealed at 500 °C exihibited the specific capacitance of 463 F g-1 (0.926 F cm-2) at 1 A g-1, higher than that annealed at 600 °C 362 F g-1, 1 A g-1 (0.724 F cm-2, 1 A g-1) and 700 °C 283 F g-1, 1 A g-1 (0.566 F cm-2, 1 A g-1). These results suggest that core/shell NiCo2O4@MnCo2O4 NFs annealed at 500 °C have formed a good morphology with continuously complete core/shell structure which lead to good properties would be potential electrodes for supercapacitors.

  16. clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-27

    Sep 27, 2017 ... Author for correspondence (zh4403701@126.com). MS received 15 ... lic clusters using density functional theory (DFT)-GGA of the DMOL3 package. ... In the process of geometric optimization, con- vergence thresholds ..... and Postgraduate Research & Practice Innovation Program of. Jiangsu Province ...

  17. clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    environmental as well as technical problems during fuel gas utilization. ... adsorption on some alloys of Pd, namely PdAu, PdAg ... ried out on small neutral and charged Au24,26,27, Cu,28 ... study of Zanti et al.29 on Pdn (n = 1–9) clusters.

  18. Architecture of Pd-Au bimetallic nanoparticles in sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate reverse micelles as investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Sarma, Loka Subramanyam; Chen, Jium-Ming; Shih, Shou-Chu; Wang, Guo-Rung; Liu, Din-Goa; Tang, Mau-Tsu; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2007-09-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the unique application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) as a fundamental characterization tool to help in designing and controlling the architecture of Pd-Au bimetallic nanoparticles within a water-in-oil microemulsion system of water/sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)/n-heptane. Structural insights obtained from the in situ XAS measurements recorded at each step during the formation process revealed that Pd-Au bimetallic clusters with various Pd-Au atomic stackings are formed by properly performing hydrazine reduction and redox transmetalation reactions sequentially within water-in-oil microemulsions. A structural model is provided to explain reasonably each reaction step and to give detailed insight into the nucleation and growth mechanism of Pd-Au bimetallic clusters. The combination of in situ XAS analysis at both the Pd K-edge and the Au L(III)-edge and UV-vis absorption spectral features confirms that the formation of Pd-Au bimetallic clusters follows a (Pd(nuclei)-Au(stack))-Pd(surf) stacking. This result further implies that the thickness of Au(stack) and Pd(surf) layers may be modulated by varying the dosage of the Au precursor and hydrazine, respectively. In addition, a bimetallic (Pd-Au)(alloy) nanocluster with a (Pd(nuclei)-Au(stack))-(Pd-Au(alloy))(surf) stacking was also designed and synthesized in order to check the feasibility of Pd(surf) layer modification. The result reveals that the Pd(surf) layer of the stacked (Pd(nuclei)-Au)(stack) bimetallic clusters can be successfully modified to form a (Au-Pd alloy)(surf) layer by a co-reduction of Pd and Au ions by hydrazine. Further, we demonstrate the alloying extent or atomic distribution of Pd and Au in Pd-Au bimetallic nanoparticles from the derived XAS structural parameters. The complete XAS-based methodology, demonstrated here on the Pd-Au bimetallic system, can easily be extended to design and control the alloying extent or atomic distribution, atomic

  19. Bi-metallic catalysts, methods of making, and uses thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-19

    Provided herein are bi-metallic catalysts, methods of making, and uses thereof. In some embodiments, the bi-metallic catalyst contains two different metal catalysts that can be used in hydrocarbon metathesis reactions, in some embodiments, the methods of making the bi-metallic catalysts can include two steps utilizing a surface organometallic chemistry approach in which the two different metal catalysts are sequentially grafted onto a support.

  20. Bi-metallic catalysts, methods of making, and uses thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie; Samantaray, Manoja K.; Dey, Raju; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Kavitake, Santosh

    2017-01-01

    Provided herein are bi-metallic catalysts, methods of making, and uses thereof. In some embodiments, the bi-metallic catalyst contains two different metal catalysts that can be used in hydrocarbon metathesis reactions, in some embodiments, the methods of making the bi-metallic catalysts can include two steps utilizing a surface organometallic chemistry approach in which the two different metal catalysts are sequentially grafted onto a support.

  1. An open-framework bimetallic chalcogenide structure K3Rb3Zn4Sn3Se13 built on a unique [Zn4Sn3Se16]12- cluster: synthesis, crystal structure, ion exchange and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Min; Su Weiping; Jasutkar, Niren; Huang, Xiaoying; Li Jing

    2005-01-01

    Single crystals of K 3 Rb 3 Zn 4 Sn 3 Se 13 were synthesized by solvothermal method. The building block in this structure is a [Zn 4 Sn 3 Se 16 ] 12- cluster which consists of four ZnSe 4 and three SnSe 4 tetrahedra connected through corner-sharing of Se atoms. The 3D network contains intersecting channels running parallel to the crystallographic [2 1 1], [1-1-1] and [12-1] directions. The disordered K + and Rb + cations reside in these channels. Ion exchange of Cs + with disordered Rb + /K + ions in the structure showed a partial replacement of 15.8%. Optical diffuse reflectance experiments were carried out and gave a sharp absorption edge at 2.6 eV

  2. MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel chromium barrier coatings for SOFC interconnect by HVOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerbom, J.; Varis, T.; Pihlatie, M.; Himanen, O.; Saarinen, V.; Kiviaho, J.; Turunen, E. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Puranen, J. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Inst. of Materials Science

    2010-07-01

    Chromia released from steel parts used for interconnect plates by evaporation and condensation can quickly degrade the cell (cathode) performance in solid oxide fuel cell SOFC. Coatings on top of the IC plate can work as a chromium evaporation barrier. The coating material should have good electrical conductivity, high temperature stability and nearly the same coefficient of thermal expansion as the cell materials. One candidate for the coating material is MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel because of its suitable properties. High velocity oxy fuel (HVOF) spraying was used for the coating application on Crofer 22 APU steel samples. Using commercial and self made spray dried powders together with an HV2000 spray gun it was possible to successfully manufacture, well adhering, dense and reasonably uniform coatings. The samples were tested in oxidation exposure tests in air followed by post analysis in SEM. Powders and coatings microstructures are presented here, both before and after exposure. It was found out that together with spraying parameters the powder characteristics used influence clearly to the coating quality. Especially as very thin coatings was aimed with dense structure fine powders was found to be essential. (orig.)

  3. Near room temperature magnetocaloric properties and the universal curve of MnCoGe1-xCux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Xiaodong; Liu, Yongsheng; Lu, Xiaofei; Shen, Yulong; Wang, Wenli; Yu, Wenying; Zhou, Tao; Gao, Tian

    2017-05-01

    Intermetallic compounds based on MnCoGe have drawn attention due to the coupled magnetic and structural transformations and the large magnetocaloric entropy. Here, we provide a systematic comparison of experimental data under different magnetic fields with magnetic and the magnetocaloric properties. The ferromagnetic transition temperature (TC) increases from 353.4(6) K for x = 0.01 to 363.4(4) K for x = 0.04 with increasing nominal copper content. The maximum magnetic entropy change |ΔSM| in a magnetic field change of 5 T is found to be 18.3(2) J/(kg K) with a large relative cooling power (RCP) value of 292.5(4) J/kg for x = 0.01, revealing that the present system can provide an acceptable magnetocaloric effect at a cheaper price for magnetic refrigeration materials. Making attempt to contrast a master curve for the present system, we find the experimental values of magnetic field dependence of the magnetic entropy change are consistent with a phenomenological universal curve.

  4. Stainless Steel to Titanium Bimetallic Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaluzny, J. A. [Fermilab; Grimm, C. [Fermilab; Passarelli, D. [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    In order to use stainless steel piping in an LCLS-II (Linac Coherent Light Source Upgrade) cryomodule, stainless steel to titanium bimetallic transitions are needed to connect the stainless steel piping to the titanium cavity helium vessel. Explosion bonded stainless steel to titanium transition pieces and bimetallic transition material samples have been tested. A sample transition tube was subjected to tests and x-ray examinations between tests. Samples of the bonded joint material were impact and tensile tested at room temperature as well as liquid helium temperature. The joint has been used successfully in horizontal tests of LCLS-II cavity helium vessels and is planned to be used in LCLS-II cryomodules. Results of material sample and transition tube tests will be presented.

  5. Pulsed laser deposited MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} protective layer on SS430 for solid oxide fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaur, Anshu, E-mail: gauranshu20@gmail.com, E-mail: ahamed.vza@gmail.com; Mohiddon, Md. Ahamad, E-mail: gauranshu20@gmail.com, E-mail: ahamed.vza@gmail.com [National Institute of Technology Andhra Pradesh, Tadepalliguem 534101 (India); Prasad, Muvva D. [UGC Networking Centre, School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046, India. Phone:+91-40-23134382, Fax:+91-40-23010227 (India)

    2016-05-23

    The growth and oxidation study of pulsed laser deposited MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} protective layer on SS430 substrate for solid oxide fuel cell application is demonstrated. MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been achieved in three different ways including, deposition at higher substrate temperature (700°C), and deposition at room temperature on pre-oxidized and untreated SS430 substrate followed by annealing at 700°C for 2 hrs. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy has been applied to demonstrate the kind of phases developed in each case. These three samples were subjected to heat treatment at 750°C for 5 hr. The extent of undesired Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase formation in the post deposition heat treated samples is discussed based on Raman spectroscopic results.

  6. A manganese photosensitive tricarbonyl molecule [Mn(CO)3(tpa-κ3N)]Br enhances antibiotic efficacy in a multi-drug-resistant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Namrata; Jesse, Helen E; Tinajero-Trejo, Mariana; Butler, Jonathan A; Tarlit, John D; von Und Zur Muhlen, Milena L; Nagel, Christoph; Schatzschneider, Ulrich; Poole, Robert K

    2017-10-01

    Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) are a promising class of new antimicrobials, with multiple modes of action that are distinct from those of standard antibiotics. The relentless increase in antimicrobial resistance, exacerbated by a lack of new antibiotics, necessitates a better understanding of how such novel agents act and might be used synergistically with established antibiotics. This work aimed to understand the mechanism(s) underlying synergy between a manganese-based photoactivated carbon monoxide-releasing molecule (PhotoCORM), [Mn(CO)3(tpa-κ 3 N)]Br [tpa=tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine], and various classes of antibiotics in their activities towards Escherichia coli EC958, a multi-drug-resistant uropathogen. The title compound acts synergistically with polymyxins [polymyxin B and colistin (polymyxin E)] by damaging the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. [Mn(CO)3(tpa-κ 3 N)]Br also potentiates the action of doxycycline, resulting in reduced expression of tetA, which encodes a tetracycline efflux pump. We show that, like tetracyclines, the breakdown products of [Mn(CO)3(tpa-κ 3 N)]Br activation chelate iron and trigger an iron starvation response, which we propose to be a further basis for the synergies observed. Conversely, media supplemented with excess iron abrogated the inhibition of growth by doxycycline and the title compound. In conclusion, multiple factors contribute to the ability of this PhotoCORM to increase the efficacy of antibiotics in the polymyxin and tetracycline families. We propose that light-activated carbon monoxide release is not the sole basis of the antimicrobial activities of [Mn(CO)3(tpa-κ 3 N)]Br.

  7. Ant-cave structured MnCO3/Mn3O4 microcubes by biopolymer-assisted facile synthesis for high-performance pseudocapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra Sekhar, S.; Nagaraju, Goli; Yu, Jae Su

    2018-03-01

    Porous and ant-cave structured MnCO3/Mn3O4 microcubes (MCs) were facilely synthesized via a biopolymer-assisted hydrothermal approach. Herein, chitosan was used as a natural biopolymer, which greatly controls the surface morphology and size of the prepared composite. The amino and hydroxyl group-functionalized chitosan engraves the outer surface of MCs during the hydrothermal process, which designs the interesting morphology of nanopath ways on the surface of MCs. When used as an electrode material for pseudocapacitors, the ant-cave structured MnCO3/Mn3O4 MCs showed superior energy storage values compared to the material prepared without chitosan in aqueous electrolyte solution. Precisely, the prepared ant-cave structured MnCO3/Mn3O4 MCs exhibited a maximum specific capacitance of 116.2 F/g at a current density of 0.7 A/g with an excellent cycling stability of 73.86% after 2000 cycles. Such facile and low-cost synthesis of pseudocapacitive materials with porous nanopaths is favorable for the fabrication of high-performance energy storage devices.

  8. Synthesis of MnFe2O4@Mn-Co oxide core-shell nanoparticles and their excellent performance for heavy metal removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zichuan; Zhao, Dongyuan; Chang, Yongfang; Xing, Shengtao; Wu, Yinsu; Gao, Yuanzhe

    2013-10-21

    Magnetic nanomaterials that can be easily separated and recycled due to their magnetic properties have received considerable attention in the field of water treatment. However, these nanomaterials usually tend to aggregate and alter their properties. Herein, we report an economical and environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles with core-shell structure. MnFe2O4 nanoparticles have been successfully coated with amorphous Mn-Co oxide shells. The synthesized MnFe2O4@Mn-Co oxide nanoparticles have highly negatively charged surface in aqueous solution over a wide pH range, thus preventing their aggregation and enhancing their performance for heavy metal cation removal. The adsorption isotherms are well fitted to a Langmuir adsorption model, and the maximal adsorption capacities of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) on MnFe2O4@Mn-Co oxide are 481.2, 386.2 and 345.5 mg g(-1), respectively. All the metal ions can be completely removed from the mixed metal ion solutions in a short time. Desorption studies confirm that the adsorbent can be effectively regenerated and reused.

  9. Hierarchical CNFs/MnCo2O4.5 nanofibers as a highly active oxidase mimetic and its application in biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mu; Lu, Xiaofeng; Nie, Guangdi; Chi, Maoqiang; Wang, Ce

    2017-12-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid on the nanomaterial-based artificial enzymes due to their tunable catalytic activity, high stability and low cost compared to the natural enzymes. Different from the peroxidase mimics which have been studied for several decades, nanomaterials with oxidase-like property are burgeoning in the recent years. In this paper, hierarchical carbon nanofibers (CNFs)/MnCo2O4.5 nanofibers as efficient oxidase mimics are reported. The products are synthesized by an electrospinning technique and an electrochemcial deposition process in which the CNFs are used as the working electrode where MnCo2O4.5 nanosheets deposit on. The resulting binary metal oxide-based nanocomposites exhibit a good oxidase-like activity toward the oxidations of 3,3‧,5,5‧tetramethylbenzi-dine (TMB), 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium (ABTS) salt and o-phenylenediamine (OPD) without exogenous addition of H2O2. The system of CNFs/MnCo2O4.5-TMB can be used as a candidate to detect sulfite and ascorbic acid via a colorimetric method with a high sensitivity. This work provides the efficient utilization and potential applications of binary metal oxide-based nanocomposites with oxidase activities in biosensors and other biotechnologies.

  10. Room temperature ferromagnetism and gas sensing in ZnO nanostructures: Influence of intrinsic defects and Mn, Co, Cu doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhlongo, Gugu H., E-mail: gmhlongo@csir.co.za [DST/CSIR National Centre for Nanostructured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Shingange, Katekani; Tshabalala, Zamaswazi P.; Dhonge, Baban P. [DST/CSIR National Centre for Nanostructured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Mahmoud, Fawzy A. [Solid State Physics Dept., National Research Centre, P.O. 12622, Dokki, Giza (Egypt); Mwakikunga, Bonex W.; Motaung, David E. [DST/CSIR National Centre for Nanostructured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Preparation of Mn, Co, Cu doped ZnO via microwave-assisted method. • Doping alters the morphology of ZnO nanostructures. • Concentration of zinc and oxygen related defects vary with doping. • Correlation between PL and EPR was established. • Both undoped and doped ZnO nanostructures showed selectivity towards NH{sub 3}. - Abstract: Undoped and transition metal (Cu, Co and Mn) doped ZnO nanostructures were successfully prepared via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method followed by annealing at 500 °C. Numerous characterization facilities such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were employed to acquire the structural and morphological information of the prepared ZnO based products. Combination of defect structure analysis based on photoluminescence (PL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) indicated that co-existing oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}) and zinc interstitials (Zn{sub i}) defects are responsible for the observed ferromagnetism in undoped and transition metal (TM) doped ZnO systems. PL analysis demonstrated that undoped ZnO has more donor defects (V{sub O} and Zn{sub i}) which are beneficial for gas response enhancement. Undoped ZnO based sensor exhibited a higher sensor response to NH{sub 3} gas compared to its counterparts owing to high content of donor defects while transition metal doped sensors showed short response and recovery times compared to undoped ZnO.

  11. A Comparative Study of Mn/Co Binary Metal Catalysts Supported on Two Commercial Diatomaceous Earths for Oxidation of Benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tomatis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two commercial diatomaceous earths were used as supports for the preparation of Mn/Co binary metal catalysts at different metal loads (5 to 10 wt % Mn and 5 to 15 wt % Co by incipient wetness deposition. The activity of the prepared catalysts towards the complete oxidation of benzene to CO2 and water was investigated between 100 and 400 °C. Raw supports and synthesized catalysts were characterized by XRD, N2 physisorption, SEM-EDS, H2-TPR, and TPD. The purification treatment of food-grade diatomite significantly affected the crystallinity of this support while reducing its specific surface area (SSA. A loss of SSA, associated with the increase in the metal load, was observed on samples prepared on natural diatomite, while the opposite trend occurred with food-grade diatomite-supported catalysts. Metal nanoparticles of around 50 nm diameter were observed on the catalysts’ surface by SEM analysis. EDS analysis confirmed the uniform deposition of the active phases on the support’s surface. A larger H2 consumption was found by TPR analysis of natural diatomite-based samples in comparison to those prepared at the same metal load on food-grade diatomite. During the catalytic oxidation experiment, over 90% conversion of benzene were achieved at a reaction temperature of 225 °C by all of the prepared samples. In addition, the formation of coke during the oxidation tests was demonstrated by TGA analysis and the soluble fraction of the produced coke was characterized by GC-MS.

  12. Designing Pd-based supported bimetallic catalysts for environmental applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nowicka, Ewa; Meenakshisundaram, Sankar

    2018-01-01

    Supported bimetallic nanoparticulate catalysts are an important class of heterogeneous catalysts for many reactions including selective oxidation, hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis, reforming, biomass conversion reactions, and many more. The activity, selectivity, and stability of these catalysts depend on their structural features including particle size, composition, and morphology. In this review, we present important structural features relevant to supported bimetallic catalysts focusing on Pd...

  13. (Electronic structure and reactivities of transition metal clusters)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The following are reported: theoretical calculations (configuration interaction, relativistic effective core potentials, polyatomics, CASSCF); proposed theoretical studies (clusters of Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Os, Ru; transition metal cluster ions; transition metal carbide clusters; bimetallic mixed transition metal clusters); reactivity studies on transition metal clusters (reactivity with H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, hydrocarbons; NO and CO chemisorption on surfaces). Computer facilities and codes to be used, are described. 192 refs, 13 figs.

  14. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan, Song; Kirby, S.; Schmidt, E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to explore bimetallic dispersed catalysts for more efficient coal liquefaction. Coal liquefaction involves cleavage of methylene, dimethylene and ether bridges connecting various aromatic units and the reactions of various oxygen functional groups. This paper describes recent results on (1) hydrodeoxygenation of O-containing polycyclic model compounds using novel organometallic catalyst precursors; and (2) activity and selectivity of dispersed Fe catalysts from organometallic and inorganic precursors for hydrocracking of 4-(1-naphthylmethyl) bibenzyl. The results showed that some iron containing catalysts have higher activity in the sulfur-free form, contrary to conventional wisdom. Adding sulfur to Fe precursors with Cp-ligands decreased the activity of the resulting catalyst. This is in distinct contrast to the cases with iron pentacarbonyl and superfine Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, where S addition increased their catalytic activity substantially. A positive correlation between sulfur addition and increased activity can be seen, but a reversed trend between Fe cluster size and hydrocracking conversion could be observed, for carbonyl-type Fe precursors. It is apparent that the activity and selectivity of Fe catalysts for NMBB conversion depends strongly on both the type of ligand environment, the oxidation state and the number of intermetal bonds in the molecular precursor.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of cobalt/gold bimetallic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Guangjun; Hight Walker, Angela R.

    2007-01-01

    Cobalt/gold (Co/Au) bimetallic nanoparticles are prepared by chemically reducing gold (III) chloride to gold in the presence of pre-synthesized Co nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectrometry, and a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer have been used to characterize as-prepared bimetallic nanoparticles. Our findings demonstrate Au not only grows onto Co nanoparticles, forming a surface coating, but also diffuses into Co nanoparticles. The introduction of Au alters the crystalline structure of Co nanoparticles and changes their magnetic properties. Dodecanethiols induce a reorganization of as-prepared Co/Au bimetallic nanoparticles

  16. La0⋅ 9Sr0⋅ 1Ga0⋅ 8M0⋅ 2O3–δ (M= Mn, Co, Ni, Cu or Zn ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Perovskite oxides of the general formula, La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8M0.2O3– for M = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn, have been prepared and investigated. All the oxides exhibit high electrical conductivities ( ∼ 10–2 S/cm at 800°C) comparable to that of the best perovskite oxide ion conductor, La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O2.85 (LSGM) ( ...

  17. Determination of the potential and coherent scattering cross-sections of the elements Si, Ca, Cr, Mn, Co, Zn, Zr, Sb and Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Hamouda, I.

    1976-01-01

    The potential scattering cross-sections for slow neutrons have been measured for Si, Ca, Cr, Mn, Co, Zn, Zr, Sb and Ta in order to determine the nuclear potential radius and to investigate the prediction of nuclear optical model. The coherent scattering cross-sections for these elements have been measured from the obtained values of the Bragg cut-offs observed in the behaviour of the total cross-sections at cold neutron energies. The measurements were based on the total neutron cross-sections resulting from transmission experiments performed with the neutron chopper at ET-RR-1 reactor

  18. A photoactive bimetallic framework for direct aminoformylation of nitroarenes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A bimetallic catalyst, AgPd@g-C3N4, synthesized by reducing silver and palladium salts over graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4), enables the concerted reductive...

  19. Joint program for the improvement of bimetallic weld inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serre, M.; Rattoni, B.; Coquillay; Samman; Billet; Bodson; Olivera

    1985-02-01

    The aim of this program is to improve the in-service monitoring of austenitic and bimetallic welds in PWR Main Coolant Systems. This paper presents the work performed on the bimetallic weld connecting the safe end to the reactor vessel nozzle: suitability of ultrasonic testing for determining the size and location of defects, automation and calibration, gamma-ray examination in three different planes

  20. Methanol Oxidation on Model Elemental and Bimetallic Transition Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tritsaris, G. A.; Rossmeisl, J.

    2012-01-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells are a key enabling technology for clean energy conversion. Using density functional theory calculations, we study the methanol oxidation reaction on model electrodes. We discuss trends in reactivity for a set of monometallic and bimetallic transition metal surfaces, flat...... sites on the surface and to screen for novel bimetallic surfaces of enhanced activity. We suggest platinum copper surfaces as promising anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells....

  1. Oxygen permeation flux through 10Sc1YSZ-MnCo2O4 asymmetric membranes prepared by two-step sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirou, Stéven; Gurauskis, Jonas; Gil, Vanesa

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetric membranes based on a dual phase composite consisting of (Y2O3)0.01(Sc2O3)0.10(ZrO2)0.89 (10Sc1YSZ) as ionic conductor and MnCo2O4 as electronic conductor were prepared and characterized with respect to sinterability, microstructure and oxygen transport properties. The composite membranes...... were prepared by tape casting, lamination and fired in a two-step sintering process. Microstructural analysis showed that a gastight thin membrane layer with the desired ratio of ionic/electronic conducting phases could be fabricated. Oxygen permeation fluxes across the 10SclYSZ/MnCo2O4 (70/30 vol......%) composite membrane were measured from 750 to 940 degrees C using air or pure oxygen as feed gases and N2 or CO2 as sweep gases. Fluxes up to 2.3 mlN min-1 cm-2 were obtained for the 7 μm thick membrane. A degradation test over 1730 h showed an initial degradation of 21% during the first 1100 h after which...

  2. In situ synthesis and characterization of fine-patterned La and Mn co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Fuxue, E-mail: yanfuxue@126.com; Zhao, Gaoyang, E-mail: zhaogy@xaut.edu.cn; Song, Na; Zhao, Nana; Chen, Yuanqing

    2013-09-05

    Highlights: •La and Mn co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} film was prepared by a photosensitive sol–gel method. •XRD and Raman spectra confirmed single-phase rhombohedral structure with space group R3c. •Fine-patterned BLFMO film was obtained by a direct-patterning technique. •The saturation magnetization and Pr were enhanced in the fine-patterned BLFMO film. -- Abstract: La and Mn co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} (BLFMO) film was prepared by a photosensitive sol–gel method utilizing bismuth nitrate, lanthanum nitrate, manganese nitrate and ferric nitrate as starting materials. After a chelating reaction between benzoylacetone (BzAcH) and metallic ions, the precursor solution presented photosensitivity. Through a direct patterning process, a fine-patterned BLFMO film was obtained. The phase constituents, morphology, electric and magnetic properties of the as-prepared BLFMO film were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ferroelectric testing unit, LCR Meter and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The Mn dopant enhanced the saturation magnetization and remnant polarization of the BLFMO film.

  3. Mesoporous MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Mn, Co, and Ni) for anode materials of lithium-ion batteries: Synthesis and electrochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Lianfeng, E-mail: duanlf@mail.ccut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Structural Materials, Ministry of Education, and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Changchun University of Technology, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang, Yuanxin; Wang, Linan [Key Laboratory of Advanced Structural Materials, Ministry of Education, and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Changchun University of Technology, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhang, Feifei [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Limin [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Mn, Co, and Ni) are synthesized by a template-free hydrothermal method. • The mesoporous morphology is formed by self-assembly of crystal nucleus. • The mesporous MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} have the active phase and the synergy for Li-ion storage. - Abstract: The MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Mn, Co, and Ni) mesoporous spheres with an average diameter of 250 nm were synthesized through a template-free hydrothermal method. The mesoporous MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with a large surface area of 87.5 m{sup 2}/g and an average pore size of 27.52 nm were obtained. As the anode materials for Li-ion batteries, the mesoporous MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibits excellent initial charge and discharge capacities of 1010 and 642.5 mA h/g. After 50 cycles, the discharge capacity could still remain at 379 mA h/g. The results showed that the active phase and the synergy between different metal oxides greatly improved the electrochemical performance, and the mesoporous composite could stabilize the structure of the electrodes.

  4. RHEED and EELS study of Pd/Al bimetallic thin film growth on different α-Al 2O 3 substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V.; Rajs, K.; Mašek, K.

    2002-06-01

    Pd/Al bimetallic thin films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on single-crystalline α-Al 2O 3(0 0 0 1) and (1 1 2¯ 0) surfaces. Substrate and deposit crystallographic structures and evolution of deposit lattice parameter during the growth were studied by reflection high-energy electron diffraction. The electron energy loss spectroscopy was used as an auxiliary method for chemical analysis. The bimetallic films were prepared by successive deposition of both Pd and Al metals. The structure of Pd and Al deposits in early stages of the growth and its dependence on the preparation conditions were studied. Two phases of Pd clusters covered by Al overlayer have been found. The formation of Al overlayer strongly influenced the lattice parameter of Pd clusters.

  5. Characterization and Catalytic Activity of Mn-Co/TiO2 Catalysts for NO Oxidation to NO2 at Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of Mn-Co/TiO2 catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation method and evaluated for the oxidation of NO to NO2. The effects of Co amounts and calcination temperature on NO oxidation were investigated in detail. The catalytic oxidation ability in the temperature range of 403–473 K was obviously improved by doping cobalt into Mn/TiO2. These samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, transmission electron microscope (TEM and hydrogen temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR. The results indicated that the formation of dispersed Co3O4·CoMnO3 mixed oxides through synergistic interaction between Mn-O and Co-O was directly responsible for the enhanced activities towards NO oxidation at low temperatures. Doping of Co enhanced Mn4+ formation and increased chemical adsorbed oxygen amounts, which also accelerated NO oxidation.

  6. Hyperfine fields at 89Y nuclei in Y(Fesub(1-x)Tsub(x))2 (T=V, Mn, Co, Ni, Al) with low concentrations x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Kazuyoshi; Yoshie, Hiroshi; Nagai, Hiroyuki; Tsujimura, Akira; Fujiwara, Katsuyuki.

    1983-01-01

    NMR of 89 Y nuclei in Y(Fesub(1-x)Tsub(x)) 2 (T=V, Mn, Co, Ni, Al) has been observed at 4.2K. Well-resolved satellite structures of Y resonance appear in these compounds. This shows that the Y hyperfine field is mainly due to the magnetic nearest neighbor atoms. The magnetic moment of T atoms is estimated by two methods: (i) the contribution of T atoms to the hyperfine field is proportional to the magnetic moments of Fe and T atoms and (ii) the well known empirical relation between the hyperfine field and the mean magnetic moment of alloys is used. These results are in good agreement with those in dilute T-Fe alloys except for T=Mn. The intensity ratio of satellite peaks is discussed based upon a statistical distribution of Fe and T atoms. (author)

  7. Resistive switching properties of Ce and Mn co-doped BiFeO3 thin films for nonvolatile memory application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Tang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ce and Mn co-doped BiFeO3 (BCFMO thin films were synthesized on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates using a sol-gel method. The unipolar resistive switching (URS and bipolar resistive switching (BRS behaviors were observed in the Pt/BCFMO/Pt device structure, which was attributed to the formation/rupture of metal filaments. The fabricated device exhibits a large ROFF/RON ratio (>80, long retention time (>105 s and low programming voltages (<1.5 V. Analysis of linear fitting current-voltage curves suggests that the space charge limited leakage current (SCLC and Schottky emission were observed as the conduction mechanisms of the devices.

  8. Resistive switching properties of Ce and Mn co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} thin films for nonvolatile memory application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhenhua; Zeng, Jia; Tang, Minghua, E-mail: mhtang@xtu.edu.cn; Xu, Dinglin; Cheng, Chuanpin; Xiao, Yongguang; Zhou, Yichun [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology of Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan, 411105 (China); Xiong, Ying [The School of Mathematics and Computational Science, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2013-12-15

    The Ce and Mn co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} (BCFMO) thin films were synthesized on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates using a sol-gel method. The unipolar resistive switching (URS) and bipolar resistive switching (BRS) behaviors were observed in the Pt/BCFMO/Pt device structure, which was attributed to the formation/rupture of metal filaments. The fabricated device exhibits a large R{sub OFF}/R{sub ON} ratio (>80), long retention time (>10{sup 5} s) and low programming voltages (<1.5 V). Analysis of linear fitting current-voltage curves suggests that the space charge limited leakage current (SCLC) and Schottky emission were observed as the conduction mechanisms of the devices.

  9. NMR-ON on 60CoCo(fcc, hcp, thin film), 52MnCo(fcc), and 90NbCo(fcc)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zech, E.; Hagn, E.; Ernst, H.; Eska, G.

    1978-01-01

    With the NMR-ON method the magnetic hyperfine splitting constant of dilute impurities in a ferromagnetic host material (Fe, Ni, Co) can be determined with high accuracy (10 -3 ...10 -4 ). Only few NMR-ON experiments with Co as host lattice have been performed up to now. In constrast to Fe and Ni, two stable modifications exist for Co (fcc and hcp). In the hcp case the magnetic hyperfine field is expected to be anisotropic. Due to the electric field gradient, which is present in this case, a (small) guadrupole interaction is superimposed to the magnetic hyperfine interaction. For 60 CoCo measurements were done on a fcc foil, a hcp single crystal, and on thin films, which were prepared by evaporating Co into glass. For 52 MnCo and 90 NbCo measurements were performed for fcc Co. (Auth.)

  10. Cluster-cluster clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, J.; Dekel, A.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C.S.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT; California Univ., Santa Barbara; Cambridge Univ., England; Sussex Univ., Brighton, England)

    1985-01-01

    The cluster correlation function xi sub c(r) is compared with the particle correlation function, xi(r) in cosmological N-body simulations with a wide range of initial conditions. The experiments include scale-free initial conditions, pancake models with a coherence length in the initial density field, and hybrid models. Three N-body techniques and two cluster-finding algorithms are used. In scale-free models with white noise initial conditions, xi sub c and xi are essentially identical. In scale-free models with more power on large scales, it is found that the amplitude of xi sub c increases with cluster richness; in this case the clusters give a biased estimate of the particle correlations. In the pancake and hybrid models (with n = 0 or 1), xi sub c is steeper than xi, but the cluster correlation length exceeds that of the points by less than a factor of 2, independent of cluster richness. Thus the high amplitude of xi sub c found in studies of rich clusters of galaxies is inconsistent with white noise and pancake models and may indicate a primordial fluctuation spectrum with substantial power on large scales. 30 references

  11. Spatial Bimetallic Castings Manufactured from Iron Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cholewa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a conception for manufacturing method of skeleton castings with composite features was shown. Main application of such castings are the working organs of machines subjected to intensive abrasive and erosive wear. Skeleton geometry was based on three-dimensional cubic net consisting of circular connectors and nodes joining 6 connectors according to Cartesian co-ordinate system. Dimension of an elementary cell was equal to 10 mm and diameter of single connector was equal to 5 mm. For bimetallic castings preparation two Fe based alloys were used: L25SHMN cast steel for skeleton substrate and ZlCr15NiMo cast iron for working part of the casting. In presented work obtained structure was analyzed with indication of characteristic regions. Authors described phenomena occurring at the alloys interface and phases in transition zone. A thesis was formulated concerning localization of transition zone at the cast iron matrix – cast steel reinforcement interface. Direction of further studies were indicated.

  12. Bimetallic Nanoparticles in Alternative Solvents for Catalytic Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Dang-Bao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bimetallic nanoparticles represent attractive catalytic systems thanks to the synergy between both partners at the atomic level, mainly induced by electronic effects which in turn are associated with the corresponding structures (alloy, core-shell, hetero-dimer. This type of engineered material can trigger changes in the kinetics of catalyzed processes by variations on the electrophilicity/nucleophilicity of the metal centers involved and also promote cooperative effects to foster organic transformations, including multi-component and multi-step processes. Solvents become a crucial factor in the conception of catalytic processes, not only due to their environmental impact, but also because they can preserve the bimetallic structure during the catalytic reaction and therefore increase the catalyst life-time. In this frame, the present review focuses on the recent works described in the literature concerning the synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles in non-conventional solvents, i.e., other than common volatile compounds, for catalytic applications.

  13. Structure-Property Relationship in Metal Carbides and Bimetallic Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jingguan [University of Delaware

    2014-03-04

    The primary objective of our DOE/BES sponsored research is to use carbide and bimetallic catalysts as model systems to demonstrate the feasibility of tuning the catalytic activity, selectivity and stability. Our efforts involve three parallel approaches, with the aim at studying single crystal model surfaces and bridging the “materials gap” and “pressure gap” between fundamental surface science studies and real world catalysis. The utilization of the three parallel approaches has led to the discovery of many intriguing catalytic properties of carbide and bimetallic surfaces and catalysts. During the past funding period we have utilized these combined research approaches to explore the possibility of predicting and verifying bimetallic and carbide combinations with enhanced catalytic activity, selectivity and stability.

  14. Synthesis of Pd-Au bimetallic nanocrystals via controlled overgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Byungkwon; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Yu, Taekyung; Wang, Jinguo; Kim, Moon J; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Rycenga, Matthew; Xia, Younan

    2010-03-03

    This paper describes the synthesis of Pd-Au bimetallic nanocrystals with controlled morphologies via a one-step seeded-growth method. Two different reducing agents, namely, L-ascorbic acid and citric acid, were utilized for the reduction of HAuCl(4) in an aqueous solution to control the overgrowth of Au on cubic Pd seeds. When L-ascorbic acid was used as the reducing agent, conformal overgrowth of Au on the Pd nanocubes led to the formation of Pd-Au nanocrystals with a core-shell structure. On the contrary, localized overgrowth of Au was observed when citric acid was used as the reducing agent, producing Pd-Au bimetallic dimers. Through this morphological control, we were able to tune the localized surface plasmon resonance peaks of Pd-Au bimetallic nanostructures in the visible region.

  15. Synthesis of porous MnCo2O4microspheres with yolk–shell structure induced by concentration gradient and the effect on their performance in electrochemical energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Guoyong; Yang, Yue; Sun, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, novel spherical yolk–shell MnCo2O4 powders with concentration gradient have been synthesized. The porous microspheres with yolk–shell structure (2.00–3.00 μm in average diameter, ∼200 nm in thickness of shell) are built up by irregular nanoparticles attached to each other. It is sh...

  16. A general strategy for the in situ decoration of porous Mn-Co bi-metal oxides on metal mesh/foam for high performance de-NOx monolith catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Sixiang; Liu, Jie; Zha, Kaiwen; Li, Hongrui; Shi, Liyi; Zhang, Dengsong

    2017-05-04

    Owing to their advantages of strong mechanical stability, plasticity, thermal conductivity and mass transfer ability, metal foam or meshes are considered promising monolith supports for de-NO x application. In this work, we developed a facile method for the decoration of porous Mn-Co bi-metal oxides on Fe meshes. The block-like structure was derived from in situ coating, and simultaneous nucleation and growth of the Mn-Co hydroxide precursor, while the porous Mn-Co oxides were formed via the calcination process. Moreover, the decoration of the high-purity Co 2 MnO 4 spinel could lead to enhanced reducibility and adsorption behaviors, which are crucial to the catalytic process. Of note is the fact that the Fe mesh used in the synthesis procedure could be substituted by various metal supports including Ti mesh, Cu foam and Ni foam. Driven by the above motivations, metal supports decorated with Mn-Co oxides were evaluated as monolith de-NO x catalysts for the first time. Inspiringly, these catalysts demonstrate outstanding low-temperature catalytic activity, desirable stability and excellent H 2 O resistance. This work might open up a new path for the design and development of high performance de-NO x monolith catalysts.

  17. Mathematical modeling of the mixing zone for getting bimetallic compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Stanislav L. [Institute of Applied Mechanics, Ural Branch, Izhevsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    A mathematical model of the formation of atomic bonds in metals and alloys, based on the electrostatic interaction between the outer electron shells of atoms of chemical elements. Key words: mathematical model, the interatomic bonds, the electron shell of atoms, the potential, the electron density, bimetallic compound.

  18. Bimetallic alloy electrocatalysts with multilayered platinum-skin surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenkovic, Vojislav R.; Wang, Chao; Markovic, Nenad M.

    2016-01-26

    Compositions and methods of preparing a bimetallic alloy having enhanced electrocatalytic properties are provided. The composition comprises a PtNi substrate having a surface layer, a near-surface layer, and an inner layer, where the surface layer comprises a nickel-depleted composition, such that the surface layer comprises a platinum skin having at least one atomic layer of platinum.

  19. Leak rate measurements on bimetallic transition samples for ILC cryomodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, Yu.; Chernikov, A.; Sabirov, B.

    2008-01-01

    The results of leak test of bimetallic (titanium-stainless steel) transition elements produced by explosion welding are presented. Vacuum and high-pressure tests of the sample for leakage were carried out at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature. Similar tests were also carried out under thermal cycling conditions

  20. A bimetallic nanocomposite electrode for direct and rapid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new label-free electrochemical DNA biosensor is presented based on carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified with gold (Au) and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles to prepare the bimetallic nanocomposite electrode. The proposed sensor was made by immobilization of 15-mer single stranded oligonucleotide probe related to ...

  1. New bimetallic EMF cell shows promise in direct energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, J. C.; Shimotake, H.

    1968-01-01

    Concentration cell, based upon a thermally regenerative cell principle, produces electrical energy from any large heat source. This experimental bimetallic EMF cell uses a sodium-bismuth alloy cathode and a pure liquid sodium anode. The cell exhibits reliability, corrosion resistance, and high current density performance.

  2. General access to metal oxide (Metal = Mn, Co, Ni) double-layer nanospheres for application in lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Yuan; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Beibei; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A series of metal oxide double layer nanospheres were prepared. • The obtained materials show excellent performances in lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors. • The unique structure of double layers is beneficial for superior electrochemical performances. - Abstract: In this work, a series of metal oxide double-layer nanospheres (DLNs), such as Mn 2 O 3 , Co 3 O 4 , NiO, NiCo 2 O 4 , and MnCo 2 O 4 have been successfully synthesized through a general template method. The layers of nanospheres were assembled by different nanostructure units and the removing of the SiO 2 template formed a void of several ten nanometers between the double layers, resulting large specific surface areas for them. The energy storage performances of the as-prepared double-layer nanospheres were further investigated in lithium ion battery and supercapacitor systems. Based on their unique nanostructures, the double-layer nanospheres exhibit excellent electrochemical performance with long cycle stability and high specific capacities or capacitances. The best of these, DLNs-NiCo 2 O 4 can deliver a reversible capacity of 1107 mAh g −1 at 0.25C after 200 cycles in lithium ion battery system, and shows a capacitance of 1088 F g −1 with capacitance loss of less than 3% at 5 A g −1 after 5000 cycles in supercapacitors.

  3. First-principles calculations of electronic, magnetic and optical properties of HoN doped with TM (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co and Ni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouchdi, M.; Salmani, E.; Dehmani, M.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Hassanain, N.; Benyoussef, A.; Mzerd, A.

    2018-02-01

    Using the first-principles calculations within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) method combined with the coherent potential approximation (CPA), the structural, optical and magnetic properties of rare-earth nitride Ho0.95TM0.05N doped with transition metal (TM) atoms (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co and Ni) are investigated as a function the generalized gradient approximation and self-interaction correction (GGA-SIC) approximation. The optical properties are studied in detail by using ab-initio calculations. Using GGA-SIC we have showed that the bandgap value is in good agreement with the experimental value. Using GGA-SIC approximation for HoN, we have obtained a bandgap of 0.9 eV. Some of the dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) like Ho0.95TM0.05N under study exhibit a half-metallic behavior, which makes them suitable for spintronic applications. Moreover, the optical absorption spectra confirm the ferromagnetic stability based on the charge state of magnetic impurities.

  4. Methods to synthesize NiPt bimetallic nanoparticles by a reversed-phase microemulsion, deposition of NiPt bimetallic nanoparticles on a support, and application of the supported catalyst for CO.sub.2 reforming of methane

    KAUST Repository

    Biausque, Gregory; Laveille, Paco; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Caps, Valerie; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Methods to synthesize NiPt bimetallic nanoparticles by a reversed-phase microemulsion, deposition of NiPt bimetallic nanoparticles on a support, and application of the supported catalyst for CO.sub.2 reforming of methane

  5. Methods to synthesize NiPt bimetallic nanoparticles by a reversed-phase microemulsion, deposition of NiPt bimetallic nanoparticles on a support, and application of the supported catalyst for CO.sub.2 reforming of methane

    KAUST Repository

    Biausque, Gregory

    2015-04-28

    Methods to synthesize NiPt bimetallic nanoparticles by a reversed-phase microemulsion, deposition of NiPt bimetallic nanoparticles on a support, and application of the supported catalyst for CO.sub.2 reforming of methane

  6. Structural Characterization of Bimetallic Nanocrystal Electrocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, David A [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Late transition metal nanocrystals find applications in heterogeneous catalysis such as plasmon-enhanced catalysis and as electrode materials for fuel cells, a zero-emission and sustainable energy technology. Their commercial viability for automotive transportation has steadily increased in recent years, almost exclusively due to the discovery of more efficient bimetallic nanocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode. Despite improvements to catalyst design, achieving high activity while maintaining durability is essential to further enhance their performance for this and other important applications in catalysis. Electronic effects arising from the generation of metal-metal interfaces, from plasmonic metals, and from lattice distortions, can vastly improve sorption properties at catalytic surfaces, while increasing durability.[1] Multimetallic lattice-strained nanoparticles are thus an interesting opportunity for fundamental research.[2,3] A colloidal synthesis approach is demonstrated to produce AuPd alloy and Pd@Au core-shell nanoicosahedra as catalysts for electro-oxidations. The nanoparticles are characterized using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (ac-STEM) and large solid angle energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) on an FEI Talos 4-detector STEM/EDS system. Figure 1 shows bright-field (BF) and high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) ac-STEM images of the alloy and core-shell nanoicosahedra together with EDS line-scans and elemental maps. These structures are unique in that the presence of twin boundaries, alloying, and core-shell morphology could create highly strained surfaces and interfaces. The shell thickness of the core-shell structures observed in HAADF-STEM images is tuned by adjusting the ratio between metal precursors (Figure 2a-f) to produce shells ranging from a few to several monolayers. Specific activity was measured in ethanol electro-oxidation to examine the effect of shell thickness on

  7. Controlling hydrogenation activity and selectivity of bimetallic surfaces and catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Luis E.

    Studies of bimetallic systems are of great interest in catalysis due to the novel properties that they often show in comparison with the parent metals. The goals of this dissertation are: (1) to expand the studies of self-hydrogenation and hydrogenation reactions on bimetallic surfaces under ultra high vacuum conditions (UHV) using different hydrocarbon as probe molecules; (2) to attempt to correlate the surface science findings with supported catalyst studies under more realistic conditions; and (3) to investigate the competitive hydrogenation of C=C versus C=O bonds on Pt(111) modified by different 3d transition metals. Hydrogenation studies using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) on Ni/Pt(111) bimetallic surfaces have demonstrated an enhancement in the low temperature hydrogenation activity relative to that of clean Pt(111). This novel hydrogenation pathway can be achieved under UHV conditions by controlling the structures of the bimetallic surfaces. A low temperature hydrogenation activity of 1-hexene and 1-butene has been observed on a Pt-Ni-Pt(111) subsurface structure, where Ni atoms are mainly present on the second layer of the Pt(111) single crystal. These results are in agreement with previous studies of self-hydrogenation and hydrogenation of cyclohexene. However, a much higher dehydrogenation activity is observed in the reaction of cyclohexene to produce benzene, demonstrating that the hydrocarbon structure has an effect on the reaction pathways. On the other hand, self-hydrogenation of 1-butene is not observed on the Pt-Ni-Pt(111) surface, indicating that the chain length (or molecular weight) has a significant effect on the selfhydrogenation activity. The gas phase reaction of cyclohexene on Ni/Pt supported on alumina catalysts has also shown a higher self-hydrogenation activity in comparison with the same reaction performed on supported monometallic catalysts. The effects of metal loading and impregnation sequence of the metal precursors are

  8. Simulation of Bimetallic Bush Hot Rolling Bonding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqin Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional model of bimetallic bush was established including the drive roller and the core roller. The model adopted the appropriate interface assumptions. Based on the bonding properties of bimetallic bush the hot rolling process was analyzed. The optimum reduction ratio of 28% is obtained by using the finite element simulation software MARC on the assumption of the bonding conditions. The stress-strain distribution of three dimensions was research assumptions to interface deformation of rolling. At the same time, based on the numerical simulation, the minimum reduction ratio 20% is obtained by using a double metal composite bush rolling new technology from the experiment research. The simulation error is not more than 8%.

  9. Covalent bonding and band-gap formation in ternary transition-metal di-aluminides: Al4MnCo and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajci, M.; Hafner, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we extend our previous study of the electronic structure of and bonding mechanism in transition-metal (TM) di-aluminides to ternary systems. We have studied the character of the bonding in Al 4 MnCo and related TM di-aluminides in the C11 b (MoSi 2 ) and C54 (TiSi 2 ) crystal structures. A peculiar feature of the electronic structure of these TM di-aluminides is the existence of a semiconducting gap at the Fermi level. In our previous work we predicted a gap in Al 2 TM compounds where the TM atoms have eight valence electrons. Here we demonstrate that the semiconducting gap does not disappear if the TM sites are occupied by two different TMs, provided that the electron-per-atom ratio is conserved. Such a replacement substantially increases the class of possibly semiconducting TM di-aluminides. Substitution for 3d TMs of 4d or 5d TMs enhances the width of the gap. From the analysis of the charge density distribution and the crystal orbital overlap population, we conclude that the bonding between atoms has dominantly covalent character. This is confirmed not only by the enhanced charge density halfway between atoms, but also by the clear bonding-antibonding splitting of the electronic states. If the gaps between split states that correspond to all bonding configurations in the crystal have a common overlap at the Fermi level, the intermetallic compound becomes a semiconductor. However, the results of the total-energy calculations suggest that the existence of a band gap does not necessarily imply a stable structure. Strong covalent bonds can exist also in Al-TM structures where no band gap is observed. (author)

  10. Structural, Transport and Electrochemical Properties of LiFePO4 Substituted in Lithium and Iron Sublattices (Al, Zr, W, Mn, Co and Ni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenda, Janina; Kulka, Andrzej; Milewska, Anna; Zając, Wojciech; Świerczek, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    LiFePO4 is considered to be one of the most promising cathode materials for lithium ion batteries for electric vehicle (EV) application. However, there are still a number of unsolved issues regarding the influence of Li and Fe-site substitution on the physicochemical properties of LiFePO4. This is a review-type article, presenting results of our group, related to the possibility of the chemical modification of phosphoolivine by introduction of cation dopants in Li and Fe sublattices. Along with a synthetic review of previous papers, a large number of new results are included. The possibility of substitution of Li+ by Al3+, Zr4+, W6+ and its influence on the physicochemical properties of LiFePO4 was investigated by means of XRD, SEM/EDS, electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements. The range of solid solution formation in Li1−3xAlxFePO4, Li1−4xZrxFePO4 and Li1−6xWxFePO4 materials was found to be very narrow. Transport properties of the synthesized materials were found to be rather weakly dependent on the chemical composition. The battery performance of selected olivines was tested by cyclic voltammetry (CV). In the case of LiFe1−yMyPO4 (M = Mn, Co and Ni), solid solution formation was observed over a large range of y (0 0.25 leads to considerably lower values of σ. The activated character of electrical conductivity with a rather weak temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient suggests a small polaron-type conduction mechanism. The electrochemical properties of LiFe1−yMyPO4 strongly depend on the Fe substitution level. PMID:28809235

  11. Structural, Transport and Electrochemical Properties of LiFePO4 Substituted in Lithium and Iron Sublattices (Al, Zr, W, Mn, Co and Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Świerczek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available LiFePO4 is considered to be one of the most promising cathode materials for lithium ion batteries for electric vehicle (EV application. However, there are still a number of unsolved issues regarding the influence of Li and Fe-site substitution on the physicochemical properties of LiFePO4. This is a review-type article, presenting results of our group, related to the possibility of the chemical modification of phosphoolivine by introduction of cation dopants in Li and Fe sublattices. Along with a synthetic review of previous papers, a large number of new results are included. The possibility of substitution of Li+ by Al3+, Zr4+, W6+ and its influence on the physicochemical properties of LiFePO4 was investigated by means of XRD, SEM/EDS, electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements. The range of solid solution formation in Li1−3xAlxFePO4, Li1−4xZrxFePO4 and Li1−6xWxFePO4 materials was found to be very narrow. Transport properties of the synthesized materials were found to be rather weakly dependent on the chemical composition. The battery performance of selected olivines was tested by cyclic voltammetry (CV. In the case of LiFe1−yMyPO4 (M = Mn, Co and Ni, solid solution formation was observed over a large range of y (0 0.25 leads to considerably lower values of σ. The activated character of electrical conductivity with a rather weak temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient suggests a small polaron-type conduction mechanism. The electrochemical properties of LiFe1−yMyPO4 strongly depend on the Fe substitution level.

  12. Bimetallic spacer means for a nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    A bimetallic spacer means designed to be cooperatively associated with a nuclear fuel assembly and operative to resist the occurrence of in-reactor bowing of the nuclear fuel assembly. The subject bimetallic spacer means in accord with one embodiment of the invention includes a member formed, at least principally, of Zircaloy to which are attached a plurality of stainless steel strips. The latter stainless steel strips are located on the external surface of the Zircaloy member and with the major axis of each of the plurality of stainless steel strips extending substantially perpendicular to the major axis of the Zircaloy member. In accord with another embodiment of the invention, the subject bimetallic spacer means includes a member formed at least principally of Zircaloy to which a plurality of stainless steel strips are attached so as to be positioned thereon externally thereof and with the major axis of each of the plurality of stainless steel strips extending substantially parallel to the major axis of the Zircaloy member. In accord with a further embodiment of the invention, the stainless steel strips are attached to preselected members, each embodying at least a cladding of Zircaloy, which are located in the rows of fuel rods that define the perimeter of the fuel matrix of the nuclear fuel assembly. In each of the embodiments, the stainless steel strips during power production expand outwardly to a greater extent than do the members to which the stainless steel strips are attached, thereby forming stiff springs which abut against like bimetallic spacer means with which the other nuclear fuel assemblies are provided in a given nuclear reactor core to thus prevent the occurrence of in-reactor bowing of the nuclear fuel assemblies. Namely, the stainless steel strips expand laterally relative to the fuel assembly and thereby occupy the space adjacent to the external surface of the fuel assembly

  13. Platinum-Bismuth Bimetallic Catalysts: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Saucedo, Jose A, Jr; Xiao, Yang; Varma, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Bimetallic catalysts have been explored and shown to exhibit unique characteristics which are not present in monometallic catalysts. Platinum is well known as an effective catalyst for oxidation and reduction reactions, and it can be made more effective when bismuth is introduced as a promotor. Thus, the effectiveness of the Pt-Bi catalyst was demonstrated in prior work. What is not clear, however, is the mechanism behind the catalyst function; why addition of bismuth to platinum decreases de...

  14. Biosupported Bimetallic Pd Au Nanocatalysts for Dechlorination of Environmental Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Corte, S.; Fitts, J.; Hennebel, T.; Sabbe, T.; Bliznuk, V.; Verschuere, S.; van der Lelie, D.; Verstraete, W.; Boon, N.

    2011-08-30

    Biologically produced monometallic palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd) have been shown to catalyze the dehalogenation of environmental contaminants, but fail to efficiently catalyze the degradation of other important recalcitrant halogenated compounds. This study represents the first report of biologically produced bimetallic Pd/Au nanoparticle catalysts. The obtained catalysts were tested for the dechlorination of diclofenac and trichloroethylene. When aqueous bivalent Pd(II) and trivalent Au(III) ions were both added to concentrations of 50 mg L{sup -1} and reduced simultaneously by Shewanella oneidensis in the presence of H{sub 2}, the resulting cell-associated bimetallic nanoparticles (bio-Pd/Au) were able to dehalogenate 78% of the initially added diclofenac after 24 h; in comparison, no dehalogenation was observed using monometallic bio-Pd or bio-Au. Other catalyst-synthesis strategies did not show improved dehalogenation of TCE and diclofenac compared with bio-Pd. Synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction, (scanning) transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that the simultaneous reduction of Pd and Au supported on cells of S. oneidensis resulted in the formation of a unique bimetallic crystalline structure. This study demonstrates that the catalytic activity and functionality of possibly environmentally more benign biosupported Pd-catalysts can be improved by coprecipitation with Au.

  15. Carbon monoxide oxidation on bimetallic Ru/Au(111 surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROLF-JÜRGEN BEHM

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical deposition of Ru on Au(111 was performed in 0.5 M H2SO4+10-4 M RuCl3 . The obtained bimetallic Ru/Au(111 surfaces were character-ised by cyclic voltammetry and in situ STM in 0.5 MH2SO4. The Ru deposit consists of nanoscale islands, which merge with increasing coverage. Two different types of bimetallic Ru/Au(111 surfaces with respect to the distribution of Ru islands over the Au(111 substrate surface were obtained. When the deposition was performed at potentials more positive than the range of Au(111 reconstruction, homogeneous nucleation occured resulting in a random distribution of Ru islands. When the deposition was performed on reconstructed Au(111 at low overpotentials, selective nucleation occured resulting in the replication of the Au(111 reconstruction. Only at higher deposition overpotentials, can multilayer deposits be formed, which exhibit a very rough surface morphology. The electrocatalytic activity of such structurally well defined Ru/Au(111 bimetallic surfaces was studied towards CO oxidation with the Ru coverage ranging from submonolayer to several monolayer. COstripping commences at about 0.2 Vand occurs over a broad potential range. The observed influence of the Ru structure on the CO stripping voltammetry is explained by local variations in the COadsorption energy, caused by differences in the local Ru structure and by effects induced by the Au(111 substrate.

  16. Adsorption, hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of C2H on a CoCu bimetallic layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Donghai; Yuan, Jinyun; Yang, Baocheng; Chen, Houyang

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, adsorption, hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of C2H on a single atomic layer of bimetallic CoCu were investigated using first-principles calculations. The CoCu bimetallic layer is formed by Cu replacement of partial Co atoms on the top layer of a Co(111) surface. Our adsorption and reaction results showed those sites, which have stronger adsorption energy of C2H, possess higher reactivity. The bimetallic layer possesses higher reactivity than either of the pure monometallic layer. A mechanism of higher reactivity of the bimetallic layer is proposed and identified, i.e. in the bimetallic catalyst, the catalytic performance of one component is promoted by the second component, and in our work, the catalytic performance of Co atoms in the bimetallic layer are improved by introducing Cu atoms, lowing the activation barrier of the reaction of C2H. The bimetallic layer could tune adsorption and reaction of C2H by modulating the ratio of Co and Cu. Results of adsorption energies and adsorption configurations reveal that C2H prefers to be adsorbed in parallel on both the pure Co metallic and CoCu bimetallic layers, and Co atoms in subsurface which support the metallic or bimetallic layer have little effect on C2H adsorption. For hydrogenation reactions, the products greatly depend on the concentration and initial positions of hydrogen atoms, and the C2H hydrogenation forming acetylene is more favorable than forming vinylidene in both thermodynamics and kinetics. This study would provide fundamental guidance for hydrocarbon reactions on Co-based and/or Cu-based bimetallic surface chemistry and for development of new bimetallic catalysts.

  17. Electrochemical reduction of CO2 on compositionally variant Au-Pt bimetallic thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, M.; Hansen, H.A.; Valenti, M.; Wang, Z.; Cao, A.; Dong, M.; Smith, W.A.

    2017-01-01

    The electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 on Au-Pt bimetallic catalysts with different compositions was evaluated, offering a platform for uncovering the correlation between the catalytic activity and the surface composition of bimetallic electrocatalysts. The Au-Pt alloy films were synthesized by a

  18. Catalytic reforming of glycerol in supercritical water over bimetallic Pt-Ni catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakinala, A.G.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; de Vlieger, Dennis; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic reforming of pure glycerol for the production of hydrogen at low temperature and short residence times in supercritical water was investigated using a bimetallic Pt–Ni catalyst supported on alumina. Initial tests were carried out to study the reforming activity of bimetallic Pt–Ni

  19. One-step synthesis of gold bimetallic nanoparticles with various metal-compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratescu, Maria Antoaneta; Takai, Osamu; Saito, Nagahiro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles in an aqueous solution discharge. ► Alloying gold with divalent sp metals, trivalent sp metals, 3d or 4d metals. ► Formation mechanism of bimetallic nanoparticles by metal reduction and gold erosion. ► Blue and red shift of surface plasmon resonance. -- Abstract: A rapid, one-step process for the synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles by simultaneous metal reduction and gold erosion in an aqueous solution discharge was investigated. Gold bimetallic nanoparticles were obtained by alloying gold with various types of metals belonging to one of the following categories: divalent sp metals, trivalent sp metals, 3d or 4d metals. The composition of the various gold bimetallic nanoparticles obtained depends on electrochemical factors, charge transfer between gold and other metal, and initial concentration of metal in solution. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy show that the gold bimetallic nanoparticles were of mixed pattern, with sizes of between 5 and 20 nm. A red-shift of the surface plasmon resonance band in the case of the bimetallic nanoparticles Au–Fe, Au–Ga, and Au–In, and a blue-shift of the plasmon band of the Au–Ag nanoparticles was observed. In addition, the interaction of gold bimetallic nanoparticles with unpaired electrons, provided by a stable free radical molecule, was highest for those NPs obtained by alloying gold with a 3d metal

  20. A facile route to synthesize multiporous MnCo2O4 and CoMn2O4 spinel quasi-hollow spheres with improved lithium storage properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingfa; Xiong, Shenglin; Li, Xiaowei; Qian, Yitai

    2013-02-01

    A facile and general way for the synthesis of porous and hollow complex oxides is highly desirable owing to their significant applications for energy storage and other fields. In this contribution, uniform Mn0.33Co0.67CO3 and Co0.33Mn0.67CO3 microspheres are firstly fabricated solvothermally just by tuning the molar ratio of Mn and Co. Subsequently, the growth of multiporous MnCo2O4 and CoMn2O4 quasi-hollow microspheres by topotactic chemical transformation from the corresponding precursors are realized through a non-equilibrium heat treatment process. Topotactic conversion further demonstrated that the much larger CoMn2O4 pores than those of MnCo2O4 are possibly due to the longer transfer distance of ions. When evaluated as anode materials for LIBs (lithium ion batteries), after 25 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1, the resultant MnCo2O4 and CoMn2O4 quasi-hollow microspheres possessed reversible capacities of 755 and 706 mA h g-1, respectively. In particular, the MnCo2O4 samples could deliver a reversible capacity as high as 610 mA h g-1 even at a higher current density of 400 mA g-1 with excellent electrochemical stability after 100 cycles of testing, indicating its potential application in LIBs. We believe that such good performance results from the appropriate pore size and quasi-hollow nature of MnCo2O4 microspheres, which can effectively buffer the large volume variation of anodes based on the conversion reaction during Li+ insertion/extraction. The present strategy is simple but very effective, and due to its versatility, it can be extended to other binary, even ternary complex metal oxides with high-performance in LIBs.A facile and general way for the synthesis of porous and hollow complex oxides is highly desirable owing to their significant applications for energy storage and other fields. In this contribution, uniform Mn0.33Co0.67CO3 and Co0.33Mn0.67CO3 microspheres are firstly fabricated solvothermally just by tuning the molar ratio of Mn and Co

  1. Enhancement of magnetic and ferroelectric properties of BiFeO3 by Er and transition element (Mn, Co) co-doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yumin; Mao, Weiwei; Quan, Chuye; Wang, Xingfu; Yang, Jianping; Yang, Tao; Li, Xing’ao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • BiFeO 3 , Bi 0.8 Er 0.2 FeO 3 , Bi 0.8 Er 0.2 Fe 0.9 Mn 0.1 O 3 and Bi 0.8 Er 0.2 Fe 0.9 Co 0.1 O 3 nanoparticles were prepared by sol–gel method. • The introduction of Er and Mn, Co into BiFeO 3 leads into a phase transition with reduced grain size. • The phase transformation combined with size reduction has significantly increased saturated polarization (Ps), remanent polarization (Pr) and saturated magnetization (Ms), remanent magnetization (Mr) behaviors of the doped samples with the same variation trend. • The formation of dipolar defect complexes (DDCs) in the doped samples may also contribute to the improved ferroelectric property. • Bi 0.8 Er 0.2 Fe 0.9 Mn 0.1 O 3 exhibits significantly improved ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. - Abstract: BiFeO 3 (BFO), Bi 0.8 Er 0.2 FeO 3 (BEFO), Bi 0.8 Er 0.2 Fe 0.9 Mn 0.1 O 3 (BEFMO) and Bi 0.8 Er 0.2 Fe 0.9 Co 0.1 O 3 (BEFCO) nanoparticles were prepared by sol–gel method having an average size of 200 nm for BFO, under100 nm for BEFO and under 60 nm for BEFMO and BEFCO. Phase transition from a rhombohedral symmetry (R3c) for BFO to an orthorhombic symmetry (Ibmm) for BEFO, BEFMO and BEFCO has been observed. The phase transformation combined with size reduction has significantly improved both ferroelectric and ferromagnetic behaviors of the doped samples in a similar way. The formation of dipolar defect complexes (DDCs) in the doped samples also contributes to the improved ferroelectric property with saturated polarization (Ps) of 0.375 μC/cm 2 and remanent polarization (Pr) of 0.244 μC/cm 2 for BEFMO. Size effect may also impact the simultaneously developed Pr for BEFMO and BEFCO. Owning to the interactions between the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic microdomains, improved saturated magnetization (Ms) and remanent magnetization (Mr) are also observed in BEFMO

  2. Effects of alloying elements (Mn, Co, Al, W, Sn, B, C and S) on biodegradability and in vitro biocompatibility of pure iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B; Zheng, Y F

    2011-03-01

    Pure iron was determined to be a valid candidate material for biodegradable metallic stents in recent animal tests; however, a much faster degradation rate in physiological environments was desired. C, Mn, Si, P, S, B, Cr, Ni, Pb, Mo, Al, Ti, Cu, Co, V and W are common alloying elements in industrial steels, with Cr, Ni, Mo, Cu, Ti, V and Si being acknowledged as beneficial in enhancing the corrosion resistance of iron. The purpose of the present work (using Fe-X binary alloy models) is to explore the effect of the remaining alloying elements (Mn, Co, Al, W, B, C and S) and one detrimental impurity element Sn on the biodegradability and biocompatibility of pure iron by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, metallographic observation, tensile testing, microhardness testing, electrochemical testing, static (for 6 months) and dynamic (for 1 month with various dissolved oxygen concentrations) immersion testing, cytotoxicity testing, hemolysis and platelet adhesion testing. The results showed that the addition of all alloying elements except for Sn improved the mechanical properties of iron after rolling. Localized corrosion of Fe-X binary alloys was observed in both static and dynamic immersion tests. Except for the Fe-Mn alloy, which showed a significant decrease in corrosion rate, the other Fe-X binary alloy corrosion rates were close to that of pure iron. It was found that compared with pure iron all Fe-X binary alloys decreased the viability of the L929 cell line, none of experimental alloying elements significantly reduced the viability of vascular smooth muscle cells and all the elements except for Mn increased the viability of the ECV304 cell line. The hemolysis percentage of all Fe-X binary alloy models were less than 5%, and no sign of thrombogenicity was observed. In vitro corrosion and the biological behavior of these Fe-X binary alloys are discussed and a corresponding mechanism of corrosion of Fe-X binary alloys in Hank's solution proposed. As a

  3. Synthesis, Characterization, and Relative Study on the Catalytic Activity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Doped MnCO3, –MnO2, and –Mn2O3 Nanocomposites for Aerial Oxidation of Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Assal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles doped manganese carbonate catalysts [X% ZnOx–MnCO3] (where X = 0–7 were prepared via a facile and straightforward coprecipitation procedure, which upon different calcination treatments yields different manganese oxides, that is, [X% ZnOx–MnO2] and [X% ZnOx–Mn2O3]. A comparative catalytic study was conducted to evaluate the catalytic efficiency between carbonates and oxides for the selective oxidation of secondary alcohols to corresponding ketones using molecular oxygen as a green oxidizing agent without using any additives or bases. The prepared catalysts were characterized by different techniques such as SEM, EDX, XRD, TEM, TGA, BET, and FTIR spectroscopy. The 1% ZnOx–MnCO3 calcined at 300°C exhibited the best catalytic performance and possessed highest surface area, suggesting that the calcination temperature and surface area play a significant role in the alcohol oxidation. The 1% ZnOx–MnCO3 catalyst exhibited superior catalytic performance and selectivity in the aerial oxidation of 1-phenylethanol, where 100% alcohol conversion and more than 99% product selectivity were obtained in only 5 min with superior specific activity (48 mmol·g−1·h−1 and 390.6 turnover frequency (TOF. The specific activity obtained is the highest so far (to the best of our knowledge compared to the catalysts already reported in the literatures used for the oxidation of 1-phenylethanol. It was found that ZnOx nanoparticles play an essential role in enhancing the catalytic efficiency for the selective oxidation of alcohols. The scope of the oxidation process is extended to different types of alcohols. A variety of primary, benzylic, aliphatic, allylic, and heteroaromatic alcohols were selectively oxidized into their corresponding carbonyls with 100% convertibility without overoxidation to the carboxylic acids under base-free conditions.

  4. Atomic Structure of Au−Pd Bimetallic Alloyed Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Yong

    2010-09-08

    Using a two-step seed-mediated growth method, we synthesized bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) having a gold octahedron core and a palladium epitaxial shell with controlled Pd-shell thickness. The mismatch-release mechanism between the Au core and Pd shell of the NPs was systematically investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. In the NPs coated with a single atomic layer of Pd, the strain between the surface Pd layer and the Au core is released by Shockley partial dislocations (SPDs) accompanied by the formation of stacking faults. For NPs coated with more Pd (>2 nm), the stacking faults still exist, but no SPDs are found. This may be due to the diffusion of Au atoms into the Pd shell layers to eliminate the SPDs. At the same time, a long-range ordered L11 AuPd alloy phase has been identified in the interface area, supporting the assumption of the diffusion of Au into Pd to release the interface mismatch. With increasing numbers of Pd shell layers, the shape of the Au-Pd NP changes, step by step, from truncated-octahedral to cubic. After the bimetallic NPs were annealed at 523 K for 10 min, the SPDs at the surface of the NPs coated with a single atomic layer of Pd disappeared due to diffusion of the Au atoms into the surface layer, while the stacking faults and the L11 Au-Pd alloyed structure remained. When the annealing temperature was increased to 800 K, electron diffraction patterns and diffraction contrast images revealed that the NPs became a uniform Au-Pd alloy, and most of the stacking faults disappeared as a result of the annealing. Even so, some clues still support the existence of the L11 phase, which suggests that the L11 phase is a stable, long-range ordered structure in Au-Pd bimetallic NPs. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. Controllable Catalysis with Nanoparticles: Bimetallic Alloy Systems and Surface Adsorbates

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tianyou

    2016-05-16

    Transition metal nanoparticles are privileged materials in catalysis due to their high specific surface areas and abundance of active catalytic sites. While many of these catalysts are quite useful, we are only beginning to understand the underlying catalytic mechanisms. Opening the “black box” of nanoparticle catalysis is essential to achieve the ultimate goal of catalysis by design. In this Perspective we highlight recent work addressing the topic of controlled catalysis with bimetallic alloy and “designer” adsorbate-stabilized metal nanoparticles.

  6. Controllable Catalysis with Nanoparticles: Bimetallic Alloy Systems and Surface Adsorbates

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tianyou; Rodionov, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    Transition metal nanoparticles are privileged materials in catalysis due to their high specific surface areas and abundance of active catalytic sites. While many of these catalysts are quite useful, we are only beginning to understand the underlying catalytic mechanisms. Opening the “black box” of nanoparticle catalysis is essential to achieve the ultimate goal of catalysis by design. In this Perspective we highlight recent work addressing the topic of controlled catalysis with bimetallic alloy and “designer” adsorbate-stabilized metal nanoparticles.

  7. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, October--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E.; Kirby, S.; Song, Chunshan; Schobert, H.H.

    1994-04-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more, efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts can be superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires infinite contact between the catalyst and coal. The primary objective of this research is to explore the potential of bimetallic dispersed catalysts from heterometallic molecular precursors in their use in model compound liquefaction reactions. This quarterly report describes the use of three precursors in model compound reactions. The first catalyst is a heterometallic complex consisting of two transition metals, Mo and Ni, and sulfur in a single molecule. The second is a thiocubane type complex consisting of cobalt, molybdenum and sulfur. The third is a thiocubane type cluster consisting of iron and sulfur and the fourth, the pure inorganic salt ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (ATM). It was found that the structure and the ligands in the model complexes affect the activity of the resulting catalyst significantly. The optimum reaction at a pressure of 6.9 MPa hydrogen gas varied for different catalysts. The bimetallic catalysts generated in situ from the organometallic precursor are more active than monometallic catalysts like ATTM and the thiocubane type cluster Fe{sub 4}. Main products are hydrogenated phenanthrene derivatives, like DBP, THP, sym-OHP, cis- and trans-unsym-OHP with minor isomerization products such as sym-OHA. Our results indicate that other transition metal and ligand combinations in the organometallic precursors and the use of another model compound could result in substantially higher conversion activity.

  8. Strategies to initiate and control the nucleation behavior of bimetallic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Gopi; de Graaf, Sytze; Ten Brink, Gert H; Persson, Per O Å; Kooi, Bart J; Palasantzas, George

    2017-06-22

    In this work we report strategies to nucleate bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) made by gas phase synthesis of elements showing difficulty in homogeneous nucleation. It is shown that the nucleation assisted problem of bimetallic NP synthesis can be solved via the following pathways: (i) selecting an element which can itself nucleate and act as a nucleation center for the synthesis of bimetallic NPs; (ii) introducing H 2 or CH 4 as an impurity/trace gas to initiate nucleation during the synthesis of bimetallic NPs. The latter can solve the problem if none of the elements in a bimetallic NP can initiate nucleation. We illustrate the abovementioned strategies for the case of Mg based bimetallic NPs, which are interesting as hydrogen storage materials and exhibit both nucleation and oxidation issues even under ultra-high vacuum conditions. In particular, it is shown that adding H 2 in small proportions favors the formation of a solid solution/alloy structure even in the case of immiscible Mg and Ti, where normally phase separation occurs during synthesis. In addition, we illustrate the possibility of improving the nucleation rate, and controlling the structure and size distribution of bimetallic NPs using H 2 /CH 4 as a reactive/nucleating gas. This is shown to be associated with the dimer bond energies of the various formed species and the vapor pressures of the metals, which are key factors for NP nucleation.

  9. A Tunable Bimetallic MOF-74 for Adsorption Chiller Applications: A Tunable Bimetallic MOF-74 for Adsorption Chiller Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 99352 Richland WA USA; Zheng, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 99352 Richland WA USA; Barpaga, Dushyant [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 99352 Richland WA USA; Sabale, Sandip [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 99352 Richland WA USA; P.G. Department of Chemistry, Jaysingpur College, 416101 Jaysingpur Maharashtra India; Arey, Bruce [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 99352 Richland WA USA; Derewinski, Miroslaw A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 99352 Richland WA USA; McGrail, B. Peter [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 99352 Richland WA USA; Motkuri, Radha Kishan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 99352 Richland WA USA

    2018-02-12

    A mixed metal strategy, in which two different metal nodes coexist in one MOF framework, was examined using MOF-74. The Ni salt precursor for the MOF-74(Ni) analogue was partially replaced during synthesis with relatively inexpensive Zn salt. These bimetallic MOFs were developed and examined for water sorption for potential use in adsorption cooling/chiller applications. Varying concentration ratios of Ni:Zn in MOF-74 achieved using this mixed metal strategy were shown to provide unique impacts on H2O uptake while significantly mitigating the costs of synthesis

  10. Physical and Numerical Analysis of Extrusion Process for Production of Bimetallic Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misiolek, W.Z.; Sikka, V.K.

    2006-08-10

    Bimetallic tubes are used for very specific applications where one of the two metals provides strength and the other provides specific properties such as aqueous corrosion and carburization, coking resistance, and special electrical and thermal properties. Bimetallic tubes have application in pulp and paper industry for heat-recovery boilers, in the chemical industry for ethylene production, and in the petrochemical industry for deep oil well explorations. Although bimetallic tubes have major applications in energy-intensive industry, they often are not used because of their cost and manufacturing sources in the United States. This project was intended to address both of these issues.

  11. Bimetallic Catalysts Containing Gold and Palladium for Environmentally Important Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alshammari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Supported bimetallic nanoparticles (SBN are extensively used as efficient redox catalysts. This kind of catalysis particularly using SBN has attracted immense research interest compared to their parent metals due to their unique physico-chemical properties. The primary objective of this contribution is to provide comprehensive overview about SBN and their application as promising catalysts. The present review contains four sections in total. Section 1 starts with a general introduction, recent progress, and brief summary of the application of SBN as promising catalysts for different applications. Section 2 reviews the preparation and characterization methods of SBN for a wide range of catalytic reactions. Section 3 concentrates on our own results related to the application of SBN in heterogeneous catalysis. In this section, the oxidation of cyclohexane to adipic acid (an eco-friendly and novel approach will be discussed. In addition, the application of bimetallic Pd catalysts for vapor phase toluene acetoxylation in a fixed bed reactor will also be highlighted. Acetoxylation of toluene to benzyl acetate is another green route to synthesize benzyl acetate in one step. Finally, Section 4 describes the summary of the main points and also presents an outlook on the application of SBN as promising catalysts for the production of valuable products.

  12. Optical properties and sensing applications of stellated and bimetallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alison F.

    This dissertation focuses on developing guidelines to aid in the design of new bimetallic platforms for sensing applications. Stellated metal nanostructures are a class of plasmonic colloids in which large electric field enhancements can occur at sharp features, making them excellent candidates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy (SE-IRS) platforms. Shape-dependent rules for convex polyhedra such as cubes or octahedra exist, which describe far-field scattering and near-field enhancements. However, such rules are lacking for their concave (stellated) counterparts. This dissertation presents the optical response of stellated Au nanocrystals with Oh, D4h, D3h, C2v, and T d symmetry, which were modeled to systematically investigate the role of symmetry, branching, and particle orientation with respect to excitation source using finite difference time domain (FDTD) calculations. Expanding on stellated nanostructures, bimetallic compositions introduce an interplay between overall architecture and composition to provide tunable optical properties and the potential of new functionality. However, decoupling the complex compositional and structural contributions to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) remains a challenge, especially when the monometallic counterparts are not synthetically accessible for comparison and the theoretical tools for capturing gradient compositions are lacking. This dissertation explores a stellated Au-Pd nanocrystal model system with Oh symmetry to decouple structural and complex compositional effects on LSPR. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  13. Versatile Optimization of Chemical Ordering in Bimetallic Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Ková cs, Gá bor; Kozlov, Sergey M.; Neyman, Konstantin M.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical ordering in bimetallic nanocrystallites can now be efficiently determined by density-functional calculations with the help of topological energy expressions. Herein, we deal with extending the usage of that computational scheme. We show that it enables one to structurally characterize bimetallic nanoparticles of less regular shapes than previously studied magic-type particles. In fcc Pd–Au particles of different shapes (cuboctahedral Pd58Au58, C3v Pd61Au61, cubic Pd68Au67, and truncated octahedral Pd70Au70), we identify the surface segregation of gold as the driving force to the lowest-energy chemical ordering. We applied the calculated descriptor values quantifying the segregation propensity of Au and energies of Pd–Au bonds in these ∼1.5 nm large particles to optimize and analyze the chemical ordering in 3.7–6 nm large Pd–Au particles. We also discuss how to predict the chemical ordering in nanoalloys at elevated temperatures. The present study paves the way to advanced structural investigations of nanoalloys to substantially accelerate their knowledge-driven engineering and manufacturing.

  14. Versatile Optimization of Chemical Ordering in Bimetallic Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Kovács, Gábor

    2017-01-05

    Chemical ordering in bimetallic nanocrystallites can now be efficiently determined by density-functional calculations with the help of topological energy expressions. Herein, we deal with extending the usage of that computational scheme. We show that it enables one to structurally characterize bimetallic nanoparticles of less regular shapes than previously studied magic-type particles. In fcc Pd–Au particles of different shapes (cuboctahedral Pd58Au58, C3v Pd61Au61, cubic Pd68Au67, and truncated octahedral Pd70Au70), we identify the surface segregation of gold as the driving force to the lowest-energy chemical ordering. We applied the calculated descriptor values quantifying the segregation propensity of Au and energies of Pd–Au bonds in these ∼1.5 nm large particles to optimize and analyze the chemical ordering in 3.7–6 nm large Pd–Au particles. We also discuss how to predict the chemical ordering in nanoalloys at elevated temperatures. The present study paves the way to advanced structural investigations of nanoalloys to substantially accelerate their knowledge-driven engineering and manufacturing.

  15. Multilayer bimetallic media as protection method of radioactive radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borts, B.V.; Tkachenko, V.I.; Tkachenko, I.V.

    2010-01-01

    Multilayer bimetallic media as means of protection of the earth's space vehicle from radioactive space radiation is described in the proposed paper. Evaluation of radiation losses of electron energy in inhomogeneous media is carried out; these media may be formed by layers of materials with different dielectric constants or they may be simulated by dielectric permittivity varying in space by harmonic law. It is shown that in such media the radiation losses of electron are proportional to the square of parameter of inhomogeneity, that is the losses are low. In the case when in periodic laminar medium with sharp boundaries the conditions of parametric union of self-waves of medium are satisfied, the losses of electron are proportional to the inhomogeneity parameter to first power and are comparable with losses that are caused by elementary events of scattering. The mean length of radiation losses of electron with energy 2(6) MeV in multilayer bimetallic medium tungsten-aluminum with period L ∼ 0,3 ·10 -6 cm is comparable with mean path of electron in such medium. The characteristic angles of radiation have the discrete character and are directed from 0 to 180 degree C. The power of losses increases with the radiation angle increase and is maximal for characteristic angles approaching 90 degree C.

  16. CO2 activation on bimetallic CuNi nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Austin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Density functional theory calculations have been performed to investigate the structural, electronic, and CO2 adsorption properties of 55-atom bimetallic CuNi nanoparticles (NPs in core-shell and decorated architectures, as well as of their monometallic counterparts. Our results revealed that with respect to the monometallic Cu55 and Ni55 parents, the formation of decorated Cu12Ni43 and core-shell Cu42Ni13 are energetically favorable. We found that CO2 chemisorbs on monometallic Ni55, core-shell Cu13Ni42, and decorated Cu12Ni43 and Cu43Ni12, whereas, it physisorbs on monometallic Cu55 and core-shell Cu42Ni13. The presence of surface Ni on the NPs is key in strongly adsorbing and activating the CO2 molecule (linear to bent transition and elongation of C˭O bonds. This activation occurs through a charge transfer from the NPs to the CO2 molecule, where the local metal d-orbital density localization on surface Ni plays a pivotal role. This work identifies insightful structure-property relationships for CO2 activation and highlights the importance of keeping a balance between NP stability and CO2 adsorption behavior in designing catalytic bimetallic NPs that activate CO2.

  17. Analysis of Al-Cu Bimetallic Bars Properties After Explosive Welding and Rolling in Modified Passes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mróz S.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the experimental tests of Al-Cu bimetallic bars rolling process in multi-radial modified passes. The bimetallic bars consist of aluminium core, grade 1050A and copper outer layer, grade M1E. The stocks were round bars with diameter 22 mm with a copper layer share of 15 and 30%. As a result of rolling in four passes, bars of a diameter of about 16.0 mm were obtained. A bimetallic stock was manufactured using an explosive welding method. The use of the designed arrangement of multi-radial modified stretching passes resulted in obtaining Al-Cu bimetallic bars with the required lateral dimensions, an uniform distribution of the cladding layer over the bar perimeter and high quality of shear strength between individual layers.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of Ag-Ni bimetallic nanoparticles by laser-induced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Qingmei; Yao Zhi; Liu Jiahong; Hai Ran; Oderji, Hassan Yousefi; Ding Hongbin

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach in which laser ablation deposition is used to synthesize silver-nickel bimetallic nanoparticles. A variety of techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, energy disperse spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been used to characterize the morphology, composition and construction of synthesized bimetallic nanoparticles, respectively. The formation mechanism of bimetallic nanoparticles has been discussed. The Raman spectra of silver-nickel bimetallic nanoparticles have been analyzed. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been applied to directly measure intermediate species. The results indicate that diatomic AgNi is the most abundant species and suggest that the AgNi is the most stable intermediate which may play an important role in the synthesis process. Emission spectra demonstrate that the electron temperature is in the range of 6000-10000 K during the ablation process and increases with the laser power density.

  19. Nickel and cobalt bimetallic hydroxide catalysts for urea electro-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Wei; Wang Dan; Botte, Gerardine G.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel–Cobalt bimetallic hydroxide electrocatalysts, synthesized through a one-step electrodeposition method, were evaluated for the oxidation of urea in alkaline conditions with the intention of reducing the oxidation overpotential for this reaction. The Nickel–Cobalt bimetallic hydroxide catalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), Raman spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and polarization techniques. A significant reduction in the overpotential (150 mV) of the reaction was observed with the Nickel–Cobalt bimetallic hydroxide electrode (ca. 43% Co content) when compared to a nickel hydroxide electrode. The decrease of the urea oxidation potential on the Nickel–Cobalt bimetallic hydroxide electrodes reveals great potential for future applications of urea electro-oxidation, including wastewater remediation, hydrogen production, sensors, and fuel cells.

  20. Bimetallic Au-decorated Pd catalyst for the liquid phase hydrodechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Juan; Chen, Huan; Chen, Quanyuan; Huang, Zhaolu

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: 2,4-Dichlorophenol can be converted to phenol via the catalytic HDC method over Pd-Au/CNTs and the catalytic activity first increased and then decreased with Au content. - Highlights: • Bimetallic catalysts had smaller metal particles and larger number of exposed active site than the monometallic catalysts. • The cationization of Pd particles increased with Au content in the bimetallic catalysts. • The bimetallic catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activities for HDC of 2,4-DCP than the monometallic counterparts. • The concerted pathway for HDC of 2,4-DCP was more predominant with increasing Au content in the bimetallic catalyst. - Abstract: Monometallic and bimetallic Pd-Au catalysts supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with varied Au cooperation amounts were prepared using the complexing-reduction method in the presence of tetrahydrofuran (THF). The liquid phase catalytic hydrodechlorination (HDC) of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) was investigated over these bimetallic catalysts. The catalysts were characterized by N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and H 2 chemisorption. Characterization results showed that the co-reduction of Pd and Au mainly formed alloy-like structure. The bimetallic catalysts had smaller metal particles and larger numbers of exposed active site than that of monometallic catalysts. In addition, compared with Pd(1.7)/CNTs and Au(0.4)/CNTs, the binding energies of Pd 3d 5/2 shifted to higher positions while that of Au 4f 7/2 had negative shifts in the Pd-Au bimetallic catalysts, which can be ascribed to the electrons transferred from metal Pd to Au and the cationization of Pd particles was enhanced. Accordingly, the bimetallic Pd-Au particles with different Au contents in the catalysts exhibited varied synergistic effects for the catalytic HDC of 2,4-DCP, with Pd(1.8)Au(0.4)/CNTs having the highest catalytic activity

  1. Bimetallic Au-decorated Pd catalyst for the liquid phase hydrodechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Juan [School of the Environment, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Chen, Huan, E-mail: hchen404@njust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Jiangsu Province for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental & Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Chen, Quanyuan; Huang, Zhaolu [School of the Environment, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Graphical abstract: 2,4-Dichlorophenol can be converted to phenol via the catalytic HDC method over Pd-Au/CNTs and the catalytic activity first increased and then decreased with Au content. - Highlights: • Bimetallic catalysts had smaller metal particles and larger number of exposed active site than the monometallic catalysts. • The cationization of Pd particles increased with Au content in the bimetallic catalysts. • The bimetallic catalysts exhibited higher catalytic activities for HDC of 2,4-DCP than the monometallic counterparts. • The concerted pathway for HDC of 2,4-DCP was more predominant with increasing Au content in the bimetallic catalyst. - Abstract: Monometallic and bimetallic Pd-Au catalysts supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with varied Au cooperation amounts were prepared using the complexing-reduction method in the presence of tetrahydrofuran (THF). The liquid phase catalytic hydrodechlorination (HDC) of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) was investigated over these bimetallic catalysts. The catalysts were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and H{sub 2} chemisorption. Characterization results showed that the co-reduction of Pd and Au mainly formed alloy-like structure. The bimetallic catalysts had smaller metal particles and larger numbers of exposed active site than that of monometallic catalysts. In addition, compared with Pd(1.7)/CNTs and Au(0.4)/CNTs, the binding energies of Pd 3d{sub 5/2} shifted to higher positions while that of Au 4f{sub 7/2} had negative shifts in the Pd-Au bimetallic catalysts, which can be ascribed to the electrons transferred from metal Pd to Au and the cationization of Pd particles was enhanced. Accordingly, the bimetallic Pd-Au particles with different Au contents in the catalysts exhibited varied synergistic effects for the catalytic HDC of 2,4-DCP, with Pd(1.8)Au(0.4)/CNTs having the highest

  2. Clustering of near clusters versus cluster compactness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Gao; Yipeng Jing

    1989-01-01

    The clustering properties of near Zwicky clusters are studied by using the two-point angular correlation function. The angular correlation functions for compact and medium compact clusters, for open clusters, and for all near Zwicky clusters are estimated. The results show much stronger clustering for compact and medium compact clusters than for open clusters, and that open clusters have nearly the same clustering strength as galaxies. A detailed study of the compactness-dependence of correlation function strength is worth investigating. (author)

  3. Atomistic simulations of the structures of Pd-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles and nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Kayoung; Cha, Pil-Ryung; Lee, Jaegab; Kim, Jiyoung; Nam, Ho-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Bimetallic nanoalloys such as nanoparticles and nanowires are attracting significant attention due to their vast potential applications such as in catalysis and nanoelectronics. Notably, Pd-Pt nanoparticles/nanowires are being widely recognized as catalysts and hydrogen sensors. Compared to unary systems, alloys present more structural complexity with various compositional configurations. Therefore, it is important to understand energetically preferred atomic structures of bimetallic nanoallo...

  4. Enantioselective Epoxide Polymerization Using a Bimetallic Cobalt Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Thomas, Renee M.

    2010-11-24

    A highly active enantiopure bimetallic cobalt complex was explored for the enantioselective polymerization of a variety of monosubstituted epoxides. The polymerizations were optimized for high rates and stereoselectivity, with s-factors (kfast/kslow) for most epoxides exceeding 50 and some exceeding 300, well above the threshold for preparative utility of enantiopure epoxides and isotactic polyethers. Values for mm triads of the resulting polymers are typically greater than 95%, with some even surpassing 98%. In addition, the use of a racemic catalyst allowed the preparation of isotactic polyethers in quantitative yields. The thermal properties of these isotactic polyethers are presented, with many polymers exhibiting high T m values. This is the first report of the rapid synthesis of a broad range of highly isotactic polyethers via the enantioselective polymerization of racemic epoxides. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. The use of bimetallic welds in the THTR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, U.; Fricker, H.; Amacker, S.

    1984-01-01

    Heat exchanger tubes operating under high temperatures must be designed in two qualities of material. The part which has relatively low tube wall temperature can be designed with the use of ferritic material for economic reasons. At a certain temperature level, the creep strength and the stability of this material are no longer sufficient, and an austenitic tube material must be provided for the higher temperature section of the heat exchanger bundle. This paper deals with welds between the two tubing sections, with emphasis on their application in the thorium high temperature reactor (THTR) steam generators. While the tubing of heat exchanger equipment in general needs careful design to withstand a number of different loading types, the use of bimetallic welds requires special attention to prevent it from becoming a weak spot in the design

  6. Structural Characteristics of Bimetallic Catalysts Supported on Nano-Ceria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Bozeman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu-Pt bimetal catalysts supported on nanocrystalline CeO2 (nano-ceria are synthesized via the low-cost sol-gel approach followed by impregnation processing. The average particle size of the catalytic composites is 63 nm. Ceria nanopowders sequentially impregnated in copper solution and then in Pt solution transformed into Pt-skin-structured Cu-Pt/ceria nanocomposite, based on the surface elemental and bulk compositional analyses. The ceria supporter has a fluorite structure, but the structure of Cu and Pt catalytic contents, not detected by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy due to the low loading level, is yet conclusive. The bimetallic catalytic nanocomposites may potentially serve as sulfur-tolerant anode in solid oxide fuel cells.

  7. Patched bimetallic surfaces are active catalysts for ammonia decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Vlachos, Dionisios G

    2015-10-07

    Ammonia decomposition is often used as an archetypical reaction for predicting new catalytic materials and understanding the very reason of why some reactions are sensitive on material's structure. Core-shell or surface-segregated bimetallic nanoparticles expose outstanding activity for many heterogeneously catalysed reactions but the reasons remain elusive owing to the difficulties in experimentally characterizing active sites. Here by performing multiscale simulations in ammonia decomposition on various nickel loadings on platinum (111), we show that the very high activity of core-shell structures requires patches of the guest metal to create and sustain dual active sites: nickel terraces catalyse N-H bond breaking and nickel edge sites drive atomic nitrogen association. The structure sensitivity on these active catalysts depends profoundly on reaction conditions due to kinetically competing relevant elementary reaction steps. We expose a remarkable difference in active sites between transient and steady-state studies and provide insights into optimal material design.

  8. Enantioselective Epoxide Polymerization Using a Bimetallic Cobalt Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Thomas, Renee M.; Widger, Peter C. B.; Ahmed, Syud M.; Jeske, Ryan C.; Hirahata, Wataru; Lobkovsky, Emil B.; Coates, Geoffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    A highly active enantiopure bimetallic cobalt complex was explored for the enantioselective polymerization of a variety of monosubstituted epoxides. The polymerizations were optimized for high rates and stereoselectivity, with s-factors (kfast/kslow) for most epoxides exceeding 50 and some exceeding 300, well above the threshold for preparative utility of enantiopure epoxides and isotactic polyethers. Values for mm triads of the resulting polymers are typically greater than 95%, with some even surpassing 98%. In addition, the use of a racemic catalyst allowed the preparation of isotactic polyethers in quantitative yields. The thermal properties of these isotactic polyethers are presented, with many polymers exhibiting high T m values. This is the first report of the rapid synthesis of a broad range of highly isotactic polyethers via the enantioselective polymerization of racemic epoxides. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  9. Bimetallic Blisks with Shrouded Turbine Blades for Gas Turbine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Magerramova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses prospects of using blisks with shrouded blades. Increasing an engine life and efficiency as well as mass reduction can also be achieved by increasing blade numbers and decreasing disk diameter. But design engineers are faced with the problem of blade placement because of the disk size and root dimensions.The problem of increasing life and cyclic durability, vibration strength, and lightweight design of the turbine gas turbine wheels, can be solved by an elimination of blade - disk locks.The technology of manufacturing one-piece blisks by connecting the blades with the disc part using hot isostatic pressing was developed. This technology allows us to use blades with shrouds. It is necessary to increase efficiency and to improve high cycle fatigue performance of rotor blades.One of the pressing problems is to ensure the necessary position of shrouds in relation to each other in the manufacturing process as well as in the service. Numerical studies of the influence of the shroud mounting position on blade strength during operation allowed us to develop a methodology of choosing a shroud mounting position.Based on the two turbine wheels (LPT and HPT calculations advantages of blisk design with respect to the lock-based design were shown. Application of bimetallic blisks with shrouded blades resulted in a lifespan increase and weight reduction.In addition, other advantages of blisk design are as follows: possible reduction in the number of parts, elimination of leaks and fretting that take place in the blade - disk locks, exception of expensive broaching operations and disk alloy saving. The shortcoming is elimination of damping in root connection. In addition, there are no widely used repair methods.Despite these disadvantages the usage of bimetallic turbine blisks with shrouded blades is very promising.

  10. Reactivity of the cyanometalate Na[Cp[prime]Mn(CO)[sub 2]CN] with titanium, zirconium, and hafnium halides. Crystal and molecular structure of the [mu]-cyano [mu]-oxo tetranuclear complex [Cp[sub 2]Zr([mu]-NC)MnCp[prime]-(CO)[sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunstein, P. (Universite Louis Pasteur, Cedex (France)); Cauzzi, D. (Universite Louis Pasteur, Cedex (France) Universita di Parma (Italy)); Kelly, D. (Universite Louis Pasteur, Cedex (France)); Lanfranchi, M.; Tiripicchio, A. (Universita di Parma (Italy))

    1993-07-21

    In contrast to most carbonylmetalates of the transition metals, cyanide-substituted anionic complexes such as Na[Cp[prime]Mn-(CO)[sub 2]CN] (Cp[prime] = [eta]-MeC[sub 5]H[sub 4]) do not exhibit a metal-centered HOMO. Instead, this orbitals is essentially nitrogen-based, which favors coordination to metal centers through the cyanide moiety, thus generating Mn-CN-M[prime] chain systems. The cyanometalate ligand [Cp[prime]Mn(CO)[sub 2]CN][sup [minus

  11. Cluster-derived Ir-Sn/SiO2 catalysts for the catalytic dehydrogenation of propane: A spectroscopic study

    KAUST Repository

    Gallo, Alessandro; Psaro, Rinaldo; Guidotti, Matteo; Dal Santo, Vladimiro; Pergola, Roberto Della; Masih, Dilshad; Izumi, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Ir-Sn bimetallic silica-based materials have been prepared via deposition of the molecular organometallic clusters (NEt4)2[Ir 4(CO)10(SnCl3)2] and NEt 4[Ir6(CO)15(SnCl3)] or via deposition of Sn organometallic precursor Sn(n-C4H9) 4 onto pre

  12. Synthesis, characterization, and magnetic properties of the new boride solid solutions M{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 6.5}B{sub 3} (M = Cr, Mn, Co, Ni)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misse, Patrick R.N.; Fokwa, Boniface P.T. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Powder samples and single crystals of the borides M{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 6.5}B{sub 3} (M = Cr, Mn, Co, Ni) were synthesized by arc-melting the elements in a water-cooled copper crucible under argon. The new phases were structurally characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction as well as EDX-Analyses. They crystallize in the hexagonal Th{sub 7}Fe{sub 3} structure type (space group P6{sub 3}mc, no. 186, Z = 2) and a pronounced site preferential M/Ru substitution is observed. Magnetic properties of the compounds were investigated and Pauli paramagnetism was observed in all cases. However, a strong temperature dependency is subsequently observed in Mn{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 6.5}B{sub 3} below 250 K, but no hint of magnetic ordering was found. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Dependence of the constitution, microstructure and electrochemical behaviour of magnetron sputtered Li-Ni-Mn-Co-O thin film cathodes for lithium-ion batteries on the working gas pressure and annealing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strafela, Marc; Fischer, Julian; Leiste, Harald; Rinke, Monika; Bergfeldt, Thomas; Seifert, Hans Juergen; Ulrich, Sven; Music, Denis; Chang, Keke; Schneider, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Li(Ni 1/3 Mn 1/3 Co 1/3 )O 2 as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries shows good thermal stability, high reversible capacity (290 mAh g -1 ), good rate capability and better results in terms of environmental friendliness. In this paper thin film cathodes in the material system Li-Ni-Mn-Co-O were deposited onto silicon and stainless steel substrates, by non-reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering from a ceramic Li 1.18 (Ni 0.39 Mn 0.19 Co 0.35 )O 1.97 target at various argon working gas pressures between 0.2 Pa and 20 Pa. A comprehensive study on the composition and microstructure was carried out. The results showed that the elemental composition varies depending on argon working gas pressure. The elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy in combination with carrier gas hot extraction. The films showed different grain orientations depending argon working gas pressures. The degree of cation order in the lattice structure of the films deposited at 0.5 Pa and 7 Pa argon working gas pressure, was increased by annealing in an argon/oxygen atmosphere at different pressures for one hour. The microstructure of the films varies with annealing gas pressure and is characterized using X-ray diffraction and unpolarized micro-Raman spectroscopy at room temperature. Electrochemical characterization of as-deposited and annealed films was carried out by galvanostatic cycling in Li-Ni-Mn-Co-O half-cells against metallic lithium. Correlations between process parameters, constitution, microstructure and electrochemical behaviour are discussed in detail.

  14. Dependence of the constitution, microstructure and electrochemical behaviour of magnetron sputtered Li-Ni-Mn-Co-O thin film cathodes for lithium-ion batteries on the working gas pressure and annealing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strafela, Marc; Fischer, Julian; Leiste, Harald; Rinke, Monika; Bergfeldt, Thomas; Seifert, Hans Juergen; Ulrich, Sven [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Applied Materials (IAM); Music, Denis; Chang, Keke; Schneider, Jochen [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Materials Chemistry

    2017-11-15

    Li(Ni{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3})O{sub 2} as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries shows good thermal stability, high reversible capacity (290 mAh g{sup -1}), good rate capability and better results in terms of environmental friendliness. In this paper thin film cathodes in the material system Li-Ni-Mn-Co-O were deposited onto silicon and stainless steel substrates, by non-reactive r.f. magnetron sputtering from a ceramic Li{sub 1.18}(Ni{sub 0.39}Mn{sub 0.19}Co{sub 0.35})O{sub 1.97} target at various argon working gas pressures between 0.2 Pa and 20 Pa. A comprehensive study on the composition and microstructure was carried out. The results showed that the elemental composition varies depending on argon working gas pressure. The elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy in combination with carrier gas hot extraction. The films showed different grain orientations depending argon working gas pressures. The degree of cation order in the lattice structure of the films deposited at 0.5 Pa and 7 Pa argon working gas pressure, was increased by annealing in an argon/oxygen atmosphere at different pressures for one hour. The microstructure of the films varies with annealing gas pressure and is characterized using X-ray diffraction and unpolarized micro-Raman spectroscopy at room temperature. Electrochemical characterization of as-deposited and annealed films was carried out by galvanostatic cycling in Li-Ni-Mn-Co-O half-cells against metallic lithium. Correlations between process parameters, constitution, microstructure and electrochemical behaviour are discussed in detail.

  15. Structures of 38-atom gold-platinum nanoalloy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Yee Pin; Yoon, Tiem Leong [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Lim, Thong Leng [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka Campus, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Bimetallic nanoclusters, such as gold-platinum nanoclusters, are nanomaterials promising wide range of applications. We perform a numerical study of 38-atom gold-platinum nanoalloy clusters, Au{sub n}Pt{sub 38−n} (0 ≤ n ≤ 38), to elucidate the geometrical structures of these clusters. The lowest-energy structures of these bimetallic nanoclusters at the semi-empirical level are obtained via a global-minimum search algorithm known as parallel tempering multi-canonical basin hopping plus genetic algorithm (PTMBHGA), in which empirical Gupta many-body potential is used to describe the inter-atomic interactions among the constituent atoms. The structures of gold-platinum nanoalloy clusters are predicted to be core-shell segregated nanoclusters. Gold atoms are observed to preferentially occupy the surface of the clusters, while platinum atoms tend to occupy the core due to the slightly smaller atomic radius of platinum as compared to gold’s. The evolution of the geometrical structure of 38-atom Au-Pt clusters displays striking similarity with that of 38-atom Au-Cu nanoalloy clusters as reported in the literature.

  16. Immobilized Pd-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles on polymeric nanofibers as an effective catalyst: effective loading of Ag with bimetallic functionality through Pd nucleated nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam Ranjith, Kugalur; Celebioglu, Asli; Uyar, Tamer

    2018-06-01

    Here, we present a precise process for synthesizing Pd-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) onto polymeric nanofibers by decorating Pd-NPs through atomic layer deposition followed by a chemical reduction process for tagging Ag nanostructures with bimetallic functionality. The results show that Pd-NPs act as a nucleation platform for tagging Ag and form Pd-Ag bimetallic NPs with a monodisperse nature with significant catalytic enhancement to the reaction rate over the bimetallic nature of the Pd-Ag ratio. A Pd-NP decorated polymeric nanofibrous web acts as an excellent platform for the encapsulation or interaction of Ag, which prevents agglomeration and promotes the interaction of Ag ions only on the surface of the Pd-NPs. We observed an effective reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) by sodium borohydride (NaBH4) to access the catalytic activity of Pd-Ag bimetallic NPs on a free-standing flexible polymeric nanofibrous web as a support. The captive formation of the polymeric nanofibrous web with Pd-Ag bimetallic functionality exhibited superior and stable catalytic performance with reduction rates of 0.0719, 0.1520, and 0.0871 min‑1 for different loadings of Ag on Pd decorated nanofibrous webs such as Pd/Ag(0.01), Pd/Ag(0.03), and Pd/Ag(0.05), respectively. The highly faceted Pd-Ag NPs with an immobilized nature improves the catalytic functionality by enhancing the binding energy of the 4-NP adsorbate to the surface of the NPs. With the aid of bimetallic functionality, the nanofibrous web was demonstrated as a hybrid heterogeneous photocatalyst with a 3.16-fold enhancement in the reaction rate as compared with the monometallic decorative nature of NaBH4 as a reducing agent. The effective role of the monodisperse nature of Pd ions with an ultralow content as low as 3 wt% and the tunable ratio of Ag on the nanofibrous web induced effective catalytic activity over multiple cycles.

  17. Sn interaction with the CeO.sub.2./sub.(111) system: bimetallic bonding and ceria reduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škoda, M.; Cabala, M.; Cháb, Vladimír; Prince, K. C.; Sedláček, L.; Skála, T.; Šutara, F.; Matolín, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 254, č. 14 (2008), 4375-4379 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : resonant photoemission * RPES * XPS * LEED * ceria * tin * reduction * bimetallic interaction * bimetallic bonding Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.576, year: 2008

  18. Preparation of Rh/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles as effective catalyst for hydrogen generation from hydrolysis of KBH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Jiao, Chengpeng; Wang, Liqiong; Huang, Zili; Liang, Feng; Liu, Simin; Wang, Yuhua; Zhang, Haijun; Zhang, Shaowei

    2018-01-01

    ISOBAM-104 protected Rh/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) with average diameter less than 3.0 nm were synthesized by a co-reduction method. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to characterize the structure, particle size, and electronic structure of the prepared bimetallic NPs. The catalytic activities of prepared bimetallic NPs for hydrogen generation from hydrolysis of a basic KBH4 solution were evaluated in detail. The results indicated that as-prepared Rh/Ag bimetallic NPs showed a higher catalytic activity than corresponding monometallic NPs. Among all the monometallic NPs and bimetallic NPs, Rh80Ag20 bimetallic NPs exhibited the highest catalytic activity with a value of 6010 mol-H2·h-1·mol-catalyst-1 at pH = 12 and 303 K. The high catalytic activities of Rh/Ag bimetallic NPs could be attributed to presence of negatively charged Rh atoms and positively charged Ag atoms, which is supported by the results of XPS and density functional theory calculation. Based on the kinetic study, the apparent activation energy for the hydrolysis reaction of the basic KBH4 solution catalyzed by Rh80Ag20 bimetallic NPs was about 47.0 ± 3.9 kJ mol-1.

  19. Young Investigator Proposal, Research Area 7.4 Reactive Chemical Systems: Multifunctional, Bimetallic Nanomaterials Prepared by Atomic Layer Electroless Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-30

    Report: Young Investigator Proposal, Research Area 7.4 Reactive Chemical Systems: Multifunctional, Bimetallic Nanomaterials Prepared by Atomic Layer ...Chemical Systems: Multifunctional, Bimetallic Nanomaterials Prepared by Atomic Layer Electroless Deposition Report Term: 0-Other Email: pcappillino... Layer Electroless Deposition (ALED, Figure 1) is the ability to tune growth mechanism, hence growth morphology, by altering conditions. In this

  20. Cr(VI) reduction in wastewater using a bimetallic galvanic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo-Lugo, Violeta; Barrera-Diaz, Carlos; Bilyeu, Bryan; Balderas-Hernandez, Patricia; Urena-Nunez, Fernando; Sanchez-Mendieta, Victor

    2010-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of Cr(VI)-Cr(III) in wastewater by iron and copper-iron bimetallic plates was evaluated and optimized. Iron has been used as a reducing agent, but in this work a copper-iron galvanic system in the form of bimetallic plates is applied to reducing hexavalent chromium. The optimal pH (2) and ratio of copper to iron surface areas (3.5:1) were determined in batch studies, achieving a 100% reduction in about 25 min. The Cr(VI) reduction kinetics for the bimetallic system fit a first order mechanism with a correlation of 0.9935. Thermodynamic analysis shows that the Cr(VI) reduction is possible at any pH value. However, at pH values above 3.0 for iron and 5.5 for chromium insoluble species appear, indicating that the reaction will be hindered. Continuous column studies indicate that the bimetallic copper-iron galvanic system has a reduction capacity of 9.5890 mg Cr(VI) cm -2 iron, whereas iron alone only has a capacity of 0.1269 mg Cr(VI) cm -2 . The bimetallic copper-iron galvanic system is much more effective in reducing hexavalent chromium than iron alone. The exhausted plates were analyzed by SEM, EDS, and XRD to determine the mechanism and the surface effects, especially surface fouling.

  1. Enhanced dechlorination of trichloroethylene using electrospun polymer nanofibrous mats immobilized with iron/palladium bimetallic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hui [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Huang, Yunpeng; Shen, Mingwu; Guo, Rui; Cao, Xueyan [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Shi, Xiangyang, E-mail: xshi@dhu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); CQM - Centro de Quimica da Madeira, Universidade da Madeira, Campus da Penteada, 9000-390 Funchal (Portugal)

    2012-04-15

    Fe/Pd bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) have held great promise for treating trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater, without the accumulation of chlorinated intermediates. However, the conventionally used colloidal Fe/Pd NPs usually aggregate rapidly, resulting in a reduced reactivity. To reduce the particle aggregation, we employed electrospun polyacrylic acid (PAA)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer nanofibers as a nanoreactor to immobilize Fe/Pd bimetallic NPs. In the study, the water-stable PAA/PVA nanofibrous mats were complexed with Fe (III) ions via the binding with the free carboxyl groups of PAA for subsequent formation and immobilization of zero-valent iron (ZVI) NPs. Fe/Pd bimetallic NPs were then formed by the partial reduction of Pd(II) ions with ZVI NPs. The formed electrospun nanofibrous mats containing Fe/Pd bimetallic NPs with a diameter of 2.8 nm were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. The Fe/Pd NP-containing electrospun PAA/PVA nanofibrous mats exhibited higher reactivity than that of the ZVI NP-containing mats or colloidal Fe/Pd NPs in the dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE), which was used as a model contaminant. With the high surface area to volume ratio, high porosity, and great reusability of the fibrous mats immobilized with the bimetallic NPs, the composite nanofibrous mats should be amenable for applications in remediation of various environmental contaminants.

  2. Enhanced dechlorination of trichloroethylene using electrospun polymer nanofibrous mats immobilized with iron/palladium bimetallic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Hui; Huang, Yunpeng; Shen, Mingwu; Guo, Rui; Cao, Xueyan; Shi, Xiangyang

    2012-01-01

    Fe/Pd bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) have held great promise for treating trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater, without the accumulation of chlorinated intermediates. However, the conventionally used colloidal Fe/Pd NPs usually aggregate rapidly, resulting in a reduced reactivity. To reduce the particle aggregation, we employed electrospun polyacrylic acid (PAA)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer nanofibers as a nanoreactor to immobilize Fe/Pd bimetallic NPs. In the study, the water-stable PAA/PVA nanofibrous mats were complexed with Fe (III) ions via the binding with the free carboxyl groups of PAA for subsequent formation and immobilization of zero-valent iron (ZVI) NPs. Fe/Pd bimetallic NPs were then formed by the partial reduction of Pd(II) ions with ZVI NPs. The formed electrospun nanofibrous mats containing Fe/Pd bimetallic NPs with a diameter of 2.8 nm were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. The Fe/Pd NP-containing electrospun PAA/PVA nanofibrous mats exhibited higher reactivity than that of the ZVI NP-containing mats or colloidal Fe/Pd NPs in the dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE), which was used as a model contaminant. With the high surface area to volume ratio, high porosity, and great reusability of the fibrous mats immobilized with the bimetallic NPs, the composite nanofibrous mats should be amenable for applications in remediation of various environmental contaminants.

  3. Synthesis and characteristics of Ag/Pt bimetallic nanocomposites by arc-discharge solution plasma processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pootawang, Panuphong; Saito, Nagahiro; Takai, Osamu; Lee, Sang-Yul

    2012-10-05

    Arc discharge in solution, generated by applying a high voltage of unipolar pulsed dc to electrodes of Ag and Pt, was used as a method to form Ag/Pt bimetallic nanocomposites via electrode erosion by the effects of the electric arc at the cathode (Ag rod) and the sputtering at the anode (Pt rod). Ag/Pt bimetallic nanocomposites were formed as colloidal particles dispersed in solution via the reduction of hydrogen radicals generated during discharge without the addition of chemical precursor or reducing agent. At a discharge time of 30 s, the fine bimetallic nanoparticles with a mean particle size of approximately 5 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). With increasing discharge time, the bimetallic nanoparticle size tended to increase by forming an agglomeration. The presence of the relatively small amount of Pt dispersed in the Ag matrix could be observed by the analytical mapping mode of energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and high-resolution TEM. This demonstrated that the synthesized particle was in the form of a nanocomposite. No contamination of other chemical substances was detected by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Hence, solution plasma could be a clean and simple process to effectively synthesize Ag/Pt bimetallic nanocomposites and it is expected to be widely applicable in the preparation of several types of nanoparticle.

  4. Bimetallic catalysts for continuous catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuny, A; Bengoa, C; Font, J; Fabregat, A

    1999-01-29

    Catalytic wet oxidation has proved to be effective at eliminating hazardous organic compounds, such as phenol, from waste waters. However, the lack of active long-life oxidation catalysts which can perform in aqueous phase is its main drawback. This study explores the ability of bimetallic supported catalysts to oxidize aqueous phenol solutions using air as oxidant. Combinations of 2% of CoO, Fe2O3, MnO or ZnO with 10% CuO were supported on gamma-alumina by pore filling, calcined and later tested. The oxidation was carried out in a packed bed reactor operating in trickle flow regime at 140 degrees C and 900 kPa of oxygen partial pressure. Lifetime tests were conducted for 8 days. The pH of the feed solution was also varied. The results show that all the catalysts tested undergo severe deactivation during the first 2 days of operation. Later, the catalysts present steady activity until the end of the test. The highest residual phenol conversion was obtained for the ZnO-CuO, which was significantly higher than that obtained with the 10% CuO catalyst used as reference. The catalyst deactivation is related to the dissolution of the metal oxides from the catalyst surface due to the acidic reaction conditions. Generally, the performance of the catalysts was better when the pH of the feed solution was increased.

  5. Effects of different additives on bimetallic Au-Pt nanoparticles electrodeposited onto indium tin oxide electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballarin, Barbara, E-mail: ballarin@ms.fci.unibo.i [Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica ed Inorganica, Universita di Bologna, V.le Risorgimento, 4, 40136-Bologna (Italy)] [INSTM, UdR Bologna (Italy); Gazzano, Massimo [ISOF-CNR, V. Selmi, 40126-Bologna (Italy); Tonelli, Domenica [Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica ed Inorganica, Universita di Bologna, V.le Risorgimento, 4, 40136-Bologna (Italy)] [INSTM, UdR Bologna (Italy)

    2010-09-01

    Bimetallic Au-Pt nanoparticles (Au-Pt{sub NPs}) have been synthesized using an electrochemical reduction approach. The effects of the addition of different additives in the electrodeposition bath namely KI, 1-nonanesulfonic acid sodium salt and Triton X-100 have been investigated. The structural characterization of the bimetallic nanoparticles has been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The Au-Pt{sub NPs} prepared in the presence of KI and Triton X-100 characterized by a relatively narrow size distribution as well as a higher particle density and surface coverage whereas no changes in the morphology were observed. These results suggest a dependence of the size and distribution of the bimetallic nanoparticles from the type and concentration of the additives employed.

  6. Electrochemical Reduction of CO2 on Compositionally Variant Au-Pt Bimetallic Thin Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ming; Hansen, Heine Anton; Valenti, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 on Au-Pt bimetallic catalysts with different compositions was evaluated, offering a platform for uncovering the correlation between the catalytic activity and the surface composition of bimetallic electrocatalysts. The Au-Pt alloy films were synthesized...... by a magnetron sputtering co-deposition technique with tunable composition. It was found that the syngas ratio (CO:H2) on the Au-Pt films is able to be tuned by systematically controlling the binary composition. This tunable catalytic selectivity is attributed to the variation of binding strength of COOH and CO...... intermediates, influenced by the surface electronic structure (d-band center energy) which is linked to the surface composition of the bimetallic films. Notably, a gradual shift of the d-band center away from the Fermi level was observed with increasing Au content, which correspondingly reduces the binding...

  7. Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Formability of Explosive Welded Mg/Al Bimetallic Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mróz S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper has presented the results of theoretical studies and experimental tests of the plastic deformation of Mg/Al bimetallic specimens. Theoretical studies were carried out using the Forge2011® computer program. Physical modeling, on the other hand, was performed using the Gleeble3800 simulator. Bimetallic bars of an outer diameter of 22.5 mm and a cladding layer thickness of 1.7 mm were obtained by the explosive welding method. Samples for formability tests, characterized by a diameter-to-length ratio of 1, were taken from the bars. The theoretical studies and experimental tests were carried out for the temperature range from 300 to 400°C and for different strain rates. Based on the obtained investigation results it has been found that the main parameters influencing the formability of Mg/Al bimetallic bars are strain rate than the process temperature.

  8. Kinetics of oxygen reduction reaction at electrochemically fabricated tin-palladium bimetallic electrocatalyst in acidic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Md. Rezwan, E-mail: mrmche@yahoo.co [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mail Box G1-5, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Masud, Jahangir [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mail Box G1-5, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Ohsaka, Takeo, E-mail: ohsaka@echem.titech.ac.j [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mail Box G1-5, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    In the present article, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at electrochemically fabricated tin-palladium (Sn-Pd) bimetallic electrocatalyst-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode (Sn-Pd/GC electrode) in acidic media is addressed. Hydrodynamic voltammetric measurements were employed with a view to evaluating various kinetic parameters of the ORR at the Sn-Pd/GC electrode. The obtained results obviously demonstrated that the Sn-Pd bimetallic electrocatalyt substantially promoted the activity of the GC electrode and drove the ORR through an exclusive one-step four-electron pathway forming H{sub 2}O as the final product.

  9. Kinetics of oxygen reduction reaction at electrochemically fabricated tin-palladium bimetallic electrocatalyst in acidic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, Md. Rezwan; Masud, Jahangir; Ohsaka, Takeo

    2010-01-01

    In the present article, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at electrochemically fabricated tin-palladium (Sn-Pd) bimetallic electrocatalyst-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode (Sn-Pd/GC electrode) in acidic media is addressed. Hydrodynamic voltammetric measurements were employed with a view to evaluating various kinetic parameters of the ORR at the Sn-Pd/GC electrode. The obtained results obviously demonstrated that the Sn-Pd bimetallic electrocatalyt substantially promoted the activity of the GC electrode and drove the ORR through an exclusive one-step four-electron pathway forming H 2 O as the final product.

  10. Microbially supported synthesis of catalytically active bimetallic Pd-Au nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinkhani, Baharak; Søbjerg, Lina Sveidal; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena

    2012-01-01

    Transformation (FFT) analyses confirmed that the nanoparticles indeed were bimetallic. The bimetallic nanoparticles did not have a core-shell structure, but were superior to monometallic particles at reducing p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol. Hence, formation of microbially supported nanoparticles may be a cheap......(II) to the bio-supported particles resulted in increased particle size. UV-Vis spectrophotometry and HR-TEM analyses indicated that the previously monometallic nanoparticles had become fully or partially covered by Au(0) or Pd(0), respectively. Furthermore, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) and Fast Fourier...

  11. Challenges in bimetallic multilayer structure formation: Pt growth on Cu monolayers on Ru(0001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancera, Luis A.; Engstfeld, Albert Kilian; Bensch, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    In a joint experimental and theoretical study, we investigated the formation and morphology of PtCu/Ru(0001) bimetallic surfaces grown at room and higher temperatures under UHV conditions. We obtained the PtCu/Ru(0001) surfaces by deposition of Pt atoms on a previously created Cu/Ru(0001) structure...... which includes only one Cu monolayer. Bimetallic surfaces prepared at different Pt coverages are investigated using STM imaging, revealing the existence of reconstruction lines and Cu islands. Although primarily created Cu islands continue growing in size by increasing Pt coverage, a continuous...

  12. Site selective generation of sol-gel deposits in layered bimetallic macroporous electrode architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalo, Hélène; Bon-Saint-Côme, Yémima; Plano, Bernard; Etienne, Mathieu; Walcarius, Alain; Kuhn, Alexander

    2012-02-07

    The elaboration of an original composite bimetallic macroporous electrode containing a site-selective sol-gel deposit is reported. Regular colloidal crystals, obtained by a modified Langmuir-Blodgett approach, are used as templates for the electrogeneration of the desired metals in the form of a well-defined layered bimetallic porous electrode. This porous matrix shows a spatially modulated electroactivity which is subsequently used as a strategy for targeted electrogeneration of a sol-gel deposit, exclusively in one predefined part of the porous electrode.

  13. Controlled surface segregation leads to efficient coke-resistant nickel/platinum bimetallic catalysts for the dry reforming of methane

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lidong; Zhou, Lu; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Anjum, Dalaver; Kanoun, Mohammed; Scaranto, Jessica; Hedhili, Mohamed Nejib; Khalid, Syed; Laveille, Paco; D'Souza, Lawrence; Clo, Alain M.; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Surface composition and structure are of vital importance for heterogeneous catalysts, especially for bimetallic catalysts, which often vary as a function of reaction conditions (known as surface segregation). The preparation of bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure is very challenging. In this study, we synthesize a series of Ni/Pt bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure using a method derived from surface organometallic chemistry. The evolution of the surface composition and structure of the obtained bimetallic catalysts under simulated reaction conditions is investigated by various techniques, which include CO-probe IR spectroscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis, X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis, XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the structure of the bimetallic catalyst is evolved from Pt monolayer island-modified Ni nanoparticles to core-shell bimetallic nanoparticles composed of a Ni-rich core and a Ni/Pt alloy shell upon thermal treatment. These catalysts are active for the dry reforming of methane, and their catalytic activities, stabilities, and carbon formation vary with their surface composition and structure. The reform of reforming: A series of alumina-supported Ni/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) with controlled surface composition and structure are prepared. Remarkable surface segregation for these bimetallic NPs is observed upon thermal treatment. These bimetallic NPs are active catalysts for CO2 reforming of CH4, and their catalytic activities, stabilities, and carbon formation vary with their surface composition and structure.

  14. Controlled surface segregation leads to efficient coke-resistant nickel/platinum bimetallic catalysts for the dry reforming of methane

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lidong

    2015-02-03

    Surface composition and structure are of vital importance for heterogeneous catalysts, especially for bimetallic catalysts, which often vary as a function of reaction conditions (known as surface segregation). The preparation of bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure is very challenging. In this study, we synthesize a series of Ni/Pt bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure using a method derived from surface organometallic chemistry. The evolution of the surface composition and structure of the obtained bimetallic catalysts under simulated reaction conditions is investigated by various techniques, which include CO-probe IR spectroscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis, X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis, XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the structure of the bimetallic catalyst is evolved from Pt monolayer island-modified Ni nanoparticles to core-shell bimetallic nanoparticles composed of a Ni-rich core and a Ni/Pt alloy shell upon thermal treatment. These catalysts are active for the dry reforming of methane, and their catalytic activities, stabilities, and carbon formation vary with their surface composition and structure. The reform of reforming: A series of alumina-supported Ni/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) with controlled surface composition and structure are prepared. Remarkable surface segregation for these bimetallic NPs is observed upon thermal treatment. These bimetallic NPs are active catalysts for CO2 reforming of CH4, and their catalytic activities, stabilities, and carbon formation vary with their surface composition and structure.

  15. Synthesis and Evaluation of ABO3 Perovskites (A=La and B=Mn, Co with Stoichiometric and Over-stoichiometric Ratios of B/A for Catalytic Oxidation of Trichloroethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Alagheband

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, perovskite catalysts (ABO3 were probed that site A and site B were occupied by lanthanum and transition metals of manganese or cobalt, respectively, with stoichiometric ratios as well as 20 % over-stoichiometric ratios of B/A. The perovskite samples were synthesized using a gel-combustion method and characterized by BET, XRD, SEM and O2-TPD analyses. After mounting in a fixed bed reactor, the catalysts were examined in atmospheric pressure conditions at different temperatures for oxidation of 1000 ppm trichloroethylene in the air. Evaluation of over-stoichiometric catalysts activity showed that the increased ratio of B/A in the catalysts compared to the stoichiometric one led to BET surface area, oxygen mobility, and consequently catalytic performance improvement. The lanthanum manganite perovskite with 20 % excess manganese yielded the best catalytic performance among the probed perovskites. Copyright © 2018 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 28th April 2017; Revised: 31st July 2017; Accepted: 4th August 2017; Available online: 22nd January 2018; Published regularly: 2nd April 2018 How to Cite: Alagheband, R., Maghsoodi, S., Kootenaei, A.S., Kianmanesh, H. (2018. Synthesis and Evaluation of ABO3 Perovskites (A=La and B=Mn, Co with Stoichiometric and Over-stoichiometric Ratios of B/A for Catalytic Oxidation of Trichloroethylene. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (1: 47-56 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.13.1.1188.47-56

  16. Synthesis and magnetic properties of bacterial cellulose—ferrite (MFe2O4, M  =  Mn, Co, Ni, Cu) nanocomposites prepared by co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriplai, Nipaporn; Mongkolthanaruk, Wiyada; Pinitsoontorn, Supree

    2017-09-01

    The magnetic nanocomposites based on bacterial cellulose (BC) matrix and ferrite (MFe2O4, M  =  Mn, Co, Ni and Cu) nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated. The never-dried and freeze-dried BC nanofibrils were used as templates and a co-precipitation method was applied for NPs synthesis. The nanocomposites were either freeze-dried or annealed before subjected to characterization. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that only MnFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 NPs could be successfully incorporated in the BC nanostructures. The results also indicated that the BC template should be freeze-dried prior to the co-precipitation process. The magnetic measurement by a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) showed that the strongest ferromagnetic signal was found for BC-CoFe2O4 nanocomposites. The morphological investigation by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed the largest volume fraction of NPs in the BC-CoFe2O4 sample which was complimentary to the magnetic property measurement. Annealing resulted in the collapse of the opened nanostructure of the BC composites. Invited talk at 5th Thailand International Nanotechnology Conference (Nano Thailand-2016), 27-29 November 2016, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.

  17. Theoretical studies of the work functions of Pd-based bimetallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Zhao-Bin; Wu, Feng; Wang, Yue-Chao; Jiang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Work functions of Pd-based bimetallic surfaces, including mainly M/Pd(111), Pd/M, and Pd/M/Pd(111) (M = 4d transition metals, Cu, Au, and Pt), are studied using density functional theory. We find that the work function of these bimetallic surfaces is significantly different from that of parent metals. Careful analysis based on Bader charges and electron density difference indicates that the variation of the work function in bimetallic surfaces can be mainly attributed to two factors: (1) charge transfer between the two different metals as a result of their different intrinsic electronegativity, and (2) the charge redistribution induced by chemical bonding between the top two layers. The first factor can be related to the contact potential, i.e., the work function difference between two metals in direct contact, and the second factor can be well characterized by the change in the charge spilling out into vacuum. We also find that the variation in the work functions of Pd/M/Pd(111) surfaces correlates very well with the variation of the d-band center of the surface Pd atom. The findings in this work can be used to provide general guidelines to design new bimetallic surfaces with desired electronic properties

  18. Reversible structural modulation of Fe-Pt bimetallic surfaces and its effect on reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Teng; Fu, Qiang; Su, Hai-Yan; Liu, Hong-Yang; Cui, Yi; Wang, Zhen; Mu, Ren-Tao; Li, Wei-Xue; Bao, Xin-He

    2009-05-11

    Tunable surface: The surface structure of the Fe-Pt bimetallic catalyst can be reversibly modulated between the iron-oxide-rich Pt surface and the Pt-skin structure with subsurface Fe via alternating reduction and oxidation treatments (see figure). The regenerated active Pt-skin structure is active in reactions involving CO and/or O.

  19. NOVEL SUPPORTED BIMETALLIC CARBIDE CATALYSTS FOR COPROCESSING OF COAL WITH WASTE METERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Ted Oyama; David F. Cox; Chunshan Song; Fred Allen; Weilin Wang; Viviane Schwartz; Xinqin Wang; Jianli Yang

    2001-01-01

    The overall objectives of this project are to explore the potential of novel monometallic and bimetallic Mo-based carbide catalysts for heavy hydrocarbon coprocessing, and to understand the fundamental chemistry related to the reaction pathways of coprocessing and the role of the catalysts in the conversion of heavy hydrocarbon resources into liquid fuels based on the model compound reactions.

  20. Non-Precious Bimetallic Catalysts for Selective Dehydrogenation of an Organic Chemical Hydride System

    KAUST Repository

    Shaikh Ali, Anaam

    2015-07-06

    Methylcyclohexane (MCH)-Toluene (TOL) chemical hydride cycles as a hydrogen carrier system is successful with the selective dehydrogenation reaction of MCH to TOL, which has been achieved only using precious Pt-based catalysts. Herein, we report improved selectivity using non-precious metal nickel-based bimetallic catalysts, where the second metal occupies the unselective step sites.

  1. Density and Shape Effects in the Acoustic Propulsion of Bimetallic Nanorod Motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Suzanne; Wang, Wei; Bai, Lanjun; Gentekos, Dillon T; Hoyos, Mauricio; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2016-04-26

    Bimetallic nanorods are propelled without chemical fuels in megahertz (MHz) acoustic fields, and exhibit similar behaviors to single-metal rods, including autonomous axial propulsion and organization into spinning chains. Shape asymmetry determines the direction of axial movement of bimetallic rods when there is a small difference in density between the two metals. Movement toward the concave end of these rods is inconsistent with a scattering mechanism that we proposed earlier for acoustic propulsion, but is consistent with an acoustic streaming model developed more recently by Nadal and Lauga ( Phys. Fluids 2014 , 26 , 082001 ). Longer rods were slower at constant power, and their speed was proportional to the square of the power density, in agreement with the acoustic streaming model. The streaming model was further supported by a correlation between the disassembly of spinning chains of rods and a sharp decrease in the axial speed of autonomously moving motors within the levitation plane of the cylindrical acoustic cell. However, with bimetallic rods containing metals of different densities, a consistent polarity of motion was observed with the lighter metal end leading. Speed comparisons between single-metal rods of different densities showed that those of lower density are propelled faster. So far, these density effects are not explained in the streaming model. The directionality of bimetallic rods in acoustic fields is intriguing and offers some new possibilities for designing motors in which shape, material, and chemical asymmetry might be combined for enhanced functionality.

  2. The Effect of Precursor Ligands and Oxidation State in the Synthesis of Bimetallic Nano-Alloys

    KAUST Repository

    LaGrow, Alec P.; Knudsen, Kristian; AlYami, Noktan; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Bakr, Osman

    2015-01-01

    of variables on the characteristics of bimetallic nanomaterials are not completely understood. In this study, we used a continuous-flow synthetic strategy to explore the effects of the ligands and the oxidation state of a metal precursor in a shape

  3. Comparison of Bimetallic and Trimetallic Catalyst in Reductive Dechlorination; Influence of Copper Addition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaštánek, František; Kaštánek, Petr; Maléterová, Ywetta; Kallistová, A.; Šolcová, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 7 (2015), s. 1954-1958 E-ISSN 3159-0040 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA04020700 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : PCB * reductive dechlorination * bimetallic and trimetallic catalysts Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://www.jmest.org/wp-content/uploads/JMESTN42350950.pdf

  4. Surface alloy formation by adsorption of holmium on Ag/Mo(112) bimetallic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołaczkiewicz, Jan; Oleksy, Czesław

    2018-03-01

    Work function change measurements, low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and density functional theory (DFT) are used to determine the structures formed on Ag/Mo(112) bimetallic surfaces upon deposition of 0.5 monolayer (ML) of holmium. As the bimetallic surfaces, we have chosen the Mo(112) substrate covered with 1 or 2 ML of Ag. Such surfaces have the same symmetry as the Mo(112) face but different electronic properties. LEED experiment indicates that the c(2 × 2) structure is formed on (1 ML Ag)/Mo(112) bimetallic surface upon deposition of 0.5 ML of Ho. DFT calculations show that a type of Ag-Ho surface alloy is formed, with Ho atoms 0.6 Å below the distorted layer of Ag. This is neither a substitutional nor a subsurface alloy. It is found that the adsorption structure formed on the (2 ML Ag)/Mo(112) bimetallic surface depends on the annealing temperature. After deposition of 0.5 ML of Ho at 300 K, the LEED pattern of p(2 × 2) symmetry is observed. Annealing of the overlayer at 640 K irreversibly changes the p(2 × 2) pattern into a pattern of c(2 × 2) type. The results of DFT computations show that the c(2 × 2) structure of the Ag-Ho surface alloy is energetically most favorable. In this structure, 0.5 ML of Ho is between the two monolayers of Ag, and the symmetry of the topmost layer is changed. The work function change calculated for the c(2 × 2) structure is in a good agreement with the measured value (0.22 eV). The results show that adsorption of Ho on the Ag/Mo(112) bimetallic surfaces is substantially different than on the clean Mo(112).

  5. Thermo-mechanical efficiency of the bimetallic strip heat engine at the macro-scale and micro-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, A; Boughaleb, J; Monfray, S; Boeuf, F; Skotnicki, T; Cugat, O

    2015-01-01

    Bimetallic strip heat engines are energy harvesters that exploit the thermo-mechanical properties of bistable bimetallic membranes to convert heat into mechanical energy. They thus represent a solution to transform low-grade heat into electrical energy if the bimetallic membrane is coupled with an electro-mechanical transducer. The simplicity of these devices allows us to consider their miniaturization using MEMS fabrication techniques. In order to design and optimize these devices at the macro-scale and micro-scale, this article proposes an explanation of the origin of the thermal snap-through by giving the expressions of the constitutive equations of composite beams. This allows us to evaluate the capability of bimetallic strips to convert heat into mechanical energy whatever their size is, and to give the theoretical thermo-mechanical efficiencies which can be obtained with these harvesters. (paper)

  6. Cluster headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histamine headache; Headache - histamine; Migrainous neuralgia; Headache - cluster; Horton's headache; Vascular headache - cluster ... Doctors do not know exactly what causes cluster headaches. They ... (chemical in the body released during an allergic response) or ...

  7. Evolution with time of 12 metals (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, Ba, Pb, Bi and U) and of lead isotopes in the snows of Coats Land (Antarctica) since the 1830's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planchon, F.

    2001-01-01

    This work shows that it is now possible to get reliable data on the occurrence of numerous heavy metals at ultra low levels in Antarctic snow, by combining ultra clean field sampling and laboratory sub-sampling procedures and the use of ultra sensitive analytical techniques such as ICP-SFMS and TIMS. It has allowed us to determine concentrations of twelve metals (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, Ba, Pb, Bi et U) and lead isotopic composition in the ultra clean series of snow samples collected at Coats Land, in the Atlantic sector of Antarctica. This work presents a 150 years record of metal inputs from natural and anthropogenic sources to Antarctica from the 1830's to the early 1990's. Lead atmospheric pollution begins as early as the end of the 19. century, peaks during the 1970's-1980's and then falls sharply during recent decades. Evolution in lead isotopic abundance shows that Pb inputs to Antarctica reflect a complex blend of contributions originating from the Southern part of South America and Australia. For Cr, Cu, Zn, Ag, Bi and U, concentrations in the snow show significant increases from 1950 to 1980. These enhancements which cannot be explained by variations in natural inputs, illustrate that atmospheric pollution for heavy metals linked with anthropogenic activities in the Southern Hemisphere countries such as for example ferrous and non-ferrous metal mining and smelting is really global. Study of the time period 1920-1990, has allowed us to detail short-term (intra and inter annual) heavy metals concentration's changes. The large short-term variability, observed in Coats Land snow, shows the complex patterns of metal inputs to Antarctica, associated for instance to changes in long-range transport processes from mid-latitude to polar zone and to variability in the different natural sources, such local volcanic activity, sea-salt spray or crustal dust inputs. (author)

  8. Ligand-protected gold clusters: the structure, synthesis and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichugina, D A; Kuz'menko, N E; Shestakov, A F

    2015-01-01

    Modern concepts of the structure and properties of atomic gold clusters protected by thiolate, selenolate, phosphine and phenylacetylene ligands are analyzed. Within the framework of the superatom theory, the 'divide and protect' approach and the structure rule, the stability and composition of a cluster are determined by the structure of the cluster core, the type of ligands and the total number of valence electrons. Methods of selective synthesis of gold clusters in solution and on the surface of inorganic composites based, in particular, on the reaction of Au n with RS, RSe, PhC≡C, Hal ligands or functional groups of proteins, on stabilization of clusters in cavities of the α-, β and γ-cyclodextrin molecules (Au 15 and Au 25 ) and on anchorage to a support surface (Au 25 /SiO 2 , Au 20 /C, Au 10 /FeO x ) are reviewed. Problems in this field are also discussed. Among the methods for cluster structure prediction, particular attention is given to the theoretical approaches based on the density functional theory (DFT). The structures of a number of synthesized clusters are described using the results obtained by X-ray diffraction analysis and DFT calculations. A possible mechanism of formation of the SR(AuSR) n 'staple' units in the cluster shell is proposed. The structure and properties of bimetallic clusters M x Au n L m (M=Pd, Pt, Ag, Cu) are discussed. The Pd or Pt atom is located at the centre of the cluster, whereas Ag and Cu atoms form bimetallic compounds in which the heteroatom is located on the surface of the cluster core or in the 'staple' units. The optical properties, fluorescence and luminescence of ligand-protected gold clusters originate from the quantum effects of the Au atoms in the cluster core and in the oligomeric SR(AuSR) x units in the cluster shell. Homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions catalyzed by atomic gold clusters are discussed in the context of the reaction mechanism and the nature of the active

  9. Ligand-protected gold clusters: the structure, synthesis and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichugina, D. A.; Kuz'menko, N. E.; Shestakov, A. F.

    2015-11-01

    Modern concepts of the structure and properties of atomic gold clusters protected by thiolate, selenolate, phosphine and phenylacetylene ligands are analyzed. Within the framework of the superatom theory, the 'divide and protect' approach and the structure rule, the stability and composition of a cluster are determined by the structure of the cluster core, the type of ligands and the total number of valence electrons. Methods of selective synthesis of gold clusters in solution and on the surface of inorganic composites based, in particular, on the reaction of Aun with RS, RSe, PhC≡C, Hal ligands or functional groups of proteins, on stabilization of clusters in cavities of the α-, β and γ-cyclodextrin molecules (Au15 and Au25) and on anchorage to a support surface (Au25/SiO2, Au20/C, Au10/FeOx) are reviewed. Problems in this field are also discussed. Among the methods for cluster structure prediction, particular attention is given to the theoretical approaches based on the density functional theory (DFT). The structures of a number of synthesized clusters are described using the results obtained by X-ray diffraction analysis and DFT calculations. A possible mechanism of formation of the SR(AuSR)n 'staple' units in the cluster shell is proposed. The structure and properties of bimetallic clusters MxAunLm (M=Pd, Pt, Ag, Cu) are discussed. The Pd or Pt atom is located at the centre of the cluster, whereas Ag and Cu atoms form bimetallic compounds in which the heteroatom is located on the surface of the cluster core or in the 'staple' units. The optical properties, fluorescence and luminescence of ligand-protected gold clusters originate from the quantum effects of the Au atoms in the cluster core and in the oligomeric SR(AuSR)x units in the cluster shell. Homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions catalyzed by atomic gold clusters are discussed in the context of the reaction mechanism and the nature of the active sites. The bibliography includes 345 references.

  10. Syntheses, crystal structures, and magnetic properties of four new cyano-bridged bimetallic complexes based on the mer-[Fe(III)(qcq)(CN)3]- building block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoping; Zhou, Hongbo; Yan, Jiahao; Li, Yanfeng; Zhou, Hu

    2014-01-06

    Four new cyano-bridged bimetallic complexes, [{Mn(III)(salen)}2{Fe(III)(qcq)(CN)3}2]n·3nCH3CN·nH2O (1) [salen = N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylideneiminato) dianion; qcq(-) = 8-(2-quinoline-2-carboxamido)quinoline anion], [{Mn(III)(salpn)}2{Fe(III)(qcq)(CN)3}2]n·4nH2O (2) [salpn = N,N'-1,2-propylenebis(salicylideneiminato)dianion], [{Mn(II)(bipy)(CH3OH)}{Fe(III)(qcq)(CN)3}2]2·2H2O·2CH3OH (3) (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine), and [{Mn(II)(phen)2}{Fe(III)(qcq)(CN)3}2]·CH3CN·2H2O (4) (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized and characterized both structurally and magnetically. The structures of 1 and 2 are both unique 1-D linear branch chains with additional structural units of {Mn(III)(salen/salpn)}{Fe(III)(qcq)(CN)3} dangling on the sides. In contrast, 3 and 4 are cyano-bridged bimetallic hexanuclear and trinuclear clusters, respectively. The intermolecular short contacts such as π-π interactions and hydrogen bonds extend 1-4 into high dimensional supermolecular networks. Magnetic investigation reveals the dominant intramolecular antiferromagnetic interactions in 1, 3, and 4, while ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions coexist in 2. Alternating current measurement at low temperature indicates the existence of slow magnetic relaxation in 1 and 2, which should be due to the single ion anisotropy of Mn(III).

  11. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  12. Using first principles to predict bimetallic catalysts for the ammonia decomposition reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansgen, Danielle A; Vlachos, Dionisios G; Chen, Jingguang G

    2010-06-01

    The facile decomposition of ammonia to produce hydrogen is critical to its use as a hydrogen storage medium in a hydrogen economy, and although ruthenium shows good activity for catalysing this process, its expense and scarcity are prohibitive to large-scale commercialization. The need to develop alternative catalysts has been addressed here, using microkinetic modelling combined with density functional studies to identify suitable monolayer bimetallic (surface or subsurface) catalysts based on nitrogen binding energies. The Ni-Pt-Pt(111) surface, with one monolayer of Ni atoms residing on a Pt(111) substrate, was predicted to be a catalytically active surface. This was verified using temperature-programmed desorption and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy experiments. The results reported here provide a framework for complex catalyst discovery. They also demonstrate the critical importance of combining theoretical and experimental approaches for identifying desirable monolayer bimetallic systems when the surface properties are not a linear function of the parent metals.

  13. MEMS Tunneling Micro Thermometer Based onTip Deflection of Bimetallic Cantilever Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samrand K. Nezhadian

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Micro-electro-mechanical (MEM technology promises to significantly reduce the size, weight and cost of a variety of sensor systems. In this article has been described a highly sensitive novel type of thermometer based on deflection of a “bimetallic” microbeam. The proposed thermometer converts the thermal changes of a cantilevered bimetallic beam of submillimeter size into an electrical signal through tunneling-current modulation. The governing thermo-mechanical equation of a bimetallic cantilever beam has been derived and solved analytically. The obtained results show that the proposed tunneling micro thermometer is very sensitive to temperature changes due to exponential increasing of tunneling current but because of small gap between metallic electrodes, measurable range of temperature changes is small.

  14. Porous Diatomite-Immobilized Cu–Ni Bimetallic Nanocatalysts for Direct Synthesis of Dimethyl Carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of diatomite-immobilized Cu–Ni bimetallic nanocatalysts was prepared under ultrasonication and evaluated for the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate under various conditions. Upon being fully characterized by TPR, TPD, BET, SEM, XRD, and XPS methodologies, it is found that the bimetallic composite is effectively alloyed and well immobilized inside or outside the pore of diatomite. Under the optimal conditions of 1.2 MPa and 120∘C, the prepared catalyst with loading of 15% exhibited the highest methanol conversion of 6.50% with DMC selectivity of 91.2% as well as more than 10-hour lifetime. The possible reaction mechanism was proposed and discussed in detail. To our knowledge, this is the first report to use diatomite as a catalyst support for direct DMC synthesis from methanol and CO2.

  15. Catalytic hydrotreatment of fast pyrolysis oil using bimetallic Ni-Cu catalysts on various supports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardiyanti, A. R.; Khromova, S. A.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Yakovlev, V. A.; Melian-Cabrera, I. V.; Heeres, H. J.

    2012-01-01

    Bimetallic Ni-Cu catalysts on various Supports (CeO2-ZrO2, ZrO2, SiO2, TiO2, rice husk carbon, and Sibunite) with metal contents ranging from 7.5 to 9.0 (Ni) and 3.1-3.6 wt.% (Cu) for the inorganic supports and 17.1-17.8 (Ni) and 7.1-7.8 (Cu) for the carbon supports were synthesised and screened for

  16. Synthesis and Catalytic Activity of Pluronic Stabilized Silver-Gold Bimetallic Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, Megan S.; Nick, Kevin E.; Hall, Mia; Milligan, Jamie R.; Chen, Qiao; Perry, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we demonstrate a rapid, simple, and green method for synthesizing silver-gold (Ag-Au) bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs). We used a novel modification to the galvanic replacement reaction by suspending maltose coated silver nanoparticles (NPs) in ≈ 2% aqueous solution of EO100PO65EO100 (Pluronic F127) prior to HAuCl4 addition. The Pluronic F127 stabilizes the BNPs, imparts biocompatibility, and mitigates the toxicity issues associated with other surfactant stabilizers. BNPs with ...

  17. Desorption of Furfural from Bimetallic Pt-Fe Oxides/Alumina Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Lourdes Dimas-Rivera; Javier Rivera de la Rosa; Carlos J. Lucio-Ortiz; José Antonio De los Reyes Heredia; Virgilio González González; Tomás Hernández

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the desorption of furfural, which is a competitive intermediate during the production of biofuel and valuable aromatic compounds, was studied using pure alumina, as well as alumina impregnated with iron and platinum oxides both individually and in combination, using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The bimetallic sample exhibited the lowest desorption percentage for furfural. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging revealed the intimate connection betwe...

  18. Low cycle fatigue lifetime of HIP bonded Bi-metallic first wall structures of fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, Toshihisa; Sato, Satoshi; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Takatsu, Hideyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Hashimoto, Toshiyuki; Kitamura, Kazunori

    1998-10-01

    A HIP bonded bi-metallic panel composed of a dispersion strengthened copper (DSCu) layer and type 316L stainless steel (SS316L) cooling pipes is the reference design of the ITER first wall. To examine the fatigue lifetime of the first wall panel under cyclic mechanical loads, low cycle fatigue tests of HIP bonded bi-metallic specimens made of SS316L and DSCu were conducted with the stress ratio of -1.0 and five nominal strain range conditions ranging from 0.2 to 1.0%. Elasto-plastic analysis has also been conducted to evaluate local strain ranges under the nominal strains applied. Initial cracks were observed at the inner surface of the SS316L cooling pipes for all of the specimens tested, which was confirmed by the elasto-plastic analysis that the maximum strains of the test specimens were developed at the same locations. It was found that the HIP bonded bi-metallic test specimens had a fatigue lifetime longer than that of the SS316L raw material obtained by round bar specimens. Similarly, the fatigue lifetime of the DSCu/SS316L HIP interface was also longer than the round bar test results for the HIP joints. From these results, it has been confirmed that the bi-metallic first wall panel with built-in cooling pipes made by HIP bonding has a sufficient fatigue lifetime in comparison with the raw fatigue data of the materials, which also suggests that the fatigue lifetime evaluation has an adequate margin against fracture if it follows the design fatigue curve based on the material fatigue data. (author)

  19. Developments of modeling tools for the ultrasonic propagation in bimetallic welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardahaut, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study fits into the field of ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation. It consists in the development of a dynamic ray tracing model to simulate the ultrasonic propagation in bimetallic welds. The approach has been organised in three steps. First of all, an image processing technique has been developed and applied on the macro-graphs of the weld in order to obtain a smooth cartography of the crystallographic orientation. These images are used as input data for a dynamic ray tracing model adapted to the study of anisotropic and inhomogeneous media such as bimetallic welds. Based on a kinematic and a dynamic ray tracing model, usually used in geophysics, it allows the evaluation of ray trajectories between a source point and an observation point, and the computation of the ultrasonic amplitude through the geometrical spreading of an elementary ray tube. This model has been validated in 2D by comparison of the results with a hybrid semi-analytical/finite elements code, then in 3D thanks to experimental results made on the mock-ups of the studied bimetallic welds. (author) [fr

  20. Electrodeposition of Au/Ag bimetallic dendrites assisted by Faradaic AC-electroosmosis flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Jianlong; Li, Pengwei; Sang, Shengbo, E-mail: sbsang@tyut.edu.cn; Zhang, Wendong, E-mail: wdzhang@tyut.edu.cn; Li, Gang; Hu, Jie [Micro and Nano-system Research Centre, College of Information Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, 030024, Taiyuan (China); Zhou, Zhaoying, E-mail: zhouzy@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Yang, Xing; Dong, Hualai [MEMS Laboratory, Department of Precision Instruments, Tsinghua University, 100084, Beijing (China)

    2014-03-15

    Au/Ag bimetallic dendrites were synthesized successfully from the corresponding aqueous solution via the AC electrodeposition method. Both of the morphologies and compositions could be tuned by the electrolyte concentration and AC frequency. The prepared bimetallic dendrites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The underlying dendrite growth mechanism was then proposed in the context of the Directed Electrochemical Nanowires Assembly (DENA) models. Owing to the unscreened voltage dropping in the electrolyte bulk, electromigration dominates the species flux process, and cations tend to accumulate in areas with strong electric field intensity, such as electrode edges. Moreover, Faradaic AC-electro-osmosis (ACEO) flow could increase the effective diffusion layer thickness in these areas during the electrochemical reaction, and leads to dendrite growth. Further Micro-Raman observations illustrated that the Au/Ag bimetallic dendrites exhibited pronounced surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity, using 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MP) as model molecules.

  1. Yolk@Shell Nanoarchitectures with Bimetallic Nanocores-Synthesis and Electrocatalytic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiet, Amandine; Unmüssig, Tobias; Göbel, Caren; Vainio, Ulla; Wollgarten, Markus; Driess, Matthias; Schlaad, Helmut; Polte, Jörg; Fischer, Anna

    2016-10-10

    In the present paper, we demonstrate a versatile approach for the one-pot synthesis of metal oxide yolk@shell nanostructures filled with bimetallic nanocores. This novel approach is based on the principles of hydrophobic nanoreactor soft-templating and is exemplified for the synthesis of various AgAu NP @tin-rich ITO (AgAu@ITO TR ) yolk@shell nanomaterials. Hydrophobic nanoreactor soft-templating thereby takes advantage of polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpiridine) inverse micelles as two-compartment nanoreactor template, in which the core and the shell of the micelles serve as metal and metal oxide precursor reservoir, respectively. The composition, size and number of AuAg bimetallic nanoparticles incorporated within the ITO TR yolk@shell can easily be tuned. The conductivity of the ITO TR shell and the bimetallic composition of the AuAg nanoparticles, the as-synthesized AuAg NP @ITO TR yolk@shell materials could be used as efficient electrocatalysts for electrochemical glucose oxidation with improved onset potential when compared to their gold counterpart.

  2. Synthesis and hydrogenation application of Pt-Pd bimetallic nanocatalysts stabilized by macrocycle-modified dendrimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhijun; Xiao, Haiyan; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Dongqiao; Peng, Xiaohong

    2017-12-01

    Different generations of poly(propylene imine) (Gn-PPI) terminated with N-containing 15-membered triolefinic macrocycle (GnM) (n = 2, 3, 4, 5) were prepared. The bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts GnM-(Ptx/Pd10-x) (x = 0, 3, 5, 7, 10) were prepared by the synchronous ligand-exchange reaction between GnM and the complexes of Pt(PPh3)4 and Pd(PPh3)4. The structure and catalytic properties of GnM-(Ptx/Pd10-x) were characterized via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The novel bimetallic Pd-Pt nanoparticle catalysts stabilized by dendrimers (DSNs) present higher catalytic activities for the hydrogenation of dimeric acid (DA) than that of nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR). It can be concluded that bimetallic Pd-Pt DSNs possess alloying and synergistic electronic effects on account of the hydrogenation degree (HD) of DA and NBR. Furthermore, the HD of DA and NBR shows a remarkable decrease with the incremental generations (n) of GnM-(Pt3/Pd7) (n = 2, 3, 4, 5).

  3. Bimetallic catalysts for HI decomposition in the iodine-sulfur thermochemical cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Laijun; Hu Songzhi; Xu Lufei; Li Daocai; Han Qi; Chen Songzhe; Zhang Ping; Xu Jingming

    2014-01-01

    Among the different kinds of thermochemical water-splitting cycles, the iodine-sulfur (IS) cycle has attracted more and more interest because it is one of the promising candidates for economical and massive hydrogen production. However, there still exist some science and technical problems to be solved before industrialization of the IS process. One such problem is the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen iodide. Although the active carbon supported platinum has been verified to present the excellent performance for HI decomposition, it is very expensive and easy to agglomerate under the harsh condition. In order to decrease the cost and increase the stability of the catalysts for HI decomposition, a series of bimetallic catalysts were prepared and studied at INET. This paper summarized our present research advances on the bimetallic catalysts (Pt-Pd, Pd-Ir and Pt-Ir) for HI decomposition. In the course of the study, the physical properties, structure, and morphology of the catalysts were characterized by specific surface area, X-ray diffractometer; and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The catalytic activity for HI decomposition was investigated in a fixed bed reactor under atmospheric pressure. The results show that due to the higher activity and better stability, the active carbon supported bimetallic catalyst is more potential candidate than mono metallic Pt catalyst for HI decomposition in the IS thermochemical cycle. (author)

  4. Bimetallic magnetic PtPd-nanoparticles as efficient catalyst for PAH removal from liquid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanato, A. F. S.; Silva, V. C.; Lima, D. A.; Jacinto, M. J.

    2017-11-01

    Monometallic Pd- and bimetallic PtPd-nanoparticles supported on a mesoporous magnetic magnetite@silica matrix resembling a core-shell structure (Fe3O4@mSiO2) have been fabricated. The material was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-angle annular dark field-scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The catalysts were applied in the removal of anthracene from liquid phase via catalytic hydrogenation. It was found that anthracene as a model compound could be completely converted into the partially hydrogenated species by the monometallic and bimetallic solids. However, during the recycling study the bimetallic material (Fe3O4@mSiO2PtPd-) showed an enhanced activity towards anthracene removal compared with the monometallic materials. A single portion of the PtPd-based catalyst can be used up to 11 times in the hydrogenation of anthracene under mild conditions (6 atm of H2, 75 °C, 20 min). Thanks to the presence of a dense magnetic core, the catalysts were capable of responding to an applied external magnetic field and once the reaction was completed, catalyst/product separation was straightforward.

  5. Synthesis and hydrogenation application of Pt–Pd bimetallic nanocatalysts stabilized by macrocycle-modified dendrimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Haiyan; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Dongqiao; Peng, Xiaohong

    2017-01-01

    Different generations of poly(propylene imine) (Gn-PPI) terminated with N-containing 15-membered triolefinic macrocycle (GnM) (n = 2, 3, 4, 5) were prepared. The bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts GnM-(Ptx/Pd10−x) (x = 0, 3, 5, 7, 10) were prepared by the synchronous ligand-exchange reaction between GnM and the complexes of Pt(PPh3)4 and Pd(PPh3)4. The structure and catalytic properties of GnM-(Ptx/Pd10−x) were characterized via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The novel bimetallic Pd–Pt nanoparticle catalysts stabilized by dendrimers (DSNs) present higher catalytic activities for the hydrogenation of dimeric acid (DA) than that of nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR). It can be concluded that bimetallic Pd–Pt DSNs possess alloying and synergistic electronic effects on account of the hydrogenation degree (HD) of DA and NBR. Furthermore, the HD of DA and NBR shows a remarkable decrease with the incremental generations (n) of GnM-(Pt3/Pd7) (n = 2, 3, 4, 5). PMID:29308263

  6. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Schobert, H.H.; Parfitt, D.P. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on exploring novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction and the effectiveness of temperature-programmed liquefaction using dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research was to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that could be used in low concentrations but exhibit relatively high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. We have synthesized and tested various catalyst precursors in liquefaction of subbituminous and bituminous coals and in model compound studies to examine how do the composition and structure of the catalytic precursors affect their effectiveness for coal liquefaction under different reaction conditions, and how do these factors affect their catalytic functions for hydrogenation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, for cleavage of C-C bonds in polycyclic systems such as 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, for hydrogenolysis of C-O bond such as that in dinaphthylether, for hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds and other oxygen-containing compounds such as xanthene, and for hydrodesulfurization of polycyclic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene. The novel bimetallic and monometallic precursors synthesized and tested in this project include various Mo- and Fe-based compounds.

  7. Electrodeposition of Au/Ag bimetallic dendrites assisted by Faradaic AC-electroosmosis flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianlong Ji

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Au/Ag bimetallic dendrites were synthesized successfully from the corresponding aqueous solution via the AC electrodeposition method. Both of the morphologies and compositions could be tuned by the electrolyte concentration and AC frequency. The prepared bimetallic dendrites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and UV–vis spectroscopy. The underlying dendrite growth mechanism was then proposed in the context of the Directed Electrochemical Nanowires Assembly (DENA models. Owing to the unscreened voltage dropping in the electrolyte bulk, electromigration dominates the species flux process, and cations tend to accumulate in areas with strong electric field intensity, such as electrode edges. Moreover, Faradaic AC-electro-osmosis (ACEO flow could increase the effective diffusion layer thickness in these areas during the electrochemical reaction, and leads to dendrite growth. Further Micro-Raman observations illustrated that the Au/Ag bimetallic dendrites exhibited pronounced surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS activity, using 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MP as model molecules.

  8. Determination of material distribution in heading process of small bimetallic bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presz, Wojciech; Cacko, Robert

    2018-05-01

    The electrical connectors mostly have silver contacts joined by riveting. In order to reduce costs, the core of the contact rivet can be replaced with cheaper material, e.g. copper. There is a wide range of commercially available bimetallic (silver-copper) rivets on the market for the production of contacts. Following that, new conditions in the riveting process are created because the bi-metal object is riveted. In the analyzed example, it is a small size object, which can be placed on the border of microforming. Based on the FEM modeling of the load process of bimetallic rivets with different material distributions, the desired distribution was chosen and the choice was justified. Possible material distributions were parameterized with two parameters referring to desirable distribution characteristics. The parameter: Coefficient of Mutual Interactions of Plastic Deformations and the method of its determination have been proposed. The parameter is determined based of two-parameter stress-strain curves and is a function of these parameters and the range of equivalent strains occurring in the analyzed process. The proposed method was used for the upsetting process of the bimetallic head of the electrical contact. A nomogram was established to predict the distribution of materials in the head of the rivet and the appropriate selection of a pair of materials to achieve the desired distribution.

  9. Efficient method for the conversion of agricultural waste into sugar alcohols over supported bimetallic catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tathod, Anup P; Dhepe, Paresh L

    2015-02-01

    Promoter effect of Sn in the PtSn/γ-Al2O3 (AL) and PtSn/C bimetallic catalysts is studied for the conversion of variety of substrates such as, C5 sugars (xylose, arabinose), C6 sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose), hemicelluloses (xylan, arabinogalactan), inulin and agricultural wastes (bagasse, rice husk, wheat straw) into sugar alcohols (sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, arabitol, galactitol). In all the reactions, PtSn/AL showed enhanced yields of sugar alcohols by 1.5-3 times than Pt/AL. Compared to C, AL supported bimetallic catalysts showed prominent enhancement in the yields of sugar alcohols. Bimetallic catalysts characterized by X-ray diffraction study revealed the stability of catalyst and absence of alloy formation thereby indicating that Pt and Sn are present as individual particles in PtSn/AL. The TEM analysis also confirmed stability of the catalysts and XPS study disclosed formation of electron deficient Sn species which helps in polarizing carbonyl bond to achieve enhanced hydrogenation activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficient low-temperature soot combustion by bimetallic Ag-Cu/SBA-15 catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhaojun; Duan, Xinping; Hu, Menglin; Cao, Yanning; Ye, Linmin; Jiang, Lilong; Yuan, Youzhu

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effects of copper (Cu) additive on the catalytic performance of Ag/SBA-15 in complete soot combustion were investigated. The soot combustion performance of bimetallic Ag-Cu/SBA-15 catalysts was higher than that of monometallic Ag and Cu catalysts. The optimum catalytic performance was acquired with the 5Ag 1 -Cu 0.1 /SBA-15 catalyst, on which the soot combustion starts at T ig =225°C with a T 50 =285°C. The temperature for 50% of soot combustion was lower than that of conventional Ag-based catalysts to more than 50°C (Aneggi et al., 2009). Physicochemical characterizations of the catalysts indicated that addition of Cu into Ag could form smaller bimetallic Ag-Cu nanolloy particles, downsizing the mean particle size from 3.7nm in monometallic catalyst to 2.6nm in bimetallic Ag-Cu catalyst. Further experiments revealed that Ag and Cu species elicited synergistic effects, subsequently increasing the content of surface active oxygen species. As a result, the structure modifications of Ag by the addition of Cu strongly intensified the catalytic performance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Cluster management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R

    1992-11-01

    Cluster management is a management model that fosters decentralization of management, develops leadership potential of staff, and creates ownership of unit-based goals. Unlike shared governance models, there is no formal structure created by committees and it is less threatening for managers. There are two parts to the cluster management model. One is the formation of cluster groups, consisting of all staff and facilitated by a cluster leader. The cluster groups function for communication and problem-solving. The second part of the cluster management model is the creation of task forces. These task forces are designed to work on short-term goals, usually in response to solving one of the unit's goals. Sometimes the task forces are used for quality improvement or system problems. Clusters are groups of not more than five or six staff members, facilitated by a cluster leader. A cluster is made up of individuals who work the same shift. For example, people with job titles who work days would be in a cluster. There would be registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, nursing assistants, and unit clerks in the cluster. The cluster leader is chosen by the manager based on certain criteria and is trained for this specialized role. The concept of cluster management, criteria for choosing leaders, training for leaders, using cluster groups to solve quality improvement issues, and the learning process necessary for manager support are described.

  12. Contribution of radiation chemistry to cluster science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belloni, J.

    2006-01-01

    Nanoclusters are small objects made of a few atoms, with a size of a few nanometers at most, which constitute a state of matter, named mesoscopic, intermediary between the atom and the bulk metal. In the 70's, radiation chemistry experiments have demonstrated that metal clusters exhibited indeed, due to their very small size, specific properties distinct from the bulk metal. The properties, physical and chemical, change with the number of atoms they contain. Their optical absorption spectrum, for example, as well as their redox potential, depends on the nuclearity, and also on the environment. Radiation chemistry methods have been proven to be of high potentiality to induce small and size-monodispersed metal clusters, as nanocolloids or supported on various materials. Pulse radiolysis provides the means to study the dynamics of nucleation and growth of clusters, monoand bi-metallic, from the monomers to the stable nanoparticle and to observe directly their reactivity, especially to determine during the growth their nuclearity-dependent properties, such as the redox potential. These are of crucial importance for the understanding of the mechanism of the cluster growth itself, in the radiation-induced as well as in the chemical or photochemical reduction processes, and also of the mechanism of certain catalytic reactions. (authors)

  13. Bimetallic Nanocatalysts in Mesoporous Silica for Hydrogen Production from Coal-Derived Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuila, Debasish [North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States); Ilias, Shamsuddin [North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2013-02-13

    In steam reforming reactions (SRRs) of alkanes and alcohols to produce H2, noble metals such as platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) are extensively used as catalyst. These metals are expensive; so, to reduce noble-metal loading, bi-metallic nanocatalysts containing non-noble metals in MCM-41 (Mobil Composition of Material No. 41, a mesoporous material) as a support material with high-surface area were synthesized using one-pot hydrothermal procedure with a surfactant such as cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template. Bi-metallic nanocatalysts of Pd-Ni and Pd-Co with varying metal loadings in MCM-41 were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The BET surface area of MCM-41 (~1000 m2/g) containing metal nanoparticles decreases with the increase in metal loading. The FTIR studies confirm strong interaction between Si-O-M (M = Pd, Ni, Co) units and successful inclusion of metal into the mesoporous silica matrix. The catalyst activities were examined in steam reforming of methanol (SRM) reactions to produce hydrogen. Reference tests using catalysts containing individual metals (Pd, Ni and Co) were also performed to investigate the effect of the bimetallic system on the catalytic behavior in the SRM reactions. The bimetallic system remarkably improves the hydrogen selectivity, methanol conversion and stability of the catalyst. The results are consistent with a synergistic behavior for the Pd-Ni-bimetallic system. The performance, durability and thermal stability of the Pd-Ni/MCM-41 and Pd-Co/MCM-41 suggest that these materials may be promising catalysts for hydrogen production from biofuels. A part of this work for synthesis and characterization of Pd-Ni-MCM-41 and its activity for SRM reactions has been published (“Development of Mesoporous Silica Encapsulated Pd-Ni Nanocatalyst for Hydrogen Production” in “Production and Purification of Ultraclean

  14. Isotopic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraedts, J.M.P.

    1983-01-01

    Spectra of isotopically mixed clusters (dimers of SF 6 ) are calculated as well as transition frequencies. The result leads to speculations about the suitability of the laser-cluster fragmentation process for isotope separation. (Auth.)

  15. Cluster Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a role. Unlike migraine and tension headache, cluster headache generally isn't associated with triggers, such as foods, hormonal changes or stress. Once a cluster period begins, however, drinking alcohol ...

  16. Electrocatalytic oxidation of ethylene glycol at palladium-bimetallic nanocatalysts (PdSn and PdNi) supported on sulfonate-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramulifho, T

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrocatalytic oxidation of ethylene glycol (EG) in alkaline medium using nano-scaled palladium-based bimetallic catalysts (PdM, where M = Ni and Sn) supported on sulfonated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SF-MWCNTs) is compared. The bimetallic...

  17. Gas-Phase Synthesis of Bimetallic Oxide Nanoparticles with Designed Elemental Compositions for Controlling the Explosive Reactivity of Nanoenergetic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Young Ahn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a simple and viable method for controlling the energy release rate and pressurization rate of nanoenergetic materials by controlling the relative elemental compositions of oxidizers. First, bimetallic oxide nanoparticles (NPs with a homogeneous distribution of two different oxidizer components (CuO and Fe2O3 were generated by a conventional spray pyrolysis method. Next, the Al NPs employed as a fuel were mixed with CuO-Fe2O3 bimetallic oxide NPs by an ultrasonication process in ethanol solution. Finally, after the removal of ethanol by a drying process, the NPs were converted into energetic materials (EMs. The effects of the mass fraction of CuO in the CuO-Fe2O3 bimetallic oxide NPs on the explosive reactivity of the resulting EMs were examined by using a differential scanning calorimeter and pressure cell tester (PCT systems. The results clearly indicate that the energy release rate and pressurization rate of EMs increased linearly as the mass fraction of CuO in the CuO-Fe2O3 bimetallic oxide NPs increased. This suggests that the precise control of the stoichiometric proportions of the strong oxidizer (CuO and mild oxidizer (Fe2O3 components in the bimetallic oxide NPs is a key factor in tuning the explosive reactivity of EMs.

  18. Hierarchical paramecium-like hollow and solid Au/Pt bimetallic nanostructures constructed using goethite as template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Repo, Eveliina; Heikkilä, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku; Sillanpää, Mika

    2010-10-01

    Novel hollow and solid paramecium-like hierarchical Au/Pt bimetallic nanostructures were constructed using goethite as template via a seed-mediated growth method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ξ-potential measurement, UV-vis spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), ICP-AES measurement, x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were utilized to systematically characterize the bimetallic nanostructures. It is found that the core structure of the paramecium-like bimetallic nanomaterial is closely related to reducing agent. When ascorbic acid is used as reducing agent, goethite serves as in situ sacrificed template and hollow paramecium-like bimetallic structure is obtained. When NH2OH·HCl is used, solid nanostructure with preserved goethite core is produced. Heating the reaction solution is necessary to obtain the paramecium-like morphology with rough interconnected Pt cilia shell. The thickness of Pt cilia layer can be controlled by adjusting the molar ratio of H2PtCl6 to Au nanoseeds. The overgrowth of the rough Pt cilia is proposed to be via an autocatalytic and three-dimensional heterogeneous nucleation process first through flower-like morphology. Both the hollow and solid hierarchical paramecium-like Au/Pt bimetallic nanostructures show good catalytic activities.

  19. Hierarchical paramecium-like hollow and solid Au/Pt bimetallic nanostructures constructed using goethite as template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; Repo, Eveliina; Sillanpaeae, Mika; Heikkilae, Mikko; Leskelae, Markku

    2010-01-01

    Novel hollow and solid paramecium-like hierarchical Au/Pt bimetallic nanostructures were constructed using goethite as template via a seed-mediated growth method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ξ-potential measurement, UV-vis spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), ICP-AES measurement, x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were utilized to systematically characterize the bimetallic nanostructures. It is found that the core structure of the paramecium-like bimetallic nanomaterial is closely related to reducing agent. When ascorbic acid is used as reducing agent, goethite serves as in situ sacrificed template and hollow paramecium-like bimetallic structure is obtained. When NH 2 OH·HCl is used, solid nanostructure with preserved goethite core is produced. Heating the reaction solution is necessary to obtain the paramecium-like morphology with rough interconnected Pt cilia shell. The thickness of Pt cilia layer can be controlled by adjusting the molar ratio of H 2 PtCl 6 to Au nanoseeds. The overgrowth of the rough Pt cilia is proposed to be via an autocatalytic and three-dimensional heterogeneous nucleation process first through flower-like morphology. Both the hollow and solid hierarchical paramecium-like Au/Pt bimetallic nanostructures show good catalytic activities.

  20. Hierarchical paramecium-like hollow and solid Au/Pt bimetallic nanostructures constructed using goethite as template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wei; Repo, Eveliina; Sillanpaeae, Mika [Laboratory of Applied Environmental Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, Patteristonkatu 1, FI-50100 Mikkeli (Finland); Heikkilae, Mikko; Leskelae, Markku, E-mail: weiliuzk@yahoo.cn, E-mail: mika.sillanpaa@uef.fi [Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, PO Box 55 (A.I. Virtasen aukio 1), FI-00014, Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-10-01

    Novel hollow and solid paramecium-like hierarchical Au/Pt bimetallic nanostructures were constructed using goethite as template via a seed-mediated growth method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), {xi}-potential measurement, UV-vis spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), ICP-AES measurement, x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were utilized to systematically characterize the bimetallic nanostructures. It is found that the core structure of the paramecium-like bimetallic nanomaterial is closely related to reducing agent. When ascorbic acid is used as reducing agent, goethite serves as in situ sacrificed template and hollow paramecium-like bimetallic structure is obtained. When NH{sub 2}OH{center_dot}HCl is used, solid nanostructure with preserved goethite core is produced. Heating the reaction solution is necessary to obtain the paramecium-like morphology with rough interconnected Pt cilia shell. The thickness of Pt cilia layer can be controlled by adjusting the molar ratio of H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} to Au nanoseeds. The overgrowth of the rough Pt cilia is proposed to be via an autocatalytic and three-dimensional heterogeneous nucleation process first through flower-like morphology. Both the hollow and solid hierarchical paramecium-like Au/Pt bimetallic nanostructures show good catalytic activities.

  1. Mono and bimetallic nanoparticles of gold, silver and palladium-catalyzed NADH oxidation-coupled reduction of Eosin-Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanalakshmi, J.; Venkatesan, P.

    2011-02-01

    Mono metallic (Au, Ag, Pd) and bimetallic (Au-Ag, Ag-Pd, Au-Pd) with 1:1 mol stoichiometry, nanoparticles are synthesized using one-pot, temperature controlled chemical method using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as the capping agent. The particle sizes (Au = 5.6, Ag = 5.0, Pd = 6.0, Au-Ag = 9.2, Ag-Pd = 9.6, Au-Pd = 9.4 nm) are characterized by UV-Vis, HRTEM, and XRD measurements, respectively. CTAB bindings onto mono and bimetallic nanoparticles are analyzed by FTIR spectra. The catalytic activities of mono and bimetallic nanoparticles are tested on the reaction between NADH oxidation and Eosin-Y reduction. The effects of base, pH, ionic strength, nature of mono and bimetallic catalysts are studied and the reaction conditions are optimized. Bimetallic nanoparticles exhibited better catalysis than the mono metallic nanoparticles, which may be due to the electronic effects of the core to shell metal atoms.

  2. Mono and bimetallic nanoparticles of gold, silver and palladium-catalyzed NADH oxidation-coupled reduction of Eosin-Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhanalakshmi, J.; Venkatesan, P.

    2011-01-01

    Mono metallic (Au, Ag, Pd) and bimetallic (Au–Ag, Ag–Pd, Au–Pd) with 1:1 mol stoichiometry, nanoparticles are synthesized using one-pot, temperature controlled chemical method using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as the capping agent. The particle sizes (Au = 5.6, Ag = 5.0, Pd = 6.0, Au–Ag = 9.2, Ag–Pd = 9.6, Au–Pd = 9.4 nm) are characterized by UV–Vis, HRTEM, and XRD measurements, respectively. CTAB bindings onto mono and bimetallic nanoparticles are analyzed by FTIR spectra. The catalytic activities of mono and bimetallic nanoparticles are tested on the reaction between NADH oxidation and Eosin-Y reduction. The effects of base, pH, ionic strength, nature of mono and bimetallic catalysts are studied and the reaction conditions are optimized. Bimetallic nanoparticles exhibited better catalysis than the mono metallic nanoparticles, which may be due to the electronic effects of the core to shell metal atoms.Graphical Abstract

  3. Cluster Headache

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Iris

    1985-01-01

    Cluster headache is the most severe primary headache with recurrent pain attacks described as worse than giving birth. The aim of this paper was to make an overview of current knowledge on cluster headache with a focus on pathophysiology and treatment. This paper presents hypotheses of cluster headache pathophysiology, current treatment options and possible future therapy approaches. For years, the hypothalamus was regarded as the key structure in cluster headache, but is now thought to be pa...

  4. Categorias Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Dayane Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos as categorias cluster, que foram introduzidas por Aslak Bakke Buan, Robert Marsh, Markus Reineke, Idun Reiten e Gordana Todorov, com o objetivo de categoriíicar as algebras cluster criadas em 2002 por Sergey Fomin e Andrei Zelevinsky. Os autores acima, em [4], mostraram que existe uma estreita relação entre algebras cluster e categorias cluster para quivers cujo grafo subjacente é um diagrama de Dynkin. Para isto desenvolveram uma teoria tilting na estrutura triang...

  5. Meaningful Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2004-05-26

    We present an approach to the disambiguation of cluster labels that capitalizes on the notion of semantic similarity to assign WordNet senses to cluster labels. The approach provides interesting insights on how document clustering can provide the basis for developing a novel approach to word sense disambiguation.

  6. Horticultural cluster

    OpenAIRE

    SHERSTIUK S.V.; POSYLAYEVA K.I.

    2013-01-01

    In the article there are the theoretical and methodological approaches to the nature and existence of the cluster. The cluster differences from other kinds of cooperative and integration associations. Was develop by scientific-practical recommendations for forming a competitive horticultur cluster.

  7. Structure and energetics of bimetallic surface confined alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbreiter, Andreas; Roetter, Ralf T.; Engstfeld, Albert K.; Hoster, Harry E.; Behm, R. Juergen [Institute of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Ulm University (Germany); Gross, Axel [Institute for Theoretical Chemistry, Ulm University (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The atomic distribution in a number of A{sub x}B{sub 1-x}/B type surface alloys was determined by STM imaging with chemical contrast and statistically evaluated. Whereas in the systems Au{sub x}Pt{sub 1-x}/Pt(111), Ag{sub x}Pt{sub 1-x}/Pt(111), and Pd{sub x}Ru{sub 1-x}/Ru(0001) we find preferences for larger homoatomic aggregates, the atom distribution in Pt{sub x}Ru{sub 1-x}/Ru(0001) and Ag{sub x}Pd{sub 1-x}/Pd(111) is very close to a random one[1]. In Ag{sub x}Pd{sub 1-x}/Pd(111), our data show a small tendency towards clustering for x{sub Ag}<0.5, whereas at x{sub Ag}>0.5 this is reversed to a slight preference for heteroatomic neighborhoods. Based on these experimental results, we have derived effective cluster interaction energies for all surface alloys. These allow us to calculate phase diagrams for the surface alloys that we compare to predictions from theoretical work and to the behaviour of the corresponding bulk systems. We also discuss in how far the different atom distributions affect chemical and catalytic properties of the surface alloys.

  8. Cluster Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulati, Mukesh; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Suresh, Sangeetha

    2018-01-01

    sell their products successfully in international markets, but there is also an increasingly large consumer base within India. Indeed, Indian industrial clusters have contributed to a substantial part of this growth process, and there are several hundred registered clusters within the country...... of this handbook, which focuses on the role of CSR in MSMEs. Hence we contribute to the literature on CSR in industrial clusters and specifically CSR in Indian industrial clusters by investigating the drivers of CSR in India’s industrial clusters....

  9. Insertion of a single-molecule magnet inside a ferromagnetic lattice based on a 3D bimetallic oxalate network: towards molecular analogues of permanent magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-León, Miguel; Coronado, Eugenio; Gómez-García, Carlos J; López-Jordà, Maurici; Camón, Agustín; Repollés, Ana; Luis, Fernando

    2014-02-03

    The insertion of the single-molecule magnet (SMM) [Mn(III)(salen)(H2O)]2(2+) (salen(2-) = N,N'-ethylenebis-(salicylideneiminate)) into a ferromagnetic bimetallic oxalate network affords the hybrid compound [Mn(III)(salen)(H2O)]2[Mn(II)Cr(III)(ox)3]2⋅(CH3OH)⋅(CH3CN)2 (1). This cationic Mn2 cluster templates the growth of crystals formed by an unusual achiral 3D oxalate network. The magnetic properties of this hybrid magnet are compared with those of the analogous compounds [Mn(III)(salen)(H2O)]2[Zn(II)Cr(III)(ox)3]2⋅(CH3OH)⋅(CH3CN)2 (2) and [In(III)(sal2-trien)][Mn(II)Cr(III)(ox)3]⋅(H2O)0.25⋅(CH3OH)0.25⋅(CH3CN)0.25 (3), which are used as reference compounds. In 2 it has been shown that the magnetic isolation of the Mn2 clusters provided by their insertion into a paramagnetic oxalate network of Cr(III) affords a SMM behavior, albeit with blocking temperatures well below 500 mK even for frequencies as high as 160 kHz. In 3 the onset of ferromagnetism in the bimetallic Mn(II) Cr(III) network is observed at Tc = 5 K. Finally, in the hybrid compound 1 the interaction between the two magnetic networks leads to the antiparallel arrangement of their respective magnetizations, that is, to a ferrimagnetic phase. This coupling induces also important changes on the magnetic properties of 1 with respect to those of the reference compounds 2 and 3. In particular, compound 1 shows a large magnetization hysteresis below 1 K, which is in sharp contrast with the near-reversible magnetizations that the SMMs and the oxalate ferromagnetic lattice show under the same conditions. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Pd/Co bimetallic nanoparticles: coelectrodeposition under protection of PVP and enhanced electrocatalytic activity for ethanol electrooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Z.S.; Wu, J.J. [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Key Laboratory of Chemo-Biosensing, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China)

    2012-06-15

    A series of Pd-Co bimetallic nanostructures with Co compositions ranging from 0 to 13 at.% were fabricated on glassy carbon electrode by one step electrodeposition in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The roles of PVP and Co have been systematically investigated by using combined techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, cyclic voltammetry, X-ray diffraction, and chronoamperograms. PVP was used as an additive to stabilize the Pd nanoparticles and inhibit agglomeration during their formation. The prepared Pd{sub 100}Co{sub 10} bimetallic nanostructures exhibited great catalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline, which implies that low Co doping can be a convenient way to enhance the electrocatalytic property of Pd. The present study shows that the Pd/Co bimetallic nanoparticulate can be a promising catalyst for portable applications in direct ethanol fuel cell in alkaline solution. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Ruthenium-platinum bimetallic catalysts supported on silica: characterization and study of benzene hydrogenation and CO methanation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarty, D.K.; Rao, K.M.; Sundararaman, N.; Chandavar, K.

    1986-12-15

    Ru-Pt/SiO/sub 2/ bimetallic catalysts with varying Ru:Pt ratio have been prepared and studied with the aim to establish if they contain coclusters or isolated ruthenium and platinum particles. X-ray diffraction studies show that individual crystallites of ruthenium and platinum are present and no coclusters are formed. Metal dispersion has been determined by hydrogen chemisorption and surface composition of the catalysts has been obtained from XPS. It was found that preoxidation of the catalysts prior to reduction is essential for good platinum dispersion. The experimental turnover number (TN) for benzene hydrogenation on the bimetallic catalysts agrees very well with that of the weighted average on the individual metal catalysts and this may be taken as a kinetic evidence for the absence of coclusters. Carbon monoxide methanation activity of the bimetallic catalysts is quite similar to that of the supported platinum catalyst. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Facile Fabrication of Composition-Tuned Ru-Ni Bimetallics in Ordered Mesoporous Carbon for Levulinic Acid Hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ying; Gao, Guang; Zhang, Xin; Li, Fuwei [ChinaU - Petroleum; (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2016-02-04

    Bimetallic catalysts are of great importance due to their unique catalytic properties. However, their conventional synthesis requires tedious multistep procedures and prolonged synthetic time, and the resulting bimetallics usually disperse unevenly and show poor stability. It is challenging to develop a facile and step-economic synthetic methodology for highly efficient bimetallic catalysts. In this study, we report an elegant metal complex-involved multicomponent assembly route to highly efficient Ru–Ni bimetallics in ordered mesoporous carbons (OMC). The fabrication of composition-tuned Ru–Ni bimetallics in OMC (RuxNi1–x–OMC, x = 0.5–0.9) was facilely realized via in situ construction of CTAB-directed cubic Ia3d chitosan-ruthenium–nickel–silica mesophase before pyrolysis and silica removal. The resulting RuxNi1–x–OMC materials are in-depth characterized with X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption–desorption, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectrum, and X-ray absorption fine structure. This facile fabrication method renders homogeneously dispersed Ru–Ni bimetallics embedded in the mesoporous carbonaceous framework and creates a highly active and stable Ru0.9Ni0.1–OMC catalyst for the hydrogenation of levulinic acid (LA) to prepare γ-valerolactone (GVL), a biomass-derived platform molecule with wide application in the preparation of renewable chemicals and liquid transportation fuels. A high TOF (>2000 h–1) was obtained, and the Ru0.9Ni0.1–OMC catalyst could be used at least 15 times without obvious loss of its catalytic performance.

  13. Bimetallic and Trimetallic Nanoparticles for Fuel Cell Electrocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perla B. Balbuena; Jorge M. Seminario

    2005-10-31

    Theoretical, high level ab initio investigations on representative clusters as well as on extended systems are conducted to determine the electronic, geometric, and thermodynamic factors that determine catalytic and electrocatalytic behavior, focusing in the reduction of oxygen in acid medium. The study of adsorption and reaction processes generates the information needed for force field development to be used in the analysis of nanocatalyst particles, their support, and their environment through large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, which include collective effects at the nanosecond time scale. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are used to explore reaction mechanisms, and this technique along with transition state theory calculations allows us to obtain the information needed about activation energies and estimates of the rate constants. Dynamic Monte Carlo simulations combine the results of the first three sets of studies yielding kinetics information within a time scale in the range of seconds and length scales of the order of hundreds of nanometers, including nanocatalyst/support/environment.

  14. Exploration of Cocatalyst Effects on a Bimetallic Cobalt Catalyst System: Enhanced Activity and Enantioselectivity in Epoxide Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Widger, Peter C. B.; Ahmed, Syud M.; Coates, Geoffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    Organic ionic compounds were synthesized and investigated as cocatalysts with a bimetallic cobalt complex for enantioselective epoxide polymerization. The identities of both the cation and the anion were systematically varied, and the subsequent reactivity was studied. The nature of the ionic cocatalyst dramatically impacted the rate and enantioselectivity of the catalyst system. The ionic cocatalyst [P(N=P(N(CH2)4)3) 4 +][tBuCO2 -] in combination with a bimetallic cobalt complex produced a catalyst system that exhibited the greatest activity and selectivity for a variety of monosubstituted epoxides. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. Exploration of Cocatalyst Effects on a Bimetallic Cobalt Catalyst System: Enhanced Activity and Enantioselectivity in Epoxide Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Widger, Peter C. B.

    2011-07-26

    Organic ionic compounds were synthesized and investigated as cocatalysts with a bimetallic cobalt complex for enantioselective epoxide polymerization. The identities of both the cation and the anion were systematically varied, and the subsequent reactivity was studied. The nature of the ionic cocatalyst dramatically impacted the rate and enantioselectivity of the catalyst system. The ionic cocatalyst [P(N=P(N(CH2)4)3) 4 +][tBuCO2 -] in combination with a bimetallic cobalt complex produced a catalyst system that exhibited the greatest activity and selectivity for a variety of monosubstituted epoxides. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  16. Data Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2012-03-01

    On obtaining a new data set, the researcher is immediately faced with the challenge of obtaining a high-level understanding from the observations. What does a typical item look like? What are the dominant trends? How many distinct groups are included in the data set, and how is each one characterized? Which observable values are common, and which rarely occur? Which items stand out as anomalies or outliers from the rest of the data? This challenge is exacerbated by the steady growth in data set size [11] as new instruments push into new frontiers of parameter space, via improvements in temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution, or by the desire to "fuse" observations from different modalities and instruments into a larger-picture understanding of the same underlying phenomenon. Data clustering algorithms provide a variety of solutions for this task. They can generate summaries, locate outliers, compress data, identify dense or sparse regions of feature space, and build data models. It is useful to note up front that "clusters" in this context refer to groups of items within some descriptive feature space, not (necessarily) to "galaxy clusters" which are dense regions in physical space. The goal of this chapter is to survey a variety of data clustering methods, with an eye toward their applicability to astronomical data analysis. In addition to improving the individual researcher’s understanding of a given data set, clustering has led directly to scientific advances, such as the discovery of new subclasses of stars [14] and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) [38]. All clustering algorithms seek to identify groups within a data set that reflect some observed, quantifiable structure. Clustering is traditionally an unsupervised approach to data analysis, in the sense that it operates without any direct guidance about which items should be assigned to which clusters. There has been a recent trend in the clustering literature toward supporting semisupervised or constrained

  17. Fabrication of bimetallic microfluidic surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensors on paper by screen printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lu-Lu; Song, Qi-Xia; Li, Yuan-Ting; Peng, Mao-Pan; Li, Da-Wei; Chen, Li-Xia; Fossey, John S; Long, Yi-Tao

    2013-08-20

    Au-Ag bimetallic microfluidic, dumbbell-shaped, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors were fabricated on cellulose paper by screen printing. These printed sensors rely on a sample droplet injection zone, and a SERS detection zone at either end of the dumbbell motif, fabricated by printing silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) successively with microscale precision. The microfluidic channel was patterned using an insulating ink to connect these two zones and form a hydrophobic circuit. Owing to capillary action of paper in the millimeter-sized channels, the sensor could enable self-filtering of fluids to remove suspended particles within wastewater without pumping. This sensor also allows sensitive SERS detection, due to advantageous combination of the strong surface enhancement of Ag NPs and excellent chemical stability of Au NPs. The SERS performance of the sensors was investigated by employing the probe rhodamine 6G, a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.1×10(-13)M and an enhancement factor of 8.6×10(6) could be achieved. Moreover, the dumbbell-shaped bimetallic sensors exhibited good stability with SERS performance being maintained over 14 weeks in air, and high reproducibility with less than 15% variation in spot-to-spot SERS intensity. Using these dumbbell-shaped bimetallic sensors, substituted aromatic pollutants in wastewater samples could be quantitatively analyzed, which demonstrated their excellent capability for rapid trace pollutant detection in wastewater samples in the field without pre-separation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bimetallic nanoparticles for surface modification and lubrication of MEMS switch contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, Steven T; Hu Jianjun; Slocik, Joseph M; Campbell, Angela; Naik, Rajesh R; Voevodin, Andrey A

    2008-01-01

    Reliability continues to be a critical issue in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switches. Failure mechanisms include high contact resistance (R), high adhesion, melting/shorting, and contact erosion. Little previous work has addressed the lubrication of MEMS switches. In this study, bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized using a biotemplated approach and deposited on Au MEMS switch contacts as a nanoparticle-based lubricant. Bimetallic nanoparticles are comprised of a metallic core (∼10 nm diameter gold nanoparticle) with smaller metallic nanoparticles (∼2-3 nm diameter Pd nanoparticles) populating the core surface. Adhesion and resistance (R) were measured during hot switching experiments at low (10 μA) and high (1 mA) current. The Au/Pd NP coated contacts led to reduced adhesion as compared to pure Au contacts with a compromise of slightly higher R. For switches held in the closed position at low current, R gradually decreased over tens of seconds due to increased van der Waals force and growth of the real area of contact with temporal effects being dominant over load effects. Contact behavior transitioned from 'Pd-like' to 'Au-like' during low current cycling experiments. Melting at high current resulted in rapid formation of large real contact area, low and stable R, and minimal effect of load on R. Durability at high current was excellent with no failure through 10 6 hot switching cycles. Improvement at high current is due to controlled nanoscale surface roughness that spreads current through multiple nanocontacts, which restricts the size of melting regions and causes termination of nanowire growth (prevents shorting) during contact opening. Based on these results, bimetallic NPs show excellent potential as surface modifiers/lubricants for MEMS switch contacts

  19. Bimetallic nanoparticles for surface modification and lubrication of MEMS switch contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Steven T; Hu Jianjun [University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, OH 45469-0168 (United States); Slocik, Joseph M; Campbell, Angela; Naik, Rajesh R; Voevodin, Andrey A [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7750 (United States)], E-mail: steve.patton@wpafb.af.mil, E-mail: rajesh.naik@wpafb.af.mil

    2008-10-08

    Reliability continues to be a critical issue in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switches. Failure mechanisms include high contact resistance (R), high adhesion, melting/shorting, and contact erosion. Little previous work has addressed the lubrication of MEMS switches. In this study, bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized using a biotemplated approach and deposited on Au MEMS switch contacts as a nanoparticle-based lubricant. Bimetallic nanoparticles are comprised of a metallic core ({approx}10 nm diameter gold nanoparticle) with smaller metallic nanoparticles ({approx}2-3 nm diameter Pd nanoparticles) populating the core surface. Adhesion and resistance (R) were measured during hot switching experiments at low (10 {mu}A) and high (1 mA) current. The Au/Pd NP coated contacts led to reduced adhesion as compared to pure Au contacts with a compromise of slightly higher R. For switches held in the closed position at low current, R gradually decreased over tens of seconds due to increased van der Waals force and growth of the real area of contact with temporal effects being dominant over load effects. Contact behavior transitioned from 'Pd-like' to 'Au-like' during low current cycling experiments. Melting at high current resulted in rapid formation of large real contact area, low and stable R, and minimal effect of load on R. Durability at high current was excellent with no failure through 10{sup 6} hot switching cycles. Improvement at high current is due to controlled nanoscale surface roughness that spreads current through multiple nanocontacts, which restricts the size of melting regions and causes termination of nanowire growth (prevents shorting) during contact opening. Based on these results, bimetallic NPs show excellent potential as surface modifiers/lubricants for MEMS switch contacts.

  20. Ultrafast excited-state dynamics in shape- and composition-controlled gold–silver bimetallic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarick, Holly F. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Talbert, Eric M. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Puretzky, Alexander A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Geohegan, David B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bardhan, Rizia [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we have examined the ultrafast dynamics of shape- and composition-controlled bimetallic Au/Ag core/shell nanostructures with transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS) as a function of Ag layer thickness (0–15 nm) and pump excitation fluence (50–500 nJ/pulse). Our synthesis approach generated both bimetallic nanocubes and nanopyramids with distinct dipolar plasmon resonances and plasmon dephasing behavior at the resonance. Lifetimes obtained from TAS at low powers (50 nJ/pulse) demonstrated minimal dependence on the Ag layer thickness, whereas at high power (500 nJ/pulse) a rise in electron–phonon coupling lifetime (τ1) was observed with increasing Ag shell thickness for both nanocubes and nanopyramids. This is attributable to the stronger absorption of the 400 nm pump pulse with higher Ag content, which induced higher electron temperatures. The phonon–phonon scattering lifetime (τ2) also rises with increasing Ag layer, contributed both by the increasing size of the Au/Ag nanostructures as well as by surface chemistry effects. Further, we observed that even the thinnest, 2 nm, Ag shell strongly impacts both τ1 and τ2 at high power despite minimal change in overall size, indicating that the nanostructure composition also strongly impacts the thermalization temperature following absorption of 400 nm light. We also observed a shape-dependent trend at high power, where τ2 increased for the nanopyramids with increasing Ag shell thickness and nanostructure size, but bimetallic nanocubes demonstrated an unexpected decrease in τ2 for the thickest, 15 nm, Ag shell. This was attributed to the larger number of corners and edges in the nanocubes relative to the nanopyramids.

  1. Computer Simulation of Material Flow in Warm-forming Bimetallic Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, T. F.; Chan, L. C.; Lee, T. C.

    2007-05-01

    Bimetallic components take advantage of two different metals or alloys so that their applicable performance, weight and cost can be optimized. However, since each material has its own flow properties and mechanical behaviour, heterogeneous material flows will occur during the bimetal forming process. Those controls of process parameters are relatively more complicated than forming single metals. Most previous studies in bimetal forming have focused mainly on cold forming, and less relevant information about the warm forming has been provided. Indeed, changes of temperature and heat transfer between two materials are the significant factors which can highly influence the success of the process. Therefore, this paper presents a study of the material flow in warm-forming bimetallic components using finite-element (FE) simulation in order to determine the suitable process parameters for attaining the complete die filling. A watch-case-like component made of stainless steel (AISI-316L) and aluminium alloy (AL-6063) was used as the example. The warm-forming processes were simulated with the punch speeds V of 40, 80, and 120 mm/s and the initial temperatures of the stainless steel TiSS of 625, 675, 725, 775, 825, 875, 925, 975, and 1025 °C. The results showed that the AL-6063 flowed faster than the AISI-316L and so the incomplete die filling was only found in the AISI-316L region. A higher TiSS was recommended to avoid incomplete die filling. The reduction of V is also suggested because this can save the forming energy and prevent the damage of tooling. Eventually, with the experimental verification, the results from the simulation were in agreement with those of the experiments. On the basis of the results of this study, engineers can gain a better understanding of the material flow in warm-forming bimetallic components, and be able to determine more efficiently the punch speed and initial material temperature for the process.

  2. One-step green synthesis of bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles used to degrade Orange II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Fang; Yang, Die; Chen, Zuliang, E-mail: zuliang.chen@newcastle.edu.au; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2016-02-13

    Highlights: • Green synthesis of bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs was firstly reported using the one-step method. • 98.0% of Orange II was removed by Fe/Pd NPs, but only 16.0% by Fe NPs. • Fe/Pd NPs with a diameter ranging from 10 to 100 nm were observed. • Removing Orange II using Fe/Pd NPs involved both adsorption and catalytic degradation. - Abstract: To reduce cost and enhance reactivity, bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) were firstly synthesized using grape leaf aqueous extract to remove Orange II. Green synthesized bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs (98.0%) demonstrated a far higher ability to remove Orange II in 12 h compared to Fe NPs (16.0%). Meanwhile, all precursors, e.g., grape leaf extract, Fe{sup 2+} and Pd{sup 2+}, had no obvious effect on removing Orange II since less than 2.0% was removed. Kinetics study revealed that the removal rate fitted well to the pseudo-first-order reduction and pseudo-second-order adsorption model, meaning that removing Orange II via Fe/Pd NPs involved both adsorption and catalytic reduction. The remarkable stability of Fe/Pd NPs showed the potential application for removing azo dyes. Furthermore, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the changes in Fe/Pd NPs before and after reaction with Orange II. High Performance Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrum (HPLC–MS) identified the degraded products in the removal of Orange II, and finally a removal mechanism was proposed. This one-step strategy using grape leaf aqueous extract to synthesize Fe/Pd NPs is simple, cost-effective and environmentally benign, making possible the large-scale production of Fe/Pd NPs for field remediation.

  3. Synthesis and structures of bimetallic titanium and chromium carbene complexes of the type Cp/sub 2/Ti(Cl)O(CH/sub 3/)CCr(CO)/sub 5/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anslyn, E.V.; Santarsiero, B.D.; Grubbs, R.H.

    1988-10-01

    Insertion reactions are some of the most common and important reactions in organometallic chemistry. Aside from being mechanistically interesting, they have proven useful in organic synthesis and have been postulated in catalytic cycles. A subset of the broad group of insertion reactions is the insertion of carbon monoxides of group VIB metal carbonyl complexes into early-transition-metal alkyl, aryl and hydride bonds. Although the coupling of metal alkylidenes with metal carbonyl complexes is rare in monometallic systems, such coupling is frequently postulated in heterogeneous Fischer-Tropsch systems to yield surface-bound ketene fragments. The formation of bound ketene in bimetallic and cluster complexes has been documented. Herein the authors report the coupling of titanocene methylidene with Cr(CO)/sub 6/ to yield a titanocene ketene complex.

  4. Electrical performances of pyroelectric bimetallic strip heat engines describing a Stirling cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, A.; Boughaleb, J.; Monfray, S.; Boeuf, F.; Cugat, O.; Skotnicki, T.

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the analytical modeling of pyroelectric bimetallic strip heat engines. These devices are designed to exploit the snap-through of a thermo-mechanically bistable membrane to transform a part of the heat flowing through the membrane into mechanical energy and to convert it into electric energy by means of a piezoelectric layer deposited on the surface of the bistable membrane. In this paper, we describe the properties of these heat engines in the case when they complete a Stirling cycle, and we evaluate the performances (available energy, Carnot efficiency...) of these harvesters at the macro- and micro-scale.

  5. Bimetallic Ag-Pt and Au-Pt aggregates synthesized by radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remita, S.; Mostafavi, M.; Delcourt, M.O.

    1996-01-01

    Irradiating aqueous solutions containing both Ag 2 So 4 and K 2 PtCl 4 leads to intermetallic aggregates of various sizes according to the stabilizing agent: polyvinylalcohol, polyacrylic acid or polyacrylate. In the last case, the particle diameter is 1.5 nm. The bimetallic character is evidenced in all cases by the spectral changes of such sols compared to pure silver sols which display a characteristic surface plasmon absorption band. This plasmon band disappears when 10 to 20 at.% or more Pr is present. Observation by TEM gives an estimation of the particle sizes. Comparable results have been obtained for Au-Pt particles. (author)

  6. TEM and EELS studies of microwave-irradiation synthesis of bimetallic platinum nanocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathe, N R; Scriba, M R; Coville, N J; Olivier, J E

    2014-01-01

    Microwave-irradiation (MW) synthesis of nanostructured materials provides for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles, using fast and uniform heating rates. This procedure affords better control of the shape and size of the nanoparticles when compared to conventional methods. In this work, microwave-irradiation was used to produce platinum-cobalt (Pt-Co) and platinum-nickel (Pt-Ni) nanoparticles for use as electrocatalysts in the methanol oxidation reaction. High resolution TEM imaging and EELS studies revealed that these bimetallic nanoparticles form islands or hetero-structures

  7. Cluster evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, R.

    1987-01-01

    The galaxy and cluster luminosity functions are constructed from a model of the mass distribution based on hierarchical clustering at an epoch where the matter distribution is non-linear. These luminosity functions are seen to reproduce the present distribution of objects as can be inferred from the observations. They can be used to deduce the redshift dependence of the cluster distribution and to extrapolate the observations towards the past. The predicted evolution of the cluster distribution is quite strong, although somewhat less rapid than predicted by the linear theory

  8. Investigation into the dehydration of selenate doped Na2M(SO4)2·2H2O (M = Mn, Fe, Co and Ni): Stabilisation of the high Na content alluaudite phases Na3M1.5(SO4)3-1.5x(SeO4)1.5x (M = Mn, Co and Ni) through selenate incorporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, L. L.; Kendrick, E.; Knight, K. S.; Wright, A. J.; Slater, P. R.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we report an investigation into the phases formed on dehydration of Na2M(SO4)2-x(SeO4)x·2H2O (0 ≤ x ≤ 1; M = Mn, Fe, Co and Ni). For the Fe series, all attempts to dehydrate the samples doped with selenate resulted in amorphous products, and it is suspected that a side redox reaction involving the Fe and selenate may be occurring leading to phase decomposition and hence the lack of a crystalline product on dehydration. For M = Mn, Co, Ni, the structure observed was shown to depend upon the transition metal cation and level of selenate doping. An alluaudite phase, Na3M1.5(SO4)3-1.5x(SeO4)1.5x, was observed for the selenate doped compositions, with this phase forming as a single phase for x ≥ 0.5 M = Co, and x = 1.0 M = Ni. For M = Mn, the alluaudite structure is obtained across the series, albeit with small impurities for lower selenate content samples. Although the alluaudite-type phases Na2+2y(Mn/Co)2-y(SO4)3 have recently been reported [1,2], doping with selenate appears to increase the maximum sodium content within the structure. Moreover, the selenate doped Ni based samples reported here are the first examples of a Ni sulfate/selenate containing system exhibiting the alluaudite structure.

  9. Melting behaviour of gold-platinum nanoalloy clusters by molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Yee Pin; Yoon, Tiem Leong [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Lim, Thong Leng [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka Campus, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    The melting behavior of bimetallic gold-platinum nanoclusters is studied by applying Brownian-type isothermal molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, a program modified from the cubic coupling scheme (CCS). The process begins with the ground-state structures obtained from global minimum search algorithm and proceeds with the investigation of the effect of temperature on the thermal properties of gold-platinum nanoalloy clusters. N-body Gupta potential has been employed in order to account for the interactions between gold and platinum atoms. The ground states of the nanoalloy clusters, which are core-shell segregated, are heated until they become thermally segregated. The detailed melting mechanism of the nanoalloy clusters is studied via this approach to provide insight into the thermal stability of the nanoalloy clusters.

  10. A general approach for the synthesis of bimetallic M–Sn (M = Ru, Rh and Ir) catalysts for efficient hydrogenolysis of ester

    KAUST Repository

    Samal, Akshaya Kumar

    2016-11-24

    A versatile synthetic method was applied for the preparation of Sn containing bimetallic catalysts. The synthesis was performed by simply mixing the super hydride [LiB(C2H5)(3)H], with a metal (Ru, Rh or Ir) salt and an organotin complex in tetrahydrofuran solvent without using any surfactant. This leads to the formation of monodispersed M-Sn (M = Ru, Rh or Ir) bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs). These bimetallic catalysts show high performances in the hydrogenolysis of ester to the corresponding alcohol.

  11. Effect of hybrid carbon nanotubes-bimetallic composite particles on the performance of polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun-Young [Department of Material Processing, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 641-831 (Korea); Division of Applied Chemical Engineering, Department of Polymer Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-739 (Korea); Kim, Whi-Dong; Kim, Soo H. [Department of Nanosystem and Nanoprocess Engineering, Pusan National University, 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea); Kim, Do-Geun; Kim, Jong-Kuk; Jeong, Yong-Soo; Kang, Jae-Wook [Department of Material Processing, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 641-831 (Korea); Kim, Joo Hyun [Division of Applied Chemical Engineering, Department of Polymer Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-739 (Korea); Lee, Jae Keun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea)

    2010-05-15

    Hybrid carbon nanotubes-bimetallic composite nanoparticles with sea urchin-like structures (SU-CNTs) were introduced to bulk heterojunction polymer-fullerene solar cells to improve their performance. The SU-CNTs were composed of multi-walled CNTs, which were grown radially over the entire surface of the bimetallic nanoparticles composed of Ni and Al. SU-CNTs with a precisely controlled length of {proportional_to}200{+-}40 nm were dispersed homogenously in a polymer active layer. Compared with a pristine device (i.e., without SU-CNTs), the SU-CNTs-doped organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells showed an improved short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency from 7.5 to 9.5 mA/cm{sup 2} and 2.1{+-}0.1% to 2.2{+-}0.2% (max. 2.5%), respectively. The specially designed SU-CNTs have strong potential as an effective exciton dissociation medium in the polymer active layer to enhance the performance of organic solar cells. (author)

  12. Synthesis and electrocatalytic activity of Au/Pt bimetallic nanodendrites for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xinyi; Wang, Dawei; Liu, Dong; Huang, Jianshe; You, Tianyan

    2012-02-01

    Gold/Platinum (Au/Pt) bimetallic nanodendrites were successfully synthesized through seeded growth method using preformed Au nanodendrites as seeds and ascorbic acid as reductant. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) of a series of Au/Pt nanodendrites modified electrodes in 1M KOH solution containing 1M ethanol showed that the electrocatalyst with a molar ratio (Au:Pt) of 3 exhibited the highest peak current density and the lowest onset potential. The peak current density of ethanol electro-oxidation on the Au(3)Pt(1) nanodendrites modified glassy carbon electrode (Au(3)Pt(1) electrode) is about 16, 12.5, and 4.5 times higher than those on the polycrystalline Pt electrode, polycrystalline Au electrode, and Au nanodendrites modified glassy carbon electrode (Au dendrites electrode), respectively. The oxidation peak potential of ethanol electro-oxidation on the Au(3)Pt(1) electrode is about 299 and 276 mV lower than those on the polycrystalline Au electrode and Au dendrites electrode, respectively. These results demonstrated that the Au/Pt bimetallic nanodendrites may find potential application in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (ADEFCs). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. High strength bimetallic composite material fabricated by electroslag casting and characteristics of its composite interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-shun Dong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bimetallic composite material of bainitic steel and PD3 steel was produced with electroslag casting process, and element distribution of its composite interface was investigated by theoretical calculation and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS. Results show that the tensile strength (1,450 MPa, hardness (HRC 41-47 and impact toughness (94.7J·cm-2 of bainitic steel were comparatively high, while its elongation was slightly low (4.0%. Tensile strength (1,100 MPa, hardness (>HRC 31 and elongation (7.72% of the interface were also relatively high, but its impact toughness was low at 20.4 J·cm-2. Results of theoretical calculation of the element distribution in the interface region were basically consistent with that of EDS. Therefore, electroslag casting is a practical process to produce bimetallic composite material of bainitic steel and PD3 steel, and theoretical calculation also is a feasible method to study element distribution of their interface.

  14. Light alkane (mixed feed selective dehydrogenation using bi-metallic zeolite supported catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Nawaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Light alkanes are the important intermediates of many refinery processes and their catalytic dehydrogenation gives corresponding alkenes. The aim behind this experimentation is to investigate reaction behavior of mixed alkanes during direct catalytic dehydrogenation and emphasis has been given to enhance propene. Bi-metallic zeolite supported catalyst Pt-Sn/ZSM-5 was prepared by sequentional impregnation method and characterized by BET, EDS and XRD. Direct dehydrogenation reaction is highly endothermic and its conversion is thermodynamically limited. Results showed that the increase in temperature increases the conversion to some extent but there is no overall effect on selectivity of propene. Increase in time-on-stream (TOS remarkably improves propene selectivity at the expense of lower conversion. The performances of bi-metallic zeolite based catalyst largely affected by coke deposition. The presence of butane and ethane adversely affected propane conversion. Optimum propene selectivity is about 48 %, obtained at 600 oC and time-on-stream 10 h.

  15. Enantioselective polymerization of epoxides using biaryl-linked bimetallic cobalt catalysts: A mechanistic study

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Syud M.; Poater, Albert; Childers, M. Ian; Widger, Peter C B; Lapointe, Anne M.; Lobkovsky, Emil B.; Coates, Geoffrey W.; Cavallo, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The enantioselective polymerization of propylene oxide (PO) using biaryl-linked bimetallic salen Co catalysts was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Five key aspects of this catalytic system were examined: (1) the structural features of the catalyst, (2) the regio- and stereoselectivity of the chain-growth step, (3) the probable oxidation and electronic state of Co during the polymerization, (4) the role of the cocatalyst, and (5) the mechanism of monomer enchainment. Several important insights were revealed. First, density functional theory (DFT) calculations provided detailed structural information regarding the regio- and stereoselective chain-growth step. Specifically, the absolute stereochemistry of the binaphthol linker determines the enantiomer preference in the polymerization, and the interaction between the salen ligand and the growing polymer chain is a fundamental aspect of enantioselectivity. Second, a new bimetallic catalyst with a conformationally flexible biphenol linker was synthesized and found to enantioselectively polymerize PO, though with lower enantioselectivity than the binaphthol linked catalysts. Third, DFT calculations revealed that the active form of the catalyst has two active exo anionic ligands (chloride or carboxylate) and an endo polymer alkoxide which can ring-open an adjacent cobalt-coordinated epoxide. Fourth, calculations showed that initiation is favored by an endo chloride ligand, while propagation is favored by the presence of two exo carboxylate ligands. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  16. Bimetallic Porous Iron (pFe) Materials for Remediation/Removal of Tc from Aqueous Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-29

    Remediation of Tc remains an unresolved challenge at SRS and other DOE sites. The objective of this project was to develop novel bimetallic porous iron (pFe) materials for Tc removal from aqueous systems. We showed that the pFe is much more effective in removing TcO4 - (×30) and ReO4 - (×8) from artificial groundwater than granular iron. Tc K-edge XANES spectroscopy indicated that Tc speciation on the pFe was 18% adsorbed TcO4 -, 28% Tc(IV) in Tc dioxide and 54% Tc(IV) into the structure of Fe hydroxide. A variety of catalytic metal nanoparticles (i.e., Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, Sn and Pd) were successfully deposited on the pFe using scalable chemical reduction methods. The Zn-pFe was outstanding among the six bimetallic pFe materials, with a capacity increase of >100% for TcO4 - removal and of 50% for ReO4 - removal, compared to the pFe. These results provide a highly applicable platform for solving critical DOE and industrial needs related to nuclear environmental stewardship and nuclear power production.

  17. Enhancement of Hydrogen Storage Behavior of Complex Hydrides via Bimetallic Nanocatalysts Doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash C. Sharma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pristine complex quaternary hydride (LiBH4/2LiNH2 and its destabilized counterpart (LiBH4/2LiNH2/nanoMgH2 have recently shown promising reversible hydrogen storage capacity under moderate operating conditions. The destabilization of complex hydride via nanocrystalline MgH2 apparently lowers the thermodynamic heat values and thus enhances the reversible hydrogen storage behavior at moderate temperatures. However, the kinetics of these materials is rather low and needs to be improved for on-board vehicular applications. Nanocatalyst additives such as nano Ni, nano Fe, nano Co, nano Mn and nano Cu at low concentrations on the complex hydride host structures have demonstrated a reduction in the decomposition temperature and overall increase in the hydrogen desorption reaction rates. Bi-metallic nanocatalysts such as the combination of nano Fe and nano Ni have shown further pronounced kinetics enhancement in comparison to their individual counterparts. Additionally, the vital advantage of using bi-metallic nanocatalysts is to enable the synergistic effects and characteristics of the two transitional nanometal species on the host hydride matrix for the optimized hydrogen storage behavior.

  18. Particle swarm optimization of the stable structure of tetrahexahedral Pt-based bimetallic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tun-Dong; Fan, Tian-E [Center for Cloud Computing and Big Data, Department of Automation, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Shao, Gui-Fang, E-mail: gfshao@xmu.edu.cn [Center for Cloud Computing and Big Data, Department of Automation, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zheng, Ji-Wen [Center for Cloud Computing and Big Data, Department of Automation, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wen, Yu-Hua [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2014-08-14

    Bimetallic nanoparticles, enclosed by high-index facets, have great catalytic activity and selectivity owing to the synergy effects of high-index facets and the electronic structures of alloy. In this paper, a discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm was employed to systematically investigate the structural stability and features of tetrahexahedral Pt-based bimetallic nanoparticles with high-index facets. Different Pt/Ag, Pt/Cu, Pt/Pd atom ratios and particle sizes were considered in this work. The simulation results reveal that these alloy nanoparticles exhibit considerably different structural characteristics. Pt–Ag nanoparticles tend to form Pt–Ag core–shell structure. Pt–Cu nanoparticles are preferred to take multi-shell structure with Cu on the outer surface while Pt–Pd nanoparticles present a mixing structure in the interior and Pd-dominated surface. Atomic distribution and bonding characteristics were applied to further characterize the structural features of Pt-based nanoparticles. This study provides an important insight into the structural stability and features of Pt-based nanoparticles with different alloys. - Highlights: • We explore the structural stability of Pt-based alloy NPs by a discrete PSO. • Our study discovers the different structural characteristics for Pt-based NPs. • Alloy composition and size have important effects on the surface segregation. • Our work shows strong phase separation for Pt–Ag NPs while weak for Pt–Pd NPs.

  19. Enantioselective polymerization of epoxides using biaryl-linked bimetallic cobalt catalysts: A mechanistic study

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Syud M.

    2013-12-18

    The enantioselective polymerization of propylene oxide (PO) using biaryl-linked bimetallic salen Co catalysts was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Five key aspects of this catalytic system were examined: (1) the structural features of the catalyst, (2) the regio- and stereoselectivity of the chain-growth step, (3) the probable oxidation and electronic state of Co during the polymerization, (4) the role of the cocatalyst, and (5) the mechanism of monomer enchainment. Several important insights were revealed. First, density functional theory (DFT) calculations provided detailed structural information regarding the regio- and stereoselective chain-growth step. Specifically, the absolute stereochemistry of the binaphthol linker determines the enantiomer preference in the polymerization, and the interaction between the salen ligand and the growing polymer chain is a fundamental aspect of enantioselectivity. Second, a new bimetallic catalyst with a conformationally flexible biphenol linker was synthesized and found to enantioselectively polymerize PO, though with lower enantioselectivity than the binaphthol linked catalysts. Third, DFT calculations revealed that the active form of the catalyst has two active exo anionic ligands (chloride or carboxylate) and an endo polymer alkoxide which can ring-open an adjacent cobalt-coordinated epoxide. Fourth, calculations showed that initiation is favored by an endo chloride ligand, while propagation is favored by the presence of two exo carboxylate ligands. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  20. XPS/STM study of model bimetallic Pd–Au/HOPG catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukhtiyarov, Andrey V., E-mail: avb@catalysis.ru [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva Ave. 5, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova str. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Prosvirin, Igor P., E-mail: prosvirin@catalysis.ru [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva Ave. 5, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova str. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Bukhtiyarov, Valerii I., E-mail: vib@catalysis.ru [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva Ave. 5, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova str. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The model Pd–Au/HOPG catalysts preparation has been studied by XPS and STM. • Model “core–shell” type Pd–Au/HOPG catalysts with different Pd/Au ratios were prepared. • Heating of the “core–shell” Pd–Au/HOPG samples up to 400 °C leads to alloy formation. • Contribution of parameters controlling the properties of Pd–Au alloyed particles has been discussed. - Abstract: The preparation of model bimetallic Pd–Au/HOPG catalysts has been investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. Initially, model “core–shell” type Pd–Au/HOPG catalysts with similar particle size distribution (5–8 nm), but with different densities of particle locations on the HOPG surface and Pd/Au atomic ratios are prepared. Further, their thermal stability is studied within a temperature range of 50–500 °C at UHV conditions. It has been shown that annealing the model catalysts at a temperature range of 300–400 °C leads to formation of Pd–Au alloyed particles. Enhancement of heating temperature up to 500 °C results in sintering of bimetallic nanoparticles. Contribution of different parameters controlling the properties of Pd–Au alloyed particles has been discussed.

  1. Agglomerated polymer monoliths with bimetallic nano-particles as flow-through micro-reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floris, P.; Twamley, B.; Nesterenko, P.N.; Paull, B.; Connolly, D.

    2012-01-01

    Polymer monoliths in capillary format have been prepared as solid supports for the immobilisation of platinum/palladium bimetallic nano-flowers. Optimum surface coverage of nano-flowers was realised by photografting the monoliths with vinyl azlactone followed by amination with ethylenediamine prior to nano-particle immobilisation. Field emission SEM imaging was used as a characterisation tool for evaluating nano-particle coverage, together with BET surface area analysis to probe the effect of nano-particle immobilisation upon monolith morphology. Ion exchange chromatography was also used to confirm the nature of the covalent attachment of nano-flowers on the monolithic surface. In addition, EDX and ICP analyses were used to quantify platinum and palladium on modified polymer monoliths. Finally the catalytic properties of immobilised bimetallic Pd/Pt nano-flowers were evaluated in flow-through mode, exploiting the porous interconnected flow-paths present in the prepared monoliths (pore diameter ∼ 1-2 μm). Specifically, the reduction of Fe (III) to Fe (II) and the oxidation of NADH to NAD+ were selected as model redox reactions. The use of a porous polymer monolith as an immobilisation substrate (rather than aminated micro-spheres) eliminated the need for a centrifugation step after the reaction. (author)

  2. CO methanation over supported bimetallic Ni-Fe catalysts: From computational studies towards catalyst optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kustov, Arkadii; Frey, Anne Mette; Larsen, Kasper Emil

    2007-01-01

    with compositions 25Fe75Ni and 50Fe50Ni showed significantly better activity and in some cases also a higher selectivity to methane compared with the traditional monometallic Ni and Fe catalysts. A catalyst with composition 25Fe75Ni was found to be the most active in CO hydrogenation for the MgAl2O4 support at low...... metal loadings. At high metal concentrations, the maximum for the methanation activity was found for catalysts with composition 50Ni50Fe both on the MgAl2O4 and Al2O3 supports. This difference can be attributed to a higher reducibility of the constituting metals with increasing metal concentration......DFT calculations combined with a computational screening method have previously shown that bimetallic Ni-Fe alloys should be more active than the traditional Ni-based catalyst for CO methanation. That was confirmed experimentally for a number of bimetallic Ni-Fe catalysts supported on MgAl2O4. Here...

  3. Structural optimization of Au–Pd bimetallic nanoparticles with improved particle swarm optimization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Gui-Fang; Zhu Meng; Shangguan Ya-Li; Li Wen-Ran; Zhang Can; Wang Wei-Wei; Li Ling

    2017-01-01

    Due to the dependence of the chemical and physical properties of the bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) on their structures, a fundamental understanding of their structural characteristics is crucial for their syntheses and wide applications. In this article, a systematical atomic-level investigation of Au–Pd bimetallic NPs is conducted by using the improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) with quantum correction Sutton–Chen potentials (Q-SC) at different Au/Pd ratios and different sizes. In the IPSO, the simulated annealing is introduced into the classical particle swarm optimization (PSO) to improve the effectiveness and reliability. In addition, the influences of initial structure, particle size and composition on structural stability and structural features are also studied. The simulation results reveal that the initial structures have little effects on the stable structures, but influence the converging rate greatly, and the convergence rate of the mixing initial structure is clearly faster than those of the core-shell and phase structures. We find that the Au–Pd NPs prefer the structures with Au-rich in the outer layers while Pd-rich in the inner ones. Especially, when the Au/Pd ratio is 6:4, the structure of the nanoparticle (NP) presents a standardized Pd core Au shell structure. (paper)

  4. Direct Measurement of the Surface Energy of Bimetallic Nanoparticles: Evidence of Vegard's Rulelike Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Adrian; Nelayah, Jaysen; Amara, Hakim; Creuze, Jérôme; Alloyeau, Damien; Wang, Guillaume; Ricolleau, Christian

    2018-01-12

    We use in situ transmission electron microscopy to monitor in real time the evaporation of gold, copper, and bimetallic copper-gold nanoparticles at high temperature. Besides, we extend the Kelvin equation to two-component systems to predict the evaporation rates of spherical liquid mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles. By linking this macroscopic model to experimental TEM data, we determine the surface energies of pure gold, pure copper, Cu_{50}Au_{50}, and Cu_{25}Au_{75} nanoparticles in the liquid state. Our model suggests that the surface energy varies linearly with the composition in the liquid Cu-Au nanoalloy; i.e., it follows a Vegard's rulelike dependence. To get atomic-scale insights into the thermodynamic properties of Cu-Au alloys on the whole composition range, we perform Monte Carlo simulations employing N-body interatomic potentials. These simulations at a microscopic level confirm the Vegard's rulelike behavior of the surface energy obtained from experiments combined with macroscopic modeling.

  5. Particle swarm optimization of the stable structure of tetrahexahedral Pt-based bimetallic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tun-Dong; Fan, Tian-E; Shao, Gui-Fang; Zheng, Ji-Wen; Wen, Yu-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Bimetallic nanoparticles, enclosed by high-index facets, have great catalytic activity and selectivity owing to the synergy effects of high-index facets and the electronic structures of alloy. In this paper, a discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm was employed to systematically investigate the structural stability and features of tetrahexahedral Pt-based bimetallic nanoparticles with high-index facets. Different Pt/Ag, Pt/Cu, Pt/Pd atom ratios and particle sizes were considered in this work. The simulation results reveal that these alloy nanoparticles exhibit considerably different structural characteristics. Pt–Ag nanoparticles tend to form Pt–Ag core–shell structure. Pt–Cu nanoparticles are preferred to take multi-shell structure with Cu on the outer surface while Pt–Pd nanoparticles present a mixing structure in the interior and Pd-dominated surface. Atomic distribution and bonding characteristics were applied to further characterize the structural features of Pt-based nanoparticles. This study provides an important insight into the structural stability and features of Pt-based nanoparticles with different alloys. - Highlights: • We explore the structural stability of Pt-based alloy NPs by a discrete PSO. • Our study discovers the different structural characteristics for Pt-based NPs. • Alloy composition and size have important effects on the surface segregation. • Our work shows strong phase separation for Pt–Ag NPs while weak for Pt–Pd NPs

  6. On Metal Segregation of Bimetallic Nanocatalysts Prepared by a One-Pot Method in Microemulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concha Tojo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study on different bimetallic nanocatalysts prepared from microemulsions using a one-pot method has been carried out. The analysis of experimental observations, complemented by simulation studies, provides detailed insight into the factors affecting nanoparticle architecture: (1 The metal segregation in a bimetallic nanocatalysts is the result of the combination of three main kinetic parameters: the reduction rate of metal precursors (related to reduction standard potentials, the material intermicellar exchange rate (determined by microemulsion composition, and the metal precursors concentration; (2 A minimum difference between the reduction standard potentials of the two metals of 0.20 V is needed to obtain a core-shell structure. For values ∆ε0 smaller than 0.20 V the obtaining of alloys cannot be avoided, neither by changing the microemulsion nor by increasing metal concentration; (3 As a rule, the higher the film flexibility around the micelles, the higher the degree of mixture in the nanocatalyst; (4 A minimum concentration of metal precursors is required to get a core-shell structure. This minimum concentration depends on the microemulsion flexibility and on the difference in reduction rates.

  7. Bimetallic oxamato complexes synthesized into mesoporous matrix as precursor to tunable nanosized oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinke, Lucas H.G. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Goiás—UFG, Goiânia, GO 74001-970 (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Goiás—IFG, Anápolis, GO (Brazil); Stumpf, Humberto O. [Departamento de Química, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais—UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mazali, Italo O. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas—UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Cangussu, Danielle, E-mail: danielle_cangussu@ufg.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Goiás—UFG, Goiânia, GO 74001-970 (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The bimetallic oxamato complexes as single-source precursor. • We prepared into a porous silica glass tunable nanosized oxide powders. • X-ray diffraction shows the formation of CeO{sub 2}/CuO and spinel cobaltite. • The different number of IDC allows control of the nanoparticle size. - Abstract: The bimetallic complexes were employed to prepare into a porous silica glass tunable nanosized oxide powders through the single source precursor (SSP) method. These materials were prepared by first anchoring of [Cu(opba)]{sup 2−} [opba = ortho-phenylenebis(oxamato)], second by reaction in situ with second metal [Co(II) or Ce(III)] and followed by a thermal treatment. The different number of impregnation–decomposition cycles (IDC) allows control of the nanoparticle size. X-ray diffraction shows the formation of mixture CeO{sub 2}–CuO and spinel copper cobaltite. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the formation of such phases. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that spinel cobaltite particles (8 IDC) present a mean size of about 9 nm, whereas for the CeO{sub 2}–CuO phase the particle diameters are 4 nm (2 IDC) and 8 nm (6 IDC). For CeO{sub 2}–CuO the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicates a consistent red shift in band gap from 3.41 to 2.87 eV with increasing of particle size due to quantum confinement effect.

  8. Ag-Cu Bimetallic Nanoparticles Prepared by Microemulsion Method as Catalyst for Epoxidation of Styrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Kui Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ag/Cu bimetallic nanocatalysts supported on reticulate-like γ-alumina were prepared by a microemulsion method using N2H4·H2O as the reducing agent. The catalysts were activated by calcination followed with hydrogen reduction at 873K, and the properties were confirmed using various characterization techniques. Compared with metal oxides particles, Ag-Cu particles exhibited smaller sizes (<5 nm after calcination in H2 at 873K. XPS results indicated that the binding energies changed with the Ag/Cu ratios, suggesting that increasing the copper content gave both metals a greater tendency to lose electrons. Furthermore, Ag-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles supported on γ-alumina showed better catalytic activity on the epoxidation of styrene as compared with the corresponding monometallic silver or copper. The styrene oxide selectivity could reach 76.6% at Ag/Cu molar ratio of 3/1, while the maximum conversion (up to 94.6% appeared at Ag/Cu molar ratio of 1/1 because of the maximum interaction between silver and copper.

  9. Sn surface-enriched Pt-Sn bimetallic nanoparticles as a selective and stable catalyst for propane dehydrogenation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Haibo; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Wang, Qingxiao; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Emsley, Lyndon; Dong, Hailin; Laveille, Paco; Li, Lidong; Samal, Akshaya Kumar; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Sn(n-C4H9) are chemically linked to the surface of Pt NPs to produce, in fine, after removal of most of the n-butyl fragment, bimetallic Pt-Sn nanoparticles. The Sn(n-CH2CH2CH2CH3) groups remaining at the surface are believed to stabilize the as

  10. Diiridium Bimetallic Complexes Function as a Redox Switch To Directly Split Carbonate into Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsun-Ren; Wu, Fang-Siou; Lee, Hsiu-Pen; Chen, Kelvin H-C

    2016-03-23

    A pair of diiridium bimetallic complexes exhibit a special type of oxidation-reduction reaction that could directly split carbonate into carbon monoxide and molecular oxygen via a low-energy pathway needing no sacrificial reagent. One of the bimetallic complexes, Ir(III)(μ-Cl)2Ir(III), can catch carbonato group from carbonate and reduce it to CO. The second complex, the rare bimetallic complex Ir(IV)(μ-oxo)2Ir(IV), can react with chlorine to release O2 by the oxidation of oxygen ions with synergistic oxidative effect of iridium ions and chlorine atoms. The activation energy needed for the key reaction is quite low (∼20 kJ/mol), which is far less than the dissociation energy of the C═O bond in CO2 (∼750 kJ/mol). These diiridium bimetallic complexes could be applied as a redox switch to split carbonate or combined with well-known processes in the chemical industry to build up a catalytic system to directly split CO2 into CO and O2.

  11. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based volatile organic compounds (VOCs) detection using plasmonic bimetallic nanogap substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chi Lok; Dinish, U. S.; Buddharaju, Kavitha Devi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based volatile organic compounds (VOCs) detection with bimetallic nanogap structure substrate. Deep UV photolithography at the wavelength of 250 nm is used to pattern circular shape nanostructures. The nanogap between adjacent cir......-based VOCs detection platform for point-of-care breath analysis, homeland security, chemical sensing and environmental monitoring....

  12. Synergetic effects leading to coke-resistant NiCo bimetallic catalysts for dry reforming of methane

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lidong; Anjum, Dalaver; Zhu, Haibo; Saih, Youssef; Laveille, Paco; D'Souza, Lawrence; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    A new dry reforming of methane catalyst comprised of NiCo bimetallic nanoparticles and a Mgx(Al)O support that exhibits high coke resistance and long-term on-stream stability is reported. The structural characterization by XRD, TEM, temperature

  13. Design of supported bi-metallic nanoparticles based on Platinum and Palladium using Surface Organometallic Chemistry (SOMC)

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shareef, Reem A.

    2017-01-01

    Well-defined silica supported bimetallic catalysts Pt100-x Pdx (where x is the molar ratio of Pd) are prepared by Surface Organometallic Chemistry (SOMC) via controlled decomposition of Pd2(allyl)2Cl2 on Pt/SiO2. For comparison purposes, Pt100-x Pdx

  14. Highly selective bimetallic Pt-Cu/Mg(Al)O catalysts for the aqueous-phase reforming of glycerol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boga, D.A.; Oord, R.; Beale, A.M.; Chung, Y.M.; Bruijnincx, P.C.A.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Monometallic Pt and bimetallic Pt-Cu catalysts supported on Mg(Al)O mixed oxides, obtained by calcination of the corresponding layered double hydroxides (LDHs), were prepared and tested in the aqueous-phase reforming (APR) of glycerol. The effect of the Mg/Al ratio and calcination temperature of the

  15. Tuning structural motifs and alloying of bulk immiscible Mo-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles by gas-phase synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Gopi; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Ten Brink, Gert H.; Palasantzas, George; Kooi, Bart J.

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as key materials for important modern applications in nanoplasmonics, catalysis, biodiagnostics, and nanomagnetics. Consequently the control of bimetallic structural motifs with specific shapes provides increasing functionality and selectivity for related applications. However, producing bimetallic NPs with well controlled structural motifs still remains a formidable challenge. Hence, we present here a general methodology for gas phase synthesis of bimetallic NPs with distinctively different structural motifs ranging at a single particle level from a fully mixed alloy to core-shell, to onion (multi-shell), and finally to a Janus/dumbbell, with the same overall particle composition. These concepts are illustrated for Mo-Cu NPs, where the precise control of the bimetallic NPs with various degrees of chemical ordering, including different shapes from spherical to cube, is achieved by tailoring the energy and thermal environment that the NPs experience during their production. The initial state of NP growth, either in the liquid or in the solid state phase, has important implications for the different structural motifs and shapes of synthesized NPs. Finally we demonstrate that we are able to tune the alloying regime, for the otherwise bulk immiscible Mo-Cu, by achieving an increase of the critical size, below which alloying occurs, closely up to an order of magnitude. It is discovered that the critical size of the NP alloy is not only affected by controlled tuning of the alloying temperature but also by the particle shape.Nowadays bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as key materials for important modern applications in nanoplasmonics, catalysis, biodiagnostics, and nanomagnetics. Consequently the control of bimetallic structural motifs with specific shapes provides increasing functionality and selectivity for related applications. However, producing bimetallic NPs with well controlled structural motifs still

  16. Clustering Dycom

    KAUST Repository

    Minku, Leandro L.

    2017-10-06

    Background: Software Effort Estimation (SEE) can be formulated as an online learning problem, where new projects are completed over time and may become available for training. In this scenario, a Cross-Company (CC) SEE approach called Dycom can drastically reduce the number of Within-Company (WC) projects needed for training, saving the high cost of collecting such training projects. However, Dycom relies on splitting CC projects into different subsets in order to create its CC models. Such splitting can have a significant impact on Dycom\\'s predictive performance. Aims: This paper investigates whether clustering methods can be used to help finding good CC splits for Dycom. Method: Dycom is extended to use clustering methods for creating the CC subsets. Three different clustering methods are investigated, namely Hierarchical Clustering, K-Means, and Expectation-Maximisation. Clustering Dycom is compared against the original Dycom with CC subsets of different sizes, based on four SEE databases. A baseline WC model is also included in the analysis. Results: Clustering Dycom with K-Means can potentially help to split the CC projects, managing to achieve similar or better predictive performance than Dycom. However, K-Means still requires the number of CC subsets to be pre-defined, and a poor choice can negatively affect predictive performance. EM enables Dycom to automatically set the number of CC subsets while still maintaining or improving predictive performance with respect to the baseline WC model. Clustering Dycom with Hierarchical Clustering did not offer significant advantage in terms of predictive performance. Conclusion: Clustering methods can be an effective way to automatically generate Dycom\\'s CC subsets.

  17. A simple approach for facile synthesis of Ag, anisotropic Au and bimetallic (Ag/Au) nanoparticles using cruciferous vegetable extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Jasmine; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Kapoor, Sudhir

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple and straightforward approach for the synthesis and stabilization of relatively monodisperse Ag, Au and bimetallic (Ag/Au) nanoparticles by using cruciferous vegetable (green/red) extracts by simply adjusting the pH environment in the aqueous medium. The vegetable extracts act both as reducing and capping agents. The monometallic and bimetallic nanoparticles of Ag and Au so obtained were characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is shown that red cabbage extract can be used for the preparation of anisotropic Au nanoparticles. The formation of Au anisotropic nanoparticles was found to depend on a number of environmental factors, such as the pH of the reaction medium, reaction time, and initial reactant concentrations. Additionally, it is shown that these extract-stabilized Au and Ag nanoparticles can be used as a seed for preparation of bimetallic Au/Ag nanoparticles. For bimetallic alloy nanoparticles the absorption peak was observed between the two maxima of the corresponding metallic particles. The surface plasmon absorption maxima for bimetallic nanoparticles changed linearly with increasing Au mole ratio content in various alloy compositions. It has been shown that the formation of hollow Au spheres depends on the experimental conditions. - Graphical abstract: TEM image of gold nanoparticles at pH 3.27 formed by red cabbage extract. Highlights: ► First report on the reactivity of the extracts toward metal ions using a spectrophotometric technique. ► Red cabbage extract has better reducing properties than green cabbage extract. ► Red cabbage extract can reduce metal ions at any pH. ► Reduction of metal ions can have important consequences in the study of soil chemistry.

  18. A simple approach for facile synthesis of Ag, anisotropic Au and bimetallic (Ag/Au) nanoparticles using cruciferous vegetable extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Jasmine; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Kapoor, Sudhir, E-mail: sudhirk@barc.gov.in

    2012-10-01

    We present a simple and straightforward approach for the synthesis and stabilization of relatively monodisperse Ag, Au and bimetallic (Ag/Au) nanoparticles by using cruciferous vegetable (green/red) extracts by simply adjusting the pH environment in the aqueous medium. The vegetable extracts act both as reducing and capping agents. The monometallic and bimetallic nanoparticles of Ag and Au so obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is shown that red cabbage extract can be used for the preparation of anisotropic Au nanoparticles. The formation of Au anisotropic nanoparticles was found to depend on a number of environmental factors, such as the pH of the reaction medium, reaction time, and initial reactant concentrations. Additionally, it is shown that these extract-stabilized Au and Ag nanoparticles can be used as a seed for preparation of bimetallic Au/Ag nanoparticles. For bimetallic alloy nanoparticles the absorption peak was observed between the two maxima of the corresponding metallic particles. The surface plasmon absorption maxima for bimetallic nanoparticles changed linearly with increasing Au mole ratio content in various alloy compositions. It has been shown that the formation of hollow Au spheres depends on the experimental conditions. - Graphical abstract: TEM image of gold nanoparticles at pH 3.27 formed by red cabbage extract. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First report on the reactivity of the extracts toward metal ions using a spectrophotometric technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Red cabbage extract has better reducing properties than green cabbage extract. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Red cabbage extract can reduce metal ions at any pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction of metal ions can have important consequences in the study of soil chemistry.

  19. Synergistic effect in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol using citrate-stabilized gold bimetallic nanoparticles supported on alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Villarraga, Fernando, E-mail: ferchogomezv@gmail.com; Radnik, Jörg; Martin, Andreas; Köckritz, Angela [Leibniz-Institut für Katalyse e.V. an der Universität Rostock (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) containing gold and various second metals (M = Pd, Pt, Cu, and Ag) supported on alumina (AuM/Alumina) were prepared using sodium citrate as stabilizer. In addition, supported monometallic Au/Alumina and Pd/Alumina were synthesized and tested to reveal synergistic effects in the catalytic evaluation of the bimetallic catalysts. The monometallic and bimetallic NPs revealed average sizes below 10 nm. The oxidation of benzyl alcohol with molecular oxygen as oxidant at mild conditions in liquid phase in the absence and presence (toluene or NaOH aqueous solution, 0.2 M) of a solvent was selected as test reaction to evaluate the catalytic properties of the above-mentioned solids. AuPd/Alumina exhibited the best catalytic activity among all bimetallic catalysts using toluene as solvent and under solvent-free conditions, respectively. In comparison to the monometallic catalysts, a synergistic effect with AuPd/Alumina was only evident in the solvent-free reaction. The AuPd/Alumina catalyst was able to oxidize benzyl alcohol selectively depending on the reaction medium into benzaldehyde (toluene or solvent-free) or benzoic acid (NaOH aqueous solution, 0.2 M). However, the catalyst deactivated due to particle growth of the bimetallic AuPd NPs by Ostwald ripening and leaching was not observed in the oxidation using toluene as solvent. The size of the catalytically active NPs, the metal composition of the particles, and the reaction conditions greatly influenced the catalytic oxidation results.Graphical Abstract.

  20. Clustering analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romli

    1997-01-01

    Cluster analysis is the name of group of multivariate techniques whose principal purpose is to distinguish similar entities from the characteristics they process.To study this analysis, there are several algorithms that can be used. Therefore, this topic focuses to discuss the algorithms, such as, similarity measures, and hierarchical clustering which includes single linkage, complete linkage and average linkage method. also, non-hierarchical clustering method, which is popular name K -mean method ' will be discussed. Finally, this paper will be described the advantages and disadvantages of every methods

  1. Cluster analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Brian S; Leese, Morven; Stahl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis comprises a range of methods for classifying multivariate data into subgroups. By organizing multivariate data into such subgroups, clustering can help reveal the characteristics of any structure or patterns present. These techniques have proven useful in a wide range of areas such as medicine, psychology, market research and bioinformatics.This fifth edition of the highly successful Cluster Analysis includes coverage of the latest developments in the field and a new chapter dealing with finite mixture models for structured data.Real life examples are used throughout to demons

  2. Cluster editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böcker, S.; Baumbach, Jan

    2013-01-01

    . The problem has been the inspiration for numerous algorithms in bioinformatics, aiming at clustering entities such as genes, proteins, phenotypes, or patients. In this paper, we review exact and heuristic methods that have been proposed for the Cluster Editing problem, and also applications......The Cluster Editing problem asks to transform a graph into a disjoint union of cliques using a minimum number of edge modifications. Although the problem has been proven NP-complete several times, it has nevertheless attracted much research both from the theoretical and the applied side...

  3. Occupational Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  4. Fuzzy Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berks, G.; Keyserlingk, Diedrich Graf von; Jantzen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    A symptom is a condition indicating the presence of a disease, especially, when regarded as an aid in diagnosis.Symptoms are the smallest units indicating the existence of a disease. A syndrome on the other hand is an aggregate, set or cluster of concurrent symptoms which together indicate...... and clustering are the basic concerns in medicine. Classification depends on definitions of the classes and their required degree of participant of the elements in the cases' symptoms. In medicine imprecise conditions are the rule and therefore fuzzy methods are much more suitable than crisp ones. Fuzzy c......-mean clustering is an easy and well improved tool, which has been applied in many medical fields. We used c-mean fuzzy clustering after feature extraction from an aphasia database. Factor analysis was applied on a correlation matrix of 26 symptoms of language disorders and led to five factors. The factors...

  5. Cluster generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchev, Todor I [Urbana, IL; Petrov, Ivan G [Champaign, IL

    2011-05-31

    Described herein is an apparatus and a method for producing atom clusters based on a gas discharge within a hollow cathode. The hollow cathode includes one or more walls. The one or more walls define a sputtering chamber within the hollow cathode and include a material to be sputtered. A hollow anode is positioned at an end of the sputtering chamber, and atom clusters are formed when a gas discharge is generated between the hollow anode and the hollow cathode.

  6. Cluster Bulleticity

    OpenAIRE

    Massey, Richard; Kitching, Thomas; Nagai, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    The unique properties of dark matter are revealed during collisions between clusters of galaxies, such as the bullet cluster (1E 0657−56) and baby bullet (MACS J0025−12). These systems provide evidence for an additional, invisible mass in the separation between the distributions of their total mass, measured via gravitational lensing, and their ordinary ‘baryonic’ matter, measured via its X-ray emission. Unfortunately, the information available from these systems is limited by their rarity. C...

  7. Cluster headache

    OpenAIRE

    Leroux, Elizabeth; Ducros, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Cluster headache (CH) is a primary headache disease characterized by recurrent short-lasting attacks (15 to 180 minutes) of excruciating unilateral periorbital pain accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic signs (lacrimation, nasal congestion, ptosis, miosis, lid edema, redness of the eye). It affects young adults, predominantly males. Prevalence is estimated at 0.5–1.0/1,000. CH has a circannual and circadian periodicity, attacks being clustered (hence the name) in bouts that can occur ...

  8. Catalytic Sorption of (Chloro)Benzene and Napthalene in Aqueous Solutions by Granular Activated Carbon Supported Bimetallic Iron and Palladium Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsorption of benzene, chlorobenzene, and naphthalene on commercially available granular activated carbon (GAC) and bimetallic nanoparticle (Fe/Pd) loaded GAC was investigated for the potential use in active capping of contaminated sediments. Freundlich and Langmuir linearizatio...

  9. Bimetallic Catalysts and Platinum Surfaces Studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roenning, Magnus

    2000-07-01

    Bimetallic catalyst systems used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (Co-Re/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and in the naphtha reforming process (Pt-Re/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) have been studied in situ using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS). Additionally, the adsorption of ethene on platinum single crystal surfaces has been investigated using scanning tunnelling microscopy. In situ EXAFS at the cobalt K absorption edge have been carried out at 450{sup o}C on the hydrogen reduction of a rhenium-promoted Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. Reductions carried out using 100% hydrogen and 5% hydrogen in helium gave different results. Whereas the reduction using dilute hydrogen leads to bulk-like metallic cobalt particles (hcp or fcc), reaction with pure hydrogen yields a more dispersed system with smaller cobalt metal particles (< 40 A). The results are rationalised in terms of different degrees of reoxidation of cobalt by the higher and lower concentrations of water generated during the reduction of cobalt oxide by 100% and 5% hydrogen, respectively. Additionally, in both reduction protocols a small fraction (3 -4 wt%) of the cobalt content is randomly dispersed over the tetrahedral vacancies of the alumina support. This dispersion occurs during reduction and not calcination. The cobalt in these sites cannot be reduced at 450 {sup o}C. The local environments about the rhenium atoms in Co-Re/{gamma}-A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst after different reduction periods have been studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. A bimetallic catalyst containing 4.6 wt% cobalt and 2 wt% rhenium has been compared with a corresponding monometallic sample with 2 wt% rhenium on the same support. The rhenium L{sub III} EXAFS analysis shows that bimetallic particles are formed after reduction at 450{sup o}C with the average particle size being 10-15 A. Rhenium is shown to be reduced at a later stage than cobalt. The fraction of cobalt atoms entering the support obstructs the access to the support for the

  10. A Preliminary Report on the Strength and Metallography of a Bimetallic Friction Stir Weld Joint Between AA6061 and MIL-DTL-46100E High Hardness Steel Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    bimetallic friction stir weld joint between AA6061 and MIL-DTL-46100E High Hardness steel armor. ABSTRACT One half inch thick plates of 6061-T6 aluminum...alloy and High Hardness steel armor (MIL- STD-46100) were successfully joined by the friction stir welding (FSW) process using a tungsten-rhenium...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A preliminary report on the strength and metallography of a bimetallic friction stir weld joint between AA6061 and MIL-DTL

  11. Low-Cost Label-Free Biosensing Bimetallic Cellulose Strip with SILAR-Synthesized Silver Core-Gold Shell Nanoparticle Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wansun; Lee, Jae-Chul; Lee, Gi-Ja; Park, Hun-Kuk; Lee, Anbok; Choi, Samjin

    2017-06-20

    We introduce a label-free biosensing cellulose strip sensor with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-encoded bimetallic core@shell nanoparticles. Bimetallic nanoparticles consisting of a synthesis of core Ag nanoparticles (AgNP) and a synthesis of shell gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were fabricated on a cellulose substrate by two-stage successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) techniques. The bimetallic nanoparticle-enhanced localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effects were theoretically verified by computational calculations with finite element models of optimized bimetallic nanoparticles interacting with an incident laser source. Well-dispersed raspberry-like bimetallic nanoparticles with highly polycrystalline structure were confirmed through X-ray and electron analyses despite ionic reaction synthesis. The stability against silver oxidation and high sensitivity with superior SERS enhancement factor (EF) of the low-cost SERS-encoded cellulose strip, which achieved 3.98 × 10 8 SERS-EF, 6.1%-RSD reproducibility, and <10%-degraded sustainability, implicated the possibility of practical applications in high analytical screening methods, such as single-molecule detection. The remarkable sensitivity and selectivity of this bimetallic biosensing strip in determining aquatic toxicities for prohibited drugs, such as aniline, sodium azide, and malachite green, as well as monitoring the breast cancer progression for urine, confirmed its potential as a low-cost label-free point-of-care test chip for the early diagnosis of human diseases.

  12. Crystal and electronic structure study of AgAu and AgCu bimetallic alloy thin films by X-ray techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkendir, O. Murat, E-mail: ozkendir@gmail.com [Mersin University, Faculty of Technology, Energy Systems Engineering, Tarsus (Turkey); Mersin University, Institute of Natural Science, Department of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Mersin (Turkey); Cengiz, E. [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Trabzon (Turkey); Yalaz, E. [Mersin University, Institute of Natural Science, Department of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Mersin (Turkey); Söğüt, Ö.; Ayas, D.H. [Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Physics, Kahramanmaraş (Turkey); Thammajak, B. Nirawat [Synchrotron Light Research Institute (Public Organisation), 111 University Avenue, T. Suranaree, A. Muang, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Crystal and electronic properties of bimetallic AgCu and AgAu alloy thin films were studied. • Both AgCu and AgAu bimetallic samples were determined to have cubic crystal geometry. • Strong influence of Cu and Au atoms on the electronic structure of the Ag atoms were determined. - Abstract: Crystal and electronic structure properties of bimetallic AgAu and AgCu alloy thin films were investigated by X-ray spectroscopic techniques. The aim of this study is to probe the influence of Au or Cu atoms on the electronic behaviors of Ag ions in bimetallic alloy materials that yields different crystal properties. To identify the mechanisms causing crystal phase transitions, study were supported by the collected EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) data. Crystal structures of both Cu and Au doped bimetallic Ag samples were determined mainly in cubic geometry with “Fm3m” space group. Through the Ag–Au and Ag–Cu molecular interactions during bimetallic alloy formations, highly overlapped electronic levels that supports large molecular band formations were observed with different ionization states. Besides, traces of the d–d interactions in Au rich samples were determined as the main interplay in the broad molecular bond formations. The exact atomic locations and types in the samples were determined by EXAFS studies and supported by the performed calculations with FEFF scientific code.

  13. Molecular Level Control Through Dual Site Participation Using Bimetallic Catalysts - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Itri, Julie, L.; Kovalchuk, Vladimir, I.

    2010-02-08

    The overall goal of this research program was to explore the hypothesis that it is possible to design a bimetallic surface such that each metal catalyzes different elementary reaction steps in an overall reaction pathway. A corollary to this hypothesis is that the different ensemble size requirements for an elementary reaction step can be used to force an elementary reaction step to occur on only one of the metals. The research program involved a combination of materials synthesis, chemical kinetics experiments, spectroscopic studies and computational investigations. The major outcome of this research program was the development and dissemination of the Dual Site Model, for which chlorocarbon reactions in the presence of hydrogen were used as model systems.

  14. Tryptophan-Assisted Synthesis Reduces Bimetallic Gold/Silver Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity and Improves Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor O. Shmarakov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to reduce the potential in vivo hepato-and nephrotoxicity of Ag/Au bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs stabilized by sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, an approach involving a simultaneous reduction of silver nitrate and tetrachlorauratic acid using tryptophan (Trp as a reducing/stabilizing agent was applied during NP synthesis. The obtained Ag/Au/Trp NPs (5–15 nm sized were able to form stable aggregates with an average size of 370–450 nm and were potentially less toxic than Ag/Au/SDS in relation to a mouse model system based on clinical biochemical parameters and oxidative damage product estimation. Ag/Au/Trp NPs were shown to exhibit anticancer activity in relation to a Lewis lung carcinoma model. The data generated from the present study support the fact that the use of tryptophan in NP synthesis is effective in attenuating the potential hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of NPs during their in vivo application.

  15. Selective Hydrodeoxygenation of Alkyl Lactates to Alkyl Propionates with Fe-based Bimetallic Supported Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khokarale, Santosh Govind; He, Jian; Schill, Leonhard

    2018-01-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of methyl lactate (ML) to methyl propionate (MP) was performed with various base-metal supported catalysts. A high yield of 77 % MP was obtained with bimetallic Fe-Ni/ZrO2 in methanol at 220 °C and 50 bar H2 . A synergistic effect of Ni increased the yield of MP...... of the material. Interestingly, it was observed that Fe-Ni/ZrO2 also effectively catalyzed methanol reforming to produce H2 in situ, followed by HDO of ML, yielding 60 % MP at 220 °C with 50 bar N2 instead of H2. Fe-Ni/ZrO2 also catalyzed HDO of other short-chain alkyl lactates to the corresponding alkyl...

  16. Unprecedented Carbonato Intermediates in Cyclic Carbonate Synthesis Catalysed by Bimetallic Aluminium(Salen) Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Osma, José A; North, Michael; Offermans, Willem K; Leitner, Walter; Müller, Thomas E

    2016-04-21

    The mechanism by which [Al(salen)]2 O complexes catalyse the synthesis of cyclic carbonates from epoxides and carbon dioxide in the absence of a halide cocatalyst has been investigated. Density functional theory (DFT) studies, mass spectrometry and (1) H NMR, (13) C NMR and infrared spectroscopies provide evidence for the formation of an unprecedented carbonato bridged bimetallic aluminium complex which is shown to be a key intermediate for the halide-free synthesis of cyclic carbonates from epoxides and carbon dioxide. Deuterated and enantiomerically-pure epoxides were used to study the reaction pathway. Based on the experimental and theoretical results, a catalytic cycle is proposed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Synthesis of Fe–Ni bimetallic nanoparticles from pixel target ablation: plume dynamics and surface characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Xiaoxu; Murray, Paul T.; Sarangan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    A novel Fe–Ni bimetallic nanoparticle synthesis technique, denoted pixel target ablation, is reported. The technique entails ablating a thin film target consisting of patterned Fe and Ni pixels with a selected ratio using a KrF excimer laser. The laser energy breaks a known amount of target materials into metal atoms, which then form nanoparticles by recombination in the gas phase. Due to the nature of thin-film ablation, splashing of large particles was eliminated with the added benefit of minimizing nanoparticle agglomeration. Plume dynamics and surface characterizations were carried out to exploit the formation of Fe–Ni nanoparticles more fully. The composition was readily controlled by varying the initial relative amount of Fe and Ni target pixels. Synthesis of multi-element nanoparticles by pixel target ablation should be possible with any element combination that can be prepared as a thin-film target.

  18. Bimetallic Ag-Pt and Au-Pt aggregates synthesized by radiolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remita, S; Mostafavi, M; Delcourt, M O [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1996-02-01

    Irradiating aqueous solutions containing both Ag{sub 2}So{sub 4} and K{sub 2}PtCl{sub 4} leads to intermetallic aggregates of various sizes according to the stabilizing agent: polyvinylalcohol, polyacrylic acid or polyacrylate. In the last case, the particle diameter is 1.5 nm. The bimetallic character is evidenced in all cases by the spectral changes of such sols compared to pure silver sols which display a characteristic surface plasmon absorption band. This plasmon band disappears when 10 to 20 at.% or more Pr is present. Observation by TEM gives an estimation of the particle sizes. Comparable results have been obtained for Au-Pt particles. (author).

  19. Radiolytic synthesis and electrocatalytic activity of bimetallic nanoaggregates grafted upon various electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amblard, J.; Belloni, J.; Platzer, O.

    1991-01-01

    We show how to utilize the radiolytic pathway for grafting metal nanoaggregates upon anodes or cathodes involved in the chlorine-soda process, thus enhancing their electrochemical behaviour. In both cases important overpotentials are usually measured on unmodified electrodes. The electrocatalytic efficiency of bimetallic nanoparticles (such as Pt-Ru and Ni-Ru), once grafted onto bulk metal electrodes (Ti or Ni), has been investigated by measuring the overpotential for chlorine or hydrogen evolution, respectively. Experimental conditions are similar to those of the industrial process. A synergistic effect is shown when Pt and Ru are alloyed in a 2: 1 atomic ratio. Then the chlorine overpotential is minimum. Conversely, there is no synergy between Ni and Ru, although a minimum amount of Ru in Ru-Ni (50% atomic) ensures a very low hydrogen overpotential [fr

  20. Influential factors of 2-chlorobiphenyl reductive dechlorination by highly dispersed bimetallic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Junrong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly dispersed Pd-Fe0 bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared in the presence of 40 kHz ultrasonic irradiation in order to enhance disparity and reactivity, and simultaneously avoid agglomeration. Influential factors of 2-chlorobiphenyl (2-Cl BP reductive dechlorination by highly dispersed Pd-Fe0 nanoparticles were investigated. Experimental results showed that highly dispersed Pd-Fe0 nanoparticles prepared in the in the presence of ultrasound could further improve the dechlorination efficiency of 2-Cl BP, meanwhile the biphenyl (BP formation rates increased obviously and increased from 47.4% (in the absence of ultrasound to 95.3% (in the presence of ultrasound within 300 min. The catalytic reductive dechlorination effciency of 2-Cl BP was dependent on Pd-Fe0 nanoparticles prepared methods, Pd-Fe0 nanoparticles dosage, Pd loading percentage over Fe0 and initial pH values

  1. Study of carbon-supported bimetallic PtCu nanoparticles by ASAXS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulat, N.V.; Avakyan, L.A; Pryadchenko, V.V.; Srabionyan, V.V.; Belenov, S.V.; Bugaev, L.A.

    2017-01-01

    Bimetallic platinum-copper nanoparticles on carbon support are studied as a perspective electrochemical catalyst by anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering near the Pt absorption L 3 -edge. The simultaneous fitting of several diffraction patterns measured at different photon energies lead to a satisfactory agreement between experimental and model curves in the assumption of core-shell structure of the particles with Pt-rich shell and Cu-rich core. It is shown that the average size of as prepared nanoparticles is about 6 nm with distribution spread of about ±2 nm and with thickness of Pt-rich shell approximately 1.6 nm. After annealing at 350o C the average size of the particles increased by two times with additional enlargement of the Pt-rich shell thickness. (paper)

  2. Synthesis of Pt–Pd Bimetallic Porous Nanostructures as Electrocatalysts for the Methanol Oxidation Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pt-based bimetallic nanostructures have attracted a great deal of attention due to their unique nanostructures and excellent catalytic properties. In this study, we prepared porous Pt–Pd nanoparticles using an efficient, one-pot co-reduction process without using any templates or toxic reactants. In this process, Pt–Pd nanoparticles with different nanostructures were obtained by adjusting the temperature and ratio of the two precursors; and their catalytic properties for the oxidation of methanol were studied. The porous Pt–Pd nanostructures showed better electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of methanol with a higher current density (0.67 mA/cm2, compared with the commercial Pt/C catalyst (0.31 mA/cm2. This method provides one easy pathway to economically prepare different alloy nanostructures for various applications.

  3. Surface-Bound Ligands Modulate Chemoselectivity and Activity of a Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Vu, Khanh B.

    2015-04-03

    "Naked" metal nanoparticles (NPs) are thermodynamically and kinetically unstable in solution. Ligands, surfactants, or polymers, which adsorb at a particle\\'s surface, can be used to stabilize NPs; however, such a mode of stabilization is undesirable for catalytic applications because the adsorbates block the surface active sites. The catalytic activity and the stability of NPs are usually inversely correlated. Here, we describe an example of a bimetallic (PtFe) NP catalyst stabilized by carboxylate surface ligands that bind preferentially to one of the metals (Fe). NPs stabilized by fluorous ligands were found to be remarkably competent in catalyzing the hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde; NPs stabilized by hydrocarbon ligands were significantly less active. The chain length of the fluorous ligands played a key role in determining the chemoselectivity of the FePt NP catalysts. (Chemical Presented). © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  4. Reaction pathways of model compounds of biomass-derived oxygenates on Fe/Ni bimetallic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weiting; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2015-10-01

    Controlling the activity and selectivity of converting biomass-derivatives to fuels and valuable chemicals is critical for the utilization of biomass feedstocks. There are primarily three classes of non-food competing biomass, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In the current work, glycolaldehyde, furfural and acetaldehyde are studied as model compounds of the three classes of biomass-derivatives. Monometallic Ni(111) and monolayer (ML) Fe/Ni(111) bimetallic surfaces are studied for the reaction pathways of the three biomass surrogates. The ML Fe/Ni(111) surface is identified as an efficient surface for the conversion of biomass-derivatives from the combined results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments. A correlation is also established between the optimized adsorption geometry and experimental reaction pathways. These results should provide helpful insights in catalyst design for the upgrading and conversion of biomass.

  5. Formation mechanism for the nanoscale amorphous interface in pulse-welded Al/Fe bimetallic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jingjing; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Zijiao; Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Pulse or impact welding traditionally has been referred to as “solid-state” welding. By integrating advanced interface characterizations and diffusion calculations, we report that the nanoscale amorphous interface in the pulse-welded Al/Fe bimetallic system is formed by rapid heating and melting of a thin Al layer at the interface, diffusion of iron atoms in the liquid aluminum, and subsequent rapid quenching with diffused iron atoms in solution. This finding challenges the commonly held belief regarding the solid-state nature of the impact-based welding process for dissimilar metals. Elongated ultra-fine grains with high dislocation density and ultra-fine equiaxed grains also are observed in the weld interface vicinity on the steel and aluminum sides, respectively, which further confirms that melting and the subsequent recrystallization occurred on the aluminum side of the interface.

  6. Desorption of Furfural from Bimetallic Pt-Fe Oxides/Alumina Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Lourdes Dimas-Rivera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the desorption of furfural, which is a competitive intermediate during the production of biofuel and valuable aromatic compounds, was studied using pure alumina, as well as alumina impregnated with iron and platinum oxides both individually and in combination, using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The bimetallic sample exhibited the lowest desorption percentage for furfural. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM imaging revealed the intimate connection between the iron and platinum oxide species on the alumina support. The mechanism of furfural desorption from the Pt-Fe/Al2O3 0.5%-0.5% sample was determined using physisorbed furfural instead of chemisorbed furfural; this mechanism involved the oxidation of the C=O group on furfural by the catalyst. The oxide nanoparticles on γ-Al2O3 support helped to stabilize the furfural molecule on the surface.

  7. Effects of Irregular Bimetallic Nanostructures on the Optical Properties of Photosystem I from Thermosynechococcus elongatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Ashraf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The fluorescence of photosystem I (PSI trimers in proximity to bimetallic plasmonic nanostructures have been explored by single-molecule spectroscopy (SMS at cryogenic temperature (1.6 K. PSI serves as a model for biological multichromophore-coupled systems with high potential for biotechnological applications. Plasmonic nanostructures are fabricated by thermal annealing of thin metallic films. The fluorescence of PSI has been intensified due to the coupling with plasmonic nanostructures. Enhancement factors up to 22.9 and 5.1 are observed for individual PSI complexes coupled to Au/Au and Ag/Au samples, respectively. Additionally, a wavelength dependence of fluorescence enhancement is observed, which can be explained by the multichromophoric composition of PSI.

  8. Ru-core/Cu-shell bimetallic nanoparticles with controlled size formed in one-pot synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgadottir, I; Freychet, G; Arquillière, P; Maret, M; Gergaud, P; Haumesser, P H; Santini, C C

    2014-12-21

    Suspensions of bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) of Ru and Cu have been synthesized by simultaneous decomposition of two organometallic compounds in an ionic liquid. These suspensions have been characterized by Anomalous Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (ASAXS) at energies slightly below the Ru K-edge. It is found that the NPs adopt a Ru-core, a Cu-shell structure, with a constant Ru core diameter of 1.9 nm for all Ru : Cu compositions, while the Cu shell thickness increases with Cu content up to 0.9 nm. The formation of RuCuNPs thus proceeds through rapid decomposition of the Ru precursor into RuNPs of constant size followed by the reaction of the Cu precursor and agglomeration as a Cu shell. Thus, the different decomposition kinetics of precursors make possible the elaboration of core-shell NPs composed of two metals without chemical affinity.

  9. Formation mechanism for the nanoscale amorphous interface in pulse-welded Al/Fe bimetallic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jingjing [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States); Yu, Qian; Zhang, Zijiao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Center for Electron Microscope, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin, E-mail: xin.sun@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2016-05-16

    Pulse or impact welding traditionally has been referred to as “solid-state” welding. By integrating advanced interface characterizations and diffusion calculations, we report that the nanoscale amorphous interface in the pulse-welded Al/Fe bimetallic system is formed by rapid heating and melting of a thin Al layer at the interface, diffusion of iron atoms in the liquid aluminum, and subsequent rapid quenching with diffused iron atoms in solution. This finding challenges the commonly held belief regarding the solid-state nature of the impact-based welding process for dissimilar metals. Elongated ultra-fine grains with high dislocation density and ultra-fine equiaxed grains also are observed in the weld interface vicinity on the steel and aluminum sides, respectively, which further confirms that melting and the subsequent recrystallization occurred on the aluminum side of the interface.

  10. Factors influencing the charge distribution on Pd x Pt y bimetallic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Celis-Cornejo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We performed quantum mechanics calculations to elucidate the electronic behavior of Pd-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles, using density functional theory, in response to particle size and stoichiometric composition. Using neutrally charged nanoparticles and the Bader charge analysis, we found that external Pd atoms were positively charged, which agrees with previous XPS observations of supported Pd-Pt nanoparticles. From the calculations, unsupported nanoparticles exhibit an electron transfer from Pd to Pt. This result supports the idea that Pd electron-deficient species are possibly responsible of the hydrogenating function of these catalysts, in the hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene. Additionally, it was found that the particle size does not affect the electronic charge distribution and the stoichiometric composition is the factor that greatly influences this property in nanoparticles.

  11. Peculiarities of forming diffusion bimetallic joints of aluminum foam with a monolithic magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khokhlov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The work is carried out to determine an optimal method to obtain the welded bimetallic joints of monolithic Mg-alloy with porous Al-alloy using gallium as chemical activator and heating up to 300 °C by two different methods: long-term in vacuum oven and short-term without vacuum by passing of low voltage current. There is no microstructure change in Al-foam but indentation test records the negligible reduction of the mechanical properties. SEM showed the crystallization of two types of Mg5Ga2 and Mg2Ga inter-metallic phases in the wavy uneven diffusion zone on Mg-alloy side with significant increase of micro-hardness and Young's modulus. The narrow depth of the diffusion zone takes place in joints by short-term heating, so this method is more applicable for welding of monolithic and porous alloys at chemical activation using gallium.

  12. Debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles: Influencing factors, kinetics, and mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zhanqiang; Qiu Xinhong; Chen Jinhong; Qiu Xiuqi

    2011-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers have been identified as a new class of organic pollutants with ecological risk due to their toxicity, bioaccumulation, and global distribution. Proper remediation technologies are needed to remove them from the environment. In this paper, Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical deposition and used to degrade decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209). The characteristics of Ni/Fe nanoparticles were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Brunnaer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis. Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles with diameters in the order of 20-50 nm could effectively degrade BDE209 in the solvent (tetrahydrofuran/water). Influence factors, such as Ni/Fe nanoparticle dosage, initial BDE209 concentration, and Ni loading, on the removal of BDE209 were studied. The results indicated that the degradation of BDE209 followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the degradation rate of BDE209 increased with increasing the amount of nano Ni/Fe particles, Ni/Fe ratio, and decreasing the initial concentration of BDE209. Through analyzed the mass balance of the BDE209 removal, degradation was the main process of BDE209 removal. The mechanism of debromination was deduced by analyzing the reaction products using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the bromide ion in the solution and varying the solvent conditions. Stepwise hydrogen reduction is the main process of debromination, and the hydrion play an important role in the reaction. Moreover, the experiment of long term performance and leaching of Ni were also carried out to test the stability and durability of Ni/Fe nanoparticles in BDE209 degradation.

  13. Efficiency of bimetallic PtPd on polydopamine modified on various carbon supports for alcohol oxidations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinithchaisakula, A.; Ounnunkad, K.; Themsirimongkon, S.; Promsawan, N.; Waenkaew, P.; Saipanya, S.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, the preparation, characterization, and electrocatalytic analysis of the catalysts on various carbon substrates for direct alcohol fuel cells were studied. Selected carbons were modified with/without polydopamine (labelled as PDA-C and C) and further metal electrodeposited incorporated onto the glassy carbon (labelled as 5Pt1Pd/PDA-C and 5Pt1Pd/C). Four various carbon materials were used e.g. graphite (G), carbon nanotube (CNT), graphene (GP) and graphene oxide (GO) and the carbons were modified with PDA denoted as PDA-G, PDA-CNT, PDA-GP and PDA-GO, respectively. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) experimental observation showed narrow size distribution of metal anchored on the PDA-C and C materials. Chemical compositions and oxidation states of the catalysts were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The catalytic performances for small organic electro-oxidation (e.g. methanol and ethanol) were measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Among different PDA-C and C catalysts, monometallic Pt showed less activity than the bimetallic catalysts. Among catalysts with PDA, the 5Pt1Pd/PDA-GO catalyst facilitated methanol and ethanol oxidations with high oxidation currents and If/Ib value and stability with low potentials while among catalysts without PDA, the 5Pt1Pd/CNT provides highest activity and stability. It was found that the catalysts with PDA provided high activity and stability than the catalysts without PDA. The improved catalytic performance of the prepared catalysts could be related to the higher active surface area from polymer modification and bimetallic catalyst system in the catalyst composites.

  14. A CuNi bimetallic cathode with nanostructured copper array for enhanced hydrodechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Hao; Lu, Qi; Li, Guanghe; Zhang, Fang

    2018-09-01

    To address the challenges of low hydrodechlorination efficiency by non-noble metals, a CuNi bimetallic cathode with nanostructured copper array film was fabricated for effective electrochemical dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) in aqueous solution. The CuNi bimetallic cathodes were prepared by a simple one-step electrodeposition of copper onto the Ni foam substrate, with various electrodeposition time of 5/10/15/20 min. The optimum electrodeposition time was 10 min when copper was coated as a uniform nanosheet array on the nickel foam substrate surface. This cathode exhibited the highest TCE removal, which was twice higher compared to that of the nickel foam cathode. At the same passed charge of 1080C, TCE removal increased from 33.9 ± 3.3% to 99.7 ± 0.1% with the increasing operation current from 5 to 20 mA cm -2 , while the normalized energy consumption decreased from 15.1 ± 1.0 to 2.6 ± 0.01 kWh log -1  m -3 . The decreased normalized energy consumption at a higher current density was due to the much higher removal efficiency at a higher current. These results suggest that CuNi cathodes prepared by simple electrodeposition method represent a promising and cost-effective approach for enhanced electrochemical dechlorination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Design, Development and Hotfire Testing of Monolithic Copper and Bimetallic Additively Manufactured Combustion Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul; Barnett, Greg; Brandsmeier, Will; Greene, Sandy Elam; Protz, Chris

    2016-01-01

    NASA and industry partners are working towards fabrication process development to reduce costs and schedules associated with manufacturing liquid rocket engine components with the goal of reducing overall mission costs. One such technique being evaluated is powder-bed fusion or selective laser melting (SLM) otherwise commonly referred to as additive manufacturing. The NASA Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) program was designed to develop processes and material characterization for the GRCop-84 copper-alloy commensurate with powder bed additive manufacturing, evaluate bimetallic deposition and complete testing of a full scale combustion chamber. As part of this development, the process has been transferred to industry partners to enable a long-term supply chain of monolithic copper combustion chambers. As a direct spin off of this program, NASA is working with industry partners to further develop the printing process for the GRCop-84 material in addition to the C-18150 (CuCrZr) material. To advance the process further and allow for optimization with multiple materials, NASA is also investigating the feasibility of bimetallic additively manufactured chambers. A 1.2k sized thrust-chamber was designed and developed to compare the printing process of the GRCop-84 and C-18150 SLM materials. A series of similar MCC liners also completed development with an Inconel 625 jacket bonded to the GRcop-84 liner evaluating direct metal deposition (DMD) laser and arc-based techniques. This paper describes the design, development, manufacturing and testing of these combustion chambers and associated lessons learned throughout the design and development process.

  16. The Effect of Precursor Ligands and Oxidation State in the Synthesis of Bimetallic Nano-Alloys

    KAUST Repository

    LaGrow, Alec P.

    2015-05-12

    The characteristics of bimetallic nanomaterials are dictated by their size, shape and elemental distribution. Solution synthesis is widely utilized to form nanomaterials, such as nanoparticles, with controlled size and shape. However, the effects of variables on the characteristics of bimetallic nanomaterials are not completely understood. In this study, we used a continuous-flow synthetic strategy to explore the effects of the ligands and the oxidation state of a metal precursor in a shape-controlled synthesis on the final shape of the nanomaterials and the elemental distribution within the alloy. We demonstrate that this strategy can tune the size of monodisperse PtM (M=Ni or Cu) alloy nanocrystals ranging from 3 to 16 nm with an octahedral shape using acetylacetonate or halide precursors of Pt(II), Pt(IV) and Ni or Cu (II). The nanoparticles formed from halide precursors showed an enrichment of platinum on their surfaces, and the bromides could oxidatively etch the nanoparticles during synthesis with the O2/Br- pair. The two nanocrystal precursors can be uti-lized independently and can control the size with a trend of Pt(acac)2

  17. Bimetallic iron and cobalt incorporated MFI/MCM-41 composite and its catalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Baoshan; Xu, Junqing; Li, Xiao; Liu, Jianjun; Zuo, Shengli; Pan, Zhiyun; Wu, Ziyu

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The formation of FeCo-MFI/MCM-41 composite is based on two steps, the first step of synthesizing the MFI-type proto-zeolite unites under hydrothermal conditions. The second step of assembling these zeolite fragment together new silica and heteroatom source on the CTAB surfactant micelle to synthesize the mesoporous product with hexagonal structure. Highlights: ► Bimetallic iron and cobalt incorporated MFI/MCM-41 composite was prepared using templating method. ► FeCo-MFI/MCM-41 composite simultaneously possessed two kinds of meso- and micro-porous structures. ► Iron and cobalt ions incorporated into the silica framework with tetrahedral coordination. -- Abstract: The MFI/MCM-41 composite material with bimetallic Fe and Co incorporation was prepared using templating method via a two-step hydrothermal crystallization procedure. The obtained products were characterized by a series of techniques including powder X-ray diffraction, N 2 sorption, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscope, H 2 temperature programmed reduction, thermal analyses, and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of the Fe and Co K-edge. The catalytic properties of the products were investigated by residual oil hydrocracking reactions. Characterization results showed that the FeCo-MFI/MCM-41 composite simultaneously possessed two kinds of stable meso- and micro-porous structures. Iron and cobalt ions were incorporated into the silicon framework, which was confirmed by H 2 temperature programmed reduction and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. This composite presented excellent activities in hydrocracking of residual oil, which was superior to the pure materials of silicate-1/MCM-41.

  18. Reductive dechlorination of tetrachlorobisphenol A by Pd/Fe bimetallic catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Qiang; Liu, Wen; Peng, Ping’an; Huang, Weilin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • TCBPA can be rapidly and completely dechlorinated by Pd/Fe bimetallic catalysts. • The observed rate constants are functions of dosages, initial concentration, Pd coverage and solution pH. • Pd dosage is the major factor in the observed rates of the reaction. • This is the first report investigating the dechlorination of TCBPA by Pd/Fe catalysts. -- Abstract: The Pd/Fe bimetallic catalysts of micron sizes were synthesized and the rates of tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA) degradation were measured under various conditions using a batch reactor system. The results showed that TCBPA was rapidly dechlorinated to tri-, di- and mono-chlorobisphenol A and to bisphenol A (BPA). The observed rate constants (k obs ) were found to increase as functions of the Pd coverage on the Fe particles and the dosages of the catalysts within the reactors. The k obs value decreased as the initial TCBPA concentration increased, suggesting that the TCBPA dechlorination may follow a surface-site limiting Langmuir–Hinshelwood rate model. The weakly acidic solution, especially at or near pH 6.0, also favored the dechlorination of TCBPA. At pH 6.0, Pd coverage of 0.044 wt% and catalyst dosage of 5 g L −1 , TCBPA with an initial concentration of 20 μM was completely transformed within 60 min, and BPA was detected as the major product through the reaction time. Meanwhile, the k obs values measured at constant solution pH correlated linearly with the mass of particle-bound Pd introduced to the reactors, regardless of Pd/Fe catalyst dosage or Pd surface coverage. This study suggested that Pd/Fe catalysts could be potentially employed to rapidly degrade TCBPA in the contaminated environment

  19. Cu-Sn Bimetallic Catalyst for Selective Aqueous Electroreduction of CO2 to CO

    KAUST Repository

    Sarfraz, Saad

    2016-03-23

    We report a selective and stable electrocatalyst utilizing non-noble metals consisting of Cu and Sn for the efficient and selective reduction of CO2 to CO over a wide potential range. The bimetallic electrode was prepared through the electrodeposition of Sn species on the surface of oxide-derived copper (OD-Cu). The Cu surface, when decorated with an optimal amount of Sn, resulted in a Faradaic efficiency (FE) for CO greater than 90% and a current density of −1.0 mA cm−2 at −0.6 V vs. RHE, compared to the CO FE of 63% and −2.1 mA cm−2 for OD-Cu. Excess Sn on the surface caused H2 evolution with a decreased current density. X-ray diffraction (XRD) suggests the formation of Cu-Sn alloy. Auger electron spectroscopy of the sample surface exhibits zero-valent Cu and Sn after the electrodeposition step. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that replacing a single Cu atom with a Sn atom leaves the d-band orbitals mostly unperturbed, signifying no dramatic shifts in the bulk electronic structure. However, the Sn atom discomposes the multi-fold sites on pure Cu, disfavoring the adsorption of H and leaving the adsorption of CO relatively unperturbed. Our catalytic results along with DFT calculations indicate that the presence of Sn on reduced OD-Cu diminishes the hydrogenation capability—i.e., the selectivity towards H2 and HCOOH—while hardly affecting the CO productivity. While the pristine monometallic surfaces (both Cu and Sn) fail to selectively reduce CO2, the Cu-Sn bimetallic electrocatalyst generates a surface that inhibits adsorbed H*, resulting in improved CO FE. This study presents a strategy to provide a low-cost non-noble metals that can be utilized as a highly selective electrocatalyst for the efficient aqueous reduction of CO2.

  20. Bimetallic Ag–Ni/C particles as cathode catalyst in AFCs (alkaline fuel cells)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Xingjuan; Zhang, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    AFCs (alkaline fuel cells) is one of the promising fuel cells, due to their low working temperature and less corrosive environment. However, decreasing the catalyst cost and improving its performance are still the challenges in its application. Transition metal as the catalyst for AFCs not only can reduce its cost, but also has great electro-catalytic efficiency. In this paper, Carbon supported Ag–Ni bimetallic catalysts with differential Ag/Ni atomic ratios were prepared by chemically reducing silver and nickel salts. Ag 3 Ni/C shows the relatively higher ORR (oxygen reduction reaction) activity among the differential Ag/Ni bimetallic particles. In order to improve the activity and stability, the catalysts were heat-treated at the temperature of 500 °C. The results indicate that the limiting current density has been improved greatly for Ag 3 Ni/C-500 °C, which is as high as 2.5× that of Ag/C. The microstructure investigation show that the non-equilibrium state of Ag–Ni alloy by heat treatment is confirmed by HRTEM (high-resolution transmission electron microscopy) images, and Ag(111) surfaces are decreased in XRD pattern, which results in the ORR activity improved and overpotential decreased. Heat treatment also has contributed to Ag–Ni/C electrochemistry stability in some degree. - Highlights: • Ag–Ni/C is applied as cathode catalyst for AFCs (alkaline fuel cells). • Ag 3 Ni/C-500 °C shows the best performance. • Non-equilibrium state of Ag–Ni alloy by heat treatment is observed. • The decreased Ag(111) surfaces are favor to improve the catalyst activity

  1. Bimetallic AgCu/Cu2O hybrid for the synergetic adsorption of iodide from solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ping; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiaodong; Wang, Yuechan; Liang, Jie; Zhou, Qihang; Dai, Yuexuan; Jiao, Yan; Chen, Shouwen; Yang, Yi

    2017-08-01

    To further improve the capacity of Cu 2 O to absorb I - anions from solution, and to understand the difference between the adsorption mechanisms of Ag/Cu 2 O and Cu/Cu 2 O adsorbents, bimetallic AgCu was doped into Cu 2 O through a facile solvothermal route. Samples were characterized and employed to adsorb I - anions under different experimental conditions. The results show that the Cu content can be tuned by adding different volumes of Ag sols. After doping bimetallic AgCu, the adsorption capacity of the samples can be increased from 0.02 mmol g -1 to 0.52 mmol g -1 . Moreover, the optimal adsorption is reached within only 240 min. Meanwhile, the difference between the adsorption mechanisms of Ag/Cu 2 O and Cu/Cu 2 O adsorbents was verified, and the cooperative adsorption mechanism of the AgCu/Cu 2 O hybrid was proposed and verified. In addition, the AgCu/Cu 2 O hybrid showed excellent selectivity, e.g., its adsorption efficiencies are 85.1%, 81.9%, 85.9% and 85.7% in the presence of the Cl - , CO 3 2- , SO 4 2- and NO 3 - competitive anions, respectively. Furthermore, the AgCu/Cu 2 O hybrid can worked well in other harsh environments (e.g., acidic, alkaline and seawater environments). Therefore, this study is expected to promote the development of Cu 2 O into a highly efficient adsorbent for the removal of iodide from solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tuning the bimetallic amide-imide precursor system to make paramagnetic GaMnN nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drygas, Mariusz [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Energy and Fuels, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Janik, Jerzy F., E-mail: janikj@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Energy and Fuels, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Musial, Michal [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Energy and Fuels, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Gosk, Jacek [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland); Twardowski, Andrzej, E-mail: andrzej.twardowski@fuw.edu.pl [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland)

    2016-09-01

    A bimetallic molecular system made of gallium (III) tris(dimethyl)amide Ga(NMe{sub 2}){sub 3} and manganese (II) bis(trimethylsilyl)amide Mn[N(SiMe{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2} (Me = CH{sub 3}, fixed initial Mn-content 10 at.%) was subjected to ammonolysis in refluxing/liquid ammonia. Upon isolation at room temperature, the amide-imide mixed metal precursor was pyrolyzed at elevated temperatures under an ammonia flow by two different routes. Route 1 consisted of a direct nitridation at high temperatures of 500, 700 or 900 °C. In route 2, a low temperature pyrolysis at 150 °C was applied prior to nitridation at the same final temperatures as in route 1. All nanopowders were characterized by XRD diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, and SEM/EDX microscopy and analysis. Thorough magnetization measurements in function of magnetic field and temperature were carried out with a SQUID magnetometer. In all samples, the paramagnetic phase of GaMnN was accompanied by an antiferromagnetic by-product linked to a Mn-containing species from decomposition and oxidation of Mn-precursor excess. The Mn-contents in the crystalline GaMnN, i.e., Mn-incorporated in GaN crystal lattice, were of the order of 2–3 at.% mostly independent on the nitridation route whereas the latter had a pronounced effect on amounts of the antiferromagnetic by-product. - Highlights: • New bimetallic precursor system for conversion to GaN/Mn nanopowders was designed. • Two conversion routes were applied with precursor nitridation at 500, 700 or 900 °C. • Prepared nanopowders were thoroughly characterized including magnetic measurements. • The major product was the gallium nitride Mn-doped phase GaMnN with 2–3 at.% of Mn.

  3. Clustering Dycom

    KAUST Repository

    Minku, Leandro L.; Hou, Siqing

    2017-01-01

    baseline WC model is also included in the analysis. Results: Clustering Dycom with K-Means can potentially help to split the CC projects, managing to achieve similar or better predictive performance than Dycom. However, K-Means still requires the number

  4. Synthesis and characterization of Pd-on-Pt and Au-on-Pt bimetallic nanosheaths on multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuangyin; Jiang, San Ping; Wang Xin

    2011-01-01

    The authors have successfully synthesized Pd-on-Pt (thickness: 12 nm) and Au-on-Pt bimetallic nanosheaths on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) via a seed-mediated growth approach. Pt nanoparticles as seeds were pre-deposited on MWCNTs with uniform distribution followed by the successive seed-mediated growth of metal atoms reduced by a weak reducing agent, ascorbic acid. The essential role of pre-deposited nanoseed particles on MWCNTs was demonstrated. The as-prepared materials were characterization by transition electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and element mapping tools. The current strategy extends the classical seed-mediated growth method to prepare bimetallic nanosheath on MWCNT support.

  5. Synthesis of bimetallic Pt-Pd core-shell nanocrystals and their high electrocatalytic activity modulated by Pd shell thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujing; Wang, Zhi Wei; Chiu, Chin-Yi; Ruan, Lingyan; Yang, Wenbing; Yang, Yang; Palmer, Richard E.; Huang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Bimetallic Pt-Pd core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) are synthesized through a two-step process with controlled Pd thickness from sub-monolayer to multiple atomic layers. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalytic activity and methanol oxidation reactivity of the core-shell NCs for fuel cell applications in alkaline solution are systematically studied and compared based on different Pd thickness. It is found that the Pd shell helps to reduce the over-potential of ORR by up to 50mV when compared to commercial Pd black, while generating up to 3-fold higher kinetic current density. The carbon monoxide poisoning test shows that the bimetallic NCs are more resistant to the CO poisoning than Pt NCs and Pt black. It is also demonstrated that the bimetallic Pt-Pd core-shell NCs can enhance the current density of the methanol oxidation reaction, lowering the over-potential by 35 mV with respect to the Pt core NCs. Further investigation reveals that the Pd/Pt ratio of 1/3, which corresponds to nearly monolayer Pd deposition on Pt core NCs, gives the highest oxidation current density and lowest over-potential. This study shows for the first time the systematic investigation of effects of Pd atomic shells on Pt-Pd bimetallic nanocatalysts, providing valuable guidelines for designing high-performance catalysts for fuel cell applications.Bimetallic Pt-Pd core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) are synthesized through a two-step process with controlled Pd thickness from sub-monolayer to multiple atomic layers. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalytic activity and methanol oxidation reactivity of the core-shell NCs for fuel cell applications in alkaline solution are systematically studied and compared based on different Pd thickness. It is found that the Pd shell helps to reduce the over-potential of ORR by up to 50mV when compared to commercial Pd black, while generating up to 3-fold higher kinetic current density. The carbon monoxide poisoning test shows that the bimetallic NCs are more

  6. One step electrochemical synthesis of bimetallic PdAu supported on nafion–graphene ribbon film for ethanol electrooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shendage, Suresh S., E-mail: sureshsshendage@gmail.com; Singh, Abilash S.; Nagarkar, Jayashree M., E-mail: jm.nagarkar@ictmumbai.edu.in

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Electrochemical deposition of bimetallic PdAu NPs. • Highly loaded PdAu NPs are obtained. • Nafion–graphene supported PdAu NPs shows good activity for ethanol electrooxidation. - Abstract: A nafion–graphene ribbon (Nf–GR) supported bimetallic PdAu nanoparticles (PdAu/Nf–GR) catalyst was prepared by electrochemical codeposition of Pd and Au at constant potential. The prepared catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The average particle size of PdAu nanoparticles (NPs) determined from XRD was 3.5 nm. The electrocatalytic activity of the PdAu/Nf–GR catalyst was examined by cyclic voltametry. It was observed that the as prepared catalyst showed efficient activity and good stability for ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline medium.

  7. A Bimetallic Aluminium(Salphen) Complex for the Synthesis of Cyclic Carbonates from Epoxides and Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; North, Michael

    2017-01-10

    A bimetallic aluminium(salphen) complex is reported as a sustainable, efficient and inexpensive catalyst for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates from epoxides and carbon dioxide. In the presence of this complex and tetrabutylammonium bromide, terminal and internal epoxides reacted at 50 °C and 10 bar carbon dioxide pressure to afford their corresponding cyclic carbonates in yields of 50-94 % and 30-71 % for terminal and internal cyclic carbonates, respectively. Mechanistic studies using deuterated epoxides and an analogous monometallic aluminium(salphen) chloride complex support a mechanism for catalysis by the bimetallic complex, which involves intramolecular cooperative catalysis between the two aluminium centres. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Removal of trichloroethylene DNAPL trapped in porous media using nanoscale zerovalent iron and bimetallic nanoparticles: Direct observation and quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiliang; Jeong, Seung-Woo; Choi, Heechul

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► TCE DNAPL removal inside pores using NZVI or bimetals in a 2-D system was visualized. ► Presence of nitrate and humic substances decrease the TCE DNAPL removal efficiency. ► Presence of ethanol increases the TCE DNAPL removal efficiency. ► Metal catalysts enhance the TCE DNAPL removal using NZVI in a short term reaction. ► Metal catalysts do not increase the DNAPL removal efficiency for a long term reaction. - Abstract: Direct trichloroethylene (TCE) dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) removal inside pore areas using nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) and bimetallic nanoparticles were first investigated in a water-saturated porous glass micromodel. Effects of nitrate, aqueous ethanol co-solvent, humic substance, and elapsed time on TCE DNAPL removal using NZVI were studied by direct visualization. The removal efficiency was then quantified by directly measuring the remaining TCE DNAPL blobs area using an image analyzer. As ethanol content of co-solvent increased, TCE DNAPL removal by NZVI was also increased implying sequential TCE DNAPL removal mechanisms: as dissolved TCE was degraded by NZVI, TCE dissolution from TCE blobs would be then facilitated and the TCE blob areas would be eventually reduced. The presence of nitrate and humic substance hindered the NZVI reactivity for the TCE DNAPL removal. In contrast, the TCE DNAPL removal efficiency was enhanced using bimetallic nanoparticles in a short-term reaction by generating atomic hydrogen for catalytic hydro-dechlorination. However, all TCE DNAPL removal efficiencies reached the same level after long-term reaction using both NZVI and bimetallic nanoparticles. Direct TCE DNAPL observation clearly implied that TCE blobs existed for long time even though all TCE blobs were fully exposed to NZVI and bimetallic nanoparticles.

  9. Removal of trichloroethylene DNAPL trapped in porous media using nanoscale zerovalent iron and bimetallic nanoparticles: Direct observation and quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiliang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, 500-712 Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seung-Woo, E-mail: swjeong@kunsan.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan 550-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Heechul, E-mail: hcchoi@gist.ac.kr [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, 500-712 Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TCE DNAPL removal inside pores using NZVI or bimetals in a 2-D system was visualized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of nitrate and humic substances decrease the TCE DNAPL removal efficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of ethanol increases the TCE DNAPL removal efficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal catalysts enhance the TCE DNAPL removal using NZVI in a short term reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal catalysts do not increase the DNAPL removal efficiency for a long term reaction. - Abstract: Direct trichloroethylene (TCE) dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) removal inside pore areas using nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) and bimetallic nanoparticles were first investigated in a water-saturated porous glass micromodel. Effects of nitrate, aqueous ethanol co-solvent, humic substance, and elapsed time on TCE DNAPL removal using NZVI were studied by direct visualization. The removal efficiency was then quantified by directly measuring the remaining TCE DNAPL blobs area using an image analyzer. As ethanol content of co-solvent increased, TCE DNAPL removal by NZVI was also increased implying sequential TCE DNAPL removal mechanisms: as dissolved TCE was degraded by NZVI, TCE dissolution from TCE blobs would be then facilitated and the TCE blob areas would be eventually reduced. The presence of nitrate and humic substance hindered the NZVI reactivity for the TCE DNAPL removal. In contrast, the TCE DNAPL removal efficiency was enhanced using bimetallic nanoparticles in a short-term reaction by generating atomic hydrogen for catalytic hydro-dechlorination. However, all TCE DNAPL removal efficiencies reached the same level after long-term reaction using both NZVI and bimetallic nanoparticles. Direct TCE DNAPL observation clearly implied that TCE blobs existed for long time even though all TCE blobs were fully exposed to NZVI and bimetallic nanoparticles.

  10. Shape and structural motifs control of MgTi bimetallic nanoparticles using hydrogen and methane as trace impurities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan, Gopi; de Graaf, Sytze; ten Brink, Gert H.; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Kooi, Bart J.; Palasantzas, George

    2018-01-01

    In this work we report the influence of methane/hydrogen on the nucleation and formation of MgTi bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by gas phase synthesis. We show that a diverse variety of structural motifs can be obtained from MgTi alloy, TiCx/Mg/MgO, TiCx/MgO and TiHx/MgO core/shell NPs via

  11. Synergetic effects leading to coke-resistant NiCo bimetallic catalysts for dry reforming of methane

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lidong

    2015-01-08

    A new dry reforming of methane catalyst comprised of NiCo bimetallic nanoparticles and a Mgx(Al)O support that exhibits high coke resistance and long-term on-stream stability is reported. The structural characterization by XRD, TEM, temperature-programmed reduction, and BET analysis demonstrates that the excellent performance of this catalyst is ascribed to the synergy of various parameters, including metal-nanoparticle size, metal-support interaction, catalyst structure, ensemble size, and alloy effects.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of bimetallic metal-organic framework Cu-Ru-BTC with HKUST-1 structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Meike A; Schoch, Roland; Wolf, Silke; Bauer, Matthias; Kleist, Wolfgang

    2015-02-07

    The bimetallic metal-organic framework Cu-Ru-BTC with the stoichiometric formula Cu2.75Ru0.25(BTC)2·xH2O, which is isoreticular to HKUST-1, was successfully prepared in a direct synthesis using mild reaction conditions. The partial substitution of Cu(2+) by Ru(3+) centers in the paddlewheel structure and the absence of other Ru-containing phases was proven using X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  13. Mixtures of functionalized aromatic groups generated from diazonium chemistry as templates towards bimetallic species supported on carbon electrode surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilà, Neus; Bélanger, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Mixtures of 4-sulfophenyl and 4-aminophenyl groups were grafted onto carbon electrodes by electrochemical reduction of their corresponding diazonium cations. Two experimental methodologies were tested in order to control primarily the composition of the binary organic films and subsequently the composition of the bimetallic Cu/Pt layers. The composition of the organic layers was controlled either by changing the ratio of the two components in solution and applying a cathodic potential at which both diazonium cations are electrochemically reduced. The organic layers were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. These binary organic films were subsequently used as templates to load bimetallic species to the carbon surface based on electrostatic interactions of 4-sulfophenyl and 4-aminophenyl groups with Cu 2+ and PtCl 6 2− ionic species dissolved in solution, respectively. The metal complexes, electrostatically bounded to the ionic sites of the grafted groups, were reduced by using NaBH 4 as reducing agent. The amount of Cu was estimated by stripping voltammetry in a sulfuric acid aqueous solution whereas adsorption/desorption of hydrogen was used to quantify the platinum present on the carbon surface. XPS analysis of the metallic surfaces was also performed to confirm the presence of the metals on the electrode surface. The results indicate that the composition of the bimetallic layers is controlled by the ratio of the 4-sulfophenyl and 4-aminophenyl grafted groups.

  14. Generalized Bragg-Williams model for the size-dependent order-disorder transition of bimetallic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y J; Qi, W H; Wang, M P; Liu, J F; Xiong, S Y; Huang, B Y

    2011-01-01

    Considering the different effects of exterior atoms (face, edge and corner atoms), the Bragg-Williams model is generalized to account for the size, shape and composition-dependent order-disorder transition of bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) with B 2 , L1 0 and L1 2 ordered structures. The results show that the order-disorder temperatures T C,p are different for different shapes even in the identical particle size. The order of order-disorder temperatures of different shapes varies for different sizes. The long-range order parameter decreases with the increase in temperature in all size ranges and decreases smoothly in large sizes, but drops dramatically in small sizes. Moreover, it is also found that the order-disorder temperature of bimetallic NPs rises with increasing particle sizes and decreases with a deviation from the ideal compositions. The present predictions are consistent with the available literature results, indicating its capability in predicting other order-disorder transition phenomena of bimetallic NPs.

  15. Comparing and Optimizing Nitrate Adsorption from Aqueous Solution Using Fe/Pt Bimetallic Nanoparticles and Anion Exchange Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Daud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work was carried out for the removal of nitrate from raw water for a drinking water supply. Nitrate is a widespread ground water contaminant. Methodology employed in this study included adsorption on metal based nanoparticles and ion exchange using anionic resins. Fe/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared in the laboratory, by the reduction of their respective salts using sodium borohydride. Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray florescence techniques were utilized for characterization of bimetallic Fe/Pt nanoparticles. Optimum dose, pH, temperature, and contact time were determined for NO3- removal through batch tests, both for metal based nanoparticles and anionic exchange resin. Adsorption data fitted well the Langmuir isotherm and conformed to the pseudofirst-order kinetic model. Results indicated 97% reduction in nitrate by 0.25 mg/L of Fe/Pt nanoparticles at pH 7 and 83% reduction in nitrate was observed using 0.50 mg/L anionic exchange resins at pH 4 and contact time of one hour. Overall, Fe/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles demonstrated greater NO3- removal efficiency due to the small particle size, extremely large surface area (627 m2/g, and high adsorption capacity.

  16. Comparing and Optimizing Nitrate Adsorption from Aqueous Solution Using Fe/Pt Bimetallic Nanoparticles and Anion Exchange Resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, M.; Khan, Z.; Ashgar, A.; Danish, M. I.; Qazi, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    This research work was carried out for the removal of nitrate from raw water for a drinking water supply. Nitrate is a widespread ground water contaminant. Methodology employed in this study included adsorption on metal based nanoparticles and ion exchange using anionic resins. Fe/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared in the laboratory, by the reduction of their respective salts using sodium borohydride. Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray florescence techniques were utilized for characterization of bimetallic Fe/Pt nanoparticles. Optimum dose, ph, temperature, and contact time were determined for removal through batch tests, both for metal based nanoparticles and anionic exchange resin. Adsorption data fitted well the Langmuir isotherm and conformed to the pseudo first-order kinetic model. Results indicated 97% reduction in nitrate by 0.25 mg/L of Fe/Pt nanoparticles at ph 7 and 83% reduction in nitrate was observed using 0.50 mg/L anionic exchange resins at ph 4 and contact time of one hour. Overall, Fe/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles demonstrated greater removal efficiency due to the small particle size, extremely large surface area (627 m 2 /g), and high adsorption capacity.

  17. Chitosan supported bimetallic Pd/Co nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst for the reduction of nitroaromatics to amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Keshipour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new bimetallic nanocomposite of chitosan was prepared. Pd and Co nanoparticles were deposited on chitosan to produce a new heterogeneous recyclable catalyst for use in the bimetallic catalytic reduction reaction. The catalyst was characterized with common analysis methods for nanocomposites including Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction pattern, Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy, and applied in the reduction reaction of nitroaromatics using NaBH4 at room temperature. The bimetallic system gave good results compared to each of the applied metals. Various aromatic amines and diamines were used in the reduction reaction. The aromatic amines were obtained as the sole product of the reduction reaction with 15 mol% Pd and 12 mol% Co during 2h. This reaction had some advantages such as mild reaction conditions, high yield, green solvent, and a recyclable catalyst. Also, the recovered catalyst was applicable in the reduction reaction without a significant decrease in the activity for up to six times.

  18. Quercetin and gallic acid mediated synthesis of bimetallic (silver and selenium) nanoparticles and their antitumor and antimicrobial potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Banerjee, Uttam Chand

    2014-10-01

    In this study a synthetic approach for the stable, mono-dispersed high yielding bimetallic (Ag-Se) nanoparticles by quercetin and gallic acid is described. The bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature. Different reaction parameters (concentration of quercetin, gallic acid and Ag/Se salt, pH, temperature and reaction time) were optimized to control the properties of nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques and their size was determined to be 30-35 nm. Our findings suggest that both the reduction as well as stabilization of nanoparticles were achieved by the flavonoids and phenolics. This study describes the efficacy of quercetin and gallic acid mediated synthesis of bimetallic (Ag-Se) nanoparticles and their in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial (Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria) and antitumor potentials. The synthesized Ag-Se nanoparticles were used as anticancer agents for Dalton lymphoma (DL) cells and in in vitro 80% of its viability was reduced at 50 μg/mL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation of dendritic Ag/Au bimetallic nanostructures and their application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Zao; Chen Shanjun; Chen Yan; Luo Jiangshan; Wu Weidong; Yi Yougen; Tang Yongjian

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic Ag/Au bimetallic nanostructures have been synthesized via a multi-stage galvanic replacement reaction of Ag dendrites in a chlorauric acid (HAuCl 4 ) solution at room temperature. After five stages of replacement reaction, one obtains structures with protruding nanocubes; these will mature into many porous structures with a few Ag atoms that are left over dendrites. The morphological and compositional changes which evolved with reaction stages were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The replacement of Ag with Au was confirmed. A formation mechanism involving the original development of Ag dendrites into porous structures with the growth of Au nanocubes on this underlying structure as the number of reaction stages is proposed. This was confirmed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The dendritic Ag/Au bimetallic nanostructures could be used as efficient SERS active substrates. It was found that the SERS enhancement ability was dependent on the stage of galvanic replacement reaction. - Highlights: ► Dendritic Ag/Au bimetallic nanostructures have been synthesized. ► Protruding cubic nanostructures obtained after 5 stages mature into porous structures. ► SERS results allow confirm the proposed formation mechanism. ► The nanostructures could be used as efficient SERS active substrates.

  20. Electrochemical and structural characterization of carbon-supported Pt-Pd bimetallic electrocatalysts prepared by electroless deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Masato; Beard, Kevin D.; Ma Shuguo; Blom, Douglas A.; St-Pierre, Jean; Van Zee, John W. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Monnier, John R., E-mail: monnier@cec.sc.ed [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Electrochemical and structural characteristics of various Pt-Pd/C bimetallic catalysts prepared by electroless deposition (ED) methods have been investigated. Structural analysis was conducted by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Monometallic Pt or Pd particles were not detected by EDS, indicating the ED methodology formed only bimetallic particles. The size of the Pt-Pd bimetallic particles was smaller than those of a commercially available Pt/C catalyst. The morphology of the Pt on Pd/C catalysts was identified and corresponded to Pd particles partially encapsulated by Pt. The electrochemical characteristics of the lowest Pd loading catalyst (7.0% Pt on 0.5% Pd/C) for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) have been investigated by the rotating ring disk electrode technique. The electrochemical activity was equal or lower than the commercially available Pt/C catalyst; however, the amount of hydrogen peroxide observed at the ring was reduced by the Pd, suggesting that such a catalyst has the potential to decrease ionomer degradation in applications. The Pt on Pd/C catalysts also show a higher tolerance to ripening induced by potential cycling. Therefore, catalyst suitability cannot be judged solely by its initial performance; information related to specific degradation mechanisms is also needed for a more complete assessment.

  1. TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT OF DEPOSIT WELDING AND GAS LASER CUTTING TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF THE BIMETALLIC TOOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burlachenko Oleg Vasil’evich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Deposit welding is the application of a layer of metal on the surface of a product using fusion welding. In this paper, we consider the method of improving the technology of gas laser cutting, which makes it possible to achieve a high productivity of manufacturing a bimetallic tool. The present paper is concerned with the advantages of gas laser cutting which allows to consider this particular process of separating materials as highly-productive, low-waste, and advanced method of removing allowances of weld-deposit high-speed steel on the working surfaces of bimetallic tool. Urgency of the use of deposit welding and gas laser cutting to improve the efficiency of production of bimetallic tool is shown. The comparative analysis of gas-laser cutting and other cutting methods is given according to the geometrical parameters of cutting and surface quality. Analysis of the results of experimental studies has confirmed the high technological attractiveness and economic efficiency of manufacturing composite structures of punches and matrices when applying deposit welding of cutting parts with high-speed steels. The cost of dimensional processing of the welded cutting part is reduced by 4 to 6 times, while the manufacturing time is reduced by 6 to 12 times.

  2. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    The cluster theory attributed to Michael Porter has significantly influenced industrial policies in countries across Europe and North America since the beginning of the 1990s. Institutions such as the EU, OECD and the World Bank and governments in countries such as the UK, France, The Netherlands...... or management. Both the Accelerate Wales and the Accelerate Cluster programmes target this issue by trying to establish networks between companies that can be used to supply knowledge from research institutions to manufacturing companies. The paper concludes that public sector interventions can make...... businesses. The universities were not considered by the participating companies to be important parts of the local business environment and inputs from universities did not appear to be an important source to access knowledge about new product development or new techniques in production, distribution...

  3. Regional Innovation Clusters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — The Regional Innovation Clusters serve a diverse group of sectors and geographies. Three of the initial pilot clusters, termed Advanced Defense Technology clusters,...

  4. Cluster analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mucha, Hans-Joachim; Sofyan, Hizir

    2000-01-01

    As an explorative technique, duster analysis provides a description or a reduction in the dimension of the data. It classifies a set of observations into two or more mutually exclusive unknown groups based on combinations of many variables. Its aim is to construct groups in such a way that the profiles of objects in the same groups are relatively homogenous whereas the profiles of objects in different groups are relatively heterogeneous. Clustering is distinct from classification techniques, ...

  5. Pt-based Bi-metallic Monolith Catalysts for Partial Upgrading of Microalgae Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawal, Adeniyi [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States); Manganaro, James [Anasyn LLC, Princeton, NJ (United States); Goodall, Brian [Valicor Renewables LLC, Dexter, MI (United States); Farrauto, Robert [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2015-03-24

    Valicor’s proprietary wet extraction process in conjunction with thermochemical pre-treatment was performed on algal biomass from two different algae strains, Nannochloropsis Salina (N.S.) and Chlorella to produce algae oils. Polar lipids such as phospholipids were hydrolyzed, and metals and metalloids, known catalyst poisons, were separated into the aqueous phase, creating an attractive “pre-refined” oil for hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) upgrading by Stevens. Oil content and oil extraction efficiency of approximately 30 and 90% respectively were achieved. At Stevens, we formulated a Pt-based bi-metallic catalyst which was demonstrated to be effective in the hydro-treating of the algae oils to produce ‘green’ diesel. The bi-metallic catalyst was wash-coated on a monolith, and in conjunction with a high throughput high pressure (pilot plant) reactor system, was used in hydrotreating algae oils from N.S. and Chlorella. Mixtures of these algae oils and refinery light atmospheric gas oil (LAGO) supplied by our petroleum refiner partner, Marathon Petroleum Corporation, were co-processed in the pilot plant reactor system using the Pt-based bi-metallic monolith catalyst. A 26 wt% N.S. algae oil/74 wt % LAGO mixture hydrotreated in the reactor system was subjected to the ASTM D975 Diesel Fuel Specification Test and it met all the important requirements, including a cetane index of 50.5. An elemental oxygen analysis performed by an independent and reputable lab reported an oxygen content of trace to none found. The successful co-processing of a mixture of algae oil and LAGO will enable integration of algae oil as a refinery feedstock which is one of the goals of DOE-BETO. We have presented experimental data that show that our precious metal-based catalysts consume less hydrogen than the conventional hydrotreating catalyst NiMo Precious metal catalysts favor the hydrodecarbonylation/hydrodecarboxylation route of HDO over the dehydration route preferred by base metal

  6. Structure, energetic and phase transition of multi shell icosahedral bimetallic nanostructures: A molecular dynamics study of NimPdn (n + m = 55 and 147)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewage, Jinasena W.

    2015-01-01

    Structure, energetic and thermodynamic properties of multi shell icosahedral bimetallic nickel–palladium nanostructures with the size of 55 and 147 atoms were studied by using the molecular dynamics simulations and the microcanonical ensemble version of multiple histogram method. In 55 atoms icosahedra, two core–shell motifs, Ni 13 Pd 42 and Pd 13 Ni 42 with their isomers Pd 13 (Pd 29 Ni 13 ) and Ni 13 (Ni 29 Pd 13 ) were considered. Similarly in 147 atoms icosahedra, all mutations corresponding to the occupations of either nickel atoms or palladium atoms in the core, inner shell or outer shell and their isomers generated by interchanging thirteen core atoms with thirteen atoms of the other type in the inner and outer shells were considered. It is found that the nickel-core clusters are more stable than the palladium-core clusters and cohesive energy increases with the nickel composition. Phase transition of each cluster was studied by means of constant volume heat capacity. The trend in variation of melting temperature is opposite to the energy trend and special increase in melting points was observed for nickel-core isomers compared to the palladium-core isomers. Helmholtz free energy change with temperature for shell to core interchange of thirteen atoms revealed the thermodynamic stability of the formation of Ni core Pd shell structures and the surface segregation of palladium. - Highlights: • Nanostructures of Ni m Pd n clusters for m + n = 55 and 147 have been studied. • Structures favor the formation of nickel-core surrounded by palladium atoms. • In general, it appears the increase of cohesive energy with the nickel composition. • Calculated thermodynamic parameters confirm the energetic results. • Results show also the palladium segregation on the surface

  7. Facile preparation of dendritic Ag-Pd bimetallic nanostructures on the surface of Cu foil for application as a SERS-substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Zao [College of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Tan Xiulan; Niu Gao [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Xu Xibin [College of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Li Xibo; Ye Xin; Luo Jiangshan; Luo Binchi; Wu Weidong; Tang Yongjian [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Yi Yougen, E-mail: yougenyi@mail.csu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2012-05-01

    Dendritic Ag-Pd bimetallic nanostructures have been synthesized on the surface of Cu foil via a multi-stage galvanic replacement reaction (MGRR) of Ag dendrites in a Na{sub 2}PdCl{sub 4} solution. After five stages of replacement reaction, one obtained structures with protruding Ag-Pd flakes; these will mature into many porous structures with a few Ag atoms that are left over dendrites. The dendritic Ag-Pd bimetallic nanostructures were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The morphology of the products strongly depended on the stage of galvanic replacement reaction and reaction temperature. The morphology and composition-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of the as-synthesized Ag-Pd bimetallic nanostructures were investigated. The effectiveness of these dendritic Ag-Pd bimetallic nanostructures on the surface of Cu foil as substrates toward SERS detection was evaluated by using rhodamine 6G (R6G) as a probe molecule. The results indicate that as-synthesized dendritic Ag-Pd bimetallic nanostructures are good candidates for SERS spectroscopy.

  8. Disorder effect on heat capacity, self-diffusion coefficient, and choosing best potential model for melting temperature, in gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster with 55 atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taherkhani, Farid; Akbarzadeh, Hamed; Feyzi, Mostafa; Rafiee, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation has been implemented for doping effect on melting temperature, heat capacity, self-diffusion coefficient of gold–copper bimetallic nanostructure with 55 total gold and copper atom numbers and its bulk alloy. Trend of melting temperature for gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster is not same as melting temperature copper–gold bulk alloy. Molecular dynamics simulation of our result regarding bulk melting temperature is consistence with available experimental data. Molecular dynamics simulation shows that melting temperature of gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster increases with copper atom fraction. Semi-empirical potential model and quantum Sutton–Chen potential models do not change melting temperature trend with copper doping of gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster. Self-diffusion coefficient of copper atom is greater than gold atom in gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster. Semi-empirical potential within the tight-binding second moment approximation as new application potential model for melting temperature of gold–copper bulk structure shows better result in comparison with EAM, Sutton–Chen potential, and quantum Sutton–Chen potential models

  9. Disorder effect on heat capacity, self-diffusion coefficient, and choosing best potential model for melting temperature, in gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster with 55 atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taherkhani, Farid, E-mail: faridtaherkhani@gmail.com, E-mail: f.taherkhani@razi.ac.ir [Razi University, Department of Physical Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akbarzadeh, Hamed [Hakim Sabzevari University, Department of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Feyzi, Mostafa; Rafiee, Hamid Reza [Razi University, Department of Physical Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Molecular dynamics simulation has been implemented for doping effect on melting temperature, heat capacity, self-diffusion coefficient of gold–copper bimetallic nanostructure with 55 total gold and copper atom numbers and its bulk alloy. Trend of melting temperature for gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster is not same as melting temperature copper–gold bulk alloy. Molecular dynamics simulation of our result regarding bulk melting temperature is consistence with available experimental data. Molecular dynamics simulation shows that melting temperature of gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster increases with copper atom fraction. Semi-empirical potential model and quantum Sutton–Chen potential models do not change melting temperature trend with copper doping of gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster. Self-diffusion coefficient of copper atom is greater than gold atom in gold–copper bimetallic nanocluster. Semi-empirical potential within the tight-binding second moment approximation as new application potential model for melting temperature of gold–copper bulk structure shows better result in comparison with EAM, Sutton–Chen potential, and quantum Sutton–Chen potential models.

  10. Rapid, general synthesis of PdPt bimetallic alloy nanosponges and their enhanced catalytic performance for ethanol/methanol electrooxidation in an alkaline medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengzhou; Guo, Shaojun; Dong, Shaojun

    2013-01-14

    We have demonstrated a rapid and general strategy to synthesize novel three-dimensional PdPt bimetallic alloy nanosponges in the absence of a capping agent. Significantly, the as-prepared PdPt bimetallic alloy nanosponges exhibited greatly enhanced activity and stability towards ethanol/methanol electrooxidation in an alkaline medium, which demonstrates the potential of applying these PdPt bimetallic alloy nanosponges as effective electrocatalysts for direct alcohol fuel cells. In addition, this simple method has also been applied for the synthesis of AuPt, AuPd bimetallic, and AuPtPd trimetallic alloy nanosponges. The as-synthesized three-dimensional bimetallic/trimetallic alloy nanosponges, because of their convenient preparation, well-defined sponge-like network, large-scale production, and high electrocatalytic performance for ethanol/methanol electrooxidation, may find promising potential applications in various fields, such as formic acid oxidation or oxygen reduction reactions, electrochemical sensors, and hydrogen-gas sensors. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Effect of nanoparticle metal composition: mono- and bimetallic gold/copper dendrimer stabilized nanoparticles as solvent-free styrene oxidation catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanckenberg, A.; Kotze, G.; Swarts, A. J.; Malgas-Enus, R.

    2018-02-01

    A range of mono- and bimetallic AumCun nanoparticles (NPs), with varying metal compositions, was prepared by using a third-generation diaminobutane poly(propylene imine) (G3 DAB-PPI) dendrimer, modified with alkyl chains, as a stabilizer. It was found that the length of the peripheral alkyl chain, ( M1 (C15), M2 (C11), and M3 (C5)), had a direct influence on the average nanoparticle size obtained, confirming the importance of the nanoparticle stabilizer during synthesis. The Au NPs showed the highest degree of agglomeration and polydispersity, whereas the Cu NPs were the smallest and most monodisperse of the NPs. The bimetallic NPs sizes were found to vary between those of the monometallic NPs, depending on the metal composition. Interestingly, the bimetallic NPs were found to be the most stable, showing very little variation in size over time, even up to 9 months. The DSNs were evaluated in the catalytic oxidation of styrene, using either H2O2 or TBHP as oxidant. Here, we show that the bimetallic DSNs are indeed the superior catalysts when compared to their monometallic analogues, under the same reaction conditions, since a good compromise between stability and activity can be achieved where the Au provides catalytic activity and the Cu serves as a stabilizer. These AumCun bimetallic DSNs present a less expensive and more stable catalyst with negligible loss of activity, opening the door to green catalysis.

  12. Structural, electronic and adsorption properties of Rh(111)/Mo(110) bimetallic catalyst: A DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palotás, K., E-mail: palotas@phy.bme.hu [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Theoretical Physics, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, Department of Complex Physical Systems, Center for Computational Materials Science, SK-84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Bakó, I. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Research Center for Natural Sciences, Institute of Organic Chemistry, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); Bugyi, L. [MTA-SZTE, Reaction Kinetics and Surface Chemistry Research Group, Rerrich B. Sqr. 1, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • 1 ML of Rh on Mo(110) forms a wavy structure propagating along the [001] direction. • Strain & ligand effects in the Rh film cause a downward shift of the d-band center. • CO adsorption energies are decreased by about 35% compared to pure Rh(111). • Depending on adsorption site, 0.28–0.46 e is transferred to adsorbed CO from Rh film. • CO adsorption generates 0.15–0.22 e transfer from Rh film to Mo in the unit cell. - Abstract: Geometric and electronic characterizations of one monolayer rhodium with Nishiyama-Wassermann (NW) structure on Mo(110) substrate have been performed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In the NW structure the Rh atoms form a wavy structure propagating along the [001] direction, characterized by an amplitude of 0.26 Å in the [110] direction and by 0.10 Å in the [110] direction of the Mo(110) substrate. Strain and ligand effects operating in the rhodium film are distinguished and found to be manifested in the downward shift of the d-band center of the electron density of states (DOS) by 0.11 eV and 0.18 eV, respectively. The shift in the d-band center of Rh DOS predicts a decrease in the surface reactivity toward CO adsorption, which has been verified by detailed calculations of bond energies of CO located at on-top, bridge and hollow adsorption sites. The CO adsorption energies are decreased by about 35% compared to those reported for pure Rh(111), offering novel catalytic pathways for the molecule. An in-depth analysis of the charge transfer and the partial DOS characters upon CO adsorption on the NW-structured Rh(111)/Mo(110) bimetallic catalyst and on the pure Rh(111) surface sheds light on the bonding mechanism of CO and on the governing factors determining its lowered bond energy on the bimetallic surface.

  13. Bimetallic strip for low temperature use. [4-300/sup 0/K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussiee, J.F.; Welch, D.O.; Suenaga, M.

    A class of mechanically pre-stressed structures is provided suitably bi-layer strips, consisting of a layer of group 5 transition metals in intimate contact with a layer of an intermetallic compound of transition metals with certain group 3A, 4A or 5A metals or metalloids such as Ga, In, Si, Ge, Sn, As or Sb. The changes of Young's modulus of these bi-layered combinations at temperatures in the region of somewhat above absolute zero provides a useful means of sensing temperature changes. Such bi-metallic strips may be used as control strips in thermostats, or in direct dial reading instruments. The structures are made by preparing a sandwich of a group 5B transition metal strip between the substantially thicker strips of an alloy between copper and a predetermined group 3A, 4A or 5A metal or metalloid, holding the three layers are heated, cooled the copper alloys and is removed. Removing one of the two formed interlayer alloys between the transition metal and the metal previously alloyed with copper remain.

  14. Porous bimetallic PdNi catalyst with high electrocatalytic activity for ethanol electrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yue; Bin, Duan; Yan, Bo; Du, Yukou; Majima, Tetsuro; Zhou, Weiqiang

    2017-05-01

    Porous bimetallic PdNi catalysts were fabricated by a novel method, namely, reduction of Pd and Ni oxides prepared via calcining the complex chelate of PdNi-dimethylglyoxime (PdNi-dmg). The morphology and composition of the as-prepared PdNi were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Furthermore, the electrochemical properties of PdNi catalysts towards ethanol electrooxidation were also studied by electrochemical impedance spectrometry (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) measurement. In comparison with porous Pd and commercial Pd/C catalysts, porous structural PdNi catalysts showed higher electrocatalytic activity and durability for ethanol electrooxidation, which may be ascribed to Pd and Ni property, large electroactive surface area and high electron transfer property. The Ni exist in the catalyst in the form of the nickel hydroxides (Ni(OH) 2 and NiOOH) which have a high electron and proton conductivity enhances the catalytic activity of the catalysts. All results highlight the great potential application of the calcination-reduction method for synthesizing high active porous PdNi catalysts in direct ethanol fuel cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A resolution study for electrostatic force microscopy on bimetallic samples using the boundary element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yongxing; Lee, Minhwan; Lee, Wonyoung; Barnett, David M; Pinsky, Peter M; Prinz, Friedrich B

    2008-01-01

    Electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) is a special design of non-contact atomic force microscopy used for detecting electrostatic interactions between the probe tip and the sample. Its resolution is limited by the finite probe size and the long-range characteristics of electrostatic forces. Therefore, quantitative analysis is crucial to understanding the relationship between the actual local surface potential distribution and the quantities obtained from EFM measurements. To study EFM measurements on bimetallic samples with surface potential inhomogeneities as a special case, we have simulated such measurements using the boundary element method and calculated the force component and force gradient component that would be measured by amplitude modulation (AM) EFM and frequency modulation (FM) EFM, respectively. Such analyses have been performed for inhomogeneities of various shapes and sizes, for different tip-sample separations and tip geometries, for different applied voltages, and for different media (e.g., vacuum or water) in which the experiment is performed. For a sample with a surface potential discontinuity, the FM-EFM resolution expression agrees with the literature; however, the simulation for AM-EFM suggests the existence of an optimal tip radius of curvature in terms of resolution. On the other hand, for samples with strip- and disk-shaped surface potential inhomogeneities, we have obtained quantitative expressions for the detectability size requirements as a function of experimental conditions for both AM- and FM-EFMs, which suggest that a larger tip radius of curvature is moderately favored for detecting the presence of such inhomogeneities

  16. Heterogeneous Bimetallic Phosphide/Sulfide Nanocomposite for Efficient Solar-Energy-Driven Overall Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yanmei; Kan, Xiang; Gan, Li-Yong; Zhang, Zhonghai

    2017-10-24

    Solar-driven overall water splitting is highly desirable for hydrogen generation with sustainable energy sources, which need efficient, earth-abundant, robust, and bifunctional electrocatalysts for both oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Herein, we propose a heterogeneous bimetallic phosphide/sulfide nanocomposite electrocatalyst of NiFeSP on nickel foam (NiFeSP/NF), which shows superior electrocatalytic activity of low overpotentials of 91 mV at -10 mA cm -2 for HER and of 240 mV at 50 mA cm -2 for OER in 1 M KOH solution. In addition, the NiFeSP/NF presents excellent overall water splitting performance with a cell voltage as low as 1.58 V at a current density of 10 mA cm -2 . Combining with a photovoltaic device of a Si solar cell or integrating into photoelectrochemical (PEC) systems, the bifunctional NiFeSP/NF electrocatalyst implements unassisted solar-driven water splitting with a solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of ∼9.2% and significantly enhanced PEC performance, respectively.

  17. Pt-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles on MWCNTs: catalyst for hydrogen peroxide electrosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix-Navarro, R. M., E-mail: moi6salazar@hotmail.com; Beltran-Gastelum, M.; Salazar-Gastelum, M. I.; Silva-Carrillo, C.; Reynoso-Soto, E. A.; Perez-Sicairos, S.; Lin, S. W. [Centro de Graduados e Investigacion, Instituto Tecnologico de Tijuana (Mexico); Paraguay-Delgado, F. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (Mexico); Alonso-Nunez, G. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia (Mexico)

    2013-08-15

    Bimetallic nanoparticles of Pt-Pd were deposited by the microemulsion method on a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) to obtain a Pt-Pd/MWCNTs for electrocatalytic reduction of O{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The activity and selectivity of the catalyst was determined qualitatively by the rotating disk electrode method in acidic medium. The catalyst was spray-coated onto a reticulated vitreous carbon substrate and quantitatively was tested in bulk electrolysis for 20 min under potentiostatic conditions (0.5 V vs Ag/AgCl) in a 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte using dissolved O{sub 2}. The bulk electrolysis experiments show that the Pt-Pd/MWCNTs catalyst is more efficient for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} electrogeneration than a MWCNTs catalyst. Nitrobenzene degradation by electrogenerated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} alone and Electro-Fenton process were also tested. Our results show that both processes decompose nitrobenzene, but the Electro-Fenton process does it more efficiently. The prepared nanoparticulated catalyst shows a great potential in environmental applications.

  18. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in bimetallic nanostructure-enhanced methylammonium lead bromide perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarick, Holly F; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Puretzky, Alexander A; Talbert, Eric M; DeBra, Zachary R; Soetan, Naiya; Geohegan, David B; Bardhan, Rizia

    2017-01-26

    In this work, we examine the impact of hybrid bimetallic Au/Ag core/shell nanostructures on the carrier dynamics of methylammonium lead tribromide (MAPbBr 3 ) mesoporous perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Plasmon-enhanced PSCs incorporated with Au/Ag nanostructures demonstrated improved light harvesting and increased power conversion efficiency by 26% relative to reference devices. Two complementary spectral techniques, transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS) and time-resolved photoluminescence (trPL), were employed to gain a mechanistic understanding of plasmonic enhancement processes. TAS revealed a decrease in the photobleach formation time, which suggests that the nanostructures improve hot carrier thermalization to an equilibrium distribution, relieving hot phonon bottleneck in MAPbBr 3 perovskites. TAS also showed a decrease in carrier decay lifetimes, indicating that nanostructures enhance photoinduced carrier generation and promote efficient electron injection into TiO 2 prior to bulk recombination. Furthermore, nanostructure-incorporated perovskite films demonstrated quenching in steady-state PL and decreases in trPL carrier lifetimes, providing further evidence of improved carrier injection in plasmon-enhanced mesoporous PSCs.

  19. Plasmon enhanced water splitting mediated by hybrid bimetallic Au-Ag core-shell nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, William R; Coppola, Andrew; Zarick, Holly F; Arora, Poorva; Miller, Kevin J; Bardhan, Rizia

    2014-11-07

    In this work, we employed wet chemically synthesized bimetallic Au-Ag core-shell nanostructures (Au-AgNSs) to enhance the photocurrent density of mesoporous TiO2 for water splitting and we compared the results with monometallic Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). While Au-AgNSs incorporated photoanodes give rise to 14× enhancement in incident photon to charge carrier efficiency, AuNPs embedded photoanodes result in 6× enhancement. By varying nanoparticle concentration in the photoanodes, we observed ∼245× less Au-AgNSs are required relative to AuNPs to generate similar photocurrent enhancement for solar fuel conversion. Power-dependent measurements of Au-AgNSs and AuNPs showed a first order dependence to incident light intensity, relative to half-order dependence for TiO2 only photoanodes. This indicated that plasmonic nanostructures enhance charge carriers formed on the surface of the TiO2 which effectively participate in photochemical reactions. Our experiments and simulations suggest the enhanced near-field, far-field, and multipolar resonances of Au-AgNSs facilitating broadband absorption of solar radiation collectively gives rise to their superior performance in water splitting.

  20. Design of Pd-Based Bimetallic Catalysts for ORR: A DFT Calculation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Ou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing Pd-lean catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR is the key for large-scale application of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs. In the present paper, we have proposed a multiple-descriptor strategy for designing efficient and durable ORR Pd-based alloy catalysts. We demonstrated that an ideal Pd-based bimetallic alloy catalyst for ORR should possess simultaneously negative alloy formation energy, negative surface segregation energy of Pd, and a lower oxygen binding ability than pure Pt. By performing detailed DFT calculations on the thermodynamics, surface chemistry and electronic properties of Pd-M alloys, Pd-V, Pd-Fe, Pd-Zn, Pd-Nb, and Pd-Ta, are identified theoretically to have stable Pd segregated surface and improved ORR activity. Factors affecting these properties are analyzed. The alloy formation energy of Pd with transition metals M can be mainly determined by their electron interaction. This may be the origin of the negative alloy formation energy for Pd-M alloys. The surface segregation energy of Pd is primarily determined by the surface energy and the atomic radius of M. The metals M which have smaller atomic radius and higher surface energy would tend to favor the surface segregation of Pd in corresponding Pd-M alloys.

  1. Magnetic bimetallic nanoparticles supported reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite: Fabrication, characterization and catalytic capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lei; Wu, Tao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Xia, Fengling; Na, Heya [School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Yu, E-mail: liuyuls@163.com [School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Qiu, Haixia [School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang, Wei [School of Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Gao, Jianping, E-mail: jianpinggao2012@126.com [School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Ni and Ag nanoparticles loaded on RGO (Ni–Ag@RGO) were fabricated in a one-pot reaction. • The Ni–Ag@RGO were excellent catalysts for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. • The Ni–Ag@RGO showed superior catalytic activity for photodegradation of methyl orange. • The Ni–Ag@RGO exhibit good reusability in a magnetic field. - Abstract: A facile method for preparing Ni–Ag bimetallic nanoparticles supported on reduced graphene oxide (Ni–Ag@RGO hybrid) has been established. Hydrazine hydrate was used as the reducing agent to reduce the graphene oxide, Ni{sup 2+} and Ag{sup +} to form Ni–Ag@RGO hybrid. The prepared hybrid was further characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Interestingly, the prepared material shown good magnetic properties, which were determined by vibrating sample magnetometer. In addition, the Ni–Ag@RGO hybrid exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and the photodegradation of methyl orange. The catalytic process was monitored by determining the change in the concentration of the reactants with time using ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy. After completion of the reaction, the catalyst can be separated from the reaction system simply under a magnet field and shows good recyclability.

  2. Nitrogen-Doped Ordered Mesoporous Carbon Supported Bimetallic PtCo Nanoparticles for Upgrading of Biophenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Hui; Cao, Zhengwen; Gu, Dong; Pfänder, Norbert; Swertz, Ann-Christin; Spliethoff, Bernd; Bongard, Hans-Josef; Weidenthaler, Claudia; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Rinaldi, Roberto; Schüth, Ferdi

    2016-07-25

    Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) is an attractive route for the upgrading of bio-oils produced from lignocellulose. Current catalysts require harsh conditions to effect HDO, decreasing the process efficiency in terms of energy and carbon balance. Herein we report a novel and facile method for synthesizing bimetallic PtCo nanoparticle catalysts (ca. 1.5 nm) highly dispersed in the framework of nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (NOMC) for this reaction. We demonstrate that NOMC with either 2D hexagonal (p6m) or 3D cubic (Im3‾ m) structure can be easily synthesized by simply adjusting the polymerization temperature. We also demonstrate that PtCo/NOMC (metal loading: Pt 9.90 wt %; Co 3.31 wt %) is a highly effective catalyst for HDO of phenolic compounds and "real-world" biomass-derived phenolic streams. In the presence of PtCo/NOMC, full deoxygenation of phenolic compounds and a biomass-derived phenolic stream is achieved under conditions of low severity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Enhanced and tunable optical quantum efficiencies from plasmon bandwidth engineering in bimetallic CoAg nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Malasi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic nanoparticles are amongst the most effective ways to resonantly couple optical energy into and out of nanometer sized volumes. However, controlling and/or tuning the transfer of this incident energy to the surrounding near and far field is one of the most interesting challenges in this area. Due to the dielectric properties of metallic silver (Ag, its nanoparticles have amongst the highest radiative quantum efficiencies (η, i.e., the ability to radiatively transfer the incident energy to the surrounding. Here we report the discovery that bimetallic nanoparticles of Ag made with immiscible and plasmonically weak Co metal can show comparable and/or even higher η values. The enhancement is a result of the narrowing of the plasmon bandwidth from these bimetal systems. The phenomenological explanation of this effect based on the dipolar approximation points to the reduction in radiative losses within the Ag nanoparticles when in contact with cobalt. This is also supported by a model of coupling between poor and good conductors based on the surface to volume ratio. This study presents a new type of bandwidth engineering, one based on using bimetal nanostructures, to tune and/or enhance the quality factor and quantum efficiency for near and far-field plasmonic applications.

  4. Selective Hydrodeoxygenation of Alkyl Lactates to Alkyl Propionates with Fe-based Bimetallic Supported Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokarale, Santosh Govind; He, Jian; Schill, Leonhard; Yang, Song; Riisager, Anders; Saravanamurugan, Shunmugavel

    2018-02-22

    Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of methyl lactate (ML) to methyl propionate (MP) was performed with various base-metal supported catalysts. A high yield of 77 % MP was obtained with bimetallic Fe-Ni/ZrO 2 in methanol at 220 °C and 50 bar H 2 . A synergistic effect of Ni increased the yield of MP significantly when using Fe-Ni/ZrO 2 instead of Fe/ZrO 2 alone. Moreover, the ZrO 2 support contributed to improve the yield as a phase transition of ZrO 2 from tetragonal to monoclinic occurred after metal doping giving rise to fine dispersion of the Fe and Ni on the ZrO 2 , resulting in a higher catalytic activity of the material. Interestingly, it was observed that Fe-Ni/ZrO 2 also effectively catalyzed methanol reforming to produce H 2 in situ, followed by HDO of ML, yielding 60 % MP at 220 °C with 50 bar N 2 instead of H 2 . Fe-Ni/ZrO 2 also catalyzed HDO of other short-chain alkyl lactates to the corresponding alkyl propionates in high yields around 70 %. No loss of activity of Fe-Ni/ZrO 2 occurred in five consecutive reaction runs demonstrating the high durability of the catalyst system. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The study of magnetic properties and relaxation processes in Co/Au bimetallic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrubovčák, Pavol [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, P.J. Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, Košice (Slovakia); Zeleňáková, Adriana, E-mail: adriana.zelenakova@upjs.sk [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, P.J. Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, Košice (Slovakia); Zeleňák, Vladimir [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, P.J. Šafárik University, Moyzesova 11, Košice (Slovakia); Kováč, Jozef [Institute of Experimental Physics, SAS, Watsonova 41, Košice (Slovakia)

    2015-11-15

    Co/Au bimetallic fine nanoparticles were prepared employing the method of microemulsion using reverse micelle as nanoreactor, controlling the particles size. Magnetic and structural properties of two different samples Co/Au1 and Co/Au2 with almost comparable size of Co core and different size of Au layer were studied. The investigation of magnetic relaxation processes present in the particles was carried out by means of ac and dc magnetization data obtained at different temperatures and magnitudes of magnetic field. We observed the existence of superspin glass state characterized by the strong inter-particle interactions in the nanoparticle systems. In this paper, we discuss the attributes of novel superspin glass magnetic state reflected on various features (saturated FC magnetization at low temperatures, shift of the Cole–Cole arc downwards) and calculated parameters (relaxation time, critical exponent zv ∼ 10 and frequency dependent criterion p < 0.05). Comparison of the magnetic properties of two studied samples show that the thickness of diamagnetic Au shell significantly influences the magnetic interactions and change the relaxation dynamics. - Highlights: • Co/Au fine nanoparticles prepared by reverse micelle as nanoreactor, controlling the size. • Existence of superspin glass state confirmed from ac magnetic susceptibility study. • Individual particles exhibit the collective behavior below glass temperature T{sub SSG}. • Influence of diamagnetic shell on the magnetic properties of core–shell nanoparticles.

  6. Reductive dechlorination of {gamma}-hexachlorocyclohexane using Fe-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, Varima; Bokare, Alok D. [Center for Nanobioscience, Agharkar Research Institute, G.G. Agarkar Road, Pune 411004, Maharashtra (India); Chikate, Rajeev C. [Department of Chemistry, MES Abasaheb Garware College, Karve Road, Pune 411004 (India); Rode, Chandrashekhar V. [Chemical Engineering and Process Development Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Paknikar, Kishore M., E-mail: paknikar@vsnl.com [Center for Nanobioscience, Agharkar Research Institute, G.G. Agarkar Road, Pune 411004, Maharashtra (India)

    2010-03-15

    Nanoscale Fe-Pd bimetallic particles were synthesized and used for degradation of lindane ({gamma}-hexachlorocyclohexane) in aqueous solution. Batch studies showed that 5 mg/L of lindane was completely dechlorinated within 5 min at a catalyst loading of 0.5 g/L and the degradation process followed first-order kinetics. GC-MS analysis in corroboration with GC-ECD results showed the presence of cyclohexane as the final degradation product. The proposed mechanism for the reductive dechlorination of lindane involves Fe corrosion-induced hydrogen atom transfer from the Pd surface. The enhanced degradation efficiency of Fe-Pd nanoparticles is attributed to: (1) high specific surface area of the nanoscale metal particles (60 m{sup 2}/g), manyfold greater that of commercial grade micro- or milli-scale iron particles ({approx}1.6 m{sup 2}/g); and, (2) increased catalytic reactivity due to the presence of Pd on the surface. Recycling and column studies showed that these nanoparticles exhibit efficient and sustained catalytic activity.

  7. Directed self-assembly of nanoporous metallic- and bimetallic nanoparticle thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietsch, Torsten [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Konstanz (Germany); Gindy, Nabil; Fahmi, Amir [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Nanoporous thin films attracted considerable interest due to potential applications in optical coatings, catalysis, sensors as well as electronic devices. Recently, such films were prepared by post deposition treatments. The present study is focused on the fabrication of nanoporous thin films via directed self-assembly of hybrid materials. Due to the nature of this process no additional treatments are necessary to develop the pores. Hierarchical nanoporous structures are fabricated directly via deposition of polymer templated Au-nanoparticles onto hydrophilic substrates. These films exhibit two different pore diameters and a total pore density of more than 10{sup 10} holes per cm{sup 2}. Control over the pore size is achieved by changing the molecular weight of the PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymer. Moreover, the porous morphology is used as a template to fabricate bimetallic nanostructured thin films. Such well-defined nanostructures, not only exhibit unique physical properties but also provide control over the hydrophobicity of the coated surfaces.

  8. Novel building units with bimetallic rings in inorganic/organic hybrid chains and layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahenthirarajah, Thushitha; Li Yang; Lightfoot, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Hydrothermal synthesis has produced three new compounds constructed from novel building units containing vanadium-oxide (or oxyfluoride) subunits linked together via covalently bound cationic copper complexes. Each new compound exhibits novel structural features: [Cu(dipa)][VOF 4 ] (1) incorporates a corner-sharing octahedral vanadium(IV) oxyfluoride chain decorated by copper-(2,2'-dipyridyl amine) complexes which form intra-chain bridges. Within a similar reactant system [Cu(dipa)] 2 [V 6 O 17 ] (2) is produced, the structure of which exhibits edge-sharing trigonal bipyramidal vanadium(V) 'ladder-like' double chains which are bridged into layers by tetrahedral pyrovanadate dimers together with the copper-(2,2'-dipyridyl amine) complexes. [Cu(py) 4 ] 2 [V 4 O 12 ] (3), is a 2-D structure featuring exclusively tetrahedral vanadium(V) in four-membered ring building blocks, linked through octahedral copper-pyridine complexes to form two crystallographically different bimetallic layers. - Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal synthesis is used to prepare hybrid mixed metal oxides and oxyfluorides with novel extended connectivities

  9. Fatique crack propagation in bimetallic welds influence of residual stresses and metallurgical look

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahouane, A.I.

    1988-06-01

    Generally, in nuclear power plants, many components made of austenitic stainless steels are very often replaced by low alloyed steels cladded with stainless steels, mainly for economical reasons. Due to cracks existing at the limit of the two kinds of steel, it is interesting to try to understand how they appear. Residual stresses are generally identified as one of the factors which act to produce these cracks. Measurements of such residual stresses have been performed, using the hole drilling method (drilling of a hole at the center of a gauge roset stuck at the surface of the material). Owing to the obtained results, it is possible to explain the decrease in the crack propagation rate observed, on fatigue crack growth test performed on specimens taken in the transition ferritic/austenitic zone. The stress intensity factor due to the residual stresses is valued by weight function method. It is possible to explain qualitatively the phenomena observed under cyclic loading when using the obtained value of this stress intensity factor. A more quantitative approach based on the use of an efficient stress intensity factor, allow to better describe the effect of residual stresses on the fatigue crack propagation in bimetallic welds [fr

  10. Bimetallic poly- and oligo-nuclear complexes based on a rhodium(III) metalloligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilchenko, Danila B.; Venediktov, Anatoliy B.; Korenev, Sergey V.; Filatov, Evgeniy Yu.; Baidina, Iraida A.; Nadolinnyi, Vladimir A.

    2012-10-01

    Interaction of trans-[Rh(i-Nic)4Cl2]3- anions (i-Nic- - isonicotinate anion) with Cuaq2+ and Coaq2+ cations in water has afforded complex salts Co3[Rh(i-Nic)4Cl2]2·17H2O (1) and Cu3[Rh(i-Nic)4Cl2]2·14H2O (2). Oligonuclear character of 1 and 2 has been established. A coordination polymer Cu5[Rh(i-Nic)4Cl2]2(i-Nic)2(OH)2·2H2O (3) has been crystallized by hydrothermal treatment of 2 at 160 °C, and its structure was determined by X-ray structural analysis. EPR data for the complexes has been collected and interpreted. Thermal decomposition of the salts was studied by c-DTA. Bimetallic alloys rhodium-copper and rhodium-cobalt have been obtained as final products of thermal decomposition.

  11. Chemical composition dispersion in bi-metallic nanoparticles: semi-automated analysis using HAADF-STEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epicier, T.; Sato, K.; Tournus, F.; Konno, T.

    2012-01-01

    We present a method using high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) to determine the chemical composition of bi-metallic nanoparticles. This method, which can be applied in a semi-automated way, allows large scale analysis with a statistical number of particles (several hundreds) in a short time. Once a calibration curve has been obtained, e.g., using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements on a few particles, the HAADF integrated intensity of each particle can indeed be directly related to its chemical composition. After a theoretical description, this approach is applied to the case of iron–palladium nanoparticles (expected to be nearly stoichiometric) with a mean size of 8.3 nm. It will be shown that an accurate chemical composition histogram is obtained, i.e., the Fe content has been determined to be 49.0 at.% with a dispersion of 10.4 %. HAADF-STEM analysis represents a powerful alternative to fastidious single particle EDX measurements, for the compositional dispersion in alloy nanoparticles.

  12. thesis of high-purity carbon nanotubes over alumina and silica supported bimetallic catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Ratković

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs were synthesized by a catalytic chemical vapor deposition method (CCVD of ethylene over alumina and silica supported bimetallic catalysts based on Fe, Co and Ni. The catalysts were prepared by a precipitation method, calcined at 600 °C and in situ reduced in hydrogen flow at 700 °C. The CNTs growth was carried out by a flow the mixture of C2H4 and nitrogen over the catalyst powder in a horizontal oven. The structure and morphology of as-synthesized CNTs were characterized using SEM. The as-synthesized nanotubes were purified by acid and basic treatments in order to remove impurities such as amorphous carbon, graphite nanoparticles and metal catalysts. XRD and DTA/TG analyses showed that the amounts of by-products in the purified CNTs samples were reduced significantly. According to the observed results, ethylene is an active carbon source for growing high-density CNTs with high yield but more on alumina-supported catalysts than on their silica- supported counterparts. The last might be explained by SMSI formed in the case of alumina-supported catalysts, resulting in higher active phase dispersion.

  13. A bimetallic nanocomposite modified genosensor for recognition and determination of thalassemia gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi-Asl, Ezat; Raoof, Jahan Bakhsh; Naghizadeh, Nahid; Akhavan-Niaki, Haleh; Ojani, Reza; Banihashemi, Ali

    2016-10-01

    The main roles of DNA in the cells are to maintain and properly express genetic information. It is important to have analytical methods capable of fast and sensitive detection of DNA damage. DNA hybridization sensors are well suited for diagnostics and other purposes, including determination of bacteria and viruses. Beta thalassemias (βth) are due to mutations in the β-globin gene. In this study, an electrochemical biosensor which detects the sequences related to the β-globin gene issued from real samples amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is described for the first time. The biosensor relies on the immobilization of 20-mer single stranded oligonucleotide (probe) related to βth sequence on the carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified by 15% silver (Ag) and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles to prepare the bimetallic nanocomposite electrode and hybridization of this oligonucleotide with its complementary sequence (target). The extent of hybridization between the probe and target sequences was shown by using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) with methylene blue (MB) as hybridization indicator. The selectivity of sensor was investigated using PCR samples containing non-complementary oligonucleotides. The detection limit of biosensor was calculated about 470.0pg/μL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A DFT study of the stability of SIAs and small SIA clusters in the vicinity of solute atoms in Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becquart, C. S.; Ngayam Happy, R.; Olsson, P.; Domain, C.

    2018-03-01

    The energetics, defect volume and magnetic properties of single SIAs and small SIA clusters up to size 6 have been calculated by DFT for different configurations like the parallel 〈110〉 dumbbell, the non parallel 〈110〉 dumbbell and the C15 structure. The most stable configurations of each type have been further analyzed to determine the influence on their stability of various solute atoms (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, W, Pd, Al, Si, P), relevant for steels used under irradiation. The results show that the presence of solute atoms does not change the relative stability order among SIA clusters. The small SIA clusters investigated can bind to both undersized and oversized solutes. Several descriptors have been considered to derive interesting trends from results. It appears that the local atomic volume available for the solute is the main physical quantity governing the binding energy evolution, whatever the solute type (undersized or oversized) and the cluster configuration (size and type).

  15. Direct synthesis of bimetallic PtCo mesoporous nanospheres as efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts for both oxygen reduction reaction and methanol oxidation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongjing; Yu, Hongjie; Li, Yinghao; Yin, Shuli; Xue, Hairong; Li, Xiaonian; Xu, You; Wang, Liang

    2018-04-01

    The engineering of electrocatalysts with high performance for cathodic and/or anodic catalytic reactions is of great urgency for the development of direct methanol fuel cells. Pt-based bimetallic alloys have recently received considerable attention in the field of fuel cells because of their superior catalytic performance towards both fuel molecule electro-oxidation and oxygen reduction. In this work, bimetallic PtCo mesoporous nanospheres (PtCo MNs) with uniform size and morphology have been prepared by a one-step method with a high yield. The as-made PtCo MNs show superior catalytic activities for both oxygen reduction reaction and methanol oxidation reaction relative to Pt MNs and commercial Pt/C catalyst, attributed to their mesoporous structure and bimetallic composition.

  16. Nuclear clustering - a cluster core model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul Selvi, G.; Nandhini, N.; Balasubramaniam, M.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear clustering, similar to other clustering phenomenon in nature is a much warranted study, since it would help us in understanding the nature of binding of the nucleons inside the nucleus, closed shell behaviour when the system is highly deformed, dynamics and structure at extremes. Several models account for the clustering phenomenon of nuclei. We present in this work, a cluster core model study of nuclear clustering in light mass nuclei

  17. First-principles study of mixed eldfellite compounds Nax(Fe1/2M1/2) (SO4)2 (x=0-2, M = Mn, Co, Ni): A new family of high electrode potential cathodes for the sodium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ri, Gum-Chol; Choe, Song-Hyok; Yu, Chol-Jun

    2018-02-01

    Natural abundance of sodium and its similar behavior to lithium triggered recent extensive studies of cost-effective sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) for large-scale energy storage systems. A challenge is to develop electrode materials with a high electrode potential, specific capacity and a good rate capability. In this work we propose mixed eldfellite compounds Nax(Fe1/2M1/2) (SO4)2 (x = 0-2, M = Mn, Co, Ni) as a new family of high electrode potential cathodes of SIBs and present their material properties predicted by first-principles calculations. The structural optimizations show that these materials have significantly small volume expansion rates below 5% upon Na insertion/desertion with negative Na binding energies. Through the electronic structure calculations, we find band insulating properties and hole (and/or electron) polaron hoping as a possible mechanism for the charge transfer. Especially we confirm the high electrode voltages over 4 V with reasonably high specific capacities. We also investigate the sodium ion mobility by estimating plausible diffusion pathways and calculating the corresponding activation barriers, demonstrating the reasonably fast migrations of sodium ions during the operation. Our calculation results indicate that these mixed eldfellite compounds can be suitable materials for high performance SIB cathodes.

  18. Remediation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil using Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles: Influencing factors, kinetics and mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yingying; Fang, Zhanqiang; Cheng, Wen; Tsang, Pokeung Eric; Zhao, Dongye

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are commonly used as additive flame retardants in all kinds of electronic products. PBDEs are now ubiquitous in the environment, with soil as a major sink, especially in e-waste recycling sites. This study investigated the degradation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) in a spiked soil using Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles. The results indicated that Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles are able to degrade BDE209 in soil at ambient temperature and the removal efficiency can reach 72% when an initial pH of 5.6 and at a Ni/Fe dosage of 0.03 g/g. A declining trend in degradation was noticed with decreasing Ni loading and increasing of initial BDE209 concentration. The degradation products of BDE209 were analyzed by GC-MS, which showed that the degradation of BDE209 was a process of stepwise debromination from nBr to (n − 1)Br. And a possible debromination pathway was proposed. At last, the degradation process was analyzed as two-step mechanism, mass transfer and reaction. This current study shows the potential ability of Ni/Fe nanoparticles to be used for removal of PBDEs in contaminated soil. - Highlights: • Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles could effectively degradate BDE209 in soil. • The effects of various factors on remediation of BDE209 in soil using Ni/Fe were considered. • The degradation of BDE209 was a process of stepwise debromination from nBr to (n − 1)Br. • A possible debromination pathway and mechanism about removal of BDE209 in soil were proposed

  19. Alloy formation and chemisorption at Zn/Pt(111) bimetallic surfaces using alkali ISS, XPD, and TPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chih-Sung; Martono, Eddie; Banerjee, Santanu; Roszell, John; Vohs, John; Koel, Bruce E

    2013-11-21

    Alloy formation and chemisorption at bimetallic surfaces formed by vapor-depositing Zn on a Pt(111) single crystal were investigated primarily by using X-ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low-energy alkali ion scattering spectroscopy (ALISS), low electron energy diffraction (LEED), and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). A wide range of conditions were investigated to explore whether deposition and annealing of Zn films could produce well-defined, ordered alloy surfaces, similar to those encountered for Sn/Pt(111) surface alloys. These attempts were unsuccessful, although weak, diffuse (2 × 2) spots were observed under special conditions. The particular PtZn bimetallic alloy created by annealing one monolayer of Zn on Pt(111) at 600 K, which has a Zn composition in the surface layer of about 5 at. %, was investigated in detail by using XPD and ALISS. Only a diffuse (1 × 1) pattern was observed from this surface by LEED, suggesting that no long-range, ordered alloy structure was formed. Zn atoms were substitutionally incorporated into the Pt(111) crystal to form a near-surface alloy in which Zn atoms were found to reside primarily in the topmost and second layers. The alloyed Zn atoms in the topmost layer are coplanar with the Pt atoms in the surface layer, without any "buckling" of Zn, that is, displacement in the vertical direction. This result is expected because of the similar size of Pt and Zn, based on previous studies of bimetallic Pt alloys. Zn atoms desorb upon heating rather than diffusing deep into the bulk of the Pt crystal. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) measurements show that both CO and NO have lower desorption energies on the PtZn alloy surface compared to that on the clean Pt(111) surface.

  20. A bimetallic nanocoral Au decorated with Pt nanoflowers (bio)sensor for H2O2 detection at low potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzò, Gabriella; Taurino, Irene; Puppo, Francesca; Antiochia, Riccarda; Gorton, Lo; Favero, Gabriele; Mazzei, Franco; Carrara, Sandro; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we have developed for the first time a method to make novel gold and platinum hybrid bimetallic nanostructures differing in shape and size. Au-Pt nanostructures were prepared by electrodeposition in two simple steps. The first step consists of the electrodeposition of nanocoral Au onto a gold substrate using hydrogen as a dynamic template in an ammonium chloride solution. After that, the Pt nanostructures were deposited onto the nanocoral Au organized in pores. Using Pt (II) and Pt (IV), we realized nanocoral Au decorated with Pt nanospheres and nanocoral Au decorated with Pt nanoflowers, respectively. The bimetallic nanostructures showed better capability to electrochemically oxidize hydrogen peroxide compared with nanocoral Au. Moreover, Au-Pt nanostructures were able to lower the potential of detection and a higher performance was obtained at a low applied potential. Then, glucose oxidase was immobilized onto the bimetallic Au-Pt nanostructure using cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The biosensor was characterized by chronoamperometry at +0.15V vs. Ag pseudo-reference electrode (PRE) and showed good analytical performances with a linear range from 0.01 to 2.00mM and a sensitivity of 33.66µA/mMcm 2 . The good value of K m app (2.28mM) demonstrates that the hybrid nanostructure is a favorable environment for the enzyme. Moreover, the low working potential can minimize the interference from ascorbic acid and uric acid as well as reducing power consumption to effect sensing. The simple procedure to realize this nanostructure and to immobilize enzymes, as well as the analytical performances of the resulting devices, encourage the use of this technology for the development of biosensors for clinical analysis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The use of mechanical alloying for the preparation of palladized magnesium bimetallic particles for the remediation of PCBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L; Devor, Robert W; Aitken, Brian; Hampton, Michael D; Quinn, Jacqueline W; Clausen, Christian A; Geiger, Cherie L

    2011-09-15

    The kinetic rate of dechlorination of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB-151) by mechanically alloyed Mg/Pd was studied for optimization of the bimetallic system. Bimetal production was first carried out in a small-scale environment using a SPEX 8000M high-energy ball mill with 4-μm-magnesium and palladium impregnated on graphite, with optimized parameters including milling time and Pd-loading. A 5.57-g sample of bimetal containing 0.1257% Pd and ball milled for 3 min resulted in a degradation rate of 0.00176 min(-1)g(-1) catalyst as the most reactive bimetal. The process was then scaled-up, using a Red Devil 5400 Twin-Arm Paint Shaker, fitted with custom plates to hold milling canisters. Optimization parameters tested included milling time, number of ball bearings used, Pd-loading, and total bimetal mass milled. An 85-g sample of bimetal containing 0.1059% Pd and ball-milled for 23 min with 16 ball bearings yielded the most reactive bimetal with a degradation rate of 0.00122 min(-1)g(-1) catalyst. Further testing showed adsorption did not hinder extraction efficiency and that dechlorination products were only seen when using the bimetallic system, as opposed to any of its single components. The bimetallic system was also tested for its ability to degrade a second PCB congener, PCB-45, and a PCB mixture (Arochlor 1254); both contaminants were seen to degrade successfully. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of the nanostructure and the surface composition of bimetallic Ni-Ru nanoparticles on the performance of CO methanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yuan, Changkun; Yao, Nan; Li, Xiaonian

    2018-05-01

    The Ni/SiO2 catalysts with trace Ru promoter were prepared by either polyethylene glycol (PEG)-assisted or PEG-free impregnation method and were used in CO methanation reaction. The presence of PEG molecules was beneficial to form bimetallic Ni-Ru particles with smaller size, better anti-sintering property and low-temperature reducibility on SiO2 support than the conventional PEG-free derived NiRu/SiO2 catalyst. Moreover, it was found that the low-temperature reduction at 573 K was favorable to form bimetallic Ni-Ru particles with more surface Ru atoms. This nanostructure not only allowed the electron transfer happening from Ru0 to Ni0 which led to its higher electron cloud density, but also could reduce the deposition of less reactive carbon on the catalyst. Therefore, the low-temperature reduction enhanced the reaction stability of NiRu/SiO2 catalyst. The increase of reduction temperature from 573 K to 693 K did not change the size of metallic particles, but decreased the amount of surface Ru atoms. It deactivated the catalyst due to the deposition of more less reactive carbon. Although the higher reduction temperature (e.g. 693 and 793 K) was unfavorable to the reaction stability, it created more surface defects. The amount of defects showed a volcano-shaped correlation with the reduction temperature which was consistent with the variation tendency of turnover frequency of CO conversion. Consequently, it evidenced that the amount of surface Ru atoms and defects on the bimetallic Ni-Ru particle played the critical roles on the stability and the intrinsic activity of methanation, respectively.

  3. Preparation and catalytic activities for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition of Rh/Au bimetallic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haijun, E-mail: zhanghaijun@wust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Integrated Exploitation of Bayan Obo Multi-Metal Resources, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); The State Key Laboratory of Refractory and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Deng, Xiangong; Jiao, Chengpeng; Lu, Lilin; Zhang, Shaowei [The State Key Laboratory of Refractory and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Graphical abstract: PVP-protected Rh/Au bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) were prepared by using hydrogen sacrificial reduction method, the activity of Rh80Au20 BNPs were about 3.6 times higher than that of Rh NPs. - Highlights: • Rh/Au bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) of 3∼5 nm in diameter were prepared. • Activity for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition of BNPs is 3.6 times higher than that of Rh NPs. • The high activity of BNPs was caused by the existence of charged Rh atoms. • The apparent activation energy for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition over the BNPs was calculated. - Abstract: PVP-protected Rh/Au bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) were prepared by using hydrogen sacrificial reduction method and characterized by UV–vis, XRD, FT-IR, XPS, TEM, HR-TEM and DF-STEM, the effects of composition on their particle sizes and catalytic activities for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition were also studied. The as-prepared Rh/Au BNPs possessed a high catalytic activity for the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition, and the activity of the Rh{sub 80}Au{sub 20} BNPs with average size of 2.7 nm were about 3.6 times higher than that of Rh monometallic nanoparticles (MNPs) even the Rh MNPs possess a smaller particle size of 1.7 nm. In contrast, Au MNPs with size of 2.7 nm show no any activity. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation as well as XPS results showed that charged Rh and Au atoms formed via electronic charge transfer effects could be responsible for the high catalytic activity of the BNPs.

  4. Systematic Identification of Promoters for Methane Oxidation Catalysts Using Size- and Composition-Controlled Pd-Based Bimetallic Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Joshua J; Goodman, Emmett D; Wu, Liheng; Riscoe, Andrew R; Martins, Pedro; Tassone, Christopher J; Cargnello, Matteo

    2017-08-30

    Promoters enhance the performance of catalytic active phases by increasing rates, stability, and/or selectivity. The process of identifying promoters is in most cases empirical and relies on testing a broad range of catalysts prepared with the random deposition of active and promoter phases, typically with no fine control over their localization. This issue is particularly relevant in supported bimetallic systems, where two metals are codeposited onto high-surface area materials. We here report the use of colloidal bimetallic nanocrystals to produce catalysts where the active and promoter phases are colocalized to a fine extent. This strategy enables a systematic approach to study the promotional effects of several transition metals on palladium catalysts for methane oxidation. In order to achieve these goals, we demonstrate a single synthetic protocol to obtain uniform palladium-based bimetallic nanocrystals (PdM, M = V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Sn, and potentially extendable to other metal combinations) with a wide variety of compositions and sizes based on high-temperature thermal decomposition of readily available precursors. Once the nanocrystals are supported onto oxide materials, thermal treatments in air cause segregation of the base metal oxide phase in close proximity to the Pd phase. We demonstrate that some metals (Fe, Co, and Sn) inhibit the sintering of the active Pd metal phase, while others (Ni and Zn) increase its intrinsic activity compared to a monometallic Pd catalyst. This procedure can be generalized to systematically investigate the promotional effects of metal and metal oxide phases for a variety of active metal-promoter combinations and catalytic reactions.

  5. Material property evaluations of bimetallic welds, stainless steel saw fusion lines, and materials affected by dynamic strain aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudland, D.; Scott, P.; Marschall, C.; Wilkowski, G. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Pipe fracture analyses can often reasonably predict the behavior of flawed piping. However, there are material applications with uncertainties in fracture behavior. This paper summarizes work on three such cases. First, the fracture behavior of bimetallic welds are discussed. The purpose of the study was to determine if current fracture analyses can predict the response of pipe with flaws in bimetallic welds. The weld joined sections of A516 Grade 70 carbon steel to F316 stainless steel. The crack was along the carbon steel base metal to Inconel 182 weld metal fusion line. Material properties from tensile and C(T) specimens were used to predict large pipe response. The major conclusion from the work is that fracture behavior of the weld could be evaluated with reasonable accuracy using properties of the carbon steel pipe and conventional J-estimation analyses. However, results may not be generally true for all bimetallic welds. Second, the toughness of austenitic steel submerged-arc weld (SAW) fusion lines is discussed. During large-scale pipe tests with flaws in the center of the SAW, the crack tended to grow into the fusion line. The fracture toughness of the base metal, the SAW, and the fusion line were determined and compared. The major conclusion reached is that although the fusion line had a higher initiation toughness than the weld metal, the fusion-line J-R curve reached a steady-state value while the SAW J-R curve increased. Last, carbon steel fracture experiments containing circumferential flaws with periods of unstable crack jumps during steady ductile tearing are discussed. These instabilities are believed to be due to dynamic strain aging (DSA). The paper discusses DSA, a screening criteria developed to predict DSA, and the ability of the current J-based methodologies to assess the effect of these crack instabilities. The effect of loading rate on the strength and toughness of several different carbon steel pipes at LWR temperatures is also discussed.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of copper, nickel and bimetallic Cu–Ni nanoparticles for potential use in dental materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Argueta-Figueroa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial effect is a desirable property in dental materials. Development of simple methods for the preparation of nanosized metal particles has attracted significant attention because of their future applications due to unusual size-dependent antibacterial properties. Copper (Cu, Nickel (Ni and bimetallic Cu–Ni nanoparticles were prepared by a simple chemical method and their antibacterial activity was tested against the widely used standard human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (gram-negative and Escherichia coli (gram-positive. Additionally, these nanoparticles were tested against the dental pathogen Streptococcus mutans. Our results are promising for potential use in dental materials science.

  7. Cluster headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducros Anne

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cluster headache (CH is a primary headache disease characterized by recurrent short-lasting attacks (15 to 180 minutes of excruciating unilateral periorbital pain accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic signs (lacrimation, nasal congestion, ptosis, miosis, lid edema, redness of the eye. It affects young adults, predominantly males. Prevalence is estimated at 0.5–1.0/1,000. CH has a circannual and circadian periodicity, attacks being clustered (hence the name in bouts that can occur during specific months of the year. Alcohol is the only dietary trigger of CH, strong odors (mainly solvents and cigarette smoke and napping may also trigger CH attacks. During bouts, attacks may happen at precise hours, especially during the night. During the attacks, patients tend to be restless. CH may be episodic or chronic, depending on the presence of remission periods. CH is associated with trigeminovascular activation and neuroendocrine and vegetative disturbances, however, the precise cautive mechanisms remain unknown. Involvement of the hypothalamus (a structure regulating endocrine function and sleep-wake rhythms has been confirmed, explaining, at least in part, the cyclic aspects of CH. The disease is familial in about 10% of cases. Genetic factors play a role in CH susceptibility, and a causative role has been suggested for the hypocretin receptor gene. Diagnosis is clinical. Differential diagnoses include other primary headache diseases such as migraine, paroxysmal hemicrania and SUNCT syndrome. At present, there is no curative treatment. There are efficient treatments to shorten the painful attacks (acute treatments and to reduce the number of daily attacks (prophylactic treatments. Acute treatment is based on subcutaneous administration of sumatriptan and high-flow oxygen. Verapamil, lithium, methysergide, prednisone, greater occipital nerve blocks and topiramate may be used for prophylaxis. In refractory cases, deep-brain stimulation of the

  8. Co-sputter deposited nickel-copper bimetallic nanoalloy embedded carbon films for electrocatalytic biomarker detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Shunsuke; Kato, Dai; Kamata, Tomoyuki; Niwa, Osamu

    2016-06-01

    We report the fabrication of a nickel (Ni)-copper (Cu) bimetallic nanoalloy (~3 nm) embedded carbon film electrode with the unbalanced magnetron (UBM) co-sputtering technique, which requires only a one-step process at room temperature. Most of each nanoalloy body was firmly embedded in a chemically stable carbon matrix with an atomically flat surface (Ra: 0.21 nm), suppressing the aggregation and/or detachment of the nanoalloy from the electrode surface. The nanoalloy size and composition can be controlled simply by individually controlling the target powers of carbon, Ni and Cu, which also makes it possible to localize the nanoalloys near the electrode surface. This electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for d-mannitol, which should be detected with a low detection limit in urine samples for the diagnosis of severe intestinal diseases. With a Ni/Cu ratio of around 64/36, the electrocatalytic current per metal area was 3.4 times larger than that of an alloy film electrode with a similar composition (~70/30). This improved electrocatalytic activity realized higher stability (n = 60, relative standard deviation (RSD): 4.6%) than the alloy film (RSD: 32.2%) as demonstrated by continuous measurements of d-mannitol.We report the fabrication of a nickel (Ni)-copper (Cu) bimetallic nanoalloy (~3 nm) embedded carbon film electrode with the unbalanced magnetron (UBM) co-sputtering technique, which requires only a one-step process at room temperature. Most of each nanoalloy body was firmly embedded in a chemically stable carbon matrix with an atomically flat surface (Ra: 0.21 nm), suppressing the aggregation and/or detachment of the nanoalloy from the electrode surface. The nanoalloy size and composition can be controlled simply by individually controlling the target powers of carbon, Ni and Cu, which also makes it possible to localize the nanoalloys near the electrode surface. This electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for d

  9. Dehalogenation of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polychlorinated Biphenyl by Bimetallic, Impregnated, and Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Ahn, Sungwoo; Seyfferth, Angelia L.; Masue-Slowey, Yoko; Fendorf, Scott; Luthy, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (nZVI), bimetallic nanoparticles (nZVI/Pd), and nZVI/Pd impregnated activated carbon (nZVI/Pd-AC) composite particles were synthesized and investigated for their effectiveness to remove polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and/or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Palladization of nZVI promoted the dehalogenation kinetics for mono- to tri-BDEs and 2,3,4-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 21). Compared to nZVI, the iron-normalized rate constants for nZVI/Pd were about 2-, 3-, and 4-orders of magnitude greater for tri-, di-, and mono-BDEs, respectively, with diphenyl ether as a main reaction product. The reaction kinetics and pathways suggest an H-atom transfer mechanism. The reaction pathways with nZVI/Pd favor preferential removal of para-halogens on PBDEs and PCBs. X-ray fluorescence mapping of nZVI/Pd-AC showed that Pd mainly deposits on the outer part of particles, while Fe was present throughout the activated carbon particles. While BDE 21 was sorbed onto activated carbon composites quickly, debromination was slower compared to reaction with freely dispersed nZVI/Pd. Our XPS and chemical data suggest about 7% of the total iron within the activated carbon was zero-valent, which shows the difficulty with in-situ synthesis of a significant fraction of zero-valent iron in the micro-porous material. Related factors that likely hinder the reaction with nZVI/Pd-AC are the heterogenous distribution of nZVI and Pd on activated carbon and/or immobilization of hydrophobic organic contaminants at the adsorption sites thereby inhibiting contact with nZVI. PMID:21557574

  10. Improved debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by bimetallic iron–silver nanoparticles coupled with microwave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Si; Yang, Shaogui; Sun, Cheng; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the enhanced debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) by Fe–Ag nano-particles under microwave radiation (Fe–Ag/MW). Fe–Ag bimetallic nano-particles were synthesized by reductive deposition of Ag on nano-iron and characterized with a number of techniques, including BET, XRD, TEM and XPS. Approximately 97% of BDE-209 or 78% of BDE-47 were rapidly transformed to its degradation products within 8 min in the Fe–Ag/MW system. The dehalogenation efficiency of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was enhanced apparently by microwave radiation. Moreover, the microwave thermal energy played a significant role in accelerating the degradation reactions. Compared with nano-iron alone, the deposition of Ag also increased the rates of degradation. GC–MS and LC–MS/MS analyses of PBDEs' degradation products reveals that the possible degradation pathway proceeds through stepwise debromination from [n]-bromo- to [n-1]-bromo-DE, with bromine being substituted by hydrogen sequentially. Di- to nona-brominated congeners were formed during BDE-209 reduction, while diphenyl ether to tri-BDEs were observed during BDE-47 degradation. These results suggest that PBDEs can be debrominated rapidly by the innovative processes that may be environmentally friendly in applications. - Highlights: ► The Fe–Ag nanoparticles with a core–shell structure were successfully prepared. ► A highly efficient technology for debromination of PBDEs by Fe–Ag/MW was investigated. ► The effect of bromine's number on the stability against reduction of PBDEs was explored. ► The role of MW energy and Ag in the reactivity of the Fe–Ag/MW system was demonstrated. ► The possible degradation pathways of BDE-209 and BDE-47 were proposed.

  11. Green synthesis and characterization of Au@Pt core-shell bimetallic nanoparticles using gallic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojun; Zheng, Hongmei; Shen, Ming; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiaosan

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we developed a facile and benign green synthesis approach for the successful fabrication of well-dispersed urchin-like Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) using gallic acid (GA) as both a reducing and protecting agent. The proposed one-step synthesis exploits the differences in the reduction potentials of AuCl4- and PtCl62-, where the AuCl4- ions are preferentially reduced to Au cores and the PtCl62- ions are then deposited continuously onto the Au core surface as a Pt shell. The as-prepared Au@Pt NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM); high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM); scanning electron microscope (SEM); UV-vis absorption spectra (UV-vis); X-ray diffraction (XRD); Fourier transmission infrared spectra (FT-IR). We systematically investigated the effects of some experimental parameters on the formation of the Au@Pt NPs, i.e., the reaction temperature, the molar ratios of HAuCl4/H2PtCl6, and the amount of GA. When polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 (PVP) was used as a protecting agent, the Au@Pt core-shell NPs obtained using this green synthesis method were better dispersed and smaller in size. The as-prepared Au@Pt NPs exhibited better catalytic activity in the reaction where NaBH4 reduced p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol. However, the results showed that the Au@Pt bimetallic NPs had a lower catalytic activity than the pure Au NPs obtained by the same method, which confirmed the formation of Au@Pt core-shell nanostructures because the active sites on the surfaces of the Au NPs were covered with a Pt shell.

  12. Bimetallic Co-Mn Perovskite Fluorides as Highly-Stable Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Ding, Rui; Li, Xudong; Xu, Qilei; Ying, Danfeng; Huang, Yongfa; Liu, Enhui

    2017-11-02

    Bimetallic Co-Mn perovskite fluorides (KCo x Mn 1-x F 3 , denoted as K-Co-Mn-F) with various Co/Mn ratios (1:0, 12:1, 6:1, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, 0:1) were prepared through a one-pot solvothermal strategy and further used as electrode materials for supercapacitors. The optimal K-Co-Mn-F candidate (Co/Mn=6:1) showed a size range of 0.1-1 μm and uniform elemental distribution; exhibiting small changes in XRD peaks and XPS binding energy in comparison to the bare K-Co-F and K-Mn-F, due to the structural/electronic effects. Owing to the stronger synergistic effect of Co/Mn redox species, the K-Co-Mn-F (Co/Mn=6:1) electrode exhibited superior specific capacity and rate behavior (113-100 C g -1 at 1-16 Ag -1 ) together with excellent cycling stability (118 % for 5000 cycles at 8 Ag -1 ), and the activated carbon (AC)//K-Co-Mn-F (Co/Mn=6:1) asymmetric capacitor showed superior energy and power densities (8.0-2.4 Wh kg -1 at 0.14-8.7 kW kg -1 ) along with high cycling stability (90 % for 10 000 cycles at 5 Ag -1 ). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Improved debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by bimetallic iron-silver nanoparticles coupled with microwave energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Si [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yang, Shaogui, E-mail: yangdlut@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Sun, Cheng, E-mail: envidean@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Gu, Ji-Dong [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology and Toxicology, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)

    2012-07-01

    This study focused on the enhanced debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and 2,2 Prime ,4,4 Prime -tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) by Fe-Ag nano-particles under microwave radiation (Fe-Ag/MW). Fe-Ag bimetallic nano-particles were synthesized by reductive deposition of Ag on nano-iron and characterized with a number of techniques, including BET, XRD, TEM and XPS. Approximately 97% of BDE-209 or 78% of BDE-47 were rapidly transformed to its degradation products within 8 min in the Fe-Ag/MW system. The dehalogenation efficiency of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was enhanced apparently by microwave radiation. Moreover, the microwave thermal energy played a significant role in accelerating the degradation reactions. Compared with nano-iron alone, the deposition of Ag also increased the rates of degradation. GC-MS and LC-MS/MS analyses of PBDEs' degradation products reveals that the possible degradation pathway proceeds through stepwise debromination from [n]-bromo- to [n-1]-bromo-DE, with bromine being substituted by hydrogen sequentially. Di- to nona-brominated congeners were formed during BDE-209 reduction, while diphenyl ether to tri-BDEs were observed during BDE-47 degradation. These results suggest that PBDEs can be debrominated rapidly by the innovative processes that may be environmentally friendly in applications. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Fe-Ag nanoparticles with a core-shell structure were successfully prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A highly efficient technology for debromination of PBDEs by Fe-Ag/MW was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of bromine's number on the stability against reduction of PBDEs was explored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The role of MW energy and Ag in the reactivity of the Fe-Ag/MW system was demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possible degradation pathways of BDE-209 and BDE-47 were proposed.

  14. NEXAFS characterization and reactivity studies of bimetallic vanadium molybdenum oxynitride hydrotreating catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapoor, R.; Oyama, S.T. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Fruehberger, B.; Chen, J.G. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (United States)

    1997-02-27

    The surface and bulk compositions of vanadium molybdenum oxynitride (V{sub 2}MoO{sub 1.7}N{sub 2.4}), prepared by temperature-programmed reaction (TPR) of vanadium molybdenum oxide (V{sub 2}MoO{sub 8}) with ammonia, have been characterized using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. The NEXAFS data were recorded at the K-edges of nitrogen and oxygen, the L-edge of vanadium, and the M-edge of molybdenum. The nitrogen K-edge region of V-Mo oxynitride shows the characteristic NEXAFS features of early-transition-metal nitrides, although these features are different from those of either VN or Mo{sub 2}N. Furthermore, comparison of the electron yield and fluorescence yield measurements also reveals that the oxidation state is different for vanadium near the surface region and for vanadium in the bulk, which is estimated to be 2.8 {+-} 0.3 and 3.8 {+-} 0.3, respectively. The oxidation state of bulk molybdenum is also estimated to be 4.4 {+-} 0.3. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows that the bulk phase of the bimetallic oxide is different from the pure monometallic oxide phases but the oxynitride has a cubic structure that resembles the pure vanadium and molybdenum nitride phases. The V-Mo oxide as prepared shows a preferential orientation of [001] crystallographic planes which is lost during the nitridation process. This shows that the solid state transformation V{sub 2}MoO{sub 8} {yields} V{sub 2}MoO{sub 1.7}N{sub 2.4} is not topotactic. 27 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  15. How to Determine the Core-Shell Nature in Bimetallic Catalyst Particles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Westsson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanometer-sized materials have significantly different chemical and physical properties compared to bulk material. However, these properties do not only depend on the elemental composition but also on the structure, shape, size and arrangement. Hence, it is not only of great importance to develop synthesis routes that enable control over the final structure but also characterization strategies that verify the exact nature of the nanoparticles obtained. Here, we consider the verification of contemporary synthesis strategies for the preparation of bimetallic core-shell particles in particular in relation to potential particle structures, such as partial absence of core, alloying and raspberry-like surface. It is discussed what properties must be investigated in order to fully confirm a covering, pin-hole free shell and which characterization techniques can provide such information. Not uncommonly, characterization strategies of core-shell particles rely heavily on visual imaging like transmission electron microscopy. The strengths and weaknesses of various techniques based on scattering, diffraction, transmission and absorption for investigating core-shell particles are discussed and, in particular, cases where structural ambiguities still remain will be highlighted. Our main conclusion is that for particles with extremely thin or mono-layered shells—i.e., structures outside the limitation of most imaging techniques—other strategies, not involving spectroscopy or imaging, are to be employed. We will provide a specific example of Fe-Pt core-shell particles prepared in bicontinuous microemulsion and point out the difficulties that arise in the characterization process of such particles.

  16. Brightest Cluster Galaxies in REXCESS Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarsma, Deborah B.; Leisman, L.; Bruch, S.; Donahue, M.

    2009-01-01

    Most galaxy clusters contain a Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) which is larger than the other cluster ellipticals and has a more extended profile. In the hierarchical model, the BCG forms through many galaxy mergers in the crowded center of the cluster, and thus its properties give insight into the assembly of the cluster as a whole. In this project, we are working with the Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey (REXCESS) team (Boehringer et al 2007) to study BCGs in 33 X-ray luminous galaxy clusters, 0.055 < z < 0.183. We are imaging the BCGs in R band at the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research (SOAR) in Chile. In this poster, we discuss our methods and give preliminary measurements of the BCG magnitudes, morphology, and stellar mass. We compare these BCG properties with the properties of their host clusters, particularly of the X-ray emitting gas.

  17. Partitional clustering algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in partitional clustering. Clustering, the unsupervised classification of patterns into groups, is one of the most important tasks in exploratory data analysis. Primary goals of clustering include gaining insight into, classifying, and compressing data. Clustering has a long and rich history that spans a variety of scientific disciplines including anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. As a result, numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed since the early 1950s. Among these algorithms, partitional (nonhierarchical) ones have found many applications, especially in engineering and computer science. This book provides coverage of consensus clustering, constrained clustering, large scale and/or high dimensional clustering, cluster validity, cluster visualization, and applications of clustering. Examines clustering as it applies to large and/or high-dimensional data sets commonly encountered in reali...

  18. Electrocatalytic properties of monometallic and bimetallic nanoparticles-incorporated polypyrrole films for electro-oxidation of methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvaraj, V.; Alagar, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India); Hamerton, I. [Chemistry Division, School of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2006-10-06

    Oxidative electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole at indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) is accomplished from a neat monomer solution with a supporting electrolyte (0.3M n-tetrabutyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate) by multiple-scan cyclic voltammetry. Polypyrrole (Ppy) films containing nanometer-sized platinum and Pt/Pd bimetallic particles are electro-synthesized on ITO glass plates by voltammetric cycling between -0.1 and +1V (versus Ag/AgCl/3M NaCl). The electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol on the nanoparticle-modified polypyrrole films is studied by means of electrochemical techniques. The modified electrode exhibits significant eletrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation. The enhanced electrocatalytic activities may be due to the uniform dispersion of nanoparticles in the polypyrrole film and a synergistic effect of the highly-dispersed metal particles so that the polypyrrole film reduces electrode poisoning by adsorbed CO species. The monometallic (Pt) and bimetallic (Pt/Pd) nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in polypyrrole matrixes, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopic and atomic force microscopic analysis. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis is used to characterize the composition of metal present in the nanoparticle-modified electrodes. (author)

  19. Preparation of bimetallic Cu-Co nanocatalysts on poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) functionalized halloysite nanotubes for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Guan, Huijuan; Zhao, Yafei; Yang, Jing-He; Zhang, Bing

    2018-01-01

    In present work, we prepared the bimetallic Cu-Co nanocatalysts on poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) functionalized halloysite nanotubes (Cu-Co/PDDA-HNTs) by a deposition-reduction technique at room temperature. The analysis of XRD, SEM, TEM, HAADF-STEM and XPS were employed to systematically investigate the morphology, particle size, structure and surface properties of the nanocomposite. The results reveal that the PDDA coating with thickness of ∼15 nm could be formed on the surface of HNTs, and the existence of PDDA is beneficial to deposit Cu and Co nanoparticles (NPs) with high dispersibility on the surface. While the cost-effective nanocomposite was used for the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia-borane (NH3BH3), the nanocatalyst showed extraordinary catalytic properties with high total turnover frequency of 30.8 molH2/(molmetal min), low activation energy of 35.15 kJ mol-1 and high recycling stability (>90% conversion at 10th reuse). These results indicate that the bimetallic Cu-Co nanocatalysts on PDDA functionalized HNTs have particular potential for application in release hydrogen process.

  20. Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of the one-dimensional bimetallic oxide [Cu(terpy)Mo2O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkholder, Eric; Gabriel Armatas, N.; Golub, Vladimir; O'Connor, Charles J.; Zubieta, Jon

    2005-01-01

    The hydrothermal reaction of Cu(CH 3 CO 2 ) 2 .H 2 O, Na 2 MoO 4 and terpyridine at 140 deg. C for 48 h yields [Cu(terpy)Mo 2 O 7 ] (1), a bimetallic one-dimensional oxide. The structure consists of ruffled chains of edge- and corner-sharing {MoO 5 } square pyramids, decorated with {CuN 3 O 2 } '4+1' axially distorted square pyramids. The Cu(II) polyhedra are disposed so as to produce an alternating pattern of Cu-Cu distances across the {Mo 2 O 2 } rhombi of the chain of 6.25 and 6.82 A. This structural feature is reflected in the magnetic properties which are characteristic of a dimer rather than a linear chain, consistent with an alternating antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain. -- Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal synthesis provided the one-dimensional bimetallic oxide [Cu(terpy)Mo 2 O 7 ], a material consisting of a zig-zag {Mo 2 O 7 } n 2 n - chain, decorated with {Cu(terpy)} 2+ groups exhibiting alternating short-long Cu-Cu distances between copper sites

  1. Three-Dimensional Graphene Supported Bimetallic Nanocomposites with DNA Regulated-Flexibly Switchable Peroxidase-Like Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Zhao, Huimin; Zang, Hongmei; Ye, Fei; Quan, Xie

    2016-04-20

    A synergistic bimetallic enzyme mimetic catalyst, three-dimensional (3D) graphene/Fe3O4-AuNPs, was successfully fabricated which exhibited flexibly switchable peroxidase-like activity. Compared to the traditional 2D graphene-based monometallic composite, the introduced 3D structure, which was induced by the addition of glutamic acid, and bimetallic anchoring approach dramatically improved the catalytic activity, as well as the catalysis velocity and its affinity for substrate. Herein, Fe3O4NPs acted as supporters for AuNPs, which contributed to enhance the efficiency of electron transfer. On the basis of the measurement of Mott-Schottky plots of graphene and metal anchored hybrids, the catalysis mechanism was elucidated by the decrease of Fermi level resulted from the chemical doping behavior. Notably, the catalytic activity was able to be regulated by the adsorption and desorption of single-stranded DNA molecules, which laid a basis for its utilization in the construction of single-stranded DNA-based colorimetric biosensors. This strategy not only simplified the operation process including labeling, modification, and imprinting, but also protected the intrinsic affinity between the target and biological probe. Accordingly, based on the peroxidase-like activity and its controllability, our prepared nanohybrids was successfully adopted in the visualized and label-free sensing detections of glucose, sequence-specific DNA, mismatched nucleotides, and oxytetracycline.

  2. Eco-friendly synthesis of gelatin-capped bimetallic Au-Ag nanoparticles for chemiluminescence detection of anticancer raloxifene hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarfaj, Nawal A; El-Tohamy, Maha F

    2016-09-01

    This study described the utility of green analytical chemistry in the synthesis of gelatin-capped silver, gold and bimetallic gold-silver nanoparticles (NPs). The preparation of nanoparticles was based on the reaction of silver nitrate or chlorauric acid with a 1.0 wt% aqueous gelatin solution at 50°C. The gelatin-capped silver, gold and bimetallic NPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and were used to enhance a sensitive sequential injection chemiluminescence luminol-potassium ferricyanide system for determination of the anticancer drug raloxifene hydrochloride. The developed method is eco-friendly and sensitive for chemiluminescence detection of the selected drug in its bulk powder, pharmaceutical injections and biosamples. After optimizing the conditions, a linear relationship in the range of 1.0 × 10(-9) to 1.0 × 10(-1)  mol/L was obtained with a limit of detection of 5.0 × 10(-10)  mol/L and a limit of quantification of 1.0 × 10(-9)  mol/L. Statistical treatment and method validation were performed based on ICH guidelines. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Refractive index sensing and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using silver–gold layered bimetallic plasmonic crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somi Kang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Herein we describe the fabrication and characterization of Ag and Au bimetallic plasmonic crystals as a system that exhibits improved capabilities for quantitative, bulk refractive index (RI sensing and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS as compared to monometallic plasmonic crystals of similar form. The sensing optics, which are bimetallic plasmonic crystals consisting of sequential nanoscale layers of Ag coated by Au, are chemically stable and useful for quantitative, multispectral, refractive index and spectroscopic chemical sensing. Compared to previously reported homometallic devices, the results presented herein illustrate improvements in performance that stem from the distinctive plasmonic features and strong localized electric fields produced by the Ag and Au layers, which are optimized in terms of metal thickness and geometric features. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD simulations theoretically verify the nature of the multimode plasmonic resonances generated by the devices and allow for a better understanding of the enhancements in multispectral refractive index and SERS-based sensing. Taken together, these results demonstrate a robust and potentially useful new platform for chemical/spectroscopic sensing.

  4. Rational design of Mg-Al mixed oxide-supported bimetallic catalysts for dry reforming of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsyganok, Andrey I. [Centre for Catalysis Research and Innovation, Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, D' Iorio Hall, 10 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ont. (Canada); Inaba, Mieko [Natural Gas Technology Development Team, Teikoku Oil Co., 9-23-30 Kitakarasuyama, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-0061 (Japan); Tsunoda, Tatsuo; Uchida, Kunio; Suzuki, Kunio; Hayakawa, Takashi [Institute for Materials and Chemical Process, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Central 5, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8565 (Japan); Takehira, Katsuomi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)

    2005-09-18

    A novel synthetic strategy for preparing bimetallic Ru-M (M=Cr, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) catalysts, supported on Mg-Al mixed oxide, has been introduced. It was based on a 'memory effect', i.e. on the ability of Mg-Al mixed oxide to reconstruct a layered structure upon rehydration with an aqueous solution. By repeated calcinations-rehydration cycles, layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursors of catalysts containing two different metals were synthesized. Bimetallic catalysts were then generated (1) in situ from LDH under methane reforming reaction conditions and (2) from mixed metal oxides obtained by preliminary LDH calcination. Among all the LDH-derived catalysts, a Ru{sup 0.1%}-Ni{sup 5.0%}/MgAlO{sub x} sample revealed the highest activity and selectivity to syngas, a suitable durability and a low coking capacity. A promoting effect of ruthenium on catalytic function of supported nickel was demonstrated. Preliminary LDH calcination was shown to markedly affect the catalytic activity of the derived catalysts and especially their coking properties.

  5. Reaction pathways of furfural, furfuryl alcohol and 2-methylfuran on Cu(111) and NiCu bimetallic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ke; Wan, Weiming; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2016-10-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) is an important reaction for converting biomass-derived furfural to value-added 2-methylfuran, which is a promising fuel additive. In this work, the HDO of furfural to produce 2-methylfuran occurred on the NiCu bimetallic surfaces prepared on either Ni(111) or Cu(111). The reaction pathways of furfural were investigated on Cu(111) and Ni/Cu(111) surfaces using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) experiments. These studies provided mechanistic insights into the effects of bimetallic formation on enhancing the HDO activity. Specifically, furfural weakly adsorbed on Cu(111), while it strongly adsorbed on Ni/Cu(111) through an η2(C,O) configuration, which led to the HDO of furfural on Ni/Cu(111). The ability to dissociate H2 on Ni/Cu(111) is also an important factor for enhancing the HDO activity over Cu(111).

  6. Production of mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles of noble metals by pyrolysis of organic extracts on silicon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serga, V; Kulikova, L; Cvetkov, A; Krumina, A; Kodols, M; Chornaja, S; Dubencovs, K; Sproge, E

    2013-01-01

    In the present work the influence of the tri-n-octylammonium (Oct 3 NH + ) salt anion (PtCl 6 2- , PdCl 4 2- , AuCl 4 − ) nature on the phase composition and mean size of crystallites of the extract pyrolysis products on the SiO 2 nanopowder has been studied. The XRD phase analysis of the composites (metal loading 2.4 wt.%) made under the same conditions, at the pyrolysis of Pt- and Au-containing extracts has shown the formation of nanoparticles of Pt (d Pt = 15 nm) and Au (d Au = 33 nm), respectively. The end-product of the pyrolysis of the Pd-containing extract has an admixture phase of PdO along with the main metal phase (d Pd = 21 nm). At the preparation of bimetallic particles (Pt-Pd, Pt-Au, Pd-Au) on the SiO 2 nanopowder it has been found that the nanoparticles of the PtPd alloy, Pt and Au or Pd and Au nanoparticles are the products of the thermal decomposition of two-component mixtures of extracts. The investigation of catalytic properties of the produced composites in the reaction of glycerol oxidation by molecular oxygen in alkaline aqueous solutions has shown that all bimetallic composites exhibit catalytic activity in contrast to monometallic ones

  7. Facile and Rapid Synthesis of Ultrafine PtPd Bimetallic Nanoparticles and Their High Performance toward Methanol Electrooxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiantian Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniform and sub-10 nm size bimetallic PtPd nanoparticles (NPs have been synthesized via a simple and facile method without using any surfactants at an ambient temperature. As a green and clean reductive agent, ascorbic acid (AA was employed for the coreduction of K2PtCl4 and K2PdCl4 in aqueous solution. The morphology, composition, and structure of PtPd NPs had been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, field emission high resolution transmission electron microscopy (FE-HRTEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS. Comparing with both the monometallic Pt and Pd, the as-prepared alloy nanoparticles show superior electrocatalytic activity and better tolerance against poisoning by intermediates generated during methanol electrooxidation, which makes them a promising electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs. Meanwhile, the green and simple approach could be easily extended to the manufacture of bimetallic or trimetallic alloy nanomaterials.

  8. Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation of Furfural to 2-Methylfuran and 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran over Bimetallic Copper-Palladium Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xin; Liu, An-Feng; Cai, Bo; Luo, Jin-Yue; Pan, Hui; Huang, Yao-Bing

    2016-12-08

    The catalytic transfer hydrogenation of furfural to the fuel additives 2-methylfuran (2-MF) and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) was investigated over various bimetallic catalysts in the presence of the hydrogen donor 2-propanol. Of all the as-prepared catalysts, bimetallic Cu-Pd catalysts showed the highest catalytic activities towards the formation of 2-MF and 2-MTHF with a total yield of up to 83.9 % yield at 220 °C in 4 h. By modifying the Pd ratios in the Cu-Pd catalyst, 2-MF or 2-MTHF could be obtained selectively as the prevailing product. The other reaction conditions also had a great influence on the product distribution. Mechanistic studies by reaction monitoring and intermediate conversion revealed that the reaction proceeded mainly through the hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol, which was followed by deoxygenation to 2-MF in parallel to deoxygenation/ring hydrogenation to 2-MTHF. Finally, the catalyst showed a high reactivity and stability in five catalyst recycling runs, which represents a significant step forward toward the catalytic transfer hydrogenation of furfural. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Preparation and characterization of bi-metallic nanoparticle catalyst having better anti-coking properties using reverse micelle technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharia, Thomas

    Energy needs are rising on an exponential basis. The mammoth energy sources like coal, natural gas and petroleum are the cause of pollution. The large outcry for an alternate energy source which is environmentally friendly and energy efficient is heard during the past few years. This is where “Clean-Fuel” like hydrogen gained its ground. Hydrogen is mainly produced by steam methane reforming (SMR). An alternate sustainable process which can reduce the cost as well as eliminate the waste products is Tri-reforming. In both these reforming processes nickel is used as catalyst. However as the process goes on the catalyst gets deactivated due to coking on the catalytic surface. This goal of this thesis work was to develop a bi-metallic catalyst which has better anti-coking properties compared to the conventional nickel catalyst. Tin was used to dope nickel. It was found that Ni3Sn complex around a core of Ni is coking resistant compared to pure nickel catalyst. Reverse micelle synthesis of catalyst preparation was used to control the size and shape of catalytic particles. These studies will benefit researches on hydrogen production and catalyst manufactures who work on different bi-metallic combinations.

  10. Another way of looking at bonding on bimetallic surfaces: the role of spin polarization of surface metal d states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escano, M C; Nguyen, T Q; Nakanishi, H; Kasai, H

    2009-01-01

    The nature of electronic and chemical properties of an unstrained Pt monolayer on a 3d transition metal substrate, M (M = Cr, Mn, Fe), is studied using spin-polarized density functional theory calculations. High spin polarization of Pt d states is noted, verifying the magnetization induced on Pt, which is observed to be responsible for redirecting the analysis of bond formation on a metal surface towards a different perspective. While the shift in the Pt d band center (the average energy of the Pt d band, commonly used to predict the reactivity of surfaces) does give the expected trend in adsorbate (oxygen) chemisorption energy across the bimetallic surfaces in this work, our results show that for spin-polarized Pt d states, the variation in strength of adsorption with respect to the Fermi level density of states is more predictive of Pt chemisorption properties. Hence, this study introduces a scheme for analyzing trends in reactivity of bimetallic surfaces where adsorption energies are used as reactivity parameters and where spin polarization effects cannot be neglected. (fast track communication)

  11. Highly Stable Bimetallic AuIr/TiO₂ Catalyst: Physical Origins of the Intrinsic High Stability against Sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chang Wan; Majumdar, Paulami; Marinero, Ernesto E; Aguilar-Tapia, Antonio; Zanella, Rodolfo; Greeley, Jeffrey; Ortalan, Volkan

    2015-12-09

    It has been a long-lived research topic in the field of heterogeneous catalysts to find a way of stabilizing supported gold catalyst against sintering. Herein, we report highly stable AuIr bimetallic nanoparticles on TiO2 synthesized by sequential deposition-precipitation. To reveal the physical origin of the high stability of AuIr/TiO2, we used aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), STEM-tomography, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Three-dimensional structures of AuIr/TiO2 obtained by STEM-tomography indicate that AuIr nanoparticles on TiO2 have intrinsically lower free energy and less driving force for sintering than Au nanoparticles. DFT calculations on segregation behavior of AuIr slabs on TiO2 showed that the presence of Ir near the TiO2 surface increases the adhesion energy of the bimetallic slabs to the TiO2 and the attractive interactions between Ir and TiO2 lead to higher stability of AuIr nanoparticles as compared to Au nanoparticles.

  12. Real-time cellular and molecular dynamics of bi-metallic self-therapeutic nanoparticle in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Sandeep Kumar; Bardia, Avinash; Lakkireddy, Chandrakala; Paspala, Syed Ameer Basha; Habeeb, Md. Aejaz; Khan, Aleem Ahmed

    2018-02-01

    Since last decades various kinds of nanoparticles have been functionalized to improve their biomedical applications. However, the biological effect of un-modified/non-functionalized bi-metallic magnetic nanoparticles remains under investigated. Herein we demonstrate a multifaceted non-functionalized bi-metallic inorganic Gd-SPIO nanoparticle which passes dual high MRI contrast and can kill the cancer cells through several mechanisms. The results of the present study demonstrate that Gd-SPIO nanoparticles have potential to induce cancer cell death by production of reactive oxygen species and apoptotic events. Furthermore, Gd-SPIO nanoparticles also enhance the expression levels of miRNA-199a and miRNA-181a-7p which results in decreased levels of cancer markers such as C-met, TGF-β and hURP. One very interesting finding of this study reveals side scatter-based real-time analysis of nanoparticle uptake in cancer cells using flow cytometry analysis. In conclusion, this study paves a way for future investigation of un-modified inorganic nanoparticles to purport enhanced therapeutic effect in combination with potential anti-tumor drugs/molecules in cancer cells.

  13. Ultrathin nitrogen-doped graphitized carbon shell encapsulating CoRu bimetallic nanoparticles for enhanced electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, You; Li, Yinghao; Yin, Shuli; Yu, Hongjie; Xue, Hairong; Li, Xiaonian; Wang, Hongjing; Wang, Liang

    2018-06-01

    Design of highly active and cost-effective electrocatalysts is very important for the generation of hydrogen by electrochemical water-splitting. Herein, we report the fabrication of ultrathin nitrogen-doped graphitized carbon shell encapsulating CoRu bimetallic nanoparticles (CoRu@NCs) and demonstrate their promising feasibility for efficiently catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) over a wide pH range. The resultant CoRu@NC nanohybrids possess an alloy–carbon core–shell structure with encapsulated low-ruthenium-content CoRu bimetallic alloy nanoparticles (10–30 nm) as the core and ultrathin nitrogen-doped graphitized carbon layers (2–6 layers) as the shell. Remarkably, the optimized catalyst (CoRu@NC-2 sample) with a Ru content as low as 2.04 wt% shows superior catalytic activity and excellent durability for HER in acidic, neutral, and alkaline conditions. This work offers a new method for the design and synthesis of non-platium-based electrocatalysts for HER in all-pH.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of core-shell bimetallic nanoparticles for synergistic antimicrobial effect studies in combination with doxycycline on burn specific pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Ali; Tahami, Shiva; Naji, Mahsa

    2017-04-01

    Nano-medicine is a breakthrough discovery in the healthcare sector. Doxycycline is a new generation antibiotic which is proved to be a boon in the treatment of patients with complicated skin infections. We have tried to explore the benefits of synthesized bimetallic silver-gold nanoparticles in combination with new generation antibiotic for burn infections. The bimetallic nanoparticles synthesized by core-shell method were characterized using scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The calculated average particle sizes of the Ag-Au NPs were found to be 27.5nm. The Ag-Au core-shell BNPs show a characteristic Plasmon peak at 525nm which is broad and red shifted. The synergistic antimicrobial activity of doxycycline conjugated bimetallic nanoparticles was investigated against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus. This combined therapeutic agent showed greater bactericidal activity. Synergy of antibiotic with bimetallic nanoparticles is quite promising for significant application in burn healing therapy. The mechanism of the antibacterial activity was studied through the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was later suppressed with antioxidant to establish correlation with the Ag-Au NPs antimicrobial activity. Ag-Au NPs showed effective antiproliferative activity toward A549 human lung cancer (CCL-185) and MCF-7 human breast cancer (HTB-22) cell lines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cooperative double deprotonation of Bis(2-picolyl)amine leading to unexpected bimetallic mixed valence (M(-1), M(1)) rhodium and iIridium complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tejel, C.; del Río, M.P.; Asensio, L.; van den Bruele, F.J.; Ciriano, M.A.; Tsichlis i Spithas, N.; Hetterscheid, D.G.H.; de Bruin, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative reductive double deprotonation of the complex [RhI(bpa)(cod)]+ ([4]+, bpa = PyCH2NHCH2Py) with one molar equivalent of base produces the bimetallic species [(cod)Rh(bpa-2H)Rh(cod)] (7), which displays a large Rh-I,RhI contribution to its electronic structure. The doubly deprotonated

  16. Solvent-free Hydrodeoxygenation of Bio-oil Model Compounds Cyclopentanone and Acetophenone over Flame-made Bimetallic Pt-Pd/ZrO2 Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yijiao; Büchel, Robert; Huang, Jun; Krumeich, Frank; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.; Baiker, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    Bimetallic Pt-Pd/ZrO2 catalysts with different Pt/Pd atomic ratio and homogeneous dispersion of the metal nanoparticles were prepared in a single step by flame-spray pyrolysis. The catalysts show high activity and tuneable product selectivity for the solvent-free hydrodeoxygenation of the bio-oil model compounds cyclopentanone and acetophenone. PMID:22674738

  17. Effect of Cu{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} mole ratio on structure of Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles prepared by radiation induced method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedini, Alam; Larki, Farhad; Saion, Elias; Noroozi, Monir [Putra Malaysia Univ., Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia). Dept. of Physics

    2013-07-15

    Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized by gamma irradiation technique in aqueous solutions containing metal chlorides as precursors, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent, isopropanol as a radical scavenger, and distilled water as a solvent. The Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible absorption spectrometry, powder X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The TEM, XRD, EDX, and absorption analyses confirmed the formation of core-shell structure of Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles at lower Cu{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} mole ratio, and the formation of Cu-Al alloy nanoparticles at higher Cu{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} mole ratio. The TEM analysis for particle size and size distribution revealed that the average particle size of Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles decreased with the increase of absorbed dose. It may be explained due to the competition between nucleation and aggregation processes in the formation of metallic nanoparticles under irradiation. (orig.)

  18. Synergy between Two Metal Catalysts: A Highly Active Silica Supported Bimetallic W/Zr Catalyst for Metathesis of n-Decane

    KAUST Repository

    Samantaray, Manoja; Dey, Raju; Kavitake, Santosh Giridhar; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Bendjeriou-Sedjerari, Anissa; Hamieh, Ali Imad Ali; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    A well-defined, silica supported, bimetallic precatalyst [≡Si-O-W(Me)5 ≡Si-O-Zr(Np)3](4) has been synthesized for the first time via successively grafting two organometallic complexes [W(CH3)6 (1) followed by ZrNp4 (2)] on a single silica support

  19. Standard practice for evaluation of disbonding of bimetallic stainless alloy/steel plate for use in high-pressure, high-temperature refinery hydrogen service

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for the evaluation of disbonding of bimetallic stainless alloy/steel plate for use in refinery high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) gaseous hydrogen service. It includes procedures to (1) produce suitable laboratory test specimens, (2) obtain hydrogen charging conditions in the laboratory that are similar to those found in refinery HP/HT hydrogen gas service for evaluation of bimetallic specimens exposed to these environments, and (3) perform analysis of the test data. The purpose of this practice is to allow for comparison of data among test laboratories on the resistance of bimetallic stainless alloy/steels to hydrogen-induced disbonding (HID). 1.2 This practice applies primarily to bimetallic products fabricated by weld overlay of stainless alloy onto a steel substrate. Most of the information developed using this practice has been obtained for such materials. The procedures described herein, may also be appropriate for evaluation of hot roll bonded, explosive bonded...

  20. Diversity among galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, M.F.; Rood, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The classification of galaxy clusters is discussed. Consideration is given to the classification scheme of Abell (1950's), Zwicky (1950's), Morgan, Matthews, and Schmidt (1964), and Morgan-Bautz (1970). Galaxies can be classified based on morphology, chemical composition, spatial distribution, and motion. The correlation between a galaxy's environment and morphology is examined. The classification scheme of Rood-Sastry (1971), which is based on clusters's morphology and galaxy population, is described. The six types of clusters they define include: (1) a cD-cluster dominated by a single large galaxy, (2) a cluster dominated by a binary, (3) a core-halo cluster, (4) a cluster dominated by several bright galaxies, (5) a cluster appearing flattened, and (6) an irregularly shaped cluster. Attention is also given to the evolution of cluster structures, which is related to initial density and cluster motion

  1. Development of bimetallic (Zn@Au) nanoparticles as potential PET-imageable radiosensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jongmin; Wang, Min; Gonzalez-Lepera, Carlos; Mawlawi, Osama; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2016-08-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are being investigated actively for various applications in cancer diagnosis and therapy. As an effort to improve the imaging of GNPs in vivo, the authors developed bimetallic hybrid Zn@Au NPs with zinc cores and gold shells, aiming to render them in vivo visibility through positron emission tomography (PET) after the proton activation of the zinc core as well as capability to induce radiosensitization through the secondary electrons produced from the gold shell when irradiated by various radiation sources. Nearly spherical zinc NPs (∼5-nm diameter) were synthesized and then coated with a ∼4.25-nm gold layer to make Zn@Au NPs (∼13.5-nm total diameter). 28.6 mg of these Zn@Au NPs was deposited (∼100 μm thick) on a thin cellulose target and placed in an aluminum target holder and subsequently irradiated with 14.15-MeV protons from a GE PETtrace cyclotron with 5-μA current for 5 min. After irradiation, the cellulose matrix with the NPs was placed in a dose calibrator to assess the induced radioactivity. The same procedure was repeated with 8-MeV protons. Gamma ray spectroscopy using an high-purity germanium detector was conducted on a very small fraction (<1 mg) of the irradiated NPs for each proton energy. In addition to experimental measurements, Monte Carlo simulations were also performed with radioactive Zn@Au NPs and solid GNPs of the same size irradiated with 160-MeV protons and 250-kVp x-rays. The authors measured 168 μCi of activity 32 min after the end of bombardment for the 14.15-MeV proton energy sample using the (66)Ga setting on a dose calibrator; activity decreased to 2 μCi over a 24-h period. For the 8-MeV proton energy sample, PET imaging was additionally performed for 5 min after a 12-h delay. A 12-h gamma ray spectrum showed strong peaks at 511 keV (2.05 × 10(6) counts) with several other peaks of smaller magnitude for each proton energy sample. PET imaging showed strong PET signals from mostly decaying (66)Ga

  2. Development of bimetallic (Zn@Au) nanoparticles as potential PET-imageable radiosensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jongmin, E-mail: jongmin.cho@okstate.edu [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Wang, Min [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Gonzalez-Lepera, Carlos [Department of Nuclear Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Mawlawi, Osama [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Cho, Sang Hyun [Departments of Radiation Physics and Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are being investigated actively for various applications in cancer diagnosis and therapy. As an effort to improve the imaging of GNPs in vivo, the authors developed bimetallic hybrid Zn@Au NPs with zinc cores and gold shells, aiming to render them in vivo visibility through positron emission tomography (PET) after the proton activation of the zinc core as well as capability to induce radiosensitization through the secondary electrons produced from the gold shell when irradiated by various radiation sources. Methods: Nearly spherical zinc NPs (∼5-nm diameter) were synthesized and then coated with a ∼4.25-nm gold layer to make Zn@Au NPs (∼13.5-nm total diameter). 28.6 mg of these Zn@Au NPs was deposited (∼100 μm thick) on a thin cellulose target and placed in an aluminum target holder and subsequently irradiated with 14.15-MeV protons from a GE PETtrace cyclotron with 5-μA current for 5 min. After irradiation, the cellulose matrix with the NPs was placed in a dose calibrator to assess the induced radioactivity. The same procedure was repeated with 8-MeV protons. Gamma ray spectroscopy using an high-purity germanium detector was conducted on a very small fraction (<1 mg) of the irradiated NPs for each proton energy. In addition to experimental measurements, Monte Carlo simulations were also performed with radioactive Zn@Au NPs and solid GNPs of the same size irradiated with 160-MeV protons and 250-kVp x-rays. Results: The authors measured 168 μCi of activity 32 min after the end of bombardment for the 14.15-MeV proton energy sample using the {sup 66}Ga setting on a dose calibrator; activity decreased to 2 μCi over a 24-h period. For the 8-MeV proton energy sample, PET imaging was additionally performed for 5 min after a 12-h delay. A 12-h gamma ray spectrum showed strong peaks at 511 keV (2.05 × 10{sup 6} counts) with several other peaks of smaller magnitude for each proton energy sample. PET imaging showed strong PET

  3. What Makes Clusters Decline?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark. The longit...... but being quick to withdraw in times of crisis....

  4. Clustering of correlated networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dorogovtsev, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    We obtain the clustering coefficient, the degree-dependent local clustering, and the mean clustering of networks with arbitrary correlations between the degrees of the nearest-neighbor vertices. The resulting formulas allow one to determine the nature of the clustering of a network.

  5. Synthesis of Supported NiPt Bimetallic Nanoparticles, Methods for Controlling the Surface Coverage of Ni Nanoparticles With Pt, Methods Of Making NiPt Multilayer Core-Shell Structures and Application of the Supported Catalysts for CO2 Reforming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lidong; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Zhou, Lu; Laveille, Paco; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for supported Ni/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles, compositions including supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of making supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of using supported NiPt nanoparticles

  6. Synthesis of Supported NiPt Bimetallic Nanoparticles, Methods for Controlling the Surface Coverage of Ni Nanoparticles With Pt, Methods Of Making NiPt Multilayer Core-Shell Structures and Application of the Supported Catalysts for CO2 Reforming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lidong

    2015-06-25

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for supported Ni/Pt bimetallic nanoparticles, compositions including supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of making supported NiPt nanoparticles, methods of using supported NiPt nanoparticles, and the like.

  7. Monometallic Pd and Pt and Bimetallic Pd-Pt/Al2O3-TiO2 for the HDS of DBT: Effect of the Pd and Pt Incorporation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Martínez Guerrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the preparation method of monometallic Pd and Pt and bimetallic Pd-Pt/Al2O3-TiO2 catalysts on the hydrodesulfurization (HDS of dibenzothiophene (DBT was investigated in this study. The synthesis was accomplished using three methods: (A impregnation, (B metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD, and (C impregnation-MOCVD. The bimetallic Pd-Pt catalyst prepared by the impregnation-MOCVD method was most active for the HDS of DBT compared to those prepared by the single impregnation or MOCVD method due to the synergetic effect between both noble metals. The greater selectivity toward biphenyl indicated that this bimetallic Pd-Pt catalyst preferentially removes sulfur via the direct desulfurization mechanism. However, the bimetallic Pd-Pt catalyst prepared using the single MOCVD method did not produce any cyclohexylbenzene, which is most likely associated with the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation sites.

  8. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Subspace clustering aims at detecting clusters in any subspace projection of a high dimensional space. As the number of possible subspace projections is exponential in the number of dimensions, the result is often tremendously large. Recent approaches fail to reduce results to relevant subspace...... clusters. Their results are typically highly redundant, i.e. many clusters are detected multiple times in several projections. In this work, we propose a novel model for relevant subspace clustering (RESCU). We present a global optimization which detects the most interesting non-redundant subspace clusters...... achieves top clustering quality while competing approaches show greatly varying performance....

  9. Cluster ion beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popok, V.N.; Prasalovich, S.V.; Odzhaev, V.B.; Campbell, E.E.B.

    2001-01-01

    A brief state-of-the-art review in the field of cluster-surface interactions is presented. Ionised cluster beams could become a powerful and versatile tool for the modification and processing of surfaces as an alternative to ion implantation and ion assisted deposition. The main effects of cluster-surface collisions and possible applications of cluster ion beams are discussed. The outlooks of the Cluster Implantation and Deposition Apparatus (CIDA) being developed in Guteborg University are shown

  10. Design of supported bi-metallic nanoparticles based on Platinum and Palladium using Surface Organometallic Chemistry (SOMC)

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shareef, Reem A.

    2017-11-01

    Well-defined silica supported bimetallic catalysts Pt100-x Pdx (where x is the molar ratio of Pd) are prepared by Surface Organometallic Chemistry (SOMC) via controlled decomposition of Pd2(allyl)2Cl2 on Pt/SiO2. For comparison purposes, Pt100-x Pdx bimetallic catalysts is also prepared by ion-exchange (IE). According to the results of STEM, XAS and H2 chemisorption, all bimetallic nanoparticles, prepared using neither SOMC nor IE, produce discrete formation of monometallic species (either Pt or Pd). Most catalysts exhibit a narrow particle size distribution with an average diameter ranging from 1 to 3 nm for samples prepared by IE and from 2 to 5 nm for the ones synthesized by SOMC. For all catalysts investigated in the present work, iso-butane reaction with hydrogen under differential conditions (conversions below 5%) leads to the formation of methane and propane (hydrogenolysis), n-butane (isomerization), and traces of iso-butylene (dehydrogenation). The total rate of reaction decreases with increasing the Pd loading for both catalysts series as a result of decreasing turnover rate (expressed as moles converted per total surface metal per second) of both isomerization and hydrogenolysis. In the case of Pt100-x Pdx(SOMC) catalysts, the results suggest a selective coverage of Pt (100) surface by a Pd layer, followed by a buildup of Pd overcoat onto a Pd layer assuming that each metal keeps its intrinsic catalytic properties. There is no mutual electronic charge transfer between the two metals (DFT). For the PtPd catalysts prepared by IE, the catalytic behavior cannot simply be explained by a surface coverage of highly active Pt metal by less active Pd (not observed), suggesting there is formation of a surface alloy between Pt and Pd collaborated by EXAFS and DFT. The catalytic results are explained by a simple structure activity relationship based on the previously proposed mechanism of C-H bond and C-C Bond activation and cleavage for iso-butane hydrogenolysis

  11. Polarizable molecular mechanics studies of Cu(I)/Zn(II) superoxide dismutase: bimetallic binding site and structured waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresh, Nohad; El Hage, Krystel; Perahia, David; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Berthomieu, Catherine; Berthomieu, Dorothée

    2014-11-05

    The existence of a network of structured waters in the vicinity of the bimetallic site of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) has been inferred from high-resolution X-ray crystallography. Long-duration molecular dynamics (MD) simulations could enable to quantify the lifetimes and possible interchanges of these waters between themselves as well as with a ligand diffusing toward the bimetallic site. The presence of several charged or polar ligands makes it necessary to resort to second-generation polarizable potentials. As a first step toward such simulations, we benchmark in this article the accuracy of one such potential, sum of interactions between fragments Ab initio computed (SIBFA), by comparisons with quantum mechanics (QM) computations. We first consider the bimetallic binding site of a Cu/Zn-SOD, in which three histidines and a water molecule are bound to Cu(I) and three histidines and one aspartate are bound to Zn(II). The comparisons are made for different His6 complexes with either one or both cations, and either with or without Asp and water. The total net charges vary from zero to three. We subsequently perform preliminary short-duration MD simulations of 296 waters solvating Cu/Zn-SOD. Six representative geometries are selected and energy-minimized. Single-point SIBFA and QM computations are then performed in parallel on model binding sites extracted from these six structures, each of which totals 301 atoms including the closest 28 waters from the Cu metal site. The ranking of their relative stabilities as given by SIBFA is identical to the QM one, and the relative energy differences by both approaches are fully consistent. In addition, the lowest-energy structure, from SIBFA and QM, has a close overlap with the crystallographic one. The SIBFA calculations enable to quantify the impact of polarization and charge transfer in the ranking of the six structures. Five structural waters, which connect Arg141 and Glu131, are endowed with very high dipole moments

  12. PREFACE: Nuclear Cluster Conference; Cluster'07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Martin

    2008-05-01

    The Cluster Conference is a long-running conference series dating back to the 1960's, the first being initiated by Wildermuth in Bochum, Germany, in 1969. The most recent meeting was held in Nara, Japan, in 2003, and in 2007 the 9th Cluster Conference was held in Stratford-upon-Avon, UK. As the name suggests the town of Stratford lies upon the River Avon, and shortly before the conference, due to unprecedented rainfall in the area (approximately 10 cm within half a day), lay in the River Avon! Stratford is the birthplace of the `Bard of Avon' William Shakespeare, and this formed an intriguing conference backdrop. The meeting was attended by some 90 delegates and the programme contained 65 70 oral presentations, and was opened by a historical perspective presented by Professor Brink (Oxford) and closed by Professor Horiuchi (RCNP) with an overview of the conference and future perspectives. In between, the conference covered aspects of clustering in exotic nuclei (both neutron and proton-rich), molecular structures in which valence neutrons are exchanged between cluster cores, condensates in nuclei, neutron-clusters, superheavy nuclei, clusters in nuclear astrophysical processes and exotic cluster decays such as 2p and ternary cluster decay. The field of nuclear clustering has become strongly influenced by the physics of radioactive beam facilities (reflected in the programme), and by the excitement that clustering may have an important impact on the structure of nuclei at the neutron drip-line. It was clear that since Nara the field had progressed substantially and that new themes had emerged and others had crystallized. Two particular topics resonated strongly condensates and nuclear molecules. These topics are thus likely to be central in the next cluster conference which will be held in 2011 in the Hungarian city of Debrechen. Martin Freer Participants and Cluster'07

  13. Management of cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer C; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of cluster headache is 0.1% and cluster headache is often not diagnosed or misdiagnosed as migraine or sinusitis. In cluster headache there is often a considerable diagnostic delay - an average of 7 years in a population-based survey. Cluster headache is characterized by very severe...... or severe orbital or periorbital pain with a duration of 15-180 minutes. The cluster headache attacks are accompanied by characteristic associated unilateral symptoms such as tearing, nasal congestion and/or rhinorrhoea, eyelid oedema, miosis and/or ptosis. In addition, there is a sense of restlessness...... and agitation. Patients may have up to eight attacks per day. Episodic cluster headache (ECH) occurs in clusters of weeks to months duration, whereas chronic cluster headache (CCH) attacks occur for more than 1 year without remissions. Management of cluster headache is divided into acute attack treatment...

  14. Symmetries of cluster configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, P.

    1975-01-01

    A deeper understanding of clustering phenomena in nuclei must encompass at least two interrelated aspects of the subject: (A) Given a system of A nucleons with two-body interactions, what are the relevant and persistent modes of clustering involved. What is the nature of the correlated nucleon groups which form the clusters, and what is their mutual interaction. (B) Given the cluster modes and their interaction, what systematic patterns of nuclear structure and reactions emerge from it. Are there, for example, families of states which share the same ''cluster parents''. Which cluster modes are compatible or exclude each other. What quantum numbers could characterize cluster configurations. There is no doubt that we can learn a good deal from the experimentalists who have discovered many of the features relevant to aspect (B). Symmetries specific to cluster configurations which can throw some light on both aspects of clustering are discussed

  15. Photocatalytic Degradation of DIPA Using Bimetallic Cu-Ni/TiO2 Photocatalyst under Visible Light Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustam, Mohamad Azmi; Chong, Fai Kait; Man, Zakaria B.; Khan, Muhammad Saqib; Shariff, Azmi M.

    2014-01-01

    Bimetallic Cu-Ni/TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized using wet impregnation (WI) method with TiO2 (Degussa-P25) as support and calcined at different temperatures (180, 200, and 300°C) for the photodegradation of DIPA under visible light. The photocatalysts were characterized using TGA, FESEM, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The results from the photodegradation experiments revealed that the Cu-Ni/TiO2 photocatalysts exhibited much higher photocatalytic activities compared to bare TiO2. It was found that photocatalyst calcined at 200°C had the highest photocatalyst activities with highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (86.82%). According to the structural and surface analysis, the enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to its strong absorption into the visible region and high metal dispersion. PMID:25105158

  16. Photocatalytic Degradation of DIPA Using Bimetallic Cu-Ni/TiO2 Photocatalyst under Visible Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Riaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bimetallic Cu-Ni/TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized using wet impregnation (WI method with TiO2 (Degussa-P25 as support and calcined at different temperatures (180, 200, and 300°C for the photodegradation of DIPA under visible light. The photocatalysts were characterized using TGA, FESEM, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and temperature programmed reduction (TPR. The results from the photodegradation experiments revealed that the Cu-Ni/TiO2 photocatalysts exhibited much higher photocatalytic activities compared to bare TiO2. It was found that photocatalyst calcined at 200°C had the highest photocatalyst activities with highest chemical oxygen demand (COD removal (86.82%. According to the structural and surface analysis, the enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to its strong absorption into the visible region and high metal dispersion.

  17. Electrochemically Smart Bimetallic Materials Featuring Group 11 Metals: In-situ Conductive Network Generation and Its Impact on Cell Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Esther [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-11-30

    Our results for this program “Electrochemically smart bimetallic materials featuring Group 11 metals: in-situ conductive matrix generation and its impact on battery capacity, power and reversibility” have been highly successful: 1) we demonstrated material structures which generated in-situ conductive networks through electrochemical activation with increases in conductivity up to 10,000 fold, 2) we pioneered in situ analytical methodology to map the cathodes at several stages of discharge through the use of Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction (EDXRD) to elucidate the kinetic dependence of the conductive network formation, and 3) we successfully designed synthetic methodology for direct control of material properties including crystallite size and surface area which showed significant impact on electrochemical behavior.

  18. Tailoring galvanic replacement reaction for the preparation of Pt/Ag bimetallic hollow nanostructures with controlled number of voids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiqing; Yang, Jizheng; Lu, Xianmao

    2012-08-28

    Here we report the synthesis of Pt/Ag bimetallic nanostructures with controlled number of void spaces via a tailored galvanic replacement reaction (GRR). Ag nanocubes (NCs) were employed as the template to react with Pt ions in the presence of HCl. The use of HCl in the GRR caused rapid precipitation of AgCl, which grew on the surface of Ag NCs and acted as a removable secondary template for the deposition of Pt. The number of nucleation sites for AgCl was tailored by controlling the amount of HCl added to the Ag NCs or by introducing PVP to the reaction. This strategy led to the formation of Pt/Ag hollow nanoboxes, dimers, multimers, or popcorn-shaped nanostructures consisting of one, two, or multiple hollow domains. Due to the presence of large void space and porous walls, these nanostructures exhibited high surface area and improved catalytic activity for methanol oxidation reaction.

  19. [Decolorization of the azo dye reactive red X-3B by an Al-Cu bimetallic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jin-hong; Ma, Lu-ming; Wang, Hong-wu; Wu, De-li

    2008-06-01

    The decoloration mechanism and kinetics of the azo dye reactive red X-3B by an Al-Cu bimetallic system were investigated by measuring the dye removal, the TOC removal and the aniline concentration, and by adding EDTA as control experiments. The results showed the colority removal rate of X-3B reached 83% in the near neutral pH medium for 30 min and 96.4% for 120 min, in which, about 34% was due to the X-3B reduced to aniline, and about 20% and 30% was due to the flocculating of aluminum ions and surface adsorption of aluminum-fillings respectively. The decolorization of dyeing wastewater is a gradual reaction process, which first adsorbs a large number of dyeing ingredients and then carries out inner electrolysis reduction, improved effectively by the flocculating action of aluminum ions. The decolorization reaction appears to be a pseudo first-order reaction and increases with rising temperature.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Monometallic (Ag, Cu and Bimetallic Ag-Cu Particles for Antibacterial and Antifungal Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Paszkiewicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the experimental studies are concerned with the effect of the synthesis parameters on the formation of monometallic Ag and Cu nanoparticles (NPs. We consider the synthesis strategies verification for the bimetallic core-shell and alloy particles preparation. It was successfully obtained by chemical reduction method. The obtained colloidal solution is characterized by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX data, UV-Vis spectra, particle size distribution, and zeta potential. This work presents a comprehensive overview of experimental studies of the most stable colloidal solutions to impregnate fabrics that will exhibit a bactericidal and fungicidal activity against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus.

  1. Novel palladium-lead (Pd-Pb/C) bimetallic catalysts for electrooxidation of ethanol in alkaline media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi; Nguyen, Truong Son; Wang, Xin [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Liu, Xuewei [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2010-05-01

    Carbon-supported bimetallic palladium-lead (Pd-Pb/C) catalysts with different amounts of lead are prepared using a co-reduction method. The catalysts are characterized by various techniques, which reveal the formation of an alloy nanoparticle structure. The electrochemical activities of the catalysts towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline media are examined by cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and chronoamperometry methods. The results show that the Pd-Pb(4:1)/C catalyst exhibits a better catalytic activity than the Pd/C catalyst. From carbon monoxide (CO) stripping results, the addition of lead also facilitates the oxidative removal of adsorbed CO. The promoting effect of lead is explained by a bi-functional mechanism and d-band theory. (author)

  2. Structure and Morphology Effects on the Optical Properties of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Films Laser Deposited on a Glass Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Kucherik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Moving nanosecond laser system is used for laser-assisted thermodiffusion deposition of metallic nanoparticles from water-based colloidal solutions. The results obtained for both gold and silver nanoparticles show that film morphology strongly depends on laser scanning speed and the number of passages. We show, furthermore, the possibility of producing bimetallic Au:Ag thin films by laser irradiation of the mixed solutions. As a result of several laser scans, granular nanometric films are found to grow with a well-controlled composition, thickness, and morphology. By changing laser scanning parameters, film morphology can be varied from island structures to quasi-periodic arrays. The optical properties of the deposited structures are found to depend on the film composition, thickness, and mean separation between the particles. The transparency spectra of the deposited films are shown to be defined by their morphology.

  3. Bimetallic Treatment System (BTS) for Removal and Remediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyl from Marshall Space Flight Center's 4696 Fl Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    This Office of Space Flight (OSF)-funded project sought to demonstrate the application of a Bi-metallic Treatment System (BTS) to remove and degrade PCBs found on NASA facilities. The project initiated with the collection of PCB-containing materials from various MSFC and KSC structures, followed by laboratory evaluation of the BTS' PCB-removal efficiency, and concluded with a field demonstration at MSFC. The project evaluated the optimum formulation required to remove PCBs from aged and weathered paint with the goal of achieving final PCB concentrations less than 50 mg/Kg or 50 percent reduction where PCB starting levels were already below the 50 mg/Kg levels. Using lessons learned from this study, it was anticipated that the research team would be better able to make further recommendation on application strategies for future use of BTS for the treatment of PCB laden coatings on structures.

  4. Metathesis Polymerization Reactions Induced by the Bimetallic Complex (Ph4P2[W2(μ-Br3Br6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina Chriti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity of the bimetallic complex (Ph4P2[W2(μ-Br3Br6] ({W 2.5 W}7+, a′2e3 towards ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP of norbornene (NBE and some of its derivatives, as well as the mechanistically related metathesis polymerization of phenylacetylene (PA, is presented. Our results show that addition of a silver salt (AgBF4 is necessary for the activation of the ditungsten complex. Polymerization of PA proceeds smoothly in tetrahydrofuran (THF producing polyphenylacetylene (PPA in high yields. On the other hand, the ROMP of NBE and its derivatives is more efficient in CH2Cl2, providing high yields of polymers. 13C Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning (CPMAS spectra of insoluble polynorbornadiene (PNBD and polydicyclopentadiene (PDCPD revealed the operation of two mechanisms (metathetic and radical for cross-linking, with the metathesis pathway prevailing.

  5. Highly efficient removal of chromium(VI) by Fe/Ni bimetallic nanoparticles in an ultrasound-assisted system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobin; Jing, Guohua; Lv, Bihong; Zhou, Zuoming; Zhu, Runliang

    2016-10-01

    Highly active Fe/Ni bimetallic nanocomposites were prepared by using the liquid-phase reduction method, and they were proven to be effective for Cr(VI) removal coupled with US irradiation. The US-assisted Fe/Ni bimetallic system could maintain a good performance for Cr(VI) removal at a wide pH range of 3-9. Based on the characterization of the Fe/Ni nanoparticles before and after reaction, the high efficiency of the mixed system could attribute to the synergistic effects of the catalysis of Ni(0) and US cavitation. Ni(0) could facilitate the Cr(VI) reduction through electron transfer and catalytic hydrogenation. Meanwhile, US could fluidize the Fe/Ni nanoparticles to increase the actual reactive surface area and clean off the co-precipitated Fe(III)-Cr(III) hydroxides to maintain the active sites on the surface of the Fe/Ni nanoparticles. Thus, compared with shaking, the US-assisted Fe/Ni system was more efficient on Cr(VI) removal, which achieved 94.7% removal efficiency of Cr(VI) within 10 min. The pseudo-first-order rate constant (kobs) in US-assisted Fe/Ni system (0.5075 min(-1)) was over 5 times higher than that under shaking (0.0972 min(-1)). Moreover, the Fe/Ni nanoparticles still have a good performance under US irradiation after 26 days aging as well as regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Formation of bimetallic metal-organic framework nanosheets and their derived porous nickel-cobalt sulfides for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Wu, Meng-Ke; Tao, Kai; Zhou, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Yan-Li; Han, Xue; Han, Lei

    2018-04-24

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) show great advantages as new kinds of active materials for energy storage. In this study, bimetallic metal-organic frameworks (Ni/Co-MOFs) with nanosheet-assembled flower-like structures were synthesized by etching Ni-MOF microspheres in a cobalt nitrate solution. It can be clearly observed that the amount of Co(NO3)2 and etching time play crucial roles in the formation of Ni/Co-MOF nanosheets. The Ni/Co-MOFs were used as electrode materials for supercapacitors and the optimized Ni/Co-MOF-5 exhibited the highest capacitances of 1220.2 F g-1 and 986.7 F g-1 at current densities of 1 A g-1 and 10 A g-1, respectively. Ni/Co-MOF-5 was further sulfurized, and the derived Ni-Co-S electrode showed a higher specific capacitance of 1377.5 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 and a retention of 89.4% when the current density was increased to 10 A g-1, indicating superior rate capability. Furthermore, Ni/Co-MOF-5 and Ni-Co-S showed excellent cycling stability, i.e. about 87.8% and 93.7% of initial capacitance can be still maintained after 3000 cycles of charge-discharge. More interestingly, the Ni/Co-MOF-5//AC ASC shows an energy density of 30.9 W h kg-1 at a power density of 1132.8 W kg-1, and the Ni-Co-S//AC ASC displays a high energy density of 36.9 W h kg-1 at a power density of 1066.42 W kg-1. These results demonstrate that the as-synthesized bimetallic Ni/Co-MOF nanosheets and their derived nickel-cobalt sulfides have promising applications in electrochemical supercapacitors.

  7. Effects of doping in 25-atom bimetallic nanocluster catalysts for carbon–carbon coupling reaction of iodoanisole and phenylacetylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We here report the catalytic effects of foreign atoms (Cu, Ag, and Pt doped into well-defined 25-gold-atom nanoclusters. Using the carbon-carbon coupling reaction of p-iodoanisole and phenylacetylene as a model reaction, the gold-based bimetallic MxAu25−x(SR18 (–SR=–SCH2CH2Ph nanoclusters (supported on titania were found to exhibit distinct effects on the conversion of p-iodoanisole as well as the selectivity for the Sonogashira cross-coupling product, 1-methoxy-4-(2-phenylethynylbenzene. Compared to Au25(SR18, the centrally doped Pt1Au24(SR18 causes a drop in catalytic activity but with the selectivity retained, while the AgxAu25−x(SR18 nanoclusters gave an overall performance comparable to Au25(SR18. Interestingly, CuxAu25−x(SR18 nanoclusters prefer the Ullmann homo-coupling pathway and give rise to product 4,4′-dimethoxy-1,1′-biphenyl, which is in opposite to the other three nanocluster catalysts. Our overall conclusion is that the conversion of p-iodoanisole is largely affected by the electronic effect in the bimetallic nanoclusters’ 13-atom core (i.e., Pt1Au12, CuxAu13−x, and Au13, with the exception of Ag doping, and that the selectivity is primarily determined by the type of atoms on the MxAu12−x shell (M=Ag, Cu, and Au in the nanocluster catalysts.

  8. Sn surface-enriched Pt-Sn bimetallic nanoparticles as a selective and stable catalyst for propane dehydrogenation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Haibo

    2014-12-01

    A new one pot, surfactant-free, synthetic route based on the surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC) concept has been developed for the synthesis of Sn surface-enriched Pt-Sn nanoparticles. Bu3SnH selectively reacts with [Pt]-H formed in situ at the surface of Pt nanoparticles, Pt NPs, obtained by reduction of K2PtCl4 by LiB(C2H5)3H. Chemical analysis, 1H MAS and 13C CP/MAS solid-state NMR as well as two-dimensional double-quantum (DQ) and triple-quantum (TQ) experiments show that organo-tin moieties Sn(n-C4H9) are chemically linked to the surface of Pt NPs to produce, in fine, after removal of most of the n-butyl fragment, bimetallic Pt-Sn nanoparticles. The Sn(n-CH2CH2CH2CH3) groups remaining at the surface are believed to stabilize the as-synthesized Pt-Sn NPs, enabling the bimetallic NPs to be well dispersed in THF. Additionally, the Pt-Sn nanoparticles can be supported on MgAl2O4 during the synthesis of the nanoparticles. Some of the Pt-Sn/MgAl2O4 catalyst thus prepared exhibits high activity in PROX of CO and an extremely high selectivity and stability in propane dehydrogenation to propylene. The enhanced activity in propane dehydrogenation is associated with the high concentration of inactive Sn at the surface of Pt nanoparticles which ”isolates” the active Pt atoms. This conclusion is confirmed by XRD, NMR, TEM, and XPS analysis.

  9. Simultaneous adsorption and degradation of {gamma}-HCH by nZVI/Cu bimetallic nanoparticles with activated carbon support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Chun; Lian Fei [Key Laboratory of Pollution Process and Environmental Criteria, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Key Laboratory of Urban Ecology Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhu Lingyan, E-mail: zhuly@nankai.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Pollution Process and Environmental Criteria, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Key Laboratory of Urban Ecology Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Cu amended zero valent iron bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized by doping Cu on the surface of iron. They were incorporated with granular activated carbon (AC) to prepare supported particles (AC-Fe{sup 0}-Cu), which were used to remove {gamma}-HCH. Cu on the surface of iron enhanced the dechlorination activity of Fe{sup 0}. The dechlorination rate constant (k{sub obs}) increased with the Cu loading on the surface of iron and the maximum was achieved with 6.073% Cu. AC as a support was effective for increasing the dispersion of the nanoparticles and avoiding the agglomeration of the metallic nanoparticles. The simultaneous adsorption of {gamma}-HCH on AC accelerated the degradation rate of {gamma}-HCH by the bimetals. After reaction for 165 min, around 99% of {gamma}-HCH was removed by the solids of AC-Fe{sup 0}-Cu. In addition, AC could adsorb the degradation products. The degradation of {gamma}-HCH was mainly through dehydrochlorination and dichloroelmination based on the intermediate products detected by GC/MS. - Highlights: > Deposition of Cu on the surface of Fe enhances its dechlorination efficiency toward {gamma}-HCH. > Incorporation of the bimetallic nanoparticles with activated carbon (AC) reduces their agglomeration. > AC support increases the contact of {gamma}-HCH with the nanoparticles and enhances the degradation efficiency. > The AC support adsorbs {gamma}-HCH and its degradation products, reducing their ecological risks in water. - Impregnation of Cu amended iron on AC enhances the removal efficiency of {gamma}-HCH and reduces the concentrations of its intermediates in aqueous solution.

  10. Butt Welding of 2205/X65 Bimetallic Sheet and Study on the Inhomogeneity of the Properties of the Welded Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Ning-Nian; Zhang, Jian-Xun; Wang, Jian-Long; Bi, Zong-Yue

    2017-04-01

    The explosively welded 2205 duplex stainless steel/X65 pipe steel bimetallic sheets were butt jointed by multilayer and multi-pass welding (gas tungsten arc welding for the flyer and gas metal arc welding for the transition and parent layers of the bimetallic sheets). The microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joint were investigated. The results showed that in the thickness direction, microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joint exhibited obvious inhomogeneity. The microstructures of parent filler layers consisted of acicular ferrite, widmanstatten ferrite, and a small amount of blocky ferrite. The microstructure of the transition layer and flyer layer consisted of both austenite and ferrite structures; however, the transition layer of weld had a higher volume fraction of austenite. The results of the microhardness test showed that in both weld metal (WM) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the parent filler layers, the average hardness decreased with the increasing (from parent filler layer 1 to parent filler layer 3) welding heat input. The results of hardness test also indicated that the hardness of the WM and the HAZ for the flyer and transition layers was equivalent. The tensile test combined with Digital Specklegram Processing Technology demonstrated that the fracturing of the welded joint started at the HAZ of the flyer, and then the fracture grew toward the base metal of the parent flyer near the parent HAZ. The stratified impact test at -5 °C showed that the WM and HAZ of the flyer exhibited lower impact toughness, and the fracture mode was ductile and brittle mixed fracture.

  11. Cluster Decline and Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark, 1963......-2011. Our longitudinal study reveals that technological lock-in and exit of key firms have contributed to impairment of the cluster’s resilience in adapting to disruptions. Entrepreneurship has a positive effect on cluster resilience, while multinational companies have contradicting effects by bringing...... in new resources to the cluster but being quick to withdraw in times of crisis....

  12. Ages and chemical compositions of massive globular clusters in NGC147 and M31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharina, Margarita; Shimansky, Vladislav

    2015-08-01

    We present estimates of ages, [Fe/H], helium contents (Y) and abundances of C, N, Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Co and Ni for the following globular clusters (GCs): 7 in NGC147, and Mayall II, Mackey 1 and Mackey 6 in M31. Medium-resolution integrated-light spectra of the GCs were conducted with the 6m telescope. To derive the ages and abundances for the GCs we carried out their population synthesis using model stellar atmospheres, the Padova YZVAR isochrones and the Chabrier mass function. We compare the results with the corresponding data obtained using the same method for several massive Galactic GCs. We show that the differences in the Mg and C abundances between GCs with similar ages and metallicities may reach 0.5-0.6 dex. The corresponding differences for other elements are usually ˜2-3 times smaller. We suggest that at least partially the detected differences may be due to Mg and C abundance variations in the atmospheres of high-luminosity red giant branch stars as a consequence of the transportation of the produced elements to the surface layers.

  13. Galactic Pal-eontology: abundance analysis of the disrupting globular cluster Palomar 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Andreas; Côté, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    We present a chemical abundance analysis of the tidally disrupted globular cluster (GC) Palomar 5. By co-adding high-resolution spectra of 15 member stars from the cluster's main body, taken at low signal-to-noise with the Keck/HIRES spectrograph, we were able to measure integrated abundance ratios of 24 species of 20 elements including all major nucleosynthetic channels (namely the light element Na; α-elements Mg, Si, Ca, Ti; Fe-peak and heavy elements Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn; and the neutron-capture elements Y, Zr, Ba, La, Nd, Sm, Eu). The mean metallicity of -1.56 ± 0.02 ± 0.06 dex (statistical and systematic errors) agrees well with the values from individual, low-resolution measurements of individual stars, but it is lower than previous high-resolution results of a small number of stars in the literature. Comparison with Galactic halo stars and other disrupted and unperturbed GCs renders Pal 5 a typical representative of the Milky Way halo population, as has been noted before, emphasizing that the early chemical evolution of such clusters is decoupled from their later dynamical history. We also performed a test as to the detectability of light element variations in this co-added abundance analysis technique and found that this approach is not sensitive even in the presence of a broad range in sodium of 0.6 dex, a value typically found in the old halo GCs. Thus, while methods of determining the global abundance patterns of such objects are well suited to study their overall enrichment histories, chemical distinctions of their multiple stellar populations is still best obtained from measurements of individual stars. Full Table 3 is is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/601/A41

  14. Comprehensive cluster analysis with Transitivity Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkop, Tobias; Emig, Dorothea; Truss, Anke; Albrecht, Mario; Böcker, Sebastian; Baumbach, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Transitivity Clustering is a method for the partitioning of biological data into groups of similar objects, such as genes, for instance. It provides integrated access to various functions addressing each step of a typical cluster analysis. To facilitate this, Transitivity Clustering is accessible online and offers three user-friendly interfaces: a powerful stand-alone version, a web interface, and a collection of Cytoscape plug-ins. In this paper, we describe three major workflows: (i) protein (super)family detection with Cytoscape, (ii) protein homology detection with incomplete gold standards and (iii) clustering of gene expression data. This protocol guides the user through the most important features of Transitivity Clustering and takes ∼1 h to complete.

  15. LMC clusters: young

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, K.C.

    1980-01-01

    The young globular clusters of the LMC have ages of 10 7 -10 8 y. Their masses and structure are similar to those of the smaller galactic globular clusters. Their stellar mass functions (in the mass range 6 solar masses to 1.2 solar masses) vary greatly from cluster to cluster, although the clusters are similar in total mass, age, structure and chemical composition. It would be very interesting to know why these clusters are forming now in the LMC and not in the Galaxy. The author considers the 'young globular' or 'blue populous' clusters of the LMC. The ages of these objects are 10 7 to 10 8 y, and their masses are 10 4 to 10 5 solar masses, so they are populous enough to be really useful for studying the evolution of massive stars. The author concentrates on the structure and stellar content of these young clusters. (Auth.)

  16. Star clusters and associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruprecht, J.; Palous, J.

    1983-01-01

    All 33 papers presented at the symposium were inputted to INIS. They dealt with open clusters, globular clusters, stellar associations and moving groups, and local kinematics and galactic structures. (E.S.)

  17. Cluster beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.

    1978-01-01

    Areas of possible applications of cluster injection are discussed. The deposition inside the plasma of molecules, issued from the dissociation of the injected clusters, has been computed. Some empirical scaling laws for the penetration are given

  18. Self-assembled monolayers of bimetallic Au/Ag nanospheres with superior surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity for ultra-sensitive triphenylmethane dyes detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yue; Zhang, Hua; Xu, Linlin; Chen, Ming; Chen, Feng

    2018-02-15

    The bimetallic Au/Ag self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were constructed by using mono-dispersed Au/Ag nanospheres (Ag: 4.07%-34.53%) via evaporation-based assembly strategy. The composition-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy revealed that the Au/Ag (Ag: 16.83%) SAMs provide maximized activity for triphenylmethane dyes detection. With the inter-metallic synergy, the optimized SAMs enable the Raman intensity of crystal violet molecules to be about 223 times higher than that of monometallic Au SAMs. Moreover, the SERS signals with excellent uniformity (<5% variation) are sensitive down to 10 -13   M concentrations because of the optimal matching between bimetallic plasmon resonance and the incident laser wavelength.

  19. Bimetallic NiFe2O4 synthesized via confined carburization in NiFe-MOFs for efficient oxygen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhiqiang; Hao, Zhaomin; Dong, Qingsong; Cui, Yong

    2018-04-01

    Transition metal oxides that derived from metal-organic framework (MOF) precursor have intensively received attention because of their numerous electrochemical applications. Bimetallic Ni-Fe oxides have been rarely reported on the basis of MOF-related strategy. Herein, a bimetallic NiFe2O4 was successfully synthesized via confined carburization in NiFe-MOF precursors and characterized by XRD, XPS, SEM, and TEM. After conducting an investigation of oxygen evolution reaction (OER), the as-synthesized NiFe2O4 material exhibited good catalytic efficiency and high stability and durability in alkaline media. The as-synthesized NiFe2O4 material would promote the development of MOFs in non-noble-metal OER catalyst.

  20. Clustering at high redshifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    Evidence for clustering of and with high-redshift QSOs is discussed. QSOs of different redshifts show no clustering, but QSOs of similar redshifts appear to be clustered on a scale comparable to that of galaxies at the present epoch. In addition, spectroscopic studies of close pairs of QSOs indicate that QSOs are surrounded by a relatively high density of absorbing matter, possibly clusters of galaxies

  1. Cluster Physics with Merging Galaxy Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor M. Molnar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Collisions between galaxy clusters provide a unique opportunity to study matter in a parameter space which cannot be explored in our laboratories on Earth. In the standard LCDM model, where the total density is dominated by the cosmological constant ($Lambda$ and the matter density by cold dark matter (CDM, structure formation is hierarchical, and clusters grow mostly by merging.Mergers of two massive clusters are the most energetic events in the universe after the Big Bang,hence they provide a unique laboratory to study cluster physics.The two main mass components in clusters behave differently during collisions:the dark matter is nearly collisionless, responding only to gravity, while the gas is subject to pressure forces and dissipation, and shocks and turbulenceare developed during collisions. In the present contribution we review the different methods used to derive the physical properties of merging clusters. Different physical processes leave their signatures on different wavelengths, thusour review is based on a multifrequency analysis. In principle, the best way to analyze multifrequency observations of merging clustersis to model them using N-body/HYDRO numerical simulations. We discuss the results of such detailed analyses.New high spatial and spectral resolution ground and space based telescopeswill come online in the near future. Motivated by these new opportunities,we briefly discuss methods which will be feasible in the near future in studying merging clusters.

  2. Size selected metal clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The Optical Absorption Spectra of Small Silver Clusters (5-11) ... Soft Landing and Fragmentation of Small Clusters Deposited in Noble-Gas Films. Harbich, W.; Fedrigo, S.; Buttet, J. Phys. Rev. B 1998, 58, 7428. CO combustion on supported gold clusters. Arenz M ...

  3. The Durban Auto Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jochen; Robbins, Glen; Barnes, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the formation of the Durban Auto Cluster in the context of trade liberalization. It argues that the improvement of operational competitiveness of firms in the cluster is prominently due to joint action. It tests this proposition by comparing the gains from cluster activities...

  4. Marketing research cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Nebojša

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One area of applications of cluster analysis in marketing is identification of groups of cities and towns with similar demographic profiles. This paper considers main aspects of cluster analysis by an example of clustering 12 cities with the use of Minitab software.

  5. Marketing research cluster analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Marić Nebojša

    2002-01-01

    One area of applications of cluster analysis in marketing is identification of groups of cities and towns with similar demographic profiles. This paper considers main aspects of cluster analysis by an example of clustering 12 cities with the use of Minitab software.

  6. Minimalist's linux cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang-Yeong; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Kim, Seyong

    2004-01-01

    Using barebone PC components and NIC's, we construct a linux cluster which has 2-dimensional mesh structure. This cluster has smaller footprint, is less expensive, and use less power compared to conventional linux cluster. Here, we report our experience in building such a machine and discuss our current lattice project on the machine

  7. Range-clustering queries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamsen, M.; de Berg, M.T.; Buchin, K.A.; Mehr, M.; Mehrabi, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    In a geometric k -clustering problem the goal is to partition a set of points in R d into k subsets such that a certain cost function of the clustering is minimized. We present data structures for orthogonal range-clustering queries on a point set S : given a query box Q and an integer k>2 , compute

  8. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the den- sity and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state parameter w. Upcoming Sunyaev–. Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys would provide us large yields of clusters to ...

  9. Oxygen reduction reaction (orr) on bimetallic AuPt and AuPd(1 0 0)-electrodes: Effects of the heteroatomic junction on the reaction paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, E.; Belletti, G.; Arce, M.; Quaino, P.

    2018-05-01

    The seek for materials to enhance the oxygen reduction reaction (orr) rate is a highly relevant topic due to its implication in fuel cell devices. Herein, the orr on bimetallic electrocatalysts based on Au-M (M = Pt, Pd) has been studied computationally, by performing density functional theory calculations. Bimetallic (1 0 0) electrode surfaces with two different Au:M ratios were proposed, and two possible pathways, associative and dissociative, were considered for the orr. Changes in the electronic properties of these materials with respect to the pure metals were acknowledged to gain understanding in the overall reactivity trend. The effect of the bimetallic junction on the stability of the intermediates O2 and OOH was also evaluated by means of geometrical and energetic parameters; being the intermediates preferably adsorbed on Pt/Pd atoms, but presenting in some cases higher adsorption energies compared with bare metals. Finally, the kinetics of the Osbnd O bond breaking in O2∗ and OOH∗ adsorbed intermediates in the bimetallic materials and the influence of the Au-M junction were studied by means of the nudge elastic-band method. A barrierless process for the scission of O2∗ was found in Au-M for the higher M ratios. Surprisingly, for Au-M with lower M ratios, the barriers were much lower than for pure Au surfaces, suggesting a highly reactive surface towards the orr. The Osbnd O scission of the OOH∗ was found to be a barrierless process in Ausbnd Pt systems and nearly barrierless in all Ausbnd Pd systems, implying that the reduction ofO2 in these systems proceeds via the full reduction of O2 to H2O , avoiding H2O2 formation.

  10. Enhanced and Tunable Optical Quantum Efficiencies from Plasmon Bandwidth Engineering in Bimetallic CoAg Nanoparticles (Open Access Publisher’s Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    size for the Co-Ag systems . in Fig. 2(b). Fig. 2(c) compares the plasmon resonance energy and the bandwidth of the bimetallic systems as a function...nanoparticle shape and size effects on aluminum oxide-induced enhancement of exciton-plasmon coupling and quantum dot emission J. Appl. Phys. 118, 124302...thin film photovoltaics : A case-study on organic devices J. Appl. Phys. 116, 114510 (2014); 10.1063/1.4896167 Cascaded plasmon resonant field

  11. Structure determination of chitosan-stabilized Pt and Pd based bimetallic nanoparticles by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Lihua; Shafii, Salimah; Nordin, Mohd Ridzuan; Liew, Kong Yong; Li, Jinlin

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan (CTS)-stabilized bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared at room temperature (rt.) in aqueous solution. Palladium (Pd) and platinum (Pt) were selected as the first metals while iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) functioned as the second metals. In order to obtain the noble metal core-transition metal shell structures, bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared in a two-step process: the preparation of mono noble metallic (Pd or Pt) nanoparticles and the deposition of transition metals (Fe or Ni) on the surface of the monometallic nanoparticles. The structures of the nanoparticles were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XPS results show that Pd and Pt exist mainly in zero valences. The presence of Fe and Ni in the bimetallic nanoparticles affects the binding energy of Pd and Pt. Moreover, the studies of O 1s spectra indicate the presence of Fe or Ni shells. The analyses of TEM micrographs give the particle size and size distributions while the high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) micrographs show the existence of noble metal core lattices. The results confirm the formation of noble metal core-transition metal shell structures. -- Highlights: ► Chitosan-stabilized bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared at room temperature in aqueous solution. ► The presence of Fe or Ni shells was proven by XPS study. ► The existence of noble metal cores covered by amorphous shells was indicated by TEM study. ► The formation of noble metal core-transition metal shell structures was confirmed.

  12. CuAu–ZnO–graphene nanocomposite: A novel graphene-based bimetallic alloy-semiconductor catalyst with its enhanced photocatalytic degradation performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Hong; Ye, Xiaoliang; Duan, Kaiyue; Xue, Muyin; Du, Yongling; Ye, Weichun; Wang, Chunming

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this work, we have successfully synthesized a novel graphene-based bimetallic alloy-semiconductor catalyst: CuAu–ZnO–Gr nanocomposite, and which behaved an enhanced photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • A bimetallic alloy-based catalyst: CuAu–ZnO–Gr is synthesized. • CuAu–ZnO–Gr behaves an enhanced photocatalytic activity. • The detailed explanation of photocatalytic mechanism of CuAu–ZnO–Gr. - Abstract: The bimetallic alloy CuAu nanoparticles (NPs) can produce more photogenerated electrons when compared with single metal Au NPs. Moreover, graphene (Gr) sheets can help the charge separation and slow down the recombination of the electron hole pairs of ZnO. Hence, a novel graphene-based bimetallic alloy-semiconductor catalyst: CuAu–ZnO–Gr nanocomposite is synthesized. Due to the synergistic effect among CuAu NPs, ZnO nanopyramids, and Gr sheets, CuAu–ZnO–Gr behaves an enhanced photocatalytic activity for the photocatalytic degradation of synthetic colorants methyl orange (MO), methylene blue (MB), indigotin (IN), sunset yellow (SY), and tartrazine (TT) under the simulated sunlight irradiation. Furthermore, the apparent rate constants (k app ) of MO, MB, IN, SY, and TT degradation are estimated respectively. In addition, the as-prepared CuAu–ZnO–Gr nanocomposite is characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV–vis spectrum, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and EDX mapping. As a result of the facile synthesis route and the enhanced photocatalytic activity, this new material CuAu–ZnO–Gr can be a promising photocatalyst for the degradation of dyes

  13. CuAu–ZnO–graphene nanocomposite: A novel graphene-based bimetallic alloy-semiconductor catalyst with its enhanced photocatalytic degradation performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Hong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ye, Xiaoliang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Duan, Kaiyue; Xue, Muyin; Du, Yongling; Ye, Weichun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Chunming, E-mail: wangcm@lzu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-07-05

    Graphical abstract: In this work, we have successfully synthesized a novel graphene-based bimetallic alloy-semiconductor catalyst: CuAu–ZnO–Gr nanocomposite, and which behaved an enhanced photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • A bimetallic alloy-based catalyst: CuAu–ZnO–Gr is synthesized. • CuAu–ZnO–Gr behaves an enhanced photocatalytic activity. • The detailed explanation of photocatalytic mechanism of CuAu–ZnO–Gr. - Abstract: The bimetallic alloy CuAu nanoparticles (NPs) can produce more photogenerated electrons when compared with single metal Au NPs. Moreover, graphene (Gr) sheets can help the charge separation and slow down the recombination of the electron hole pairs of ZnO. Hence, a novel graphene-based bimetallic alloy-semiconductor catalyst: CuAu–ZnO–Gr nanocomposite is synthesized. Due to the synergistic effect among CuAu NPs, ZnO nanopyramids, and Gr sheets, CuAu–ZnO–Gr behaves an enhanced photocatalytic activity for the photocatalytic degradation of synthetic colorants methyl orange (MO), methylene blue (MB), indigotin (IN), sunset yellow (SY), and tartrazine (TT) under the simulated sunlight irradiation. Furthermore, the apparent rate constants (k{sub app}) of MO, MB, IN, SY, and TT degradation are estimated respectively. In addition, the as-prepared CuAu–ZnO–Gr nanocomposite is characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV–vis spectrum, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and EDX mapping. As a result of the facile synthesis route and the enhanced photocatalytic activity, this new material CuAu–ZnO–Gr can be a promising photocatalyst for the degradation of dyes.

  14. Comparative study on the reactivity of Fe/Cu bimetallic particles and zero valent iron (ZVI) under different conditions of N2, air or without aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhaokun; Lai, Bo; Yang, Ping; Zhou, Yuexi; Wang, Juling; Fang, Shuping

    2015-10-30

    In order to further compare the degradation capacity of Fe(0) and Fe/Cu bimetallic system under different aeration conditions, the mineralization of PNP under different aeration conditions has been investigated thoroughly. The results show that the removal of PNP by Fe(0) or Fe/Cu system followed the pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. Under the optimal conditions, the COD removal efficiencies obtained through Fe(0) or Fe/Cu system under different aeration conditions followed the trend that Fe/Cu (air)>Fe/Cu (N2: 0-30 min, air: 30-120 min)>control-Fe (air)>Fe/Cu (without aeration)>Fe/Cu (N2)>control-Fe (N2). It revealed that dissolved oxygen (DO) could improve the mineralization of PNP, and Cu could enhance the reactivity of Fe(0). In addition, the degradation of PNP was further analyzed by using UV-vis, FTIR and GC/MS, and the results suggest that Fe/Cu bimetallic system with air aeration could completely break the benzene ring and NO2 structure of PNP and could generate the nontoxic and biodegradable intermediate products. Meanwhile, most of these intermediate products were further mineralized into CO2 and H2O, which brought about a high COD removal efficiency (83.8%). Therefore, Fe/Cu bimetallic system with air aeration would be a promising process for toxic refractory industry wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. High Sensitive and Selective Sensing of Hydrogen Peroxide Released from Pheochromocytoma Cells Based on Pt-Au Bimetallic Nanoparticles Electrodeposited on Reduced Graphene Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxia Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a high sensitive and selective hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 sensor was successfully constructed with Pt-Au bimetallic nanoparticles (Pt-Au NPs/reduced graphene sheets (rGSs hybrid films. Various molar ratios of Au to Pt and different electrodeposition conditions were evaluated to control the morphology and electrocatalytic activity of the Pt-Au bimetallic nanoparticles. Upon optimal conditions, wide linear ranges from 1 µM to 1.78 mM and 1.78 mM to 16.8 mM were obtained, with a detection limit as low as 0.31 µM. Besides, due to the synergetic effects of the bimetallic NPs and rGSs, the amperometric H2O2 sensor could operate at a low potential of 0 V. Under this potential, not only common anodic interferences induced from ascorbic acid, uric acid and dopamine, but also the cathodic interference induced from endogenous O2 could be effectively avoided. Furthermore, with rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC 12 as model, the proposed sensor had been successfully used in the detection of H2O2 released from the cancer cells. This method with wide linear ranges and excellent selectivity can provide a promising alternative for H2O2 monitoring in vivo in the fields of physiology, pathology and diagnosis.

  16. Bimetallic low thermal-expansion panels of Co-base and silicide-coated Nb-base alloys for high-temperature structural applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhein, R.K.; Novak, M.D.; Levi, C.G.; Pollock, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Low net thermal expansion bimetallic structural lattice constructed. → Temperatures on the order of 1000 deg. C reached. → Improved silicide coating for niobium alloy developed. - Abstract: The fabrication and high temperature performance of low thermal expansion bimetallic lattices composed of Co-base and Nb-base alloys have been investigated. A 2D sheet lattice with a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) lower than the constituent materials of construction was designed for thermal cycling to 1000 deg. C with the use of elastic-plastic finite element analyses. The low CTE lattice consisted of a continuous network of the Nb-base alloy C-103 with inserts of high CTE Co-base alloy Haynes 188. A new coating approach wherein submicron alumina particles were incorporated into (Nb, Cr, Fe) silicide coatings was employed for oxidation protection of the Nb-base alloy. Thermal gravimetric analysis results indicate that the addition of submicron alumina particles reduced the oxidative mass gain by a factor of four during thermal cycling, increasing lifetime. Bimetallic cells with net expansion of 6 x 10 -6 /deg. C and 1 x 10 -6 /deg. C at 1000 deg. C were demonstrated and their measured thermal expansion characteristics were consistent with analytical models and finite element analysis predictions.

  17. Treatment of ammonia by catalytic wet oxidation process over platinum-rhodium bimetallic catalyst in a trickle-bed reactor: effect of pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chang-Mao; Lin, Wei-Bang; Ho, Ching-Lin; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Hsia, Shao-Yi

    2010-08-01

    This work adopted aqueous solutions of ammonia for use in catalytic liquid-phase reduction in a trickle-bed reactor with a platinum-rhodium bimetallic catalyst, prepared by the co-precipitation of chloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) and rhodium nitrate [Rh(NO3)3]. The experimental results demonstrated that a minimal amount of ammonia was removed from the solution by wet oxidation in the absence of any catalyst, while approximately 97.0% of the ammonia was removed by wet oxidation over the platinum-rhodium bimetallic catalyst at 230 degrees C with an oxygen partial pressure of 2.0 MPa. The oxidation of ammonia has been studied as a function of pH, and the main reaction products were determined. A synergistic effect is manifest in the platinum-rhodium bimetallic structure, in which the material has the greatest capacity to reduce ammonia. The reaction pathway linked the oxidizing ammonia to nitric oxide, nitrogen, and water.

  18. Synergy between Two Metal Catalysts: A Highly Active Silica Supported Bimetallic W/Zr Catalyst for Metathesis of n-Decane

    KAUST Repository

    Samantaray, Manoja

    2016-06-01

    A well-defined, silica supported, bimetallic precatalyst [≡Si-O-W(Me)5 ≡Si-O-Zr(Np)3](4) has been synthesized for the first time via successively grafting two organometallic complexes [W(CH3)6 (1) followed by ZrNp4 (2)] on a single silica support. Surprisingly, multiple quantum NMR characterization demonstrates that W and Zr species are in close proximity to each other. Hydrogenation of this bimetallic catalyst at room temperature showed the easy formation of Zirconium hydride, probably facilitated by tungsten hydride which was formed at this temperature. This bimetallic W/Zr hydride precatalyst proved to be more efficient (TON: 1436) than the monometallic W hydride (TON: 650) in metathesis of n-decane at 150 0C. This synergy between Zr and W suggests that the slow step of alkane metathesis is the C-H bond activation which occurs on Zr. The produced olefin resulting from a ß–H elimination undergoes easy metathesis on W.

  19. Characterization and electrocatalytic activity of Pt–M (M=Cu, Ag, and Pd) bimetallic nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed plasma discharge in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-Min; Cho, Ah-Rong; Lee, Sang-Yul, E-mail: sylee@kau.ac.kr [Korea Aerospace University, Department of Materials Engineering, Center for Surface Technology and Applications (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    The synthetic approach for electrocatalysts is one of the most important methods of determining electrocatalytic performance. In this work, we synthesized Pt and Pt–M (M=Cu, Ag, and Pd) bimetallic nanoparticles using a pulsed plasma discharge in water. A morphological investigation revealed that the as-synthesized Pt and Pt–M bimetallic nanoparticles constituted a nanochain network structure interconnected with primary nanoparticles of 4–6 nm in size, and the nanochains grew from the primary nanoparticles via the oriented attachment. The Z-contrast, EDX line scanning, and XRD analysis confirmed that the Pt was alloyed with M without elemental segregation or phase segregation. Furthermore, it was found that the composition difference was dependent on the electrode temperature determined by the power density and thermal parameters. The electrochemical results revealed that the electrocatalytic activity, stability, and durability of the Pt–Ag bimetallic nanoparticles were superior with respect to the methanol oxidation reaction, which could be attributed to the downshift of the d-band center via electronic modification.

  20. Study on the effect of nanoparticle bimetallic coreshell Au-Ag for sensitivity enhancement of biosensor based on surface plasmon resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widayanti; Abraha, K

    2016-01-01

    Bimetallic Au-Ag core-shell, a type of composite spherical nanoparticle consisting of a spherical Au core covered by Ag shell, have been used as active material for biomolecular analyte detection based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. SPR technology evolved into a key technology for characterization of biomolecular interaction. In this paper, we want to show the influence of nanoparticle bimettalic Au-Ag coreshell for optic respon of LSPR biosensor through attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectrum. The method consist of several steps begin from make a model LSPR system with Kretschmann configuration, dielectric function determination of composite bimetallic coreshell nanoparticle using effective medium theory approximation and the last is reflectivity calculation for size variation of core and shell bimetallic nanoparticle. Our result show that, by varying the radius of core and shell thickness, the peak of the reflectivity (ATR spectrum) shifted to the different angle of incident light and the addition of coreshell in SPR biosensor leads to enhancement the sensitivity. (paper)