Mean Field Forward-Backward Stochastic Differential Equations
Carmona, René; Delarue, François
2013-01-01
The purpose of this note is to provide an existence result for the solution of fully coupled Forward Backward Stochastic Differential Equations (FBSDEs) of the mean field type. These equations occur in the study of mean field games and the optimal control of dynamics of the McKean Vlasov type.
Existence of a solution to an equation arising from the theory of Mean Field Games
Gangbo, Wilfrid; Święch, Andrzej
2015-12-01
We construct a small time strong solution to a nonlocal Hamilton-Jacobi equation (1.1) introduced in [48], the so-called master equation, originating from the theory of Mean Field Games. We discover a link between metric viscosity solutions to local Hamilton-Jacobi equations studied in [2,19,20] and solutions to (1.1). As a consequence we recover the existence of solutions to the First Order Mean Field Games equations (1.2), first proved in [48], and make a more rigorous connection between the master equation (1.1) and the Mean Field Games equations (1.2).
A bilocal picture of quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new, bilocal picture of quantum mechanics is developed. We show that Born’s rule supports a virtual probability for a particle to arrive, as a wave, at any two locations (but no more). We discuss two ways to implement twin detectors suitable for detecting bilocal arrivals. The bilocal picture sheds light on currents in quantum mechanics. We find there are two types of bilocal current density, whose polar form and related mean velocities are given. In the bilocal context, the definitions of both current types simplify. In the unilocal case, the two types become the usual current and a fluctuation current. Their respective mean velocity fields are the usual de Broglie–Madelung–Bohm velocity and the imaginary (osmotic) velocity. We obtain a new, probabilistic Schrödinger equation for the bilocal probability by itself, solve the example of a free particle, develop the dyadic stationary states, and find that the von Neumann equation for time-varying density of states follows directly from the new equation. We also show how to include the electromagnetic potentials in this probabilistic Schrödinger equation. (paper)
On the dynamics of mean-field equations for stochastic neural fields with delays
Touboul, Jonathan
2011-01-01
The cortex is composed of large-scale cell assemblies sharing the same individual properties and receiving the same input, in charge of certain functions, and subject to noise. Such assemblies are characterized by specific space locations and space-dependent delayed interactions. The mean-field equations for such systems were rigorously derived in a recent paper for general models, under mild assumptions on the network, using probabilistic methods. We summarize and investigate general implications of this result. We then address the dynamics of these stochastic neural field equations in the case of firing-rate neurons. This is a unique case where the very complex stochastic mean-field equations exactly reduce to a set of delayed differential or integro-differential equations on the two first moments of the solutions, this reduction being possible due to the Gaussian nature of the solutions. The obtained equations differ from more customary approaches in that it incorporates intrinsic noise levels nonlinearly ...
Bound Pairs of Fronts in a Real Ginzburg-Landau Equation Coupled to a Mean Field
Herrero, H
1995-01-01
Motivated by the observation of localized traveling-wave states (`pulses') in convection in binary liquid mixtures, the interaction of fronts is investigated in a real Ginzburg-Landau equation which is coupled to a mean field. In that system the Ginzburg-Landau equation describes the traveling-wave amplitude and the mean field corrsponds to a concentration mode which arises due to the slowness of mass diffusion. For single fronts the mean field can lead to a hysteretic transition between slow and fast fronts. Its contribution to the interaction between fronts can be attractive as well as repulsive and depends strongly on their direction of propagation. Thus, the concentration mode leads to a new localization mechanism, which does not require any dispersion in contrast to that operating in the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Based on this mechanism alone, pairs of fronts in binary-mixture convection are expected to form {\\it stable} pulses if they travel {\\it backward}, i.e. opposite to the phase velocity. Fo...
Mean-field potential calculations of high-pressure equation of state for BeO
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Qi-Li; Zhang Ping; Song Hai-Feng; Liu Hai-Feng
2008-01-01
A systematic study of the Hugoniot equation of state, phase transition, and the other thermodynamic properties including the Hugoniot temperature, the electronic and ionic heat capacities, and the Griineisen parameter for shockcompressed BeO, has been carried out by calculating the total free energy. The method of calculations combines first-principles treatment for 0 K and finite-T electronic contribution and the mean-field-potential approach for the vibrational contribution of the lattice ion to the total energy. Our calculated Hugoniot is in good agreement with the experimental data.
Chavanis, Pierre-Henri
2008-01-01
We consider a generalized class of Keller-Segel models describing the chemotaxis of biological populations (bacteria, amoebae, endothelial cells, social insects,...). We show the analogy with nonlinear mean field Fokker-Planck equations and generalized thermodynamics. As an illustration, we introduce a new model of chemotaxis incorporating both effects of anomalous diffusion and exclusion principle (volume filling). We also discuss the analogy between biological populations described by the Keller-Segel model and self-gravitating Brownian particles described by the Smoluchowski-Poisson system.
Mean-field treatment of the many-body Fokker-Planck equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We review some properties of the stationary states of the Fokker-Planck equation for N interacting particles within a mean-field approximation, which yields a non-linear integrodifferential equation for the particle density. Analytical results show that for attractive long-range potentials the steady state is always a precipitate containing one or several clusters of small size. For arbitrary potential, linear stability analysis allows the statement of the conditions under which the uniform equilibrium state is unstable against small perturbations and, via the Einstein relation, definition of a critical temperature Tc separating the two phases, uniform and precipitate. The corresponding phase diagram turns out to be strongly dependent on the pair-potential. In addition, numerical calculations reveal that the transition is hysteretic. We finally discuss the dynamics of relaxation for the uniform state suddenly cooled below Tc. (author)
Relativistic mean-field theory and the high-density nuclear equation of state
Müller, H; Mueller, Horst; Serot, Brian D
1996-01-01
The properties of high-density nuclear and neutron matter are studied using a relativistic mean-field approximation to the nuclear matter energy functional. Based on ideas of effective field theory, nonlinear interactions between the fields are introduced to parametrize the density dependence of the energy functional. Various types of nonlinearities involving scalar-isoscalar (\\sigma), vector-isoscalar (\\omega), and vector-isovector (\\rho) fields are studied. After calibrating the model parameters at equilibrium nuclear matter density, the model and parameter dependence of the resulting equation of state is examined in the neutron-rich and high-density regime. It is possible to build different models that reproduce the same observed properties at normal nuclear densities, but which yield maximum neutron star masses that differ by more than one solar mass. Implications for the existence of kaon condensates or quark cores in neutron stars are discussed.
Relativistic Mean-Field Theory and the High-Density Nuclear Equation of State
Mueller, Horst; Serot, Brian D.
1996-01-01
The properties of high-density nuclear and neutron matter are studied using a relativistic mean-field approximation to the nuclear matter energy functional. Based on ideas of effective field theory, nonlinear interactions between the fields are introduced to parametrize the density dependence of the energy functional. Various types of nonlinearities involving scalar-isoscalar ($\\sigma$), vector-isoscalar ($\\omega$), and vector-isovector ($\\rho$) fields are studied. After calibrating the model...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this article, we show how Ehrenfest mean field theory can be made both a more accurate and efficient method to treat nonadiabatic quantum dynamics by combining it with the generalized quantum master equation framework. The resulting mean field generalized quantum master equation (MF-GQME) approach is a non-perturbative and non-Markovian theory to treat open quantum systems without any restrictions on the form of the Hamiltonian that it can be applied to. By studying relaxation dynamics in a wide range of dynamical regimes, typical of charge and energy transfer, we show that MF-GQME provides a much higher accuracy than a direct application of mean field theory. In addition, these increases in accuracy are accompanied by computational speed-ups of between one and two orders of magnitude that become larger as the system becomes more nonadiabatic. This combination of quantum-classical theory and master equation techniques thus makes it possible to obtain the accuracy of much more computationally expensive approaches at a cost lower than even mean field dynamics, providing the ability to treat the quantum dynamics of atomistic condensed phase systems for long times
Touboul, Jonathan
2012-08-01
In this manuscript we analyze the collective behavior of mean-field limits of large-scale, spatially extended stochastic neuronal networks with delays. Rigorously, the asymptotic regime of such systems is characterized by a very intricate stochastic delayed integro-differential McKean-Vlasov equation that remain impenetrable, leaving the stochastic collective dynamics of such networks poorly understood. In order to study these macroscopic dynamics, we analyze networks of firing-rate neurons, i.e. with linear intrinsic dynamics and sigmoidal interactions. In that case, we prove that the solution of the mean-field equation is Gaussian, hence characterized by its two first moments, and that these two quantities satisfy a set of coupled delayed integro-differential equations. These equations are similar to usual neural field equations, and incorporate noise levels as a parameter, allowing analysis of noise-induced transitions. We identify through bifurcation analysis several qualitative transitions due to noise in the mean-field limit. In particular, stabilization of spatially homogeneous solutions, synchronized oscillations, bumps, chaotic dynamics, wave or bump splitting are exhibited and arise from static or dynamic Turing-Hopf bifurcations. These surprising phenomena allow further exploring the role of noise in the nervous system.
Jiang, Wei-Zhou; Li, Bao-An; Chen, Lie-Wen
2007-01-01
Using in-medium hadron properties according to the Brown-Rho scaling due to the chiral symmetry restoration at high densities and considering naturalness of the coupling constants, we have newly constructed several relativistic mean-field Lagrangians with chiral limits. The model parameters are adjusted such that the symmetric part of the resulting equation of state at supra-normal densities is consistent with that required by the collective flow data from high energy heavy-ion reactions, whi...
Investigation Of Mean-Field Equations Of ANNNI Model For The Phase Transition In UNi2Si2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The phase transition from the uncompensated antiferromagnetic state to a simple antiferromagnet, experimentally observed in UNi2Si2 is a subject of intensive discussion in recent few years. We present a study of initial mean-field equations of Axial-Next-Next-Neighbour Ising (ANNNI) model applied to the transition. The temperature evolution of a magnetic phase diagram within ANNNI model is presented. Results are discussed in comparison with other previous investigations of this topic. (Authors)
Bilocal field theory of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The basic idea of this article is that in a bilocal field theory the Lorentz group can be replaced by the larger group SO(4;4) which contains SO(3;1) as a subgroup. On this basis a system of 24 coupled differential equations is introduced. In the special case of the pion the connection with the local field theory is discussed. It turns out that the application of the local field theory is limited by the reduced Compton wave length lambda/2π of the pion. (orig.)
Perturbative construction of the periodic orbits of the mean-field equations in nuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have presented a perturbative construction method of the periodic orbits of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equations (TDHF). The solutions are found in the form of a power series in the amplitude of the collective motion. We have performed calculations using third order expansions to determine the splitting of two-phonon states of the low-lying octupole vibration in oxygen-16 and calcium-40. We have also investigated giant quadrupole vibrations. We had to generalize our method in order to account for the resonant coupling between the two-phonon state and one-phonon states in the continuum. This was done by introducing admixture of the resonant mode in the first order expression of the periodic orbit. Our results demonstrate that the method of quantization of periodic orbits of TDHF equation is a powerful tool to investigate the energy spectra of many-body systems. We have used our method to build the classical periodic orbits of a Skyrmion. The method, used up to second order, has been applied to the Roper resonance described in terms of monopole vibrations. To first order the method is equivalent to linear response theory and we find that the response function displays a well developed peak. We have also presented a powerful method which uses the knowledge of periodic orbits to construct a collective Bohr-type Hamiltonian. We have applied it to the case of monopole vibrations of the Skyrmion and derived the corresponding first anharmonic terms in the collective Hamiltonian
A mean field calculation of the equation of state of supernova matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The equation of state for hot dense matter occuring in stellar collapse is calculated using the Hartree-Fock approximation at finite temperature. The effective nucleon-nucleon interaction is a modified Skyrme force which gives a rather good value of the compression modulus in nuclear matter. Results are presented for the adiabat S=1 per baryon, with a fixed value of the electron fraction Ysub(e)=0.25, in the density range rho=0.02 to 0.07 baryons per fm3. We find that nuclei are still present in the medium. As a consequence the adiabatic index is slightly less than 4/3. We also discuss the presence of a transition, around half nuclear matter density, towards a phase made of bubbles
Carrier, Pierre; Tang, Jok M.; Saad, Yousef; Freericks, James K.
Inhomogeneous dynamical mean-field theory has been employed to solve many interesting strongly interacting problems from transport in multilayered devices to the properties of ultracold atoms in a trap. The main computational step, especially for large systems, is the problem of calculating the inverse of a large sparse matrix to solve Dyson's equation and determine the local Green's function at each lattice site from the corresponding local self-energy. We present a new e_cient algorithm, the Lanczos-based low-rank algorithm, for the calculation of the inverse of a large sparse matrix which yields this local (imaginary time) Green's function. The Lanczos-based low-rank algorithm is based on a domain decomposition viewpoint, but avoids explicit calculation of Schur complements and relies instead on low-rank matrix approximations derived from the Lanczos algorithm, for solving the Dyson equation. We report at least a 25-fold improvement of performance compared to explicit decomposition (such as sparse LU) of the matrix inverse. We also report that scaling relative to matrix sizes, of the low-rank correction method on the one hand and domain decomposition methods on the other, are comparable.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The neutron star matter equation of state is considered in the framework of relativistic mean-field theory, when also the scalar-isovector δ -meson effective field is taken into account. The constants of the theory are numerically determined in a way to reproduce the empirically known characteristics of symmetric nuclear matter at saturation density. The thermodynamic characteristics of both asymmetric nucleonic matter and a β -equilibrium hadron-electronic npe-plasma are studied. In the assumption that the transition to strange quark matter is a usual first order phase transition described by Maxwell's construction, the phase transition parameters changes caused by presence of δ -meson field are investigated in details. The advanced version of MIT bag model for the description of a quark phase is used, in which the interactions between quarks are taken into account in one-gluon exchange approach. The phase transition parameters for different values of bag constant in an interval B [60,120] MeV/fm3 are determined and is shown that the account of a δ -meson field results in reduction of pressure of phase transition, Po and of concentrations nN and nQ at phase transition point
Dickman, Ronald
1989-07-01
A recently devised method for determining the pressure in lattice simulations is applied to two-dimensional, athermal chains of 40, 80, and 160 segments, over the full range of fluid densities, from dilute solution to dense melt. The results are used to test Bawendi and Freed's correction to Flory-Huggins mean-field theory, and the des Cloizeaux scaling law. The scaling of the mean-square end-to-end distance with density is also discussed.
Hinschberger, Y.; Dixit, A.; Manfredi, G.; Hervieux, P.-A.
2015-01-01
We demonstrate the equivalence between (i) the semirelativistic limit (up to second order in the inverse of the speed of light) of the self-consistent Dirac-Maxwell equations and (ii) the Breit-Pauli equations in the mean-field (Hartree-like) approximation. We explain how the charge and current densities that act as sources in the Dirac-Maxwell equations are related to the microscopic two-electron interactions of the Breit-Pauli model (spin orbit, spin-other-orbit, and spin-spin). The key role played by the second-order corrections to the charge density is clarified.
Kraaij, Richard
2016-07-01
We prove the large deviation principle (LDP) for the trajectory of a broad class of finite state mean-field interacting Markov jump processes via a general analytic approach based on viscosity solutions. Examples include generalized Ehrenfest models as well as Curie-Weiss spin flip dynamics with singular jump rates. The main step in the proof of the LDP, which is of independent interest, is the proof of the comparison principle for an associated collection of Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Additionally, we show that the LDP provides a general method to identify a Lyapunov function for the associated McKean-Vlasov equation.
Malik, G P
2016-01-01
Given the Debye temperature of an elemental superconductor (SC) and its Tc, BCS theory enables one to predict the value of its gap 0 at T = 0, or vice versa. This monograph shows that non-elemental SCs can be similarly dealt with via the generalized BCS equations (GBCSEs) which, given any two parameters of the set {Tc, 10, 20 > 10}, enable one to predict the third. Also given herein are new equations for the critical magnetic field and critical current density of an elemental and a non-elemental SC — equations that are derived directly from those that govern pairing in them. The monograph includes topics that are usually not covered in any one text on superconductivity, e.g., BCS-BEC crossover physics, the long-standing puzzle posed by SrTiO3, and heavy-fermion superconductors — all of which are still imperfectly understood and therefore continue to avidly engage theoreticians. It suggests that addressing the Tcs, s and other properties (e.g., number densities of charge carriers) of high-Tc SCs via GBCSE...
Bi-Local Fields in AdS${}_5$ Spacetime
Aouda, Kenichi; Toyoda, Haruki
2016-01-01
Recently, the bi-local fields attracts the interest in studying the duality between $O(N)$ vector model and a higher-spin gauge theory in $AdS$ spacetime. In those theories, the bi-local fields are realized as collective one's of the $O(N)$ vector fields, which are the source of higher spin bulk fields. Historically, the bi-local fields are introduced as a candidate of non-local fields by Yukawa. Today, Yukawa's bi-local fields are understood from a viewpoint of relativistic two-particle bound systems, the bi-local systems. We study the relation between the collective bi-local fields out of HS bulk fields and the fields out of bi-local systems embedded in AdS${}_5$ spacetime with warped metric. It is shown that the effective spring tension of the bi-local system depends on the brane, on which the bi-local system is located. In paticular, a tensionless bi-local sytem, being similar to the collective bi-local fields, can be realized on a low-energy visible brane.
Bilocal Dynamics for Self-Avoiding Walks
Caracciolo, Sergio; Ferraro, G; Papinutto, Mauro; Pelissetto, A; Caracciolo, Sergio; Causo, Maria Serena; Ferraro, Giovanni; Papinutto, Mauro; Pelissetto, Andrea
2000-01-01
We introduce several bilocal algorithms for lattice self-avoiding walks that provide reasonable models for the physical kinetics of polymers in the absence of hydrodynamic effects. We discuss their ergodicity in different confined geometries, for instance in strips and in slabs. A short discussion of the dynamical properties in the absence of interactions is given.
Bilocal Dynamics for Self-Avoiding Walks
Caracciolo, Sergio; Causo, Maria Serena; Ferraro, Giovanni; Papinutto, Mauro; Pelissetto, Andrea
1999-01-01
We introduce several bilocal algorithms for lattice self-avoiding walks that provide reasonable models for the physical kinetics of polymers in the absence of hydrodynamic effects. We discuss their ergodicity in different confined geometries, for instance in strips and in slabs. A short discussion of the dynamical properties in the absence of interactions is given.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The su(3) mean field approximation describes collective nuclear rotation in a density matrix formalism. The densities ρ=q-i l/2 are 3x3 Hermitian matrices in the su(3) dual space, where q is the expectation of the quadrupole moment and l is the expectation of the angular momentum. The mean field approximation restricts these densities to a level surface of the su(3) Casimirs. Each level surface is a coadjoint orbit of the canonical transformation group SU(3). For each density ρ, the su(3) mean field Hamiltonian h[ρ] is an element of the su(3) Lie algebra. A model su(3) energy functional and the symplectic structure on the coadjoint orbit determine uniquely the su(3) mean field Hamiltonian. The densities in time-dependent su(3) mean field theory obey the dynamical equation i ρ radical = [h[ρ],ρ] on a coadjoint orbit. The cranked mean field Hamiltonian is hΩ=h+iΩ, where Ω is the angular velocity of the rotating principal axis frame. A rotating equilibrium density ρ-tilde in the body-fixed frame is a self-consistent solution to the equation [hΩ[ρ-tilde],ρ-tilde]=0. (author)
Risk-sensitive mean-field games
Tembine, Hamidou
2014-04-01
In this paper, we study a class of risk-sensitive mean-field stochastic differential games. We show that under appropriate regularity conditions, the mean-field value of the stochastic differential game with exponentiated integral cost functional coincides with the value function satisfying a Hamilton -Jacobi- Bellman (HJB) equation with an additional quadratic term. We provide an explicit solution of the mean-field best response when the instantaneous cost functions are log-quadratic and the state dynamics are affine in the control. An equivalent mean-field risk-neutral problem is formulated and the corresponding mean-field equilibria are characterized in terms of backward-forward macroscopic McKean-Vlasov equations, Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equations, and HJB equations. We provide numerical examples on the mean field behavior to illustrate both linear and McKean-Vlasov dynamics. © 1963-2012 IEEE.
Extended Deterministic Mean-Field Games
Gomes, Diogo A.
2016-04-21
In this paper, we consider mean-field games where the interaction of each player with the mean field takes into account not only the states of the players but also their collective behavior. To do so, we develop a random variable framework that is particularly convenient for these problems. We prove an existence result for extended mean-field games and establish uniqueness conditions. In the last section, we consider the Master Equation and discuss properties of its solutions.
Continuous Time Finite State Mean Field Games
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we consider symmetric games where a large number of players can be in any one of d states. We derive a limiting mean field model and characterize its main properties. This mean field limit is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations with initial-terminal data. For this mean field problem we prove a trend to equilibrium theorem, that is convergence, in an appropriate limit, to stationary solutions. Then we study an N+1-player problem, which the mean field model attempts to approximate. Our main result is the convergence as N→∞ of the mean field model and an estimate of the rate of convergence. We end the paper with some further examples for potential mean field games
Continuous Time Finite State Mean Field Games
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomes, Diogo A., E-mail: dgomes@math.ist.utl.pt [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Center for Mathematical Analysis, Geometry, and Dynamical Systems, Departamento de Matematica (Portugal); Mohr, Joana, E-mail: joana.mohr@ufrgs.br; Souza, Rafael Rigao, E-mail: rafars@mat.ufrgs.br [UFRGS, Instituto de Matematica (Brazil)
2013-08-01
In this paper we consider symmetric games where a large number of players can be in any one of d states. We derive a limiting mean field model and characterize its main properties. This mean field limit is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations with initial-terminal data. For this mean field problem we prove a trend to equilibrium theorem, that is convergence, in an appropriate limit, to stationary solutions. Then we study an N+1-player problem, which the mean field model attempts to approximate. Our main result is the convergence as N{yields}{infinity} of the mean field model and an estimate of the rate of convergence. We end the paper with some further examples for potential mean field games.
Continuous time finite state mean field games
Gomes, Diogo A.
2013-04-23
In this paper we consider symmetric games where a large number of players can be in any one of d states. We derive a limiting mean field model and characterize its main properties. This mean field limit is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations with initial-terminal data. For this mean field problem we prove a trend to equilibrium theorem, that is convergence, in an appropriate limit, to stationary solutions. Then we study an N+1-player problem, which the mean field model attempts to approximate. Our main result is the convergence as N→∞ of the mean field model and an estimate of the rate of convergence. We end the paper with some further examples for potential mean field games. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Pais, Helena
2016-01-01
The Vlasov formalism is extended to relativistic mean-field hadron models with non-linear terms up to fourth order and applied to the calculation of the crust-core transition density. The effect of the nonlinear $\\omega\\rho$ and $\\sigma\\rho$ coupling terms on the crust-core transition density and pressure, and on the macroscopic properties of some families of hadronic stars is investigated. For that purpose, six families of relativistic mean field models are considered. Within each family, the members differ in the symmetry energy behavior. For all the models, the dynamical spinodals are calculated, and the crust-core transition density and pressure, and the neutron star mass-radius relations are obtained. The effect on the star radius of the inclusion of a pasta calculation in the inner crust is discussed. The set of six models that best satisfy terrestrial and observational constraints predicts a radius of 13.6$\\pm$0.3 km and a crust thickness of $1.36\\pm 0.06$km for a 1.4 $M_\\odot$ star.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ablakulov, Kh., E-mail: ablakulov@inp.uz; Narzikulov, Z., E-mail: narzikulov@inp.uz [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Uzbekistan)
2015-01-15
A phenomenological model is developed in terms of bilocal meson fields in order to describe a vector meson and its leptonic decays. A new Salpeter equation for this particle and the Schwinger-Dyson equation allowing for the presence of an arbitrary potential and for a modification associated with the renormalization of the quark (antiquark ) wave function within the meson are given. An expression for the constant of the leptonic decay of the charged rho meson is obtained from an analysis of the decay process τ → ρν via parametrizing in it the hadronization of intermediate charged weak W bosons into a bilocal vector meson. The potential is chosen in the form of the sum of harmonic-oscillator and Coulomb potentials, and the respective boundary-value problem is formulated. It is shown that the solutions to this problem describe both the mass spectrum of vector mesons and their leptonic-decay constants.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A phenomenological model is developed in terms of bilocal meson fields in order to describe a vector meson and its leptonic decays. A new Salpeter equation for this particle and the Schwinger-Dyson equation allowing for the presence of an arbitrary potential and for a modification associated with the renormalization of the quark (antiquark ) wave function within the meson are given. An expression for the constant of the leptonic decay of the charged rho meson is obtained from an analysis of the decay process τ → ρν via parametrizing in it the hadronization of intermediate charged weak W bosons into a bilocal vector meson. The potential is chosen in the form of the sum of harmonic-oscillator and Coulomb potentials, and the respective boundary-value problem is formulated. It is shown that the solutions to this problem describe both the mass spectrum of vector mesons and their leptonic-decay constants
Moghrabi, Kassem; Roca-Maza, Xavier; Colo', Gianluca
2012-01-01
In a quantum Fermi system the energy per particle calculated at the second order beyond the mean-field approximation diverges if a zero-range interaction is employed. We have previously analyzed this problem in symmetric nuclear matter by using a simplified nuclear Skyrme interaction, and proposed a strategy to treat such a divergence. In the present work, we extend the same strategy to the case of the full nuclear Skyrme interaction. Moreover we show that, in spite of the strong divergence ($\\sim$ $\\Lambda^5$, where $\\Lambda$ is the momentum cutoff) related to the velocity-dependent terms of the interaction, the adopted cutoff regularization can be always simultaneously performed for both symmetric and nuclear matter with different neutron-to-proton ratio. This paves the way to applications to finite nuclei.
Obstacle mean-field game problem
Gomes, Diogo A.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we introduce and study a first-order mean-field game obstacle problem. We examine the case of local dependence on the measure under assumptions that include both the logarithmic case and power-like nonlinearities. Since the obstacle operator is not differentiable, the equations for first-order mean field game problems have to be discussed carefully. Hence, we begin by considering a penalized problem. We prove this problem admits a unique solution satisfying uniform bounds. These bounds serve to pass to the limit in the penalized problem and to characterize the limiting equations. Finally, we prove uniqueness of solutions. © European Mathematical Society 2015.
Bi-Local Holography in the SYK Model: Perturbations
Jevicki, Antal
2016-01-01
We continue the study of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model in the Large $N$ limit. Following our formulation in terms of bi-local collective fields with dynamical reparametrization symmetry, we perform perturbative calculations around the conformal IR point. These are based on an $\\varepsilon$ expansion which allows for analytical evaluation of correlators and finite temperature quantities.
Weak interactions in a bilocal chiral theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Relativistic covariant equations for quarkonia in the framework of a biolocal description are obtained. These equations can be used to find the solutions for the bound state functions for any given angular momentum. 13 refs.; 1 tab
Mean field games for cognitive radio networks
Tembine, Hamidou
2012-06-01
In this paper we study mobility effect and power saving in cognitive radio networks using mean field games. We consider two types of users: primary and secondary users. When active, each secondary transmitter-receiver uses carrier sensing and is subject to long-term energy constraint. We formulate the interaction between primary user and large number of secondary users as an hierarchical mean field game. In contrast to the classical large-scale approaches based on stochastic geometry, percolation theory and large random matrices, the proposed mean field framework allows one to describe the evolution of the density distribution and the associated performance metrics using coupled partial differential equations. We provide explicit formulas and algorithmic power management for both primary and secondary users. A complete characterization of the optimal distribution of energy and probability of success is given.
Generalized Derivations and Bilocal Jordan Derivations of Nest Algebras
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dangui Yan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Let H be a complex Hilbert space and B(H the collection of all linear bounded operators, A is the closed subspace lattice including 0 an H, then A is a nest, accordingly alg A={T∈B(H:TN⊆N, ∀N∈A} is a nest algebra. It will be shown that of nest algebra, generalized derivations are generalized inner derivations, and bilocal Jordan derivations are inner derivations.
On Mean Field Limits for Dynamical Systems
Boers, Niklas; Pickl, Peter
2016-07-01
We present a purely probabilistic proof of propagation of molecular chaos for N-particle systems in dimension 3 with interaction forces scaling like 1/\\vert q\\vert ^{3λ - 1} with λ smaller but close to one and cut-off at q = N^{-1/3}. The proof yields a Gronwall estimate for the maximal distance between exact microscopic and approximate mean-field dynamics. This can be used to show weak convergence of the one-particle marginals to solutions of the respective mean-field equation without cut-off in a quantitative way. Our results thus lead to a derivation of the Vlasov equation from the microscopic N-particle dynamics with force term arbitrarily close to the physically relevant Coulomb- and gravitational forces.
A mean field approach to watershed hydrology
Bartlett, Mark; Porporato, Amilcare
2016-04-01
Mean field theory (also known as self-consistent field theory) is commonly used in statistical physics when modeling the space-time behavior of complex systems. The mean field theory approximates a complex multi-component system by considering a lumped (or average) effect for all individual components acting on a single component. Thus, the many body problem is reduced to a one body problem. For watershed hydrology, a mean field theory reduces the numerous point component effects to more tractable watershed averages, resulting in a consistent method for linking the average watershed fluxes to the local fluxes at each point. We apply this approach to the spatial distribution of soil moisture, and as a result, the numerous local interactions related to lateral fluxes of soil water are parameterized in terms of the average soil moisture. The mean field approach provides a basis for unifying and extending common event-based models (e.g. Soil Conservation Service curve number (SCS-CN) method) with more modern semi-distributed models (e.g. Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, the Probability Distributed (PDM) model, and TOPMODEL). We obtain simple equations for the fractions of the different source areas of runoff, the spatial variability of runoff, and the average runoff value (i.e., the so-called runoff curve). The resulting space time distribution of soil moisture offers a concise description of the variability of watershed fluxes.
Nonasymptotic mean-field games
Tembine, Hamidou
2014-12-01
Mean-field games have been studied under the assumption of very large number of players. For such large systems, the basic idea consists of approximating large games by a stylized game model with a continuum of players. The approach has been shown to be useful in some applications. However, the stylized game model with continuum of decision-makers is rarely observed in practice and the approximation proposed in the asymptotic regime is meaningless for networks with few entities. In this paper, we propose a mean-field framework that is suitable not only for large systems but also for a small world with few number of entities. The applicability of the proposed framework is illustrated through various examples including dynamic auction with asymmetric valuation distributions, and spiteful bidders.
Nonasymptotic mean-field games
Tembine, Hamidou
2014-12-01
Mean-field games have been studied under the assumption of very large number of players. For such large systems, the basic idea consists to approximate large games by a stylized game model with a continuum of players. The approach has been shown to be useful in some applications. However, the stylized game model with continuum of decision-makers is rarely observed in practice and the approximation proposed in the asymptotic regime is meaningless for networked systems with few entities. In this paper we propose a mean-field framework that is suitable not only for large systems but also for a small world with few number of entities. The applicability of the proposed framework is illustrated through a dynamic auction with asymmetric valuation distributions.
Pedestrian Flow in the Mean Field Limit
Haji Ali, Abdul Lateef
2012-11-01
We study the mean-field limit of a particle-based system modeling the behavior of many indistinguishable pedestrians as their number increases. The base model is a modified version of Helbing\\'s social force model. In the mean-field limit, the time-dependent density of two-dimensional pedestrians satisfies a four-dimensional integro-differential Fokker-Planck equation. To approximate the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation we use a time-splitting approach and solve the diffusion part using a Crank-Nicholson method. The advection part is solved using a Lax-Wendroff-Leveque method or an upwind Backward Euler method depending on the advection speed. Moreover, we use multilevel Monte Carlo to estimate observables from the particle-based system. We discuss these numerical methods, and present numerical results showing the convergence of observables that were calculated using the particle-based model as the number of pedestrians increases to those calculated using the probability density function satisfying the Fokker-Planck equation.
Hassani, S Hamed; Urbanke, Ruediger
2011-01-01
We consider a collection of mean field spin systems, each of which is placed on the positions of a one-dimensional chain, coupled together by a Kac-type interaction along the chain. We analyze the simplest possible cases where the individual system is a Curie-Weiss model, possibly with a random field. We are interested in the regime where the size of each mean field model tends to infinity and, the length of the chain and range of the Kac interaction are large but finite. Below the critical temperature, there appears a series of equilibrium states representing kink-like interfaces between the two equilibrium states of the individual system. The van der Waals curve oscillates periodically around the Maxwell plateau. These oscillations have a period inversely proportional to the chain length and an amplitude exponentially small in the range of the interaction; in other words the spinodal points of the chain model lie exponentially close to the phase transition threshold. The amplitude of the oscillations is clo...
Harmonic bilocal fields generated by globally conformal invariant scalar fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The twist two contribution in the operator product expansion of φ1(x1) φ2(x2) for a pair of globally conformal invariant, scalar fields of equal scaling dimension d in four space-time dimensions is a field V1(x1, x2) which is harmonic in both variables. It is demonstrated that the Huygens bilocality of V1 can be equivalently characterized by a 'single-pole property' concerning the pole structure of the (rational) correlation functions involving the product φ1(x1) φ2(x2). This property is established for the dimension d = 2 of φ1, φ2. As an application we prove that any GCI scalar field of conformal dimension 2 (in four space-time dimensions) can be written as a (possibly infinite) superposition of products of free massless fields. (author)
Bilocal bosonization of QCD and electroweak properties of light pseudoscalar mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum chromodynamic based analysis of the low energy electroweak properties of light pseudo-scalars is studied using an approximate bilocal bosonization technique. Particular attention is given to the problem of maintaining electroweak gauge invariance, and a bilocal Wilson-line technique is introduced to address this problem. The decay constants FK and Fπ and the π± charge radius are discussed in detail. 29 refs., 9 figs
The bilocated mind: new perspectives on self-localization and self-identification
Furlanetto, Tiziano; Bertone, Cesare; Becchio, Cristina
2013-01-01
Does the human mind allow for self-locating at more than one place at a time? Evidence from neurology, cognitive neuroscience, and experimental psychology suggests that mental bilocation is a complex, but genuine experience, occurring more frequently than commonly thought. In this article, we distinguish between different components of bilocated self-representation: self-localization in two different places at the same time, self-identification with another body, reduplication of first-person...
The bilocated mind: New perspectives on self-localization and self-identification
Cesare Bertone; Cristina Becchio
2013-01-01
Does the human mind allow for self-locating at more than one place at a time? Evidence from neurology, cognitive neuroscience, and experimental psychology suggests that mental bilocation is a complex, but genuine experience, occurring more frequently than commonly thought. In this article, we distinguish between different components of bilocated self-representation: self-localization in two different places at the same time, self-identification with another body, reduplication of first-person...
The bilocated mind: New perspectives on self-localization and self-identification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tiziano eFurlanetto
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Does the human mind allow for self-locating at more than one place at a time? Evidence from neurology, cognitive neuroscience, and experimental psychology suggests that mental bilocation is a complex, but genuine experience, occurring more frequently than commonly thought. In this article, we distinguish between different components of bilocated self-representation: self-localization in two different places at the same time, self-identification with another body, reduplication of first-person perspective. We argue that different forms of mental bilocation may result from the combination of these components. To illustrate this, we discuss evidence of mental bilocation in pathological conditions such as heautoscopy, during immersion in virtual environments, and in everyday life, during social interaction. Finally, we consider the conditions for mental bilocation and speculate on the possible role of mental bilocation in the context of social interaction, suggesting that self-localization at two places at the same time may prove advantageous for the construction of a shared space.
Mean-field models for disordered crystals
Cancès, Eric; Lewin, Mathieu
2012-01-01
In this article, we set up a functional setting for mean-field electronic structure models of Hartree-Fock or Kohn-Sham types for disordered crystals. The electrons are quantum particles and the nuclei are classical point-like articles whose positions and charges are random. We prove the existence of a minimizer of the energy per unit volume and the uniqueness of the ground state density of such disordered crystals, for the reduced Hartree-Fock model (rHF). We consider both (short-range) Yukawa and (long-range) Coulomb interactions. In the former case, we prove in addition that the rHF ground state density matrix satisfies a self-consistent equation, and that our model for disordered crystals is the thermodynamic limit of the supercell model.
Mean field interaction in biochemical reaction networks
Tembine, Hamidou
2011-09-01
In this paper we establish a relationship between chemical dynamics and mean field game dynamics. We show that chemical reaction networks can be studied using noisy mean field limits. We provide deterministic, noisy and switching mean field limits and illustrate them with numerical examples. © 2011 IEEE.
Mean Field Games Models-A Brief Survey
Gomes, Diogo A.
2013-11-20
The mean-field framework was developed to study systems with an infinite number of rational agents in competition, which arise naturally in many applications. The systematic study of these problems was started, in the mathematical community by Lasry and Lions, and independently around the same time in the engineering community by P. Caines, Minyi Huang, and Roland Malhamé. Since these seminal contributions, the research in mean-field games has grown exponentially, and in this paper we present a brief survey of mean-field models as well as recent results and techniques. In the first part of this paper, we study reduced mean-field games, that is, mean-field games, which are written as a system of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation and a transport or Fokker-Planck equation. We start by the derivation of the models and by describing some of the existence results available in the literature. Then we discuss the uniqueness of a solution and propose a definition of relaxed solution for mean-field games that allows to establish uniqueness under minimal regularity hypothesis. A special class of mean-field games that we discuss in some detail is equivalent to the Euler-Lagrange equation of suitable functionals. We present in detail various additional examples, including extensions to population dynamics models. This section ends with a brief overview of the random variables point of view as well as some applications to extended mean-field games models. These extended models arise in problems where the costs incurred by the agents depend not only on the distribution of the other agents, but also on their actions. The second part of the paper concerns mean-field games in master form. These mean-field games can be modeled as a partial differential equation in an infinite dimensional space. We discuss both deterministic models as well as problems where the agents are correlated. We end the paper with a mean-field model for price impact. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Back-reaction beyond the mean field approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method for solving an initial value problem of a closed system consisting of an electromagnetic mean field and its quantum fluctuations coupled to fermions is presented. By tailoring the large Nf expansion method to the Schwinger-Keldysh closed time path (CTP) formulation of the quantum effective action, causality of the resulting equations of motion is ensured, and a systematic energy conserving and gauge invariant expansion about the electromagnetic mean field in powers of 1/Nf is developed. The resulting equations may be used to study the quantum nonequilibrium effects of pair creation in strong electric fields and the scattering and transport processes of a relativistic e+e- plasma. Using the Bjorken ansatz of boost invariance initial conditions in which the initial electric mean field depends on the proper time only, we show numerical results for the case in which the Nf expansion is truncated in the lowest order, and compare them with those of a phenomenological transport equation
A Maximum Principle for SDEs of Mean-Field Type
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the optimal control of a stochastic differential equation (SDE) of mean-field type, where the coefficients are allowed to depend on some functional of the law as well as the state of the process. Moreover the cost functional is also of mean-field type, which makes the control problem time inconsistent in the sense that the Bellman optimality principle does not hold. Under the assumption of a convex action space a maximum principle of local form is derived, specifying the necessary conditions for optimality. These are also shown to be sufficient under additional assumptions. This maximum principle differs from the classical one, where the adjoint equation is a linear backward SDE, since here the adjoint equation turns out to be a linear mean-field backward SDE. As an illustration, we apply the result to the mean-variance portfolio selection problem.
Nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eckstein, Martin
2009-12-21
The aim of this thesis is the investigation of strongly interacting quantum many-particle systems in nonequilibrium by means of the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). An efficient numerical implementation of the nonequilibrium DMFT equations within the Keldysh formalism is provided, as well a discussion of several approaches to solve effective single-site problem to which lattice models such as the Hubbard-model are mapped within DMFT. DMFT is then used to study the relaxation of the thermodynamic state after a sudden increase of the interaction parameter in two different models: the Hubbard model and the Falicov-Kimball model. In the latter case an exact solution can be given, which shows that the state does not even thermalize after infinite waiting times. For a slow change of the interaction, a transition to adiabatic behavior is found. The Hubbard model, on the other hand, shows a very sensitive dependence of the relaxation on the interaction, which may be called a dynamical phase transition. Rapid thermalization only occurs at the interaction parameter which corresponds to this transition. (orig.)
Nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The aim of this thesis is the investigation of strongly interacting quantum many-particle systems in nonequilibrium by means of the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). An efficient numerical implementation of the nonequilibrium DMFT equations within the Keldysh formalism is provided, as well a discussion of several approaches to solve effective single-site problem to which lattice models such as the Hubbard-model are mapped within DMFT. DMFT is then used to study the relaxation of the thermodynamic state after a sudden increase of the interaction parameter in two different models: the Hubbard model and the Falicov-Kimball model. In the latter case an exact solution can be given, which shows that the state does not even thermalize after infinite waiting times. For a slow change of the interaction, a transition to adiabatic behavior is found. The Hubbard model, on the other hand, shows a very sensitive dependence of the relaxation on the interaction, which may be called a dynamical phase transition. Rapid thermalization only occurs at the interaction parameter which corresponds to this transition. (orig.)
Mean Field Theory for Sigmoid Belief Networks
Saul, L. K.; Jaakkola, T.; Jordan, M. I.
1996-01-01
We develop a mean field theory for sigmoid belief networks based on ideas from statistical mechanics. Our mean field theory provides a tractable approximation to the true probability distribution in these networks; it also yields a lower bound on the likelihood of evidence. We demonstrate the utility of this framework on a benchmark problem in statistical pattern recognition---the classification of handwritten digits.
Mean-field models and exotic nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bender, M.; Buervenich, T.; Maruhn, J.A.; Greiner, W. [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Frankfurt (Germany); Rutz, K. [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Frankfurt (Germany)]|[Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Reinhard, P.G. [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Erlangen (Germany)
1998-06-01
We discuss two widely used nuclear mean-field models, the relativistic mean-field model and the (nonrelativistic) Skyrme-Hartree-Fock model, and their capability to describe exotic nuclei. Test cases are superheavy nuclei and neutron-rich Sn isotopes. New information in this regime helps to fix hitherto loosely determined aspects of the models. (orig.)
Condensates beyond mean field theory: quantum backreaction as decoherence
Vardi, Amichay; Anglin, James R.
2000-01-01
We propose an experiment to measure the slow log(N) convergence to mean-field theory (MFT) around a dynamical instability. Using a density matrix formalism, we derive equations of motion which go beyond MFT and provide accurate predictions for the quantum break-time. The leading quantum corrections appear as decoherence of the reduced single-particle quantum state.
Incorporating spatial correlations into multispecies mean-field models
Markham, Deborah C.; Simpson, Matthew J.; Maini, Philip K.; Gaffney, Eamonn A.; Baker, Ruth E.
2013-11-01
In biology, we frequently observe different species existing within the same environment. For example, there are many cell types in a tumour, or different animal species may occupy a given habitat. In modeling interactions between such species, we often make use of the mean-field approximation, whereby spatial correlations between the locations of individuals are neglected. Whilst this approximation holds in certain situations, this is not always the case, and care must be taken to ensure the mean-field approximation is only used in appropriate settings. In circumstances where the mean-field approximation is unsuitable, we need to include information on the spatial distributions of individuals, which is not a simple task. In this paper, we provide a method that overcomes many of the failures of the mean-field approximation for an on-lattice volume-excluding birth-death-movement process with multiple species. We explicitly take into account spatial information on the distribution of individuals by including partial differential equation descriptions of lattice site occupancy correlations. We demonstrate how to derive these equations for the multispecies case and show results specific to a two-species problem. We compare averaged discrete results to both the mean-field approximation and our improved method, which incorporates spatial correlations. We note that the mean-field approximation fails dramatically in some cases, predicting very different behavior from that seen upon averaging multiple realizations of the discrete system. In contrast, our improved method provides excellent agreement with the averaged discrete behavior in all cases, thus providing a more reliable modeling framework. Furthermore, our method is tractable as the resulting partial differential equations can be solved efficiently using standard numerical techniques.
Large amplitude motion with a stochastic mean-field approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yilmaz Bulent
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In the stochastic mean-field approach, an ensemble of initial conditions is considered to incorporate correlations beyond the mean-field. Then each starting point is propagated separately using the Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock equation of motion. This approach provides a rather simple tool to better describe fluctuations compared to the standard TDHF. Several illustrations are presented showing that this theory can be rather effective to treat the dynamics close to a quantum phase transition. Applications to fusion and transfer reactions demonstrate the great improvement in the description of mass dispersion.
General Relativistic Mean Field Theory for rotating nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Madokoro, Hideki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Matsuzaki, Masayuki
1998-03-01
The {sigma}-{omega} model Lagrangian is generalized to an accelerated frame by using the technique of general relativity which is known as tetrad formalism. We apply this model to the description of rotating nuclei within the mean field approximation, which we call General Relativistic Mean Field Theory (GRMFT) for rotating nuclei. The resulting equations of motion coincide with those of Munich group whose formulation was not based on the general relativistic transformation property of the spinor fields. Some numerical results are shown for the yrast states of the Mg isotopes and the superdeformed rotational bands in the A {approx} 60 mass region. (author)
Socio-economic applications of finite state mean field games
Gomes, Diogo
2014-10-06
In this paper, we present different applications of finite state mean field games to socio-economic sciences. Examples include paradigm shifts in the scientific community or consumer choice behaviour in the free market. The corresponding finite state mean field game models are hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations, for which we present and validate different numerical methods. We illustrate the behaviour of solutions with various numerical experiments,which show interesting phenomena such as shock formation. Hence, we conclude with an investigation of the shock structure in the case of two-state problems.
The finite temperature QED vacuum, within the mean field approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This report is made of two largely independent parts. The first one deals with a finite temperature generalization of a mean field theory which we already used for a study of the QED vacuum stability against the 2-body coulomb interaction. We show that temperature does not change the stability conditions, and we study the solutions of the gap equations, especially in the high temperature domain. The second part is devoted to photons rather than electrons; we evaluate the first vacuum polarization corrections to the properties of back-body radiation, considering the Euler-Heisenberg photon-photon interaction within the mean-field approximation
Bauso, Dario
2014-05-07
This article examines mean-field games for marriage. The results support the argument that optimizing the long-term well-being through effort and social feeling state distribution (mean-field) will help to stabilize marriage. However, if the cost of effort is very high, the couple fluctuates in a bad feeling state or the marriage breaks down. We then examine the influence of society on a couple using mean-field sentimental games. We show that, in mean-field equilibrium, the optimal effort is always higher than the one-shot optimal effort. We illustrate numerically the influence of the couple\\'s network on their feeling states and their well-being. © 2014 Bauso et al.
Mean field theory for long chain molecules
Pereira, Gerald G.
1996-06-01
We provide a mathematical formalism for a self-consistent mean field treatment of long chain molecules. The formalism is applied to the case of a neutral polymer under the excluded volume interaction. Upon scaling the problem in the N→∞ limit we find the natural scaling length RN, of the polymer, which is made up of (N+1) monomers or beads, is RN˜N3/5, the well known Flory result. The asymptotics of the problem is dominated by the neighborhood of the turning point, so that a uniformly valid Green's function solution of the differential equations is necessary. In the neighborhood of a point y* the scaled polymer density fN(x), is found to decay sharply. If we let x denote the scaled distance from one end of the chain to a point in space we obtain, for y*-x≳O(N-2/15), a closed form expression for the polymer density viz., fN(x)˜{1/2x2[fN(x)-fN(y*)]1/2} while for x-y*≳O(N-2/15) the density is shown to be, to leading order, zero. Although our results imply the rate of decay of the density at y* is O(N1/5) we are unable to verify this explicitly by calculating fN'(y*). We believe this is due to the inability of the WKB theory to correctly approximate solutions in regions of rapid variation. We suggest remedies for this, so that a complete self-consistent solution may be obtained.
Local excitations in mean field spin glasses
Krzakala, F.; G.PARISI()
2003-01-01
We address the question of geometrical as well as energetic properties of local excitations in mean field Ising spin glasses. We study analytically the Random Energy Model and numerically a dilute mean field model, first on tree-like graphs, equivalent to a replica symmetric computation, and then directly on finite connectivity random lattices. In the first model, characterized by a discontinuous replica symmetry breaking, we found that the energy of finite volume excitation is infinite where...
Mean-field approximation minimizes relative entropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors derive the mean-field approximation from the information-theoretic principle of minimum relative entropy instead of by minimizing Peierls's inequality for the Weiss free energy of statistical physics theory. They show that information theory leads to the statistical mechanics procedure. As an example, they consider a problem in binary image restoration. They find that mean-field annealing compares favorably with the stochastic approach
Microscopically constrained mean-field models from chiral nuclear thermodynamics
Rrapaj, Ermal; Roggero, Alessandro; Holt, Jeremy W.
2016-06-01
We explore the use of mean-field models to approximate microscopic nuclear equations of state derived from chiral effective field theory across the densities and temperatures relevant for simulating astrophysical phenomena such as core-collapse supernovae and binary neutron star mergers. We consider both relativistic mean-field theory with scalar and vector meson exchange as well as energy density functionals based on Skyrme phenomenology and compare to thermodynamic equations of state derived from chiral two- and three-nucleon forces in many-body perturbation theory. Quantum Monte Carlo simulations of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are used to determine the density regimes in which perturbation theory with chiral nuclear forces is valid. Within the theoretical uncertainties associated with the many-body methods, we find that select mean-field models describe well microscopic nuclear thermodynamics. As an additional consistency requirement, we study as well the single-particle properties of nucleons in a hot/dense environment, which affect e.g., charged-current weak reactions in neutron-rich matter. The identified mean-field models can be used across a larger range of densities and temperatures in astrophysical simulations than more computationally expensive microscopic models.
Band mixing effects in mean field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The 1/N expansion method, which is an angular momentum projected mean field theory, is used to investigate the nature of electromagnetic transitions in the interacting boson model (IBM). Conversely, comparison with the exact IBM results sheds light on the range of validity of the mean field theory. It is shown that the projected mean field results for the E2 transitions among the ground, β and γ bands are incomplete for the spin dependent terms and it is essential to include band mixing effect for a correct (Mikhailov) analysis of E2 data. The algebraic expressions derived are general and will be useful in the analysis of experimental data in terms of both the sd and sdg boson models. 17 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs
Pion mean fields and heavy baryons
Yang, Ghil-Seok; Polyakov, Maxim V; Praszałowicz, Michał
2016-01-01
We show that the masses of the lowest-lying heavy baryons can be very well described in a pion mean-field approach. We consider a heavy baryon as a system consisting of the $N_c-1$ light quarks that induce the pion mean field, and a heavy quark as a static color source under the influence of this mean field. In this approach we derive a number of \\textit{model-independent} relations and calculate the heavy baryon masses using those of the lowest-lying light baryons as input. The results are in remarkable agreement with the experimental data. In addition, the mass of the $\\Omega_b^*$ baryon is predicted.
Mean-field magnetohydrodynamics and dynamo theory
Krause, F
2013-01-01
Mean-Field Magnetohydrodynamics and Dynamo Theory provides a systematic introduction to mean-field magnetohydrodynamics and the dynamo theory, along with the results achieved. Topics covered include turbulence and large-scale structures; general properties of the turbulent electromotive force; homogeneity, isotropy, and mirror symmetry of turbulent fields; and turbulent electromotive force in the case of non-vanishing mean flow. The turbulent electromotive force in the case of rotational mean motion is also considered. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of the gen
Mean-field models and superheavy elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the performance of two widely used nuclear mean-field models, the relativistic mean-field theory (RMF) and the non-relativistic Skyrme-Hartree-Fock approach (SHF), with particular emphasis on the description of superheavy elements (SHE). We provide a short introduction to the SHF and RMF, the relations between these two approaches and the relations to other nuclear structure models, briefly review the basic properties with respect to normal nuclear observables, and finally present and discuss recent results on the binding properties of SHE computed with a broad selection of SHF and RMF parametrisations. (orig.)
"Phase diagram" of a mean field game
Swiecicki, Igor; Gobron, Thierry; Ullmo, Denis
2016-01-01
Mean field games were introduced by J-M. Lasry and P-L. Lions in the mathematical community, and independently by M. Huang and co-workers in the engineering community, to deal with optimization problems when the number of agents becomes very large. In this article we study in detail a particular example called the "seminar problem" introduced by O. Guéant, J-M. Lasry, and P-L. Lions in 2010. This model contains the main ingredients of any mean field game but has the particular feature that all agents are coupled only through a simple random event (the seminar starting time) that they all contribute to form. In the mean field limit, this event becomes deterministic and its value can be fixed through a self consistent procedure. This allows for a rather thorough understanding of the solutions of the problem, through both exact results and a detailed analysis of various limiting regimes. For a sensible class of initial configurations, distinct behaviors can be associated to different domains in the parameter space. For this reason, the "seminar problem" appears to be an interesting toy model on which both intuition and technical approaches can be tested as a preliminary study toward more complex mean field game models.
A regularized stationary mean-field game
Yang, Xianjin
2016-04-19
In the thesis, we discuss the existence and numerical approximations of solutions of a regularized mean-field game with a low-order regularization. In the first part, we prove a priori estimates and use the continuation method to obtain the existence of a solution with a positive density. Finally, we introduce the monotone flow method and solve the system numerically.
Mean field methods for cortical network dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hertz, J.; Lerchner, Alexander; Ahmadi, M.
2004-01-01
We review the use of mean field theory for describing the dynamics of dense, randomly connected cortical circuits. For a simple network of excitatory and inhibitory leaky integrate- and-fire neurons, we can show how the firing irregularity, as measured by the Fano factor, increases with the...
Instabilities in the Mean Field Limit
Han-Kwan, Daniel; Nguyen, Toan T.
2016-03-01
Consider a system of N particles interacting through Newton's second law with Coulomb interaction potential in one spatial dimension or a {C}^2 smooth potential in any dimension. We prove that in the mean field limit N → + ∞, the N particles system displays instabilities in times of order log N, for some configurations approximately distributed according to unstable homogeneous equilibria.
Noise-induced behaviors in neural mean field dynamics
Touboul, Jonathan; Faugeras, Olivier
2011-01-01
The collective behavior of cortical neurons is strongly affected by the presence of noise at the level of individual cells. In order to study these phenomena in large-scale assemblies of neurons, we consider networks of firing-rate neurons with linear intrinsic dynamics and nonlinear coupling, belonging to a few types of cell populations and receiving noisy currents. Asymptotic equations as the number of neurons tends to infinity (mean field equations) are rigorously derived based on a probabilistic approach. These equations are implicit on the probability distribution of the solutions which generally makes their direct analysis difficult. However, in our case, the solutions are Gaussian, and their moments satisfy a closed system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which are much easier to study than the original stochastic network equations, and the statistics of the empirical process uniformly converge towards the solutions of these ODEs. Based on this description, we analytically and numer...
Mean-field games with logistic population dynamics
Gomes, Diogo A.
2013-12-01
In its standard form, a mean-field game can be defined by coupled system of equations, a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the value function of agents and a Fokker-Planck equation for the density of agents. Traditionally, the latter equation is adjoint to the linearization of the former. Since the Fokker-Planck equation models a population dynamic, we introduce natural features such as seeding and birth, and nonlinear death rates. In this paper we analyze a stationary meanfield game in one dimension, illustrating various techniques to obtain regularity of solutions in this class of systems. In particular we consider a logistic-type model for birth and death of the agents which is natural in problems where crowding affects the death rate of the agents. The introduction of these new terms requires a number of new ideas to obtain wellposedness. In a forthcoming publication we will address higher dimensional models. ©2013 IEEE.
Time-Dependent Mean-Field Games with Logarithmic Nonlinearities
Gomes, Diogo A.
2015-10-06
In this paper, we prove the existence of classical solutions for time-dependent mean-field games with a logarithmic nonlinearity and subquadratic Hamiltonians. Because the logarithm is unbounded from below, this nonlinearity poses substantial mathematical challenges that have not been addressed in the literature. Our result is proven by recurring to a delicate argument which combines Lipschitz regularity for the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with estimates for the nonlinearity in suitable Lebesgue spaces. Lipschitz estimates follow from an application of the nonlinear adjoint method. These are then combined with a priori bounds for solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation and a concavity argument for the nonlinearity.
Ostwald ripening in Two Dimensions: Correlations and Scaling Beyond Mean Field
Levitan, Boris; Domany, Eytan
1997-01-01
We present a systematic quasi-mean field model of the Ostwald ripening process in two dimensions. Our approach yields a set of dynamic equations for the temporal evolution of the minority phase droplets' radii. The equations contain only pairwise interactions between the droplets; these interactions are evaluated in a mean- field type manner. We proceed to solve numerically the dynamic equations for systems of tens of thousands of interacting droplets. The numerical results are compared with ...
Mean field and collisions in hot nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collisions between heavy nuclei produce nuclear matter of high density and excitation. Brueckner methods are used to calculate the momentum and temperature dependent mean field for nucleons propagating through nuclear matter during these collisions. The mean field is complex and the imaginary part is related to the ''two-body'' collision, while the real part relates to ''one-body'' collisions. A potential model for the N-N interactions is avoided by calculating the Reaction matrix directly from the T-matrix (i.e., N-N phase shifts) using a version of Brueckner theory previously published by the author. Results are presented for nuclear matter at normal and twice normal density and for temperatures up to 50 MeV. 23 refs., 7 figs
Mean field methods for cortical network dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hertz, J.; Lerchner, Alexander; Ahmadi, M.
2004-01-01
We review the use of mean field theory for describing the dynamics of dense, randomly connected cortical circuits. For a simple network of excitatory and inhibitory leaky integrate- and-fire neurons, we can show how the firing irregularity, as measured by the Fano factor, increases with the stren......We review the use of mean field theory for describing the dynamics of dense, randomly connected cortical circuits. For a simple network of excitatory and inhibitory leaky integrate- and-fire neurons, we can show how the firing irregularity, as measured by the Fano factor, increases...... with the strength of the synapses in the network and with the value to which the membrane potential is reset after a spike. Generalizing the model to include conductance-based synapses gives insight into the connection between the firing statistics and the high- conductance state observed experimentally in visual...
Mean-field learning for satisfactory solutions
Tembine, Hamidou
2013-12-01
One of the fundamental challenges in distributed interactive systems is to design efficient, accurate, and fair solutions. In such systems, a satisfactory solution is an innovative approach that aims to provide all players with a satisfactory payoff anytime and anywhere. In this paper we study fully distributed learning schemes for satisfactory solutions in games with continuous action space. Considering games where the payoff function depends only on own-action and an aggregate term, we show that the complexity of learning systems can be significantly reduced, leading to the so-called mean-field learning. We provide sufficient conditions for convergence to a satisfactory solution and we give explicit convergence time bounds. Then, several acceleration techniques are used in order to improve the convergence rate. We illustrate numerically the proposed mean-field learning schemes for quality-of-service management in communication networks. © 2013 IEEE.
Mean Field Studies of Exotic Nuclei}
Chinn, C. R.; Umar, A. S.; Vallières, M.; Strayer, M. R.
1994-01-01
{Full three dimensional static and dynamic mean field calculations using collocation basis splines with a Skyrme type Hamiltonian are described. This program is developed to address the difficult theoretical challenges offered by exotic nuclei. Ground state and deformation properties are calculated using static Hartree-Fock, Hartree-Fock+BCS and constrained Hartree-Fock models. Collective properties, such as reaction rates and resonances, are described using a new alternate method for evaluat...
Mean-field cooperativity in chemical kinetics
Di Biasio, Aldo; Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Burioni, Raffaella
2011-01-01
We consider cooperative reactions and we study the effects of the interaction strength among the system components on the reaction rate, hence realizing a connection between microscopic and macroscopic observables. Our approach is based on statistical mechanics models and it is developed analytically via mean-field techniques. First of all, we show that, when the coupling strength is set positive, the model is able to consistently recover all the various cooperative measures previously introd...
'Phase diagram' of a mean field game
Swiecicki, Igor; Ullmo, Denis
2015-01-01
Mean field games were introduced by J-M.Lasry and P-L. Lions in the mathematical community, and independently by M. Huang and co-workers in the engineering community, to deal with optimization problems when the number of agents becomes very large. In this article we study in detail a particular example called the 'seminar problem' introduced by O.Gu\\'eant, J-M Lasry, and P-L. Lions in 2010. This model contains the main ingredients of any mean field game but has the particular feature that all agent are coupled only through a simple random event (the seminar starting time) that they all contribute to form. In the mean field limit, this event becomes deterministic and its value can be fixed through a self consistent procedure. This allows for a rather thorough understanding of the solutions of the problem, through both exact results and a detailed analysis of various limiting regimes. For a sensible class of initial configurations, distinct behaviors can be associated to different domains in the parameter space...
Mean-field theory of a recurrent epidemiological model
Nagy, Viktor
2009-06-01
Our purpose is to provide a mean-field theory for the discrete time-step susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible (SIRS) model on uncorrelated networks with arbitrary degree distributions. The effect of network structure, time delays, and infection rate on the stability of oscillating and fixed point solutions is examined through analysis of discrete time mean-field equations. Consideration of two scenarios for disease contagion demonstrates that the manner in which contagion is transmitted from an infected individual to a contacted susceptible individual is of primary importance. In particular, the manner of contagion transmission determines how the degree distribution affects model behavior. We find excellent agreement between our theoretical results and numerical simulations on networks with large average connectivity.
Mean-field theory of echo state networks
Massar, Marc; Massar, Serge
2013-04-01
Dynamical systems driven by strong external signals are ubiquitous in nature and engineering. Here we study “echo state networks,” networks of a large number of randomly connected nodes, which represent a simple model of a neural network, and have important applications in machine learning. We develop a mean-field theory of echo state networks. The dynamics of the network is captured by the evolution law, similar to a logistic map, for a single collective variable. When the network is driven by many independent external signals, this collective variable reaches a steady state. But when the network is driven by a single external signal, the collective variable is non stationary but can be characterized by its time averaged distribution. The predictions of the mean-field theory, including the value of the largest Lyapunov exponent, are compared with the numerical integration of the equations of motion.
Derivation of mean-field dynamics for fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work, we derive the time-dependent Hartree(-Fock) equations as an effective dynamics for fermionic many-particle systems. Our main results are the first for a quantum mechanical mean-field dynamics for fermions; in previous works, the mean-field limit is usually either coupled to a semiclassical limit, or the interaction is scaled down so much, that the system behaves freely for large particle number N. We mainly consider systems with total kinetic energy bounded by const.N and long-range interaction potentials, e.g., Coulomb interaction. Examples for such systems are large molecules or certain solid states. Our analysis also applies to attractive interactions, as, e.g., in fermionic stars. The fermionic Hartree(-Fock) equations are a standard tool to describe, e.g., excited states or chemical reactions of large molecules (like proteins). A deeper understanding of these equations as an approximation to the time evolution of a many body quantum system is thus highly relevant. We consider the fermionic Hartree equations (i.e., the Hartree-Fock equations without exchange term) in this work, since the exchange term is subleading in our setting. The main result is that the fermionic Hartree dynamics approximates the Schroedinger dynamics well for large N. This statement becomes exact in the thermodynamic limit N→∞. We give explicit values for the rates of convergence. We prove two types of results. The first type is very general and concerns arbitrary free Hamiltonians (e.g., relativistic, non-relativistic, with external fields) and arbitrary interactions. The theorems give explicit conditions on the solutions to the fermionic Hartree equations under which a derivation of the mean-field dynamics succeeds. The second type of results scrutinizes situations where the conditions are fulfilled. These results are about non-relativistic free Hamiltonians with external fields, systems with total kinetic energy bounded by const.N and with long-range interactions of
Numerical accuracy of mean-field calculations in coordinate space
Ryssens, W; Heenen, P -H
2015-01-01
Background: Mean-field methods based on an energy density functional (EDF) are powerful tools used to describe many properties of nuclei in the entirety of the nuclear chart. The accuracy required on energies for nuclear physics and astrophysics applications is of the order of 500 keV and much effort is undertaken to build EDFs that meet this requirement. Purpose: The mean-field calculations have to be accurate enough in order to preserve the accuracy of the EDF. We study this numerical accuracy in detail for a specific numerical choice of representation for the mean-field equations that can accommodate any kind of symmetry breaking. Method: The method that we use is a particular implementation of 3-dimensional mesh calculations. Its numerical accuracy is governed by three main factors: the size of the box in which the nucleus is confined, the way numerical derivatives are calculated and the distance between the points on the mesh. Results: We have examined the dependence of the results on these three factors...
Control and Nash Games with Mean Field Effect
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Alain BENSOUSSAN; Jens FREHSE
2013-01-01
Mean field theory has raised a lot of interest in the recent years (see in particular the results of Lasry-Lions in 2006 and 2007,of Gueant-Lasry-Lions in 2011,of HuangCaines-Malham in 2007 and many others).There are a lot of applications.In general,the applications concern approximating an infinite number of players with common behavior by a representative agent.This agent has to solve a control problem perturbed by a field equation,representing in some way the behavior of the average infinite number of agents.This approach does not lead easily to the problems of Nash equilibrium for a finite number of players,perturbed by field equations,unless one considers averaging within different groups,which has not been done in the literature,and seems quite challenging.In this paper,the authors approach similar problems with a different motivation which makes sense for control and also for differential games.Thus the systems of nonlinear partial differential equations with mean field terms,which have not been addressed in the literature so far,are considered here.
Mean-field theory and self-consistent dynamo modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mean-field theory of dynamo is discussed with emphasis on the statistical formulation of turbulence effects on the magnetohydrodynamic equations and the construction of a self-consistent dynamo model. The dynamo mechanism is sought in the combination of the turbulent residual-helicity and cross-helicity effects. On the basis of this mechanism, discussions are made on the generation of planetary magnetic fields such as geomagnetic field and sunspots and on the occurrence of flow by magnetic fields in planetary and fusion phenomena. (author)
Dynamic Programming for Mean-field type Control
Laurière, Mathieu; Pironneau, Olivier
2014-01-01
For mean-field type control problems, stochastic dynamic programming requires adaptation. We propose to reformulate the problem as a distributed control problem by assuming that the PDF $\\rho$ of the stochastic process exists. Then we show that Bellman's principle applies to the dynamic programming value function $V(\\tau,\\rho_\\tau)$ where the dependency on $\\rho_\\tau$ is functional as in P.L. Lions' analysis of mean-filed games (2007). We derive HJB equations and apply them to two examples, a...
Spin and orbital exchange interactions from Dynamical Mean Field Theory
Secchi, A.; Lichtenstein, A. I.; Katsnelson, M. I.
2016-02-01
We derive a set of equations expressing the parameters of the magnetic interactions characterizing a strongly correlated electronic system in terms of single-electron Green's functions and self-energies. This allows to establish a mapping between the initial electronic system and a spin model including up to quadratic interactions between the effective spins, with a general interaction (exchange) tensor that accounts for anisotropic exchange, Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and other symmetric terms such as dipole-dipole interaction. We present the formulas in a format that can be used for computations via Dynamical Mean Field Theory algorithms.
Mean-field theory and self-consistent dynamo modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshizawa, Akira; Yokoi, Nobumitsu [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Industrial Science; Itoh, Sanae-I [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)
2001-12-01
Mean-field theory of dynamo is discussed with emphasis on the statistical formulation of turbulence effects on the magnetohydrodynamic equations and the construction of a self-consistent dynamo model. The dynamo mechanism is sought in the combination of the turbulent residual-helicity and cross-helicity effects. On the basis of this mechanism, discussions are made on the generation of planetary magnetic fields such as geomagnetic field and sunspots and on the occurrence of flow by magnetic fields in planetary and fusion phenomena. (author)
Mean-field approach for diffusion of interacting particles.
Suárez, G; Hoyuelos, M; Mártin, H
2015-12-01
A nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation is obtained in the continuous limit of a one-dimensional lattice with an energy landscape of wells and barriers. Interaction is possible among particles in the same energy well. A parameter γ, related to the barrier's heights, is introduced. Its value is determinant for the functional dependence of the mobility and diffusion coefficient on particle concentration, but has no influence on the equilibrium solution. A relation between the mean-field potential and the microscopic interaction energy is derived. The results are illustrated with classical particles with interactions that reproduce fermion and boson statistics. PMID:26764643
Superheavy Nuclei: Relativistic Mean Field Outlook
Afanasjev, A V
2006-01-01
The analysis of quasiparticle spectra in heaviest $A\\sim 250$ nuclei with spectroscopic data provides an additional constraint for the choice of effective interaction for the description of superheavy nuclei. It strongly suggest that only the parametrizations of the relativistic mean field Lagrangian which predict Z=120 and N=172 as shell closures are reliable for superheavy nuclei. The influence of the central depression in the density distribution of spherical superheavy nuclei on the shell structure is studied. Large central depression produces large shell gaps at Z=120 and N=172. The shell gaps at Z=126 and N=184 are favored by a flat density distribution in the central part of nucleus. It is shown that approximate particle number projection (PNP) by means of the Lipkin-Nogami method removes pairing collapse seen at these gaps in the calculations without PNP.
Superheavy nuclei: a relativistic mean field outlook
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The analysis of quasi-particle spectra in the heaviest A∼250 nuclei with spectroscopic data provides an additional constraint for the choice of effective interaction for the description of superheavy nuclei. It strongly suggests that only the parametrizations which predict Z = 120 and N = 172 as shell closures are reliable for superheavy nuclei within the relativistic mean field theory. The influence of the central depression in the density distribution of spherical superheavy nuclei on the shell structure is studied. A large central depression produces large shell gaps at Z = 120 and N = 172. The shell gaps at Z = 126 and N = 184 are favoured by a flat density distribution in the central part of the nucleus. It is shown that approximate particle number projection (PNP) by means of the Lipkin-Nogami (LN) method removes pairing collapse seen at these gaps in the calculations without PNP
Mass Predictions from Mean-Field Calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Several methods based on effective interactions or Lagrangians are available today. Although different in many respects (use of zero range or finite range interactions, relativistic or non relativistic framework, different treatments of pairing correlations), their applications to nuclei far from stability have shown converging results which still have to be incorporated in macroscopic approaches. Many efforts are also actually devoted to the improvements of the effective interactions, especially of the pairing force. Finally, developments are performed to include in a microscopic framework correlations beyond a mean-field (in particular, the correlations generated by rotation and vibration in the deformed nuclear potential). I shall review some key aspects of these developments and show how they affect the determination of nuclear masses in particular at the limits of stability
Invisible dynamo in mean-field models
Reshetnyak, M. Yu.
2016-07-01
The inverse problem in a spherical shell to find the two-dimensional spatial distributions of the α-effect and differential rotation in a mean-field dynamo model has been solved. The derived distributions lead to the generation of a magnetic field concentrated inside the convection zone. The magnetic field is shown to have no time to rise from the region of maximum generation located in the lower layers to the surface in the polarity reversal time due to magnetic diffusion. The ratio of the maximum magnetic energy in the convection zone to its value at the outer boundary reaches two orders of magnitude or more. This result is important in interpreting the observed stellar and planetary magnetic fields. The proposed method of solving the inverse nonlinear dynamo problem is easily adapted for a wide class of mathematical-physics problems.
Kinetic and mean field description of Gibrat's law
Toscani, Giuseppe
2016-01-01
We introduce and analyze a linear kinetic model that describes the evolution of the probability density of the number of firms in a society, in which the microscopic rate of change obeys to the so-called law of proportional effect proposed by Gibrat. Despite its apparent simplicity, the possible mean field limits of the kinetic model are varied. In some cases, the asymptotic limit can be described by a first-order partial differential equation. In other cases, the mean field equation is a linear diffusion with a non constant diffusion coefficient that models also the geometric Brownian motion and can be studied analytically. In this case, it is shown that the large-time behavior of the solution is represented, for a large class of initial data, by a lognormal distribution with constant mean value and variance increasing exponentially in time at a precise rate. The relationship between the kinetic and the diffusion models allow to introduce an easy-to- implement expression for computing the Fourier transform o...
Nonlinear regimes in mean-field full-sphere dynamo
Pipin, V V
2016-01-01
The mean-field dynamo model is employed to study the non-linear dynamo regimes in a fully convective star of mass 0.3$M_{\\odot}$ rotating with period of 10 days. The differential rotation law was estimated using the mean-field hydrodynamic and heat transport equations. For the intermediate parameter of the turbulent magnetic Reynolds number, $Pm_{T}=3$ we found the oscillating dynamo regimes with period about 40Yr. The higher $Pm_{T}$ results to longer dynamo periods. The meridional circulation has one cell per hemisphere. It is counter-clockwise in the Northen hemisphere. The amplitude of the flow at the surface around 1 m/s. Tne models with regards for meridional circulation show the anti-symmetric relative to equator magnetic field. If the large-scale flows is fixed we find that the dynamo transits from axisymmetric to non-axisymmetric regimes for the overcritical parameter of the $\\alpha$effect. The change of dynamo regime occurs because of the non-axisymmetric non-linear $\\alpha$-effect. The situation pe...
Deterministic Mean-Field Ensemble Kalman Filtering
Law, Kody J. H.
2016-05-03
The proof of convergence of the standard ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) from Le Gland, Monbet, and Tran [Large sample asymptotics for the ensemble Kalman filter, in The Oxford Handbook of Nonlinear Filtering, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2011, pp. 598--631] is extended to non-Gaussian state-space models. A density-based deterministic approximation of the mean-field limit EnKF (DMFEnKF) is proposed, consisting of a PDE solver and a quadrature rule. Given a certain minimal order of convergence k between the two, this extends to the deterministic filter approximation, which is therefore asymptotically superior to standard EnKF for dimension d<2k. The fidelity of approximation of the true distribution is also established using an extension of the total variation metric to random measures. This is limited by a Gaussian bias term arising from nonlinearity/non-Gaussianity of the model, which arises in both deterministic and standard EnKF. Numerical results support and extend the theory.
A Mean-Field Description for AdS Black Hole
Dutta, Suvankar; P, Sachin Shain
2016-01-01
In this paper we find an equivalent mean-field description for asymptotically $AdS$ black hole in high temperature limit and in arbitrary dimensions. We obtain a class of mean-field potential for which the description is valid. We explicitly show that there is an one to one correspondence between the thermodynamics of a gas of interacting particles moving under a mean-field potential and an $AdS$ black hole, namely the equation of state, temperature, pressure, entropy and enthalpy of both the...
Electrical Vehicles in the Smart Grid: A Mean Field Game Analysis
Couillet, Romain; Medina Perlaza, Samir; Tembine, Hamidou; Debbah, Mérouane
2012-01-01
In this article, we investigate the competitive interaction between electrical vehicles or hybrid oil-electricity vehicles in a Cournot market consisting of electricity transactions to or from an underlying electricity distribution network. We provide a mean field game formulation for this competition, and introduce the set of fundamental differential equations ruling the behavior of the vehicles at the feedback Nash equilibrium, referred here to as the mean field equilibrium. This framework ...
Mean field theory for non-abelian gauge theories and fluid dynamics. A brief progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We review the long standing problem of 'mean field theory' for non-abelian gauge theories. As a consequence of the AdS/CFT correspondence, in the large N limit, at strong coupling, and high temperatures and density, the 'mean field theory' is described by the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid dynamics. We also discuss and present results on the non-conformal fluid dynamics of the D1 brane in 1+1 dim. (author)
Mean Field Variational Approximation for Continuous-Time Bayesian Networks
Cohn, Ido; Friedman, Nir; Kupferman, Raz
2012-01-01
Continuous-time Bayesian networks is a natural structured representation language for multicomponent stochastic processes that evolve continuously over time. Despite the compact representation, inference in such models is intractable even in relatively simple structured networks. Here we introduce a mean field variational approximation in which we use a product of inhomogeneous Markov processes to approximate a distribution over trajectories. This variational approach leads to a globally consistent distribution, which can be efficiently queried. Additionally, it provides a lower bound on the probability of observations, thus making it attractive for learning tasks. We provide the theoretical foundations for the approximation, an efficient implementation that exploits the wide range of highly optimized ordinary differential equations (ODE) solvers, experimentally explore characterizations of processes for which this approximation is suitable, and show applications to a large-scale realworld inference problem.
Thermal Effects in Dense Matter Beyond Mean Field Theory
Constantinou, Constantinos; Prakash, Madappa
2016-01-01
The formalism of next-to-leading order Fermi Liquid Theory is employed to calculate the thermal properties of symmetric nuclear and pure neutron matter in a relativistic many-body theory beyond the mean field level which includes two-loop effects. For all thermal variables, the semi-analytical next-to-leading order corrections reproduce results of the exact numerical calculations for entropies per baryon up to 2. This corresponds to excellent agreement down to sub-nuclear densities for temperatures up to $20$ MeV. In addition to providing physical insights, a rapid evaluation of the equation of state in the homogeneous phase of hot and dense matter is achieved through the use of the zero-temperature Landau effective mass function and its derivatives.
Classification of networks of automata by dynamical mean field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dynamical mean field theory is used to classify the 224=65,536 different networks of binary automata on a square lattice with nearest neighbour interactions. Application of mean field theory gives 700 different mean field classes, which fall in seven classes of different asymptotic dynamics characterized by fixed points and two-cycles. (orig.)
Dynamical mean field model of a neural-glial mass.
Sotero, Roberto C; Martínez-Cancino, Ramón
2010-04-01
Our goal is to model the behavior of an ensemble of interacting neurons and astrocytes (the neural-glial mass). For this, a model describing N tripartite synapses is proposed. Each tripartite synapse consists of presynaptic and postsynaptic nerve terminals, as well as the synaptically associated astrocytic microdomain, and is described by a system of 13 stochastic differential equations. Then, by applying the dynamical mean field approximation (DMA) (Hasegawa, 2003a , 2003b ) the system of 13N equations is reduced to 13(13 + 2) = 195 deterministic differential equations for the means and the second-order moments of local and global variables. Simulations are carried out for studying the response of the neural-glial mass to external inputs applied to either the presynaptic terminals or the astrocytes. Three cases were considered: the astrocytes influence only the presynaptic terminal, only the postsynaptic terminal, or both the presynaptic and postsynaptic terminals. As a result, a wide range of responses varying from singles spikes to train of spikes was evoked on presynaptic and postsynaptic terminals. The experimentally observed phenomenon of spontaneous activity in astrocytes was replicated on the neural-glial mass. The model predicts that astrocytes can have a strong and activity-dependent influence on synaptic transmission. Finally, simulations show that the dynamics of astrocytes influences the synchronization ratio between neurons, predicting a peak in the synchronization for specific values of the astrocytes' parameters. PMID:20028223
Evolution of primordial magnetic fields in mean-field approximation
Campanelli, Leonardo
2013-01-01
We study the evolution of phase-transition-generated cosmic magnetic fields coupled to the primeval cosmic plasma in turbulent and viscous free-streaming regimes. The evolution laws for the magnetic energy density and correlation length, both in helical and non-helical cases, are found by solving the autoinduction and Navier-Stokes equations in mean-field approximation. Analytical results are derived in Minkowski spacetime and then extended to the case of a Friedmann universe with zero spatial curvature, both in radiation and matter dominated eras. The three possible viscous free-streaming phases are characterized by a drag term in the Navier-Stokes equation which depends on the free-steaming properties of neutrinos, photons, or hydrogen atoms, respectively. In the case of non-helical magnetic fields, the magnetic intensity $B$ and the magnetic correlation length $\\xi_B$ evolve asymptotically with the temperature $T$ as $B(T) \\simeq \\kappa_B (N_i v_i)^{\\varrho_1} (T/T_i)^{\\varrho_2}$ and $\\xi_B(T) \\simeq \\kap...
A Mean-Field Description for AdS Black Hole
Dutta, Suvankar
2016-01-01
In this paper we find an equivalent mean-field description for asymptotically $AdS$ black hole in high temperature limit and in arbitrary dimensions. We obtain a class of mean-field potential for which the description is valid. We explicitly show that there is an one to one correspondence between the thermodynamics of a gas of interacting particles moving under a mean-field potential and an $AdS$ black hole, namely the equation of state, temperature, pressure, entropy and enthalpy of both the systems match. In $3+1$ dimensions, in particular, the mean-field description can be thought of as an ensemble of tiny interacting {\\it asymptotically flat} black holes moving in volume $V$ and at temperature $T$. This motivates us to identify these asymptotically flat black holes as microstructure of asymptotically $AdS$ black holes in $3+1$ dimensions.
Self-consistent mean field forces in turbulent plasmas: Current and momentum relaxation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The properties of turbulent plasmas are described using the two-fluid equations. Under some modest assumptions, global constraints for the turbulent mean field forces that act on the ion and electron fluids are derived. These constraints imply a functional form for the parallel mean field forces in the Ohm's law and the momentum balance equation. These forms suggest that the fluctuations attempt to relax the plasma to a state where both the current and the bulk plasma momentum are aligned along the mean magnetic field with proportionality constants that are global constants. Observations of flow profile evolution during discrete dynamo activity in reversed field pinch experiments are interpreted
Time-Dependent Mean-Field Games in the Subquadratic Case
Gomes, Diogo A.
2014-10-14
In this paper we consider time-dependent mean-field games with subquadratic Hamiltonians and power-like local dependence on the measure. We establish existence of classical solutions under a certain set of conditions depending on both the growth of the Hamiltonian and the dimension. This is done by combining regularity estimates for the Hamilton-Jacobi equation based on the Gagliardo-Nirenberg interpolation inequality with polynomial estimates for the Fokker-Planck equation. This technique improves substantially the previous results on the regularity of time-dependent mean-field games.
Mean-field theory of atomic self-organization in optical cavities
Jäger, Simon B.; Schütz, Stefan; Morigi, Giovanna
2016-08-01
Photons mediate long-range optomechanical forces between atoms in high-finesse resonators, which can induce the formation of ordered spatial patterns. When a transverse laser drives the atoms, the system undergoes a second-order phase transition that separates a uniform spatial density from a Bragg grating maximizing scattering into the cavity and is controlled by the laser intensity. Starting from a Fokker-Planck equation describing the semiclassical dynamics of the N -atom distribution function, we systematically develop a mean-field model and analyze its predictions for the equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium dynamics. The validity of the mean-field model is tested by comparison with the numerical simulations of the N -body Fokker-Planck equation and by means of a Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy. The mean-field theory predictions well reproduce several results of the N -body Fokker-Planck equation for sufficiently short times and are in good agreement with existing theoretical approaches based on field-theoretical models. The mean field, on the other hand, predicts thermalization time scales which are at least one order of magnitude shorter than the ones predicted by the N -body dynamics. We attribute this discrepancy to the fact that the mean-field ansatz discards the effects of the long-range incoherent forces due to cavity losses.
Beyond mean field theory: statistical field theory for neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mean field theories have been a stalwart for studying the dynamics of networks of coupled neurons. They are convenient because they are relatively simple and possible to analyze. However, classical mean field theory neglects the effects of fluctuations and correlations due to single neuron effects. Here, we consider various possible approaches for going beyond mean field theory and incorporating correlation effects. Statistical field theory methods, in particular the Doi–Peliti–Janssen formalism, are particularly useful in this regard. (paper)
Lerchner, A; Hertz, J; Ahmadi, M
2004-01-01
We present a complete mean field theory for a balanced state of a simple model of an orientation hypercolumn. The theory is complemented by a description of a numerical procedure for solving the mean-field equations quantitatively. With our treatment, we can determine self-consistently both the firing rates and the firing correlations, without being restricted to specific neuron models. Here, we solve the analytically derived mean-field equations numerically for integrate-and-fire neurons. Several known key properties of orientation selective cortical neurons emerge naturally from the description: Irregular firing with statistics close to -- but not restricted to -- Poisson statistics; an almost linear gain function (firing frequency as a function of stimulus contrast) of the neurons within the network; and a contrast-invariant tuning width of the neuronal firing. We find that the irregularity in firing depends sensitively on synaptic strengths. If Fano factors are bigger than 1, then they are so for all stim...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lerchner, Alexander; Sterner, G.; Hertz, J.;
2006-01-01
We present a complete mean field theory for a balanced state of a simple model of an orientation hypercolumn, with a numerical procedure for solving the mean-field equations quantitatively. With our treatment, one can determine self-consistently both the firing rates and the firing correlations......, without being restricted to specific neuron models. Here, we solve the mean-field equations numerically for integrate-and-fire neurons. Several known key properties of orientation selective cortical neurons emerge naturally from the description: Irregular firing with statistics close to - but not...... restricted to Poisson statistics; an almost linear gain function (firing frequency as a function of stimulus contrast) of the neurons within the network; and a contrast-invariant tuning width of the neuronal firing. We find that the irregularity in firing depends sensitively on synaptic strengths. If the...
Exact mean field dynamics for epidemic-like processes on heterogeneous networks
Lucas, Andrew
2012-01-01
We show that the mean field equations for the SIR epidemic can be exactly solved for a network with arbitrary degree distribution. Our exact solution consists of reducing the dynamics to a lone first order differential equation, which has a solution in terms of an integral over functions dependent on the degree distribution of the network, and reconstructing all mean field functions of interest from this integral. Irreversibility of the SIR epidemic is crucial for the solution. We also find exact solutions to the sexually transmitted disease SI epidemic on bipartite graphs, to a simplified rumor spreading model, and to a new model for recommendation spreading, via similar techniques. Numerical simulations of these processes on scale free networks demonstrate the qualitative validity of mean field theory in most regimes.
Development of mean field theories in nuclear physics and in desordered media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This work, in two parts, deals with the development of mean field theories in nuclear physics (nuclei in balance and collisions of heavy ions) as well as in disordered media. In the first part, two different ways of tackling the problem of developments around mean field theories are explained. Possessing an approach wave function for the system, the natural idea for including the correlations is to develop the exact wave function of the system around the mean field wave function. The first two chapters show two different ways of dealing with this problem: the perturbative approach - Hartree-Fock equations with two body collisions and functional methods. In the second part: mean field theory for spin glasses. The problem for spin glasses is to construct a physically acceptable mean field theory. The importance of this problem in statistical mechanics is linked to the fact that the mean field theory provides a qualitative description of the low temperature phase and is the starting point needed for using more sophisticated methods (renormalization group). Two approaches to this problem are presented, one based on the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model and the other based on a model of spins with purely local disorder and competitive interaction between the spins
Hot and dense matter beyond relativistic mean field theory
Zhang, Xilin
2016-01-01
Properties of hot and dense matter are calculated in the framework of quantum hadro-dynamics by including contributions from two-loop (TL) diagrams arising from the exchange of iso-scalar and iso-vector mesons between nucleons. Our extension of mean-field theory (MFT) employs the same five density-independent coupling strengths which are calibrated using the empirical properties at the equilibrium density of iso-spin symmetric matter. Results of calculations from the MFT and TL approximations are compared for conditions of density, temperature, and proton fraction encountered in astrophysics applications involving compact objects. The TL results for the equation of state (EOS) of cold pure neutron matter at sub- and near-nuclear densities agree well with those of modern quantum Monte Carlo and effective field-theoretical approaches. Although the high-density EOS in the TL approximation for neutron-star matter is substantially softer than its MFT counterpart, it is able to support a $2M_\\odot$ neutron star req...
Mean-field theory of four species in cyclic competition
Durney, C. H.; Case, S. O.; Pleimling, M.; Zia, R. K. P.
2011-03-01
We consider a simple model of cyclic competition of M species: When a pair of individuals from species k and k + 1 interact, the latter transforms into the former. Even with no spatial structure, such systems often display interesting and counterintuitive behavior. With possible applications in both biological systems (e.g., Min proteins, E. Coli, lizards) and game theory (e.g., rock-paper-scissors), the M = 3 case has attracted considerable recent attention. We study a M = 4 system (with no spatial structure) and find major differences, e.g., (1) the presence of macroscopically many absorbing states, (2) coexistence of species, and (3) violation of the ``law'' of survival of the weakest - a central theme in the M = 3 case. Like the game of Bridge, the system typically ends with ``partner pairs.'' After describing the full stochastic model and its master equation, we present the mean-field approximation. Several exact, analytic predictions will be shown. Their limitations and implications for the stochastic system will also be discussed. Supported in part by NSF-DMR-0705152, 0904999, 1005417.
Mean field theory of self-organized critical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A mean field theory is presented for the recently discovered self-organized critical phenomena. The critical exponents are calculated and found to be the same as the mean field values for percolation. The power spectrum has 1/f behavior with exponent Phi = 1
Verbalization of Mean Field Utterances in German Instructions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tayupova O. I.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The article investigates ways of actualization of mean field utterances used in modern German instructions considering the type of the text. The author determines and analyzes similarities and differences in linguistic means used in mean field utterances in the context of such text subtypes as instructions to household appliances, cosmetic products directions and prescribing information for pharmaceutical drugs use.
Evolution of primordial magnetic fields in mean-field approximation
Campanelli, Leonardo
2014-01-01
We study the evolution of phase-transition-generated cosmic magnetic fields coupled to the primeval cosmic plasma in the turbulent and viscous free-streaming regimes. The evolution laws for the magnetic energy density and the correlation length, both in the helical and the non-helical cases, are found by solving the autoinduction and Navier-Stokes equations in the mean-field approximation. Analytical results are derived in Minkowski spacetime and then extended to the case of a Friedmann universe with zero spatial curvature, both in the radiation- and the matter-dominated era. The three possible viscous free-streaming phases are characterized by a drag term in the Navier-Stokes equation which depends on the free-streaming properties of neutrinos, photons, or hydrogen atoms, respectively. In the case of non-helical magnetic fields, the magnetic intensity and the magnetic correlation length evolve asymptotically with the temperature, , as and . Here, , , and are, respectively, the temperature, the number of magnetic domains per horizon length, and the bulk velocity at the onset of the particular regime. The coefficients , , , , , and , depend on the index of the assumed initial power-law magnetic spectrum, , and on the particular regime, with the order-one constants and depending also on the cutoff adopted for the initial magnetic spectrum. In the helical case, the quasi-conservation of the magnetic helicity implies, apart from logarithmic corrections and a factor proportional to the initial fractional helicity, power-like evolution laws equal to those in the non-helical case, but with equal to zero.
Statistical thermodynamics and mean-field theory for the alloy under irradiation model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A generalization of statistical thermodynamics to the open systems case, is discussed, using as an example the alloy-under-irradiation model. The statistical properties of stationary states are described with the use of generalized thermodynamic potentials and 'quasi-interactions' determined from the master equation for micro-configuration probabilities. Methods for resolving this equation are illustrated by the mean-field type calculations of correlators, thermodynamic potentials and phase diagrams for disordered alloys
Expansion Around the Mean-Field Solution of the Bak-Sneppen Model
Marsili, Matteo; Rios, Paolo De Los; Maslov, Sergei
1997-01-01
We study a recently proposed equation for the avalanche distribution in the Bak-Sneppen model. We demonstrate that this equation indirectly relates $\\tau$,the exponent for the power law distribution of avalanche sizes, to $D$, the fractal dimension of an avalanche cluster.We compute this relation numerically and approximate it analytically up to the second order of expansion around the mean field exponents. Our results are consistent with Monte Carlo simulations of Bak-Sneppen model in one an...
An [imaginary time] Schr\\"odinger approach to mean field games
Swiecicki, Igor; Ullmo, Denis
2015-01-01
Mean Field Games (MFG) provide a theoretical frame to model socio-economic systems. In this letter, we study a particular class of MFG which shows strong analogies with the {\\em non-linear Schr\\"odinger and Gross-Pitaevski equations} introduced in physics to describe a variety of physical phenomena ranging from deep-water waves to interacting bosons. Using this bridge many results and techniques developed along the years in the latter context can be transferred to the former. As an illustration, we study in some details an example in which the "players" in the mean field game are under a strong incentive to coordinate themselves.
Single-particle potential in a relativistic Hartree-Fock mean field approximation
Jaminon, Martine; Mahaux, Claude; Rochus, Pierre
1981-01-01
A relativistic Hartree-Fock mean field approximation is investigated in a model in which the nucléon field interacts with scalar and vector meson fields. The Hartree-Fock potential felt by individual nucléons enters in a relativistic Dirac single-particle equation. It is shown that in the case of symmetric nuclear matter one can always find a potential which is fully equivalent to the most general mean field and which is only the sum of a Lorentz scalar, of one component of a Lorentz tensor a...
Non-equilibrium mean-field theories on scale-free networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Many non-equilibrium processes on scale-free networks present anomalous critical behavior that is not explained by standard mean-field theories. We propose a systematic method to derive stochastic equations for mean-field order parameters that implicitly account for the degree heterogeneity. The method is used to correctly predict the dynamical critical behavior of some binary spin models and reaction–diffusion processes. The validity of our non-equilibrium theory is further supported by showing its relation with the generalized Landau theory of equilibrium critical phenomena on networks
On the convergence of finite state mean-field games through Γ-convergence
Ferreira, Rita C.
2014-10-01
In this study, we consider the long-term convergence (trend toward an equilibrium) of finite state mean-field games using Γ-convergence. Our techniques are based on the observation that an important class of mean-field games can be viewed as the Euler-Lagrange equation of a suitable functional. Therefore, using a scaling argument, one can convert a long-term convergence problem into a Γ-convergence problem. Our results generalize previous results related to long-term convergence for finite state problems. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Quantum correlations in nuclear mean field theory through source terms
Lee, S J
1996-01-01
Starting from full quantum field theory, various mean field approaches are derived systematically. With a full consideration of external source dependence, the stationary phase approximation of an action gives a nuclear mean field theory which includes quantum correlation effects (such as particle-hole or ladder diagram) in a simpler way than the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach. Implementing further approximation, the result can be reduced to Hartree-Fock or Hartree approximation. The role of the source dependence in a mean field theory is examined.
Mean field theories and dual variation mathematical structures of the mesoscopic model
Suzuki, Takashi
2015-01-01
Mean field approximation has been adopted to describe macroscopic phenomena from microscopic overviews. It is still in progress; fluid mechanics, gauge theory, plasma physics, quantum chemistry, mathematical oncology, non-equilibirum thermodynamics. spite of such a wide range of scientific areas that are concerned with the mean field theory, a unified study of its mathematical structure has not been discussed explicitly in the open literature. The benefit of this point of view on nonlinear problems should have significant impact on future research, as will be seen from the underlying features of self-assembly or bottom-up self-organization which is to be illustrated in a unified way. The aim of this book is to formulate the variational and hierarchical aspects of the equations that arise in the mean field theory from macroscopic profiles to microscopic principles, from dynamics to equilibrium, and from biological models to models that arise from chemistry and physics.
Mean-field instabilities and cluster formation in nuclear reactions
Colonna, M; Baran, V
2016-01-01
We review recent results on intermediate mass cluster production in heavy ion collisions at Fermi energy and in spallation reactions. Our studies are based on modern transport theories, employing effective interactions for the nuclear mean-field and incorporating two-body correlations and fluctuations. Namely we will consider the Stochastic Mean Field (SMF) approach and the recently developed Boltzmann-Langevin One Body (BLOB) model. We focus on cluster production emerging from the possible occurrence of low-density mean-field instabilities in heavy ion reactions. Within such a framework, the respective role of one and two-body effects, in the two models considered, will be carefully analysed. We will discuss, in particular, fragment production in central and semi-peripheral heavy ion collisions, which is the object of many recent experimental investigations. Moreover, in the context of spallation reactions, we will show how thermal expansion may trigger the development of mean-field instabilities, leading to...
Extrapolation of mean-field models to superheavy nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The extrapolation of self-consistent nuclear mean-field models to the region of superheavy elements is discussed with emphasis on the extrapolating power of the models. The predictions of modern mean-field models are confronted with recent experimental data. It is shown that a final conclusion about the location of the expected island of spherical doubly-magic superheavy nuclei cannot be drawn on the basis of the available data. (orig.)
Two-level interacting boson models beyond the mean field
Arias, J M; García-Ramos, J E; Vidal, J
2007-01-01
The phase diagram of two-level boson Hamiltonians, including the Interacting Boson Model (IBM), is studied beyond the standard mean field approximation using the Holstein-Primakoff mapping. The limitations of the usual intrinsic state (mean field) formalism concerning finite-size effects are pointed out. The analytic results are compared to numerics obtained from exact diagonalizations. Excitation energies and occupation numbers are studied in different model space regions (Casten triangle for IBM) and especially at the critical points.
Probabilistic data modelling with adaptive TAP mean-field theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Opper, M.; Winther, Ole
2001-01-01
We demonstrate for the case of single-layer neural networks how an extension of the TAP mean-field approach of disorder physics can be applied to the computation of approximate averages in probabilistic models for real data.......We demonstrate for the case of single-layer neural networks how an extension of the TAP mean-field approach of disorder physics can be applied to the computation of approximate averages in probabilistic models for real data....
Mean-Field Theory of the Solar Dynamo
Schmitt, D.
The generation of the solar magnetic field is generally ascribed to dynamo processes in the convection zone. The dynamo effects, differential rotation (Omega-effect) and helical turbulence (alpha-effect) are explained, and the basic properties of the mean-field dynamo equations are discussed in view of the observed properties of the solar cycle. Problems of the classical picture of a dynamo in the convection zone (fibril state of magnetic flux, field strength, magnetic buoyancy, polarity rules, differential rotation and butterfly diagram) are addressed and some alternatives to overcome these problems are presented. A possibility to make up for the missing radial gradient of rotation in the convection zone is an alpha^2-Omega-dynamo with an anisotropic alpha-tensor. Dynamo solutions then might have the characteristics of the butterfly diagram. Another approach involves meridional circulation as the cause of the migration of a dynamo wave. Another suggestion is that the solar dynamo operates in the overshoot region at the base of the convection zone where strong fields, necessary to explain the polarity rules, can be stored and radial gradients in the angular velocity occur. As an alternative to the turbulent alpha-effect a dynamic alpha-effect based on magnetostrophic waves driven by a magnetic buoyancy instability of a magnetic flux layer is introduced. Model calculations which use the internal rotation of the Sun as deduced from helioseismology only show solar cycle behaviour if the turbulent diffusivity is reduced in the layer and the alpha-effect is concentrated near the equator. Another possibility is a combined model. The non-uniform rotation and most of the azimuthal magnetic flux are confined to a thin layer at the bottom of the convection zone where turbulent diffusion is greatly reduced, with the convective region above containing only weak fields for which the alpha-effect and turbulent diffusion operate in the conventional manner. The dynamo takes on the
Solution of the hyperon puzzle within a relativistic mean-field model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maslov, K.A. [National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kolomeitsev, E.E., E-mail: E.Kolomeitsev@gsi.de [Matej Bel University, SK-97401 Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Voskresensky, D.N. [National Research Nuclear University (MEPhI), 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2015-09-02
The equation of state of cold baryonic matter is studied within a relativistic mean-field model with hadron masses and coupling constants depending on the scalar field. All hadron masses undergo a universal scaling, whereas the couplings are scaled differently. The appearance of hyperons in dense neutron star interiors is accounted for, however the equation of state remains sufficiently stiff if the reduction of the ϕ meson mass is included. Our equation of state matches well the constraints known from analyses of the astrophysical data and particle production in heavy-ion collisions.
Short-time existence of solutions for mean-field games with congestion
Gomes, Diogo A.
2015-11-20
We consider time-dependent mean-field games with congestion that are given by a Hamilton–Jacobi equation coupled with a Fokker–Planck equation. These models are motivated by crowd dynamics in which agents have difficulty moving in high-density areas. The congestion effects make the Hamilton–Jacobi equation singular. The uniqueness of solutions for this problem is well understood; however, the existence of classical solutions was only known in very special cases, stationary problems with quadratic Hamiltonians and some time-dependent explicit examples. Here, we demonstrate the short-time existence of C∞ solutions for sub-quadratic Hamiltonians.
Mean-field games and two-point boundary value problems
Mylvaganam, T.; Bauso, D.; Astolfi, A.
2015-01-01
© 2014 IEEE. A large population of agents seeking to regulate their state to values characterized by a low density is considered. The problem is posed as a mean-field game, for which solutions depend on two partial differential equations, namely the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation and the Fokker-Plank-Kolmogorov equation. The case in which the distribution of agents is a sum of polynomials and the value function is quadratic is considered. It is shown that a set of ordinary differential equa...
A Stochastic Maximum Principle for a Stochastic Differential Game of a Mean-Field Type
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We construct a stochastic maximum principle (SMP) which provides necessary conditions for the existence of Nash equilibria in a certain form of N-agent stochastic differential game (SDG) of a mean-field type. The information structure considered for the SDG is of a possible asymmetric and partial type. To prove our SMP we take an approach based on spike-variations and adjoint representation techniques, analogous to that of S. Peng (SIAM J. Control Optim. 28(4):966–979, 1990) in the optimal stochastic control context. In our proof we apply adjoint representation procedures at three points. The first-order adjoint processes are defined as solutions to certain mean-field backward stochastic differential equations, and second-order adjoint processes of a first type are defined as solutions to certain backward stochastic differential equations. Second-order adjoint processes of a second type are defined as solutions of certain backward stochastic equations of a type that we introduce in this paper, and which we term conditional mean-field backward stochastic differential equations. From the resulting representations, we show that the terms relating to these second-order adjoint processes of the second type are of an order such that they do not appear in our final SMP equations. A comparable situation exists in an article by R. Buckdahn, B. Djehiche, and J. Li (Appl. Math. Optim. 64(2):197–216, 2011) that constructs a SMP for a mean-field type optimal stochastic control problem; however, the approach we take of using these second-order adjoint processes of a second type to deal with the type of terms that we refer to as the second form of quadratic-type terms represents an alternative to a development, to our setting, of the approach used in their article for their analogous type of term.
A Stochastic Maximum Principle for a Stochastic Differential Game of a Mean-Field Type
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hosking, John Joseph Absalom, E-mail: j.j.a.hosking@cma.uio.no [University of Oslo, Centre of Mathematics for Applications (CMA) (Norway)
2012-12-15
We construct a stochastic maximum principle (SMP) which provides necessary conditions for the existence of Nash equilibria in a certain form of N-agent stochastic differential game (SDG) of a mean-field type. The information structure considered for the SDG is of a possible asymmetric and partial type. To prove our SMP we take an approach based on spike-variations and adjoint representation techniques, analogous to that of S. Peng (SIAM J. Control Optim. 28(4):966-979, 1990) in the optimal stochastic control context. In our proof we apply adjoint representation procedures at three points. The first-order adjoint processes are defined as solutions to certain mean-field backward stochastic differential equations, and second-order adjoint processes of a first type are defined as solutions to certain backward stochastic differential equations. Second-order adjoint processes of a second type are defined as solutions of certain backward stochastic equations of a type that we introduce in this paper, and which we term conditional mean-field backward stochastic differential equations. From the resulting representations, we show that the terms relating to these second-order adjoint processes of the second type are of an order such that they do not appear in our final SMP equations. A comparable situation exists in an article by R. Buckdahn, B. Djehiche, and J. Li (Appl. Math. Optim. 64(2):197-216, 2011) that constructs a SMP for a mean-field type optimal stochastic control problem; however, the approach we take of using these second-order adjoint processes of a second type to deal with the type of terms that we refer to as the second form of quadratic-type terms represents an alternative to a development, to our setting, of the approach used in their article for their analogous type of term.
Local excitations in mean-field spin glasses
Krzakala, F.; Parisi, G.
2004-06-01
We address the question of geometrical as well as energetic properties of local excitations in mean-field Ising spin glasses. We study analytically the Random Energy Model and numerically a dilute mean-field model, first on tree-like graphs, equivalent to a replica-symmetric computation, and then directly on finite-connectivity random lattices. In the first model, characterized by a discontinuous replica symmetry breaking, we found that the energy of finite-volume excitation is infinite, whereas in the dilute mean-field model, described by a continuous replica symmetry breaking, it slowly decreases with sizes and saturates at a finite value, in contrast with what would be naively expected. The geometrical properties of these excitations are similar to those of lattice animals or branched polymers. We discuss the meaning of these results in terms of replica symmetry breaking and also possible relevance in finite-dimensional systems.
Mean field strategies induce unrealistic nonlinearities in calcium puffs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
GuillermoSolovey
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Mean field models are often useful approximations to biological systems, but sometimes, they can yield misleading results. In this work, we compare mean field approaches with stochastic models of intracellular calcium release. In particular, we concentrate on calcium signals generated by the concerted opening of several clustered channels (calcium puffs. To this end we simulate calcium puffs numerically and then try to reproduce features of the resulting calcium distribution using mean field models were all the channels open and close simultaneously. We show that an unrealistic nonlinear relationship between the current and the number of open channels is needed to reproduce the simulated puffs. Furthermore, a single channel current which is five times smaller than the one of the stochastic simulations is also needed. Our study sheds light on the importance of the stochastic kinetics of the calcium release channel activity to estimate the release fluxes.
Dynamical Mean Field Approximation Applied to Quantum Field Theory
Akerlund, Oscar; Georges, Antoine; Werner, Philipp
2013-01-01
We apply the Dynamical Mean Field (DMFT) approximation to the real, scalar phi^4 quantum field theory. By comparing to lattice Monte Carlo calculations, perturbation theory and standard mean field theory, we test the quality of the approximation in two, three, four and five dimensions. The quantities considered in these tests are the critical coupling for the transition to the ordered phase and the associated critical exponents nu and beta. We also map out the phase diagram in four dimensions. In two and three dimensions, DMFT incorrectly predicts a first order phase transition for all bare quartic couplings, which is problematic, because the second order nature of the phase transition of lattice phi^4-theory is crucial for taking the continuum limit. Nevertheless, by extrapolating the behaviour away from the phase transition, one can obtain critical couplings and critical exponents. They differ from those of mean field theory and are much closer to the correct values. In four dimensions the transition is sec...
Noisy mean field game model for malware propagation in opportunistic networks
Tembine, Hamidou
2012-01-01
In this paper we present analytical mean field techniques that can be used to better understand the behavior of malware propagation in opportunistic large networks. We develop a modeling methodology based on stochastic mean field optimal control that is able to capture many aspects of the problem, especially the impact of the control and heterogeneity of the system on the spreading characteristics of malware. The stochastic large process characterizing the evolution of the total number of infected nodes is examined with a noisy mean field limit and compared to a deterministic one. The stochastic nature of the wireless environment make stochastic approaches more realistic for such types of networks. By introducing control strategies, we show that the fraction of infected nodes can be maintained below some threshold. In contrast to most of the existing results on mean field propagation models which focus on deterministic equations, we show that the mean field limit is stochastic if the second moment of the number of object transitions per time slot is unbounded with the size of the system. This allows us to compare one path of the fraction of infected nodes with the stochastic trajectory of its mean field limit. In order to take into account the heterogeneity of opportunistic networks, the analysis is extended to multiple types of nodes. Our numerical results show that the heterogeneity can help to stabilize the system. We verify the results through simulation showing how to obtain useful approximations in the case of very large systems. © 2012 ICST Institute for Computer Science, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering.
Hot and dense matter beyond relativistic mean field theory
Zhang, Xilin; Prakash, Madappa
2016-05-01
Properties of hot and dense matter are calculated in the framework of quantum hadrodynamics by including contributions from two-loop (TL) diagrams arising from the exchange of isoscalar and isovector mesons between nucleons. Our extension of mean field theory (MFT) employs the same five density-independent coupling strengths which are calibrated using the empirical properties at the equilibrium density of isospin-symmetric matter. Results of calculations from the MFT and TL approximations are compared for conditions of density, temperature, and proton fraction encountered in the study of core-collapse supernovae, young and old neutron stars, and mergers of compact binary stars. The TL results for the equation of state (EOS) of cold pure neutron matter at sub- and near-nuclear densities agree well with those of modern quantum Monte Carlo and effective field-theoretical approaches. Although the high-density EOS in the TL approximation for cold and β -equilibrated neutron-star matter is substantially softer than its MFT counterpart, it is able to support a 2 M⊙ neutron star required by recent precise determinations. In addition, radii of 1.4 M⊙ stars are smaller by ˜1 km than those obtained in MFT and lie in the range indicated by analysis of astronomical data. In contrast to MFT, the TL results also give a better account of the single-particle or optical potentials extracted from analyses of medium-energy proton-nucleus and heavy-ion experiments. In degenerate conditions, the thermal variables are well reproduced by results of Landau's Fermi-liquid theory in which density-dependent effective masses feature prominently. The ratio of the thermal components of pressure and energy density expressed as Γth=1 +(Pth/ɛth) , often used in astrophysical simulations, exhibits a stronger dependence on density than on proton fraction and temperature in both MFT and TL calculations. The prominent peak of Γth at supranuclear density found in MFT is, however, suppressed in
Suppression of oscillations in mean-field diffusion
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Neeraj Kumar Kamal; Pooja Rani Sharma; Manish Dev Shrimali
2015-02-01
We study the role of mean-field diffusive coupling on suppression of oscillations for systems of limit cycle oscillators. We show that this coupling scheme not only induces amplitude death (AD) but also oscillation death (OD) in coupled identical systems. The suppression of oscillations in the parameter space crucially depends on the value of mean-field diffusion parameter. It is also found that the transition from oscillatory solutions to OD in conjugate coupling case is different from the case when the coupling is through similar variable. We rationalize our study using linear stability analysis.
Condition monitoring with Mean field independent components analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Larsen, Jan
2005-01-01
We discuss condition monitoring based on mean field independent components analysis of acoustic emission energy signals. Within this framework it is possible to formulate a generative model that explains the sources, their mixing and also the noise statistics of the observed signals. By using a...... from a large diesel engine is used to demonstrate this approach. The results show that mean field independent components analysis gives a better detection of fault compared to principal components analysis, while at the same time selecting a more compact model...
Shapes and Dynamics from the Time-Dependent Mean Field
Stevenson, P D; Rios, A
2015-01-01
Explaining observed properties in terms of underlying shape degrees of freedom is a well--established prism with which to understand atomic nuclei. Self--consistent mean--field models provide one tool to understand nuclear shapes, and their link to other nuclear properties and observables. We present examples of how the time--dependent extension of the mean--field approach can be used in particular to shed light on nuclear shape properties, particularly looking at the giant resonances built on deformed nuclear ground states, and at dynamics in highly-deformed fission isomers. Example calculations are shown of $^{28}$Si in the first case, and $^{240}$Pu in the latter case.
Relativistic Chiral Mean Field Model for Finite Nuclei
Ogawa, Yoko; Toki, Hiroshi; Tamenaga, Setsuo; Haga, Akihiro
2012-01-01
We present a relativistic chiral mean field (RCMF) model, which is a method for the proper treatment of pion-exchange interaction in the nuclear many-body problem. There the dominant term of the pionic correlation is expressed in two-particle two-hole (2p-2h) states with particle-holes having pionic quantum number, J^{pi}. The charge-and-parity-projected relativistic mean field (CPPRMF) model developed so far treats surface properties of pionic correlation in 2p-2h states with J^{pi} = 0^{-} ...
A mean field theory of coded CDMA systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a mean field theory of code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems with error-control coding. On the basis of the relation between the free energy and mutual information, we obtain an analytical expression of the maximum spectral efficiency of the coded CDMA system, from which a mean-field description of the coded CDMA system is provided in terms of a bank of scalar Gaussian channels whose variances in general vary at different code symbol positions. Regular low-density parity-check (LDPC)-coded CDMA systems are also discussed as an example of the coded CDMA systems
A mean field theory of coded CDMA systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yano, Toru [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshiyuki [Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University, Yoshida Hon-machi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Saad, David [Neural Computing Research Group, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)], E-mail: yano@thx.appi.keio.ac.jp
2008-08-15
We present a mean field theory of code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems with error-control coding. On the basis of the relation between the free energy and mutual information, we obtain an analytical expression of the maximum spectral efficiency of the coded CDMA system, from which a mean-field description of the coded CDMA system is provided in terms of a bank of scalar Gaussian channels whose variances in general vary at different code symbol positions. Regular low-density parity-check (LDPC)-coded CDMA systems are also discussed as an example of the coded CDMA systems.
Derivation of mean-field dynamics for fermions
Petrat, Sören
2014-01-01
In dieser Arbeit werden die zeitabhängigen Hartree(-Fock) Gleichungen als effektive Dynamik für fermionische Vielteilchen-Systeme hergeleitet. Die Hauptresultate sind die ersten für eine quantenmechanische Mean-Field Dynamik ("Mittlere-Feld Dynamik") für Fermionen; in vorherigen Arbeiten ist der Mean-Field Limes üblicherweise entweder mit einem semiklassischen Limes gekoppelt oder die Wechselwirkung wird so stark runterskaliert, dass sich das System für große Teilchenzahl N frei verhält. Wir ...
Mean field with corrections in lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A systematic expansion of the path integral for lattice gauge theory is performed around the mean field solution. In this letter we present the results for the pure gauge groups Z(2), SU(2) and SO(3). The agreement with Monte Carlo calculations is excellent. For the discrete group the calculation is performed with and without gauge fixing, whereas for the continuous groups gauge fixing is mandatory. In the case of SU(2) the absence of a phase transition is correctly signalled by mean field theory. (orig.)
Mean field with corrections in lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A systematic expansion of the path integral for lattice gauge theory is performed around the mean field solution. In this letter the authors present the results for the pure gauge groups Z(2), SU(2) and SO(3). The agreement with Monte Carlo calculations is excellent. For the discrete group the calculation is performed with and without gauge fixing, whereas for the continuous groups gauge fixing is mandatory. In the case of SU(2) the absence of a phase transition is correctly signalled by mean field theory. (Auth.)
Phase transition in a mean-field model for sympatric speciation
Schwämmle, V.; Luz-Burgoa, K.; Martins, J. S. Sá; de Oliveira, S. Moss
2005-01-01
We introduce an analytical model for population dynamics with intra-specific competition, mutation and assortative mating as basic ingredients. The set of equations that describes the time evolution of population size in a mean-field approximation may be decoupled. We find a phase transition leading to sympatric speciation as a parameter that quantifies competition strength is varied. This transition, previously found in a computational model, occurs to be of first order.
Nuclear magnetic moments and the spin-orbit current in the relativistic mean field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Dirac magnetic moments in the relativistic mean field theory are affected not only by the effective mass, but also by the spin-orbit current related to the spin-orbit force through the continuity equation. Previous arguments on the cancellation of the effective-mass effect in nuclear matter are not simply applied to finite nuclei to obtain the Schmidt values. Effects of the spin-orbit current on (e, e') response functions are also mentioned. (orig.)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GENG Li-Sheng; MENG Jie; Toki Hiroshi
2007-01-01
A reflection asymmetric relativistic mean field (RAS-RMF) approach is developed by expanding the equations of motion for both the nucleons and the mesons on the eigenfunctions of the two-centre harmonic-oscillator potential.The efficiency and reliability of the RAS-RMF approach are demonstrated in its application to the well-known octupole deformed nucleus 226Ra and the available data, including the binding energy and the deformation parameters, are well reproduced.
A New Method and a New Scaling for Deriving Fermionic Mean-Field Dynamics
Petrat, Sören; Pickl, Peter
2016-03-01
We introduce a new method for deriving the time-dependent Hartree or Hartree-Fock equations as an effective mean-field dynamics from the microscopic Schrödinger equation for fermionic many-particle systems in quantum mechanics. The method is an adaption of the method used in Pickl (Lett. Math. Phys. 97 (2) 151-164 2011) for bosonic systems to fermionic systems. It is based on a Gronwall type estimate for a suitable measure of distance between the microscopic solution and an antisymmetrized product state. We use this method to treat a new mean-field limit for fermions with long-range interactions in a large volume. Some of our results hold for singular attractive or repulsive interactions. We can also treat Coulomb interaction assuming either a mild singularity cutoff or certain regularity conditions on the solutions to the Hartree(-Fock) equations. In the considered limit, the kinetic and interaction energy are of the same order, while the average force is subleading. For some interactions, we prove that the Hartree(-Fock) dynamics is a more accurate approximation than a simpler dynamics that one would expect from the subleading force. With our method we also treat the mean-field limit coupled to a semiclassical limit, which was discussed in the literature before, and we recover some of the previous results. All results hold for initial data close (but not necessarily equal) to antisymmetrized product states and we always provide explicit rates of convergence.
Hydrodynamic mean-field solutions of 1D exclusion processes with spatially varying hopping rates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lakatos, Greg; O' Brien, John; Chou, Tom [Department of Biomathematics and Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)
2006-03-10
We analyse the open boundary partially asymmetric exclusion process with smoothly varying internal hopping rates in the infinite-size, mean-field limit. The mean-field equations for particle densities are written in terms of Ricatti equations with the steady-state current J as a parameter. These equations are solved both analytically and numerically. Upon imposing the boundary conditions set by the injection and extraction rates, the currents J are found self-consistently. We find a number of cases where analytic solutions can be found exactly or approximated. Results for J from asymptotic analyses for slowly varying hopping rates agree extremely well with those from extensive Monte Carlo simulations, suggesting that mean-field currents asymptotically approach the exact currents in the hydrodynamic limit, as the hopping rates vary slowly over the lattice. If the forward hopping rate is greater than or less than the backward hopping rate throughout the entire chain, the three standard steady-state phases are preserved. Our analysis reveals the sensitivity of the current to the relative phase between the forward and backward hopping rate functions.
Mean Field Approach to the Giant Wormhole Problem
Gamba, A.; Kolokolov, I.; Martellini, M.
1992-01-01
We introduce a gaussian probability density for the space-time distribution of wormholes, thus taking effectively into account wormhole interaction. Using a mean-field approximation for the free energy, we show that giant wormholes are probabilistically suppressed in a homogenous isotropic ``large'' universe.
Mean field theory for lattice gauge systems with fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We extend recent mean field calculations for lattice gauge theories to include fermions. We find that the addition of a Wilson fermion leads to an almost negligible change of the weak to strong coupling transition point. The plaquette average is also only weakly affected. (author)
Social networking and individual outcomes beyond the mean field case
Y.M. Ioannides; A.R. Soetevent
2007-01-01
We study individually optimized continuous outcomes in a dynamic environment in the presence of social interactions, and where the interaction topology may be either exogenous and time varying, or endogenous. The model accommodates more general social effects than those of the mean-field type. We ad
Clustering in atomic nuclei: a mean field perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper the physics of clustering in atomic nucleus as seen from a mean field perspective will be discussed. Special attention is paid to phenomena involving octupole deformation like the α structure of 20Ne or the emission of heavy clusters. The stabilizing role of spin for cluster-like highly deformed states is also discussed in the case of 36 Ar
Robust mean field games for coupled Markov jump linear systems
Moon, Jun; Başar, Tamer
2016-07-01
We consider robust stochastic large population games for coupled Markov jump linear systems (MJLSs). The N agents' individual MJLSs are governed by different infinitesimal generators, and are affected not only by the control input but also by an individual disturbance (or adversarial) input. The mean field term, representing the average behaviour of N agents, is included in the individual worst-case cost function to capture coupling effects among agents. To circumvent the computational complexity and analyse the worst-case effect of the disturbance, we use robust mean field game theory to design low-complexity robust decentralised controllers and to characterise the associated worst-case disturbance. We show that with the individual robust decentralised controller and the corresponding worst-case disturbance, which constitute a saddle-point solution to a generic stochastic differential game for MJLSs, the actual mean field behaviour can be approximated by a deterministic function which is a fixed-point solution to the constructed mean field system. We further show that the closed-loop system is uniformly stable independent of N, and an approximate optimality can be obtained in the sense of ε-Nash equilibrium, where ε can be taken to be arbitrarily close to zero as N becomes sufficiently large. A numerical example is included to illustrate the results.
Variational Wigner-Kirkwood approach to relativistic mean field theory
Estal, Manuel del; Centelles Aixalà, Mario; Viñas Gausí, Xavier
1997-01-01
The recently developed variational Wigner-Kirkwood approach is extended to the relativistic mean field theory for finite nuclei. A numerical application to the calculation of the surface energy coefficient in semi-infinite nuclear matter is presented. The new method is contrasted with the standard density functional theory and the fully quantal approach.
Chaotic time series prediction using mean-field theory for support vector machine
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cui Wan-Zhao; Zhu Chang-Chun; Bao Wen-Xing; Liu Jun-Hua
2005-01-01
This paper presents a novel method for predicting chaotic time series which is based on the support vector machines approach, and it uses the mean-field theory for developing an easy and efficient learning procedure for the support vector machine. The proposed method approximates the distribution of the support vector machine parameters to a Gaussian process and uses the mean-field theory to estimate these parameters easily, and select the weights of the mixture of kernels used in the support vector machine estimation more accurately and faster than traditional quadratic programming-based algorithms. Finally, relationships between the embedding dimension and the predicting performance of this method are discussed, and the Mackey-Glass equation is applied to test this method. The stimulations show that the mean-field theory for support vector machine can predict chaotic time series accurately, and even if the embedding dimension is unknown, the predicted results are still satisfactory. This result implies that the mean-field theory for support vector machine is a good tool for studying chaotic time series.
Mean-field cosmological dynamos in Riemannian space with isotropic diffusion
de Andrade, L Garcia
2009-01-01
Mean-field cosmological dynamos in Riemannian space with isotropic diffusion}} Previous attempts for building a cosmic dynamo including preheating in inflationary universes [Bassett et al Phys Rev (2001)] has not included mean field or turbulent dynamos. In this paper a mean field dynamo in cosmic scales on a Riemannian spatial cosmological section background, is set up. When magnetic fields and flow velocities are parallel propagated along the Riemannian space dynamo action is obtained. Turbulent diffusivity ${\\beta}$ is coupled with the Ricci magnetic curvature, as in Marklund and Clarkson [MNRAS (2005)], GR-MHD dynamo equation. Mean electric field possesses an extra term where Ricci tensor couples with magnetic vector potential in Ohm's law. In Goedel universe induces a mean field dynamo growth rate ${\\gamma}=2{\\omega}^{2}{\\beta}$. In this frame kinetic helicity vanishes. In radiation era this yields ${\\gamma}\\approx{2{\\beta}{\\times}10^{-12}s^{-1}}$. In non-comoving the magnetic field is expressed as $B\\ap...
Charge and parity projected relativistic mean field model with pion for finite nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We construct a new relativistic mean field model by explicitly introducing a π-meson mean field with charge number and parity projection. We call this model the charge and parity projected relativistic mean field (CPPRMF) model. We take the chiral σ model Lagrangian for the construction of finite nuclei. We apply this framework first for the 4He nucleus as a pilot case and study the role of the π-meson field on the structure of nuclei. We demonstrate that it is essential to solve the mean field equation with the variation introduced after the projection in order to take the pionic correlations into account explicitly. We study the ground-state properties of 4He by varying several parameters, such as the σ-meson mass and the ω-meson coupling constant. We are able to construct a good ground state for 4He. A depression appears in the central region of the density distribution, and the second maximum and the position of the dip in the form factor of 4He are naturally obtained in the CPPRMF model
Damping of Collective Nuclear Motion and Thermodynamic Properties of Nuclei beyond Mean Field
Luo, Hong-Gang; Cassing, W.; Wang, Shun-Jin
1999-01-01
The dynamical description of correlated nuclear motion is based on a set of coupled equations of motion for the one-body density matrix $\\rho (11';t)$ and the two-body correlation function $c_2(12,1'2';t)$, which is obtained from the density-matrix hierarchy beyond conventional mean-field approaches by truncating 3-body correlations. The resulting equations nonperturbatively describe particle-particle collisions (short-range correlations) as well as particle-hole interactions (long-range corr...
Expansion Around the Mean-Field Solution of the Bak-Sneppen Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marsili, M. [Institut de Physique Theorique, Universite de Fribourg Perolles, Fribourg, CH-1700 (Switzerland); De Los Rios, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik Komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Str.38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Maslov, S. [Department of Physics, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)
1998-02-01
We study a recently proposed equation for the avalanche distribution in the Bak-Sneppen model. We demonstrate that this equation indirectly relates {tau} , the exponent for the power law distribution of avalanche sizes, to D , the fractal dimension of an avalanche cluster. We compute this relation numerically and approximate it analytically up to the second order of expansion around the mean-field exponents. Our results are consistent with Monte Carlo simulations of the Bak-Sneppen model in one and two dimensions. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Merging Belief Propagation and the Mean Field Approximation: A Free Energy Approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Riegler, Erwin; Kirkelund, Gunvor Elisabeth; Manchón, Carles Navarro;
2013-01-01
We present a joint message passing approach that combines belief propagation and the mean field approximation. Our analysis is based on the region-based free energy approximation method proposed by Yedidia et al. We show that the message passing fixed-point equations obtained with this combination...... correspond to stationary points of a constrained region-based free energy approximation. Moreover, we present a convergent implementation of these message passing fixed-point equations provided that the underlying factor graph fulfills certain technical conditions. In addition, we show how to include hard...
Nuclei, hypernuclei, and neutron stars in a relativistic mean-field model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An essential aim of this thesis consisted in the obtainment of an optimal description of finite also strangeness carrying nuclei in the framework of a relativistic mean-field model. For this the model parameters were fitted to experimental nuclear and hypernuclear data. By the so optimized parametrizations the - among others - equations of state of neutron matter were extrapolated and by solving of the Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation neutron star properties calculated. In this connection also the possible existence of a quark phase in the interior of neutron stars was considered. (orig.)
Mean-Field Dynamical Semigroups on C*-ALGEBRAS
Duffield, N. G.; Werner, R. F.
We study a notion of the mean-field limit of a sequence of dynamical semigroups on the n-fold tensor products of a C*-algebra { A} with itself. In analogy with the theory of semigroups on Banach spaces we give abstract conditions for the existence of these limits. These conditions are verified in the case of semigroups whose generators are determined by the successive resymmetrizations of a fixed operator, as well as generators which can be approximated by generators of this type. This includes the time evolutions of the mean-field versions of quantum lattice systems. In these cases the limiting dynamical semigroup is given by a continuous flow on the state space of { A}. For a class of such flows we show stability by constructing a Liapunov function. We also give examples where the limiting evolution is given by a diffusion, rather than a flow on the state space of { A}.
A Local Mean Field Analysis of Security Investments in Networks
Lelarge, Marc
2008-01-01
Getting agents in the Internet, and in networks in general, to invest in and deploy security features and protocols is a challenge, in particular because of economic reasons arising from the presence of network externalities. Our goal in this paper is to carefully model and quantify the impact of such externalities on the investment in, and deployment of, security features and protocols in a network. Specifically, we study a network of interconnected agents, which are subject to epidemic risks such as those caused by propagating viruses and worms, and which can decide whether or not to invest some amount to self-protect and deploy security solutions. We make three contributions in the paper. First, we introduce a general model which combines an epidemic propagation model with an economic model for agents which captures network effects and externalities. Second, borrowing ideas and techniques used in statistical physics, we introduce a Local Mean Field (LMF) model, which extends the standard mean-field approxi...
Nuclear collective vibrations in extended mean-field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The extended mean-field theory, which includes both the incoherent dissipation mechanism due to nucleon-nucleon collisions and the coherent dissipation mechanism due to coupling to low-lying surface vibrations, is briefly reviewed. Expressions of the strength functions for the collective excitations are presented in the small amplitude limit of this approach. This fully microscopic theory is applied by employing effective Skyrme forces to various giant resonance excitations at zero and finite temperature. The theory is able to describe the gross properties of giant resonance excitations, the fragmentation of the strength distributions as well as their fine structure. At finite temperature, the success and limitations of this extended mean-field description are discussed. (authors)
Progress in nuclear structure beyond the mean-field approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Although self-consistent mean-field methods, or implementations of the density functional theory for atomic nuclei, are becoming increasingly accurate, some observables are not well reproduced by those models. In particular, the fragmentation and the decay properties of both single-particle and vibrational states cannot be accounted for. Models based on the introduction of further correlations or, in other words, that go beyond the mean-field approximation, have often been discussed in the past. We have recently developed a consistent model based on the use of a Skyrme-type force without the intervention of any other ad hoc parameter. A few typical results are discussed, after we have mentioned briefly the essential features of the model. Moreover, we discuss the necessity of fitting a new force within this context, the difficulties arising because of divergences that need to be renormalized, and our roadmap for curing these divergences
Characterizing the mean-field dynamo in turbulent accretion disks
Gressel, Oliver
2015-01-01
The formation and evolution of a wide class of astrophysical objects is governed by turbulent, magnetized accretion disks. Understanding their secular dynamics is of primary importance. Apart from enabling mass accretion via the transport of angular momentum, the turbulence affects the long-term evolution of the embedded magnetic flux, which in turn regulates the efficiency of the transport. In this paper, we take a comprehensive next step towards an effective mean-field model for turbulent astrophysical disks by systematically studying the key properties of magnetorotational turbulence in vertically-stratified, isothermal shearing boxes. This allows us to infer emergent properties of the ensuing chaotic flow as a function of the shear parameter as well as the amount of net-vertical flux. Using the test-field method, we furthermore characterize the mean-field dynamo coefficients that describe the long-term evolution of large-scale fields. We simultaneously infer the vertical shape and the spectral scale depen...
Self-organized criticality in nonconservative mean-field sandpiles
Juanico, Dranreb Earl
2007-01-01
A mean-field sandpile model that exhibits self-organized criticality (SOC) despite violation of the grain-transfer conservation law during avalanches is proposed. The sandpile consists of $N$ agents and possesses background activity with intensity $\\eta\\in[0,1]$. Background activity is characterized by transitions between two stable agent states. Analysis employing theories of branching processes and fixed points reveals a transition from sub-critical to SOC phase that is determined by $\\eta ...
Energy Dependent Isospin Asymmetry in Mean-Field Dynamics
Gaitanos, T
2011-01-01
The Lagrangian density of Relativistic Mean-Field (RMF) theory with non-linear derivative (NLD) interactions is applied to isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. We study the symmetry energy and the density and energy dependences of nucleon selfenergies. At high baryon densities a soft symmetry energy is obtained. The energy dependence of the isovector selfenergy suppresses the Lane-type optical potential with increasing energy and predicts a $\\rho$-meson induced mass splitting between protons and neutrons in isospin asymmetric matter.
Finite-size scaling for mean-field percolation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaveau, B. (Univ. P.M. Curie, Paris (France)); Schulman, L.S. (Univ. P.M. Curie, Paris (France) Clarkson Univ. Patsdam, NY (United States) Columbia Univ., New York (United States))
1993-02-01
By studying transfer matrix eigenvalues, correlation lengths for a mean field directed percolation model are obtained both near and far from the critical regime. Near criticality, finite-size scaling behavior is derived and an analytic technique is provided for obtaining the finite-size scaling function. Our methods involve the generating function, matched asymptotic expansions, and certain formulas developed for the study of eigenvalues of the transfer matrix for metastability.
RPA correlations and nuclear densities in relativistic mean field approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van Giai, N. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS, UMR 8608, F-91406 Orsay (France)]|[Universite Paris-Sud, F-91406 Orsay (France); Liang, H.Z. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS, UMR 8608, F-91406 Orsay (France)]|[Universite Paris-Sud, F-91406 Orsay (France)]|[School of Physics, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Meng, J. [School of Physics, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China)
2007-02-15
The relativistic mean field approach (RMF) is well known for describing accurately binding energies and nucleon distributions in atomic nuclei throughout the nuclear chart. The random phase approximation (RPA) built on top of the RMF is also a good framework for the study of nuclear excitations. Here, we examine the consequences of long range correlations brought about by the RPA on the neutron and proton densities as given by the RMF approach. (authors)
Strongly Correlated Superconductivity: a plaquette Dynamical mean field theory study
Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel
2007-01-01
We use cluster Dynamical Mean Field Theory to study the simplest models of correlated electrons, the Hubbard model and the t-J model. We use a plaquette embedded in a medium as a reference frame to compute and interpret the physical properties of these models. We study various observables such as electronic lifetimes, one electron spectra, optical conductivities, superconducting stiffness, and the spin response in both the normal and the superconducting state in terms of correlation functions...
Advanced Mean Field Theory of Restricted Boltzmann Machine
Huang, Haiping; Toyoizumi, Taro
2015-01-01
Learning in restricted Boltzmann machine is typically hard due to the computation of gradients of log-likelihood function. To describe the network state statistics of the restricted Boltzmann machine, we develop an advanced mean field theory based on the Bethe approximation. Our theory provides an efficient message passing based method that evaluates not only the partition function (free energy) but also its gradients without requiring statistical sampling. The results are compared with those...
Local Mean Field Dynamics of Ising Spin Glasses
Hung, Tran; Li, Mai; Cieplak, Marek
1995-01-01
The Glauber dynamics of three-dimensional Ising spin glasses are studied numerically in the local mean field approximation. The aging effect is observed in both field cooled and zero field cooled regimes but the remanent magnetization never reaches true equilibrium. The dynamic susceptibility behaves like in experiments. A double peak structure in the real part of the susceptibility plotted as a function of temperature may appear for non-symmetric distributions of the exchange couplings. This...
Merging Belief Propagation and the Mean Field Approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Riegler, Erwin; Kirkelund, Gunvor Elisabeth; Manchón, Carles Navarro; Fleury, Bernard Henri
We present a joint message passing approach that combines belief propagation and the mean field approximation. Our analysis is based on the region-based free energy approximation method proposed by Yedidia et al., which allows to use the same objective function (Kullback-Leibler divergence) as a....... Our results can be applied, for example, to algorithms that perform joint channel estimation and decoding in iterative receivers. This is demonstrated in a simple example....
Rotating nuclei at extreme conditions: Cranked relativistic mean field description
Afanasjev, A V
1999-01-01
The cranked relativistic mean field (CRMF) theory is applied for the description of superdeformed (SD) rotational bands observed in sup 1 sup 5 sup 3 Ho. The question of the structure of the so-called SD band in sup 1 sup 5 sup 4 Er is also addressed and a brief overview of applications of CRMF theory to the description of rotating nuclei at extreme conditions is presented.
Introduction to mean-field theory of spin glass models
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Janiš, Václav
Jülich : Forschungszentrums Jülich, 2015 - (Pavarini, E.; Koch, E.; Coleman, P.), s. 8.1-8.28 ISBN 978-3-95806-074-6 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : mean-field theory * spin-glass models * ergodicity breaking * real replicas * asymptotic expansions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism http://www.cond-mat.de/events/correl15/manuscripts/janis.pdf
Disorder Chaos in the Spherical Mean-Field Model
Chen, Wei-Kuo; Hsieh, Hsi-Wei; Hwang, Chii-Ruey; Sheu, Yuan-Chung
2015-07-01
We study the problem of disorder chaos in the spherical mean-field model. It concerns the behavior of the overlap between two independently sampled spin configurations from two Gibbs measures with the same external parameters. The prediction states that if the disorders in the Hamiltonians are slightly decoupled, then the overlap will be concentrated near a constant value. Following Guerra's replica symmetry breaking scheme, we establish this at the levels of the free energy and the Gibbs measure.
Time-dependent mean-field games in the superquadratic case
Gomes, Diogo A.
2016-04-06
We investigate time-dependent mean-field games with superquadratic Hamiltonians and a power dependence on the measure. Such problems pose substantial mathematical challenges as key techniques used in the subquadratic case, which was studied in a previous publication of the authors, do not extend to the superquadratic setting. The main objective of the present paper is to address these difficulties. Because of the superquadratic structure of the Hamiltonian, Lipschitz estimates for the solutions of the Hamilton−Jacobi equation are obtained here through a novel set of techniques. These explore the parabolic nature of the problem through the nonlinear adjoint method. Well-posedness is proven by combining Lipschitz regularity for the Hamilton−Jacobi equation with polynomial estimates for solutions of the Fokker−Planck equation. Existence of classical solutions is then established under conditions depending only on the growth of the Hamiltonian and the dimension. Our results also add to current understanding of superquadratic Hamilton−Jacobi equations.
Mean-Field Description of Plastic Flow in Amorphous Solids
Lin, Jie; Wyart, Matthieu
2016-01-01
Failure and flow of amorphous materials are central to various phenomena including earthquakes and landslides. There is accumulating evidence that the yielding transition between a flowing and an arrested phase is a critical phenomenon, but the associated exponents are not understood, even at a mean-field level where the validity of popular models is debated. Here, we solve a mean-field model that captures the broad distribution of the mechanical noise generated by plasticity, whose behavior is related to biased Lévy flights near an absorbing boundary. We compute the exponent θ characterizing the density of shear transformation P (x )˜xθ, where x is the stress increment beyond which they yield. We find that after an isotropic thermal quench, θ =1 /2 . However, θ depends continuously on the applied shear stress; this dependence is not monotonic, and its value at the yield stress is not universal. The model rationalizes previously unexplained observations and captures reasonably well the value of exponents in three dimensions. Values of exponents in four dimensions are accurately predicted. These results support the fact that it is the true mean-field model that applies in large dimensions, and they raise fundamental questions about the nature of the yielding transition.
Mean-field effects on matter and antimatter elliptic flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report our recent work on mean-field potential effects on the elliptic flows of matters and antimatters in heavy ion collisions leading to the production of a baryon-rich matter. Within the framework of a multiphase transport (AMPT) model that includes both initial partonic and final hadronic interactions, we have found that including mean-field potentials in the hadronic phase leads to a splitting of the elliptic flows of particles and their antiparticles, providing thus a plausible explanation of the different elliptic flows between p and anti-p, K+ and K-, and π+ and π- observed by the STAR Collaboration in the Beam Energy Scan (BES) program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Using a partonic transport model based on the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model, we have also studied the effect of scalar and vector mean fields on the elliptic flows of quarks and antiquarks in these collisions. Converting quarks and antiquarks at hadronization to hadrons via the quark coalescence model, we have found that the elliptic flow differences between particles and antiparticles also depend on the strength of the quark vector coupling in baryon-rich quark-gluon plasma, providing thus the possibility of extracting information on the latter's properties from the BES program at RHIC. (authors)
Relativistic heavy ion collisions with realistic non-equilibrium mean fields
Fuchs, C; Wolter, H H
1996-01-01
We study the influence of non-equilibrium phase space effects on the dynamics of heavy ion reactions within the relativistic BUU approach. We use realistic Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (DBHF) mean fields determined for two-Fermi-ellipsoid configurations, i.e. for colliding nuclear matter, in a local phase space configuration approximation (LCA). We compare to DBHF mean fields in the local density approximation (LDA) and to the non-linear Walecka model. The results are further compared to flow data of the reaction Au on Au at 400 MeV per nucleon measured by the FOPI collaboration. We find that the DBHF fields reproduce the experiment if the configuration dependence is taken into account. This has also implications on the determination of the equation of state from heavy ion collisions.
Mean-field effects may mimic number squeezing in Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents a mean-field numerical analysis, using the full three-dimensional time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE), of an experiment carried out by Orzel et al. [Science 291, 2386 (2001)] intended to show number squeezing in a gaseous Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice. The motivation for the present work is to elucidate the role of mean-field effects in understanding the experimental results of this work and those of related experiments. We show that the nonadiabatic loading of atoms into optical lattices reproduces many of the main results of the Orzel et al. experiment, including both loss of interference patterns as laser intensity is increased and their regeneration when intensities are lowered. The nonadiabaticity found in the GPE simulations manifests itself primarily in a coupling between the transverse and longitudinal dynamics
Ion-metal and ion-atom collisions instant replays and mean-field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we describe the results of our general long-term programmatic goal of investigating the strengths and weaknesses of time-dependent mean-field theories for collisions. We have made some progress in: (a) obtaining a better formulation of the theory, which has the exact full Schroedinger equation as one limit and permits appropriate classical treatment of heavy particles correctly coupled to the quantally treated electrons; (b) restructuring our numerical treatment to make it fully three-dimensional, improve accuracy and decrease cycle time, so that larger problems more in keeping with the mean-field concept can be treated; and (c) incorporating the electrons in the conduction band of a metal into our quantal treatment, making possible the description of collisions of atoms and ions with solids. Numerical results for protons tranversing a thin metallic foil, among other examples, are presented and discussed
Short-range correlations in an extended time-dependent mean-field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A generalization is performed of the time-dependent mean-field theory by an explicit inclusion of strong short-range correlations on a level of microscopic reversibility relating them to realistic nucleon-nucleon forces. Invoking a least action principle for correlated trial wave functions, equations of motion for the correlation functions and the single-particle model wave function are derived in lowest order of the FAHT cluster expansion. Higher order effects as well as long-range correlations are consider only to the extent to which they contribute to the mean field via a readjusted phenomenological effective two-body interaction. The corresponding correlated stationary problem is investigated and appropriate initial conditions to describe a heavy ion reaction are proposed. The singleparticle density matrix is evaluated
Mean-field description of collapsing and exploding Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We perform numerical simulations based on the time-dependent mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii equation to understand some aspects of a recent experiment by Donley et al. [Nature (London) 412, 295 (2001)] on the dynamics of collapsing and exploding Bose-Einstein condensates of 85Rb atoms. These authors manipulated the atomic interaction by an external magnetic field via a Feshbach resonance, thus changing the repulsive condensate into an attractive one, and vice versa. In the actual experiment they suddenly changed the scattering length of atomic interaction from a positive to a large negative value on a preformed condensate in an axially symmetric trap. Consequently, the condensate collapsed and ejected atoms via explosion. We find that the present mean-field analysis can explain some aspects of the dynamics of the collapsing and exploding Bose-Einstein condensates
Modeling and computation of mean field equilibria in producers' game with emission permits trading
Zhang, Shuhua; Wang, Xinyu; Shanain, Aleksandr
2016-08-01
In this paper, we present a mean field game to model the production behaviors of a very large number of producers, whose carbon emissions are regulated by government. Especially, an emission permits trading scheme is considered in our model, in which each enterprise can trade its own permits flexibly. By means of the mean field equilibrium, we obtain a Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation coupled with a Kolmogorov equation, which are satisfied by the adjoint state and the density of producers (agents), respectively. Then, we propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve the HJB equation and the Kolmogorov equation. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. Under different conditions, the equilibrium states as well as the effects of the emission permits price are examined, which demonstrates that the emission permits trading scheme influences the producers' behaviors, that is, more populations would like to choose a lower rather than a higher emission level when the emission permits are expensive.
Damping of collective nuclear motion and thermodynamic properties of nuclei beyond mean field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The dynamical description of correlated nuclear motion is based on a set of coupled equations of motion for the one-body density matrix ρ(11';t) and the two-body correlation function c2(12, 1'2';t), which is obtained from the density-matrix hierarchy beyond conventional mean-field approaches by truncating three-body correlations. The resulting equations non-perturbatively describe particle-particle collisions (short-range correlations) as well as particle-hole interactions (long-range correlations). Within a basis of time-dependent Hartree-Fock states these equations of motion are solved for collective vibrations of 40Ca at several finite thermal excitation energies corresponding to temperatures T = 0 - 6 MeV. Transport coefficients for friction and diffusion are extracted from the explicit solutions in comparison to the solutions of the associated TDHF, VUU, Vlasov or damped quantum oscillator equations of motion. We find that the actual magnitude of the transport coefficients is strongly influenced by particle-hole correlations at low temperature which generate large fluctuations in the nuclear shape degrees of freedom. Thermodynamically, the specific heat and the entropy of the system as a function of temperature does not differ much from the mean-field limit except for a bump in the specific heat around T ≅ 4 MeV which we attribute to the melting of shell effects in the correlated system
Generalized quantum mean-field systems and their application to ultracold atoms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trimborn-Witthaut, Friederike Annemarie
2011-11-18
the subspace of Bose-symmetric states and discuss their representation by quantum phase space distributions in terms of generalized coherent states. In particular, this allows for an explicit calculation of the evolution equations and bounds for the ground state energy. In the second part of this thesis we analyse the dynamics of ultracold atoms in optical lattices described by the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian, which provide an important example of the generalized quantum mean-field systems treated in the first part. In the mean-field limit the dynamics is described by the (discrete) Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We give a detailed analysis of the interplay between dissipation and strong interactions in different dynamical settings, where we especially focus on the relation between the mean-field description and the full many-particle dynamics given by a master equation. (orig.)
Fictive impurity approach to dynamical mean field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new extension of the dynamical mean-field theory was investigated in the regime of large Coulomb repulsion. A number of physical quantities such as single-particle density of states, spin-spin correlation, internal energy and Neel temperature, were computed for a two-dimensional Hubbard model at half-filling. The numerical data were compared to our analytical results as well as to the results computed using the dynamical cluster approximation. In the second part of this work we consider a two-plane Hubbard model. The transport properties of the bilayer were investigated and the phase diagram was obtained. (orig.)
A new Mean Field Approach for Exotic Nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a new phenomenological mean field approach aiming at the calculation of properties of exotic nuclei. This approach combines the microscopic description of the spin-orbit properties in terms of particle densities, but also vector spin-orbit densities, inspired by results obtained within the Skyrme Hartree-Fock formalism, thus including the contribution of the tensor force. At the same time, the new approach preserves the simplicity of the phenomenological Woods-Saxon calculations and, more importantly, the robustness of the latter towards extrapolations in terms of increasing number of particles and/or isospin. (author)
Fictive impurity approach to dynamical mean field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fuhrmann, A.
2006-10-15
A new extension of the dynamical mean-field theory was investigated in the regime of large Coulomb repulsion. A number of physical quantities such as single-particle density of states, spin-spin correlation, internal energy and Neel temperature, were computed for a two-dimensional Hubbard model at half-filling. The numerical data were compared to our analytical results as well as to the results computed using the dynamical cluster approximation. In the second part of this work we consider a two-plane Hubbard model. The transport properties of the bilayer were investigated and the phase diagram was obtained. (orig.)
Relativistic Mean Field Study of the Z = 117 Isotopic Chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The properties of the Z = 117 isotopic chain are studied within the framework of the axially deformed relativistic mean field theory (RMFT) in the blocked BCS approximation. The ground-state properties, such as binging energies, deformations as well as the possible α decay energies and lifetimes are calculated with the parameter set of NL-Z2 and compared with results from the finite range droplet model. The analysis by RMFT shows that the isotopes in the range of mass number A = 291 ∼ 300 exhibit higher stability, which suggests that they may be promising nuclei to be hopefully synthesized in the lab among the nuclei Z = 117. (nuclear physics)
Relativistic mean field study of the Z=117 isotopic chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The properties of the Z=117 isotopic chain are studied within the framework of the axially deformed relativistic mean field theory (RMFT) in the blocked BCS approximation. The ground-state properties, such as binding energies, deformations as well as the possible α decay energies and lifetimes are calculated with the parameter set of NL-Z2 and compared with results from the finite range droplet model. The analysis by RMFT shows that the isotopes in the range of mass number A=291-300 exhibit higher stability, which suggests that they may be promising nuclei to be hopefully synthesized in the lab among the nuclei Z-117. (authors)
A Mean Field Game Approach to Scheduling in Cellular Systems
Manjrekar, Mayank; Ramaswamy, Vinod; Shakkottai, Srinivas
2013-01-01
We study auction-theoretic scheduling in cellular networks using the idea of mean field equilibrium (MFE). Here, agents model their opponents through a distribution over their action spaces and play the best response. The system is at an MFE if this action is itself a sample drawn from the assumed distribution. In our setting, the agents are smart phone apps that generate service requests, experience waiting costs, and bid for service from base stations. We show that if we conduct a second-pr...
Relativistic mean field study of clustering in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clustering phenomenon in exotic, light, heavy and superheavy nuclei is studied within the relativistic mean field (RMF) approach. Numerical calculations are done by using the axially deformed harmonic oscillator basis. The calculated nucleon density distributions and deformation parameters are analyzed to look for the cluster configurations. In case of light nuclei, the calculations explain many of the well established cluster structures in both the ground and intrinsic excited states. In the heavy and superheavy nuclei, interesting results are obtained and the results indicate new possibilities of exotic clusters at the centre of superheavy nuclei. (author)
Benchmarking mean-field approximations to level densities
Alhassid, Y.; Bertsch, G. F.; Gilbreth, C. N.; Nakada, H.
2016-04-01
We assess the accuracy of finite-temperature mean-field theory using as a standard the Hamiltonian and model space of the shell model Monte Carlo calculations. Two examples are considered: the nucleus 162Dy, representing a heavy deformed nucleus, and 148Sm, representing a nearby heavy spherical nucleus with strong pairing correlations. The errors inherent in the finite-temperature Hartree-Fock and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximations are analyzed by comparing the entropies of the grand canonical and canonical ensembles, as well as the level density at the neutron resonance threshold, with shell model Monte Carlo calculations, which are accurate up to well-controlled statistical errors. The main weak points in the mean-field treatments are found to be: (i) the extraction of number-projected densities from the grand canonical ensembles, and (ii) the symmetry breaking by deformation or by the pairing condensate. In the absence of a pairing condensate, we confirm that the usual saddle-point approximation to extract the number-projected densities is not a significant source of error compared to other errors inherent to the mean-field theory. We also present an alternative formulation of the saddle-point approximation that makes direct use of an approximate particle-number projection and avoids computing the usual three-dimensional Jacobian of the saddle-point integration. We find that the pairing condensate is less amenable to approximate particle-number projection methods because of the explicit violation of particle-number conservation in the pairing condensate. Nevertheless, the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory is accurate to less than one unit of entropy for 148Sm at the neutron threshold energy, which is above the pairing phase transition. This result provides support for the commonly used "back-shift" approximation, treating pairing as only affecting the excitation energy scale. When the ground state is strongly deformed, the Hartree-Fock entropy is significantly
A mechanical approach to mean field spin models
Genovese, Giuseppe; Barra, Adriano
2008-01-01
Inspired by the bridge pioneered by Guerra among statistical mechanics on lattice and analytical mechanics on 1+1 continuous Euclidean space-time, we built a self-consistent method to solve for the thermodynamics of mean-field models defined on lattice, whose order parameters self average. We show the whole procedure by analyzing in full details the simplest test case, namely the Curie-Weiss model. Further we report some applications also to models whose order parameters do not self-average, ...
A mechanical approach to mean field spin models
Genovese, Giuseppe
2008-01-01
Inspired by the bridge pioneered by Guerra among statistical mechanics on lattice and analytical mechanics on 1+1 continuous Euclidean space-time, we built a self-consistent method to solve for the thermodynamics of mean-field models defined on lattice, whose order parameters self average. We show the whole procedure by analyzing in full details the simplest test case, namely the Curie-Weiss model. Further we report some applications also to models whose order parameters do not self-average, by using the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick spin glass as a guide.
Relativistic mean field study of clustering in light nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The clustering phenomenon in light, stable and exotic nuclei is studied within the relativistic mean field (RMF) approach. Numerical calculations are done by using the axially deformed harmonic oscillator basis. The calculated nucleon density distributions and deformation parameters are analyzed to look for the cluster configurations. The calculations explain many of the well-established cluster structures in both the ground and intrinsic excited states. Comparisons of our results with other model calculations and the available experimental information suggest that the RMF theory is well suited for studying clustering in light nuclei. A few discrepancies and their possible sources are also discussed
Nuclear Density-Dependent Effective Coupling Constants in the Mean-Field Theory
Lee, J H; Lee, S J; Lee, Jae Hwang; Lee, Young Jae; Lee, Suk-Joon
1996-01-01
It is shown that the equation of state of nuclear matter can be determined within the mean-field theory of $\\sigma \\omega$ model provided only that the nucleon effective mass curve is given. We use a family of the possible nucleon effective mass curves that reproduce the empirical saturation point in the calculation of the nuclear binding energy curves in order to obtain density-dependent effective coupling constants. The resulting density-dependent coupling constants may be used to study a possible equation of state of nuclear system at high density or neutron matter. Within the constraints used in this paper to $M^*$ of nuclear matter at saturation point and zero density, neutron matter of large incompressibility is strongly bound at high density while soft neutron matter is weakly bound at low density. The study also exhibits the importance of surface vibration modes in the study of nuclear equation of state.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We review the dynamical mean-field theory of strongly correlated electron systems which is based on a mapping of lattice models onto quantum impurity models subject to a self-consistency condition. This mapping is exact for models of correlated electrons in the limit of large lattice coordination (or infinite spatial dimensions). It extends the standard mean-field construction from classical statistical mechanics to quantum problems. We discuss the physical ideas underlying this theory and its mathematical derivation. Various analytic and numerical techniques that have been developed recently in order to analyze and solve the dynamical mean-field equations are reviewed and compared to each other. The method can be used for the determination of phase diagrams (by comparing the stability of various types of long-range order), and the calculation of thermodynamic properties, one-particle Green close-quote s functions, and response functions. We review in detail the recent progress in understanding the Hubbard model and the Mott metal-insulator transition within this approach, including some comparison to experiments on three-dimensional transition-metal oxides. We present an overview of the rapidly developing field of applications of this method to other systems. The present limitations of the approach, and possible extensions of the formalism are finally discussed. Computer programs for the numerical implementation of this method are also provided with this article. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
HBT pion interferometry with phenomenological mean field interaction
Hattori, Koichi
2010-01-01
In order to extract the information of the hadron production dynamics in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, the space-time structure of the hadron source has been measured using Hanbury Brown and Twiss interferometry. We study the distortion of the source images due to the effect of a final state interaction. We describe the interactions, taking place while penetrating through the cloud formed by evaporating particles, in terms of an one-body mean field potential localized in the vicinity of the source region. Adopting the semi-classical method, the modification of the propagation of an emitted particle is examined. In analogy to the optical model applied to the nuclear reactions, our phenomenological model has an imaginary part of the potential, which describes the absorption in the cloud. In this work, we focus on the pion interferometry and the mean field interaction obtained using a phenomenological $\\pi\\pi$ forward scattering amplitude in the elastic channels. The p-wave scattering with rho meson r...
The application of mean field theory to image motion estimation.
Zhang, J; Hanauer, G G
1995-01-01
Previously, Markov random field (MRF) model-based techniques have been proposed for image motion estimation. Since motion estimation is usually an ill-posed problem, various constraints are needed to obtain a unique and stable solution. The main advantage of the MRF approach is its capacity to incorporate such constraints, for instance, motion continuity within an object and motion discontinuity at the boundaries between objects. In the MRF approach, motion estimation is often formulated as an optimization problem, and two frequently used optimization methods are simulated annealing (SA) and iterative-conditional mode (ICM). Although the SA is theoretically optimal in the sense of finding the global optimum, it usually takes many iterations to converge. The ICM, on the other hand, converges quickly, but its results are often unsatisfactory due to its "hard decision" nature. Previously, the authors have applied the mean field theory to image segmentation and image restoration problems. It provides results nearly as good as SA but with much faster convergence. The present paper shows how the mean field theory can be applied to MRF model-based motion estimation. This approach is demonstrated on both synthetic and real-world images, where it produced good motion estimates. PMID:18289956
Non-local correlations within dynamical mean field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Gang
2009-03-15
The contributions from the non-local fluctuations to the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) were studied using the recently proposed dual fermion approach. Straight forward cluster extensions of DMFT need the solution of a small cluster, where all the short-range correlations are fully taken into account. All the correlations beyond the cluster scope are treated in the mean-field level. In the dual fermion method, only a single impurity problem needs to be solved. Both the short and long-range correlations could be considered on equal footing in this method. The weak-coupling nature of the dual fermion ensures the validity of the finite order diagram expansion. The one and two particle Green's functions calculated from the dual fermion approach agree well with the Quantum Monte Carlo solutions, and the computation time is considerably less than with the latter method. The access of the long-range order allows us to investigate the collective behavior of the electron system, e.g. spin wave excitations. (orig.)
Benchmarking mean-field approximations to level densities
Alhassid, Y; Gilbreth, C N; Nakada, H
2015-01-01
We assess the accuracy of finite-temperature mean-field theory using as a standard the Hamiltonian and model space of the shell model Monte Carlo calculations. Two examples are considered: the nucleus $^{162}$Dy, representing a heavy deformed nucleus, and $^{148}$Sm, representing a nearby heavy spherical nucleus with strong pairing correlations. The errors inherent in the finite-temperature Hartree-Fock and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximations are analyzed by comparing the entropies of the grand canonical and canonical ensembles, as well as the level density at the neutron resonance threshold, with shell model Monte Carlo (SMMC) calculations, which are accurate up to well-controlled statistical errors. The main weak points in the mean-field treatments are seen to be: (i) the extraction of number-projected densities from the grand canonical ensembles, and (ii) the symmetry breaking by deformation or by the pairing condensate. In the absence of a pairing condensate, we confirm that the usual saddle-point appr...
Non-local correlations within dynamical mean field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The contributions from the non-local fluctuations to the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) were studied using the recently proposed dual fermion approach. Straight forward cluster extensions of DMFT need the solution of a small cluster, where all the short-range correlations are fully taken into account. All the correlations beyond the cluster scope are treated in the mean-field level. In the dual fermion method, only a single impurity problem needs to be solved. Both the short and long-range correlations could be considered on equal footing in this method. The weak-coupling nature of the dual fermion ensures the validity of the finite order diagram expansion. The one and two particle Green's functions calculated from the dual fermion approach agree well with the Quantum Monte Carlo solutions, and the computation time is considerably less than with the latter method. The access of the long-range order allows us to investigate the collective behavior of the electron system, e.g. spin wave excitations. (orig.)
Active matter beyond mean-field: Ring-kinetic theory for self-propelled particles
Chou, Yen-Liang; Ihle, Thomas
2014-01-01
A ring-kinetic theory for Vicsek-style models of self-propelled agents is derived from the exact N-particle evolution equation in phase space. The theory goes beyond mean-field and does not rely on Boltzmann's approximation of molecular chaos. It can handle pre-collisional correlations and cluster formation which both seem important to understand the phase transition to collective motion. We propose a diagrammatic technique to perform a small density expansion of the collision operator and de...
What can we learn from recent non-relativistic mean field calculations ?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the present contribution, we discuss the relevance of fully self-consistent HF plus RPA (or HF-BCS plus QRPA) calculations based on Skyrme effective forces, and their impact on our present knowledge of basic properties of the nuclear equation of state, like the incompressibilty and the symmetry energy. Finally, we address the problem whether correlations beyond mean field can alter the picture obtained at the (Q)RPA level. Throghout the paper, the comparison with the results obtained using Gogny forces, or RMF Lagrangians, will be emphasized
Mean field mutation dynamics and the continuous Luria-Delbr\\"uck distribution
Kashdan, Eugene
2011-01-01
The Luria-Delbr\\"uck mutation model has a long history and has been mathematically formulated in several different ways. Here we tackle the problem in the case of a continuous distribution using some mathematical tools from nonlinear statistical physics. Starting from the classical formulations we derive the corresponding differential models and show that under a suitable mean field scaling they correspond to generalized Fokker-Planck equations for the mutants distribution whose solutions are given by the corresponding Luria-Delbr\\"uck distribution. Numerical results confirming the theoretical analysis are also presented.
Accretion disks and dynamos: toward a unified mean field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conversion of gravitational energy into radiation near stars and compact objects in accretion disks and the origin of large-scale magnetic fields in astrophysical rotators have often been distinct topics of active research in astrophysics. In semi-analytic work on both problems it has been useful to presume large-scale symmetries, which necessarily results in mean field theories; magnetohydrodynamic turbulence makes the underlying systems locally asymmetric and highly nonlinear. Synergy between theory and simulations should aim for the development of practical, semi-analytic mean field models that capture the essential physics and can be used for observational modeling. Mean field dynamo (MFD) theory and alpha-viscosity accretion disk theory have exemplified such ongoing pursuits. Twenty-first century MFD theory has more nonlinear predictive power compared to 20th century MFD theory, whereas alpha-viscosity accretion theory is still in a 20th century state. In fact, insights from MFD theory are applicable to accretion theory and the two are really artificially separated pieces of what should ultimately be a single coupled theory. I discuss pieces of progress that provide clues toward a unified theory. A key concept is that large-scale magnetic fields can be sustained via local or global magnetic helicity fluxes or via relaxation of small-scale magnetic fluctuations, without appealing to the traditional kinetic helicity driver of 20th century textbooks. These concepts may help explain the formation of large-scale fields that supply non-local angular momentum transport via coronae and jets in a unified theory of accretion and dynamos. In diagnosing the role of helicities and helicity fluxes in disk simulations, it is important to study each disk hemisphere separately to avoid being potentially misled by the cancelation that occurs as a result of reflection asymmetry. The fraction of helical field energy in disks is expected to be small compared to the total field in
Relativistic Mean-Field Models and Nuclear Matter Constraints
Dutra, M; Carlson, B V; Delfino, A; Menezes, D P; Avancini, S S; Stone, J R; Providência, C; Typel, S
2013-01-01
This work presents a preliminary study of 147 relativistic mean-field (RMF) hadronic models used in the literature, regarding their behavior in the nuclear matter regime. We analyze here different kinds of such models, namely: (i) linear models, (ii) nonlinear \\sigma^3+\\sigma^4 models, (iii) \\sigma^3+\\sigma^4+\\omega^4 models, (iv) models containing mixing terms in the fields \\sigma and \\omega, (v) density dependent models, and (vi) point-coupling ones. In the finite range models, the attractive (repulsive) interaction is described in the Lagrangian density by the \\sigma (\\omega) field. The isospin dependence of the interaction is modeled by the \\rho meson field. We submit these sets of RMF models to eleven macroscopic (experimental and empirical) constraints, used in a recent study in which 240 Skyrme parametrizations were analyzed. Such constraints cover a wide range of properties related to symmetric nuclear matter (SNM), pure neutron matter (PNM), and both SNM and PNM.
Nonhelical mean-field dynamos in a sheared turbulence
Rogachevskii, I
2008-01-01
Mechanisms of nonhelical large-scale dynamos (shear-current dynamo and effect of homogeneous kinetic helicity fluctuations with zero mean) in a homogeneous turbulence with large-scale shear are discussed. We have found that the shear-current dynamo can act even in random flows with small Reynolds numbers. However, in this case mean-field dynamo requires small magnetic Prandtl numbers (i.e., ${\\rm Pm} < {\\rm Pm}^{\\rm cr}<1$). The threshold in the magnetic Prandtl number, ${\\rm Pm}^{\\rm cr} = 0.24$, is determined using second order correlation approximation (or first-order smoothing approximation) for a background random flow with a scale-dependent viscous correlation time $\\tau_c=(\
Double binding energy differences: Mean-field or pairing effect?
Qi, Chong
2012-10-01
In this Letter we present a systematic analysis on the average interaction between the last protons and neutrons in atomic nuclei, which can be extracted from the double differences of nuclear binding energies. The empirical average proton-neutron interaction Vpn thus derived from experimental data can be described in a very simple form as the interplay of the nuclear mean field and the pairing interaction. It is found that the smooth behavior as well as the local fluctuations of the Vpn in even-even nuclei with N ≠ Z are dominated by the contribution from the proton-neutron monopole interactions. A strong additional contribution from the isoscalar monopole interaction and isovector proton-neutron pairing interaction is seen in the Vpn for even-even N = Z nuclei and for the adjacent odd-A nuclei with one neutron or proton being subtracted.
Metabifurcation analysis of a mean field model of the cortex
Frascoli, Federico; Bojak, Ingo; Liley, David T J
2010-01-01
Mean field models (MFMs) of cortical tissue incorporate salient features of neural masses to model activity at the population level. One of the common aspects of MFM descriptions is the presence of a high dimensional parameter space capturing neurobiological attributes relevant to brain dynamics. We study the physiological parameter space of a MFM of electrocortical activity and discover robust correlations between physiological attributes of the model cortex and its dynamical features. These correlations are revealed by the study of bifurcation plots, which show that the model responses to changes in inhibition belong to two families. After investigating and characterizing these, we discuss their essential differences in terms of four important aspects: power responses with respect to the modeled action of anesthetics, reaction to exogenous stimuli, distribution of model parameters and oscillatory repertoires when inhibition is enhanced. Furthermore, while the complexity of sustained periodic orbits differs ...
Shell Model and Mean-Field Description of Band Termination
Zalewski, M; Nazarewicz, W; Stoitcheva, G; Zdunczuk, H
2007-01-01
We study nuclear high-spin states undergoing the transition to the fully stretched configuration with maximum angular momentum I_max within the space of valence nucleons. To this end, we perform a systematic theoretical analysis of non-fully-stretched I_max-2 and I_max-1 f_{7/2}^n seniority isomers and d_{3/2}^{-1} f_{7/2}^{n+1} intruder states in the A~44 nuclei from the lower-fp shell. We employ two theoretical approaches: (i) the density functional theory based on the cranked self-consistent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock method, and (ii) the nuclear shell model in the full sdfp configuration space allowing for 1p-1h cross-shell excitations. We emphasize the importance of restoration of broken angular momentum symmetry inherently obscuring the mean-field treatment of high-spin states. Overall good agreement with experimental data is obtained.
Driven-dissipative Ising model: Mean-field solution
Goldstein, G.; Aron, C.; Chamon, C.
2015-11-01
We study the fate of the Ising model and its universal properties when driven by a rapid periodic drive and weakly coupled to a bath at equilibrium. The far-from-equilibrium steady-state regime is accessed by means of a Floquet mean-field approach. We show that, depending on the details of the bath, the drive can strongly renormalize the critical temperature to higher temperatures, modify the critical exponents, or even change the nature of the phase transition from second to first order after the emergence of a tricritical point. Moreover, by judiciously selecting the frequency of the field and by engineering the spectrum of the bath, one can drive a ferromagnetic Hamiltonian to an antiferromagnetically ordered phase and vice versa.
A relativistic mean field study of multi-strange system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we study the binding energies, radii, single-particle energies, spin-orbit potential and density profile for multi-strange hypernuclei in the range of light mass to superheavy mass region within the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory. The stability of multi-strange hypernuclei as a function of introduced hyperons (Λ and Σ) is investigated. The neutron, lambda and sigma mean potentials are presented for light to superheavy hypernuclei. The inclusion of hyperons affects the nucleon, lambda and sigma spin-orbit potentials significantly. The bubble structure of nuclei and corresponding hypernuclei is studied. Nucleon and lambda halo structures are also investigated. A large class of bound multi-strange systems formed from the combination of nucleons and hyperons (n, p, Λ, Σ+ and n, p, Λ, Σ-) is suggested in the region of superheavy hypernuclei which might be stable against the strong decay. These multi-strange systems might be produced in heavy-ion reactions. (author)
Nuclear Level Density: Shell Model vs Mean Field
Sen'kov, Roman
2015-01-01
The knowledge of the nuclear level density is necessary for understanding various reactions including those in the stellar environment. Usually the combinatorics of Fermi-gas plus pairing is used for finding the level density. Recently a practical algorithm avoiding diagonalization of huge matrices was developed for calculating the density of many-body nuclear energy levels with certain quantum numbers for a full shell-model Hamiltonian. The underlying physics is that of quantum chaos and intrinsic thermalization in a closed system of interacting particles. We briefly explain this algorithm and, when possible, demonstrate the agreement of the results with those derived from exact diagonalization. The resulting level density is much smoother than that coming from the conventional mean-field combinatorics. We study the role of various components of residual interactions in the process of thermalization, stressing the influence of incoherent collision-like processes. The shell-model results for the traditionally...
Glauber Dynamics for the mean-field Potts Model
Cuff, Paul; Louidor, Oren; Lubetzky, Eyal; Peres, Yuval; Sly, Allan
2012-01-01
We study Glauber dynamics for the mean-field (Curie-Weiss) Potts model with $q\\geq 3$ states and show that it undergoes a critical slowdown at an inverse-temperature $\\beta_s(q)$ strictly lower than the critical $\\beta_c(q)$ for uniqueness of the thermodynamic limit. The dynamical critical $\\beta_s(q)$ is the spinodal point marking the onset of metastability. We prove that when $\\beta\\beta_s(q)$ the mixing time is exponentially large in $n$. Furthermore, as $\\beta \\uparrow \\beta_s$ with $n$, the mixing time interpolates smoothly from subcritical to critical behavior, with the latter reached at a scaling window of $O(n^{-2/3})$ around $\\beta_s$. These results form the first complete analysis of the critical slowdown of a dynamics with a first order phase transition.
Spectral Synthesis via Mean Field approach Independent Component Analysis
Hu, Ning; Kong, Xu
2015-01-01
In this paper, we apply a new statistical analysis technique, Mean Field approach to Bayesian Independent Component Analysis (MF-ICA), on galaxy spectral analysis. This algorithm can compress the stellar spectral library into a few Independent Components (ICs), and galaxy spectrum can be reconstructed by these ICs. Comparing to other algorithms which decompose a galaxy spectrum into a combination of several simple stellar populations, MF-ICA approach offers a large improvement in the efficiency. To check the reliability of this spectral analysis method, three different methods are used: (1) parameter-recover for simulated galaxies, (2) comparison with parameters estimated by other methods, and (3) consistency test of parameters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies. We find that our MF-ICA method not only can fit the observed galaxy spectra efficiently, but also can recover the physical parameters of galaxies accurately. We also apply our spectral analysis method to the DEEP2 spectroscopic data, and find...
Mean field games with nonlinear mobilities in pedestrian dynamics
Burger, Martin
2014-04-01
In this paper we present an optimal control approach modeling fast exit scenarios in pedestrian crowds. In particular we consider the case of a large human crowd trying to exit a room as fast as possible. The motion of every pedestrian is determined by minimizing a cost functional, which depends on his/her position, velocity, exit time and the overall density of people. This microscopic setup leads in the mean-field limit to a parabolic optimal control problem. We discuss the modeling of the macroscopic optimal control approach and show how the optimal conditions relate to the Hughes model for pedestrian flow. Furthermore we provide results on the existence and uniqueness of minimizers and illustrate the behavior of the model with various numerical results.
Quantum de Finetti theorems and mean-field theory from quantum phase space representations
Trimborn, F.; Werner, R. F.; Witthaut, D.
2016-04-01
We introduce the number-conserving quantum phase space description as a versatile tool to address fundamental aspects of quantum many-body systems. Using phase space methods we prove two alternative versions of the quantum de Finetti theorem for finite-dimensional bosonic quantum systems, which states that a reduced density matrix of a many-body quantum state can be approximated by a convex combination of product states where the error is proportional to the inverse particle number. This theorem provides a formal justification for the mean-field description of many-body quantum systems, as it shows that quantum correlations can be neglected for the calculation of few-body observables when the particle number is large. Furthermore we discuss methods to derive the exact evolution equations for quantum phase space distribution functions as well as upper and lower bounds for the ground state energy. As an important example, we consider the Bose-Hubbard model and show that the mean-field dynamics is given by a classical phase space flow equivalent to the discrete Gross-Pitaevskii equation.
Quantum de Finetti theorems and mean-field theory from quantum phase space representations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We introduce the number-conserving quantum phase space description as a versatile tool to address fundamental aspects of quantum many-body systems. Using phase space methods we prove two alternative versions of the quantum de Finetti theorem for finite-dimensional bosonic quantum systems, which states that a reduced density matrix of a many-body quantum state can be approximated by a convex combination of product states where the error is proportional to the inverse particle number. This theorem provides a formal justification for the mean-field description of many-body quantum systems, as it shows that quantum correlations can be neglected for the calculation of few-body observables when the particle number is large. Furthermore we discuss methods to derive the exact evolution equations for quantum phase space distribution functions as well as upper and lower bounds for the ground state energy. As an important example, we consider the Bose–Hubbard model and show that the mean-field dynamics is given by a classical phase space flow equivalent to the discrete Gross–Pitaevskii equation. (paper)
A mean-field thermodynamic description of the kinetics of overdriven interfaces
Haxhimali, Tomorr; Belof, Jonathan; Sadigh, Babak
A key aspect of an accurate description of shock-induced structural phase transitions is the rigorous computation of the dynamics of the interfaces between coexisting phases. In the wake of the shock, the system will be exposed to strong gradient fields that give rise to overdriven interfaces during the induced phase transformation. In this work we take a mean-field approach using a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau formalism to describe the dynamics of such overdriven interfaces. We make a connection of the mean-field result to a quasi-Langevin description, the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation, of the kinetics of the interface. Further, larger coarse-grained descriptions of the phase transition such as the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) model, which are commonly coupled to hydrodynamic equations that describe the evolution of the temperature and pressure during the shock propagation, ignore the details of the dynamics and structure of the interfacial regions. Overlaying the KPZ description of the interface evolution to these coarse-grained methods will result in physically more accurate multiscale models for shock propagation. We will present results from our efforts in this regard. This work is performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Mean-field/PDF numerical approach for polydispersed turbulent two-phase flows
Peirano, Eric; Pozorski, Jacek; Minier, Jean-Pierre
2010-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to give an overview in the realm of numerical computations of polydispersed turbulent two-phase flows, using a mean-field/PDF approach. In this approach, the numerical solution is obtained by resorting to a hybrid method where the mean fluid properties are computed by solving mean-field (RANS) equations with a classical finite volume procedure whereas the local instantaneous properties of the particles are determined by solving stochastic differential equations (SDEs). The fundamentals of the general formalism are recalled and particular attention is focused on a specific theoretical issue: the treatment of the multiscale character of the dynamics of the discrete particles, that is the consistency of the system of SDEs in asymptotic cases. Then, the main lines of the particle/mesh algorithm are given and some specific problems, related to the integration of the SDEs, are discussed, for example, issues related to the specificity of the treatment of the averaging and projection oper...
Mean-field approximation of two coupled populations of excitable units
Franović, Igor; Todorović, Kristina; Vasović, Nebojša; Burić, Nikola
2013-01-01
The analysis on stability and bifurcations in the macroscopic dynamics exhibited by the system of two coupled large populations composed of N stochastic excitable units each is performed by studying an approximate system, obtained by replacing each population with the corresponding mean-field model. In the exact system, one has the units within an ensemble communicating via the time-delayed linear couplings, whereas the interensemble terms involve the nonlinear time-delayed interaction mediated by the appropriate global variables. The aim is to demonstrate that the bifurcations affecting the stability of the stationary state of the original system, governed by a set of 4N stochastic delay-differential equations for the microscopic dynamics, can accurately be reproduced by a flow containing just four deterministic delay-differential equations which describe the evolution of the mean-field based variables. In particular, the considered issues include determining the parameter domains where the stationary state is stable, the scenarios for the onset, and the time-delay induced suppression of the collective mode, as well as the parameter domains admitting bistability between the equilibrium and the oscillatory state. We show how analytically tractable bifurcations occurring in the approximate model can be used to identify the characteristic mechanisms by which the stationary state is destabilized under different system configurations, like those with symmetrical or asymmetrical interpopulation couplings.
Variational extensions of the time-dependent mean-field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using the Balian-Veneroni variational principle, we propose two consistent extensions of the time-dependent mean-field theory for many-boson systems. A first approximation, devised to take into account the effect of correlations, is obtained by means of a development of the optimal density operator suggested by the maximum entropy principle around a Gaussian operator. We discuss the relevance of the evolution equations and their possible generalizations. We present an application to an one-dimensional example. In a second type of approximation, to optimize the prediction of characteristic functions of one-body observables and of transition probabilities, we select for both, the variational observable and the density matrix, the class of exponential operators of quadratic forms. We obtain coupled evolution equations of an unusual kind called 'two-point boundary value problem'. To solve them, we construct a suitable numerical algorithm. A test of the method is presented on two examples in one dimension. In a first case, we study the collision of a particle against a Gaussian barrier. The method improves significantly mean-field predictions relative to reflexion and transmission ratios. The study of the motion of a particle in a quartic well reveals the existence of several different solutions for the transition probabilities predicted by the Balian-Veneroni method
Identifying Deficiencies of Standard Accretion Disk Theory: Lessons from a Mean-Field Approach
Hubbard, Alexander
2008-01-01
Turbulent viscosity is frequently used in accretion disk theory to replace the microphysical viscosity in order to accomodate the observational need for in- stabilities in disks that lead to enhanced transport. However, simply replacing the microphysical transport coefficient by a single turbulent transport coeffi- cient hides the fact that the procedure should formally arise as part of a closure in which the hydrodynamic or magnetohydrodynamic equations are averaged, and correlations of turbulent fluctuations are replaced by transport coefficients. Here we show how a mean field approach leads quite naturally two transport coefficients, not one, that govern mass and angular momentum transport. In particular, we highlight that the conventional approach suffers from a seemingly inconsistent neglect of turbulent diffusion in the surface density equation. We constrain these new transport coefficients for specific cases of inward, outward, and zero net mass transport. In addition, we find that one of the new trans...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neutron-rich nuclei of mass A=100-110 are of great interest for the study of nuclear structure far from stability. Previous experimental and theoretical studies suggest a complex evolution of deformation and collectivity in the isotopic chains of Zr, Mo, Ru and Pd. In order to extend information on the evolution of the collectivity towards higher spin states and more neutron-rich nuclei, lifetimes of excited states were measured in nuclei produced through a fusion-fission reaction in inverse kinematic at GANIL. Fission fragments were separated and identified in both A and Z with the high acceptance magnetic spectrometer VAMOS while the EXOGAM germanium detectors array was used for the coincident gamma-ray detection. Lifetimes of about twenty excited states were extracted using the plunger device of Cologne. This is the first RDDS measurement on fission fragments which are identified in A and Z on an event-by-event basis. The study of this mass region is completed by theoretical calculations using self consistent mean field and beyond mean field methods implemented with the Gogny force (D1S). The structure of the ground states and the excited states is described with Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations with constraints placed on the axial and triaxial deformations. Individual excitations are investigated through blocking calculations and the high spin states are studied through cranking calculations. Finally, an approximated generator coordinate method (GCM+GOA) using the 5DCH Hamiltonian is used to describe the low energy collective states and to interpret the experimental evolution of the collectivity. (author)
Chen, Xuwen
2010-01-01
In this paper, we consider the Hamiltonian evolution of N weakly interacting Bosons. Assuming triple collisions with singular potentials, its mean field approximation is given by a quintic Hartree equation. We construct a second order correction to the mean field approximation using a kernel k(t,x,y) and derive an evolution equation for k. We show the global existence for the resulting evolution equation for the correction and establish an apriori estimate comparing the approximation to the exact Hamiltonian evolution. Our error estimate is global and uniform in time. Comparing with the work in [20,11,12] where the error estimate grows in time, our approximation tracks the exact dynamics for all time with an error of the order O(1/$\\sqrt{N}$).
A Mean-Field Theory for Coarsening Faceted Surfaces
Norris, Scott A
2009-01-01
A mean-field theory is developed for the scale-invariant length distributions observed during the coarsening of one-dimensional faceted surfaces. This theory closely follows the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory of Ostwald ripening in two-phase systems [1-3], but the mechanism of coarsening in faceted surfaces requires the addition of convolution terms recalling the work of Smoluchowski [4] and Schumann [5] on coalescence. The model is solved by the exponential distribution, but agreement with experiment is limited by the assumption that neighboring facet lengths are uncorrelated. However, the method concisely describes the essential processes operating in the scaling state, illuminates a clear path for future refinement, and offers a framework for the investigation of faceted surfaces evolving under arbitrary dynamics. [1] I. Lifshitz, V. Slezov, Soviet Physics JETP 38 (1959) 331-339. [2] I. Lifshitz, V. Slyozov, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 19 (1961) 35-50. [3] C. Wagner, Elektrochemie 65 (1961) 581-591. [4] M. von S...
Mean-field inference of Hawkes point processes
Bacry, Emmanuel; Gaïffas, Stéphane; Mastromatteo, Iacopo; Muzy, Jean-François
2016-04-01
We propose a fast and efficient estimation method that is able to accurately recover the parameters of a d-dimensional Hawkes point-process from a set of observations. We exploit a mean-field approximation that is valid when the fluctuations of the stochastic intensity are small. We show that this is notably the case in situations when interactions are sufficiently weak, when the dimension of the system is high or when the fluctuations are self-averaging due to the large number of past events they involve. In such a regime the estimation of a Hawkes process can be mapped on a least-squares problem for which we provide an analytic solution. Though this estimator is biased, we show that its precision can be comparable to the one of the maximum likelihood estimator while its computation speed is shown to be improved considerably. We give a theoretical control on the accuracy of our new approach and illustrate its efficiency using synthetic datasets, in order to assess the statistical estimation error of the parameters.
Classical mutual information in mean-field spin glass models
Alba, Vincenzo; Inglis, Stephen; Pollet, Lode
2016-03-01
We investigate the classical Rényi entropy Sn and the associated mutual information In in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (S-K) model, which is the paradigm model of mean-field spin glasses. Using classical Monte Carlo simulations and analytical tools we investigate the S-K model in the n -sheet booklet. This is achieved by gluing together n independent copies of the model, and it is the main ingredient for constructing the Rényi entanglement-related quantities. We find a glassy phase at low temperatures, whereas at high temperatures the model exhibits paramagnetic behavior, consistent with the regular S-K model. The temperature of the paramagnetic-glassy transition depends nontrivially on the geometry of the booklet. At high temperatures we provide the exact solution of the model by exploiting the replica symmetry. This is the permutation symmetry among the fictitious replicas that are used to perform disorder averages (via the replica trick). In the glassy phase the replica symmetry has to be broken. Using a generalization of the Parisi solution, we provide analytical results for Sn and In and for standard thermodynamic quantities. Both Sn and In exhibit a volume law in the whole phase diagram. We characterize the behavior of the corresponding densities, Sn/N and In/N , in the thermodynamic limit. Interestingly, at the critical point the mutual information does not exhibit any crossing for different system sizes, in contrast with local spin models.
Spectral Synthesis via Mean Field approach to Independent Component Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We apply a new statistical analysis technique, the Mean Field approach to Independent Component Analysis (MF-ICA) in a Bayseian framework, to galaxy spectral analysis. This algorithm can compress a stellar spectral library into a few Independent Components (ICs), and the galaxy spectrum can be reconstructed by these ICs. Compared to other algorithms which decompose a galaxy spectrum into a combination of several simple stellar populations, the MF-ICA approach offers a large improvement in efficiency. To check the reliability of this spectral analysis method, three different methods are used: (1) parameter recovery for simulated galaxies, (2) comparison with parameters estimated by other methods, and (3) consistency test of parameters derived with galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that our MF-ICA method can not only fit the observed galaxy spectra efficiently, but can also accurately recover the physical parameters of galaxies. We also apply our spectral analysis method to the DEEP2 spectroscopic data, and find it can provide excellent fitting results for low signal-to-noise spectra. (paper)
First principles based mean field model for oxygen reduction reaction.
Jinnouchi, Ryosuke; Kodama, Kensaku; Hatanaka, Tatsuya; Morimoto, Yu
2011-12-21
A first principles-based mean field model was developed for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) taking account of the coverage- and material-dependent reversible potentials of the elementary steps. This model was applied to the simulation of single crystal surfaces of Pt, Pt alloy and Pt core-shell catalysts under Ar and O(2) atmospheres. The results are consistent with those shown by past experimental and theoretical studies on surface coverages under Ar atmosphere, the shape of the current-voltage curve for the ORR on Pt(111) and the material-dependence of the ORR activity. This model suggests that the oxygen associative pathway including HO(2)(ads) formation is the main pathway on Pt(111), and that the rate determining step (RDS) is the removal step of O(ads) on Pt(111). This RDS is accelerated on several highly active Pt alloys and core-shell surfaces, and this acceleration decreases the reaction intermediate O(ads). The increase in the partial pressure of O(2)(g) increases the surface coverage with O(ads) and OH(ads), and this coverage increase reduces the apparent reaction order with respect to the partial pressure to less than unity. This model shows details on how the reaction pathway, RDS, surface coverages, Tafel slope, reaction order and material-dependent activity are interrelated. PMID:22064886
Individual based and mean-field modeling of direct aggregation
Burger, Martin
2013-10-01
We introduce two models of biological aggregation, based on randomly moving particles with individual stochasticity depending on the perceived average population density in their neighborhood. In the firstorder model the location of each individual is subject to a density-dependent random walk, while in the second-order model the density-dependent random walk acts on the velocity variable, together with a density-dependent damping term. The main novelty of our models is that we do not assume any explicit aggregative force acting on the individuals; instead, aggregation is obtained exclusively by reducing the individual stochasticity in response to higher perceived density. We formally derive the corresponding mean-field limits, leading to nonlocal degenerate diffusions. Then, we carry out the mathematical analysis of the first-order model, in particular, we prove the existence of weak solutions and show that it allows for measure-valued steady states. We also perform linear stability analysis and identify conditions for pattern formation. Moreover, we discuss the role of the nonlocality for well-posedness of the first-order model. Finally, we present results of numerical simulations for both the first- and second-order model on the individual-based and continuum levels of description. 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Real-space renormalized dynamical mean field theory
Kubota, Dai; Sakai, Shiro; Imada, Masatoshi
2016-05-01
We propose real-space renormalized dynamical mean field theory (rr-DMFT) to deal with large clusters in the framework of a cluster extension of the DMFT. In the rr-DMFT, large clusters are decomposed into multiple smaller clusters through a real-space renormalization. In this work, the renormalization effect is taken into account only at the lowest order with respect to the intercluster coupling, which nonetheless reproduces exactly both the noninteracting and atomic limits. Our method allows us large cluster-size calculations which are intractable with the conventional cluster extensions of the DMFT with impurity solvers, such as the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo and exact diagonalization methods. We benchmark the rr-DMFT for the two-dimensional Hubbard model on a square lattice at and away from half filling, where the spatial correlations play important roles. Our results on the spin structure factor indicate that the growth of the antiferromagnetic spin correlation is taken into account beyond the decomposed cluster size. We also show that the self-energy obtained from the large-cluster solver is reproduced by our method better than the solution obtained directly for the smaller cluster. When applied to the Mott metal-insulator transition, the rr-DMFT is able to reproduce the reduced critical value for the Coulomb interaction comparable to the large cluster result.
Mean-field theory of meta-learning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss here the mean-field theory for a cellular automata model of meta-learning. Meta-learning is the process of combining outcomes of individual learning procedures in order to determine the final decision with higher accuracy than any single learning method. Our method is constructed from an ensemble of interacting, learning agents that acquire and process incoming information using various types, or different versions, of machine learning algorithms. The abstract learning space, where all agents are located, is constructed here using a fully connected model that couples all agents with random strength values. The cellular automata network simulates the higher level integration of information acquired from the independent learning trials. The final classification of incoming input data is therefore defined as the stationary state of the meta-learning system using simple majority rule, yet the minority clusters that share the opposite classification outcome can be observed in the system. Therefore, the probability of selecting a proper class for a given input data, can be estimated even without the prior knowledge of its affiliation. The fuzzy logic can be easily introduced into the system, even if learning agents are built from simple binary classification machine learning algorithms by calculating the percentage of agreeing agents
Multiagent model and mean field theory of complex auction dynamics
Chen, Qinghua; Huang, Zi-Gang; Wang, Yougui; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2015-09-01
Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in analyzing a variety of socio-economic phenomena using methods from statistical and nonlinear physics. We study a class of complex systems arising from economics, the lowest unique bid auction (LUBA) systems, which is a recently emerged class of online auction game systems. Through analyzing large, empirical data sets of LUBA, we identify a general feature of the bid price distribution: an inverted J-shaped function with exponential decay in the large bid price region. To account for the distribution, we propose a multi-agent model in which each agent bids stochastically in the field of winner’s attractiveness, and develop a theoretical framework to obtain analytic solutions of the model based on mean field analysis. The theory produces bid-price distributions that are in excellent agreement with those from the real data. Our model and theory capture the essential features of human behaviors in the competitive environment as exemplified by LUBA, and may provide significant quantitative insights into complex socio-economic phenomena.
Mean-field-diffusion-induced chimera death state
Banerjee, Tanmoy
2015-06-01
Recently a novel dynamical state, called the chimera death, has been discovered in a network of nonlocally coupled identical oscillators (Zakharova A., Kapeller M. and Schöll E., Phys. Rev. Lett., 112 (2014) 154101), which is defined as the coexistence of spatially coherent and incoherent oscillation death state. This state arises due to the interplay of nonlocality and symmetry breaking and thus it bridges the gap between two important dynamical states, namely the chimera and oscillation death. In this paper we show that the chimera death can be induced in a network of generic identical oscillators with mean-field diffusive coupling and thus we establish that a nonlocal coupling is not essential to obtain chimera death. We identify a new transition route to the chimera death state, namely the transition from in-phase synchronized oscillation to chimera death via global amplitude death state. We ascribe the occurrence of chimera death to the bifurcation structure of the network in the limiting condition and show that multi-cluster chimera death states can be achieved by a proper choice of initial conditions.
Spectral Synthesis via Mean Field approach to Independent Component Analysis
Hu, Ning; Su, Shan-Shan; Kong, Xu
2016-03-01
We apply a new statistical analysis technique, the Mean Field approach to Independent Component Analysis (MF-ICA) in a Bayseian framework, to galaxy spectral analysis. This algorithm can compress a stellar spectral library into a few Independent Components (ICs), and the galaxy spectrum can be reconstructed by these ICs. Compared to other algorithms which decompose a galaxy spectrum into a combination of several simple stellar populations, the MF-ICA approach offers a large improvement in efficiency. To check the reliability of this spectral analysis method, three different methods are used: (1) parameter recovery for simulated galaxies, (2) comparison with parameters estimated by other methods, and (3) consistency test of parameters derived with galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that our MF-ICA method can not only fit the observed galaxy spectra efficiently, but can also accurately recover the physical parameters of galaxies. We also apply our spectral analysis method to the DEEP2 spectroscopic data, and find it can provide excellent fitting results for low signal-to-noise spectra.
Nonextensive critical effects in relativistic nuclear mean field models*
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rożynek J.
2011-04-01
Full Text Available We present a possible extension of the usual relativistic nuclear mean field models widely used to describe nuclear matter towards accounting for the influence of possible intrinsic fluctuations caused by the environment. Rather than individually identifying their particular causes we concentrate on the fact that such effects can be summarily incorporated in the changing of the statistical background used, from the usual (extensive Boltzman-Gibbs one to the nonextensive taken in the form proposed by Tsallis with a dimensionless nonextensivity parameter q responsible for the above mentioned effects (for q → 1 one recovers the usual BG case. We illustrate this proposition on the example of the QCD-based Nambu - Jona-Lasinio (NJL model of a many-body field theory describing the behavior of strongly interacting matter presenting its nonextensive version. We check the sensitivity of the usual NJL model to a departure from the BG scenario expressed by the value of |q – 1|, in particular in the vicinity of critical points.
Mean-field study of $^{12}$C+$^{12}$C fusion
Chien, Le Hoang; Khoa, Dao T
2016-01-01
The nuclear mean-field potential arising from the $^{12}$C+$^{12}$C interaction at the low energies relevant for the astrophysical carbon burning process has been constructed within the double-folding model, using the realistic nuclear ground-state density of the $^{12}$C nucleus and the effective M3Y nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction constructed from the G-matrix of the Paris (free) NN potential. To explore the nuclear medium effect, both the original density independent M3Y-Paris interaction and its density dependent CDM3Y6 version have been used in the folding model calculation of the $^{12}$C+$^{12}$C potential. The folded potentials at the different energies were used in the optical model description of the elastic $^{12}$C+$^{12}$C scattering at the energies around and below the Coulomb barrier, as well as in the barrier penetration model to estimate the fusion cross section and astrophysical $S$ factor of the $^{12}$C+$^{12}$C reactions at the low energies. The obtained results are in good agreement wit...
Active matter beyond mean-field: ring-kinetic theory for self-propelled particles.
Chou, Yen-Liang; Ihle, Thomas
2015-02-01
Recently, Hanke et al. [Phys. Rev. E 88, 052309 (2013)] showed that mean-field kinetic theory fails to describe collective motion in soft active colloids and that correlations must not be neglected. Correlation effects are also expected to be essential in systems of biofilaments driven by molecular motors and in swarms of midges. To obtain correlations in an active matter system from first principles, we derive a ring-kinetic theory for Vicsek-style models of self-propelled agents from the exact N-particle evolution equation in phase space. The theory goes beyond mean-field and does not rely on Boltzmann's approximation of molecular chaos. It can handle precollisional correlations and cluster formation, which are both important to understand the phase transition to collective motion. We propose a diagrammatic technique to perform a small-density expansion of the collision operator and derive the first two equations of the Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy. An algorithm is presented that numerically solves the evolution equation for the two-particle correlations on a lattice. Agent-based simulations are performed and informative quantities such as orientational and density correlation functions are compared with those obtained by ring-kinetic theory. Excellent quantitative agreement between simulations and theory is found at not-too-small noises and mean free paths. This shows that there are parameter ranges in Vicsek-like models where the correlated closure of the BBGKY hierarchy gives correct and nontrivial results. We calculate the dependence of the orientational correlations on distance in the disordered phase and find that it seems to be consistent with a power law with an exponent around -1.8, followed by an exponential decay. General limitations of the kinetic theory and its numerical solution are discussed. PMID:25768454
Avalanche shape and exponents beyond mean-field theory
Dobrinevski, Alexander; Le Doussal, Pierre; Jörg Wiese, Kay
2014-12-01
Elastic systems, such as magnetic domain walls, density waves, contact lines, and cracks, are pinned by substrate disorder. When driven, they move via avalanches, with power law distributions of size, duration and velocity. Their exponents, and the shape of an avalanche, defined as its mean velocity as a function of time, were studied. They are known approximatively from experiments and simulations, and were predicted from mean-field models, such as the Brownian force model (BFM), where each point of the elastic interface sees a force field which itself is a random walk. As we showed in EPL, 97 (2012) 46004, the BFM is the starting point for an \\varepsilon = d\\text{c}-d expansion around the upper critical dimension, with d\\text{c}=4 for short-ranged elasticity, and d\\text{c}=2 for long-ranged elasticity. Here we calculate analytically the O}(\\varepsilon) , i.e. 1-loop, correction to the avalanche shape at fixed duration T, for both types of elasticity. The exact expression, though different from the phenomenological form presented by Laurson et al. in Nat. Commun., 4 (2013) 2927, is well approximated by ≤ft_T≃ [ Tx(1-x)]γ-1 \\exp≤ft( A}≤ft[\\frac12-x\\right]\\right) , 0 < x < 1. The asymmetry A}≈ - 0.336 (1-d/d\\text{c}) is negative for d close to d\\text{c} , skewing the avalanche towards its end, as observed in numerical simulations in d = 2 and 3. The exponent γ=(d+\\zeta)/z is given by the two independent exponents at depinning, the roughness ζ and the dynamical exponent z. We propose a general procedure to predict other avalanche exponents in terms of ζ and z. We finally introduce and calculate the shape at fixed avalanche size, not yet measured in experiments or simulations.
A quantized adiabatic time dependent mean field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Usually collective motion of the nucleus is essentially governed by a few dynamical parameters q like e.g. elongation necking etc. in case of fission. Microscopic approaches often aim to calculate, outgoing from the motion of the single nucleons, the Hamiltonian for the collective motion. To this end they use as a basic ingredient the collective path which is a set of Slater-determinants or BCS states, representing the various shapes of the system during the collective motion. In practice, the choice bears much arbitrariness in guessing the evolution of the collective deformation. It is therefore highly desirable to have a theory which extracts the collective path from a proper equation of motion rather than imposing it on the system. Such equations for the optimal collective path are derived by requiring slow motion and by defining collective coordinates by means of minimizing the coupling term. Assuming the collective path to consist out of Slater determinants this amounts to an adiabatic expansion of the TDHF equations and finally leads to a differential equation for the path. (orig./AH)
Mean Field Analysis of Stochastic Neural Network Models with Synaptic Depression
Yasuhiko Igarashi,; Masafumi Oizumi,; Masato Okada,
2010-08-01
We investigated the effects of synaptic depression on the macroscopic behavior of stochastic neural networks. Dynamical mean field equations were derived for such networks by taking the average of two stochastic variables: a firing-state variable and a synaptic variable. In these equations, the average product of thesevariables is decoupled as the product of their averages because the two stochastic variables are independent. We proved the independence of these two stochastic variables assuming that the synaptic weight Jij is of the order of 1/N with respect to the number of neurons N. Using these equations, we derived macroscopic steady-state equations for a network with uniform connections and for a ring attractor network with Mexican hat type connectivity and investigated the stability of the steady-state solutions. An oscillatory uniform state was observed in the network with uniform connections owing to a Hopf instability. For the ring network, high-frequency perturbations were shown not to affect system stability. Two mechanisms destabilize the inhomogeneous steady state, leading to two oscillatory states. A Turing instability leads to a rotating bump state, while a Hopf instability leads to an oscillatory bump state, which was previously unreported. Various oscillatory states take place in a network with synaptic depression depending on the strength of the interneuron connections.
Damping of Collective Nuclear Motion and Thermodynamic Properties of Nuclei beyond Mean Field
Luo, H G; Wang, S J; Luo, Hong-Gang; Wang, Shun-Jin
1999-01-01
The dynamical description of correlated nuclear motion is based on a set of coupled equations of motion for the one-body density matrix $\\rho (11';t)$ and the two-body correlation function $c_2(12,1'2';t)$, which is obtained from the density-matrix hierarchy beyond conventional mean-field approaches by truncating 3-body correlations. The resulting equations nonperturbatively describe particle-particle collisions (short-range correlations) as well as particle-hole interactions (long-range correlations). Within a basis of time-dependent Hartree-Fock states these equations of motion are solved for collective vibrations of $^{40}Ca$ at several finite thermal excitation energies corresponding to temperatures $T=0-6$ MeV. Transport coefficients for friction and diffusion are extracted from the explicit solutions in comparison to the solutions of the associated TDHF, VUU, Vlasov or damped quantum oscillator equations of motion. We find that the actual magnitude of the transport coefficients is strongly influenced by...
Quantum correlated cluster mean-field theory applied to the transverse Ising model
Zimmer, F. M.; Schmidt, M.; Maziero, Jonas
2016-06-01
Mean-field theory (MFT) is one of the main available tools for analytical calculations entailed in investigations regarding many-body systems. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in ameliorating this kind of method, mainly with the aim of incorporating geometric and correlation properties of these systems. The correlated cluster MFT (CCMFT) is an improvement that succeeded quite well in doing that for classical spin systems. Nevertheless, even the CCMFT presents some deficiencies when applied to quantum systems. In this article, we address this issue by proposing the quantum CCMFT (QCCMFT), which, in contrast to its former approach, uses general quantum states in its self-consistent mean-field equations. We apply the introduced QCCMFT to the transverse Ising model in honeycomb, square, and simple cubic lattices and obtain fairly good results both for the Curie temperature of thermal phase transition and for the critical field of quantum phase transition. Actually, our results match those obtained via exact solutions, series expansions or Monte Carlo simulations.
Single-particle potential in a relativistic Hartree-Fock mean field approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A relativistic Hartree-Fock mean field approximation is investigated in a model in which the nucleon field interacts with scalar and vector meson fields. The Hartree-Fock potential felt by individual nucleons enters in a relativistic Dirac single-particle equation. It is shown that in the case of symmetric nuclear matter one can always find a potential which is fully equivalent to the most general mean field and which is only the sum of a Lorentz scalar, of one component of a Lorentz tensor and of the fourth component of a Lorentz vector. A non-relativistic potential is derived which yields exactly the same single-particle energies and elastic scattering phase shifts as the relativistic Hartree-Fock potential. Analytical results are presented in the case of nuclear matter. A local density approximation is constructed which enables one to consider finite nuclei. The input parameters of the model can be chosen in such a way that the empirical saturation properties of nuclear matter are well reproduced. Good agreement is obtained between the calculated nonrelativistic potential and the empirical value of the real part of the optical-model potential at low and at intermediate energy. At intermediate energy, the wine-bottle bottom shape which had previously been found for the potential in the framework of the relativistic Hartree approximation is maintained when the Fock contribution is included. (orig.)
The electronic mean-field configuration interaction method. I. Theory and integral formulas
Cassam-Chenaï, Patrick
2006-05-01
In this article, we introduce a new method for solving the electronic Schrödinger equation. This new method follows the same idea followed by the mean-field configuration interaction method already developed for molecular vibrations; i.e., groups of electronic degrees of freedom are contracted together in the mean field of the other degrees. If the same partition of electronic degrees of freedom is iterated, a self-consistent field method is obtained. Making coarser partitions (i.e., including more degrees in the same groups) and discarding the high energy states, the full configuration interaction limit can be approached. In contrast with the usual group function theory, no strong orthogonality condition is enforced. We have made use of a generalized version of the fundamental formula defining a Hopf algebra structure to derive Hamiltonian and overlap matrix element expressions which respect the group structure of the wave function as well as its fermionic symmetry. These expressions are amenable to a recursive computation.
Mean-field diffusion-limited aggregation: a "density" model for viscous fingering phenomena.
Bogoyavlenskiy, V A
2001-12-01
We explore a universal "density" formalism to describe nonequilibrium growth processes, specifically, the immiscible viscous fingering in Hele-Shaw cells (usually referred to as the Saffman-Taylor problem). For that we develop an alternative approach to the viscous fingering phenomena, whose basic concepts have been recently published in a Rapid Communication [Phys. Rev. E 63, 045305(R) (2001)]. This approach uses the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) paradigm as a core: we introduce a mean-field DLA generalization in stochastic and deterministic formulations. The stochastic model, a quasicontinuum DLA, simulates Monte Carlo patterns, which demonstrate a striking resemblance to natural Hele-Shaw fingers and, for steady-state growth regimes, follow precisely the Saffman-Taylor analytical solutions in channel and sector configurations. The relevant deterministic theory, a complete set of differential equations for a time development of density fields, is derived from that stochastic model. As a principal conclusion, we prove an asymptotic equivalency of both the stochastic and deterministic mean-field DLA formulations to the classic Saffman-Taylor hydrodynamics in terms of an interface evolution. PMID:11736272
Withers, L. P.; Narducci, F. A.
2015-06-01
The recent single-photon double-slit experiment of Steinberg et al., based on a weak measurement method proposed by Wiseman, showed that, by encoding the photon's transverse momentum behind the slits into its polarization state, the momentum profile can subsequently be measured on average, from a difference of the separated fringe intensities for the two circular polarization components. They then integrated the measured average velocity field, to obtain the average trajectories of the photons enroute to the detector array. In this paper, we propose a modification of their experiment, to demonstrate that the average particle velocities and trajectories change when the mode of detection changes. The proposed experiment replaces a single detector by a pair of detectors with a given spacing between them. The pair of detectors is configured so that it is impossible to distinguish which detector received the particle. The pair of detectors is then analogous to the simple pair of slits, in that it is impossible to distinguish which slit the particle passed through. To establish the paradoxical outcome of the modified experiment, the theory and explicit three-dimensional formulas are developed for the bilocal probability and current densities, and for the average velocity field and trajectories as the particle wavefunction propagates in the volume of space behind the Gaussian slits. Examples of these predicted results are plotted. Implementation details of the proposed experiment are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Withers, L. P., E-mail: lpwithers@mitre.org [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030-4444 (United States); Narducci, F. A., E-mail: francesco.narducci@navy.mil [Naval Air Systems Command, Patuxent River, Maryland 20670 (United States)
2015-06-15
The recent single-photon double-slit experiment of Steinberg et al., based on a weak measurement method proposed by Wiseman, showed that, by encoding the photon’s transverse momentum behind the slits into its polarization state, the momentum profile can subsequently be measured on average, from a difference of the separated fringe intensities for the two circular polarization components. They then integrated the measured average velocity field, to obtain the average trajectories of the photons enroute to the detector array. In this paper, we propose a modification of their experiment, to demonstrate that the average particle velocities and trajectories change when the mode of detection changes. The proposed experiment replaces a single detector by a pair of detectors with a given spacing between them. The pair of detectors is configured so that it is impossible to distinguish which detector received the particle. The pair of detectors is then analogous to the simple pair of slits, in that it is impossible to distinguish which slit the particle passed through. To establish the paradoxical outcome of the modified experiment, the theory and explicit three-dimensional formulas are developed for the bilocal probability and current densities, and for the average velocity field and trajectories as the particle wavefunction propagates in the volume of space behind the Gaussian slits. Examples of these predicted results are plotted. Implementation details of the proposed experiment are discussed.
Relativistic Nuclear Energy Density Functionals: Mean-Field and Beyond
Niksic, Tamara; Vretenar, Dario; Ring, Peter, 1941-
2011-01-01
Relativistic energy density functionals (EDF) have become a standard tool for nuclear structure calculations, providing a complete and accurate, global description of nuclear ground states and collective excitations. Guided by the medium dependence of the microscopic nucleon self-energies in nuclear matter, semi-empirical functionals have been adjusted to the nuclear matter equation of state and to bulk properties of finite nuclei, and applied to studies of arbitrarily heavy nuclei, exotic nu...
Gressel, Oliver
2010-01-01
Local shearing box simulations of stratified magneto rotational turbulence invariably exhibit cyclic field patterns which propagate away from the disc midplane. A common explanation for this is magnetic buoyancy. The recent analysis by Shi et al. however shows that the flow is buoyantly stable below one disc scale height H, necessitating an alternative explanation in this region. We here conduct and analyse direct numerical simulations to explain the observed behaviour by means of a mean-field description. Apart from the mean radial and azimuthal field, we monitor the small-scale current helicity, which we propose as a key indicator for saturation. Reconstructing the horizontally averaged field, we demonstrate that the problem can be reduced to a one-dimensional induction equation. By means of the so-called test field method, we then determine the underlying closure parameters. Our analysis shows that, apart from a possible direct MRI dynamo, two distinct indirect dynamo mechanisms operate in the disc. This r...
A Fractional Micro-Macro Model for Crowds of Pedestrians based on Fractional Mean Field Games
Cao, Ke-cai; Stuart, Dan
2016-01-01
Modeling of crowds of pedestrians has been considered in this paper from different aspects. Based on fractional microscopic model that may be much more close to reality, a fractional macroscopic model has been proposed using conservation law of mass. Then in order to characterize the competitive and cooperative interactions among pedestrians, fractional mean field games are utilized in the modeling problem when the number of pedestrians goes to infinity and fractional dynamic model composed of fractional backward and fractional forward equations are constructed in macro scale. Fractional micro-macro model for crowds of pedestrians are obtained in the end. Simulation results are also included to illustrate the proposed fractional microscopic model and fractional macroscopic model respectively.
Economic dynamics with financial fragility and mean-field interaction: A model
Di Guilmi, C.; Gallegati, M.; Landini, S.
2008-06-01
Following Aoki’s statistical mechanics methodology [Masanao Aoki, New Approaches to Macroeconomic Modeling, Cambridge University Press, 1996; Masanao Aoki, Modeling Aggregate Behaviour and Fluctuations in Economics, Cambridge University Press, 2002; Masanao Aoki, and Hiroshi Yoshikawa, Reconstructing Macroeconomics, Cambridge University Press, 2006], we provide some insights into the well-known works of [Bruce Greenwald, Joseph Stiglitz, Macroeconomic models with equity and credit rationing, in: R. Hubbard (Ed.), Information, Capital Markets and Investment, Chicago University Press, Chicago, 1990; Bruce Greenwald, Joseph Stiglitz, Financial markets imperfections and business cycles, Quarterly journal of Economics (1993)]. Specifically, we reach analytically a closed form solution of their models overcoming the aggregation problem. The key idea is to represent the economy as an evolving complex system, composed by heterogeneous interacting agents, that can be partitioned into a space of macroscopic states. This meso level of aggregation permits to adopt mean-field interaction modeling and master equation techniques.
On the binding of small polarons in a mean-field quantum crystal
Lewin, Mathieu
2012-01-01
We consider a small multi-polaron model obtained by coupling the many-body Schr\\"odinger equation for N interacting electrons with the energy functional of a mean- field crystal with a localized defect, obtaining a highly non linear many-body problem. The physical picture is that the electrons constitue a charge defect in an otherwise perfect periodic crystal. A remarkable feature of such a system is the possibility to form a bound state of electrons via their interaction with the polarizable background. We first prove that a single polaron always binds, i.e. the energy functional has a minimizer for N = 1. Then we discuss the case of multi-polarons containing two electrons or more. We show that their existence is guaranteed when certain quantized binding inequalities of HVZ type are satisfied.
Correlations and fluctuations in static and dynamic mean-field approaches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Let the state of a many-body system at an initial time be specified, completely or partly; find the expectation values, correlations and fluctuations of single-particle observables at a later time. The characteristic function of these observables is optimized within a general variational scheme. The expansion of the optimal characteristic function provides the same results as the conventional mean-field approaches for the thermodynamic potentials and the expectation values: for fermions the best initial state is then the Hartree-Fock (HF) solution and the evolution is described by the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) equation. Two special cases are investigated as preliminary steps. The first case deals with the evaluation of correlations for static problems, where the initial and final times coincide. In the second special case, the exact initial state is assumed to be an independent-particle one. (K.A.) 23 refs.; 1 fig
The Mean-Field Limit for a Regularized Vlasov-Maxwell Dynamics
Golse, François
2011-01-01
The present work establishes the mean-field limit of a N-particle system towards a regularized variant of the relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell system, following the work of Braun-Hepp [Comm. in Math. Phys. 56 (1977), 101-113] and Dobrushin [Func. Anal. Appl. 13 (1979), 115-123] for the Vlasov-Poisson system. The main ingredients in the analysis of this system are (a) a kinetic formulation of the Maxwell equations in terms of a distribution of electromagnetic potential in the momentum variable, (b) a regularization procedure for which an analogue of the total energy - i.e. the kinetic energy of the particles plus the energy of the electromagnetic field - is conserved and (c) an analogue of Dobrushin's stability estimate for the Monge-Kantorovich-Rubinstein distance between two solutions of the regularized Vlasov-Poisson dynamics adapted to retarded potentials.
Keplerian frequency of uniformly rotating neutron stars in relativistic mean field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adopting the equation of states (EOSs) from the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory, the relationships among the Keplerian frequency fK, gravitational mass M and radius R for the rapidly rotating neutron stars with and without hyperons are presented and analyzed. For various RMF EOSs, the empirical formula fK (M) = 1.08 (M/M⊙)1/2(Rs/10 km)-3/2 kHz, proposed by P. Haensel et al. [Astron. Astrophys.502 (2009) 605], is found to be an approximation with the error at most 13% and such approximation is worse for the neutron stars with hyperons. It indicates that the errors should be considered when the empirical formula is used to discuss the properties of neutron stars. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method of moments for calculating long-term order parameter dynamics of mean-field coupled periodically driven overdamped oscillators is described based on nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation. Using this technique the bifurcation behavior and stochastic resonance of the order parameter is observed, and the accuracy is verified by comparing with Gaussian moment method and stochastic simulation. The technique can be used in nonharmonic external excitation case.
Andersen, J. O.; Haugerud, H.
2002-01-01
We consider the ground state of a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate in two dimensions. In the mean-field approximation, the ground state density profile satisfies the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We compute the leading quantum corrections to the density profile to second order in an expansion around the Thomas-Fermi limit. By summing the ladder diagrams, we are generalizing Schick's result for the ground state energy of a homogeneouns Bose gas to the case of a trapped Bose gas.
Coagulation kinetics beyond mean field theory using an optimised Poisson representation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burnett, James [Department of Mathematics, UCL, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Ford, Ian J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCL, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)
2015-05-21
Binary particle coagulation can be modelled as the repeated random process of the combination of two particles to form a third. The kinetics may be represented by population rate equations based on a mean field assumption, according to which the rate of aggregation is taken to be proportional to the product of the mean populations of the two participants, but this can be a poor approximation when the mean populations are small. However, using the Poisson representation, it is possible to derive a set of rate equations that go beyond mean field theory, describing pseudo-populations that are continuous, noisy, and complex, but where averaging over the noise and initial conditions gives the mean of the physical population. Such an approach is explored for the simple case of a size-independent rate of coagulation between particles. Analytical results are compared with numerical computations and with results derived by other means. In the numerical work, we encounter instabilities that can be eliminated using a suitable “gauge” transformation of the problem [P. D. Drummond, Eur. Phys. J. B 38, 617 (2004)] which we show to be equivalent to the application of the Cameron-Martin-Girsanov formula describing a shift in a probability measure. The cost of such a procedure is to introduce additional statistical noise into the numerical results, but we identify an optimised gauge transformation where this difficulty is minimal for the main properties of interest. For more complicated systems, such an approach is likely to be computationally cheaper than Monte Carlo simulation.
Coagulation kinetics beyond mean field theory using an optimised Poisson representation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Binary particle coagulation can be modelled as the repeated random process of the combination of two particles to form a third. The kinetics may be represented by population rate equations based on a mean field assumption, according to which the rate of aggregation is taken to be proportional to the product of the mean populations of the two participants, but this can be a poor approximation when the mean populations are small. However, using the Poisson representation, it is possible to derive a set of rate equations that go beyond mean field theory, describing pseudo-populations that are continuous, noisy, and complex, but where averaging over the noise and initial conditions gives the mean of the physical population. Such an approach is explored for the simple case of a size-independent rate of coagulation between particles. Analytical results are compared with numerical computations and with results derived by other means. In the numerical work, we encounter instabilities that can be eliminated using a suitable “gauge” transformation of the problem [P. D. Drummond, Eur. Phys. J. B 38, 617 (2004)] which we show to be equivalent to the application of the Cameron-Martin-Girsanov formula describing a shift in a probability measure. The cost of such a procedure is to introduce additional statistical noise into the numerical results, but we identify an optimised gauge transformation where this difficulty is minimal for the main properties of interest. For more complicated systems, such an approach is likely to be computationally cheaper than Monte Carlo simulation
Resonant Continuum in the Relativistic Mean-Field Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAO Li-Gang; MA Zhong-Yu
2002-01-01
Energies, widths and wave functions of the single-particle resonant continuum are determined by solvingscattering states of the Dirac equation with proper asymptotic conditions for the continuous spectrum in the relativisticmean-field theory. The relativistic regular and irregular Coulomb wave functions are calculated numerically. Theresonance states in the continuum for some closed- or sub-closed-shell nucleus in Sn-isotopes, such as 1 14Sn, 1 16Sn, 1 18Sn,and 120Sn are calculated. Results show that the S-matrix method is a reliable and straightforward way in determiningenergies and widths of resonant states.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the mean-field dynamics and the reduced-dimension character of two-mode Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) in highly anisotropic traps. By means of perturbative techniques, we show that the tightly confined (transverse) degrees of freedom can be decoupled from the dynamical equations at the expense of introducing additional effective three-body, attractive, intra- and inter-mode interactions into the dynamics of the loosely confined (longitudinal) degrees of freedom. These effective interactions are mediated by changes in the transverse wave function. The perturbation theory is valid as long as the nonlinear scattering energy is small compared to the transverse energy scales. This approach leads to reduced-dimension mean-field equations that optimally describe the evolution of a two-mode condensate in general quasi-one-dimensional (1D) and quasi-two-dimensional geometries. We use this model to investigate the relative phase and density dynamics of a two-mode, cigar-shaped 87Rb BEC. We study the relative-phase dynamics in the context of a nonlinear Ramsey interferometry scheme, which has recently been proposed as a novel platform for high-precision interferometry. Numerical integration of the coupled, time-dependent, three-dimensional, two-mode Gross–Pitaevskii equations for various atom numbers shows that this model gives a considerably more refined analytical account of the mean-field evolution than an idealized quasi-1D description. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This document is a summary of the author's research activities whose common topic is the N-body problem. The first chapter introduces the N-body issue through models based on the mean-field theory and on the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations. The second chapter presents the understanding of exotic nuclei features within the mean-field approach. Exotic phenomena like nuclear bubble structure, pairing correlations and pairing violations, giant neutron halos, non-standard terms in the Skyrme interactions are reviewed. The chapter 3 is dedicated to some extensions of the RPA (random phase approximation). For instance the computation of the shell structure far from the stability valley requires a more accurate assessment of the energy of the individual states through the introduction of a particle-vibration coupling. Different RPA extensions are described: first the self-consistent extension enlarged beyond particle-hole configurations, then the boson-mapping-based extension in a 3-level Lipkin model and also the second random-phase approximation. The chapter 4 gathers some studies concerning ultra-cold gases of trapped atoms. These systems are the only structures that allow the study of the correlations associated to superfluidity in terms of interaction intensity, temperature or system size. The mean-field approach is adequate for these studies. The last chapter draws a perspective for the mean-field-based models, their limits are assessed and ways of improvement are proposed. (A.C.)
Quantum corrections to the Relativistic mean-field theory
Maydanyuk, Sergei P; Bakry, Ahmed
2016-01-01
In this paper, we compare the RMF theory and the model of deformed oscillator shells (DOS) in description of the quantum properties of the bound states of the spherically symmetric light nuclei. We obtain an explicit analytical relation between differential equations for the RMF theory and DOS model, which determine wave functions for nucleons. On such a basis we perform analysis of correspondence of quantum properties of nuclei. We find: (1) Potential $V_{RMF}$ of the RMF theory for nucleons has the wave functions $f$ and $g$ with joint part $h$ coincident exactly with the nucleon wave function of DOS model with potential $V_{\\rm shell}$. But, a difference between $V_{RMF}$ and $V_{\\rm shell}$ is essential for any nucleus. (2) The nucleon wave functions and densities obtained by the DOS and RMF theories are essentially different. The nucleon densities of the RMF theory contradict to knowledge about distribution of the proton and neutron densities inside the nuclei obtained from experimental data. This indica...
Compression induced phase transition of nematic brush: A mean-field theory study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tang, Jiuzhou [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang, Xinghua, E-mail: zhangxh@bjtu.edu.cn [School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Yan, Dadong, E-mail: yandd@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)
2015-11-28
Responsive behavior of polymer brush to the external compression is one of the most important characters for its application. For the flexible polymer brush, in the case of low grafting density, which is widely studied by the Gaussian chain model based theory, the compression leads to a uniform deformation of the chain. However, in the case of high grafting density, the brush becomes anisotropic and the nematic phase will be formed. The normal compression tends to destroy the nematic order, which leads to a complex responsive behaviors. Under weak compression, chains in the nematic brush are buckled, and the bending energy and Onsager interaction give rise to the elasticity. Under deep compression, the responsive behaviors of the nematic polymer brush depend on the chain rigidity. For the compressed rigid polymer brush, the chains incline to re-orientate randomly to maximize the orientational entropy and its nematic order is destroyed. For the compressed flexible polymer brush, the chains incline to fold back to keep the nematic order. A buckling-folding transition takes place during the compressing process. For the compressed semiflexible brush, the chains are collectively tilted to a certain direction, which leads to the breaking of the rotational symmetry in the lateral plane. These responsive behaviors of nematic brush relate to the properties of highly frustrated worm-like chain, which is hard to be studied by the traditional self-consistent field theory due to the difficulty to solve the modified diffusion equation. To overcome this difficulty, a single chain in mean-field theory incorporating Monte Carlo simulation and mean-field theory for the worm-like chain model is developed in present work. This method shows high performance for entire region of chain rigidity in the confined condition.
Dynamo action due to alpha fluctuations in a shear flow: mean--field theory
Sridhar, S
2013-01-01
We present an analytical theory of the growth of a large-scale mean magnetic field in a linear shear flow with fluctuations in time of the alpha parameter (equivalently, kinetic helicity). Using shearing coordinates and Fourier variables we derive a set of coupled integro-differential equations, governing the dynamics of the mean magnetic field, that are non perturbative in the rate of shear. When the alpha fluctuations are of white-noise form, the mean electromotive force (EMF) is identical to the negative diffusive form derived by Kraichnan for the case of no shear; the physical reason is that shear takes time to act, and white-noise fluctuations have zero correlation time. We demonstrate that the white-noise case does not allow for large-scale dynamo action. We then allow for a small but non zero correlation time and show that, for a slowly varying mean magnetic field, the mean EMF has additional terms that depend on a combination of shear and alpha fluctuations; the mean-field equations now reduce to a se...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We point out that when a D-brane is placed in an NS-NS B field background with nonvanishing field strength (H=dB) along the D-brane worldvolume, the coordinate of one end of the open string does not commute with that of the other in the low energy limit. The degrees of the freedom associated with both ends are not decoupled and accordingly, the effective action must be quite different from that of the ordinary noncommutative gauge theory for a constant B background. We construct an associative and noncommutative product * which operates on the coordinates of both ends of the string and propose a new type of noncommutative gauge action for the low energy effective theory of a Dp-brane. This effective theory is bi-local and lives in twice as large dimensions (2D=2(p+1)) as in the H=0 case. When viewed as a theory in the D-dimensional space, this theory is nonlocal and we must force the two ends of the string to coincide. We will then propose a prescription for reducing this bi-local effective action to that in D dimensions and obtaining a local effective action
Hayasaka, K; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Nakayama, Ryuichi
2002-01-01
We point out that when a D-brane is placed in an NS-NS B field background with non-vanishing field strength (H=dB) along the D-brane worldvolume, the coordinate of one end of the open string does not commute with that of the other in the low energy limit. The degrees of the freedom associated with both ends are not decoupled and accordingly, the effective action must be quite different from that of the ordinary noncommutative gauge theory for a constant B background. We construct an associative and noncommutative product which operates on the coordinates of both ends of the string and propose a new type of noncommutative gauge action for the low energy effective theory of a Dp-brane. This effective theory is bi-local and lives in twice as large dimensions (2D=2(p+1)) as in the H=0 case. When viewed as a theory in the D-dimensional space, this theory is non-local and we must force the two ends of the string to coincide. We will then propose a prescription for reducing this bi-local effective action to that in ...
The Accuracy of Mean-Field Approximation for Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible Epidemic Spreading
Qu, Bo
2016-01-01
The epidemic spreading has been studied for years by applying the mean-field approach in both homogeneous case, where each node may get infected by an infected neighbor with the same rate, and heterogeneous case, where the infection rates between different pairs of nodes are different. Researchers have discussed whether the mean-field approaches could accurately describe the epidemic spreading for the homogeneous cases but not for the heterogeneous cases. In this paper, we explore under what conditions the mean-field approach could perform well when the infection rates are heterogeneous. In particular, we employ the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) model and compare the average fraction of infected nodes in the metastable state obtained by the continuous-time simulation and the mean-field approximation. We concentrate on an individual-based mean-field approximation called the N-intertwined Mean Field Approximation (NIMFA), which is an advanced approach considered the underlying network topology. Moreove...
Accuracy of mean-field theory for dynamics on real-world networks
Gleeson, James P.; Melnik, Sergey; Ward, Jonathan A.; Porter, Mason A.; Murcha, Peter J
2012-01-01
Mean-field analysis is an important tool for understanding dynamics on complex networks. However, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the question of whether mean-field predictions are accurate, and this is particularly true for real-world networks with clustering and modular structure. In this paper, we compare mean-field predictions to numerical simulation results for dynamical processes running on 21 real-world networks and demonstrate that the accuracy of such theory depends no...
Ring, P; Lalazissis, G A
1997-01-01
A Fortran program for the calculation of the ground state properties of axially deformed even-even nuclei in the relativistic framework is presented. In this relativistic mean field (RMF) approach a set of coupled differential equations namely the Dirac equation with potential terms for the nucleons and the Glein-Gordon type equations with sources for the meson and the electromagnetic fields are to be solved self-consistently. The well tested basis expansion method is used for this purpose. Accordingly a set of harmonic oscillator basis generated by an axially deformed potential are used in the expansion. The solution gives the nucleon spinors, the fields and level occupancies, which are used in the calculation of the ground state properties.
Analysis of a Stochastic Chemical System Close to a SNIPER Bifurcation of Its Mean-Field Model
Erban, Radek
2009-01-01
A framework for the analysis of stochastic models of chemical systems for which the deterministic mean-field description is undergoing a saddle-node infinite period (SNIPER) bifurcation is presented. Such a bifurcation occurs, for example, in the modeling of cell-cycle regulation. It is shown that the stochastic system possesses oscillatory solutions even for parameter values for which the mean-field model does not oscillate. The dependence of the mean period of these oscillations on the parameters of the model (kinetic rate constants) and the size of the system (number of molecules present) are studied. Our approach is based on the chemical Fokker-Planck equation. To gain some insight into the advantages and disadvantages of the method, a simple one-dimensional chemical switch is first analyzed, and then the chemical SNIPER problem is studied in detail. First, results obtained by solving the Fokker-Planck equation numerically are presented. Then an asymptotic analysis of the Fokker-Planck equation is used to derive explicit formulae for the period of oscillation as a function of the rate constants and as a function of the system size. © 2009 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
Maslov, K. A.; Kolomeitsev, E. E.; Voskresensky, D. N.
2016-06-01
An equation of state of cold nuclear matter with an arbitrary isotopic composition is studied within a relativistic mean-field approach with hadron masses and coupling constants depending self-consistently on the scalar mean-field. All hadron masses decrease universally with the scalar field growth, whereas meson-nucleon coupling constants can vary differently. More specifically we focus on two modifications of the KVOR model studied previously. One extension of the model (KVORcut) demonstrates that the equation of state stiffens if the increase of the scalar-field magnitude with the density is bounded from above at some value for baryon densities above the saturation nuclear density. This can be realized if the nucleon vector-meson coupling constant changes rapidly as a function of the scalar field slightly above the desired value. The other version of the model (MKVOR) utilizes a smaller value of the nucleon effective mass at the nuclear saturation density and a saturation of the scalar field in the isospin asymmetric matter induced by a strong variation of the nucleon isovector-meson coupling constant as function of the scalar field. A possibility of hyperonization of the matter in neutron star interiors is incorporated. Our equations of state fulfill majority of known empirical constraints including the pressure-density constraint from heavy-ion collisions, direct Urca constraint, gravitational-baryon mass constraint for the pulsar J0737-3039B, and the constraint on the maximum mass of the neutron stars.
Hamiltonian mean field model: Effect of network structure on synchronization dynamics.
Virkar, Yogesh S; Restrepo, Juan G; Meiss, James D
2015-11-01
The Hamiltonian mean field model of coupled inertial Hamiltonian rotors is a prototype for conservative dynamics in systems with long-range interactions. We consider the case where the interactions between the rotors are governed by a network described by a weighted adjacency matrix. By studying the linear stability of the incoherent state, we find that the transition to synchrony begins when the coupling constant K is inversely proportional to the largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix. We derive a closed system of equations for a set of local order parameters to study the effect of network heterogeneity on the synchronization of the rotors. When K is just beyond the transition to synchronization, we find that the degree of synchronization is highly dependent on the network's heterogeneity, but that for large K the degree of synchronization is robust to changes in the degree distribution. Our results are illustrated with numerical simulations on Erdös-Renyi networks and networks with power-law degree distributions. PMID:26651739
Effects of large-scale non-axisymmetric perturbations in the mean-field solar dynamo
Pipin, V V
2015-01-01
We explore a response of the non-linear non-axisymmetric mean-field solar dynamo model to the shallow non-axisymmetric perturbations with the strength of 1G. The amplitude of the non-axisymmetric field depends on the initial condition, helicity conservation, the depth of perturbation. It is found that perturbation which is anchored at the 0.9R have a profound effect and it produce the transient magnetic cycle of the axisymmetric magnetic field if it is initiated at the growing phase of the cycle. The non-symmetric about equator perturbation results the hemispheric asymmetry of the magnetic activity. The evolution of the axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric field depends on how well the magnetic helicity is conserved. In the range of Rm=10^{4-6} the evolution returns to the normal course in the next cycle and the non-axisymmetric field is generated due to non-linear alpha-effect and the magnetic buoyancy. In the stationary state of evolution the large-scale magnetic field demonstrate, the phenomena of the "active...
Nucleon Finite Volume Effect and Nuclear Matter Properties in a Relativistic Mean-Field Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
R. Costa; A.J. Santiago; H. Rodrigues; J. Sa Borges
2006-01-01
Effects of excluded volume of nucleons on nuclear matter are studied, and the nuclear properties that follow from different relativistic mean-field model parametrizations are compared. We show that, for all tested parametrizations,the resulting volume energy a1 and the symmetry energy J are around the acceptable values of 16 MeV and 30 MeV,and the density symmetry L is around 100 Me V. On the other hand, models that consider only linear terms lead to incompressibility K0 much higher than expected. For most parameter sets there exists a critical point (ρc,δc), where the minimum and the maximum of the equation of state are coincident and the incompressibility equals zero. This critical point depends on the excluded volume parameter r. If this parameter is larger than 0.5 fm, there is no critical point and the pure neutron matter is predicted to be bound. The maximum value for neutron star mass is 1.85M⊙, which is in agreement with the mass of the heaviest observed neutron star 4U0900-40 and corresponds to r = 0.72 fm. We also show that the light neutron star mass (1.2M⊙) is obtained for r (≌) 0.9 fm.
Effects of Large-scale Non-axisymmetric Perturbations in the Mean-field Solar Dynamo.
Pipin, V. V.; Kosovichev, A. G.
2015-11-01
We explore the response of a nonlinear non-axisymmetric mean-field solar dynamo model to shallow non-axisymmetric perturbations. After a relaxation period, the amplitude of the non-axisymmetric field depends on the initial condition, helicity conservation, and the depth of perturbation. It is found that a perturbation that is anchored at 0.9 R⊙ has a profound effect on the dynamo process, producing a transient magnetic cycle of the axisymmetric magnetic field, if it is initiated at the growing phase of the cycle. The non-symmetric, with respect to the equator, perturbation results in a hemispheric asymmetry of the magnetic activity. The evolution of the axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric fields depends on the turbulent magnetic Reynolds number Rm. In the range of Rm = 104-106 the evolution returns to the normal course in the next cycle, in which the non-axisymmetric field is generated due to a nonlinear α-effect and magnetic buoyancy. In the stationary state, the large-scale magnetic field demonstrates a phenomenon of “active longitudes” with cyclic 180° “flip-flop” changes of the large-scale magnetic field orientation. The flip-flop effect is known from observations of solar and stellar magnetic cycles. However, this effect disappears in the model, which includes the meridional circulation pattern determined by helioseismology. The rotation rate of the non-axisymmetric field components varies during the relaxation period and carries important information about the dynamo process.
Nuclear matter fourth-order symmetry energy in relativistic mean field models
Cai, Bao-Jun
2011-01-01
Within the nonlinear relativistic mean field model, we derive the analytical expression of the nuclear matter fourth-order symmetry energy $E_{4}(\\rho)$. Our results show that the value of $E_{4}(\\rho)$ at normal nuclear matter density $\\rho_{0}$ is generally less than 1 MeV, confirming the empirical parabolic approximation to the equation of state for asymmetric nuclear matter at $\\rho_{0}$. On the other hand, we find that the $E_{4}(\\rho)$ may become nonnegligible at high densities. Furthermore, the analytical form of the $E_{4}(\\rho)$ provides the possibility to study the higher-order effects on the isobaric incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter, i.e., $K_{\\mathrm{sat}}(\\delta)=K_{0}+K_{\\mathrm{{sat},2}}\\delta ^{2}+K_{\\mathrm{{sat},4}}\\delta ^{4}+\\mathcal{O}(\\delta ^{6})$ where $\\delta =(\\rho_{n}-\\rho_{p})/\\rho $ is the isospin asymmetry, and we find that the value of $K_{\\mathrm{{sat},4}}$ is generally comparable with that of the $K_{\\mathrm{{sat},2}}$. In addition, we study the effects of the $E...
Nuclear matter EOS with light clusters within the mean-field approximation
Ferreira, Márcio
2013-01-01
The crust of a neutron star is essentially determined by the low-density region ($\\rho<\\rho_0\\approx0.15-0.16\\unit{fm}^{-3}$) of the equation of state. At the bottom of the inner crust, where the density is $\\rho\\lesssim0.1\\rho_0$, the formation of light clusters in nuclear matter will be energetically favorable at finite temperature. At very low densities and moderate temperatures, the few body correlations are expected to become important and light nuclei like deuterons, tritons, helions and $\\alpha$-particles will form. Due to Pauli blocking, these clusters will dissolve at higher densities $\\rho\\gtrsim 0.1\\rho_0$. The presence of these clusters influences the cooling process and quantities, such as the neutrino emissivity and gravitational waves emission. The dissolution density of these light clusters, treated as point-like particles, will be studied within the Relativistic Mean Field approximation. In particular, the dependence of the dissolution density on the clusters-meson couplings is studied.
Mean-field dynamics versus two-body collisions at intermediate energy heavy-ion reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nucleus-nucleus collisions in the energy range from 10 MeV/u to 150 MeV/u are investigated in the framework of the Wigner transformed von-Neumann equation on the level of the one-body density matrix. Two-body collisions permitted by the Pauli principle are included via a collision term of the Uehling-Uhlenbeck type. The time evolution of the phase-space density is studied in detail for central collisions of 40Ca + 40Ca within a time-dependent finite two-center shell model. Special emphasis is ascribed to high momentum components in beam direction which are generated by the time-dependent mean field. These high momentum components, essentially decaying by two-body collisions, are energetic enough to allow for pion production already at 20 MeV/u laboratory bombarding energies in case of heavy nuclei. The competition between one-body and two-body effects is investigated with respect to decay times for primary distorted momentum distributions. Linear momentum transfer by one-body (wall) and two-body collisions turns out to be strongly correlated with nonequilibrium light particle emission in terms of Fermi-jets as well as scattered energetic nucleons. Double differential preequilibrium neutron spectra d2N/dTHETAdE in coincidence with central collisions of 40Ca + 40Ca at 20 MeV/u are calculated for primary and secondary emission processes. (orig.)
Baladron, Javier; Fasoli, Diego; Faugeras, Olivier; Touboul, Jonathan
2012-01-01
We derive the mean-field equations arising as the limit of a network of interacting spiking neurons, as the number of neurons goes to infinity. The neurons belong to a fixed number of populations and are represented either by the Hodgkin-Huxley model or by one of its simplified version, the FitzHugh-Nagumo model. The synapses between neurons are either electrical or chemical. The network is assumed to be fully connected. The maximum conductances vary randomly. Under the condition that all neu...
Lionel, Sittler
2008-01-01
In this paper we propose a solution for the time evolution of the island density with irreversible aggregation and a time dependent input of particle in the space dimensions $d=1,2$. For this purpose we use the rate equation resulting from a generalized mean field approach. A well-known technique for growing surfaces at the atomic scale is molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Another approach is the pulsed laser deposition method (PLD). The main difference between MBE and PLD is that in the case of ...
State-of-the-art of beyond mean field theories with nuclear density functionals
Egido, J. Luis
2016-07-01
We present an overview of different beyond mean field theories (BMFTs) based on the generator coordinate method (GCM) and the recovery of symmetries used in many body nuclear physics with effective forces. In a first step a short reminder of the Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov (HFB) theory is given. A general discussion of the shortcomings of any mean field approximation (MFA), stemming either from the lack of the elementary symmetries (like particle number and angular momentum) or the absence of fluctuations around the mean values, is presented. The recovery of the symmetries spontaneously broken in the HFB approach, in particular the angular momentum, is necessary, among others, to describe excited states and transitions. Particle number projection is also needed to guarantee the right number of protons and neutrons. Furthermore a projection before the variation prevents the pairing collapse in the weak pairing regime. A whole chapter is devoted to illustrate with examples the convenience of recovering symmetries and the differences between the projection before and after the variation. The lack of fluctuations around the average values of the MFA is a big shortcoming inherent to this approach. To build in correlations in BMFT one selects the relevant degrees of freedom of the atomic nucleus. In the low energy part of the spectrum these are the quadrupole, octupole and the pairing vibrations as well as the single particle degrees of freedom. In the GCM the operators representing these degrees of freedom are used as coordinates to generate, by the constrained (projected) HFB theory, a collective subspace. The highly correlated GCM wave function is finally written as a linear combination of a projected basis of this space. The variation of the coefficients of the linear combination leads to the Hill–Wheeler equation. The flexibility of the GCM Ansatz allows to describe a whole palette of physical situations by conveniently choosing the generator coordinates. We
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A summary is given of recent work that provides evidence that the functional form of of the nuclear energy density functional, the rearrangement of the self-consistent mean field when changing neutron and proton number, and explicit fluctuations in collective degrees of freedom should be considered simultaneously when analyzing the evolution of shell structure in terms of nuclear energy density functional methods. (author)
Corrected mean-field models for spatially dependent advection-diffusion-reaction phenomena
Simpson, Matthew J.; Baker, Ruth E.
2011-05-01
In the exclusion-process literature, mean-field models are often derived by assuming that the occupancy status of lattice sites is independent. Although this assumption is questionable, it is the foundation of many mean-field models. In this work we develop methods to relax the independence assumption for a range of discrete exclusion-process-based mechanisms motivated by applications from cell biology. Previous investigations that focused on relaxing the independence assumption have been limited to studying initially uniform populations and ignored any spatial variations. By ignoring spatial variations these previous studies were greatly simplified due to translational invariance of the lattice. These previous corrected mean-field models could not be applied to many important problems in cell biology such as invasion waves of cells that are characterized by moving fronts. Here we propose generalized methods that relax the independence assumption for spatially inhomogeneous problems, leading to corrected mean-field descriptions of a range of exclusion-process-based models that incorporate (i) unbiased motility, (ii) biased motility, and (iii) unbiased motility with agent birth and death processes. The corrected mean-field models derived here are applicable to spatially variable processes including invasion wave-type problems. We show that there can be large deviations between simulation data and traditional mean-field models based on invoking the independence assumption. Furthermore, we show that the corrected mean-field models give an improved match to the simulation data in all cases considered.
1/N/sup 2/ expansion of the mean field for lattice chiral and gauge models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brihaye, Y.; Taormina, A.
1985-08-21
For lattice chiral and gauge models the authors develop an /sup 1//N/sup 2/ expansion of the mean-field approximation. Special attention is paid to the free energy for which the effect of fluctuations around the mean-field solution is presented as an /sup 1//N/sup 2/ expansion. The differences between U(N) and SU(N) are pointed out. Finally, for the chiral model the mean-field saddle-point technique is applied to compute the two-point correlation function. (author).
Bose–Einstein condensation in self-consistent mean-field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
There is a wide-spread belief in the literature on Bose–Einstein condensation of interacting atoms that all variants of mean-field theory incorrectly describe the condensation phase transition, exhibiting, instead of the necessary second-order transition, a first-order transition, even for weakly interacting Bose gas. In the present paper, it is shown that a self-consistent mean-field approach is the sole mean-field theory that provides the correct second-order condensation transition for Bose systems with atomic interactions of arbitrary strength, whether weak or strong. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Speck, Thomas [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudingerweg 7-9, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Menzel, Andreas M.; Bialké, Julian; Löwen, Hartmut [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Heinrich-Heine-Universität, D-40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)
2015-06-14
Recently, we have derived an effective Cahn-Hilliard equation for the phase separation dynamics of active Brownian particles by performing a weakly non-linear analysis of the effective hydrodynamic equations for density and polarization [Speck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 218304 (2014)]. Here, we develop and explore this strategy in more detail and show explicitly how to get to such a large-scale, mean-field description starting from the microscopic dynamics. The effective free energy emerging from this approach has the form of a conventional Ginzburg-Landau function. On the coarsest scale, our results thus agree with the mapping of active phase separation onto that of passive fluids with attractive interactions through a global effective free energy (motility-induced phase transition). Particular attention is paid to the square-gradient term necessary for the phase separation kinetics. We finally discuss results from numerical simulations corroborating the analytical results.
Mean-field dynamos: the old concept and some recent developments
Rädler, K -H
2014-01-01
This article reproduces the Karl Schwarzschild lecture 2013. Some of the basic ideas of electrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics of mean fields in turbulently moving conducting fluids are explained. It is stressed that the connection of the mean electromotive force with the mean magnetic field and its first spatial derivatives is in general neither local nor instantaneous and that quite a few claims concerning pretended failures of the mean-field concept result from ignoring this aspect. In addition to the mean-field dynamo mechanisms of $\\alpha^2$ and $\\alpha$ $\\Omega$ type several others are considered. Much progress in mean-field electrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics results from the test-field method for calculating the coefficients that determine the connection of the mean electromotive force with the mean magnetic field. As an important example the memory effect in homogeneous isotropic turbulence is explained. In magnetohydrodynamic turbulence there is the possibility of a mean electromotive force t...
Time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory: Rotating systems
Afanasjev, A V; 10.1103/PhysRev.82.034329
2010-01-01
Time-odd mean fields (nuclear magnetism) and their impact on physical observables in rotating nuclei are studied in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). It is shown that they have profound effect on the dynamic and kinematic moments of inertia. Particle number, configuration and rotational frequency dependences of their impact on the moments of inertia have been analysed in a systematic way. Nuclear magnetism can also considerably modify the band crossing features such as crossing frequencies and the properties of the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia in the band crossing region. The impact of time-odd mean fields on the moments of inertia in the regions away from band crossing only weakly depends on the relativistic mean field parametrization, reflecting good localization of the properties of time-odd mean fields in CDFT. The moments of inertia of normal-deformed nuclei considerably deviate from the rigid body value. On the contrary, superdeformed and hyperdeformed nuclei have ...
On the existence of classical solutions for stationary extended mean field games
Gomes, Diogo A.
2014-04-01
In this paper we consider extended stationary mean-field games, that is mean-field games which depend on the velocity field of the players. We prove various a-priori estimates which generalize the results for quasi-variational mean-field games in Gomes et al. (2012). In addition we use adjoint method techniques to obtain higher regularity bounds. Then we establish the existence of smooth solutions under fairly general conditions by applying the continuity method. When applied to standard stationary mean-field games as in Lasry and Lions (2006), Gomes and Sanchez-Morgado (2011) or Gomes et al. (2012) this paper yields various new estimates and regularity properties not available previously. We discuss additionally several examples where the existence of classical solutions can be proved. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
How Accurate is Mean-Field Theory for Dynamics on Real-World Networks?
Gleeson, James P; Ward, Jonathan; Porter, Mason A; Mucha, Peter J
2010-01-01
Mean-field analysis is an important tool for understanding dynamics on complex networks. However, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the question of whether mean-field predictions are accurate, particularly for real-world networks with clustering and modular structure. We compare mean-field predictions to numerical simulation results for dynamical processes running on 21 real-world networks and demonstrate using synthetic networks that the accuracy of the theory not only depends on the mean degree of the networks but also depends fundamentally on the mean first-neighbor degree. We show, unexpectedly, that mean-field theory can give accurate results for disassortative real-world networks even when the mean degree is as low as $z=4$.
Replica symmetry breaking in mean-field spin glasses through the Hamilton–Jacobi technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
During the last few years, through the combined effort of the insight coming from physical intuition and computer simulation, and the exploitation of rigorous mathematical methods, the main features of the mean-field Sherrington–Kirkpatrick spin glass model have been firmly established. In particular, it has been possible to prove the existence and uniqueness of the infinite-volume limit for the free energy, and its Parisi expression, in terms of a variational principle involving a functional order parameter. Even the expected property of ultrametricity, for the infinite-volume states, seems to be near to a complete proof. The main structural feature of this model, and related models, is the deep phenomenon of spontaneous replica symmetry breaking (RSB), discovered by Parisi many years ago. By expanding on our previous work, the aim of this paper is to investigate a general framework, where replica symmetry breaking is embedded in a kind of mechanical scheme of the Hamilton–Jacobi type. Here, the analog of the 'time' variable is a parameter characterizing the strength of the interaction, while the 'space' variables rule out quantitatively the broken replica symmetry pattern. Starting from the simple cases, where annealing is assumed, or replica symmetry, we build up a progression of dynamical systems, with an increasing number of space variables, which allow us to weaken the effect of the potential in the Hamilton–Jacobi equation as the level of symmetry breaking is increased. This new machinery allows us to work out mechanically the general K-step RSB solutions, in a different interpretation with respect to the replica trick, and easily reveals their properties such as existence or uniqueness
Beyond-mean-field corrections and effective interactions in the nuclear many-body problem
Moghrabi, Kassem
2013-01-01
Mean-field approaches successfully reproduce nuclear bulk properties like masses and radii within the Energy Density Functional (EDF) framework. However, complex correlations are missing in mean-field models and several observables related to single-particle and collective nuclear properties cannot be predicted accurately. The necessity to provide a precise description of the available data as well as reliable predictions in the exotic regions of the nuclear chart motivates the use of more so...
A Nash equilibrium macroscopic closure for kinetic models coupled with Mean-Field Games
Degond, Pierre; Liu, Jian-guo; Ringhofer, Christian
2012-01-01
We introduce a new mean field kinetic model for systems of rational agents interacting in a game theoretical framework. This model is inspired from non-cooperative anonymous games with a continuum of players and Mean-Field Games. The large time behavior of the system is given by a macroscopic closure with a Nash equilibrium serving as the local thermodynamic equilibrium. An application of the presented theory to a social model (herding behavior) is discussed.
On the mean-field theory of the Karlsruhe Dynamo Experiment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K.-H. Rädler
2002-01-01
Full Text Available In the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe an experiment has been constructed which demonstrates a homogeneous dynamo as is expected to exist in the Earth's interior. This experiment is discussed within the framework of mean-field dynamo theory. The main predictions of this theory are explained and compared with the experimental results. Key words. Dynamo, geodynamo, dynamo experiment, mean-field dynamo theory, a-effect
Momentum-dependent mean field based upon the Dirac-Brueckner approach for nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A momentum-dependent mean field potential, suitable for application in the transport-model description of nucleus-nucleus collisions, is derived in a microscopic way. The derivation is based upon the Bonn meson-exchange model for the nucleon-nucleon interaction and the Dirac-Brueckner approach for nuclear matter. The properties of the microscopic mean field are examined and compared with phenomenological parametrizations which are commonly used in transport-model calculations
Magnetic moments in present relativistic nuclear theories: a mean-field problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that the magnetic moments of LS closed shell nuclei plus or minus one nucleon derived from non-relativistic Hartree-Fock mean-fields are as bad as those obtained in relativistic approaches of nuclear structure. Deviations with respect to more complete results in both cases are ascribed to the mean-field approximation which neglects some degrees of freedom in the nucleus description. 18 refs
Gibbs properties of the fuzzy Potts model on trees and in mean field
Haeggstroem, Olle; Kuelske, Christof
2003-01-01
We study Gibbs properties of the fuzzy Potts model in the mean field case (i.e on a complete graph) and on trees. For the mean field case, a complete characterization of the set of temperatures for which non-Gibbsianness happens is given. The results for trees are somewhat less explicit, but we do show for general trees that non-Gibbsianness of the fuzzy Potts model happens exactly for those temperatures where the underlying Potts model has multiple Gibbs measures.
Gibbs Properties of the Fuzzy Potts Model on Trees and in Mean Field
Häggström, O.; Külske, C.
2004-01-01
We study Gibbs properties of the fuzzy Potts model in the mean field case (i.e. on a complete graph) and on trees. For the mean field case, a complete characterization of the set of temperatures for which non-Gibbsianness happens is given. The results for trees are somewhat less explicit, but we do show for general trees that non-Gibbsianness of the fuzzy Potts model happens exactly for those temperatures where the underlying Potts model has multiple Gibbs measures.
Can realistic interaction be useful for nuclear mean-field approaches?
Nakada, H; Inakura, T; Margueron, J
2016-01-01
Recent applications of the M3Y-type semi-realistic interaction to the nuclear mean-field approaches are presented: (i) Prediction of magic numbers and (ii) isotope shifts of nuclei with magic proton numbers. The results exemplify that realistic interaction, which is derived from the base $2N$ and $3N$ interaction, furnish a new theoretical instrument for advancing nuclear mean-field approaches.
Chibani, Wael; Ren, Xinguo; Scheffler, Matthias; Rinke, Patrick
2016-04-01
We present an embedding scheme for periodic systems that facilitates the treatment of the physically important part (here a unit cell or a supercell) with advanced electronic structure methods, that are computationally too expensive for periodic systems. The rest of the periodic system is treated with computationally less demanding approaches, e.g., Kohn-Sham density-functional theory, in a self-consistent manner. Our scheme is based on the concept of dynamical mean-field theory formulated in terms of Green's functions. Our real-space dynamical mean-field embedding scheme features two nested Dyson equations, one for the embedded cluster and another for the periodic surrounding. The total energy is computed from the resulting Green's functions. The performance of our scheme is demonstrated by treating the embedded region with hybrid functionals and many-body perturbation theory in the GW approach for simple bulk systems. The total energy and the density of states converge rapidly with respect to the computational parameters and approach their bulk limit with increasing cluster (i.e., computational supercell) size.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lookman, Turab [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vasseur, Romain [ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE
2009-01-01
We obtain the microstructure of ferroelastic transitions in two and three dimensions from the solution of their corresponding discrete pseudo-spin models. In two dimensions we consider two transitions each from the high symmetry square and triangle symmetries: square-to-rectangle (SR), square-to-oblique (SO), triangle-to-centered rectangle (TR) and triangle-to-oblique (TO). In three dimensions we study the corresponding spin model for the cubic to tetragonal transition. The Landau free energies for these transitions result in N+ I states clock models (Z{sub N}) with long range interactions and we derive mean-field self-consistency equations for the clock model Hamiltonians. The microstructures from the mean-field solutions of the models are very similar to those obtained from the original continuum models or Monte Carlo simulations on the spin models (in the SR case), illustrating that these discrete models capture the salient physics. The models, in the presence of disorder, provide the basis for the study of the strain glass phase observed in martensitic alloys.
Revival of oscillation from mean-field-induced death: Theory and experiment.
Ghosh, Debarati; Banerjee, Tanmoy; Kurths, Jürgen
2015-11-01
The revival of oscillation and maintaining rhythmicity in a network of coupled oscillators offer an open challenge to researchers as the cessation of oscillation often leads to a fatal system degradation and an irrecoverable malfunctioning in many physical, biological, and physiological systems. Recently a general technique of restoration of rhythmicity in diffusively coupled networks of nonlinear oscillators has been proposed in Zou et al. [Nat. Commun. 6, 7709 (2015)], where it is shown that a proper feedback parameter that controls the rate of diffusion can effectively revive oscillation from an oscillation suppressed state. In this paper we show that the mean-field diffusive coupling, which can suppress oscillation even in a network of identical oscillators, can be modified in order to revoke the cessation of oscillation induced by it. Using a rigorous bifurcation analysis we show that, unlike other diffusive coupling schemes, here one has two control parameters, namely the density of the mean-field and the feedback parameter that can be controlled to revive oscillation from a death state. We demonstrate that an appropriate choice of density of the mean field is capable of inducing rhythmicity even in the presence of complete diffusion, which is a unique feature of this mean-field coupling that is not available in other coupling schemes. Finally, we report the experimental observation of revival of oscillation from the mean-field-induced oscillation suppression state that supports our theoretical results. PMID:26651763
Time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory: Rotating systems
Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.
2010-09-01
Time-odd mean fields (nuclear magnetism) and their impact on physical observables in rotating nuclei are studied in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). It is shown that they have profound effect on the dynamic and kinematic moments of inertia. Particle number, configuration, and rotational frequency dependencies of their impact on the moments of inertia have been analyzed in a systematic way. Nuclear magnetism can also considerably modify the band crossing features such as crossing frequencies and the properties of the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia in the band crossing region. The impact of time-odd mean fields on the moments of inertia in the regions away from band crossing only weakly depends on the relativistic mean-field parametrization, reflecting good localization of the properties of time-odd mean fields in CDFT. The moments of inertia of normal-deformed nuclei considerably deviate from the rigid-body value. On the contrary, superdeformed and hyperdeformed nuclei have the moments of inertia which are close to rigid-body value. The structure of the currents in rotating frame, their microscopic origin, and the relations to the moments of inertia have been systematically analyzed. The phenomenon of signature separation in odd-odd nuclei, induced by time-odd mean fields, has been analyzed in detail.
Time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory: Rotating systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Time-odd mean fields (nuclear magnetism) and their impact on physical observables in rotating nuclei are studied in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). It is shown that they have profound effect on the dynamic and kinematic moments of inertia. Particle number, configuration, and rotational frequency dependencies of their impact on the moments of inertia have been analyzed in a systematic way. Nuclear magnetism can also considerably modify the band crossing features such as crossing frequencies and the properties of the kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia in the band crossing region. The impact of time-odd mean fields on the moments of inertia in the regions away from band crossing only weakly depends on the relativistic mean-field parametrization, reflecting good localization of the properties of time-odd mean fields in CDFT. The moments of inertia of normal-deformed nuclei considerably deviate from the rigid-body value. On the contrary, superdeformed and hyperdeformed nuclei have the moments of inertia which are close to rigid-body value. The structure of the currents in rotating frame, their microscopic origin, and the relations to the moments of inertia have been systematically analyzed. The phenomenon of signature separation in odd-odd nuclei, induced by time-odd mean fields, has been analyzed in detail.
Revival of oscillation from mean-field-induced death: Theory and experiment
Ghosh, Debarati; Banerjee, Tanmoy; Kurths, Jürgen
2015-11-01
The revival of oscillation and maintaining rhythmicity in a network of coupled oscillators offer an open challenge to researchers as the cessation of oscillation often leads to a fatal system degradation and an irrecoverable malfunctioning in many physical, biological, and physiological systems. Recently a general technique of restoration of rhythmicity in diffusively coupled networks of nonlinear oscillators has been proposed in Zou et al. [Nat. Commun. 6, 7709 (2015), 10.1038/ncomms8709], where it is shown that a proper feedback parameter that controls the rate of diffusion can effectively revive oscillation from an oscillation suppressed state. In this paper we show that the mean-field diffusive coupling, which can suppress oscillation even in a network of identical oscillators, can be modified in order to revoke the cessation of oscillation induced by it. Using a rigorous bifurcation analysis we show that, unlike other diffusive coupling schemes, here one has two control parameters, namely the density of the mean-field and the feedback parameter that can be controlled to revive oscillation from a death state. We demonstrate that an appropriate choice of density of the mean field is capable of inducing rhythmicity even in the presence of complete diffusion, which is a unique feature of this mean-field coupling that is not available in other coupling schemes. Finally, we report the experimental observation of revival of oscillation from the mean-field-induced oscillation suppression state that supports our theoretical results.
Carbon diffusion in supersaturated ferrite: a comparison of mean-field and atomistic predictions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hillert's mean-field elastic prediction of the diffusivity of carbon in ferrite is regularly used to explain the experimental observation of slow diffusion of carbon in supersaturated ferrite. With increasing carbon supersaturation, the appropriateness of assuming that many-body carbon interactions can be ignored needs to be re-examined. In this work, we have sought to evaluate the limits of such mean-field predictions for activation barrier prediction by comparing such models with molecular dynamics simulations. The results of this analysis show that even at extremely high levels of supersaturation (up to 8 at% C), mean-field elasticity models can be used with confidence when the effects of carbon concentration on the energy of carbon at octahedral and tetrahedral sites are considered. The reasons for this finding and its consequences are discussed. (paper)
Time-Dependent Green's Functions Description of One-Dimensional Nuclear Mean-Field Dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The time-dependent Green's functions formalism provides a consistent description of the time evolution of quantum many-body systems, either in the mean-field approximation or in more sophisticated correlated approaches. We describe an attempt to apply this formalism to the mean-field dynamics of symmetric reactions for one-dimensional nuclear slabs. We pay particular attention to the off-diagonal elements of the Green's functions in real space representation. Their importance is quantified by means of an elimination scheme based on a super-operator cut-off field and their relevance for the global time evolution is assessed. The Wigner function and its structure in the mean-field approximation is also discussed.
On the gap problem for the Mott--Hubbard transition within Dynamical Mean-Field Theory
Noack, Reinhard M.; Gebhard, Florian
1998-03-01
Within the Dynamical Mean-Field Theory, the zero temperature Mott-Hubbard metal-to-insulator transition has been proposed to be discontinuous in the sense that the gap jumps to a finite value at the transition.(A. Georges, G. Kotliar, W. Krauth, and M. J. Rozenberg, Rev. Mod. Phys. 68), 13 (1996). We use the Random Dispersion Approximation to the Hubbard model,(F. Gebhard, The Mott Metal-Insulator Transition), Springer Tracts in Modern Physics 137 (Springer, Berlin, 1997). which becomes equivalent to the Dynamical Mean-Field Theory in the thermodynamic limit, to show that the charge gap opens continuously at the critical interaction strength which is of the size of the bandwidth. Therefore, our results support the idea^2 that the Dynamical Mean Field Theory provides a generic description of the Mott--Hubbard transition as a continuous quantum phase transition.
Study of the neutron skin thickness of ${}^{208}$Pb in mean field models
Roca-Maza, X; Viñas, X; Warda, M
2011-01-01
We study whether the neutron skin thickness $\\Delta r_{np}$ of ${}^{208}$Pb originates from the bulk or from the surface of the neutron and proton density distributions in mean field models. We find that the size of the bulk contribution to $\\Delta r_{np}$ of ${}^{208}$Pb strongly depends on the slope of the nuclear symmetry energy, while the surface contribution does not. We note that most mean field models predict a neutron density for ${}^{208}$Pb between the halo and skin type limits. We investigate the dependence of parity- violating electron scattering at the kinematics of the PREX experiment on the shape of the nucleon densities predicted by the mean field models for ${}^{208}$Pb. We find an approximate formula for the parity-violating asymmetry in terms of the central radius and the surface diffuseness of the nucleon densities of ${}^{208}$Pb in these models.
A beyond-mean-field example with zero-range effective interactions in infinite nuclear matter
Moghrabi, K; Roca-Maza, X; Coló, G; Van Giai, N; 10.1051/epjconf/20123806002
2013-01-01
Zero-range effective interactions are commonly used in nuclear physics to describe a many-body system in the mean-field framework. If they are employed in beyond- mean-field models, an artificial ultraviolet divergence is generated by the zero-range of the interaction. We analyze this problem in symmetric nuclear matter with the t0-t3 Skyrme model. In this case, the second-order energy correction diverges linearly with the momentum cutoff. After that, we extend the work to the case of nuclear matter with the full Skyrme interaction. A strong divergence related to the velocity-dependent terms of the interaction is obtained. Moreover, a global fit can be simultaneously performed for both symmetric and nuclear matter with different neutron-to-proton ratios. These results pave the way for applications to finite nuclei in the framework of beyond mean-field theories.
Comparisons and Connections between Mean Field Dynamo Theory and Accretion Disc Theory
Blackman, Eric G
2009-01-01
The origin of large scale magnetic fields in astrophysical rotators, and the conversion of gravitational energy into radiation near stars and compact objects via accretion have been subjects of active research for a half century. Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence makes both problems highly nonlinear, so both subjects have benefitted from numerical simulations.However, understanding the key principles and practical modeling of observations warrants testable semi-analytic mean field theories that distill the essential physics. Mean field dynamo (MFD) theory and alpha-viscosity accretion disc theory exemplify this pursuit. That the latter is a mean field theory is not always made explicit but the combination of turbulence and global symmetry imply such. The more commonly explicit presentation of assumptions in 20th century textbook MFDT has exposed it to arguably more widespread criticism than incurred by 20th century alpha-accretion theory despite complementary weaknesses. In the 21st century however, MFDT has exp...
Phase transition studies of BiMnO3: Mean field theory approximations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We studied the phase transition and magneto-electric coupling effect of BiMnO3 by employing mean field theory approximations. To capture the ferromagnetic and ferroelectric transitions of BiMnO3, we construct an extended Ising model in a 2D square lattice, wherein, the magnetic (electric) interactions are described in terms of the direct interactions between the localized magnetic (electric dipole) moments of Mn ions with their nearest neighbors. To evaluate our model, we obtain magnetization, magnetic susceptibility and electric polarization using mean field approximation calculations. Our results reproduce both the ferromagnetic and the ferroelectric transitions, matching very well with the experimental reports. Furthermore, consistent with experimental observations, our mean field results suggest that there is indeed a coupling between the magnetic and electric ordering in BiMnO3
Ruan, Xinran; Cai, Yongyong; Bao, Weizhu
2016-06-01
We derive rigorously one- and two-dimensional mean-field equations for cigar- and pancake-shaped Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) with higher-order interactions (HOIs), which originate from shape-dependent confinement corrections to the effective two-body atomic interaction potential. We show how the higher-order interaction modifies the contact interaction of the strongly confined particles. Surprisingly, we find that the usual Gaussian profile assumption for the strongly confining direction is inappropriate for the cigar-shaped BEC case, and a Thomas–Fermi-type profile should be adopted instead. Based on the derived mean-field equations, the Thomas–Fermi densities are analyzed in the presence of the contact interaction and HOI, and considering the limit of large contact interaction and HOI. For both box and harmonic traps in one, two and three dimensions, we identify the analytical Thomas–Fermi densities, which depend on the competition between the contact interaction and the HOI.
A Modified Mean Field Theory for Spin Systems with Orbital Degeneracy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
施大宁
2003-01-01
In order to understand the ground state of spin systems with orbital degeneracy, we present a modified mean-field theory that includes four order parameters. Our mean-field results suggest that for a small Hund interaction,the flavour liquid state is still stable against the solid state, but long-range orders may be attained in the system with sufficient deviation from the SU(4) limit. Finally, the implications for the experimental observations on the system LaMnO3 are discussed.
Many-body dynamics of p-wave Feshbach molecule production: a mean-field approach
Austen, L.; Cook, L.; Lee, M. D.; Mur-Petit, Jordi
2012-01-01
We study the mean-field dynamics of p-wave Feshbach molecule production in an ultra cold gas of Fermi atoms in the same internal state. We derive a separable potential to describe the low-energy scattering properties of such atoms, and use this potential to solve the mean-field dynamics during a magnetic field sweep. Initially, on the negative scattering length side of a Feshbach resonance the gas is described by the BCS theory. We adapt the method by Szyma\\'{n}ska et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94...
Hard-spin mean-field theory: A systematic derivation and exact correlations in one dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hard-spin mean-field theory is an improved mean-field approach which has proven to give accurate results, especially for frustrated spin systems, with relatively little computational effort. In this work, the previous phenomenological derivation is supplanted by a systematic and generic derivation that opens the possibility for systematic improvements, especially for the calculation of long-range correlation functions. A first level of improvement suffices to recover the exact long-range values of the correlation functions in one dimension. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Mean field theory of nuclei and shell model. Present status and future outlook
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Many of the recent topics of the nuclear structure are concerned on the problems of unstable nuclei. It has been revealed experimentally that the nuclear halos and the neutron skins as well as the cluster structures or the molecule-like structures can be present in the unstable nuclei, and the magic numbers well established in the stable nuclei disappear occasionally while new ones appear. The shell model based on the mean field approximation has been successfully applied to stable nuclei to explain the nuclear structure as the finite many body system quantitatively and it is considered as the standard model at present. If the unstable nuclei will be understood on the same model basis or not is a matter related to fundamental principle of nuclear structure theories. In this lecture, the fundamental concept and the framework of the theory of nuclear structure based on the mean field theory and the shell model are presented to make clear the problems and to suggest directions for future researches. At first fundamental properties of nuclei are described under the subtitles: saturation and magic numbers, nuclear force and effective interactions, nuclear matter, and LS splitting. Then the mean field theory is presented under subtitles: the potential model, the mean field theory, Hartree-Fock approximation for nuclear matter, density dependent force, semiclassical mean field theory, mean field theory and symmetry, Skyrme interaction and density functional, density matrix expansion, finite range interactions, effective masses, and motion of center of mass. The subsequent section is devoted to the shell model with the subtitles: beyond the mean field approximation, core polarization, effective interaction of shell model, one-particle wave function, nuclear deformation and shell model, and shell model of cross shell. Finally structure of unstable nuclei is discussed with the subtitles: general remark on the study of unstable nuclear structure, asymptotic behavior of wave
Constraints on the relativistic mean field of $\\Delta$-isobar in nuclear matter
Kosov, D. S.; C. Fuchs; Martemyanov, B. V.; Faessler, Amand
1997-01-01
The effects of the presence of $\\Delta$-isobars in nuclear matter are studied in the framework of relativistic mean-field theory. The existence of stable nuclei at saturation density imposes constraints on the $\\Delta$-isobar self-energy and thereby on the mean-field coupling constants of the scalar and vector mesons with $\\Delta$-isobars. The range of possible values for the scalar and vector coupling constants of $\\Delta$-isobars with respect to the nucleon coupling is investigated and comp...
Mean Field Theory, Ginzburg Criterion, and Marginal Dimensionality of Phase-Transitions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgenau, R. J.
1977-01-01
in a natural way. For example, it is shown that for many homogeneous structural transformations the marginal dimensionality is two, so that mean field theory will be valid for real three‐dimensional systems. It is suggested that this simple self‐consistent approach to Landau theory should be......By applying a real space version of the Ginzburg criterion, the role of fluctuations and thence the self‐consistency of mean field theory are assessed in a simple fashion for a variety of phase transitions. It is shown that in using this approach the concept of ’’marginal dimensionality’’ emerges...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Typel, S.; Wolter, H.H. [Sektion Physik, Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany)
1998-06-01
Nuclear matter and ground state properties for (proton and neutron) semi-closed shell nuclei are described in relativistic mean field theory with coupling constants which depend on the vector density. The parametrization of the density dependence for {sigma}-, {omega}- and {rho}-mesons is obtained by fitting to properties of nuclear matter and some finite nuclei. The equation of state for symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter is discussed. Finite nuclei are described in Hartree approximation, including a charge and an improved center-of-mass correction. Pairing is considered in the BCS approximation. Special attention is directed to the predictions for properties at the neutron and proton driplines, e.g. for separation energies, spin-orbit splittings and density distributions. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the phase diagram of correlated lattice bosons using the bosonic dynamical mean field theory (BDMFT). The BDMFT, formulated by Byczuk and Vollhardt (Phys. Rev. B 77, 235106 (2008)), is a comprehensive and thermodynamically consistent approximation in which the normal and condensed bosons are treated on equal footing. Within BDMFT the lattice bosonic problem is replaced by a single impurity coupled to two bosonic baths (corresponding to normal and condensed bosons, respectively). The resulting set of equations, the so-called ''impurity problem'', has to be solved self-consistently. Our approach is the strong coupling expansion within which the phase transition between the Mott-insulating superfluid phases can be described. Different thermodynamical quantities (particle density, compressibility, order parameter) as well as the bosonic density of states are investigated across the transition line.
The crossover from mean-field to 3D-Ising critical behaviour in a 3-component microemulsion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Seto, H.; Schwahn, D.; Yokoi, E.;
1995-01-01
Density fluctuations and associated critical phenomena of water droplets in a water-in-oil microemulsion system have been studied, We have recently found a mean-field behavior in the ''near-critical region'', and this evidence suggested that a crossover from mean-field to non-mean-field behavior...
Dynamical mean-field approach to materials with strong electronic correlations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kuneš, Jan; Leonov, I.; Kollar, M.; Byczuk, K.; Anisimov, V.I.; Vollhardt, D.
2010-01-01
Roč. 180, - (2010), s. 5-28. ISSN 1951-6355 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : dynamical mean-field * electronic correlations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.838, year: 2010
Isidori, Aldo
2008-01-01
The present thesis presents a systematic study of the possible cluster extensions of the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). In particular, the role of the cluster geometry is investigated analytically in the relevant case of two-dimensional lattices with d-wave superconducting order.
Mean-field analysis of quantum phase transitions in a periodic optical superlattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyze the various phases exhibited by a system of ultracold bosons in a periodic optical superlattice using the mean-field decoupling approximation. We investigate for a wide range of commensurate and incommensurate densities. We find the gapless superfluid phase, the gapped Mott insulator phase, and gapped insulator phases with distinct density wave orders.
Mean-field mass parameters for odd nuclei within the GOA+GCM approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The GCM mass parameters for the heavy odd-nuclei region within the mean-field hamiltonian approximation have been calculated. The influence of the energy window size, the level crossing and the projection onto good particle number effects have been analyzed. (orig.)
Mean field limit for bosons and infinite dimensional phase-space analysis
Zied, Ammari
2007-01-01
This article proposes the construction of Wigner measures in the infinite dimensional bosonic quantum field theory, with applications to the derivation of the mean field dynamics. Once these asymptotic objects are well defined, it is shown how they can be used to make connections between different kinds of results or to prove new ones.
Shape Coexistence in Neutron-Deficient At Isotopes in Relativistic Mean-Field Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The potential energy surfaces are calculated for neutron-deficient At isotopes from A = 190 to 207 in an axiaJJy deformed relativistic mean-field approach, using a quadratic constraint scheme for the first time. We find several minima in the potential energy surface for each nucleus, shape-coexistence, and quadratic deform are discussed.
A simplified BBGKY hierarchy for correlated fermions from a stochastic mean-field approach
Lacroix, Denis; Tanimura, Yusuke; Ayik, Sakir; Yilmaz, Bulent
2016-04-01
The stochastic mean-field (SMF) approach allows to treat correlations beyond mean-field using a set of independent mean-field trajectories with appropriate choice of fluctuating initial conditions. We show here that this approach is equivalent to a simplified version of the Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy between one-, two-, ..., N -body degrees of freedom. In this simplified version, one-body degrees of freedom are coupled to fluctuations to all orders while retaining only specific terms of the general BBGKY hierarchy. The use of the simplified BBGKY is illustrated with the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model. We show that a truncated version of this hierarchy can be useful, as an alternative to the SMF, especially in the weak coupling regime to get physical insight in the effect beyond mean-field. In particular, it leads to approximate analytical expressions for the quantum fluctuations both in the weak and strong coupling regime. In the strong coupling regime, it can only be used for short time evolution. In that case, it gives information on the evolution time-scale close to a saddle point associated to a quantum phase-transition. For long time evolution and strong coupling, we observed that the simplified BBGKY hierarchy cannot be truncated and only the full SMF with initial sampling leads to reasonable results.
Adaptive and self-averaging Thouless-Anderson-Palmer mean-field theory for probabilistic modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Opper, Manfred; Winther, Ole
2001-01-01
We develop a generalization of the Thouless-Anderson-Palmer (TAP) mean-field approach of disorder physics. which makes the method applicable to the computation of approximate averages in probabilistic models for real data. In contrast to the conventional TAP approach, where the knowledge of the...
Mean-field theory of spin-glasses with finite coordination number
Kanter, I.; Sompolinsky, H.
1987-01-01
The mean-field theory of dilute spin-glasses is studied in the limit where the average coordination number is finite. The zero-temperature phase diagram is calculated and the relationship between the spin-glass phase and the percolation transition is discussed. The present formalism is applicable also to graph optimization problems.
Mean field analysis of SU(3) lattice Yang-Mills theory at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The phase diagram of the SU(3) four-dimensional space-time lattice Yang-Mills field theory at finite temperature is analysed by the extended mean-field technique. With this technique, finite temperature effects are present already at the saddle point approximation. A reasonable quantitative agreement with Monte Carlo numerical simulations is obtained. (author)
A Hartree-Bose Mean-Field Approximation for IBM-3
Garcia-Ramos, J. E.; Arias, J. M; Dukelsky, J.; de Guerra, E. Moya; Van Isacker, P.
1997-01-01
A Hartree-Bose mean-field approximation for the IBM-3 is presented. A Hartree- Bose transformation from spherical to deformed bosons with charge-dependent parameters is proposed which allows bosonic pair correlations and includes higher angular momentum bosons. The formalism contains previously proposed IBM-2 and IBM-3 intrinsic states as particular limits.
A Hartree-Bose mean-field approximation for IBM-3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Hartree-Bose mean-field approximation for the IBM-3 is presented. A Hartree-Bose transformation from the spherical to the deformed bosons with charge-dependent parammentum bosons. The formalism contains previously proposed IBM-2 and IBM-3 intrinsic states as particular limits. (author)
A Two-Mode Mean-Field Optimal Switching Problem for the Full Balance Sheet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boualem Djehiche
2014-01-01
a two-mode optimal switching problem of mean-field type, which can be described by a system of Snell envelopes where the obstacles are interconnected and nonlinear. The main result of the paper is a proof of a continuous minimal solution to the system of Snell envelopes, as well as the full characterization of the optimal switching strategy.
A Mean-field Calculation for the Three-Dimensional Holstein Model
Liu, Chuan; Luo, Qiang
2002-01-01
A path integral representation appropriate for further Monte Carlo simulations is derived for the electron-phonon Holstein model in three spatial dimensions. The model is studied within mean-field theory. Charge density wave and superconducting phase transitions are discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cakmak, Burak; Urup, Daniel Nygaard; Meyer, Florian;
2016-01-01
We propose a hybrid message passing method for distributed cooperative localization and tracking of mobile agents. Belief propagation and mean field message passing are employed for, respectively, the motion-related and measurementrelated part of the factor graph. Using a Gaussian belief...
Statistical Field Theory for Simple fluids : Mean Field and Gaussian Approximations
Caillol, J. -M.
2002-01-01
We present an exact field theoretical representation of the statistical mechanics of simple classical liquids with short-ranged pairwise additive interactions. The action of the field theory is obtained by performing a Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation of the configurational Boltzmann factor. The mean field and Gaussian approximations of the theory are derived and applications to the liquid-vapour transition considered.
A simplified BBGKY hierarchy for correlated fermionic systems from a Stochastic Mean-Field approach
Lacroix, Denis; Ayik, Sakir; Yilmaz, Bulent
2015-01-01
The stochastic mean-field (SMF) approach allows to treat correlations beyond mean-field using a set of independent mean-field trajectories with appropriate choice of fluctuating initial conditions. We show here, that this approach is equivalent to a simplified version of the Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy between one-, two-, ..., N-body degrees of freedom. In this simplified version, one-body degrees of freedom are coupled to fluctuations to all orders while retaining only specific terms of the general BBGKY hierarchy. The use of the simplified BBGKY is illustrated with the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model. We show that a truncated version of this hierarchy can be useful, as an alternative to the SMF, especially in the weak coupling regime to get physical insight in the effect beyond mean-field. In particular, it leads to approximate analytical expressions for the quantum fluctuations both in the weak and strong coupling regime. In the strong coupling regime, it can only be used for sho...
Feng, Shui
1994-01-01
A large deviation system is established for the empirical processes of a mean-field interacting particle system with unbounded jump rates under assumptions that are satisfied by many interesting models including the first and the second Schlogl models. The action functional obtained has a form that is very useful for applications.
Mean-field theory for the f2-f3 Anderson impurity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A uranium impurity whose lovest ionic configurations are f2 and F3 is considered in a j j - coupling scheme in the limit of zero j.j coupling. A mean field theory to the f2-f3 Anderson - Coleman Hamiltonian is presented which is found to give useful results for ground state properties over whole range of f - occupations. (author)
Time-dependent mean field description of a two-level bosonic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A time-dependent mean field approximation is applied to a simple bosonic model that is related to the phase transition from spherical to deformed nuclei. It is shown that this approximation is very appropriate for the detection of this phase transition. A method for extracting matrix elements is developed and applied for the two-particle transfer operator in this model
Gibbs–non-Gibbs properties for n-vector lattice and mean-field models
van Enter, Aernout C. D.; Külske, Christof; Opoku, Alex A.; Ruszel, Wioletta M.
2010-01-01
We review some recent developments in the study of Gibbs and non-Gibbs properties of transformed n-vector lattice and mean-field models under various transformations. Also, some new results for the loss and recovery of the Gibbs property of planar rotor models during stochastic time evolution are presented.
A logic for model-checking of mean-field models
Kolesnichenko, Anna; Remke, Anne; Boer, de, J.W.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.
2012-01-01
Recently, many systems consisting of a large number of interacting objects were analysed using the mean-field method, which has only been used for performance evaluation. In this short paper, we apply it to model checking. We define logic, which allows to describe the overall properties of the large system.
Beyond-mean-field approach to low-lying spectra of $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei
Hagino, K; Yao, J M; Motoba, T
2015-01-01
Taking the hypernucleus $^{13}_{~\\Lambda}$C as an example, we illustrate the miscroscopic particle-rotor model for low-lying spectra of hypernuclei. This approach is based on the beyond-mean-field method, with the particle number and angular momentum projections. The quantum fluctuation of the mean-field is also taken into account for the core nucleus using the generator coordinate method. We show that the impurity effect of $\\Lambda$ hyperon, such as a change in $B(E2)$, is well described with this model. Our calculation indicates that the most important impurity effect in $sd$-shell hypernuclei is a change in a deformation parameter rather than in a nuclear size.
The relativistic mean-field description of nuclei and nuclear dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The relativistic mean-field model of the nucleus is reviewed. It describes the nucleus as a system of Dirac-Nucleons which interact in a relativistic covariant manner via meson fields. The meson fields are treated as mean fields, i.e. as non quantal c-number fields. The effects of the Dirac sea of the nucleons is neglected. The model is interpreted as a phenomenological ansatz providing a selfconsistent relativistic description of nuclei and nuclear dynamics. It is viewed, so to say, as the relativistic generalisation of the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock ansatz. The capability and the limitations of the model to describe nuclear properties are discussed. Recent applications to spherical and deformed nuclei and to nuclear dynamics are presented. (orig.)
Mean field study of the quadrupole-octupole degree of freedom in the spdf boson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a mean field study of the quadrupole-octupole degree of freedom in collective nuclei within the framework of the spdf-boson model. For realistic choices of the Hamiltonian parameters, the ground state of the system is shown to remain axially symmetric, which considerably simplifies the mean field treatment. The critical point for the onset of octupole deformation in quadrupole deformed systems is identified in the parameter space and importance of the parity projection in this process is emphasized. A systematic survey of excitation energies and electric transitions for one-phonon states is given, which will provide useful guidance for detailed studies of negative parity states within the spdf-boson model
Xu, Wenhu; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel
2013-07-19
We investigate the transport properties of a correlated metal within dynamical mean-field theory. Canonical Fermi liquid behavior emerges only below a very low temperature scale T(FL). Surprisingly the quasiparticle scattering rate follows a quadratic temperature dependence up to much higher temperatures and crosses over to saturated behavior around a temperature scale T(sat). We identify these quasiparticles as constituents of the hidden Fermi liquid. The non-Fermi-liquid transport above T(FL), in particular the linear-in-T resistivity, is shown to be a result of a strongly temperature dependent band dispersion. We derive simple expressions for the resistivity, Hall angle, thermoelectric power and Nernst coefficient in terms of a temperature dependent renormalized band structure and the quasiparticle scattering rate. We discuss possible tests of the dynamical mean-field theory picture of transport using ac measurements. PMID:23909344
Deflection of non-equilibrium light particles by the nuclear mean field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Since the collective motion in the nuclear mean field is damped by individual nucleon-nucleon collisions, the relative importance of positive and negative emission angles is sensitive to the interplay between mean field dynamics and two-body dissipation. These issues have been addressed experimentally by determining the sign of the average emission angle of non-equilibrium ight particles from the circular polarization of associated γ-rays emitted by the residual nucleus for 14N induced reactions on 154Sm at E/A = 20 and E/A = 35 MeV. For these mass-asymmetric systems, the light particle spectra are dominated by non-equilibrium processes. The experiment was performed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University
Mean-field analysis of phase transitions in the emergence of hierarchical society
Okubo, Tsuyoshi; Odagaki, Takashi
2007-09-01
Emergence of hierarchical society is analyzed by use of a simple agent-based model. We extend the mean-field model of Bonabeau [Physica A 217, 373 (1995)] to societies obeying complex diffusion rules where each individual selects a moving direction following their power rankings. We apply this mean-field analysis to the pacifist society model recently investigated by use of Monte Carlo simulation [Physica A 367, 435 (2006)]. We show analytically that the self-organization of hierarchies occurs in two steps as the individual density is increased and there are three phases: one egalitarian and two hierarchical states. We also highlight that the transition from the egalitarian phase to the first hierarchical phase is a continuous change in the order parameter and the second transition causes a discontinuous jump in the order parameter.
State-of-the-art of beyond mean field theories with nuclear density functionals
Egido, J Luis
2016-01-01
We present an overview of beyond mean field theories (BMFT) based on the generator coordinate method (GCM) and the recovery of symmetries used in nuclear physics with effective forces. After a reminder of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) theory a discussion of the shortcomings of any mean field approximation (MFA) is presented. The recovery of the symmetries spontaneously broken in the HFB approach, in particular the angular momentum, is necessary, among others, to describe excited states and transitions. Particle number projection is needed to guarantee the right number of protons and neutrons. Furthermore a projection before the variation prevents the pairing collapse in the weak pairing regime. The lack of fluctuations around the average values of the MFA is a shortcoming of this approach. To build in correlations in BMFT one selects the relevant degrees of freedom: quadrupole, octupole and the pairing vibrations as well as the single particle ones. In the GCM the operators representing these degrees of f...
Damping of nuclear collective motion in the extended mean-field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The dissipation mechanism in slow nuclear collective motion is studied in the frame of the extended mean-field theory. The collective motion is treated explicitly by employing a travelling single-particle representation in the semi-classical approximation. The rate of change of the collective kinetic energy is determined by: (i) one-body dissipation, which reflects uncorrelated particle-hole excitations as a result of the collisions of particles with the mean field, (ii) two-body dissipation, which consists of simultaneous 2 particle-2 hole excitations via direct coupling of the single-particle energies as a result of the random two-body collisions. In contrast to the first two processes the potential dissipation exhibits memory due to the large values of the local equilibration times. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Debye screening masses of the σ, ω and neutral ρ mesons and the photon are calculated in the relativistic mean-field approximation. As the density of the nucleon increases, all the screening masses of mesons increase. A different result with Brown–Rho scaling is shown, which implies a reduction in the mass of all the mesons in the nuclear matter, except the pion. Replacing the masses of the mesons with their corresponding screening masses in the Walecka-1 model, five saturation properties of the nuclear matter are fixed reasonably, and then a density-dependent relativistic mean-field model is proposed without introducing the nonlinear self-coupling terms of mesons. (author)
Bellonzi, Nicole; Jain, Amber; Subotnik, Joseph E.
2016-04-01
We study several recent mean-field semiclassical dynamics methods, focusing on the ability to recover detailed balance for long time (equilibrium) populations. We focus especially on Miller and Cotton's [J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 7190 (2013)] suggestion to include both zero point electronic energy and windowing on top of Ehrenfest dynamics. We investigate three regimes: harmonic surfaces with weak electronic coupling, harmonic surfaces with strong electronic coupling, and anharmonic surfaces with weak electronic coupling. In most cases, recent additions to Ehrenfest dynamics are a strong improvement upon mean-field theory. However, for methods that include zero point electronic energy, we show that anharmonic potential energy surfaces often lead to numerical instabilities, as caused by negative populations and forces. We also show that, though the effect of negative forces can appear hidden in harmonic systems, the resulting equilibrium limits do remain dependent on any windowing and zero point energy parameters.
Mean-Field Dynamics and Fisher Information in Matter Wave Interferometry
Haine, Simon A.
2016-06-01
There has been considerable recent interest in the mean-field dynamics of various atom-interferometry schemes designed for precision sensing. In the field of quantum metrology, the standard tools for evaluating metrological sensitivity are the classical and quantum Fisher information. In this Letter, we show how these tools can be adapted to evaluate the sensitivity when the behavior is dominated by mean-field dynamics. As an example, we compare the behavior of four recent theoretical proposals for gyroscopes based on matter-wave interference in toroidally trapped geometries. We show that while the quantum Fisher information increases at different rates for the various schemes considered, in all cases it is consistent with the well-known Sagnac phase shift after the matter waves have traversed a closed path. However, we argue that the relevant metric for quantifying interferometric sensitivity is the classical Fisher information, which can vary considerably between the schemes.
Orientational quadrupolar glass in ortho-para hydrogen mixtures. I. Mean-field microscopic theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The mean-field theory of the quadrupolar glass (QG) is presented using a microscopic approach. It is shown that the reaction-polarization effects caused by short-range spatial correlations are well distinguished from those of random-bond spin glasses. They control the QG concentration threshold and result in an incomplete orientational order. The QG ground state (zero quadrupolization, unsaturated Edwards-Anderson-type orientational order parameter) is predicted. Thermodynamic characteristics, namely entropy, pressure and free energy as well as the related heat capacity and Gruneisen parameter are estimated. The ground-state findings (incomplete order, residual entropy) are similar to those of short-range Potts glasses. A correspondence between density matrix and mean field treatment to the QG problem is also discussed
Mean-Field Dynamics and Fisher Information in Matter Wave Interferometry.
Haine, Simon A
2016-06-10
There has been considerable recent interest in the mean-field dynamics of various atom-interferometry schemes designed for precision sensing. In the field of quantum metrology, the standard tools for evaluating metrological sensitivity are the classical and quantum Fisher information. In this Letter, we show how these tools can be adapted to evaluate the sensitivity when the behavior is dominated by mean-field dynamics. As an example, we compare the behavior of four recent theoretical proposals for gyroscopes based on matter-wave interference in toroidally trapped geometries. We show that while the quantum Fisher information increases at different rates for the various schemes considered, in all cases it is consistent with the well-known Sagnac phase shift after the matter waves have traversed a closed path. However, we argue that the relevant metric for quantifying interferometric sensitivity is the classical Fisher information, which can vary considerably between the schemes. PMID:27341216
Yao, J M; Hagino, K; Ring, P; Meng, J
2014-01-01
We report a systematic study of nuclear matrix elements (NMEs) in neutrinoless double-beta decays with state-of-the-art beyond mean-field covariant density functional theory. The dynamic effects of particle-number and angular-momentum conservations as well as quadrupole shape fluctuations are taken into account with projections and generator coordinate method for both initial and final nuclei. The full relativistic transition operator is adopted to calculate the NMEs which are found to be consistent with the results of previous beyond non-relativistic mean-field calculation based on a Gogny force with the exception of $^{150}$Nd. Our study shows that the total NMEs can be well approximated by the pure axial-vector coupling term, the calculation of which is computationally much cheaper than that of full terms.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nuclear structure is subject to a major renewal linked with the development of radioactive ion beams (such as the SPIRAL 1 and 2 beams at GANIL). Mean-field and density-functional methods are among the best suited for studying nuclei produced at such facilities. The present work aims at demonstrating how existing functionals can be improved so as to exhibit a better predictive power in little-explored regions of the nuclear chart. We propose a better description of the isospin-dependence of the effective interaction, and examine the relevance of adding a tensor coupling. We also show how a new generation of functionals can be better constrained by considering results obtained beyond the mean-field approximation. Finally, we attempt establishing a link with the bare nucleon-nucleon potential for the description of pairing, thus participating in the construction of a non-empirical functional. (author)
The ground states of Perovskite nickelates: A dynamical mean field approach
Misra, D.; Taraphder, A.
2014-04-01
The Perovskite Nickelates (RNiO3,R=Rare-earth) exhibit a strong connection between their structural, transport and magnetic properties. All the members of Nickelate series have orthorhombic structure except LaNiO3 which has a rhombohedral symmetry. While the ground states of most of the Nickelates are antiferromagnetic insulators, and they undergo a sharp, temperature driven metal-Insulator transition, LaNiO3 is a paramagnetic metal irrespective of the temperature and does not undergo any metal-insulator transition. Whether the AFM insulating ground state of Nickelates (R≠La) is due to charge or orbital ordering or both, is a matter of current dispute. Here we give a theoretical account of the metallic property of LaNiO3 and insulating ground states of other Nickelates, using LCAO and static mean field calculation, followed by a dynamical mean field analysis.
Macroscopic and large scale phenomena coarse graining, mean field limits and ergodicity
Rademacher, Jens; Zagaris, Antonios
2016-01-01
This book is the offspring of a summer school school “Macroscopic and large scale phenomena: coarse graining, mean field limits and ergodicity”, which was held in 2012 at the University of Twente, the Netherlands. The focus lies on mathematically rigorous methods for multiscale problems of physical origins. Each of the four book chapters is based on a set of lectures delivered at the school, yet all authors have expanded and refined their contributions. Francois Golse delivers a chapter on the dynamics of large particle systems in the mean field limit and surveys the most significant tools and methods to establish such limits with mathematical rigor. Golse discusses in depth a variety of examples, including Vlasov--Poisson and Vlasov--Maxwell systems. Lucia Scardia focuses on the rigorous derivation of macroscopic models using $\\Gamma$-convergence, a more recent variational method, which has proved very powerful for problems in material science. Scardia illustrates this by various basic examples and a mor...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XueJianjun; YouXiaohu
1997-01-01
Channel equalization is essential in the Pan-European GSM mobile communication system.The maximum likelihood sequence estimation(MLSE) using the Viterbi algorithm(VA)iscommonly recommended for the dqualization,which can only accommodate the channels with limited time delay spread.In[1],we presented a mean field annealing(MFA)partially connected neural equalizer for the GSM system,in which the complexity is linearly proportional to the time delay spread and therefore relatively fast convergence speed is achieved.But the annealing coefficient of the MFA equalizer is fixed,which is not flexible in timing-varying circumstance such as mobile communications.To decrease the computation of MFA approach so as to make it more easy for practical use,the MFA approach is reated as a homotopy problem.The ordinary equations which the MFA approach should obey are derived.These equations can be used to reflect the deviation of the iteration result from the track of MFA approach.Based on this tesult,an adaptive annealing control algorithm is proposed,which can dynamically control the annealing coefficient according to the iteration deviation.Computer simulations show that our approach can provide a much higher convergence speed and performance improvement over 16-state and 32-state VA's which are usually suggested for practical applications.
A systematic study of Zr and Sn isotopes in the Relativistic Mean Field theory
Geng, L. S.; Toki, H.; Meng, J.
2003-01-01
The ground-state properties of Zr and Sn isotopes are studied within the relativistic mean field theory. Zr and Sn isotopes have received tremendous attention due to various reasons, including the predicted giant halos in the neutron-rich Zr isotopes, the unique feature of being robustly spherical in the region of $^{100}$Sn $\\sim$ $^{132}$Sn and the particular interest of Sn isotopes to nuclear astrophysics. Furthermore, four (semi-) magic neutron numbers, 40, 50, 82 and 126, make these two ...
Inverse Magnetic Catalysis in Nambu--Jona-Lasinio Model beyond Mean Field
Mao, Shijun
2016-01-01
We study inverse magnetic catalysis in the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model beyond mean field approximation. The feed-down from mesons to quarks is embedded in an effective coupling constant at finite temperature and magnetic field. While the magnetic catalysis is still the dominant effect at low temperature, the meson dressed quark mass drops down with increasing magnetic field at high temperature due to the dimension reduction of the Goldstone mode in the Pauli-Villars regularization scheme.
Level statistics of the spherical mean-field plus pairing model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The level statistics of the spherical mean-field plus pairing model is investigated based on the exact solutions obtained from the extended Heine-Stieltjes correspondence. It is shown that the level statistics for 49Ca and 50Ca calculated from the model with single-particle energies and a pairing strength extracted from experimental data indeed exhibits a chaotic behavior within the phase transitional region, while most isotopes display regular spectra. (authors)
Mean field propagation of Wigner measures and BBGKY hierarchies for general bosonic states
AMMARI, Zied; Nier, Francis
2011-01-01
International audience Contrary to the finite dimensional case, Weyl and Wick quantizations are no more asymptotically equivalent in the infinite dimensional bosonic second quantization. Moreover neither the Weyl calculus defined for cylindrical symbols nor the Wick calculus defined for polynomials are preserved by the action of a nonlinear flow. Nevertheless taking advantage carefully of the information brought by these two calculuses in the mean field asymptotics, the propagation of Wign...
AMMARI, Zied; Nier, Francis
2015-01-01
49 pages International audience We consider the quantum dynamics of many bosons systems in the mean field limit with a singular pair-interaction potential, including the attractive or repulsive Coulombic case in three dimensions. By using a measure transportation technique, we show that Wigner measures propagate along the nonlinear Hartree flow. Such property was previously proved only for bounded potentials in our previous works with a slightly different strategy.
Ammari, Zied
2011-01-01
We consider the quantum dynamics of many bosons systems in the mean field limit with a singular pair-interaction potential, including the attractive or repulsive Coulombic case in three dimensions. By using a measure transportation technique, we show that Wigner measures propagate along the nonlinear Hartree flow. Such property was previously proved only for bounded potentials in our previous works with a slightly different strategy.
Thermal properties of a rotating nucleus in a fluctuating mean field approach
B K Agrawal; Ansari, A
1993-01-01
The static path approximation to the path integral representation of partition function provides a natural microscopic basis to deal with thermal fluctuations around mean field configurations. Using this approach for one-dimensional cranking Hamiltonian with quadrupole- quadrupole interaction term we have studied a few properties like energy, level density, level density parameter($a$) and moment of inertia as a function of temperature and spin for $^{64}Zn$ taking it as an illustrative examp...
Gaussian and Mean Field Approximations for Reduced Yang-Mills Integrals
Oda, Satsuki; Sugino, Fumihiko
2000-01-01
In this paper, we consider bosonic reduced Yang-Mills integrals by using some approximation schemes, which are a kind of mean field approximation called Gaussian approximation and its improved version. We calculate the free energy and the expectation values of various operators including Polyakov loop and Wilson loop. Our results nicely match to the exact and the numerical results obtained before. Quite good scaling behaviors of the Polyakov loop and of the Wilson loop can be seen under the '...
New mean field theories for the liquid-vapor transition of charged hard spheres
Caillol, J. -M.
2004-01-01
The phase behavior of the primitive model of electrolytes is studied in the framework of various mean field approximations obtained recently by means of methods pertaining to statistical field theory (CAILLOL, J.-M., 2004, \\textit{J. Stat. Phys.}, \\textbf{115}, 1461). The role of the regularization of the Coulomb potential at short distances is discussed in details and the link with more traditional approximations of the theory of liquids is discussed. The values computed for the critical tem...
Analytically solvable nuclear mean-field potential for stable and exotic nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slater determinants built from the single-particle wave functions of the analytically solvable Ginocchio potential are used to approximate the self-consistent Hartree-Fock solutions for the ground states of nuclei. The results indicate that the Ginocchio potential provides a good parametrization of the nuclear mean field for a wide range of nuclei, including those at the limit of particle stability. (author)
Mean-Field Calculations for the Three-Dimensional Holstein Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
罗强; 刘川
2002-01-01
The electron-phonon Holstein model is studied in three spatial dimensions. It is argued that this model can be used to account for major features of the high-To BaPb1-xBixO3 and BaxK1-xBiO3 systems. Mean-field calculations are performed via a path integral representation of the model. Charge-density-wave order parameters and transition temperatures are obtained.
Strange quark matter in a chiral SU(3) quark mean field model
Wang, P.; Lyubovitskij, V. E.; Gutsche, Th.; Faessler, Amand
2002-01-01
We apply the chiral SU(3) quark mean field model to investigate strange quark matter. The stability of strange quark matter with different strangeness fraction is studied. The interaction between quarks and vector mesons destabilizes the strange quark matter. If the strength of the vector coupling is the same as in hadronic matter, strangelets can not be formed. For the case of beta equilibrium, there is no strange quark matter which can be stable against hadron emission even without vector m...
Inverse magnetic catalysis in Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model beyond mean field
Mao, Shijun
2016-07-01
We study inverse magnetic catalysis in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model beyond mean field approximation. The feed-down from mesons to quarks is embedded in an effective coupling constant at finite temperature and magnetic field. While the magnetic catalysis is still the dominant effect at low temperature, the meson dressed quark mass drops down with increasing magnetic field at high temperature due to the dimension reduction of the Goldstone mode in the Pauli-Villars regularization scheme.
Strong-coupling solution of the bosonic dynamical mean-field theory
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kauch, Anna; Byczuk, K.; Vollhardt, D.
2012-01-01
Roč. 85, č. 20 (2012), "205115-1"-"205115-7". ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : strongly correlated bosons * dynamical mean-field theory * linked-cluster expansion * optical lattices * Mott insulators * superfluid Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 3.767, year: 2012 http://prb.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v85/i20/e205115
The D-D¯ mesons matter in Walecka's mean field theory
de Farias Freire, M. L.; Rodrigues da Silva, R.
2010-11-01
We study the D-D¯ mesons matter in the framework of σ and ω meson exchange model using Walecka's mean field theory. We choose the equal number of D and anti-D meson then we get = 0 and the field exhibits a critical temperature around 1.2 GeV. We investigate effective mass and pressure. We conclude that this matter is a gas and these results are not favorable for the existence of D-D¯ bound state.
Parameter Evaluation of a Simple Mean-Field Model of Social Interaction
Gallo, Ignacio; Barra, Adriano; Contucci, Pierluigi
2008-01-01
The aim of this work is to implement a statistical mechanics theory of social interaction, generalizing econometric discrete choice models. A class of simple mean field discrete models is introduced and discussed both from the theoretical and phenomenological point of view. We propose a parameter evaluation procedure and test it by fitting our model against three families of data coming from different cases: the estimated interaction parameters are found to have similar positive values establ...
Time-odd mean fields in the rotating frame: microscopic nature of nuclear magnetism
Afanasjev, A. V.; Ring, P.
2000-01-01
The microscopic role of nuclear magnetism in rotating frame is investigated for the first time in the framework of the cranked relativistic mean field theory. It is shown that nuclear magnetism modifies the expectation values of single-particle spin, orbital and total angular momenta along the rotational axis effectively creating additional angular momentum. This effect leads to the increase of kinematic and dynamic moments of inertia at given rotational frequency and has an impact on effecti...
Time-odd mean fields in covariant density functional theory: Rotating systems
Afanasjev, A. V.; Abusara, H.
2010-01-01
Time-odd mean fields (nuclear magnetism) and their impact on physical observables in rotating nuclei are studied in the framework of covariant density functional theory (CDFT). It is shown that they have profound effect on the dynamic and kinematic moments of inertia. Particle number, configuration and rotational frequency dependences of their impact on the moments of inertia have been analysed in a systematic way. Nuclear magnetism can also considerably modify the band crossing features such...
Mean Field Theory of Sandpile Avalanches: from the Intermittent to the Continuous Flow Regime
Benza, V. G.; Nori, Franco; Pla, Oscar
1993-01-01
We model the dynamics of avalanches in granular assemblies in partly filled rotating cylinders using a mean-field approach. We show that, upon varying the cylinder angular velocity $\\omega$, the system undergoes a hysteresis cycle between an intermittent and a continuous flow regimes. In the intermittent flow regime, and approaching the transition, the avalanche duration exhibits critical slowing down with a temporal power-law divergence. Upon adding a white noise term, and close to the trans...
Sun, Bao-Xi; Lu, Xiao-Fu; Shen, Peng-Nian; Zhao, En-Guang
2002-01-01
The Debye screening masses of the $\\sigma$, $\\omega$ and neutral $\\rho$ mesons and the photon are calculated in the relativistic mean-field approximation. As the density of the nucleon increases, all the screening masses of mesons increase. It shows a different result with Brown-Rho scaling, which implies a reduction in the mass of all the mesons in the nuclear matter except the pion. Replacing the masses of the mesons with their corresponding screening masses in Walecka-1 model, five saturat...
Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Ring, P.
2006-01-01
We report the first study of restoration of rotational symmetry and fluctuations of the quadrupole deformation in the framework of relativistic mean-field models. A model is developed which uses the generator coordinate method to perform configuration mixing calculations of angular momentum projected wave functions, calculated in a relativistic point-coupling model. The geometry is restricted to axially symmetric shapes, and the intrinsic wave functions are generated from the solutions of the...
Spinodal Instabilities in Nuclear Matter in a Stochastic Relativistic Mean-Field Approach
Ayik, S.; Yilmaz, O.; Er, N.; Gokalp, A.; Ring, P.
2009-01-01
Spinodal instabilities and early growth of baryon density fluctuations in symmetric nuclear matter are investigated in the basis of stochastic extension of relativistic mean-field approach in the semi-classical approximation. Calculations are compared with the results of non-relativistic calculations based on Skyrme-type effective interactions under similar conditions. A qualitative difference appears in the unstable response of the system: the system exhibits most unstable behavior at higher...
Isospin dependence of incompressibility in relativistic and non-relativistic mean field calculations
Sagawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Zeng, Guo-Mo; Gu, Jian-Zhong; Zhang, Xi-Zhen
2007-01-01
The isospin dependence of incompressibility is investigated in the Skyrme Hartree-Fock (SHF) and relativistic mean field (RMF) models. The correlations between the nuclear matter incompressibility and the isospin dependent term of the finite nucleus incompressibility is elucidated by using the Thomas-Fermi approximation. The Coulomb term is also studied by using various different Skyrme Hamiltonians and RMF Lagrangians. The symmetry energy coefficient of incompressibility is extracted to be K...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Sadeghi
2007-03-01
Full Text Available Using both mean field renormalization group (MFRG and Surface-Bulk MFRG (SBMFRG, we study the critical behavior of the classical Heisenberg and XY models on a simple cubic lattice. Critical temperatures as well as critical exponents, characteristic the universality classes of these two models were calculated, analytically for1, 2, 3 and 4 spin clusters. The results are in good agreement with higher accurate methods such as Monte Carlo and High- temperature series.
Existence for stationary mean-field games with congestion and quadratic Hamiltonians
Gomes, Diogo A.
2015-09-03
Here, we investigate the existence of solutions to a stationary mean-field game model introduced by J.-M. Lasry and P.-L. Lions. This model features a quadratic Hamiltonian and congestion effects. The fundamental difficulty of potential singular behavior is caused by congestion. Thanks to a new class of a priori bounds, combined with the continuation method, we prove the existence of smooth solutions in arbitrary dimensions. © 2015 Springer Basel
Dynamics of the 12C-12C system in the static molecular mean field approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The interaction between two 12C ions at low energy is investigated in the mean field (Hartree-Fock) approximation. The authors assume adiabaticity for the molecular motion and calculate the interaction energy by the constrained Hartree-Fock method, using the inderdistance d separating the two ions as the constrained quantity. This energy is calculated by using the Skyrme SIII force, without spin-orbit. (orig./AH)
Mean Field Calculation of Thermal Properties of Simple Nucleon Matter on a Lattice
Abe, T.; Seki, R.; Kocharian, A. N.
2003-01-01
Thermal properties of single species nucleon matter are investigated assuming a simple form of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The nucleons are placed on a cubic lattice, hopping from site to site and interacting through a spin-dependent force, as in the extended, attractive Hubbard model. A mean field calculation in the Hartree-Fock Bogoliubov approximation suggests that the superfluid ground state generated by strong nucleon pairing undergoes a second-order phase transition to a normal sta...
Mean field description of the ground state of many boson systems relevant to nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the present paper we give the explicit expressions for the ground state of a many boson system in different mean field approximations, such as Hartree-Bose, Bogoliubov, the particle-hole random phase approximation (RPA), and its coupling with the particle-particle (RPA). The ground states obtained satisfy the requirement that the annihilation operators of the ''elementary excitations'' annihilates them. In all cases the ground state wave functions can be understood as a condensate of pairs of bosons
Mean field dynamics of superfluid-insulator phase transition in a gas of ultra cold atoms
Zakrzewski, Jakub
2004-01-01
A large scale dynamical simulation of the superfluid to Mott insulator transition in the gas of ultra cold atoms placed in an optical lattice is performed using the time dependent Gutzwiller mean field approach. This approximate treatment allows us to take into account most of the details of the recent experiment [Nature 415, 39 (2002)] where by changing the depth of the lattice potential an adiabatic transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator state has been reported. Our simulations re...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the kaon production at finite temperature and baryon density by means of an effective relativistic mean-field model with the inclusion of the full octet of baryons. Kaons are considered taking into account of an effective chemical potential depending on the self-consistent interaction between baryons. The obtained results are compared with a minimal coupling scheme, calculated for different values of the anti-kaon optical potential.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bennett, L.H.; McMichael, R.D.; Swartzendruber, L.J.; Shull, R.D. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA)); Watson, R.E. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))
1991-01-01
The magnetic entropy change of a ferromagnet induced by an application of a magnetic field is greatest in the temperature region near the Curie point, and the magnitude of the effect is expected to rise monotonically with the size of individual moments which make up the material. We explore the case of nanocomposite materials with ferromagnetically interacting clusters having large cluster magnetic moments as a function of cluster size. As cluster size increases, both Monte Carlo and mean field calculations show a decrease in the entropy change at {Tc} for a given applied field and constant total magnetic moment, and an increase in the entropy change well over {Tc}. In addition, for the first time, we present a comparison of the results of mean field and Monte Carlo calculations of the magnetocaloric effect in classical Heisenberg ferromagnets. Previous calculations of the magnetocaloric effect have taken the mean field approach, which is known to underestimate the spontaneous magnetization below {Tc}. These issues are relevant to devices employing magnetic refrigeration. 11 refs., 2 figs.
Antimagnetic rotation in 108,110In with tilted axis cranking relativistic mean-field approach
Sun, Wu-Ji; Xu, Hai-Dan; Li, Jian; Liu, Yong-Hao; Ma, Ke-Yan; Yang, Dong; Lu, Jing-Bing; Ma, Ying-Jun
2016-08-01
Based on tilted axis cranking relativistic mean-field theory within point-coupling interaction PC-PK1, the rotational structure and the characteristic features of antimagnetic rotation for ΔI = 2 bands in 108,110In are studied. Tilted axis cranking relativistic mean-field calculations reproduce the experimental energy spectrum well and are in agreement with the experimental I ∼ ω plot, although the calculated spin overestimates the experimental values. In addition, the two-shears-like mechanism in candidate antimagnetic rotation bands is clearly illustrated and the contributions from two-shears-like orbits, neutron (gd) orbits above Z = 50 shell and Z = 50, N = 50 core are investigated microscopically. The predicted B(E2), dynamic moment of inertia ℑ(2), deformation parameters β and γ, and ℑ(2)/B(E2) ratios in tilted axis cranking relativistic mean-field calculations are discussed and the characteristic features of antimagnetic rotation for the bands before and after alignment are shown. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11205068, 11205069, 11405072, 11475072, 11547308) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2012M520667)
Mean-Field Approximation to the Hydrophobic Hydration in the Liquid-Vapor Interface of Water.
Abe, Kiharu; Sumi, Tomonari; Koga, Kenichiro
2016-03-01
A mean-field approximation to the solvation of nonpolar solutes in the liquid-vapor interface of aqueous solutions is proposed. It is first remarked with a numerical illustration that the solvation of a methane-like solute in bulk liquid water is accurately described by the mean-field theory of liquids, the main idea of which is that the probability (Pcav) of finding a cavity in the solvent that can accommodate the solute molecule and the attractive interaction energy (uatt) that the solute would feel if it is inserted in such a cavity are both functions of the solvent density alone. It is then assumed that the basic idea is still valid in the liquid-vapor interface, but Pcav and uatt are separately functions of different coarse-grained local densities, not functions of a common local density. Validity of the assumptions is confirmed for the solvation of the methane-like particle in the interface of model water at temperatures between 253 and 613 K. With the mean-field approximation extended to the inhomogeneous system the local solubility profiles across the interface at various temperatures are calculated from Pcav and uatt obtained at a single temperature. The predicted profiles are in excellent agreement with those obtained by the direct calculation of the excess chemical potential over an interfacial region where the solvent local density varies most rapidly. PMID:26595441
Self-consistent chaotic transport in a high-dimensional mean-field Hamiltonian map model
Martínez-del-Río, D; Olvera, A; Calleja, R
2016-01-01
Self-consistent chaotic transport is studied in a Hamiltonian mean-field model. The model provides a simplified description of transport in marginally stable systems including vorticity mixing in strong shear flows and electron dynamics in plasmas. Self-consistency is incorporated through a mean-field that couples all the degrees-of-freedom. The model is formulated as a large set of $N$ coupled standard-like area-preserving twist maps in which the amplitude and phase of the perturbation, rather than being constant like in the standard map, are dynamical variables. Of particular interest is the study of the impact of periodic orbits on the chaotic transport and coherent structures. Numerical simulations show that self-consistency leads to the formation of a coherent macro-particle trapped around the elliptic fixed point of the system that appears together with an asymptotic periodic behavior of the mean field. To model this asymptotic state, we introduced a non-autonomous map that allows a detailed study of th...
Application of a multisite mean-field theory to the disordered Bose-Hubbard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a multisite formulation of mean-field theory applied to the disordered Bose-Hubbard model. In this approach the lattice is partitioned into clusters, each isolated cluster being treated exactly, with intercluster hopping being treated approximately. The theory allows for the possibility of a different superfluid order parameter at every site in the lattice, such as what has been used in previously published site-decoupled mean-field theories, but a multisite formulation also allows for the inclusion of spatial correlations allowing us, e.g., to calculate the correlation length (over the length scale of each cluster). We present our numerical results for a two-dimensional system. This theory is shown to produce a phase diagram in which the stability of the Mott-insulator phase is larger than that predicted by site-decoupled single-site mean-field theory. Two different methods are given for the identification of the Bose-glass-to-superfluid transition, one an approximation based on the behavior of the condensate fraction, and one that relies on obtaining the spatial variation of the order parameter correlation. The relation of our results to a recent proposal that both transitions are non-self-averaging is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The ground-state properties of the nucleus 100Sn have been studied by the non-relativistic mean-field approach with Skyrme interactions, the relativistic mean-field approach with the Hartree approximation and the density-dependent relativistic mean-field approach. We compare and discuss the numerical results of average binding energies, and matter root-mean-square radii of proton and neutron distributions. It is shown that the non-relativistic, relativistic and density-dependent relativistic mean-field theories can be successfully applied to the nucleus near the proton drip line. (author)
Real space Renormalization Group analysis of a non-mean field spin-glass
Castellana, Michele
2011-01-01
A real space Renormalization Group approach is presented for a non-mean field spin-glass. This approach has been conceived in the effort to develop an alternative method to the Renormalization Group approaches based on the replica method. Indeed, non-perturbative effects in the latter are quite generally out of control, in such a way that these approaches are non-predictive. On the contrary, we show that the real space method developed in this work yields precise predictions for the critical ...
Magnetic material in mean-field dynamos driven by small scale helical flows
Giesecke, A.; Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.
2014-07-01
We perform kinematic simulations of dynamo action driven by a helical small scale flow of a conducting fluid in order to deduce mean-field properties of the combined induction action of small scale eddies. We examine two different flow patterns in the style of the G O Roberts flow but with a mean vertical component and with internal fixtures that are modelled by regions with vanishing flow. These fixtures represent either rods that lie in the center of individual eddies, or internal dividing walls that provide a separation of the eddies from each other. The fixtures can be made of magnetic material with a relative permeability larger than one which can alter the dynamo behavior. The investigations are motivated by the widely unknown induction effects of the forced helical flow that is used in the core of liquid sodium cooled fast reactors, and from the key role of soft iron impellers in the von-Kármán-sodium dynamo. For both examined flow configurations the consideration of magnetic material within the fluid flow causes a reduction of the critical magnetic Reynolds number of up to 25%. The development of the growth-rate in the limit of the largest achievable permeabilities suggests no further significant reduction for even larger values of the permeability. In order to study the dynamo behavior of systems that consist of tens of thousands of helical cells we resort to the mean-field dynamo theory (Krause and Rädler 1980 Mean-field Magnetohydrodynamics and Dynamo Theory (Oxford: Pergamon)) in which the action of the small scale flow is parameterized in terms of an α- and β-effect. We compute the relevant elements of the α- and the β-tensor using the so called testfield method. We find a reasonable agreement between the fully resolved models and the corresponding mean-field models for wall or rod materials in the considered range 1\\leqslant {{\\mu }_{r}}\\leqslant 20. Our results may be used for the development of global large scale models with recirculation
Collective aspects of microscopic mean-field evolution along the fission path
Tanimura, Yusuke; Lacroix, Denis; Scamps, Guillaume
2016-01-01
We propose a new method to extract the collective masses and momenta associated with a given set of collective coordinates, along a dynamical microscopic mean-field evolution. We apply our method to the symmetric fission of 258Fm nucleus, and analyze the dynamical evolution of the system in the collective space. We compare, between the dynamical and the adiabatic paths, the force acting on the quadrupole degree of freedom, which is closely related to the relative distance between fragments. It is shown that dynamical effects beyond the adiabatic limit are important for formation and scission of the neck between emitted fragments.
Mean field propagation of Wigner measures and BBGKY hierarchies for general bosonic states
Ammari, Zied
2010-01-01
Contrary to the finite dimensional case, Weyl and Wick quantizations are no more asymptotically equivalent in the infinite dimensional bosonic second quantization. Moreover neither the Weyl calculus defined for cylindrical symbols nor the Wick calculus defined for polynomials are preserved by the action of a nonlinear flow. Nevertheless taking advantage carefully of the information brought by these two calculuses in the mean field asymptotics, the propagation of Wigner measures for general states can be proved, extending to the infinite dimensional case a standard result of semiclassical analysis.
Mean-field-game model for Botnet defense in Cyber-security
Kolokoltsov, Vassili; Bensoussan, Alain
2015-01-01
We initiate the analysis of the response of computer owners to various offers of defence systems against a cyber-hacker (for instance, a botnet attack), as a stochastic game of a large number of interacting agents. We introduce a simple mean-field game that models their behavior. It takes into account both the random process of the propagation of the infection (controlled by the botner herder) and the decision making process of customers. Its stationary version turns out to be exactly solvabl...
Transport in multilayered nanostructures the dynamical mean-field theory approach
Freericks, James K
2016-01-01
Over the last 25 years, dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) has emerged as one of the most powerful new developments in many-body physics. Written by one of the key researchers in the field, this book presents the first comprehensive treatment of this ever-developing topic. Transport in Mutlilayered Nanostructures is varied and modern in its scope, and: A series of over 50 problems help develop the skills to allow readers to reach the level of being able to contribute to research. This book is suitable for an advanced graduate course in DMFT, and for individualized study by graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and advanced researchers wishing to enter the field.
Shell evolution at N=20 in the constrained relativistic mean field approach
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
The shell evolution at N = 20, a disappearing neutron magic number observed experimentally in very neutron-rich nuclides, is investigated in the constrained relativistic mean field (RMF) theory. The trend of the shell closure observed experimentally towards the neutron drip-line can be reproduced. The predicted two-neutron separation energies, neutron shell gap energies and deformation parameters of ground states are shown as well. These results are compared with the recent Hartree-Fock-Bogliubov (HFB-14) model and the available experimental data. The perspective towards a better understanding of the shell evolution is discussed.
Strange baryons, nuclear dripline and shrinkage : A Relativistic Mean Field study
Bhowmick, Bipasha; Gangopadhyay, G; 10.1142/S0218301313500122
2013-01-01
Neutron and proton driplines of single-$\\Lambda$ and double-$\\Lambda$ hypernuclei, $\\Xi^{-}$ hypernuclei as well as normal nuclei are studied within a relativistic mean field approach using an extended form of the FSU Gold Lagrangian density. Hyperons are found to produce bound nuclei beyond the normal nuclear driplines. Radii are found to decrease in hypernuclei near the driplines, in line with observations in light $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei near the stability valley, The inclusion of a $\\Xi^{-}$ introduces a much larger change in radii than one or more $\\Lambda$'s.
Evading the sign problem in the mean-field approximation through Lefschetz-thimble path integral
Tanizaki, Yuya; Nishimura, Hiromichi; Kashiwa, Kouji
2015-05-01
The fermion sign problem appearing in the mean-field approximation is considered, and the systematic computational scheme of the free energy is devised by using the Lefschetz-thimble method. We show that the Lefschetz-thimble method respects the reflection symmetry, which makes physical quantities manifestly real at any order of approximations using complex saddle points. The formula is demonstrated through the Airy integral as an example, and its application to the Polyakov-loop effective model of dense QCD is discussed in detail.
Evading the sign problem in the mean-field approximation through Lefschetz-thimble path integral
Tanizaki, Yuya; Kashiwa, Kouji
2015-01-01
The fermion sign problem appearing in the mean-field approximation is considered, and the systematic computational scheme of the free energy is devised by using the Lefschetz-thimble method. We show that the Lefschetz-thimble method respects the reflection symmetry, which makes physical quantities manifestly real at any order of approximations using complex saddle points. The formula is demonstrated through the Airy integral as an example, and its application to the Polyakov-loop effective model of dense QCD is discussed in detail.
Sign-free stochastic mean-field approach to strongly correlated phases of ultracold fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a new projector quantum Monte-Carlo method to investigate the ground state of ultracold fermionic atoms modeled by a lattice Hamiltonian with on-site interaction. The many-body state is reconstructed from Slater determinants that randomly evolve in imaginary-time according to a stochastic mean-field motion. The dynamics prohibits the crossing of the exact nodal surface and no sign problem occurs in the Monte-Carlo estimate of observables. The method is applied to calculate ground-state energies and correlation functions of the repulsive two-dimensional Hubbard model. Numerical results for the unitary Fermi gas validate simulations with nodal constraints. (author)
Mean-field approximation for a limit order driven market model.
Slanina, F
2001-11-01
A mean-field variant of the model of limit order driven market introduced recently by Maslov is formulated and solved. The agents do not have any strategies and the memory of the system is kept within the order book. We show that the evolution of the order book is governed by a matrix multiplicative process. The resulting stationary distribution of step-to-step price changes is calculated. It exhibits a power-law tail with exponent 2. We obtain also the price autocorrelation function, which agrees qualitatively with the experimentally observed negative autocorrelation for short times. PMID:11736043
Mean-field approximation for a limit order driven market model
Frantisek Slanina
2001-01-01
The mean-field variant of the model of limit order driven market introduced recently by Maslov is formulated and solved. The agents do not have any strategies and the memory of the system is kept within the order book. We show that he evolution of the order book is governed by a matrix multiplicative process. The resulting stationary distribution of step-to-step price changes is calculated. It exhibits a power-law tail with exponent 2. We obtain also the price autocorrelation function, which ...
Crossover from directed percolation to mean field behavior in the diffusive contact process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recently Dantas, Oliveira and Stilck (2007 J. Stat. Mech. P08009) studied how the one-dimensional diffusive contact process crosses over from the critical behavior of directed percolation to an effective mean field behavior when the diffusion rate is sent to infinity. They showed that this crossover can be described in terms of a crossover exponent φ, finding the boundaries 3≤φ≤4 in one spatial dimension. In the present work we refine and extend this result up to four spatial dimensions by means of a field-theoretic calculation and extensive numerical simulations
Systematic analysis of shape evolution for N=60 isotonic chain in relativistic mean-field model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The shape phase transition between spherical U(5) and axially SU(3) deformed nuclei is investigated systemically for N=60 isotonic chain by the constrained relativistic mean-field theory with the interactions NL3 and PK1. The values of bind energy and quadruple deformation β2 are calculated and a good agreement is obtained as compared with the experiments. By examining the potential energy curve and single particle spectra obtained with this microscopic approach, the possible critical point nuclei with the structure of shape phase transition are suggested to be 114Xe and 116Ba, which is favored by the experiments. (authors)
Mass dispersions in a time-dependent mean-field approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Characteristic functions for single-particle (s.p.) observables are evaluated by means of a time-dependent variational principle, which involves a state and an observable as conjugate variables. This provides a mean-field expression for fluctuations of s.p. observables, such as mass dispersions. The result differs from TDHF, it requires only the use of existing codes, and it presents attractive theoretical features. First numerical tests are encouraging. In particular, a calculation for 16O + 16O provides a significant increase of the predicted mass dispersion
A mean field game analysis of electric vehicles in the smart grid
Couillet, Romain; Medina Perlaza, Samir; Tembine, Hamidou; Debbah, Mérouane
2012-01-01
In this article, we develop a mean field game model for the economical analysis of the integration of purely electrical vehicles (EV) or electrical hybrid oil-electricity vehicles (PHEV) in the smart grid energy market. The framework we develop allows for a consistent analysis of the evolution of the price of electricity, of the timely demand, and possibly of the energy reserves in the grid, when EV or PHEV owners buy and sell electricity from their cars, selfishly but rationally, based on co...
Spinodal instabilities in nuclear matter in a stochastic relativistic mean-field approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spinodal instabilities and early growth of baryon density fluctuations in symmetric nuclear matter are investigated in the basis of the stochastic extension of the relativistic mean-field approach in the semiclassical approximation. Calculations are compared with the results of nonrelativistic calculations based on Skyrme-type effective interactions under similar conditions. A qualitative difference appears in the unstable response of the system: the system exhibits most unstable behavior at higher baryon densities around ρb=0.4ρ0 in the relativistic approach while most unstable behavior occurs at lower baryon densities around ρb=0.2ρ0 in the nonrelativistic calculations
Mean-field analysis of quantum annealing with XX-type terms
Nishimori, Hidetoshi
I analyze the role of XX-type terms in quantum annealing for a few mean-field systems including the Ising ferromagnet and the Hopfield model, both with many-body interactions. The XX-type terms are shown to be effective to remove first-order quantum phase transitions, which exist in the conventional implementation of quantum annealing using only transverse fields. This means an exponential increase in efficiency, and is suggestive for the design of quantum annealers. I will discuss how and why this phenomenon emerges and what may happen on realistic finite-dimensional lattices.
Beyond the relativistic mean-field approximation (III): collective Hamiltonian in five dimensions
Niksic, T; Vretenar, D; Prochniak, L; Meng, J; Ring, P
2008-01-01
The framework of relativistic energy density functionals is extended to include correlations related to restoration of broken symmetries and fluctuations of collective variables. A model is developed for the solution of the eigenvalue problem of a five-dimensional collective Hamiltonian for quadrupole vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom, with parameters determined by constrained self-consistent relativistic mean-field calculations for triaxial shapes. The model is tested in a series of illustrative calculations of potential energy surfaces and the resulting collective excitation spectra and transition probabilities of the chain of even-even gadolinium isotopes.
High-conductance states in a mean-field cortical network model
Lerchner, A; Hertz, J
2004-01-01
Measured responses from visual cortical neurons show that spike times tend to be correlated rather than exactly Poisson distributed. Fano factors vary and are usually greater than 1 due to the tendency of spikes being clustered into bursts. We show that this behavior emerges naturally in a balanced cortical network model with random connectivity and conductance-based synapses. We employ mean field theory with correctly colored noise to describe temporal correlations in the neuronal activity. Our results illuminate the connection between two independent experimental findings: high conductance states of cortical neurons in their natural environment, and variable non-Poissonian spike statistics with Fano factors greater than 1.
DIRHB -- a relativistic self-consistent mean-field framework for atomic nuclei
Niksic, T; Vretenar, D; Ring, P
2014-01-01
The DIRHB package consists of three Fortran computer codes for the calculation of the ground-state properties of even-even atomic nuclei using the framework of relativistic self-consistent mean-field models. Each code corresponds to a particular choice of spatial symmetry: the DIRHBS, DIRHBZ and DIRHBT codes are used to calculate nuclei with spherical symmetry, axially symmetric quadrupole deformation, and triaxial quadrupole shapes, respectively. Reflection symmetry is assumed in all three cases. The latest relativistic nuclear energy density functionals are implemented in the codes, thus enabling efficient and accurate calculations over the entire nuclide chart.
Investigations on Nuclei near Z- 82 in Relativistic Mean Field Theory with FSUGold
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
圣宗强; 任中洲
2012-01-01
In this work, the ground-state properties of Pt, Hg, Pb, and Po isotopes have been systematically investigated in the deformed relativistic mean field (RMF) theory with the new parameter set FSUGold. The calculated results show that FSUGold is as successful as NL3 in reproducing the ground-state binding energies of the nuclei in this region. The calculated two- neutron separation energies, quadrupole deformations, and root-mean-square charge radii are in agreement with the experimental data. The parameter set FSUGold can successfully describe the shell effect of the neutron magic number N = 126 and give smaller neutron skin thicknesses than NL3 for all the nuclei considered.
One-Proton Halo in 31Cl with Relativistic Mean-Field Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蔡翔舟; 沈文庆; 任中洲; 蒋维洲; 方德清; 张虎勇; 钟晨; 魏义彬; 郭威; 马余刚; 朱志远
2002-01-01
We investigate proton-rich isotopes s1,32Cl using the nonlinear relativistic mean-field model. It is shown that this model can reproduce the properties of these nuclei well. A long tail appears in the calculated proton density distribution of 31 Cl. The results of relativistic density-dependent Hartree theory show a similar trend of tail density distribution. It is strongly suggested that there is a proton halo in 31Cl and it is indicated that there may be a proton skin in 32 Cl. The relation between the proton halo in 31Cl and the new proton magic number is discussed.
Double occupancy in dynamical mean-field theory and the dual boson approach
van Loon, Erik G. C. P.; Krien, Friedrich; Hafermann, Hartmut; Stepanov, Evgeny A.; Lichtenstein, Alexander I.; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.
2016-04-01
We discuss the calculation of the double occupancy using dynamical mean-field theory in finite dimensions. The double occupancy can be determined from the susceptibility of the auxiliary impurity model or from the lattice susceptibility. The former method typically overestimates, whereas the latter underestimates the double occupancy. We illustrate this for the square-lattice Hubbard model. We propose an approach for which both methods lead to identical results by construction and which resolves this ambiguity. This self-consistent dual boson scheme results in a double occupancy that is numerically close to benchmarks available in the literature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, based on PCM, for the first time we use the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory, which is already shown to support the clustering effects in various heavy parents with observed cluster decays. For the present study, we have chosen the parents 222Ra, 226,228Th, 230,232,234U, 236,238Pu, and 242Cm which decay, respectively, in to 14C, 18,20O, 22,24,26Ne, 28,30Mg, and 34Si clusters, having always the doubly magic 208Pb as the daughter nucleus
Phase transitions in social sciences: two-populations mean field theory
Contucci, P; Menconi, G; Contucci, Pierluigi; Gallo, Ignacio; Menconi, Giulia
2007-01-01
A mean field statistical mechanics model of two interacting groups of spins is introduced and the phase transition studied in terms of their relative size. A jump of the average magnetization is found for large values of the mutual interaction when the relative percentage of the two populations crosses a critical threshold. It is shown how the critical percentage depends on internal interactions and on the initial magnetizations. The model is interpreted as a prototype of resident-immigrant cultural interaction and conclusions from the social sciences perspectives are drawn.
Ginzburg criterion for the mean-field to three-dimensional Ising crossover in polymer blends
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schwahn, D.; Schmackers, T.; Mortensen, K.
1995-01-01
Composition fluctuations within the mean-field and three-dimensional Ising range were measured in a homogeneous binary polymer blend by small angle neutron scattering as a function of temperature and pressure. The experimental data were analyzed in terms of the crossover function of Belyakov and...... Kiselev [Physica A 190, 75 (1992)]. It is shown that the reduced-crossover-temperature, the Ginzburg number Gi, decreases with pressure sensitively, in accordance with the prediction of Belyakov and Kiselev. On the other hand, de Gennes' crossover criterion for polymer blends predicts an increase of Gi...
A Bayesian mean field game approach to supply demand analysis of the smart grid
Kamgarpour, Maryam
2013-07-01
We explore a game theoretic framework for multiple energy producers competing in energy market. Each producer, referred to as a player, optimizes its own objective function given the demand utility. The equilibrium strategy of each player depends on the production cost, referred to as type, of the other players. We show that as the number of players increases, the mean of the types is sufficient for finding the equilibrium. For finite number of players, we design a mean field distributed learning algorithm that converges to equilibrium. We discuss extensions of our model to include several realistic aspects of the energy market. © 2013 IEEE.
Coexistence of nuclear shapes: self-consistent mean-field and beyond
Li, Zhipan; Vretenar, Dario
2015-01-01
A quantitative analysis of the evolution of nuclear shapes and shape phase transitions, including regions of short-lived nuclei that are becoming accessible in experiments at radioactive-beam facilities, necessitate accurate modeling of the underlying nucleonic dynamics. Important theoretical advances have recently been made in studies of complex shapes and the corresponding excitation spectra and electromagnetic decay patterns, especially in the "beyond mean-field" framework based on nuclear density functionals. Interesting applications include studies of shape evolution and coexistence in N = 28 isotones, the structure of lowest $0^+$ excitations in deformed N $\\approx$ 90 rare-earth nuclei, and quadrupole and octupole shape transitions in thorium isotopes.
Magnetic material in mean-field dynamos driven by small scale helical flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We perform kinematic simulations of dynamo action driven by a helical small scale flow of a conducting fluid in order to deduce mean-field properties of the combined induction action of small scale eddies. We examine two different flow patterns in the style of the G O Roberts flow but with a mean vertical component and with internal fixtures that are modelled by regions with vanishing flow. These fixtures represent either rods that lie in the center of individual eddies, or internal dividing walls that provide a separation of the eddies from each other. The fixtures can be made of magnetic material with a relative permeability larger than one which can alter the dynamo behavior. The investigations are motivated by the widely unknown induction effects of the forced helical flow that is used in the core of liquid sodium cooled fast reactors, and from the key role of soft iron impellers in the von-Kármán-sodium dynamo. For both examined flow configurations the consideration of magnetic material within the fluid flow causes a reduction of the critical magnetic Reynolds number of up to 25%. The development of the growth-rate in the limit of the largest achievable permeabilities suggests no further significant reduction for even larger values of the permeability. In order to study the dynamo behavior of systems that consist of tens of thousands of helical cells we resort to the mean-field dynamo theory (Krause and Rädler 1980 Mean-field Magnetohydrodynamics and Dynamo Theory (Oxford: Pergamon)) in which the action of the small scale flow is parameterized in terms of an α- and β-effect. We compute the relevant elements of the α- and the β-tensor using the so called testfield method. We find a reasonable agreement between the fully resolved models and the corresponding mean-field models for wall or rod materials in the considered range 1<=μr<=20. Our results may be used for the development of global large scale models with recirculation flow and realistic boundary
Systematic study of Bh isotopes in a relativistic mean field formalism
Mehta, M. S.; Raj, B. K.; Patra, S. K.; Gupta, Raj K.
2002-10-01
The binding energy, charge radius, and quadrupole deformation parameter for the isotopic chain of the superheavy element bohrium (107Bh), from proton to neutron drip line, are calculated by using an axially deformed relativistic mean field model. The potential energy surfaces for some of the selected nuclei are plotted and the various possible shapes are investigated. The rms radii, density distributions, and two-neutron separation energies are also evaluated and the single-particle energies for some illustrative cases are analyzed to see the magic structures. Furthermore, the α-decay rates are calculated and compared with the available experimental data for the recently observed new isotopes 266,267Bh.
Speed of sound in quark gluon plasma with one loop correction in mean field potential
Singh, S Somorendro
2015-01-01
We study thermodynamic properties and speed of sound in a free en- ergy evolution of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) with one loop correction factor in the mean-field potential. The values of the thermodynamic prop- erties like pressure, entropy and specific heat are calculated for a range of temperatures. The results agree with the recent lattice results. The speed of sound is found to be C2 s = 0.3 independent of parameters used in the loop correction which matches almost with lattice calculations.
Recovering the state sequence of hidden Markov models using mean-field approximations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inferring the sequence of states from observations is one of the most fundamental problems in hidden Markov models. In statistical physics language, this problem is equivalent to computing the marginals of a one-dimensional model with a random external field. While this task can be accomplished through transfer matrix methods, it becomes quickly intractable when the underlying state space is large. This paper develops several low complexity approximate algorithms to address this inference problem when the state space becomes large. The new algorithms are based on various mean-field approximations of the transfer matrix. Their performances are studied in detail on a simple realistic model for DNA pyrosequencing
High-conductance states in a mean-field cortical network model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lerchner, Alexander; Ahmadi, Mandana; Hertz, John
2004-01-01
Measured responses from visual cortical neurons show that spike times tend to be correlated rather than exactly Poisson distributed. Fano factors vary and are usually greater than 1, indicating a tendency toward spikes being clustered. We show that this behavior emerges naturally in a balanced...... cortical network model with random connectivity and conductance-based synapses. We employ mean-field theory with correctly colored noise to describe temporal correlations in the neuronal activity. Our results illuminate the connection between two independent experimental findings: high-conductance states...
Systematic study of Bh isotopes in a relativistic mean field formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The binding energy, charge radius, and quadrupole deformation parameter for the isotopic chain of the superheavy element bohrium (107Bh), from proton to neutron drip line, are calculated by using an axially deformed relativistic mean field model. The potential energy surfaces for some of the selected nuclei are plotted and the various possible shapes are investigated. The rms radii, density distributions, and two-neutron separation energies are also evaluated and the single-particle energies for some illustrative cases are analyzed to see the magic structures. Furthermore, the α-decay rates are calculated and compared with the available experimental data for the recently observed new isotopes 266,267Bh
One-pion exchange current corrections for nuclear magnetic moments in relativistic mean field theory
Li, Jian; Meng, J; Arima, A
2010-01-01
The one-pion exchange current corrections to isoscalar and isovector magnetic moments of double-closed shell nuclei plus and minus one nucleon with $A=15,17,39$ and 41 have been studied in the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory and compared with previous relativistic and non-relativistic results. It has been found that the one-pion exchange current gives a negligible contribution to the isoscalar magnetic moments but a significant correction to the isovector ones. However, the one-pion exchange current doesn't improve the description of nuclear isovector magnetic moments for the concerned nuclei.
Cassam-Chenaï, Patrick; Suo, Bingbing; Liu, Wenjian
2015-07-01
We introduce the electron-nucleus mean-field configuration-interaction (EN-MFCI) approach. It consists in building an effective Hamiltonian for the electrons taking into account a mean field due to the nuclear motion and, conversely, in building an effective Hamiltonian for the nuclear motion taking into account a mean field due to the electrons. The eigenvalue problems of these Hamiltonians are solved in basis sets giving partial eigensolutions for the active degrees of freedom (DOF's), that is to say, either for the electrons or for nuclear motion. The process can be iterated or electron and nuclear motion DOF's can be contracted in a CI calculation. In the EN-MFCI reduction of the molecular Schrödinger equation to an electronic and a nuclear problem, the electronic wave functions do not depend parametrically upon nuclear coordinates. So, it is different from traditional adiabatic methods. Furthermore, when contracting electronic and nuclear functions, a direct product basis set is built in contrast with methods which treat electrons and nuclei on the same footing, but where electron-nucleus explicitly correlated coordinates are used. Also, the EN-MFCI approach can make use of the partition of molecular DOF's into translational, rotational, and internal DOF's. As a result, there is no need to eliminate translations and rotations from the calculation, and the convergence of vibrational levels is facilitated by the use of appropriate internal coordinates. The method is illustrated on diatomic molecules.
Description of Drip-Line Nuclei within Relativistic Mean-Field Plus BCS Approach
Yadav, H L; Toki, H
2004-01-01
Recently it has been demonstrated, considering Ni and Ca isotopes as prototypes, that the relativistic mean-field plus BCS (RMF+BCS) approach wherein the single particle continuum corresponding to the RMF is replaced by a set of discrete positive energy states for the calculation of pairing energy provides a good approximation to the full relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) description of the ground state properties of the drip-line neutron rich nuclei. The applicability of RMF+BCS is essentially due to the fact that the main contribution to the pairing correlations is provided by the low-lying resonant states. General validity of this approach is demonstrated by the detailed calculations for the ground state properties of the chains of isotopes of O, Ca, Ni, Zr, Sn and Pb nuclei. The TMA and NL-SH force parameter sets have been used for the effective mean-field Lagrangian. Comprehensive results for the two neutron separation energy, rms radii, single particle pairing gaps and pairing energies etc. are pres...
Atomically flat superconducting nanofilms: multiband properties and mean-field theory
Shanenko, A. A.; Aguiar, J. Albino; Vagov, A.; Croitoru, M. D.; Milošević, M. V.
2015-05-01
Recent progress in materials synthesis enabled fabrication of superconducting atomically flat single-crystalline metallic nanofilms with thicknesses down to a few monolayers. Interest in such nano-thin systems is attracted by the dimensional 3D-2D crossover in their coherent properties which occurs with decreasing the film thickness. The first fundamental aspect of this crossover is dictated by the Mermin-Wagner-Hohenberg theorem and concerns frustration of the long-range order due to superconductive fluctuations and the possibility to track its impact with an unprecedented level of control. The second important aspect is related to the Fabri-Pérot modes of the electronic motion strongly bound in the direction perpendicular to the nanofilm. The formation of such modes results in a pronounced multiband structure that changes with the nanofilm thickness and affects both the mean-field behavior and superconductive fluctuations. Though the subject is very rich in physics, it is scarcely investigated to date. The main obstacle is that there are no manageable models to study a complex magnetic response in this case. Full microscopic consideration is rather time consuming, if practicable at all, while the standard Ginzburg-Landau theory is not applicable. In the present work we review the main achievements in the subject to date, and construct and justify an efficient multiband mean-field formalism which allows for numerical and even analytical treatment of nano-thin superconductors in applied magnetic fields.
Systematics of collective correlation energies from self-consistent mean-field calculations
Klüpfel, P; Maruhn, J A
2008-01-01
The collective ground-state correlations stemming from low-lying quadrupole excitations are computed microscopically. To that end, the self-consistent mean-field model is employed on the basis of the Skyrme-Hartre-Fock (SHF) functional augmented by BCS pairing. The microscopic-macroscopic mapping is achieved by quadrupole-constrained mean-field calculations which are processed further in the generator-coordinate method (GCM) at the level of the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA). We study the correlation effects on energy, charge radii, and surface thickness for a great variety of semi-magic nuclei. A key issue is to work out the influence of variations of the SHF functional. We find that collective ground-state correlations (GSC) are robust under change of nuclear bulk properties (e.g., effective mass, symmetry energy) or of spin-orbit coupling. Some dependence on the pairing strength is observed. This, however, does not change the general conclusion that collective GSC obey a general pattern and that thei...
$\\sigma$-SCF: A Direct Energy-targeting Method To Mean-field Excited States
Ye, Hong-Zhou; Ricke, Nathan D; Van Voorhis, Troy
2016-01-01
The mean-field solutions of electronic excited states are much less accessible than ground state (e.g.\\ Hartree-Fock) solutions. Energy-based optimization methods for excited states, like $\\Delta$-scf, tend to fall into the lowest solution consistent with a given symmetry -- a problem known as "variational collapse". In this work, we combine the ideas of direct energy-targeting and variance-based optimization in order to describe excited states at the mean-field level. The resulting method, $\\sigma$-scf, has several advantages. First, it allows one to target any desired excited state by specifying a single parameter: a guess of the energy of that state. It can therefore, in principle, find \\emph{all} excited states. Second, it avoids variational collapse by using a variance-based, unconstrained local minimization. As a consequence, all states -- ground or excited -- are treated on an equal footing. Third, it provides an alternate approach to locate $\\Delta$-scf solutions that are otherwise inaccessible by the...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The quadrupole deformation properties of the ground and low-lying excited states of the even-even magnesium isotopes with N ranging from 8 to 28 have been studied in the framework of the angular momentum projected generator coordinate method with the Gogny force. It is shown that the N=8 neutron magic number is preserved (in a dynamical sense) in 20Mg leading to a spherical ground state. For the magic numbers N=20 and N=28 this is not the case and prolate deformed ground states are obtained. The method yields values of the two neutron separation energies which are in much better agreement with experiment than those obtained at the mean field level. It is also obtained that 40Mg is at the neutron dripline. Concerning the results for the excitation energies of the 2+ excited states and their transition probabilities to the ground state we observe a good agreement with the available experimental data. On the theoretical side, we also present a detailed justification of the prescription used for the density dependent part of the interaction in our beyond-mean-field calculations
Effects of anisotropy of turbulent convection in mean-field solar dynamo models
Pipin, V V
2013-01-01
We study how anisotropy of turbulent convection affects diffusion of large-scale magnetic fields and the dynamo process on the Sun. The effect of anisotropy is calculated in a mean-field magneto-hydrodynamics framework using the minimal $\\tau$-approximation. We examine two types of mean-field dynamo models: the well-known benchmark flux-transport model, and a distributed-dynamo model with the subsurface rotational shear layer. For both models we investigate effects of the double-cell meridional circulation, recently suggested by helioseismology. We introduce a parameter of anisotropy as a ratio of the radial and horizontal intensity of turbulent mixing, to characterize the anisotropy effects. It is found that the anisotropy of turbulent convection affects the distribution of magnetic fields inside the convection zone. The concentration of the magnetic flux near the bottom and top boundaries of the convection zone is greater when the anisotropy is stronger. It is shown that the critical dynamo number and the d...
Mean-field Theory for Some Bus Transport Networks with Random Overlapping Clique Structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Transport networks, such as railway networks and airport networks, are a kind of random network with complex topology. Recently, more and more scholars paid attention to various kinds of transport networks and try to explore their inherent characteristics. Here we study the exponential properties of a recently introduced Bus Transport Networks (BTNs) evolution model with random overlapping clique structure, which gives a possible explanation for the observed exponential distribution of the connectivities of some BTNs of three major cities in China. Applying mean-field theory, we analyze the BTNs model and prove that this model has the character of exponential distribution of the connectivities, and develop a method to predict the growth dynamics of the individual vertices, and use this to calculate analytically the connectivity distribution and the exponents. By comparing mean-field based theoretic results with the statistical data of real BTNs, we observe that, as a whole, both of their data show similar character of exponential distribution of the connectivities, and their exponents have same order of magnitude, which show the availability of the analytical result of this paper. (general)
Investigation of some even-even Mo nuclei in relativistic mean field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The structures of the nuclei on isotope chain of even-even Mo are investigated in the axially deformed relativistic mean-field theory with the NL-SH forces. We put an emphasis on the ground state properties of molybdenum nuclei with high neutron number is correctly reproduced in the relativistic mean-field theory (RMF). In general, the RMF theory can give a good description of the isotope chain of Mo nuclei. To study the isotopes of Mo by using the RMF theory, we first sketch the microscopic approach in the framework of RMF theory, the nuclear interaction is usually described by the exchange of three mesons: the scalar meson σ, which supplies the medium-range attraction between the nucleons, the vector meson ωμ, which offers the short-range repulsion, and the isovector-vector meson ρ→μ, which provides the isospin dependence of the nuclear force. We calculated binding energies, deformations, rms charge and neutron radii of some even-even Mo nuclei. The results are good agreement with experimental data.
On a mean field game optimal control approach modeling fast exit scenarios in human crowds
Burger, Martin
2013-12-01
The understanding of fast exit and evacuation situations in crowd motion research has received a lot of scientific interest in the last decades. Security issues in larger facilities, like shopping malls, sports centers, or festivals necessitate a better understanding of the major driving forces in crowd dynamics. In this paper we present an optimal control approach modeling fast exit scenarios in pedestrian crowds. The model is formulated in the framework of mean field games and based on a parabolic optimal control problem. We consider the case of a large human crowd trying to exit a room as fast as possible. The motion of every pedestrian is determined by minimizing a cost functional, which depends on his/her position and velocity, the overall density of people, and the time to exit. This microscopic setup leads in a mean-field formulation to a nonlinear macroscopic optimal control problem, which raises challenging questions for the analysis and numerical simulations.We discuss different aspects of the mathematical modeling and illustrate them with various computational results. ©2013 IEEE.
From effective field theories to effective density functionals in and beyond the mean field
Grasso, M.; Lacroix, D.; van Kolck, U.
2016-06-01
Since the 1975 Nobel Prize in Physics, nuclear theory has evolved along two main directions. On the one hand, the energy–density functional (EDF) theory was established, which presently encompasses (by enlarging the EDF framework) all the mean-field and beyond-mean-field theories based on energy functionals produced by effective phenomenological interactions. Highly sophisticated structure and reaction models are currently available for the treatment of medium-mass and heavy nuclei. On the other hand, effective field theories (EFTs) have rendered possible the formulation of QCD as a low-energy hadronic theory. Ab initio methods have recently achieved remarkable success in the application of EFT or EFT-inspired potentials to structure analyses of light nuclei. Different but complementary competences have been developed during the past few decades in the EDF and EFT communities. Bridges and connections have in some cases been identified and constructed. We review here some of the developments that have been performed within the EDF theory and the EFT during recent years, with some emphasis on analogies and connections that may one day provide a unified picture of the two theories. Illustrations are given for infinite matter and finite nuclei.
Resonating Valence Bonds and Mean-Field d-Wave Superconductivity in Graphite
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Black-Schaffer, Annica M.
2010-04-27
We investigate the possibility of inducing superconductivity in a graphite layer by electronic correlation effects. We use a phenomenological microscopic Hamiltonian which includes nearest neighbor hopping and an interaction term which explicitly favors nearest neighbor spin-singlets through the well-known resonance valence bond (RVB) character of planar organic molecules. Treating this Hamiltonian in mean-field theory, allowing for bond-dependent variation of the RVB order parameter, we show that both s- and d-wave superconducting states are possible. The d-wave solution belongs to a two-dimensional representation and breaks time reversal symmetry. At zero doping there exists a quantum critical point at the dimensionless coupling J/t = 1.91 and the s- and d-wave solutions are degenerate for low temperatures. At finite doping the d-wave solution has a significantly higher T{sub c} than the s-wave solution. By using density functional theory we show that the doping induced from sulfur absorption on a graphite layer is enough to cause an electronically driven d-wave superconductivity at graphite-sulfur interfaces. We also discuss applying our results to the case of the intercalated graphites as well as the validity of a mean-field approach.
Hadron resonance gas and mean-field nuclear matter for baryon number fluctuations
Fukushima, Kenji
2014-01-01
We give an estimate for the skewness and the kurtosis of the baryon number distribution in two representative models; i.e., models for a hadron resonance gas and relativistic mean-field nuclear matter. We emphasize formal similarity between these two descriptions. The hadron resonance gas leads to a deviation from the Skellam distribution if quantum statistical correlation is taken into account at high baryon density, but this effect is not strong enough to explain fluctuation data seen in the beam-energy scan at RHIC/STAR. In the calculation of mean-field nuclear matter the density correlation with the vector \\omega-field rather than the effective mass with the scalar \\sigma-field renders the kurtosis suppressed at higher baryon density so as to account for the observed behavior of the kurtosis. We finally discuss the difference between the baryon number and the proton number fluctuations from correlation effects in isospin space. Our numerical results suggest that such effects are only minor even in the cas...
Shell structure of superheavy nuclei in self-consistent mean-field models
Bender, M; Reinhard, P G; Maruhn, J A; Greiner, W
1999-01-01
We study the extrapolation of nuclear shell structure to the region of superheavy nuclei in self-consistent mean-field models -- the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock approach and the relativistic mean-field model -- using a large number of parameterizations. Results obtained with the Folded-Yukawa potential are shown for comparison. We focus on differences in the isospin dependence of the spin-orbit interaction and the effective mass between the models and their influence on single-particle spectra. While all relativistic models give a reasonable description of spin-orbit splittings, all non-relativistic models show a wrong trend with mass number. The spin-orbit splitting of heavy nuclei might be overestimated by 40%-80%. Spherical doubly-magic superheavy nuclei are found at (Z=114,N=184), (Z=120,N=172) or (Z=126,N=184) depending on the parameterization. The Z=114 proton shell closure, which is related to a large spin-orbit splitting of proton 2f states, is predicted only by forces which by far overestimate the proton spi...
Characteristic Feature of Self-Consistent Mean-Field in Level Crossing Region
Guo, L; Zhao, E G; Guo, Lu; Sakata, Fumihiko; Zhao, En-Guang
2004-01-01
A shape change of the self-consistent mean-field induced by a configuration change is discussed within the conventional constrained Hartree-Fock (CHF) theory. It is stressed that a single-particle level crossing dynamics should be treated carefully, because the shape of the mean-field in such a finite many-body system as the nucleus strongly changes depending on its configuration. This situation is clearly shown by applying an adiabatic assumption, where the most energetically favorable single-particle states are assumed to be occupied. The excited HF states and the continuously-connected potential energy curves are given by applying the configuration dictated CHF method. The effect of pairing correlation is discussed in the level crossing region. Triaxial deformed results in our Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) calculation with Gogny force nicely reproduce the available experimental data of Ge isotopes. From our numerical calculation, it is concluded that the CHFB state is more fragile than the CHF state in the...
Engl, Thomas; Richter, Klaus
2015-01-01
We consider the many-body spectra of interacting bosonic quantum fields on a lattice in the semiclassical limit of large particle number $N$. We show that the many-body density of states can be expressed as a coherent sum over oscillating long-wavelength contributions given by periodic, non-perturbative solutions of the, typically non-linear, wave equation of the classical (mean-field) limit. To this end we construct the semiclassical approximation for both the smooth and oscillatory part of the many-body density of states in terms of a trace formula starting from the exact path integral form of the propagator between many-body quadrature states. We therefore avoid the use of a complexified classical limit characteristic of the coherent state representation. While quantum effects like vacuum fluctuations and gauge invariance are exactly accounted for, our semiclassical approach captures quantum interference and therefore is valid well beyond the Ehrenfest time where naive quantum-classical correspondence brea...
A Mean Field Model With Two Order Parameters for Three-Phase Coexistence Near the Tricritical Point
SALİHOĞLU, S.
1998-01-01
This study gives a mean field model with two order parameters for three-phase coexistence near the multicritical point. The critical exponents calculated from our model are the tricritical exponents for the order parameters, susceptibility and the specific heat. Hence, our mean field model describes adequately the tricritical behaviour of a system in the region of three-phase coexistence.
Chiral-particle Approach to Hadrons in an Extended Chiral ($\\sigma,\\pi,\\omega$) Mean-Field Model
Uechi, Schun T
2010-01-01
The chiral nonlinear ($\\sigma,\\pi,\\omega$) mean-field model is an extension of the conserving nonlinear (nonchiral) $\\sigma$-$\\omega$ hadronic mean-field model which is thermodynamically consistent, relativistic and Lorentz-covariant mean-field theory of hadrons. In the extended chiral ($\\sigma,\\pi,\\omega$) mean-field model, all the masses of hadrons are produced by chiral symmetry breaking mechanism, which is different from other conventional chiral partner models. By comparing both nonchiral and chiral mean-field approximations, the effects of chiral symmetry breaking to the mass of $\\sigma$-meson, coefficients of nonlinear interactions, coupling ratios of hyperons to nucleons and Fermi-liquid properties are investigated in nuclear matter, hyperonic matter, and neutron stars.
Shell structure of superheavy nuclei in self-consistent mean-field models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the extrapolation of nuclear shell structure to the region of superheavy nuclei in self-consistent mean-field models the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock approach and the relativistic mean-field model using a large number of parametrizations which give similar results for stable nuclei but differ in detail. Results obtained with the folded-Yukawa potential which is widely used in macroscopic-macroscopic models are shown for comparison. We focus on differences in the isospin dependence of the spin-orbit interaction and the effective mass between the models and their influence on single-particle spectra. The predictive power of the mean-field models concerning single-particle spectra is discussed for the examples of 208Pb and the spin-orbit splittings of selected neutron and proton levels in 16O, 132Sn, and 208Pb. While all relativistic models give a reasonable description of spin-orbit splittings, all Skyrme interactions show a wrong trend with mass number. The spin-orbit splitting of heavy nuclei might be overestimated by 40%- 80%, which exposes a fundamental deficiency of the current nonrelativistic models. In most cases the occurrence of spherical shell closures is found to be nucleon-number dependent. Spherical doubly magic superheavy nuclei are found at 184298114, 172292120, or 184310126 depending on the parametrization. The Z=114 proton shell closure, which is related to a large spin-orbit splitting of proton 2f states, is predicted only by forces which by far overestimate the proton spin-orbit splitting in 208Pb. The Z=120 and N=172 shell closures predicted by the relativistic models and some Skyrme interactions are found to be related to a central depression of the nuclear density distribution. This effect cannot appear in macroscopic-microscopic models or semiclassical approaches like the extended Thomas-Fermi-Strutinski integral approach which have a limited freedom for the density distribution only. In summary, our findings give a strong argument for
Caloric curve for nuclear liquid-gas phase transition in relativistic mean-field hadronic model
Parvan, A S
2011-01-01
The main thermodynamical properties of the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition were explored in the framework of the relativistic mean-field hadronic model in three statistical ensembles: canonical, grand canonical and isobaric. We have found that the liquid-gas phase transition, i.e., the first order phase transition which is defined by the plateau in the isotherms, cannot contain the plateau in the caloric curves in the canonical and microcanonical ensembles. The plateau in the isotherms is incompatible with the plateau in the caloric curves at fixed baryon density. Moreover, for the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition the caloric curve has a plateau only at fixed pressure or chemical potential. The results of the statistical multifragmentation models for the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition were reanalyzed. It was revealed that one class of statistical multifragmentation models do indeed predict the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition for the nuclear multifragmentation. However, there is another class o...
Beyond-mean-field boson-fermion model for odd-mass nuclei
Nomura, K.; Nikšić, T.; Vretenar, D.
2016-05-01
A novel method for calculating spectroscopic properties of medium-mass and heavy atomic nuclei with an odd number of nucleons is introduced, based on the framework of nuclear energy density functional theory and the particle-core coupling scheme. The deformation energy surface of the even-even core, as well as the spherical single-particle energies and occupation probabilities of the odd particle(s), are obtained in a self-consistent mean-field calculation determined by the choice of the energy density functional and pairing interaction. This method uniquely determines the parameters of the Hamiltonian of the boson core, and only the strength of the particle-core coupling is specifically adjusted to selected data for a particular nucleus. The approach is illustrated in a systematic study of low-energy excitation spectra and transition rates of axially deformed odd-mass Eu isotopes.
Faster is More Different: Mean-Field Dynamics of Innovation Diffusion
Baek, Seung Ki; Kim, Mina
2013-01-01
Based on a recent model of paradigm shifts by Bornholdt et al., we studied mean-field opinion dynamics in an infinite population where an infinite number of ideas compete simultaneously with their values publicly known. We found that a highly innovative society is not characterized by heavy concentration in highly valued ideas: Rather, ideas are more broadly distributed in a more innovative society with faster progress, provided that the rate of adoption is constant, which suggests a positive correlation between innovation and technological disparity. Furthermore, the distribution is generally skewed in such a way that the fraction of innovators is substantially smaller than has been believed in conventional innovation-diffusion theory based on normality. Thus, the typical adoption pattern is predicted to be asymmetric with slow saturation in the ideal situation, which is compared with empirical data sets.
Angular momentum projection for a Nilsson mean-field plus pairing model
Wang, Yin; Pan, Feng; Launey, Kristina D.; Luo, Yan-An; Draayer, J. P.
2016-06-01
The angular momentum projection for the axially deformed Nilsson mean-field plus a modified standard pairing (MSP) or the nearest-level pairing (NLP) model is proposed. Both the exact projection, in which all intrinsic states are taken into consideration, and the approximate projection, in which only intrinsic states with K = 0 are taken in the projection, are considered. The analysis shows that the approximate projection with only K = 0 intrinsic states seems reasonable, of which the configuration subspace considered is greatly reduced. As simple examples for the model application, low-lying spectra and electromagnetic properties of 18O and 18Ne are described by using both the exact and approximate angular momentum projection of the MSP or the NLP, while those of 20Ne and 24Mg are described by using the approximate angular momentum projection of the MSP or NLP.
Sharma, Mahesh K; Sharma, Manoj K; Patra, S K
2015-01-01
We have studied the ground state properties (binding energy and charge radius) using relativistic mean filed formalism (RMF) for Mg-isotopes in the valley of stability to drip line region. The RMF densities have been analyzed in context of reaction dynamics. The calculated results of $^{24-40}$Mg+$^{12}$C reactions at projectile energy 240 AMeV using Glauber model with the conjunction of densities from relativistic mean field formalism are compared with experimental data. We found remarkable agreement of estimated values of reaction cross sections with experimental data except for $^{37}$Mg isotope. In view of this, the halo status of $^{37}$Mg is examined through higher magnitude of rms radius and small value of longitudinal momentum distribution. Finally, an effort is made to explore the structure of $^{37}$Mg halo candidate using Glauber few body formalism.
Mean-field model for the growth and coarsening of stoichiometric precipitates at grain boundaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, a model for growth and coarsening of precipitates at grain boundaries is developed. The concept takes into account that the evolution of grain boundary precipitates involves fast short-circuit diffusion along grain boundaries as well as slow bulk diffusion of atoms from the grain interior to the grain boundaries. The mathematical formalism is based on a mean-field approximation, utilizing the thermodynamic extremal principle. The model is applied to the precipitation of aluminum nitrides in microalloyed steel in austenite, where precipitation occurs predominately at the austenite grain boundaries. It is shown that the kinetics of precipitation predicted by the proposed model differs significantly from that calculated for randomly distributed precipitates with spherical diffusion fields. Good agreement of the numerical solution is found with experimental observations as well as theoretical treatment of precipitate coarsening
Temperature Dependence of the Molar Heat Capacity for Ferromagnets Within the Mean Field Theory
Fernández Rodríguez, J.; Blanco, J. A.
2005-01-01
We describe, using the Mean Field Theory, a detailed analysis of the magnetic contribution to the molar heat capacity Cmag for ferromagnetic systems. This calculation is designed to be used as a teaching homework problem for physics undergraduates. The description emphasises that Cmag at the transition temperature TC is characterised by the existence of a simple jump discontinuity anomaly, but when the temperature is lowered down to 0 K the shape of Cmag depends strongly on the magnitude of the spin S. In fact, the appearance of a shoulder in Cmag for S > 3/2 is expected. The origin of this shoulder could be understood as a Schottky-like anomaly in the ordered state. These physical results are in good agreement with those from real systems, and give the student a valuable insight into the behaviour of the thermodynamical response of a ferromagneticmaterial.
The evaporation residue in the fission state of Barium nuclei within relativistic mean-field theory
Bhuyan, M; Gupta, Raj K
2013-01-01
The evaporation residue of Barium isotopes are investigated in a microscopic study using relativistic mean field theory. The investigation includes the isotopes of Barium from the valley of stability to exotic proton-rich region. The ground as well as neck configurations for these nuclei are generated from their total nucleonic density distributions of the corresponding state. We have estimated the constituents (number of nucleons) in the elongated neck region of the fission state. We found the $\\alpha$-particle as the constituent of neck of Ba-isotopes, referred to as the evaporated residue in heavy-ion reaction studies. A strong correlation between the neutron and proton is observed throughout the isotopic chain.
A fully covariant mean-field dynamo closure for numerical 3+1 resistive GRMHD
Bucciantini, N
2012-01-01
The powerful high-energy phenomena typically encountered in astrophysics invariably involve physical engines, like neutron stars and black hole accretion disks, characterized by a combination of highly magnetized plasmas, strong gravitational fields, and relativistic motions. In recent years numerical schemes for General Relativistic MHD (GRMHD) have been developed to model the multidimensional dynamics of such systems, including the possibility of an evolving spacetime. Such schemes have been also extended beyond the ideal limit including the effects of resistivity, in an attempt to model dissipative physical processes acting on small scales (sub-grid effects) over the global dynamics. Along the same lines, magnetic fields could be amplified by the presence of turbulent dynamo processes, as often invoked to explain the high values of magnetization required in accretion disks and neutron stars. Here we present, for the first time, a further extension to include the possibility of a mean-field dynamo action wi...
Ground state phase transition in the Nilsson mean-field plus standard pairing model
Guan, Xin; Xu, Haocheng; Zhang, Yu; Pan, Feng; Draayer, Jerry P.
2016-08-01
The ground state phase transition in Nd, Sm, and Gd isotopes is investigated by using the Nilsson mean-field plus standard pairing model based on the exact solutions obtained from the extended Heine-Stieltjes correspondence. The results of the model calculations successfully reproduce the critical phenomena observed experimentally in the odd-even mass differences, odd-even differences of two-neutron separation energy, and the α -decay and double β--decay energies of these isotopes. Since the odd-even effects are the most important signatures of pairing interactions in nuclei, the model calculations yield microscopic insight into the nature of the ground state phase transition manifested by the standard pairing interaction.
Beyond mean-field boson-fermion model for odd-mass nuclei
Nomura, K; Vretenar, D
2016-01-01
A novel method for calculating spectroscopic properties of medium-mass and heavy atomic nuclei with an odd number of nucleons is introduced, based on the framework of nuclear energy density functional theory and the particle-core coupling scheme. The deformation energy surface of the even-even core, as well as the spherical single-particle energies and occupation probabilities of the odd particle(s), are obtained in a self-consistent mean-field calculation determined by the choice of the energy density functional and pairing interaction. This method uniquely determines the parameters of the Hamiltonian of the boson core, and only the strength of the particle-core coupling is specifically adjusted to selected data for a particular nucleus. The approach is illustrated in a systematic study of low-energy excitation spectra and transition rates of axially deformed odd-mass Eu isotopes.
Partonic mean-field effects on matter and antimatter elliptic flows
Song, Taesoo; Greco, Vincenzo; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Feng
2012-01-01
Using a partonic transport model based on the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model, we study the effect of scalar and vector mean fields on the elliptic flows of quarks and antiquarks in relativistic heavy ion collisions in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=7.7 $GeV and impact parameter $b=8 {\\rm fm}$ that leads to the production of a baryon-rich matter. Converting quarks and antiquarks at hadronization to hadrons via the quark coalescence model, we further study the dependence of the transverse momentum integrated relative elliptic flow differences between protons and antiprotons, lambda and anti-lambdas, and positively and negatively charged kaons on the strength of the quark vector coupling. Our results suggest that a relative weak vector coupling seems to be needed to describe the experimental data measured by the STAR Collaboration in the Beam Energy Scan (BES) program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).
Mean-Field Theory of Intra-Molecular Charge Ordering in (TTM--TTP)I3
Omori, Yukiko; Tsuchiizu, Masahisa; Suzumura, Yoshikazu
2011-02-01
We examine an intra-molecular charge-ordered (ICO) state in the multi-orbital molecular compound (TTM--TTP)I3 on the basis of an effective two-orbital model derived from ab initio calculations. Representing the model in terms of the fragment molecular-orbital (MO) picture, the ICO state is described as the charge disproportionation on the left and right fragment MOs. By applying the mean-field theory, the phase diagram of the ground state is obtained as a function of the inter-molecular Coulomb repulsion and the intra-molecular transfer integral. The ICO state is stabilized by large inter-fragment Coulomb interactions, and the small intra-molecular transfer energy between two fragment MOs. Furthermore, we examine the finite-temperature phase diagram. The relevance to the experimental observations in the molecular compound of (TTM--TTP)I3 is also discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The low field magnetic properties of small uniaxial ferromagnetic particles are studied. We assume spherical particles, whose shells are inscribed into a simple cubic lattice. Each site of the sphere harbours a spin of the particle, which is represented by continuous vectors of unitary magnitude. The model is described by a classical Heisenberg model, where only nearest-neighbor interactions are taken into account. We employ mean-field calculations and Monte Carlo simulations to determine the magnetic properties of particles of different sizes, with radii ranging from three up to twelve lattice spacings. We consider the cases where the external magnetic field is applied along and perpendicularly to the easy axis of the particle. We determine the critical temperature as a function of the anisotropy and size of the particle. Monte Carlo calculations at low temperatures recover the Bloch law, showing that the magnetization decreases with a T3/2 law for isotropic particles larger than three spherical shells
The mean field theory in EM procedures for blind Markov random field image restoration.
Zhang, J
1993-01-01
A Markov random field (MRF) model-based EM (expectation-maximization) procedure for simultaneously estimating the degradation model and restoring the image is described. The MRF is a coupled one which provides continuity (inside regions of smooth gray tones) and discontinuity (at region boundaries) constraints for the restoration problem which is, in general, ill posed. The computational difficulty associated with the EM procedure for MRFs is resolved by using the mean field theory from statistical mechanics. An orthonormal blur decomposition is used to reduce the chances of undesirable locally optimal estimates. Experimental results on synthetic and real-world images show that this approach provides good blur estimates and restored images. The restored images are comparable to those obtained by a Wiener filter in mean-square error, but are most visually pleasing. PMID:18296192
Mean field theory of EM algorithm for Bayesian grey scale image restoration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The EM algorithm for the Bayesian grey scale image restoration is investigated in the framework of the mean field theory. Our model system is identical to the infinite range random field Q-Ising model. The maximum marginal likelihood method is applied to the determination of hyper-parameters. We calculate both the data-averaged mean square error between the original image and its maximizer of posterior marginal estimate, and the data-averaged marginal likelihood function exactly. After evaluating the hyper-parameter dependence of the data-averaged marginal likelihood function, we derive the EM algorithm which updates the hyper-parameters to obtain the maximum likelihood estimate analytically. The time evolutions of the hyper-parameters and so-called Q function are obtained. The relation between the speed of convergence of the hyper-parameters and the shape of the Q function is explained from the viewpoint of dynamics
Cluster Mean-Field Signature of Entanglement Entropy in Bosonic Superfluid-Insulator Transitions
Zhang, Li; Ke, Yongguan; Lee, Chaohong
2016-01-01
Entanglement entropy (EE), a fundamental conception in quantum information for characterizing entanglement, has been extensively employed to explore quantum phase transitions (QPTs). Although the conventional single-site mean-field (MF) approach successfully predicts the emergence of QPTs, it fails to include any entanglement. Here, for the first time, in the framework of a cluster MF treatment, we extract the signature of EE in the bosonic superfluid-insulator transitions. We consider a trimerized Kagome lattice of interacting bosons, in which each trimer is treated as a cluster, and implement the cluster MF treatment by decoupling all inter-trimer hopping. In addition to superfluid and integer insulator phases, we find that fractional insulator phases appear when the tunneling is dominated by the intra-trimer part. To quantify the residual bipartite entanglement in a cluster, we calculate the second-order Renyi entropy, which can be experimentally measured by quantum interference of many-body twins. The sec...
Mean-field behavior of the negative-weight percolation model on random regular graphs.
Melchert, Oliver; Hartmann, Alexander K; Mézard, Marc
2011-10-01
We investigate both analytically and numerically the ensemble of minimum-weight loops in the negative-weight percolation model on random graphs with fixed connectivity and bimodal weight distribution. This allows us to study the mean-field behavior of this model. The analytical study is based on a conjectured equivalence with the problem of self-avoiding walks in a random medium. The numerical study is based on a mapping to a standard minimum-weight matching problem for which fast algorithms exist. Both approaches yield results that are in agreement on the location of the phase transition, on the value of critical exponents, and on the absence of any sizable indications of a glass phase. By these results, the previously conjectured upper critical dimension of d(u)=6 is confirmed. PMID:22181086
Modeling of coherent ultrafast magneto-optical experiments: Light-induced molecular mean-field model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hinschberger, Y. [Instituto de Física dos Materiais da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Física et Astronomia, Rua do campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Hervieux, P.-A. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7504 BP 43 - F-67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)
2015-12-28
We present calculations which aim to describe coherent ultrafast magneto-optical effects observed in time-resolved pump-probe experiments. Our approach is based on a nonlinear semi-classical Drude-Voigt model and is used to interpret experiments performed on nickel ferromagnetic thin film. Within this framework, a phenomenological light-induced coherent molecular mean-field depending on the polarizations of the pump and probe pulses is proposed whose microscopic origin is related to a spin-orbit coupling involving the electron spins of the material sample and the electric field of the laser pulses. Theoretical predictions are compared to available experimental data. The model successfully reproduces the observed experimental trends and gives meaningful insight into the understanding of magneto-optical rotation behavior in the ultrafast regime. Theoretical predictions for further experimental studies are also proposed.
Following Gibbs states adiabatically: the energy landscape of mean field glassy systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zdeborova, Lenka [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Krzakala, Florent [ESPCI
2009-01-01
We introduce a generalization of the cavity, or Bethe-Peierls, method that allows to follow Gibbs states when an external parameter, e.g. the temperature, is adiabatically changed. This allows to obtain new quantitative results on the static and dynamic behavior of mean field disordered systems such as models of glassy and amorphous materials or random constraint satisfaction problems. As a first application, we discuss the residual energy after a very slow annealing, the behavior of out-of-equilibrium states, and demonstrate the presence of temperature chaos in equilibrium. We also explore the energy landscape, and identify a new transition from an computationally easier canyons-dominated region to a harder valleys-dominated one.