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Sample records for billion years reflects

  1. Atmospheric oxygenation three billion years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Sean A; Døssing, Lasse N; Beukes, Nicolas J; Bau, Michael; Kruger, Stephanus J; Frei, Robert; Canfield, Donald E

    2013-09-26

    It is widely assumed that atmospheric oxygen concentrations remained persistently low (less than 10(-5) times present levels) for about the first 2 billion years of Earth's history. The first long-term oxygenation of the atmosphere is thought to have taken place around 2.3 billion years ago, during the Great Oxidation Event. Geochemical indications of transient atmospheric oxygenation, however, date back to 2.6-2.7 billion years ago. Here we examine the distribution of chromium isotopes and redox-sensitive metals in the approximately 3-billion-year-old Nsuze palaeosol and in the near-contemporaneous Ijzermyn iron formation from the Pongola Supergroup, South Africa. We find extensive mobilization of redox-sensitive elements through oxidative weathering. Furthermore, using our data we compute a best minimum estimate for atmospheric oxygen concentrations at that time of 3 × 10(-4) times present levels. Overall, our findings suggest that there were appreciable levels of atmospheric oxygen about 3 billion years ago, more than 600 million years before the Great Oxidation Event and some 300-400 million years earlier than previous indications for Earth surface oxygenation.

  2. Atmospheric oxygenation three billion years ago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crowe, Sean; Døssing, Lasse Nørbye; Beukes, Nicolas J.;

    2013-01-01

    It is widely assumedthat atmospheric oxygen concentrations remained persistently low (less than 1025 timespresent levels) for about the first 2 billion years of Earth’s history1. The first long-term oxygenation of the atmosphere is thought tohave taken place around2.3 billion years ago, during...... the GreatOxidation Event2,3.Geochemical indications of transient atmospheric oxygenation, however, date back to 2.6–2.7 billion years ago4–6. Here we examine the distribution of chromium isotopes and redox-sensitive metals in the approximately 3-billionyear- old Nsuze palaeosol and in the near......-contemporaneous Ijzermyn iron formation fromthe Pongola Supergroup, South Africa.We find extensivemobilization of redox-sensitive elements through oxidative weathering. Furthermore, using our data we compute a best minimumestimate for atmospheric oxygen concentrations at that time of 331024 times present levels...

  3. Origins fourteen billion years of cosmic evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Neil deGrasse

    2004-01-01

    Origins explores cosmic science's stunning new insights into the formation and evolution of our universe--of the cosmos, of galaxies and galaxy clusters, of stars within galaxies, of planets that orbit those stars, and of different forms of life that take us back to the first three seconds and forward through three billion years of life on Earth to today's search for life on other planets. Drawing on the current cross-pollination of geology, biology and astrophysics, Origins explains the thrilling daily breakthroughs in our knowledge of the universe from dark energy to life on Mars to the mysteries of space and time. Distilling complex science in clear and lively prose, co-authors Neil deGrasse Tyson and Donald Goldsmith conduct a galvanising tour of the cosmos revealing what the universe has been up to while turning part of itself into us.

  4. Life: the first two billion years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Andrew H; Bergmann, Kristin D; Strauss, Justin V

    2016-11-01

    Microfossils, stromatolites, preserved lipids and biologically informative isotopic ratios provide a substantial record of bacterial diversity and biogeochemical cycles in Proterozoic (2500-541 Ma) oceans that can be interpreted, at least broadly, in terms of present-day organisms and metabolic processes. Archean (more than 2500 Ma) sedimentary rocks add at least a billion years to the recorded history of life, with sedimentological and biogeochemical evidence for life at 3500 Ma, and possibly earlier; phylogenetic and functional details, however, are limited. Geochemistry provides a major constraint on early evolution, indicating that the first bacteria were shaped by anoxic environments, with distinct patterns of major and micronutrient availability. Archean rocks appear to record the Earth's first iron age, with reduced Fe as the principal electron donor for photosynthesis, oxidized Fe the most abundant terminal electron acceptor for respiration, and Fe a key cofactor in proteins. With the permanent oxygenation of the atmosphere and surface ocean ca 2400 Ma, photic zone O2 limited the access of photosynthetic bacteria to electron donors other than water, while expanding the inventory of oxidants available for respiration and chemoautotrophy. Thus, halfway through Earth history, the microbial underpinnings of modern marine ecosystems began to take shape.This article is part of the themed issue 'The new bacteriology'. PMID:27672146

  5. Cosmic rays and the biosphere over 4 billion years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Variations in the flux of cosmic rays (CR) at Earth during the last 4.6 billion years are constructed from information about the star formation rate in the Milky Way and the evolution of the solar activity. The constructed CR signal is compared with variations in the Earths biological productivit...... as recorded in the isotope delta C-13, which spans more than 3 billion years. CR and fluctuations in biological productivity show a remarkable correlation and indicate that the evolution of climate and the biosphere on the Earth is closely linked to the evolution of the Milky Way....

  6. Conservation of protein structure over four billion years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles-Prieto, Alvaro; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Delgado-Delgado, Asuncion; Perez-Jimenez, Raul; Fernandez, Julio M; Gaucher, Eric A; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M; Gavira, Jose A

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about the evolution of protein structures and the degree of protein structure conservation over planetary time scales. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structures of seven laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins dating up to approximately four billion years ago. Despite considerable sequence differences compared with extant enzymes, the ancestral proteins display the canonical thioredoxin fold, whereas only small structural changes have occurred over four billion years. This remarkable degree of structure conservation since a time near the last common ancestor of life supports a punctuated-equilibrium model of structure evolution in which the generation of new folds occurs over comparatively short periods and is followed by long periods of structural stasis. PMID:23932589

  7. Conservation of protein structure over four billion years

    OpenAIRE

    Ingles-Prieto, Alvaro; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Delgado-Delgado, Asuncion; Perez-Jimenez, Raul; Fernandez, Julio M.; Gaucher, Eric A.; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M.; Gavira, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known with certainty about the evolution of protein structures in general and the degree of protein structure conservation over planetary time scales in particular. Here we report the X-ray crystal structures of seven laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins dating back up to ~4 billion years before present. Despite considerable sequence differences compared with extant enzymes, the ancestral proteins display the canonical thioredoxin fold while only small structural cha...

  8. The nuclear interaction at Oklo 2 billion years ago

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Y; Fukahori, T; Ohnuki, T; Nakagawa, M; Hidaka, H; Oura, Y; Møller, P; Fujii, Yasunori; Iwamoto, Akira; Fukahori, Tokio; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Oura, Yasuji; Moller, Peter

    2000-01-01

    We re-examine Shlyakhter's effort to constrain the time-variability of the coupling constants of the fundamental interactions by studying the anomalous isotopic abundance of Sm observed at the remnants of the natural reactors which were in operation at Oklo about 2 billion years ago. We rely on new samples that were carefully collected to minimize natural contamination and also on a careful temperature estimate of the operating reactor. We find that our result almost re-establishes the original conclusion; the upper bounds on the fractional rate of change of the strong and electromagnetic interaction coupling constants are 10^{-18}-10^{-19} y^{-1} and 10^{-17} y^{-1}, respectively. To reinforce the results obtained from Sm, we also applied our analysis to Gd, for which it was essential to take into account the effect of contamination.

  9. The 18O/16O Ratio of 2-Billion-Year-Old Seawater Inferred from Ancient Oceanic Crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmden, C; Muehlenbachs, K

    1993-03-19

    An oxygen isotope profile of the 2-billion-year-old Purtuniq ophiolite overlaps with similar profiles of younger ophiolites and the modern oceanic crust. This overlap implies (i) that there was a similar style of seawater-ocean crust interaction during the past 2 billion years; (ii) that the oxygen isotope composition of early Proterozoic seawater was similar to the modern value; (iii) that early Proterozoic sea-floor spreading rates were similar to, or greater than, average modern rates; and (iv) that early Proterozoic carbonate rocks and cherts with low (18)O/(16)O ratios do not reflect global-scale (18)O depletion of early Proterozoic oceans. PMID:17816892

  10. Fiscal Deficit Will Be Cut Down RMB19.8 Billion This Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      When delivering the government work report on March5, Premier Wen Jiabao said,"China will carry out the stable fiscal policy this year and cut down the fiscal deficit accordingly, plan to arrange a central fiscal deficit of RMB300 billion,which is RMB19.8 billion less than last year."……

  11. Fiscal Deficit Will Be Cut Down RMB19.8 Billion This Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ When delivering the government work report on March5, Premier Wen Jiabao said,"China will carry out the stable fiscal policy this year and cut down the fiscal deficit accordingly, plan to arrange a central fiscal deficit of RMB300 billion,which is RMB19.8 billion less than last year."

  12. A SWIRE Picture is Worth Billions of Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: SWIRE View of Distant Galaxies [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2Figure 3 Figure 4 These spectacular images, taken by the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) Legacy project, encapsulate one of the primary objectives of the Spitzer mission: to connect the evolution of galaxies from the distant, or early, universe to the nearby, or present day, universe. The Tadpole galaxy (main image) is the result of a recent galactic interaction in the local universe. Although these galactic mergers are rare in the universe's recent history, astronomers believe that they were much more common in the early universe. Thus, SWIRE team members will use this detailed image of the Tadpole galaxy to help understand the nature of the 'faint red-orange specks' of the early universe. The larger picture (figure 2) depicts one-sixteenth of the SWIRE survey field called ELAIS-N1. In this image, the bright blue sources are hot stars in our own Milky Way, which range anywhere from 3 to 60 times the mass of our Sun. The fainter green spots are cooler stars and galaxies beyond the Milky Way whose light is dominated by older stellar populations. The red dots are dusty galaxies that are undergoing intense star formation. The faintest specks of red-orange are galaxies billions of light-years away in the distant universe. Figure 3 features an unusual ring-like galaxy called CGCG 275-022. The red spiral arms indicate that this galaxy is very dusty and perhaps undergoing intense star formation. The star-forming activity could have been initiated by a near head-on collision with another galaxy. The most distant galaxies that SWIRE is able to detect are revealed in a zoom of deep space (figure 4). The colors in this feature represent the same objects as those in the larger field image of ELAIS-N1. The observed SWIRE

  13. Orbital forcing of climate 1.4 billion years ago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Hammarlund, Emma U.;

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuating climate is a hallmark of Earth. As one transcends deep into Earth time, however, both the evidence for and the causes of climate change become difficult to establish. We report geochemical and sedimentological evidence for repeated, short-term climate fluctuations from the exceptional...... reflect what appear to be orbitally forced changes in wind patterns and ocean circulation as they influenced rates of organic carbon flux, trace metal accumulation, and the source of detrital particles to the sediment....... in the location of the Xiamaling relative to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. On shorter time scales, and within a precisely calibrated stratigraphic framework, cyclicity in sediment geochemical dynamics is consistent with orbital control. In particular, sediment geochemical fluctuations...

  14. A Billion-Year Facelift and Cleaner Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Science leads the first (or is it second? year of the millennium with a story about a facelift for Jupiter’s moon, Ganymede. Nature leads with a story about new regulations on diesel-powered vehicles in the U.S.

  15. The First Billion Years of a Warm Dark Matter Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Maio, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    We present results of cosmological N-body hydrodynamic chemistry simulations of primordial structure growth and evolution in a scenario with warm dark matter (WDM) having a mass of 3keV and compare with a model consisting of standard cold dark matter (CDM). We focus on the high-redshift universe ($z>6$), where the structure formation process should better reflect the primordial (linear) differences in terms of matter power spectrum. We find that early epochs are exceptional probes of the dark-matter nature. Non-linear CDM and WDM power spectra differ by up to 2 dex at early times and show spreads of factor of a few persisting in the whole first Gyr. Primordial WDM objects with masses $\\lesssim 10^8\\,\\rm M_\\odot$ are less abundant by $\\gtrsim 1\\,\\rm dex$, both in terms of dark matter and of baryon content. Runaway molecular cooling in primordial WDM mini-haloes results severely inhibited due to the damping of power at large $k$ modes. As a consequence, the cosmic (population III and II-I) star formation activi...

  16. Galaxies in the First Billion Years After the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Daniel P.

    2016-09-01

    In the past five years, deep imaging campaigns conducted with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based observatories have delivered large samples of galaxies at 6.5luminosity function becomes steeper (α≃‑2.0 at z≃7‑8), revealing a dominant population of low-luminosity galaxies. Analysis of multiwavelength imaging from HST and the Spitzer Space Telescope demonstrates that z>6 UV-selected galaxies are relatively compact with blue UV continuum slopes, low stellar masses, and large specific star formation rates. In the last year, ALMA (the Atacama Large Millimeter Array) and ground-based infrared spectrographs have begun to complement this picture, revealing minimal dust obscuration and hard radiation fields, and providing evidence for metal-poor ionized gas. Weak low-ionization absorption lines suggest a patchy distribution of neutral gas surrounds O and B stars, possibly aiding in the escape of ionizing radiation. Gamma ray burst afterglows and Lyman-α surveys have provided evidence that the intergalactic medium (IGM) evolves from mostly ionized at z≃6‑6.5 ([Formula: see text]) to considerably neutral at z≃7‑8 ([Formula: see text]). The reionization history that emerges from considering the UV output of galaxies over 6luminosity function extends ≃4 mag below current surveys and a moderate fraction ([Formula: see text]) of ionizing radiation escapes from galaxies.

  17. Hunan Xinshao Non-ferrous Metals Expect Break Through RMB0.2 Billion This Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>According to official sources,in the first half of this year,the non-ferrous metal industry of Xinshao,Hunan’s main business income will achieve RMB0.15 billion,up by 11.23%over the same period the previous year.Expert analysis shows that based on this growth pattern,

  18. XNMG’s Reserves Increase over RMB 230 Billion in 4 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The 100 million tons of proven iron ore in south Xinjiang marks the successful conclusion of mineral exploration of Xinjiang Nonferrous Metals Group (XNMG) this year. It enables XNMG’s potential economic value of newlyincreased resources to exceed RMB 230 billion since implementation of the strategy of geological prospecting and resource consolidation,

  19. Spatial variability in oceanic redox structure 1.8 billion years ago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulton, Simon W.; Fralick, Philip W.; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of ocean chemistry during the Proterozoic eon (2.5-0.542 billion years ago) is thought to have played a central role in both the timing and rate of eukaryote evolution(1,2). The timing of the deposition of iron formations implies that, early in the Earth's history, oceans were predo...

  20. A Ten-Year Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip, Cyndi

    2016-01-01

    Five initiatives launched during Cyndi Phillip's term as American Association of School Librarians (AASL) President (2006-2007) continue to have an impact on school librarians ten years later. They include the rewriting of AASL's learning standards, introduction of the SKILLS Act, the presentation of the Crystal Apple Award to Scholastic Library…

  1. Electron microscopy reveals unique microfossil preservation in 1 billion-year-old lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron microscopy was applied to the study of 1 billion-year-old microfossils from northwest Scotland in order to investigate their 3D morphology and mode of fossilization. 3D-FIB-SEM revealed high quality preservation of organic cell walls with only minor amounts of post-mortem decomposition, followed by variable degrees of morphological alteration (folding and compression of cell walls) during sediment compaction. EFTEM mapping plus SAED revealed a diverse fossilizing mineral assemblage including K-rich clay, Fe-Mg-rich clay and calcium phosphate, with each mineral occupying specific microenvironments in proximity to carbonaceous microfossil cell walls

  2. Evidence for arsenic metabolism and cycling by microorganisms 2.7 billion years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforna, Marie Catherine; Philippot, Pascal; Somogyi, Andrea; van Zuilen, Mark A.; Medjoubi, Kadda; Schoepp-Cothenet, Barbara; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Visscher, Pieter T.

    2014-11-01

    The ability of microbes to metabolize arsenic may have emerged more than 3.4 billion years ago. Some of the modern environments in which prominent arsenic metabolism occurs are anoxic, as were the Precambrian oceans. Early oceans may also have had a relatively high abundance of arsenic. However, it is unclear whether arsenic cycling occurred in ancient environments. Here we assess the chemistry and nature of cell-like globules identified in salt-encrusted portions of 2.72-billion-year-old fossil stromatolites from Western Australia. We use Raman spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence to show that the globules are composed of organic carbon and arsenic (As). We argue that our data are best explained by the occurrence of a complete arsenic cycle at this site, with As(III) oxidation and As(V) reduction by microbes living in permanently anoxic conditions. We therefore suggest that arsenic cycling could have occurred more widely in marine environments in the several hundred million years before the Earth’s atmosphere and shallow oceans were oxygenated.

  3. The evolution in the stellar mass of brightest cluster galaxies over the past 10 billion years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellstedt, Sabine; Lidman, Chris; Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn; Guatelli, Susanna; Hill, Allison R.; Hoekstra, Henk; Kurinsky, Noah; Labbe, Ivo; Marchesini, Danilo; Marsan, Z. Cemile; Safavi-Naeini, Mitra; Sifón, Cristóbal; Stefanon, Mauro; van de Sande, Jesse; van Dokkum, Pieter; Weigel, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Using a sample of 98 galaxy clusters recently imaged in the near-infrared with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) New Technology Telescope, WIYN telescope and William Herschel Telescope, supplemented with 33 clusters from the ESO archive, we measure how the stellar mass of the most massive galaxies in the universe, namely brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), increases with time. Most of the BCGs in this new sample lie in the redshift range 0.2 create a subsample of 102 systems that includes only those clusters that have estimates of the cluster mass. We combine the BCGs in this subsample with BCGs from the literature, and find that the growth in stellar mass of BCGs from 10 billion years ago to the present epoch is broadly consistent with recent semi-analytic and semi-empirical models. As in other recent studies, tentative evidence indicates that the stellar mass growth rate of BCGs may be slowing in the past 3.5 billion years. Further work in collecting larger samples, and in better comparing observations with theory using mock images, is required if a more detailed comparison between the models and the data is to be made.

  4. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope evidence for a temperate climate 3.42 billion years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hren, M T; Tice, M M; Chamberlain, C P

    2009-11-12

    Stable oxygen isotope ratios (delta(18)O) of Precambrian cherts have been used to establish much of our understanding of the early climate history of Earth and suggest that ocean temperatures during the Archaean era ( approximately 3.5 billion years ago) were between 55 degrees C and 85 degrees C (ref. 2). But, because of uncertainty in the delta(18)O of the primitive ocean, there is considerable debate regarding this conclusion. Examination of modern and ancient cherts indicates that another approach, using a combined analysis of delta(18)O and hydrogen isotopes (deltaD) rather than delta(18)O alone, can provide a firmer constraint on formational temperatures without independent knowledge of the isotopic composition of ambient waters. Here we show that delta(18)O and deltaD sampled from 3.42-billion-year-old Buck Reef Chert rocks in South Africa are consistent with formation from waters at varied low temperatures. The most (18)O-enriched Buck Reef Chert rocks record the lowest diagenetic temperatures and were formed in equilibrium with waters below approximately 40 degrees C. Geochemical and sedimentary evidence suggests that the Buck Reef Chert was formed in shallow to deep marine conditions, so our results indicate that the Palaeoarchaean ocean was isotopically depleted relative to the modern ocean and far cooler (

  5. The evolution in the stellar mass of brightest cluster galaxies over the past 10 billion years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellstedt, Sabine; Lidman, Chris; Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn; Guatelli, Susanna; Hill, Allison R.; Hoekstra, Henk; Kurinsky, Noah; Labbe, Ivo; Marchesini, Danilo; Marsan, Z. Cemile; Safavi-Naeini, Mitra; Sifón, Cristóbal; Stefanon, Mauro; van de Sande, Jesse; van Dokkum, Pieter; Weigel, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Using a sample of 98 galaxy clusters recently imaged in the near-infrared with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) New Technology Telescope, WIYN telescope and William Herschel Telescope, supplemented with 33 clusters from the ESO archive, we measure how the stellar mass of the most massive galaxies in the universe, namely brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), increases with time. Most of the BCGs in this new sample lie in the redshift range 0.2 < z < 0.6, which has been noted in recent works to mark an epoch over which the growth in the stellar mass of BCGs stalls. From this sample of 132 clusters, we create a subsample of 102 systems that includes only those clusters that have estimates of the cluster mass. We combine the BCGs in this subsample with BCGs from the literature, and find that the growth in stellar mass of BCGs from 10 billion years ago to the present epoch is broadly consistent with recent semi-analytic and semi-empirical models. As in other recent studies, tentative evidence indicates that the stellar mass growth rate of BCGs may be slowing in the past 3.5 billion years. Further work in collecting larger samples, and in better comparing observations with theory using mock images, is required if a more detailed comparison between the models and the data is to be made.

  6. States' Spending on Colleges Rises 19 Pct. in 2 Years, Nears $31-Billion for'85-86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelauf, Jean

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. states' expenditures to nearly $31 billion in tax money mark a continuing recovery in support for higher education. Shaping this year's appropriations levels were concerns about tuition and efforts to promote economic development. (MLW)

  7. THE SOUTHERN FRAGMENT OF THE SIBERIAN CRATON: “LANDSCAPE” HISTORY OVER TWO BILLION YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkady M. Stanevich

    2015-09-01

    divergence events, which most probably occurred in the period of 1000–850 mln years in the east, and in the interval of 780–730 mln years in the west of the territory. The latest period is logically aligned with disintegration of Rodini, the super-continent. The period of 780–680 mln years in the eastern part of the region can defined by the beginning of convergency processes, formation and evolution of the island arc and the back-arc basin. It is supposed that basal layers of the Baikalskaya and Oselokskaya suites and their analogues occurred 730 mln years ago, and evidences of glacial processes in these series correlate with the global Sturtian glaciations. The period of 680–630 mln years was characterized by formation of the foreland-type peripheral basin which was then replaced by a system of orogen-type submontain troughs in the Early Vendian (from 630 mln years, see Fig. 3Г. The second half of the Vendian in various zones of SSC was distinguished by shallow-water carbonate-terrigenous sediments of a similar type. Compensatory sedimentation occurred in residual valleys of the basin. Fast infill of the basin and leveling of the relief resulted in the stationary regime of the relatively shallow, yet vast basin. In the Early Cambrian, carbonate sedimentation occurred throughout the Siberian Platform and in the area adjacent to the SSC (see Fig. 3Д.The Paleozoic sediments preserved mainly in the central and northern regions of the Siberian Platform reflect a complex evolution of internal and epicontinental seas and shallower basins of the Siberian continent named Angarida. In the Ordovician, predominating were carbonate rocks with marine fauna. In the Silurian was characterized by a variety of sediments formed in different marine environments, ranging from distal shelf to shallow water and salted gulfs. In the Late Silurian and the Early Devonian, the territory of Angarida was land. Local volcanism with mafic lava eruptions through fractures took place at the

  8. Evidence for Oxygenic Photosynthesis Half a Billion Years Before the Great Oxidation Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planavsky, Noah; Reinhard, Chris; Asael, Dan; Lyons, Tim; Hofmann, Axel; Rouxel, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    Despite detailed investigations over the past 50 years, there is still intense debate about when oxygenic photosynthesis evolved. Current estimates span over a billion years of Earth history, ranging from prior to 3.7 Ga, the age of the oldest sedimentary rocks, to 2.4-2.3 Ga, coincident with the rise of atmospheric oxygen ("The Great Oxidation Event" or GOE). As such, a new, independent perspective is needed. We will provide such a perspective herein by using molybdenum (Mo) isotopes in a novel way to track the onset of manganese(II)oxidation and thus biological oxygen production. The oxidation of Mn(II) in modern marine setting requires free dissolved oxygen. Mn is relatively unique in its environmental specificity for oxygen as an electron acceptor among the redox-sensitive transition metals, many of which, like Fe, can be oxidized under anoxic conditions either through a microbial pathway and/or with alternative oxidants such as nitrate. There are large Mo isotope fractionations associated with the sorption of Mo (as a polymolybdate complex) onto Mn-oxyhydroxides, with an approximately -2.7‰ fractionation in d98Mo associated with Mo sorption onto Mn-oxyhydroxides (e.g., birnessite, vernadite). In contrast, sorption of Mo onto the Fe-oxyhydroxide (e.g., ferrihydrite) results in a fractionation of only -1.1‰ or less. Because of this difference in Mo isotope fractionation, Mo isotope values should become lighter with increasing Mn content, if Mn oxidation occurred during deposition and is an important vector of Mo transfer to the sediment. We find a strong positive correlation between d98Mo values and Fe/Mn ratios in iron formations deposited before and after the Great Oxidation Event. Most strikingly, Mo isotope data and Fe/Mn ratios correlate over a 2.5‰ range in d98Mo values in the Mn-rich (0.1 - 6%) iron formation of the 2.95 Ga Sinqeni Formation, South Africa. The large isotopic shifts occur over a relatively thin (3 meter thick) horizon, reflecting

  9. Cooling and exhumation of continents at billion-year time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, T.; Bowring, S. A.; Perron, T.; Mahan, K. H.; Dudas, F. O.

    2011-12-01

    The oldest rocks on Earth are preserved within the continental lithosphere, where assembled fragments of ancient orogenic belts have survived erosion and destruction by plate tectonic and surface processes for billions of years. Though the rate of orogenic exhumation and erosion has been measured for segments of an orogenic history, it remains unclear how these exhumation rates have changed over the lifetime of any terrane. Because the exhumation of the lithospheric surface has a direct effect on the rate of heat loss within the lithosphere, a continuous record of lithosphere exhumation can be reconstructed through the use of thermochronology. Thermochronologic studies have typically employed systems sensitive to cooling at temperatures recycling of these shallow rocks results in a poor preservation potential of any long-term record. Here, an ancient and long-term record of lithosphere exhumation is constructed using U-Pb thermochronology, a geochronologic system sensitive to cooling at temperatures found at 20-50 km depth (400-650 °C). Lower crustal xenoliths provide material that resided at these depths for billions of years or more, recording a thermal history that is buried deep enough to remain insensitive to upper crustal deformation and instead is dominated by the vertical motions of the continents. We show how this temperature-sensitive system can produce a long-term integrated measure of continental exhumation and erosion. Preserved beneath Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks within Montana, USA, the Great Falls Tectonic Zone formed when two Archean cratons, the Wyoming Province and Medicine Hat Block collided at ~1.8 Ga. Rutile U-Pb data from multiple xenoliths, each exhumed from a different depth within the crustal column reveal a range of dates that varies as a function of xenolith residence depth. The shallowest mid- to lower crustal xenoliths (~25 km) cooled first, yielding the youngest dates and yet cooled at rates between 0.1-0.25 °C/Ma over 500 My or

  10. Dust production 0.7-1.5 billion years after the Big Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Michałowski, Michał J

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic dust is an important component of the Universe, and its origin, especially at high redshifts, is still unknown. I present a simple but powerful method of assessing whether dust observed in a given galaxy could in principle have been formed by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars or supernovae (SNe). Using this method I show that for most of the galaxies with detected dust emission between z=4 and z=7.5 (1.5-0.7 billion years after the Big Bang) AGB stars are not numerous and efficient enough to be responsible for the measured dust masses. Supernovae could account for most of the dust, but only if all of them had efficiencies close to the maximal theoretically allowed value. This suggests that a different mechanism is responsible for dust production at high redshifts, and the most likely possibility is the grain growth in the interstellar medium.

  11. Exploring the Impact of Galaxy Interactions over Seven Billion Years with CAS

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Sarah H; Conselice, C; Penner, K; Bell, E; Zheng, X; Papovich, C; Skelton, R; Somerville, R; Rix, H; Barazza, F; Barden, M; Borch, A; Beckwith, S; Caldwell, J; Haeussler, B; Heymans, C; Jahnke, K; McIntosh, D; Meisenheimer, K; Peng, C; Robaina, A; Sanchez, S; Wisotzki, L; Wolf, C

    2008-01-01

    We explore galaxy assembly over the last seven billion years by characterizing "normal" galaxies along the Hubble sequence, against strongly disturbed merging/interacting galaxies with the widely used CAS system of concentration (C), asymmetry (A), and 'clumpiness' (S) parameters, as well as visual classification. We analyze Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ACS images of ~4000 intermediate and high mass (> 10^9 solar masses) galaxies from the GEMS survey, one of the largest HST surveys conducted to date in two filters. We explore the effectiveness of the CAS criteria [A>S and A>~0.35] in separating normal and strongly disturbed galaxies at different redshifts, and quantify the recovery and contamination rate. We also compare the average star formation rate and the cosmic star formation rate density as a function of redshift between normal and interacting systems identified by CAS.

  12. The VIRMOS-VLT Deep Survey: the last 10 billion years of evolution of galaxy clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Pollo, A; Lefèvre, O; Meneux, B; Cappi, A; McCracken, H J; Iovino, A; Marinoni, C; Bottini, D; Garilli, B; Le Brun, V; MacCagni, D; Picat, J P; Scaramella, R; Scodeggio, M; Tresse, L; Vettolani, G; Zanichelli, A; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Charlot, S; Ciliegi, P; Contini, T; Foucaud, S; Franzetti, P; Gavignaud, I; Ilbert, O; Marano, B; Mazure, A; Merighi, R; Paltani, S; Pellò, R; Pozzetti, L; Radovich, M; Zamorani, G; Zucca, E; Bondi, M; Bongiorno, A; Brinchmann, J; Cucciati, O; De la Torre, S; Lamareille, F; Mellier, Y; Merluzzi, P; Temporin, S; Vergani, D; Walcher, C J

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the evolution of clustering of galaxies in the Universe from the present epoch back to z ~ 2, using the first-epoch data from the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS). We present the evolution of the projected two-point correlation function of galaxies for the global galaxy population, as well as its dependence on galaxy intrinsic luminosities and spectral types. While we do not find strong variations of the correlation function parameters with redshift for the global galaxy population, the clustering of objects with different intrinsic luminosities evolved significantly during last 8-10 billion years. Our findings indicate that bright galaxies in the past traced higher density peaks than they do now and that the shape of the correlation function of most luminous galaxies is different from observed for their local counterparts, which is a supporting evidence of a non-trivial evolution of the galaxy vs. dark matter bias.

  13. The habitability of the Universe through 13 billion years of cosmic time

    CERN Document Server

    Dayal, Pratika; Cockell, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The field of astrobiology has made tremendous progress in modelling galactic-scale habitable zones which offer a stable environment for life to form and evolve in complexity. Recently, this idea has been extended to cosmological scales by studies modelling the habitability of the local Universe in its entirety (e.g. Dayal et al. 2015; Li & Zhang 2015). However, all of these studies have solely focused on estimating the potentially detrimental effects of either Type II supernovae (SNII) or Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs), ignoring the contributions from Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) and active galactic nuclei (AGN). In this study we follow two different approaches, based on (i) the amplitude of deleterious radiation and (ii) the total planet-hosting volume irradiated by deleterious radiation. We simultaneously track the contributions from the key astrophysical sources (SNII, SNIa, AGN and GRBs) for the entire Universe, for both scenarios, to determine its habitability through 13.8 billion years of cosmic time. We find...

  14. An anoxic, Fe(II)-rich, U-poor ocean 3.46 billion years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiqiang; Czaja, Andrew D.; Van Kranendonk, Martin J.; Beard, Brian L.; Roden, Eric E.; Johnson, Clark M.

    2013-11-01

    The oxidation state of the atmosphere and oceans on the early Earth remains controversial. Although it is accepted by many workers that the Archean atmosphere and ocean were anoxic, hematite in the 3.46 billion-year-old (Ga) Marble Bar Chert (MBC) from Pilbara Craton, NW Australia has figured prominently in arguments that the Paleoarchean atmosphere and ocean was fully oxygenated. In this study, we report the Fe isotope compositions and U concentrations of the MBC, and show that the samples have extreme heavy Fe isotope enrichment, where δ56Fe values range between +1.5‰ and +2.6‰, the highest δ56Fe values for bulk samples yet reported. The high δ56Fe values of the MBC require very low levels of oxidation and, in addition, point to a Paleoarchean ocean that had high aqueous Fe(II) contents. A dispersion/reaction model indicates that O2 contents in the photic zone of the ocean were less than 10-3 μM, which suggests that the ocean was essentially anoxic. An independent test of anoxic conditions is provided by U-Th-Pb isotope systematics, which show that U contents in the Paleoarchean ocean were likely below 0.02 ppb, two orders-of-magnitude lower than the modern ocean. Collectively, the Fe and U data indicate a reduced, Fe(II)-rich, U-poor environment in the Archean oceans at 3.46 billion years ago. Given the evidence for photosynthetic communities provided by broadly coeval stromatolites, these results suggests that an important photosynthetic pathway in the Paleoarchean oceans may have been anoxygenic photosynthetic Fe(II) oxidation.

  15. Searching for Organics Preserved in 4.5 Billion Year Old Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Fries, M.; Steele, A.; Bodnar, R.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of early solar system fluids took a dramatic turn a decade ago with the discovery of fluid inclusion-bearing halite (NaCl) crystals in the matrix of two freshly fallen brecciated H chondrite falls, Monahans and Zag. Both meteorites are regolith breccias, and contain xenolithic halite (and minor admixed sylvite -- KCl, crystals in their regolith lithologies. The halites are purple to dark blue, due to the presence of color centers (electrons in anion vacancies) which slowly accumulated as 40K (in sylvite) decayed over billions of years. The halites were dated by K-Ar, Rb-Sr and I-Xe systematics to be 4.5 billion years old. The "blue" halites were a fantastic discovery for the following reasons: (1) Halite+sylvite can be dated (K is in sylvite and will substitute for Na in halite, Rb substitutes in halite for Na, and I substitutes for Cl). (2) The blue color is lost if the halite dissolves on Earth and reprecipitates (because the newly-formed halite has no color centers), so the color serves as a "freshness" or pristinity indicator. (3) Halite frequently contains aqueous fluid inclusions. (4) Halite contains no structural oxygen, carbon or hydrogen, making them ideal materials to measure these isotopic systems in any fluid inclusions. (5) It is possible to directly measure fluid inclusion formation temperatures, and thus directly measure the temperature of the mineralizing aqueous fluid. In addition to these two ordinary chondrites halite grains have been reliably reported in several ureilites, an additional ordinary chondrite (Jilin), and in the carbonaceous chondrite (Murchison), although these reports were unfortunately not taken seriously. We have lately found additional fluid inclusions in carbonates in several additional carbonaceous chondrites. Meteoritic aqueous fluid inclusions are apparently relatively widespread in meteorites, though very small and thus difficult to analyze.

  16. Reflections on 25 Years of Journal Editorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    2015-07-01

    These reflections range over some distinctive features of the journal Science & Education, they acknowledge in a limited way the many individuals who over the past 25 years have contributed to the success and reputation of the journal, they chart the beginnings of the journal, and they dwell on a few central concerns—clear writing and the contribution of HPS to teacher education. The reflections also revisit the much-debated and written-upon philosophical and pedagogical arguments occasioned by the rise and possible demise of constructivism in science education.

  17. Prodigious degassing of a billion years of accumulated radiogenic helium at Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Evans, William C.; Bergfeld, D.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents1. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot2. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by α-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude) any conceivable rate of generation within the crust. It seems that helium has accumulated for (at least) many hundreds of millions of years in Archaean (more than 2.5 billion years old) cratonic rocks beneath Yellowstone, only to be liberated over the past two million years by intense crustal metamorphism induced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Our results demonstrate the extremes in variability of crustal helium efflux on geologic timescales and imply crustal-scale open-system behaviour of helium in tectonically and magmatically active regions.

  18. Galaxy evolution. Evidence for mature bulges and an inside-out quenching phase 3 billion years after the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacchella, S; Carollo, C M; Renzini, A; Förster Schreiber, N M; Lang, P; Wuyts, S; Cresci, G; Dekel, A; Genzel, R; Lilly, S J; Mancini, C; Newman, S; Onodera, M; Shapley, A; Tacconi, L; Woo, J; Zamorani, G

    2015-04-17

    Most present-day galaxies with stellar masses ≥10(11) solar masses show no ongoing star formation and are dense spheroids. Ten billion years ago, similarly massive galaxies were typically forming stars at rates of hundreds solar masses per year. It is debated how star formation ceased, on which time scales, and how this "quenching" relates to the emergence of dense spheroids. We measured stellar mass and star-formation rate surface density distributions in star-forming galaxies at redshift 2.2 with ~1-kiloparsec resolution. We find that, in the most massive galaxies, star formation is quenched from the inside out, on time scales less than 1 billion years in the inner regions, up to a few billion years in the outer disks. These galaxies sustain high star-formation activity at large radii, while hosting fully grown and already quenched bulges in their cores. PMID:25883353

  19. Rapid oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere 2.33 billion years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Genming; Ono, Shuhei; Beukes, Nicolas J; Wang, David T; Xie, Shucheng; Summons, Roger E

    2016-05-01

    Molecular oxygen (O2) is, and has been, a primary driver of biological evolution and shapes the contemporary landscape of Earth's biogeochemical cycles. Although "whiffs" of oxygen have been documented in the Archean atmosphere, substantial O2 did not accumulate irreversibly until the Early Paleoproterozoic, during what has been termed the Great Oxygenation Event (GOE). The timing of the GOE and the rate at which this oxygenation took place have been poorly constrained until now. We report the transition (that is, from being mass-independent to becoming mass-dependent) in multiple sulfur isotope signals of diagenetic pyrite in a continuous sedimentary sequence in three coeval drill cores in the Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa. These data precisely constrain the GOE to 2.33 billion years ago. The new data suggest that the oxygenation occurred rapidly-within 1 to 10 million years-and was followed by a slower rise in the ocean sulfate inventory. Our data indicate that a climate perturbation predated the GOE, whereas the relationships among GOE, "Snowball Earth" glaciation, and biogeochemical cycling will require further stratigraphic correlation supported with precise chronologies and paleolatitude reconstructions.

  20. A large neutral fraction of cosmic hydrogen a billion years after the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyithe, J Stuart B; Loeb, Abraham

    2004-02-26

    The fraction of ionized hydrogen left over from the Big Bang provides evidence for the time of formation of the first stars and quasar black holes in the early Universe; such objects provide the high-energy photons necessary to ionize hydrogen. Spectra of the two most distant known quasars show nearly complete absorption of photons with wavelengths shorter than the Lyman alpha transition of neutral hydrogen, indicating that hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) had not been completely ionized at a redshift of z approximately 6.3, about one billion years after the Big Bang. Here we show that the IGM surrounding these quasars had a neutral hydrogen fraction of tens of per cent before the quasar activity started, much higher than the previous lower limits of approximately 0.1 per cent. Our results, when combined with the recent inference of a large cumulative optical depth to electron scattering after cosmological recombination therefore suggest the presence of a second peak in the mean ionization history of the Universe. PMID:14985754

  1. Constraining the last 7 billion years of galaxy evolution in semi-analytic models

    CERN Document Server

    Mutch, Simon J; Croton, Darren J

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the ability of the Croton et al. (2006) semi-analytic model to reproduce the evolution of observed galaxies across the final 7 billion years of cosmic history. Using Monte-Carlo Markov Chain techniques we explore the available parameter space to produce a model which attempts to achieve a statistically accurate fit to the observed stellar mass function at z=0 and z~0.8, as well as the local black hole-bulge relation. We find that in order to be successful we are required to push supernova feedback efficiencies to extreme limits which are, in some cases, unjustified by current observations. This leads us to the conclusion that the current model may be incomplete. Using the posterior probability distributions provided by our fitting, as well as the qualitative details of our produced stellar mass functions, we suggest that any future model improvements must act to preferentially bolster star formation efficiency in the most massive halos at high redshift.

  2. Survival of pure disk galaxies over the last 8 billion years

    CERN Document Server

    Sachdeva, Sonali

    2016-01-01

    Pure disk galaxies without any bulge component, i.e., neither classical nor pseudo, seem to have escaped the affects of merger activity inherent to hierarchical galaxy formation models as well as strong internal secular evolution. We discover that a significant fraction (15 - 18 %) of disk galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field (0.4 < z < 1.0) as well as in the local Universe (0.02 < z < 0.05) are such pure disk systems (hereafter, PDS). The spatial distribution of light in these PDS is well described by a single exponential function from the outskirts to the centre and appears to have remained intact over the last 8 billion years keeping the mean central surface brightness and scale-length nearly constant. These two disk parameters of PDS are brighter and shorter, respectively, than of those disks which are part of disk galaxies with bulges. Since the fraction of PDS as well as their profile defining parameters do not change, it indicates that these galaxies have not witnessed either major mergers or ...

  3. A Massive Galaxy in Its Core Formation Phase Three Billion Years After the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erica; van Dokkum, Pieter; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Schreiber, Natascha M. Forster; da Cunha, Elisabete; Tacconi, Linda; Bezanson, Rachel; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Leja, Joel; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind; van der Wel, Arjen; Whitaker, Katherine; Wuyts, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores at early cosmic epochs. However, cores in their formation phase have not yet been observed. Previous studies have found galaxies with high gas velocity dispersions or small apparent sizes but so far no objects have been identified with both the stellar structure and the gas dynamics of a forming core. Here we present a candidate core in formation 11 billion years ago, at z = 2.3. GOODS-N-774 has a stellar mass of 1.0 × 10 (exp 11) solar mass, a half-light radius of 1.0 kpc, and a star formation rate of 90 (sup +45 / sub -20) solar mass/yr. The star forming gas has a velocity dispersion 317 plus or minus 30 km/s, amongst the highest ever measured. It is similar to the stellar velocity dispersions of the putative descendants of GOODS-N-774, compact quiescent galaxies at z is approximately equal to 2 (exp 8-11) and giant elliptical galaxies in the nearby Universe. Galaxies such as GOODS-N-774 appear to be rare; however, from the star formation rate and size of the galaxy we infer that many star forming cores may be heavily obscured, and could be missed in optical and near-infrared surveys.

  4. The First Billion Years project: birthplaces of direct collapse black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Bhaskar; Johnson, Jarrett L; Khochfar, Sadegh; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the environment in which direct-collapse black holes may form by analysing a cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation that is part of the First Billion Years project. This simulation includes the most relevant physical processes leading to direct collapse of haloes, most importantly, molecular hydrogen depletion by dissociation of $H_2$ and $H^-$ from the evolving Lyman-Werner radiation field. We selected a sample of pristine atomic cooling haloes that have never formed stars in their past, have not been polluted with heavy elements and are cooling predominantly via atomic hydrogen lines. Amongst them we identified six haloes that could potentially harbour massive seed black holes formed via direct collapse (with masses in the range of $10^{4-6} M_{sun}$). These potential hosts of direct-collapse black holes form as satellites and are found within 15 physical kpc of proto-galaxies, with stellar masses in the range $10^{5-7} M_{sun}$ and maximal star formation rates of 0.1 Msun/yr over the past 5...

  5. Enhanced cellular preservation by clay minerals in 1 billion-year-old lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacey, David; Saunders, Martin; Roberts, Malcolm; Menon, Sarath; Green, Leonard; Kong, Charlie; Culwick, Timothy; Strother, Paul; Brasier, Martin D

    2014-01-01

    Organic-walled microfossils provide the best insights into the composition and evolution of the biosphere through the first 80 percent of Earth history. The mechanism of microfossil preservation affects the quality of biological information retained and informs understanding of early Earth palaeo-environments. We here show that 1 billion-year-old microfossils from the non-marine Torridon Group are remarkably preserved by a combination of clay minerals and phosphate, with clay minerals providing the highest fidelity of preservation. Fe-rich clay mostly occurs in narrow zones in contact with cellular material and is interpreted as an early microbially-mediated phase enclosing and replacing the most labile biological material. K-rich clay occurs within and exterior to cell envelopes, forming where the supply of Fe had been exhausted. Clay minerals inter-finger with calcium phosphate that co-precipitated with the clays in the sub-oxic zone of the lake sediments. This type of preservation was favoured in sulfate-poor environments where Fe-silicate precipitation could outcompete Fe-sulfide formation. This work shows that clay minerals can provide an exceptionally high fidelity of microfossil preservation and extends the known geological range of this fossilization style by almost 500 Ma. It also suggests that the best-preserved microfossils of this time may be found in low-sulfate environments.

  6. Precambrian crustal evolution of Peninsular India: A 3.0 billion year odyssey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meert, Joseph G.; Pandit, Manoj K.; Pradhan, Vimal R.; Banks, Jonathan; Sirianni, Robert; Stroud, Misty; Newstead, Brittany; Gifford, Jennifer

    2010-11-01

    The Precambrian geologic history of Peninsular India covers nearly 3.0 billion years of time. India is presently attached to the Eurasian continent although it remains (for now) a separate plate. It comprises several cratonic nuclei namely, Aravalli-Bundelkhand, Eastern Dharwar, Western Dharwar, Bastar and Singhbhum Cratons along with the Southern Granulite Province. Cratonization of India was polyphase, but a stable configuration between the major elements was largely complete by 2.5 Ga. Each of the major cratons was intruded by various age granitoids, mafic dykes and ultramafic bodies throughout the Proterozoic. The Vindhyan, Chhattisgarh, Cuddapah, Pranhita-Godavari, Indravati, Bhima-Kaladgi, Kurnool and Marwar basins are the major Meso to Neoproterozoic sedimentary repositories. In this paper we review the major tectonic and igneous events that led to the formation of Peninsular India and provide an up to date geochronologic summary of the Precambrian. India is thought to have played a role in a number of supercontinental cycles including (from oldest to youngest) Ur, Columbia, Rodinia, Gondwana and Pangea. This paper gives an overview of the deep history of Peninsular India as an introduction to this special TOIS volume.

  7. The evolution in the stellar mass of Brightest Cluster Galaxies over the past 10 billion years

    CERN Document Server

    Bellstedt, Sabine; Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn; Guatelli, Susanna; Hill, Allison R; Hoekstra, Henk; Kurinsky, Noah; Labbe, Ivo; Marchesini, Danilo; Marsan, Z Cemile; Safavi-Naeini, Mitra; Sifon, Cristobal; Stefanon, Mauro; van de Sande, Jesse; van Dokkum, Pieter; Weigel, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Using a sample of 98 galaxy clusters recently imaged in the near infra-red with the ESO NTT, WIYN and WHT telescopes, supplemented with 33 clusters from the ESO archive, we measure how the stellar mass of the most massive galaxies in the universe, namely Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCG), increases with time. Most of the BCGs in this new sample lie in the redshift range $0.2billion years ago to the present epoch is broadly consistent with recent semi-analytic and semi-empirical models. As in other recent studies, tentative evidence indicates that the stellar mass growth rate of BCGs may be slowing in the past 3.5 billi...

  8. Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Elizabeth A; Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T Mark; Mao, Wendy L

    2015-11-24

    Evidence of life on Earth is manifestly preserved in the rock record. However, the microfossil record only extends to ∼ 3.5 billion years (Ga), the chemofossil record arguably to ∼ 3.8 Ga, and the rock record to 4.0 Ga. Detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia range in age up to nearly 4.4 Ga. From a population of over 10,000 Jack Hills zircons, we identified one >3.8-Ga zircon that contains primary graphite inclusions. Here, we report carbon isotopic measurements on these inclusions in a concordant, 4.10 ± 0.01-Ga zircon. We interpret these inclusions as primary due to their enclosure in a crack-free host as shown by transmission X-ray microscopy and their crystal habit. Their δ(13)CPDB of -24 ± 5‰ is consistent with a biogenic origin and may be evidence that a terrestrial biosphere had emerged by 4.1 Ga, or ∼ 300 My earlier than has been previously proposed.

  9. A Massive Galaxy in its Core Formation Phase Three Billion Years After the Big Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Erica; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Schreiber, Natascha Förster; da Cunha, Elisabete; Tacconi, Linda; Bezanson, Rachel; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Leja, Joel; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind; van der Wel, Arjen; Whitaker, Katherine; Wuyts, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores at early cosmic epochs. However, cores in their formation phase have not yet been observed. Previous studies have found galaxies with high gas velocity dispersions or small apparent sizes but so far no objects have been identified with both the stellar structure and the gas dynamics of a forming core. Here we present a candidate core in formation 11 billion years ago, at z=2.3. GOODS-N-774 has a stellar mass of 1.0x10^11 Msun, a half-light radius of 1.0 kpc, and a star formation rate of 90[+45-20]Msun/yr. The star forming gas has a velocity dispersion 317+-30 km/s, amongst the highest ever measured. It is similar to the stellar velocity dispersions of the putative descendants of GOODS-N-774, compact quiescent galaxies at z~2 and giant elliptical galaxies in the nearby Universe. Galaxies such as GOODS-N-774 appear to be rare; however, from the star formation rate and size of the galaxy we infer that many star forming cores may be heavil...

  10. Large Molecular Gas Reservoirs in Ancestors of Milky Way-Mass Galaxies 9 Billion Years Ago

    CERN Document Server

    Papovich, Casey; Glazebrook, Karl; Quadri, Ryan; Bekiaris, Georgios; Dickinson, Mark; Finkelstein, Steven; Fisher, David; Inami, Hanae; Livermore, Rachael; Spitler, Lee; Straatman, Caroline; Tran, Kim-Vy

    2016-01-01

    The gas accretion and star-formation histories of galaxies like the Milky Way remain an outstanding problem in astrophysics. Observations show that 8 billion years ago, the progenitors to Milky Way-mass galaxies were forming stars 30 times faster than today and predicted to be rich in molecular gas, in contrast with low present-day gas fractions ($<$10%). Here we show detections of molecular gas from the CO(J=3-2) emission (rest-frame 345.8 GHz) in galaxies at redshifts z=1.2-1.3, selected to have the stellar mass and star-formation rate of the progenitors of today's Milky Way-mass galaxies. The CO emission reveals large molecular gas masses, comparable to or exceeding the galaxy stellar masses, and implying most of the baryons are in cold gas, not stars. The galaxies' total luminosities from star formation and CO luminosities yield long gas-consumption timescales. Compared to local spiral galaxies, the star-formation efficiency, estimated from the ratio of total IR luminosity to CO emission,} has remained...

  11. The formation of submillimetre-bright galaxies from gas infall over a billion years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Desika; Turk, Matthew; Feldmann, Robert; Robitaille, Thomas; Hopkins, Philip; Thompson, Robert; Hayward, Christopher; Ball, David; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan

    2015-09-24

    Submillimetre-bright galaxies at high redshift are the most luminous, heavily star-forming galaxies in the Universe and are characterized by prodigious emission in the far-infrared, with a flux of at least five millijanskys at a wavelength of 850 micrometres. They reside in haloes with masses about 10(13) times that of the Sun, have low gas fractions compared to main-sequence disks at a comparable redshift, trace complex environments and are not easily observable at optical wavelengths. Their physical origin remains unclear. Simulations have been able to form galaxies with the requisite luminosities, but have otherwise been unable to simultaneously match the stellar masses, star formation rates, gas fractions and environments. Here we report a cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulation that is able to form a submillimetre galaxy that simultaneously satisfies the broad range of observed physical constraints. We find that groups of galaxies residing in massive dark matter haloes have increasing rates of star formation that peak at collective rates of about 500-1,000 solar masses per year at redshifts of two to three, by which time the interstellar medium is sufficiently enriched with metals that the region may be observed as a submillimetre-selected system. The intense star formation rates are fuelled in part by the infall of a reservoir gas supply enabled by stellar feedback at earlier times, not through major mergers. With a lifetime of nearly a billion years, our simulations show that the submillimetre-bright phase of high-redshift galaxies is prolonged and associated with significant mass buildup in early-Universe proto-clusters, and that many submillimetre-bright galaxies are composed of numerous unresolved components (for which there is some observational evidence). PMID:26399829

  12. Preservation of hydrocarbons and biomarkers in oil trapped inside fluid inclusions for >2 billion years

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Simon C.; Volk, Herbert; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Ridley, John; Buick, Roger

    2008-02-01

    Oil-bearing fluid inclusions occur in a ca. 2.45 Ga fluvial metaconglomerate of the Matinenda Formation at Elliot Lake, Canada. The oil, most likely derived from the conformably overlying deltaic McKim Formation, was trapped in quartz and feldspar during diagenesis and early metamorphism of the host rock, probably before ca. 2.2 Ga. Molecular geochemical analyses of the oil reveal a wide range of compounds, including CH 4, CO 2, n-alkanes, isoprenoids, monomethylalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, low molecular weight cyclic hydrocarbons, and trace amounts of complex multi-ring biomarkers. Maturity ratios show that the oil was generated in the oil window, with no evidence of extensive thermal cracking. This is remarkable, given that the oils were exposed to upper prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism (280-350 °C) either during migration or after entrapment. The fluid inclusions are closed systems, with high fluid pressures, and contain no clays or other minerals or metals that might catalyse oil-to-gas cracking. These three attributes may all contribute to the thermal stability of the included oil and enable survival of biomarkers and molecular ratios over billions of years. The biomarker geochemistry of the oil in the Matinenda Formation fluid inclusions enables inferences about the organisms that contributed to the organic matter deposited in the Palaeoproterozoic source rocks from which the analysed oil was generated and expelled. The presence of biomarkers produced by cyanobacteria and eukaryotes that are derived from and trapped in rocks deposited before ca. 2.2 Ga is consistent with an earlier evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis and suggests that some aquatic settings had become sufficiently oxygenated for sterol biosynthesis by this time. The extraction of biomarker molecules from Palaeoproterozoic oil-bearing fluid inclusions thus establishes a new method, using low detection limits and system blank levels, to trace evolution through Earth's early history

  13. Four billion years of ophiolites reveal secular trends in oceanic crust formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harald Furnes; Maarten de Wit; Yildirim Dilek

    2014-01-01

    We combine a geological, geochemical and tectonic dataset from 118 ophiolite complexes of the major global Phanerozoic orogenic belts with similar datasets of ophiolites from 111 Precambrian greenstone belts to construct an overview of oceanic crust generation over 4 billion years. Geochemical discrimi-nation systematics built on immobile trace elements reveal that the basaltic units of the Phanerozoic ophiolites are dominantly subduction-related (75%), linked to backarc processes and characterized by a strong MORB component, similar to ophiolites in Precambrian greenstone sequences (85%). The remaining 25%Phanerozoic subduction-unrelated ophiolites are mainly (74%) of Mid-Ocean-Ridge type (MORB type), in contrast to the equal proportion of Rift/Continental Margin, Plume, and MORB type ophiolites in the Precambrian greenstone belts. Throughout the Phanerozoic there are large geochemical variations in major and trace elements, but for average element values calculated in 5 bins of 100 million year intervals there are no obvious secular trends. By contrast, basaltic units in the ophiolites of the Precambrian greenstones (calculated in 12 bins of 250 million years intervals), starting in late Paleo-to early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 2.0e1.8 Ga), exhibit an apparent decrease in the average values of incom-patible elements such as Ti, P, Zr, Y and Nb, and an increase in the compatible elements Ni and Cr with deeper time to the end of the Archean and into the Hadean. These changes can be attributed to decreasing degrees of partial melting of the upper mantle from Hadean/Archean to Present. The onset of geochemical changes coincide with the timing of detectible changes in the structural architecture of the ophiolites such as greater volumes of gabbro and more common sheeted dyke complexes, and lesser occurrences of ocelli (varioles) in the pillow lavas in ophiolites younger than 2 Ga. The global data from the Precambrian ophiolites, representative of nearly 50% of all known

  14. Deposition of 1.88-billion-year-old iron formations as a consequence of rapid crustal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Birger; Fletcher, Ian R; Bekker, Andrey; Muhling, Janet R; Gregory, Courtney J; Thorne, Alan M

    2012-04-26

    Iron formations are chemical sedimentary rocks comprising layers of iron-rich and silica-rich minerals whose deposition requires anoxic and iron-rich (ferruginous) sea water. Their demise after the rise in atmospheric oxygen by 2.32 billion years (Gyr) ago has been attributed to the removal of dissolved iron through progressive oxidation or sulphidation of the deep ocean. Therefore, a sudden return of voluminous iron formations nearly 500 million years later poses an apparent conundrum. Most late Palaeoproterozoic iron formations are about 1.88 Gyr old and occur in the Superior region of North America. Major iron formations are also preserved in Australia, but these were apparently deposited after the transition to a sulphidic ocean at 1.84 Gyr ago that should have terminated iron formation deposition, implying that they reflect local marine conditions. Here we date zircons in tuff layers to show that iron formations in the Frere Formation of Western Australia are about 1.88 Gyr old, indicating that the deposition of iron formations from two disparate cratons was coeval and probably reflects global ocean chemistry. The sudden reappearance of major iron formations at 1.88 Gyr ago--contemporaneous with peaks in global mafic-ultramafic magmatism, juvenile continental and oceanic crust formation, mantle depletion and volcanogenic massive sulphide formation--suggests deposition of iron formations as a consequence of major mantle activity and rapid crustal growth. Our findings support the idea that enhanced submarine volcanism and hydrothermal activity linked to a peak in mantle melting released large volumes of ferrous iron and other reductants that overwhelmed the sulphate and oxygen reservoirs of the ocean, decoupling atmospheric and seawater redox states, and causing the return of widespread ferruginous conditions. Iron formations formed on clastic-starved coastal shelves where dissolved iron upwelled and mixed with oxygenated surface water. The

  15. Thirty Years of Distance Education: Personal Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terralyn McKee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects on the evolving experience of modern distance education (DE as a field of practice for professionals and as a medium for student access to education and training. The writer’s 30 years in the field, as both teacher and student, has coincided with the five-stage evolution of DE delivery defined by Taylor (1995, 2001, 2010. The author considers the perceived identity crisis and diverse theoretical frameworks of the field since the 1980s as well as the need for new levels of change management to enable the tools, technologies, and emerging systems of DE in order to create the flexibility, responsiveness, and networking that students require and that teachers need to learn.

  16. $17 billion needed for population programme to year 2000: Dr. Nafis Sadik launches State of World Population Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), in her address on July 11 to the Foreign Press Association in London on the occasion of the release of the "1995 State of the World Population Report," stated that governments needed to invest in people, and that the estimated amount needed to reduce population numbers in developing countries was $17 billion for the year 2000. Two-thirds of the cost would be supplied by the developing countries. She said that coordinating population policies globally through such documents as the Programme of Action from the Cairo Conference would aid in slowing population growth. World population, currently 5.7 billion, is projected to reach 7.1-7.83 billion in 2015 and 7.9-11.9 billion in 2050. She also noted that certain conditions faced by women bear upon unsustainable population growth. The cycle of poverty continues in developing countries because very young mothers, who face higher risks in pregnancy and childbirth than those who delay childbearing until after the age of 20, are less likely to continue their education, more likely to have lower-paying jobs, and have a higher rate of separation and divorce. The isolation of women from widespread political participation and the marginalization of women's concerns from mainstream topics has resulted in ineffective family planning programs, including prevention of illness or impairment related to pregnancy or childbirth. Women, in most societies, cannot fully participate in economic and public life, have limited access to positions of influence and power, have narrower occupational choices and lower earnings than men, and must struggle to reconcile activities outside the home with their traditional roles. Sustainable development can only be achieved when social development expands opportunities for individuals (men and women), and their families, empowering them in the attainment of their social, economic, political, and cultural aspirations.

  17. ESA's billion star surveyor - Flight operations experience from Gaia's first 1.5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, D.; Rudolph, A.; Whitehead, G.; Loureiro, T.; Serpell, E.; di Marco, F.; Marie, J.; Ecale, E.

    2016-10-01

    This paper details the initial in-flight mission operations experience from ESA's ultra-precise Gaia spacecraft. Tasked with mapping the positions and movements of 1 billion stars to unprecedented precision (to the 10 s of micro-arc-second level, comparable to the width of a coin on the Moon as viewed from Earth). ESA's Science cornerstone mission is expected to also discover and chart 100,000's of new objects including near Earth Asteroids, exoplanets, brown dwarfs and Quasars. After a flawless launch 19 Dec 2013, Gaia was brought the circa 1.5 million kms into L2 via a sequence of technically demanding orbit transfer manoeuvres using onboard thrusters in thrust vectoring mode. Starting in parallel to this, and lasting 6 months, the full spacecraft was commissioned and brought gradually up to the highest operational mode. A number of problems were detected and tackled during commissioning and early routine phase operations. An apparent dimming of the on-board laser and imaged stars, was tracked down to water ice building up inside the telescope enclosure. Also apparent was more straylight than expected. Elsewhere, a micro-propulsion thruster developed unexpected performance levels and a back-up chemical thruster suffered a failed latch valve. These issues, like several others, were dealt with and solved in a series of review meetings, in-orbit special operations and newly developed procedures and on-board software changes. After commissioning Gaia was working so well that it was producing approximately 45% more science data than originally foreseen, primarily since it was able to see stars fainter than required. The mission operations concept was quickly adapted to partially automate ground operations and increase ground station time to allow the full scientific potential of Gaia to be realised.

  18. Earth's air pressure 2.7 billion years ago constrained to less than half of modern levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Sanjoy M.; Buick, Roger; Hagadorn, James W.; Blake, Tim S.; Perreault, John M.; Harnmeijer, Jelte P.; Catling, David C.

    2016-06-01

    How the Earth stayed warm several billion years ago when the Sun was considerably fainter is the long-standing problem of the `faint young Sun paradox'. Because of negligible O2 and only moderate CO2 levels in the Archaean atmosphere, methane has been invoked as an auxiliary greenhouse gas. Alternatively, pressure broadening in a thicker atmosphere with a N2 partial pressure around 1.6-2.4 bar could have enhanced the greenhouse effect. But fossilized raindrop imprints indicate that air pressure 2.7 billion years ago (Gyr) was below twice modern levels and probably below 1.1 bar, precluding such pressure enhancement. This result is supported by nitrogen and argon isotope studies of fluid inclusions in 3.0-3.5 Gyr rocks. Here, we calculate absolute Archaean barometric pressure using the size distribution of gas bubbles in basaltic lava flows that solidified at sea level ~2.7 Gyr in the Pilbara Craton, Australia. Our data indicate a surprisingly low surface atmospheric pressure of Patm = 0.23 +/- 0.23 (2σ) bar, and combined with previous studies suggests ~0.5 bar as an upper limit to late Archaean Patm. The result implies that the thin atmosphere was rich in auxiliary greenhouse gases and that Patm fluctuated over geologic time to a previously unrecognized extent.

  19. Leadership: reflections over the past 100 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Mary B; Arendt, Susan W

    2014-05-01

    Leadership, viewed by the American Dietetic Association as the ability to inspire and guide others toward building and achieving a shared vision, is a much written-about topic. Research on leadership has addressed the topic using many different approaches, from a very simplistic definition of traits to a more complex process involving interactions, emotions, and learning. Thousands of books and papers have been published on the topic of leadership. This review paper will provide examples of the varying foci of the writings on this topic and includes references for instruments used to measure leadership traits and behaviors. Research is needed to determine effective strategies for preparing dietitians to be effective leaders and assume leadership positions. Identifying ways to help dietitians better reflect on their leadership experiences to enhance their learning and leadership might be one strategy to explore.

  20. PBL – Reflections after 10 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soler, José

    The poster describes course 34357 at DTU, where PBL has been used in the last 10 years. While the course responsibles where not aware initially that the used methodology was PBL, the poster describes the triggering idea for the initial taken choices, i.e. homogenize working methodologies for stud......The poster describes course 34357 at DTU, where PBL has been used in the last 10 years. While the course responsibles where not aware initially that the used methodology was PBL, the poster describes the triggering idea for the initial taken choices, i.e. homogenize working methodologies...

  1. Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven's Medical Research Center program

  2. States' Tax Funds for Colleges Top $28-Billion, Up 16 Pct. in 2 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelauf, Jean

    1984-01-01

    The results of an annual national survey of state appropriations for higher education are analyzed and discussed and it is suggested that the 16 percent increase in a two-year period may mark the beginning of a recovery for tax support of higher education. (MSE)

  3. Reflections on Swift from the early years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Alan

    2015-09-01

    The provenance of Swift lies with earlier discoveries of Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) phenomena, starting with the serendipitous discovery of GRBs by the Vela nuclear-test-ban-treaty monitoring satellites, through the first all sky GRB mapping by the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory (CGRO) to the discovery of X-ray afterglows by BeppoSAX. Building on these foundations, Swift has provided the astrophysics community with a new tool for studying GRBs; a rapid reaction spacecraft hosting a unique combination of newly available instrument technologies able to detect, locate and follow the life cycle of bursts across their energy spectrum from gamma-ray, through X-ray, to optical/UV. The Swift science team has shaped the scientific priorities for the mission and ensured access to world class observatories for rapid follow-up observations. Since launch, on 2004 November 20, Swift has been detecting GRBs at a rate of about 100 per year. Many of these have led to major breakthroughs in understanding GRB phenomena and are referenced here alongside comments on some of the events that at times threatened early demise of the Swift mission - happily averted through prompt action by the scientists and engineers of the mission operations team.

  4. Constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio 1.5 billion years after the big bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdonaite, J; Ubachs, W; Murphy, M T; Whitmore, J B

    2015-02-20

    A molecular hydrogen absorber at a lookback time of 12.4 billion years, corresponding to 10% of the age of the Universe today, is analyzed to put a constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio, μ. A high resolution spectrum of the J1443+2724 quasar, which was observed with the Very Large Telescope, is used to create an accurate model of 89 Lyman and Werner band transitions whose relative frequencies are sensitive to μ, yielding a limit on the relative deviation from the current laboratory value of Δμ/μ=(-9.5 ± 5.4(stat)± 5.3(syst))×10(-6). PMID:25763949

  5. A constraint on a varying proton--electron mass ratio 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Bagdonaite, J; Murphy, M T; Whitmore, J B

    2015-01-01

    A molecular hydrogen absorber at a lookback time of 12.4 billion years, corresponding to 10$\\%$ of the age of the universe today, is analyzed to put a constraint on a varying proton--electron mass ratio, $\\mu$. A high resolution spectrum of the J1443$+$2724 quasar, which was observed with the Very Large Telescope, is used to create an accurate model of 89 Lyman and Werner band transitions whose relative frequencies are sensitive to $\\mu$, yielding a limit on the relative deviation from the current laboratory value of $\\Delta\\mu/\\mu=(-9.5\\pm5.4_{\\textrm{stat}} \\pm 5.3_{\\textrm{sys}})\\times 10^{-6}$.

  6. Plate tectonics 2.5 billion years ago: evidence at kolar, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogstad, E J; Balakrishnan, S; Mukhopadhyay, D K; Rajamani, V; Hanson, G N

    1989-03-10

    The Archean Kolar Schist Belt, south India, is a suture zone where two gneiss terranes and at least two amphibolite terranes with distinct histories were accrted. Amphibolites from the eastern and western sides of the schist belt have distinct incompatible element and isotopic characteristics sugesting that their volcanic protoliths were derived from dint mantle sources. The amphibolite and gneiss terranes were juxtaposed by horizontal compression and shearing between 2530 and 2420 million years ago (Ma) along a zone marked by the Kolar Schist Belt. This history of accretion of discrete crustal terranes resembles those of Phanerozoic convergent margins and thus suggests that plate tectonics operated on Earth by 2500 Ma.

  7. Plate tectonics 2.5 billion years ago - Evidence at Kolar, south India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogstad, E. J.; Hanson, G. N.; Balakrishnan, S.; Rajamani, V.; Mukhopadhyay, D. K.

    1989-01-01

    The Archean Kolar Schist Belt, south India, is a suture zone where two gneiss terranes and at least two amphibolite terranes with distinct histories were accreted. Amphibolites from the eastern and western sides of the schist belt have distinct incompatible element and isotopic characteristics suggesting that their volcanic protoliths were derived from different mantle sources. The amphibolite and gneiss terranes were juxtaposed by horizontal compression and shearing between 2530 and 2420 million years ago (Ma) along a zone marked by the Kolar Schist Belt. This history of accretion of discrete crustal terranes resembles those of Phanerozoic convergent margins and thus suggests that plate tectonics operated on earth by 2500 Ma.

  8. Hematite formation by oxygenated groundwater more than 2.76 billion years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Nakamura, Kentaro; Hickman, Arthur H.; Nedachi, Munetomo; Kusakabe, Minoru; Bevacqua, David C.; Ohmoto, Hiroshi

    2009-02-01

    Geoscientific drilling in the Marble Bar area of the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, resulted in the discovery of locally abundant hematite in Archean basalts ~ 200 m below the present land surface. The hematized basalts occurring along a bedding-parallel shear zone are cross-cut by pyrite veinlets (< 3 mm in width) and contain euhedral pyrite grains (10-500 µm in diameter) with sharp crystal edges, indicating that the hematite formed before the pyrite. We have dated the pyrite in the veinlets at 2.763 ± 0.016 Ga using the Re-Os method. Therefore, the hematite formed prior to 2.763 Ga. The basalts containing the hematite belong to the Apex Basalt of the Warrawoona Group, and were erupted onto the Archean seafloor at 3.46 Ga. Due to 2.9 Ga orogenic deformation and subsequent deep erosion, the Apex Basalt was exposed at the surface of a continental landmass prior to 2.77 Ga. Sometime in the period between ~ 2.9 Ga and 2.77 Ga, the basalt section we describe was less than 200 m below the Late Archean land surface, and within range of groundwater percolation through the shear zone in the basalts. Geological, mineralogical and geochemical lines of evidence strongly suggest that the infiltration of O 2-rich groundwater through the bedding-parallel shear in the basalts formed hematite prior to 2.76 Ga, and hence oxygenated surface environments, at least localized and/or short-lived, emerged more than 300 million years before the widely accepted Great Oxidation Event during 2.45 and 2.32 Ga.

  9. Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20% from 2005 to 2010 [National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), 2006. Overview of the 11th Five Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development. NDRC, Beijing]. This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20% energy-intensity target also translates into an annual reduction of over 1.5 billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making the Chinese effort one of the most significant carbon mitigation efforts in the world today. While it is still too early to tell whether China will achieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend in energy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options toward meeting the 20% target using a detailed end-use energy model

  10. Decimetre-scale multicellular eukaryotes from the 1.56-billion-year-old Gaoyuzhuang Formation in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shixing; Zhu, Maoyan; Knoll, Andrew H; Yin, Zongjun; Zhao, Fangchen; Sun, Shufen; Qu, Yuangao; Shi, Min; Liu, Huan

    2016-01-01

    Fossils of macroscopic eukaryotes are rarely older than the Ediacaran Period (635-541 million years (Myr)), and their interpretation remains controversial. Here, we report the discovery of macroscopic fossils from the 1,560-Myr-old Gaoyuzhuang Formation, Yanshan area, North China, that exhibit both large size and regular morphology. Preserved as carbonaceous compressions, the Gaoyuzhuang fossils have statistically regular linear to lanceolate shapes up to 30 cm long and nearly 8 cm wide, suggesting that the Gaoyuzhuang fossils record benthic multicellular eukaryotes of unprecedentedly large size. Syngenetic fragments showing closely packed ∼10 μm cells arranged in a thick sheet further reinforce the interpretation. Comparisons with living thalloid organisms suggest that these organisms were photosynthetic, although their phylogenetic placement within the Eukarya remains uncertain. The new fossils provide the strongest evidence yet that multicellular eukaryotes with decimetric dimensions and a regular developmental program populated the marine biosphere at least a billion years before the Cambrian Explosion. PMID:27186667

  11. Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Fridley, David

    2007-07-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20% from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20% energy intensity target also translates into an annual reduction of over 1.5 billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making the Chinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in the world today. While it is still too early to tell whether China will achieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend in energy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options toward meeting the 20% target using a detailed end-use energy model.

  12. Mobile hydrocarbon microspheres from >2-billion-year-old carbon-bearing seams in the South African deep subsurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanger, G; Moser, D; Hay, M; Myneni, S; Onstott, T C; Southam, G

    2012-11-01

    By ~2.9 Ga, the time of the deposition of the Witwatersrand Supergroup, life is believed to have been well established on Earth. Carbon remnants of the microbial biosphere from this time period are evident in sediments from around the world. In the Witwatersrand Supergroup, the carbonaceous material is often concentrated in seams, closely associated with the gold deposits and may have been a mobile phase 2 billion years ago. Whereas today the carbon in the Witwatersrand Supergroup is presumed to be immobile, hollow hydrocarbon spheres ranging in size from 50 μm were discovered emanating from a borehole drilled through the carbon-bearing seams suggesting that a portion of the carbon may still be mobile in the deep subsurface. ToF-SIMS and STXM analyses revealed that these spheres contain a suite of alkane, alkenes, and aromatic compounds consistent with the described organic-rich carbon seams within the Witwatersrand Supergroup's auriferous reef horizons. Analysis by electron microscopy and ToF-SIMS, however, revealed that these spheres, although most likely composed of biogenic carbon and resembling biological organisms, do not retain any true structural, that is, fossil, information and were formed by an abiogenic process.

  13. Mobile hydrocarbon microspheres from >2-billion-year-old carbon-bearing seams in the South African deep subsurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanger, G; Moser, D; Hay, M; Myneni, S; Onstott, T C; Southam, G

    2012-11-01

    By ~2.9 Ga, the time of the deposition of the Witwatersrand Supergroup, life is believed to have been well established on Earth. Carbon remnants of the microbial biosphere from this time period are evident in sediments from around the world. In the Witwatersrand Supergroup, the carbonaceous material is often concentrated in seams, closely associated with the gold deposits and may have been a mobile phase 2 billion years ago. Whereas today the carbon in the Witwatersrand Supergroup is presumed to be immobile, hollow hydrocarbon spheres ranging in size from 50 μm were discovered emanating from a borehole drilled through the carbon-bearing seams suggesting that a portion of the carbon may still be mobile in the deep subsurface. ToF-SIMS and STXM analyses revealed that these spheres contain a suite of alkane, alkenes, and aromatic compounds consistent with the described organic-rich carbon seams within the Witwatersrand Supergroup's auriferous reef horizons. Analysis by electron microscopy and ToF-SIMS, however, revealed that these spheres, although most likely composed of biogenic carbon and resembling biological organisms, do not retain any true structural, that is, fossil, information and were formed by an abiogenic process. PMID:22901282

  14. Reflections of Being "A Man of Truancy": 40 Years on

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects upon a career of 40 years involving teaching and research into the causes and solutions for school absenteeism and truancy. It includes insights into both professional and empirical work and notes how the subject has become increasingly "politicised" over the last 25-30 years by governments of both persuasions: Left and Right.…

  15. The journey begins at 8am. Destination: unknown Time machine launches quest of discovery: how existence began 13.7 billion years ago.

    CERN Multimedia

    Henderson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A story that began 13.7 billion years ago will start a new chapter this morning. Since the big bang threw space and time into being, no living creature of which we know has been able to discern just what happened in the moments at which existence began. (2 pages)

  16. Shandong Plans to Cultivate Two Aluminum Industry Groups with Sales Income Topping 100 billion yuan Within Three Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Recently,Shandong Province unveiled"Nonferrous Industry Transition and Upgrading Plan",which proposed that by 2017 it would cultivate 2 ultra large aluminum industry groups with sales income topping 100 billion yuan,aluminum capacity will be reduced to 9million tonnes;before 2020 it will no longer add new capacity.

  17. Ten-year-olds' reflections on their life in preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig

    2016-01-01

    What do children think of their time in preschool? In the present study, twelve ten-year-old children collected data from their classmates. The children tend to remember their friends, and reflect on what games they played and with whom. Only about one in three respondents even mentioned the day......-care professionals or pedagogues as we call them in Scandinavia. The overall question we set out to answer is: What is pedagogical quality from a child’s retrospective perspective?...

  18. State Funds for Higher Education Total $34-Billion; 11-Pct. Biennial Rise Equals Lowest in 29 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschik, Scott

    1987-01-01

    Tight state budgets and regional economic difficulties have prompted a sharp drop in the rate that state appropriations for higher education have increased over the past two years. New England fares well while farm and oil states suffer. (MLW)

  19. Quarter One:36.25 Billion USD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    From January to March,2007,China’s total international trade value was 457.74 billion US dollars,and the rise was 23.3% compared with last year.The import made to 205.65 billion US dollars and the export was 252.09 billion US dollars,up

  20. Luzhou Grid to Invest Nearly 2.5 Billion Yuan in the "Twelfth Five Year Plan" Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>According to preliminary plan,during the "Twelfth Five Year Plan" period,Luzhou Grid will newly add 2,400,000 KVA of transforming capacity at 35 KV and above grade,with 912 km line distance,newly add 360,000 KVA in

  1. Decimetre-scale multicellular eukaryotes from the 1.56-billion-year-old Gaoyuzhuang Formation in North China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Shixing; Zhu, Maoyan; Knoll, Andrew H.; YIN, ZONGJUN; Zhao, Fangchen; Sun, Shufen; Qu, Yuangao; Shi, Min; Liu, Huan

    2016-01-01

    Fossils of macroscopic eukaryotes are rarely older than the Ediacaran Period (635–541 million years (Myr)), and their interpretation remains controversial. Here, we report the discovery of macroscopic fossils from the 1,560-Myr-old Gaoyuzhuang Formation, Yanshan area, North China, that exhibit both large size and regular morphology. Preserved as carbonaceous compressions, the Gaoyuzhuang fossils have statistically regular linear to lanceolate shapes up to 30 cm long and nearly 8 cm wide, sugg...

  2. Taking out one billion tones of carbon: the magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark D.; Fridley, David

    2007-01-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country s gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20 percent from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20 percent energy intensity target also translates into an a...

  3. The Evolution of the Galaxy Rest-Frame Ultraviolet Luminosity Function Over the First Two Billion Years

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Steven L; Papovich, Casey; Dickinson, Mark; Song, Mimi; Somerville, Rachel; Ferguson, Henry C; Salmon, Brett; Giavalisco, Mauro; Koekemoer, Anton M; Ashby, Matthew L N; Behroozi, Peter; Castellano, Marco; Dunlop, James S; Faber, Sandy M; Fazio, Giovanni G; Fontana, Adriano; Grogin, Norman A; Hathi, Nimish; Jaacks, Jason; Kocevski, Dale D; Livermore, Rachael; McLure, Ross J; Merlin, Emiliano; Mobasher, Bahram; Newman, Jeffrey A; Rafelski, Marc; Tilvi, Vithal; Willner, S P

    2014-01-01

    We present a robust measurement and analysis of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function at z=4-8. We use deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging over the CANDELS/GOODS fields, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and the Year 1 Hubble Frontier Field deep parallel observations. These surveys provides an effective volume of 0.6-1.2 x 10^6 Mpc^3 over this epoch, allowing us to perform a robust search for bright (M_UV 1000 galaxies at z~6-8. We measure the luminosity function using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to measure robust uncertainties. At the faint end our results agree with previous studies, yet we find a higher abundance of UV-bright galaxies at z>6, with M* ~ -21 at z>5, different than that inferred based on previous trends at lower redshift. At z=8, a single power-law provides an equally good fit to the UV luminosity function, while at z=6 and 7, an exponential cutoff at the bright-end is moderately preferred. We compare to semi-analytical models, and find that the lack of evolution in M* is cons...

  4. Has Anything Changed? A Reflection on 40 Years in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Jim

    2012-01-01

    The author first recognised the transformational power of education when he arrived at university. His career has included over 10 years as a mainstream principal, 7 as executive director of an agency that included being principal of a Special Assistance School, and a 5 year period in between in a leadership role in a community welfare…

  5. "Process and Intention": A Thirtieth-Year Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Richard

    2011-01-01

    "Process and Intention: A Bridge from Theory to Classroom" is rooted in a time when intuitive, experience-based awareness that we should "Teach Writing as a Process Not Product" (Murray 3) was bolstered by systematic research into the complexity of writing. Lots of years have passed since those days, so as a reminder, the author mentions five…

  6. Forty Years of Organization Studies: Reflections from a Micro Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Lyman W.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews 40 years of organizational studies from a micro perspective representing the author's roots in psychology. The field's major accomplishment is its interdisciplinarity. Organizational studies helped put organizational management under critical scrutiny and demonstrate the futility of devising simplistic solutions to organizational and…

  7. Reflections on a Flipped Classroom in First Year Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Josh

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the efficacy of a flipped classroom model for teaching first year students three-dimensional (3D) animation, and analyses the advantages and disadvantages when compared to traditional teaching mechanisms. In 2015, within the course "Introduction to CGI" at the University of South Australia, two different tutorial…

  8. Reflections on "Music Educators Journal" in Its Centennial Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Bennett

    2014-01-01

    This article views "Music Educators Journal" ("MEJ") and the hundred years of music education it has served through the lenses of the depth and breadth of music education at the present point in the profession's history. "MEJ" has been an important component in our depth of understanding of the nature and values…

  9. Reflections on 3 years of mlearning implementation (2007-2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Cochrane, Thom; Bateman, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the implications of 3 years of action research mlearning projects investigating the potential of mobile web 2.0 tools to facilitate social constructivist learning environments across multiple learning contexts. Highlighted are the design framework, identified critical success factors, and implementation strategy developed from the thirteen mlearning projects undertaken between 2007 and 2009. The projects encompassed five different courses, forming five case studies spanni...

  10. A Three-Year Reflective Writing Program as Part of Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Nuffer, Wesley; Vaughn, Jessica; Kerr, Kevin; Zielenski, Christopher; Toppel, Brianna; Johnson, Lauren; McCauley, Patrina; Turner, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To implement and evaluate a 3-year reflective writing program incorporated into introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) in the first- through third-year of a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program.

  11. A matter of meaning: reflections on forty years of JCL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Katherine

    2014-07-01

    The entry into language via first words and, the acquisition of word meanings is considered from the perspective of publications in the Journal of Child Language over the past forty years. Problems in achieving word meanings include the disparate and sparse concepts available to the child from past prelanguage experience. Variability in beginning word learning and in its progress along a number of dimensions suggests the problems that children may encounter, as well as the strategies and styles they adopt to make progress. Social context and adult practices are vitally involved in the success of this process. Whereas much headway has been made over the past decades, much remains to be revealed through dynamic systems theory and developmental semiotic analyses, as well as laboratory research aimed at social context conditions.

  12. Foreign trade likely to exceed US$1,600 billion this year%今年中国外贸总额可能超过16000亿美元

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Import and export of commodities will continue to grow rapidly this year, according to a forecast made by the Report on China's Foreign Trade (Spring 2006)published by the Ministry of Commerce at the recent Guangzhou Import and Export Commodities Fair.The report forecast that China's total import and export will exceed US($)1,600 billion this year, and the growth will be more than 15%.

  13. Demand for new aeroplanes in next 20 years Worth US $144 billion%未来20年中国需要飞机总值 1440亿美元

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ The 2001 Estimate of the Chinaese Market released byBoeing Company of the United States predicted that in thenext 20 years, starting this year, China′s need for civilaeroplanes would be 1,764 worth US 144 billion. By theyear 2020 China′s airlines will have more than 2, 200 aero-planes and become one of fhe largest civil aviation markets,second only to the US.

  14. Lamellar magnetism and exchange bias in billion-year-old titanohematite with nanoscale ilmenite exsolution lamellae: I. Mineral and magnetic characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnroe, Suzanne A.; Robinson, Peter; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Fabian, Karl; Dyar, Darby; Sklute, Elizabeth

    2016-07-01

    Recent high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys in South Norway have revealed numerous remanent anomalies over Mesoproterozoic metamorphic rocks. Studies on the nature of the minerals that are the remanent carriers has led to discoveries of titanohematite samples with unusual magnetic properties caused by nanoscale exsolution lamellae with their related lamellar magnetism. Here we focus on a rock unit dominated by quartz-plagioclase-biotite granulite containing titanohematite grains with a strong lattice-preferred orientation parallel to regional foliation. When samples with their natural remanent magnetization (NRM), acquired nearly 1 billion years ago, are cooled to 10 K and hysteresis loops measured, these loops show bi-modal exchange bias caused by the magnetism induced within the ilmenite by antiferromagnetic coupling with the adjacent lamellar NRM. By contrast when the samples are cooled in a strong magnetic field (1.5 Tesla), this results in unimodal lamellar magnetism, and, below the TN of ilmenite it adopts a consistent negative orientation, giving rise to unimodal negative exchange bias of >500 mT. The results presented here cover the chemical and magnetic properties, Mossbauer results and transmission electron microscopy of the titanohematite and ilmenite lamellae. Initial magnetic experiments indicated the shifts found in the exchange-bias experiments were directly related to the orientation of the sample to the applied field and the initial state of the NRM. In most samples with these unusual magnetic properties, ilmenite lamellae could not be seen in an optical or a scanning electron microscope. However magnetic experiments gave proof of the presence of ilmenite, later confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Several attempts were made to identify ilmenite in TEM studies, finally successful in showing ilmenite lamellae parallel to (001) of hematite with thicknesses ˜1.2 to 1.7 nm and aspect ratios 7-13. Here we compare new TEM images and the magnetic

  15. Interaction, at Ambient Temperature and 80 °C, between Minerals and Artificial Seawaters Resembling the Present Ocean Composition and that of 4.0 Billion Years Ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Cristine E. A.; Stabile, Antonio C.; Gomes, Frederico P.; da Costa, Antonio C. S.; Zaia, Cássia T. B. V.; Zaia, Dimas A. M.

    2016-10-01

    Probably one of the most important roles played by minerals in the origin of life on Earth was to pre-concentrate biomolecules from the prebiotic seas. There are other ways to pre concentrate biomolecules such as wetting/drying cycles and freezing/sublimation. However, adsorption is most important. If the pre-concentration did not occur—because of degradation of the minerals—other roles played by them such as protection against degradation, formation of polymers, or even as primitive cell walls would be seriously compromised. We studied the interaction of two artificial seawaters with kaolinite, bentonite, montmorillonite, goethite, ferrihydrite and quartz. One seawater has a major cation and anion composition similar to that of the oceans of the Earth 4.0 billion years ago (ASW 4.0 Ga). In the other, the major cations and anions are an average of the compositions of the seawaters of today (ASWT). When ASWT, which is rich in Na+ and Cl-, interacted with bentonite and montmorrilonite structural collapse occurred on the 001 plane. However, ASW 4.0 Ga, which is rich in Mg2+ and SO4 2-, did not induce this behavior. When ASW 4.0 Ga was reacted with the minerals for 24 h at room temperature and 80 °C, the release of Si and Al to the fluid was below 1 % of the amount in the minerals—meaning that dissolution of the minerals did not occur. In general, minerals adsorbed Mg2+ and K+ from the ASW 4.0 Ga and these cations could be used for the formation of polymers. Also, when the minerals were mixed with ASW 4.0 Ga at 80 °C and ASWT at room temperature or 80 °C it caused the precipitation of CaSO4•2H2O and halite, respectively. Finally, further experiments (adsorption, formation of polymers, protection of molecules against degradation, primitive cell wall formation) performed under the conditions described in this paper will probably be more representative of what happened on the prebiotic Earth.

  16. Stable Isotope Geochemistry of Extremely Well-Preserved 2.45-Billion-Year-Old Hydrothermal Systems in the Vetreny Belt, Baltic Shield: Insights into Paleohydrosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, D. O.; Bindeman, I. N.

    2015-12-01

    The early Paleoproterozoic was an eventful period in the Earth's history. The first portions of free oxygen emerged in the atmosphere, Snowball Earth glaciations happened several times and the first supercontinent broke up due to extensive rifting. These events should have affected the stable isotopic composition of the hydrosphere. In this study, we use rocks that were altered in underwater hydrothermal systems to investigate the stable isotopic composition of the hydrosphere 2.39-2.45 billion years ago (hereinafter, Ga). Extremely low-δ18O (down to -27.5‰ SMOW) rocks from 2.39 Ga metamorphosed subglacial hydrothermal systems of the Belomorian belt, Baltic Shield formed at near-equatorial latitudes suggesting a Snowball (or Slushball) Earth glaciation. These results motivated us to look at temporally and geographically close hydrothermal systems from the unmetamorhposed 2.45 Ga Vetreny Belt rift. The length of the rift is 250 km and it is composed of high-Mg basalts, mafic-ultramafic intrusions and sedimentary successions. We examined several localities of high-Mg basalt flows that include astonishingly fresh pillow lavas, often with preserved volcanic glass, eruptive breccias, and hydrothermal alteration zones. Collected samples serve a great textural evidence of water-rock interaction that occurred in situ while basalts were cooling. The preliminary results from coexisting quartz and epidote (T, D18O=311°C), and from coexisting calcite and quartz (T, D18O=190°C) yield values of δ18O of involved water between -1.6 and -0.9 ‰. The values of δ13C in calcites vary between -4.0 and -2.3 ‰. It is likely that hydrothermal fluids operated in the Vetreny Belt rift were derived from seawater that is no different from modern oceanic water in terms of δ18O. Apparently, the rift was a Paleoproterozoic analog of the modern Red Sea, filled with oceanic water. The result is important because the Vetreny Belt rift predates the onset of Snowball Earth glaciation at 2

  17. Fifty Years of "Comparative Education Review" Bibliographies: Reflections on the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, Rosalind Latiner

    2007-01-01

    For the past three years, the "Comparative Education Review" ("CER") has published annual bibliographic essays reflecting the changes in the field over the previous year. This year, to mark the 50th anniversary of the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES), the author analyzed "CER" bibliographies since 1959, in addition to…

  18. The State of Community Engagement in Graduate Education: Reflecting on 10 Years of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Shauna M.; Jaeger, Audrey J.; O'Meara, KerryAnn

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors reflect on KerryAnn O'Meara and Audrey Jaeger's 2006 article, "Preparing Future Faculty for Community Engagement: Barriers, Facilitators, Models, and Recommendations" (EJ1092909) reprinted in this 20th anniversary issue of "Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement." Ten years ago, O'Meara…

  19. Twenty Years On: Reflections on "Supporting the Use of External Representations in Problem Solving"…

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Richard; Brna, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We reflect upon a paper we wrote that was published in 1995 (20 years ago). We outline the motivation for the work and situate it in the state of the art at that time. We suggest that a key contribution was to highlight the need to provide support for learners who reason with external representations. The support must be flexible enough to…

  20. Teachers' Reflections of Cooperative Learning (CL): A Two-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.; Boyle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Although teachers often report that they subscribe to cooperative learning (CL) to help students attain social and academic goals, research indicates that they often have difficulties implementing and sustaining their commitment. The purpose of this study is to report on the reflections of seven middle-year teachers who had embedded CL in their…

  1. Reflections on 30 Years of AIDS—Part 1

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-06-15

    Dr. Kevin DeCock, director of The Center for Global Health at CDC, reflects on 30 years of the AIDS epidemic.  Created: 6/15/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/16/2011.

  2. Book review: 10 billion

    OpenAIRE

    Saffin, Kate

    2013-01-01

    10 Billion aims to take a dramatic look at the challenges we face today, from over-population to energy wars, to melting ice caps to civil conflict, presented in an eye-catching infographic style. Stephen Emmott has attempted to obtain reach and for all the criticism of his method and writing, it is not as though he is pretending that this would make it in to a journal, an article for which he is more than capable of writing. Science communication is never easy, writes Kate Saffin, and if Emm...

  3. Reflections on 30 Years of AIDS—Part 2

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-06-15

    Dr. James Curran, Dean of the Rollins School of Public Health and Co-Director of Emory’s Center for AIDS Research, and Dr. Harold Jaffe, CDC’s Associate Director for Science, reflect on 30 years of the AIDS epidemic.  Created: 6/15/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/20/2011.

  4. LoCuSS: The Steady Decline and Slow Quenching of Star Formation in Cluster Galaxies over the Last Four Billion Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, C. P.; Pereira, M. J.; Smith, G. P.; Egami, E.; Sanderson, A. J. R.; Babul, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Merluzzi, P.; Busarello, G.; Rawle, T. D.; Okabe, N.

    2013-10-01

    We present an analysis of the levels and evolution of star formation activity in a representative sample of 30 massive galaxy clusters at 0.15 3 M ⊙ yr-1, of the form f SFvprop(1 + z)7.6 ± 1.1. We dissect the origins of the Butcher-Oemler effect, revealing it to be due to the combination of a ~3 × decline in the mean specific SFRs of star-forming cluster galaxies since z ~ 0.3 with a ~1.5 × decrease in number density. Two-thirds of this reduction in the specific SFRs of star-forming cluster galaxies is due to the steady cosmic decline in the specific SFRs among those field galaxies accreted into the clusters. The remaining one-third reflects an accelerated decline in the star formation activity of galaxies within clusters. The slow quenching of star formation in cluster galaxies is consistent with a gradual shut down of star formation in infalling spiral galaxies as they interact with the intracluster medium via ram-pressure stripping or starvation mechanisms. The observed sharp decline in star formation activity among cluster galaxies since z ~ 0.4 likely reflects the increased susceptibility of low-redshift spiral galaxies to gas removal mechanisms as their gas surface densities decrease with time. We find no evidence for the build-up of cluster S0 bulges via major nuclear starburst episodes.

  5. Influence of atmospheric ice nucleus concentrations on cold cloud radiant properties and cold cloud reflectivity changes in past years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    PAL satellite dataset which have long temporal span is used in the study. Relationship between cold cloud reflectivity and aerosol concentration in Beijing is analyzed as an example. From analysis, cold cloud reflectivity is found to be well correlated with aerosol optical depth. Meanwhile, it is retro-correlated with surface visibility. The results mean that cold cloud reflectivity is possibly influenced by ice nucleus concentration changes. Analysis about cold cloud reflectivity changes during the period 1982-1999 in Beijing shows that reflectivity increases in earlier years and decreases in later years. The data of cold cloud reflectivity in China show that reflectivity in some regions has changed. For the reason that cold cloud is very important in global climate system, those changes of cold cloud reflectivity can lead to climate changes finally.

  6. LoCuSS: THE STEADY DECLINE AND SLOW QUENCHING OF STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTER GALAXIES OVER THE LAST FOUR BILLION YEARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analysis of the levels and evolution of star formation activity in a representative sample of 30 massive galaxy clusters at 0.15 or approx. 1010 M☉) star-forming cluster galaxies within r200 are found to be systematically ∼28% lower than their counterparts in the field at fixed stellar mass and redshift, a difference significant at the 8.7σ level. This is the unambiguous signature of star formation in most (and possibly all) massive star-forming galaxies being slowly quenched upon accretion into massive clusters, their star formation rates (SFRs) declining exponentially on quenching timescales in the range 0.7-2.0 Gyr. We measure the mid-infrared Butcher-Oemler effect over the redshift range 0.0-0.4, finding rapid evolution in the fraction (fSF) of massive (MK 200 with SFRs > 3 M☉ yr–1, of the form fSF∝(1 + z)7.6±1.1. We dissect the origins of the Butcher-Oemler effect, revealing it to be due to the combination of a ∼3 × decline in the mean specific SFRs of star-forming cluster galaxies since z ∼ 0.3 with a ∼1.5 × decrease in number density. Two-thirds of this reduction in the specific SFRs of star-forming cluster galaxies is due to the steady cosmic decline in the specific SFRs among those field galaxies accreted into the clusters. The remaining one-third reflects an accelerated decline in the star formation activity of galaxies within clusters. The slow quenching of star formation in cluster galaxies is consistent with a gradual shut down of star formation in infalling spiral galaxies as they interact with the intracluster medium via ram-pressure stripping or starvation mechanisms. The observed sharp decline in star formation activity among cluster galaxies since z ∼ 0.4 likely reflects the increased susceptibility of low-redshift spiral galaxies to gas removal mechanisms as their gas surface densities decrease with time. We find no evidence for the build-up of cluster S0 bulges via major nuclear starburst episodes

  7. LoCuSS: THE STEADY DECLINE AND SLOW QUENCHING OF STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTER GALAXIES OVER THE LAST FOUR BILLION YEARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haines, C. P.; Pereira, M. J.; Egami, E.; Rawle, T. D. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Smith, G. P.; Sanderson, A. J. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Babul, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 1A1 (Canada); Finoguenov, A. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, FI-0014 Helsinki (Finland); Merluzzi, P.; Busarello, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Okabe, N., E-mail: cphaines@as.arizona.edu [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA), P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-01

    We present an analysis of the levels and evolution of star formation activity in a representative sample of 30 massive galaxy clusters at 0.15 < z < 0.30 from the Local Cluster Substructure Survey, combining wide-field Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm data with extensive spectroscopy of cluster members. The specific SFRs of massive (M > or approx. 10{sup 10} M{sub ☉}) star-forming cluster galaxies within r{sub 200} are found to be systematically ∼28% lower than their counterparts in the field at fixed stellar mass and redshift, a difference significant at the 8.7σ level. This is the unambiguous signature of star formation in most (and possibly all) massive star-forming galaxies being slowly quenched upon accretion into massive clusters, their star formation rates (SFRs) declining exponentially on quenching timescales in the range 0.7-2.0 Gyr. We measure the mid-infrared Butcher-Oemler effect over the redshift range 0.0-0.4, finding rapid evolution in the fraction (f{sub SF}) of massive (M{sub K} < – 23.1) cluster galaxies within r{sub 200} with SFRs > 3 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, of the form f{sub SF}∝(1 + z){sup 7.6±1.1}. We dissect the origins of the Butcher-Oemler effect, revealing it to be due to the combination of a ∼3 × decline in the mean specific SFRs of star-forming cluster galaxies since z ∼ 0.3 with a ∼1.5 × decrease in number density. Two-thirds of this reduction in the specific SFRs of star-forming cluster galaxies is due to the steady cosmic decline in the specific SFRs among those field galaxies accreted into the clusters. The remaining one-third reflects an accelerated decline in the star formation activity of galaxies within clusters. The slow quenching of star formation in cluster galaxies is consistent with a gradual shut down of star formation in infalling spiral galaxies as they interact with the intracluster medium via ram-pressure stripping or starvation mechanisms. The observed sharp decline in star formation activity among cluster

  8. Understanding the changes of cone reflectance in adaptive optics flood illumination retinal images over three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Letizia; Devaney, Nicholas; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Lombardo, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Although there is increasing interest in the investigation of cone reflectance variability, little is understood about its characteristics over long time scales. Cone detection and its automation is now becoming a fundamental step in the assessment and monitoring of the health of the retina and in the understanding of the photoreceptor physiology. In this work we provide an insight into the cone reflectance variability over time scales ranging from minutes to three years on the same eye, and for large areas of the retina (≥ 2.0 × 2.0 degrees) at two different retinal eccentricities using a commercial adaptive optics (AO) flood illumination retinal camera. We observed that the difference in reflectance observed in the cones increases with the time separation between the data acquisitions and this may have a negative impact on algorithms attempting to track cones over time. In addition, we determined that displacements of the light source within 0.35 mm of the pupil center, which is the farthest location from the pupil center used by operators of the AO camera to acquire high-quality images of the cone mosaic in clinical studies, does not significantly affect the cone detection and density estimation.

  9. Understanding the changes of cone reflectance in adaptive optics flood illumination retinal images over three years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Letizia; Devaney, Nicholas; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Lombardo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Although there is increasing interest in the investigation of cone reflectance variability, little is understood about its characteristics over long time scales. Cone detection and its automation is now becoming a fundamental step in the assessment and monitoring of the health of the retina and in the understanding of the photoreceptor physiology. In this work we provide an insight into the cone reflectance variability over time scales ranging from minutes to three years on the same eye, and for large areas of the retina (≥ 2.0 × 2.0 degrees) at two different retinal eccentricities using a commercial adaptive optics (AO) flood illumination retinal camera. We observed that the difference in reflectance observed in the cones increases with the time separation between the data acquisitions and this may have a negative impact on algorithms attempting to track cones over time. In addition, we determined that displacements of the light source within 0.35 mm of the pupil center, which is the farthest location from the pupil center used by operators of the AO camera to acquire high-quality images of the cone mosaic in clinical studies, does not significantly affect the cone detection and density estimation. PMID:27446708

  10. VIIRS reflective solar bands on-orbit calibration and performance: a three-year update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junqiang; Wang, Menghua

    2014-11-01

    The on-orbit calibration of the reflective solar bands (RSBs) of VIIRS and the result from the analysis of the up-to-date 3 years of mission data are presented. The VIIRS solar diffuser (SD) and lunar calibration methodology are discussed, and the calibration coefficients, called F-factors, for the RSBs are given for the latest reincarnation. The coefficients derived from the two calibrations are compared and the uncertainties of the calibrations are discussed. Numerous improvements are made, with the major improvement to the calibration result come mainly from the improved bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) of the SD and the vignetting functions of both the SD screen and the sun-view screen. The very clean results, devoid of many previously known noises and artifacts, assures that VIIRS has performed well for the three years on orbit since launch, and in particular that the solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) is functioning essentially without flaws. The SD degradation, or H-factors, for most part shows the expected decline except for the surprising rise on day 830 lasting for 75 days signaling a new degradation phenomenon. Nevertheless the SDSM and the calibration methodology have successfully captured the SD degradation for RSB calibration. The overall improvement has the most significant and direct impact on the ocean color products which demands high accuracy from RSB observations.

  11. Eliciting Metacognitive Experiences and Reflection in a Year 11 Chemistry Classroom: An Activity Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gregory P.; McRobbie, Campbell J.

    2013-06-01

    Concerns regarding students' learning and reasoning in chemistry classrooms are well documented. Students' reasoning in chemistry should be characterized by conscious consideration of chemical phenomenon from laboratory work at macroscopic, molecular/sub-micro and symbolic levels. Further, students should develop metacognition in relation to such ways of reasoning about chemistry phenomena. Classroom change eliciting metacognitive experiences and metacognitive reflection is necessary to shift entrenched views of teaching and learning in students. In this study, Activity Theory is used as the framework for interpreting changes to the rules/customs and tools of the activity systems of two different classes of students taught by the same teacher, Frances, who was teaching chemical equilibrium to those classes in consecutive years. An interpretive methodology involving multiple data sources was employed. Frances explicitly changed her pedagogy in the second year to direct students attention to increasingly consider chemical phenomena at the molecular/sub-micro level. Additionally, she asked students not to use the textbook until toward the end of the equilibrium unit and sought to engage them in using their prior knowledge of chemistry to understand their observations from experiments. Frances' changed pedagogy elicited metacognitive experiences and reflection in students and challenged them to reconsider their metacognitive beliefs about learning chemistry and how it might be achieved. While teacher change is essential for science education reform, students are not passive players in change efforts and they need to be convinced of the viability of teacher pedagogical change in the context of their goals, intentions, and beliefs.

  12. Near-peer role modeling: Can fourth-year medical students, recognized for their humanism, enhance reflection among second-year students in a physical diagnosis course?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi McEvoy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Humanism is cultivated through reflection and self-awareness. We aimed to employ fourth-year medical students, recognized for their humanism, to facilitate reflective sessions for second-year medical students with the intention of positively influencing reflective process toward humanistic development. Methods/Analysis: A total of 186 students were randomly assigned to one of three comparison arms: eight groups of eight students (64 students were facilitated by a fourth-year student who was a Gold Humanism Honor Society member (GHHS; eight groups (64 students by a volunteer non-GHHS student; and seven groups (58 students were non-facilitated. Before sessions, second-year students set learning goals concerning interactions with patients; fourth-year students received training materials on facilitation. Groups met twice during their 10 clinical site visits. At the last session, students completed a reflective assignment on their goal progress. Comparative mixed method analyses were conducted among the three comparison arms on reflection (reflective score on in-session assignment and session satisfaction (survey in addition to a thematic analysis of responses on the in-session assignment. Results: We found significant differences among all three comparison arms on students’ reflective scores (p=0.0003 and satisfaction (p=0.0001. T-tests comparing GHHS- and non-GHHS-facilitated groups showed significantly higher mean reflective scores for GHHS-facilitated groups (p=0.033; there were no differences on session satisfaction. Thematic analysis of students’ reflections showed attempts at self-examination, but lacked depth in addressing emotions. There was a common focus on achieving comfort and confidence in clinical skills performance. Discussion/Conclusions: Near peers, recognized for their humanism, demonstrated significant influence in deepening medical students’ reflections surrounding patient interactions or humanistic

  13. Looking Back Across the Years: Alumni Reflections on a Community Design Service Learning Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Christopher Plein

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the perceptions of alumni on a service learning experience they engaged in as graduate students. As students, they were enrolled in West Virginia University’s Master of Public Administration program and participated in the West Virginia Community Design Team. Since 1997, the Community Design Team (CDT program has engaged the state’s rural communities through volunteer teams of faculty, professionals, and students who assist in community efforts to assess and envision their futures. Through a curricular-based approach of integration and reflection, students are able to incorporate their CDT experiences into their overall graduate education. After briefly describing how integration and reflection are pursued through portfolio and capstone requirements, the paper then focuses on alumni recollections of how they encountered small rural communities, their lasting lessons gained from the experience, their evaluations of the place of service learning in graduate education, and their advice to others seeking to engage communities through university outreach and service projects. Data was gathered for this paper through in-depth interviews with alumni who participated in the CDT program as students. The results also suggests that alumni perspective is important not only in assessing service learning experiences but in reinforcing lessons learned by revisiting the experience years later. The research also seeks to add to our understanding of service learning in graduate education. KEYWORDSservice learning; graduate education; community engagement

  14. Reflections on Tutoring Ancient Greek Philosophy: A Case Study of Teaching First-Year Undergraduates in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This is a case study of my reflections on teaching a first-year undergraduate tutorial on Ancient Greek Philosophy in the UK. This study draws upon the notion of reflective practice as an essential feature of teaching, in this case applied to Higher Education. My aim is to show how a critical engagement with my teaching practices and the overall…

  15. Twenty Years of Growth and Innovation: A Reflection on PACKRAT's Impact on Physician Assistant Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Kim; Lessard, Donovan; Britt, Zach

    2015-12-01

    In its 20th year, the Physician Assistant Clinical Knowledge Rating and Assessment Tool (PACKRAT) is a student self-assessment that can assist physician assistant (PA) students and PA program faculty in identifying strengths and areas in need of improvement in the didactic and clinical phases of PA education. In this reflection, we provide an overview of the history of PACKRAT and outline some of its benefits for students and PA programs, as well as its generative role in assessment within PA studies. Taking a broader view of PACKRAT's impact on assessment for the PA profession, we outline the research on its benefits and its use to maximize student performance, as well as how it has promoted the development of additional assessment tools. PMID:26599313

  16. Reflections on 25 Years of Social Science Research Collaboration in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iqbal H.Shah

    2010-01-01

    @@ Objectives: This paper is to reflect on 25 wonderful years of my collaboration with the Chinese scientists and policy makers on social science and operations research in sexual reproductive health.Past and ongoing collaboration is reviewed,followed by a discussion on the record of achievements and ideas for future directions and research priorities.The paper represents my views based on an exceptionally rich personal and professional experience working with numerous Chinese scientists on a range of research topics.However,it is limited to projects on social science and operations research and training in sexual and reproductive health that have been sponsored by the Special Programme in Human Reproduction,Department of Reproductive Health and Research,World Health Organization(WHO),Geneva.

  17. Palaeoclimates: the first two billion years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, James F; Ono, Shuhei

    2006-01-01

    Earth's climate during the Archaean remains highly uncertain, as the relevant geologic evidence is sparse and occasionally contradictory. Oxygen isotopes in cherts suggest that between 3.5 and 3.2 Gyr ago (Ga) the Archaean climate was hot (55–85 °C); however, the fact that these cherts have experienced only a modest amount of weathering suggests that the climate was temperate, as today. The presence of diamictites in the Pongola Supergroup and the Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa suggests that by 2.9 Ga the climate was glacial. The Late Archaean was relatively warm; then glaciation (possibly of global extent) reappeared in the Early Palaeoproterozoic, around 2.3–2.4 Ga. Fitting these climatic constraints with a model requires high concentrations of atmospheric CO2 or CH4, or both. Solar luminosity was 20–25% lower than today, so elevated greenhouse gas concentrations were needed just to keep the mean surface temperature above freezing. A rise in O2 at approximately 2.4 Ga, and a concomitant decrease in CH4, provides a natural explanation for the Palaeoproterozoic glaciations. The Mid-Archaean glaciations may have been caused by a drawdown in H2 and CH4 caused by the origin of bacterial sulphate reduction. More work is needed to test this latter hypothesis. PMID:16754607

  18. Oxygen - A Four Billion Year History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    The air we breathe is twenty-one percent oxygen, an amount higher than on any other known world. While we may take our air for granted, Earth was not always an oxygenated planet. How did it become this way? Oxygen is the most current account of the history of atmospheric oxygen on Earth. Donald...... Canfield--one of the world's leading authorities on geochemistry, earth history, and the early oceans--covers this vast history, emphasizing its relationship to the evolution of life and the evolving chemistry of the Earth. With an accessible and colorful first-person narrative, he draws from a variety...... of fields, including geology, paleontology, geochemistry, biochemistry, animal physiology, and microbiology, to explain why our oxygenated Earth became the ideal place for life. Describing which processes, both biological and geological, act to control oxygen levels in the atmosphere, Canfield traces...

  19. To reactivate or not to reactivate: nature and varied behavior of structural inheritance in the Proterozoic basement of the Eastern Colorado mineral belt over 1.7 billion years of earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Jonathan Saul; Ridley, John; Wessel, Zachary R.

    2010-01-01

    The eastern central Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado has long been a region of geologic interest because of Laramide-age hydrothermal polymetallic vein-related ores. The region is characterized by a well-exposed array of geologic structures associated with ductile and brittle deformation, which record crustal strain over 1.7 billion years of continental growth and evolution. The mineralized areas lie along a broad linear zone termed the Colorado Mineral Belt. This lineament has commonly been interpreted as following a fundamental boundary, such as a suture zone, in the North American Proterozoic crust that acted as a persistent zone of weakness localizing the emplacement of magmas and associated hydrothermal fluid flow. However, the details on the controls of the location, orientation, kinematics, density, permeability, and relative strength of various geological structures and their specific relationships to mineral deposit formation are not related to Proterozoic ancestry in a simple manner. The objectives of this field trip are to show key localities typical of the various types of structures present, show recently compiled and new data, offer alternative conceptual models, and foster dialogue. Topics to be discussed include: (1) structural history of the eastern Front Range; (2) characteristics, kinematics, orientations, and age of ductile and brittle structures and how they may or may not relate to one another and mineral deposit permeability; and (3) characteristics, localization, and evolution of the metal and non–metal-bearing hydrothermal systems in the eastern Colorado Mineral Belt.

  20. Landsat-7 ETM+: 12 years on-orbit reflective-band radiometric performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, B.L.; Haque, M.O.; Barsi, J.A.; Micijevic, E.; Helder, D.L.; Thome, K.J.; Aaron, D.; Czapla-Myers, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat-7 ETM+ sensor has been operating on orbit for more than 12 years, and characterizations of its performance have been ongoing over this period. In general, the radiometric performance of the instrument has been remarkably stable: 1) noise performance has degraded by 2% or less overall, with a few detectors displaying step changes in noise of 2% or less; 2) coherent noise frequencies and magnitudes have generally been stable, though the within-scan amplitude variation of the 20 kHz noise in bands 1 and 8 disappeared with the failure of the scan line corrector and a new similar frequency noise (now about 18 kHz) has appeared in two detectors in band 5 and increased in magnitude with time; 3) bias stability has been better than 0.25 DN out of a normal value of 15 DN in high gain; 4) relative gains, the differences in response between the detectors in the band, have generally changed by 0.1% or less over the mission, with the exception of a few detectors with a step response change of 1% or less; and 5) gain stability averaged across all detectors in a band, which is related to the stability of the absolute calibration, has been more stable than the techniques used to measure it. Due to the inability to confirm changes in the gain (beyond a few detectors that have been corrected back to the band average), ETM+ reflective band data continues to be calibrated with the prelaunch measured gains. In the worst case, some bands may have changed as much as 2% in uncompensated absolute calibration over the 12 years.

  1. First year specialist trainees' engagement with reflective practice in the e-portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Helen; Brown, Jeremy M; Shaw, Nigel J

    2010-10-01

    Doctors in specialist training posts in the Mersey Deanery are expected to reflect on their clinical practice and to document their learning experiences in an e-portfolio. This study aims specifically to explore how they have engaged in reflection on their practice and how they utilise their learning portfolio to document evidence of this. A modified Delphi technique was used to develop a grading system to identify the level of reflection recorded by participants in the e-portfolio. Transcripts of the reflective accounts were then analysed using a qualitative approach which involved coding and categorising the data. This study demonstrated a wide variation in both the quantity and quality of reflection. Of particular note in the qualitative data analysis were themes relating to clinical knowledge and skills, learning in practice, communication, feelings, types of learning experience reflected on and wider aspects of medical practice. Findings indicate there is variation is the extent to which doctors both engage in and document evidence of reflection. Further research is needed to explore factors that enable or inhibit the use of the e-portfolio for reflection and whether recorded reflection is a true picture of the cognitive process involved.

  2. First Year Teacher of First Year Teachers: A Reflection on Teacher Training in the Field of Piano Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgersma, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    While there is a great deal of scholarly inquiry focusing on student teaching experiences in the field of classroom education, there are few resources devoted to student teaching in the context of the applied music lesson. In this article, a teacher educator in the field of piano pedagogy uses self-study to combine reflection on personal…

  3. GENES Y EVOLUCIÓN EL DELGADO HILO QUE NOS CONECTA POR MILES DE MILLONES DE AÑOS Genes and Evolution, the Thin Thread that Connects Us for Billions of Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS FERNANDO GARCÍA

    Full Text Available La escala temporal en nuestra cotidianidad refleja una pequeña fracción de la historia evolutiva de los organismos, incluidos los humanos. La edad del planeta se estima en 4.500 millones de años, donde ocurrieron profundos cambios en la posición de los continentes y en el clima del planeta. Sin embargo, los cambios más drásticos surgen solo en los últimos 500 millones de años. La genética ha sido una herramienta fundamental para inferir el cambio de los organismos a lo largo de millones de años, por ejemplo, mediante la estimación de tiempos de divergencia. Los seres vivos comparten el material genético como huellas moleculares para rastrear cambios en el pasado. Así, mediante el uso de secuencias de ADN y proteínas, los científicos estudian cómo los organismos han evolucionado, cuándo surgieron importantes novedades evolutivas, cómo interaccionan los genes, y determinan las relaciones evolutivas entre las formas del pasado y las contemporáneas. Las relaciones entre organismos son inferidas por simple similaridad (fenéticas, por compartir características únicas y mediante modelos matemáticos que describen como evolucionan las secuencias de ADN y las proteínas (filogenéticas. La genética también evidencia la dinámica de los genomas (duplicación, transposición, recombinación, inversiones, que resulta en ganancia y pérdida de genes, nuevas funciones, y transferencia horizontal de genes, mecanismos que incrementan la diversidad existente hoy. Aunque el ambiente es fundamental en la evolución de los organismos, es imprescindible reconocer que hay un hilo conductor muy fino y fuerte que nos conecta inevitablemente a esas primeras moléculas que se formaron en el pasado distante.The temporal scale of our daily life is a small fraction of the evolutionary history of organisms, including the humans. The planet age is estimated in 4.5 billion years, in which profound changes in the position of continents and the climate of

  4. [The first ten years of the European convention on biomedicine and human rights: reflections and evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellver Capella, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    April 2007 marked the tenth anniversary of the invitation to sign the European Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine. The author reflects on the importance of this document at international level and, particularly, for Spain.

  5. Reflections on 12 Years of Research into ICT-in-Education and the Learning Sciences in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, David; Huang, Jun Song

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on the landscape of ICT-mediated learning research in Singapore schools over the past 12 years. This ICT (information and communications technology) journey is situated in the context of the Singapore education Masterplans and the inception of substantive research funding in this area of work since 2003. The article questions…

  6. 200 years of nursing--a chief nurse's reflections on practice, theory, policy, education, and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jeanette Ives

    2012-01-01

    This bimonthly department, sponsored by the AONE, presents information to assist nurse leaders in shaping the future of healthcare through creative and innovative leadership. The strategic priorities of AONE anchor the editorial content. They reflect contemporary healthcare and nursing practice issues that challenge nurse executives as they strive to meet the needs of patients. PMID:22157375

  7. Educational Change in Post-Conflict Contexts: Reflections on the South African Experience 20 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting on South African experience, this paper develops an analytical framework using the work of Henri Lefebvre and Nancy Fraser to understand why socially just arrangements may be so difficult to achieve in post-conflict reconstruction. The paper uses Lefebvre's analytic to trace three sets of entangled practices…

  8. 50 Years of ISME: Four Honorary Presidents--Some Reflections on the Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David J.

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces and reflects on the biographies of ISME's four Honorary Presidents: Leo Kestenberg, Zoltan Kodaly, Dimitri Kabalevsky and Frank Callaway. The lenses of modernity and postmodernity are applied in an examination of the relationships among the topics of individuality, community and "representation" in relation to: (a) the four…

  9. Backlog at December 31, 2007: euro 39,8 billion, up by 55% from year-end 2006. 2007 sales revenue: euro 11.9 billion, up by 9.8% (+10.4% like-for-like); Carnet de commandes au 31 decembre 2007: 39,8 milliards d'euros, en progression de 55% par rapport a fin 2006. Chiffre d'affaires de l'exercice 2007: 11,9 milliards d'euros, en progression de 9,8% (+10,4% en donnees comparables)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The AREVA group's backlog reached a record level of euro 39.834 billion as of December 31, 2007, up by 55% from that of year-end 2006. In Nuclear, the backlog was euro 34.927 billion at year-end 2007 (+58%), due in particular to the signature of a contract in a record amount with the Chinese utility CGNPC. The series of agreements concluded provide among other things for the construction of two new-generation EPR nuclear islands and the supply of all of the materials and services needed for their operation through 2027. CGNPC also bought 35% of the production of UraMin, the mining company acquired by AREVA in August 2007. Industrial cooperation in the Back End of the cycle was launched with the signature of an agreement between China and France. In addition, the group signed several long-term contracts in significant amounts, particularly with KHNP of South Korea, EDF and Japanese utilities. The Transmission and Distribution division won several major contracts in Libya and Qatar at the end of the year approaching a total of euro 750 million. For the entire year, new orders grew by 34% to euro 5.816 billion. The backlog, meanwhile, grew by 40% to euro 4.906 billion at year-end. The group cleared sales revenue of euro 11.923 billion in 2007, up by 9.8% (+10.4% like-for-like) in relation to 2006 sales of euro 10.863 billion. Sales revenue for the 4. quarter of 2007 rose to euro 3.858 billion, for growth of 16.7% (+18.8% like-for-like) over one year. Sales revenue for the year was marked by: - Growth of 7.6% (+10.6% like-for-like) in Front End sales revenue, which rose to euro 3.140 billion. The division's Enrichment operations posted strong growth. - Sales were up by 17.5% (+15.2% like-for-like) to euro 2.717 billion in the Reactors and Services division. Sales revenue was driven in particular by the growth of Services operations, after weak demand in 2006, by progress on OL3 construction, and by the start of Flamanville 3, the second EPR. For the Back End

  10. Some reflections on 25 years of the association for behavior analysis: Past, present, and future

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Edward K.; Baer, Donald M.; Favell, Judith E; Sigrid S. Glenn; Hineline, Philip N.; Malott, Maria E.; Michael, Jack

    2001-01-01

    This paper offers some reflections on the discipline and profession of behavior analysis, as well as on the Association for Behavior Analysis (ABA), on the occasion of the association's 25th anniversary. It is based on a panel session conducted at the 1999 convention that included six past presidents of ABA (Donald M. Baer, Judith E. Favell, Sigrid S. Glenn, Philip N. Hineline, Jack Michael, and Edward K. Morris) and its current Executive Director and Secretary-Treasurer (Maria E. Malott). Am...

  11. 境外投资者14年从中国赚取利润2500亿美元%US$250 billion remitted from China by overseas investors in 14 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ China has become an important platform for many foreign-financed enterprises' production and sales,handing them fat returns, with about US$250 billion in profits remitted by these investors out of China in 1990-2004, Chen Jinhua, who heads both China Enterprise Confederation and China Enterprise Directors Association said, at the 2005 Conference of Private Business Organisations. The event's theme was "foreign investment in China."

  12. “十二五”末江西增产“50亿斤粮”的出路与对策建议%Solutions and Countermeasures for "Increasing Grain Products by 2.5 Billion Kilogram" of Jiangxi in "Twelfth Five - years"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨正威; 陈红萍; 颜龙安; 陆朝梁; 熊大建; 龙丘陵

    2012-01-01

    江西省“十二五”规划纲要中提出“十二五”期间我省“新增粮食产量50亿斤”,以策应国家“十二五”“增加1000亿斤粮食”的目标.本文分析了当前江西粮食综合生产能力及存在的问题、粮食生产中有利条件和面临的挑战,提出了“十二五”末江西增产“50亿斤粮”的出路与对策建议.%In order to support the country's target of "increasing the grain products by 50 billion kilogram" in "Twelfth Five -years" , the "Twelfth Five - years" planning program of Jiangxi province put forward "increasing the grain products by 2.5 billion kilogram" in "Twelfth Five-years". This paper analyzed the overall grain production capability, the existing problems, advantages and faced challenges in grain production of Jiangxi at present, and put forward the solutions and countermeasures for "increasing the grain products by 2.5 billion kilogram" of Jiangxi in "Twelfth Five -years".

  13. Leading Learning: First-Year Principals' Reflections on Instructional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Ann; Ovando, Martha N.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the instructional leadership perceptions of four first-year principals. Findings illuminate five themes drawn from the data: definitions of instructional leadership, challenges that first-year principals faced, how these principals addressed these challenges, how the novice principals plan to enact their…

  14. Steering a Drifting Ship: Improving the Preparation of First-Year Catholic School Teachers Through Self-Reflection

    OpenAIRE

    F. Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Longitudinal investigation on the impact of self-reflection on the practices of novice teachers in California Catholic schools. Materials and Methods: Initial questionnaire at the beginning of their second academic semester; second questionnaire, individual interview and video of participant teaching in class at the end of the aforementioned semester; focus group with participants at the end of their second academic year. Results: Modifications in the cla...

  15. Reflections on the 24 years durability of an isolate tricuspid bovine pericardium IMC/Braile bioprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetto, Solange; Menardi, Antonio Carlos; Alves Junior, Lafaiete; Rodrigues, Alfredo José; Évora, Paulo Roberto Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    We were challenged by the experience of one patient reoperation for a bioprosthetic bovine pericardium degenerative stenosis, 24 years after implantation. This bioprosthesis was implanted due to tricuspid valve bacterial staphylococcal endocarditis after septic abortion.

  16. Leadership and Change in Schools: Personal Reflections over the Last 30 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seashore, Karen R.

    2009-01-01

    The two fields of leadership studies and school change have increasingly converged over the last 30 years. This paper reviews the origins of the intersection, and the development of research themes in three areas: The role of leaders in shaping and using organizational culture, the agency of teachers in the change process, and the importance of…

  17. Reflection, Revision, and Assessment in First-Year Composition ePortfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Christy; Miller, Deborah Church; Griffin, June; Balthazor, Ron; Cummings, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    Does revision of graded essays for an electronic portfolio improve First-Year Composition students' scores from anonymous raters? In a sample of 450 paired essays, 46 percent improved by one or more points on a six-point scale, 28 percent remained the same, and 26 percent declined by one or more points. (Contains 3 figures, 1 table, and 7 notes.)

  18. Closing the Books: A Reference Librarian Reflects on 37 Years of Library Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurreri, Lorenzo A.

    2000-01-01

    Presents Lorenzo Gurreri's narrative of his long and distinguished library career, which began in 1962 when he took an MSLS degree from Syracuse University. The ensuing years found him in cataloging and reference positions while the library profession began to feel the effects of the new Information Age. (VWC)

  19. Still the One: Reflections on Sixty-Five Years of Resilience and Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, Donald; Ballard, Susan

    2015-01-01

    2016 marks an important milestone for the American Association of School Librarians (AASL). Despite the ever-changing and always-challenging economic, political, and societal landscape, for nearly sixty-five years the association has grown and prospered within the structure of the American Library Association (ALA) and remains "the only…

  20. Journal of Biological Education: A Personal Reflection on Its First 50 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, Michael Reiss describes his time with the "Journal of Biology Education" ("JBE") dating back to 1984 when the journal published his first article (Reiss 1984). Over the years, Reiss has authored 31 "JBE" pieces (excluding reviews) including one in honor of the journal's 25th anniversary (Reiss…

  1. An appraisal of students' awareness of "self-reflection" in a first-year pathology course of undergraduate medical/dental education

    OpenAIRE

    Senger Jenna-Lynn B; Kanthan Rani

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Self-reflection and reflective practice are increasingly considered as essential attributes of competent professionals functioning in complex and ever-changing healthcare systems of the 21st century. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of students' awareness and understanding of the reflective process and the meaning of 'self-reflection' within the contextual framework of their learning environment in the first-year of their medical/dental education. We endor...

  2. Early endocrine alterations reflect prolonged stress and relate to one year functional outcome in patients with severe brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marina, Djordje; Klose, Marianne; Nordenbo, Annette;

    2015-01-01

    -Extended. RESULTS: Three months after the injury, elevated stress hormones (i.e. 30 min. stimulated cortisol, prolactin and/or insulin-like growth factor 1) and/or suppressed gonadal- or thyroid hormones were recorded in 68% and 32% of the patients, respectively. At one year, lower functioning level (Functional...... Independence Measure) and lower capability of normal life activities (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended) were related to both elevated stress hormones (p≤0.01) and reduced gonadal and/or thyroid hormones (p≤0.01) measured at 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that brain injury-related endocrine...... alterations mimicking secondary hypogonadism and hypothyroidism and with elevated stress hormones most probably reflect a prolonged stress response 2 to 5 months after severe brain injury, rather than pituitary insufficiency per se. These endocrine alterations thus seem to reflect a more severe disease state...

  3. Five Years of the RRI Digital Repository: Some Lessons and Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, G.; Patil, Y. M.; Manjunath, M.; Savanur, K. P.; Nagaraj, M. N.; Benegal, V. J.; Sheshadri, G.

    2010-10-01

    The changing landscape of scholarly communication and the proliferation of electronic resources have given rise to the open access movement and institutional repositories. Librarians have been actively disseminating the intellectual output of their organizations through institutional repositories and thus have been playing a key role in the scholarly communication process. Keeping in view the importance and benefits of an institutional repository, we launched the RRI Digital Repository in early 2006. Five years later this has grown into an omnibus repository containing more than 3750 documents. Our repository now contains all of the research papers published since the institute was established (1948 to date) and also covers historical materials about the institute and its founder C.V. Raman, a Nobel Laureate. When we look at its growth and development during the last five years, we feel that it has many lessons for all of us. We discuss some of them in this paper.

  4. Variation of reflected radiation from all reflectors of a flat plate solar collector during a year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the impact of flat plate reflectors (bottom, top, left and right reflectors) made of Al, on total solar radiation on a solar collector during a day time over a whole year is analyzed. An analytical model for determining optimum tilt angles of a collector and reflectors for any point on the Earth is proposed. Variations of reflectors' optimal inclination angles with changes of the collector's optimal tilt angle during the year are also calculated. Optimal inclination angles of the reflectors for the South directed solar collector are calculated and compared to experimental data. It is shown that optimal inclination of the bottom reflector is the lowest in December and the highest in June, while for the top reflector the lowest value is in June and the highest value is in December. On the other hand, optimal inclination of the left and right side reflectors for optimum tilt angle of the collector does not change during the year and it is 66°. It is found that intensity of the solar radiation on the collector increases for about 80% in the summer period (June–September) by using optimally inclined reflectors, in comparison to the collector without reflectors. - Highlights: • The impacts of flat plate reflectors on solar radiation on the collector are given. • The results of the optimal inclinations of reflectors during the year are shown. • The solar radiation on the collector with reflectors is 80% higher in the summer. • This model may be applied on thermal, PV, PV/T and energy harvesting systems

  5. Reflections of the changes in patent ductus arteriosus management during the last 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khuffash, Afif; Weisz, Dany E; McNamara, Patrick J

    2016-09-01

    Despite a large body of scientific evidence on the management of premature infants with a patent ductus arteriosus controversy remains and neonatologists remain challenged for knowing which patient to treat, what is the most optimal timing of treatment and which treatments have a positive impact on both short-term and long-term outcomes. In this review article we discuss the increased body of evidence over the past 10 years, much of which questions the role of treatment and suggests the need to reconsider how haemodynamic significance is adjudicated. In addition, we discuss novel approaches to assessment and diagnosis, and highlight areas for future investigation. PMID:27118761

  6. 50 Years of Independence: Reflections on the Role of Publishing and Progressive African Intellectuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Bgoya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, the role of progressive African intellectuals fifty years after independence in the context of African postcolonial, political and socio-economic conditions is examined. African intellectuals have been marginalized by the African state, and progressive intellectuals have been disunited in their struggle for relevance. The possibilities for African intellectual autonomy and international solidarity are shown through a recollection of the flourishing intellectual environment and local publishing output of post-independence Tanzania. The end of that era and the demise of publishing, including in African languages, has negatively impacted African economic and intellectual emancipation and can only be addressed by international solidarity among progressive intellectuals.

  7. Thirty Years Later: Reflections of the Big Thompson Flood, Colorado, 1976 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, R. D.; Costa, J. E.; Brunstein, F. C.; Quesenberry, C. A.; Vandas, S. J.; Capesius, J. P.; O'Neill, G. B.

    2006-12-01

    Thirty years ago, over 300 mm of rain fell in about 4 to 6 hours in the middle reaches of the Big Thompson River Basin during the devastating flash flood on July 31, 1976. The rainstorm produced flood discharges that exceeded 40 m3/s/km2. A peak discharge of 883 m3/s was estimated at the Big Thompson River near Drake streamflow-gaging station. The raging waters left 144 people dead, 250 injured, and over 800 people were evacuated by helicopter. Four-hundred eighteen homes and businesses were destroyed, as well as 438 automobiles, and damage to infrastructure left the canyon reachable only via helicopter. Total damage was estimated in excess of $116 million (2006 dollars). Natural hazards similar to the Big Thompson flood are rare, but the probability of a similar event hitting the Front Range, other parts of Colorado, or other parts of the Nation is real. Although much smaller in scale than the Big Thompson flood, several flash floods have happened during the monsoon in early July 2006 in the Colorado foothills that reemphasized the hazards associated with flash flooding. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts flood research to help understand and predict the magnitude and likelihood of large streamflow events such as the Big Thompson flood. A summary of hydrologic conditions of the 1976 flood, what the 1976 flood can teach us about flash floods, a description of some of the advances in USGS flood science as a consequence of this disaster, and lessons that we learned to help reduce loss of life from this extraordinary flash flood are discussed. In the 30 years since the Big Thompson flood, there have been important advances in streamflow monitoring and flood warning. The National Weather Service (NWS) NEXRAD radar allows real-time monitoring of precipitation in most places in the United States. The USGS currently (2006) operates about 7,250 real-time streamflow-gaging stations in the United States that are monitored by the USGS, the NWS, and emergency managers

  8. Endemic Cardiovascular Diseases of the Poorest Billion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Gene F; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mocumbi, Ana O; Miranda, J Jaime; Ezzati, Majid; Jain, Yogesh; Robles, Gisela; Benjamin, Emelia J; Subramanian, S V; Bukhman, Gene

    2016-06-14

    The poorest billion people are distributed throughout the world, though most are concentrated in rural sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) data can be sparse in low- and middle-income countries beyond urban centers. Despite this urban bias, CVD registries from the poorest countries have long revealed a predominance of nonatherosclerotic stroke, hypertensive heart disease, nonischemic and Chagas cardiomyopathies, rheumatic heart disease, and congenital heart anomalies, among others. Ischemic heart disease has been relatively uncommon. Here, we summarize what is known about the epidemiology of CVDs among the world's poorest people and evaluate the relevance of global targets for CVD control in this population. We assessed both primary data sources, and the 2013 Global Burden of Disease Study modeled estimates in the world's 16 poorest countries where 62% of the population are among the poorest billion. We found that ischemic heart disease accounted for only 12% of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in the poorest countries, compared with 51% of DALYs in high-income countries. We found that as little as 53% of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly burden (1629/3049 DALYs per 100 000) was attributed to behavioral or metabolic risk factors in the poorest countries (eg, in Niger, 82% of the population among the poorest billion) compared with 85% of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly burden (4439/5199 DALYs) in high-income countries. Further, of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly burden, 34% was accrued in people under age 30 years in the poorest countries, while only 3% is accrued under age 30 years in high-income countries. We conclude although the current global targets for noncommunicable disease and CVD control will help diminish premature CVD death in the poorest populations, they are not sufficient. Specifically, the current framework (1) excludes deaths of

  9. From pillars to posts: some reflections on community service six years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Claire; Mupawose, Anniah; Stein, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Speech-Language Therapy and Audiology graduates have worked in community service for 6 years. An evaluation of the impact of this strategy is now seen as important. In this discussion paper we report on the content and process of feedback sessions with 132 graduates from the University of the Witwatersrand during their community service placements from 2003-2008. Experiences and perceptions of these graduates are discussed in relation to a model as well as in relation to additional research conducted with our profession and other community service professions. Themes discussed include professional and technical issues, systemic and managerial issues, interpersonal issues and ethical issues. Perceptions on the adequacy of training are also described. The overall goals of community service are considered as well as indices for measuring success. Implications are considered for training institutions, for the Department of Health and for the profession.

  10. Reflection on the Process of Open Sourcing Software Based on Ten Years of Development of RAPID

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, C. H.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Yang, Z. L.; Habets, F.; Maidment, D.

    2015-12-01

    As the number and size of geoscience datasets persist in their constant rise, geoscientists increasingly express their yearning for further sharing of their data and software, and for facilitation of the associated academic credits. We present here our experience based on the open source development of an Earth System Model focusing on the propagation of water flow waves in large river networks: the Routing Application for Parallel computatIon of Discharge (RAPID). Since inception of RAPID ten years ago in January 2006, the community of its users has grown slowly but steadily, and now includes researchers in industry, academia, and government organizations. This growth of the RAPID users community can be explained - at least in part - by its open availability. However, despite an increasing support for open science (software and data), the mechanics of sharing still remain mysterious to many geoscientists… as they were for the authors. The purpose of this presentation is therefore to shed light on the steps involved in opening software and data based on a decade of experience related to the development and release of an Earth System Model. Three distinct steps of open sourcing are highlighted here: opening, exposing, and automatic testing. Each one of these steps is presented as an independent and tractable increment at various stages of development that is justified based on the size of the users community. Topics covered include software and data licenses, code and data repositories, unit testing, and continuous integration.

  11. The Self-Help Clearinghouse of Metropolitan Toronto: reflections on seven years of survival and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, R; Hammett, C; Sernick, D; Steinhouse, K

    1995-01-01

    In May of 1987, Health and Welfare Canada awarded the Self-Help Clearinghouse of Metropolitan Toronto a three-year demonstration grant. Today, the Toronto Clearinghouse remains the only free-standing self-help resource of its kind in Canada and is a registered charitable organization whose mandate is to facilitate the growth and development of self-help/mutual-aid groups, networks, and resources. This paper describes the unique Toronto Clearinghouse model which from its earliest beginnings has been a partnership between the self-help community and interested and supportive professionals. The success of this model stems from its strong grassroots origins, respect for a community empowerment approach, and focused goals and objectives. Using information gleaned from the archival history of the Toronto Clearinghouse and through a series of interviews with past and current members of the Clearinghouse board of directors, program staff, and local self-help group members, the paper explains the "roller coaster ride" which has characterized the history of the Clearinghouse to date. Finally, the paper illustrates that while the achievement of financial stability has been an ongoing challenge in the face of variable community and political support, the Toronto Clearinghouse is, today, a strong centre of self-help activity and promotion, involved in a unique exercise to determine the role that self-help can play as a strategic component of an overall health and social services system-and with every reason to be optimistic about its future. PMID:10163396

  12. Review and reflection of research on the knowledge structure of physical education teachers in the past 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Bochun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available From the view of knowledge,methodology and other perspectives of regression and reflection on the knowledge structure of the PE teachers of the status quo in the past 20 years,it is considered that the base of the existing knowledge of research is primarily on the knowledge view of objectivism,the perspective of research is restricted.For many years research category of the knowledge structure of PE teachers was consistently confined to discipline knowledge + educational knowledge + culture knowledge.Research Methodology and methods are mainly confined to Speculative theory research guided by rational debate methodology and questionnaire survey research guided by positivist methodology.Due to the impact of the knowledge view of objectivism,rational debate focuses on the objectivity theory knowledge ought status in knowledge structure of PE teachers.Questionnaire survey research is mainly based on attitude survey research,reflecting the ideal state of knowledge structure of physical education teachers.Suggestion: update knowledge,enrich methodological the guidance,pay more attention to the actual condition of knowledge structure of physical education teachers,reveal physical education teachers in the context of the formation,development,and application patterns of their knowledge structure in sports teaching situation,etc.

  13. Measuring third year undergraduate nursing students' reflective thinking skills and critical reflection self-efficacy following high fidelity simulation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutticci, Naomi; Lewis, Peter A; Coyer, Fiona

    2016-05-01

    Critical reflection underpins critical thinking, a highly desirable generic nursing graduate capability. To improve the likelihood of critical thinking transferring to clinical practice, reflective thinking needs to be measured within the learning space of simulation. This study was divided into two phases to address the reliability and validity measures of previously untested surveys. Phase One data was collected from individuals (n = 6) using a 'think aloud' approach and an expert panel to review content validity, and verbatim comment analysis was undertaken. The Reflective Thinking Instrument and Critical Reflection Self-Efficacy Visual Analogue Scale items were contextualised to simulation. The expert review confirmed these instruments exhibited content validity. Phase Two data was collected through an online survey (n = 58). Cronbach's alpha measured internal consistency and was demonstrated by all subscales and the Instrument as a whole (.849). There was a small to medium positive correlation between critical reflection self-efficacy and general self-efficacy (r = .324, n = 56, p = .048). Participant responses were positive regarding the simulation experience. The research findings demonstrated that the Reflective Thinking and Simulation Satisfaction survey is reliable. Further development of this survey to establish validity is recommended to make it viable.

  14. Measuring third year undergraduate nursing students' reflective thinking skills and critical reflection self-efficacy following high fidelity simulation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutticci, Naomi; Lewis, Peter A; Coyer, Fiona

    2016-05-01

    Critical reflection underpins critical thinking, a highly desirable generic nursing graduate capability. To improve the likelihood of critical thinking transferring to clinical practice, reflective thinking needs to be measured within the learning space of simulation. This study was divided into two phases to address the reliability and validity measures of previously untested surveys. Phase One data was collected from individuals (n = 6) using a 'think aloud' approach and an expert panel to review content validity, and verbatim comment analysis was undertaken. The Reflective Thinking Instrument and Critical Reflection Self-Efficacy Visual Analogue Scale items were contextualised to simulation. The expert review confirmed these instruments exhibited content validity. Phase Two data was collected through an online survey (n = 58). Cronbach's alpha measured internal consistency and was demonstrated by all subscales and the Instrument as a whole (.849). There was a small to medium positive correlation between critical reflection self-efficacy and general self-efficacy (r = .324, n = 56, p = .048). Participant responses were positive regarding the simulation experience. The research findings demonstrated that the Reflective Thinking and Simulation Satisfaction survey is reliable. Further development of this survey to establish validity is recommended to make it viable. PMID:27235566

  15. Firms' Overseas Investment Jumps to US$6.9 Billion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Foreign investment by domestic firms, excluding banks,jumped 26% last year to US$6.9 billion, the Ministry of Commerce said on February 10. The government has been encouraging domestic companies to head overseas to secure resources, build brands and win market share, and it also welcomes the effect an outflow of investment has on the yuan.

  16. Urban Poor Receive RMB7.1 Billion Cash Help

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    All levels of government have teamed up to dole out more than RMB7.1 billion (US$855.42 million) during the ilrst half of this year to help more than 21 million Chinese urban residents who are living below the minimum standard of living.

  17. High-resolution seismic-reflection imaging 25 years of change in I-70 sinkhole, Russell County, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R.D.; Steeples, D.W.; Lambrecht, J.L.; Croxton, N.

    2006-01-01

    Time-lapse seismic reflection imaging improved our understanding of the consistent, gradual surface subsidence ongoing at two sinkholes in the Gorham Oilfield discovered beneath a stretch of Interstate Highway 70 through Russell and Ellis Counties in Kansas in 1966. With subsidence occurring at a rate of around 10 cm per year since discovery, monitoring has been beneficial to ensure public safety and optimize maintenance. A miniSOSIE reflection survey conducted in 1980 delineated the affected subsurface and successfully predicted development of a third sinkhole at this site. In 2004 and 2005 a high-resolution vibroseis survey was completed to ascertain current conditions of the subsurface, rate and pattern of growth since 1980, and potential for continued growth. With time and improved understanding of the salt dissolution affected subsurface in this area it appears that these features represent little risk to the public from catastrophic failure. However, from an operational perspective the Kansas Department of Transportation should expect continued subsidence, with future increases in surface area likely at a slightly reduced vertical rate. Seismic characteristics appear empirically consistent with gradual earth material compaction/settling. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  18. UniEdge: A first year transition program and its continued evolution through a reflective approach. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Lefroy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phillipa Sturgess 14.00 800x600 The shift in Australian higher education policy to widen participation and ensure equity across all student cohorts has led to the need for specific, structured transition programs. The First Year Advisor Network at Murdoch University in Perth, Australia has designed and implemented a transition program for commencing students called UniEdge. The aims of the program are: (1 to help foster a sense of community for first year students; (2 to  make new students aware of the support services available; and (3 to improve the confidence and preparedness of new students. The program has received high praise from students, but rates of attendance have been problematic. By reflecting on student and staff feedback, the program has been adapted over multiple semesters, resulting in increased student attendance and therefore a greater impact on the first year experience at Murdoch University. Normal 0 false false false EN-AU X-NONE X-NONE

  19. Life with Four Billion Atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Thomas [Ginkgo Bioworks, Inc.

    2013-04-10

    Today it is commonplace to design and construct single silicon chips with billions of transistors. These are complex systems, difficult (but possible) to design, test, and fabricate. Remarkably, simple living systems can be assembled from a similar number of atoms, most of them in water molecules. In this talk I will present the current status of our attempts at full understanding and complexity reduction of one of the simplest living systems, the free-living bacterial species Mesoplasma florum. This 400 nm diameter cell thrives and replicates every 40 minutes with a genome of only 800 kilobases. Our recent experiments using transposon gene knockouts identified 354 of 683 annotated genes as inessential in laboratory culture when inactivated individually. While a functional redesigned genome will certainly not remove all of those genes, this suggests that roughly half the genome can be removed in an intentional redesign. I will discuss our recent knockout results and methodology, and our future plans for Genome re-engineering using targeted knock-in/knock-out double recombination; whole cell metabolic models; comprehensive whole cell metabolite measurement techniques; creation of plug-and-play metabolic modules for the simplified organism; inherent and engineered biosafety control mechanisms. This redesign is part of a comprehensive plan to lay the foundations for a new discipline of engineering biology. Engineering biological systems requires a fundamentally different viewpoint from that taken by the science of biology. Key engineering principles of modularity, simplicity, separation of concerns, abstraction, flexibility, hierarchical design, isolation, and standardization are of critical importance. The essence of engineering is the ability to imagine, design, model, build, and characterize novel systems to achieve specific goals. Current tools and components for these tasks are primitive. Our approach is to create and distribute standard biological parts

  20. An appraisal of students' awareness of "self-reflection" in a first-year pathology course of undergraduate medical/dental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senger Jenna-Lynn B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reflection and reflective practice are increasingly considered as essential attributes of competent professionals functioning in complex and ever-changing healthcare systems of the 21st century. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of students' awareness and understanding of the reflective process and the meaning of 'self-reflection' within the contextual framework of their learning environment in the first-year of their medical/dental education. We endorse that the introduction of such explicit educational tasks at this early stage enhances and promotes students' awareness, understanding, and proficiency of this skill in their continuing life-long health professional learning. Methods Over two years, students registered in first-year pathology at the University of Saskatchewan were introduced to a self-reflection assignment which comprised in the submission of a one-page reflective document to a template of reflective questions provided in the given context of their learning environment. This was a mandatory but ungraded component at the midterm and final examinations. These documents were individually analyzed and thematically categorized to a "5 levels-of-reflection-awareness" scale using a specially-designed rubric based on the accepted major theories of reflection that included students' identification of: 1 personal abilities, 2 personal learning styles 3 relationships between course material and student history 4 emotional responses and 5 future applications. Results 410 self-reflection documents were analyzed. The student self-awareness on personal learning style (72.7% level 3+ and course content (55.2% level 3+ were well-reflected. Reflections at a level 1 awareness included identification of a specific teaching strategies utilized to enhance learning (58.4%, b personal strengths/weaknesses (53%, and c emotional responses, values, and beliefs (71.5%. Students' abilities to connect information to

  1. The International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH): reflecting on 60 years of contributions to groundwater science and water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struckmeier, Willi; Howard, Ken; Chilton, John

    2016-08-01

    The 60th anniversary of the founding of the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) is an important milestone that allows pause for reflection on how the association has evolved over the years and the contributions it has made to groundwater science and water management. IAH was founded in 1956 at the 20th International Geological Congress and developed rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s in response to a growing global interest in groundwater mapping and in sound approaches to resource protection and sustainable aquifer management. Incorporated in 2000, IAH has now secured its position as the world's leading international association specialising in groundwater with over 4,100 members in 131 countries. Much credit for this success must go to members, past and present, whose individual efforts and collaboration with sister institutions are documented here. These members have shaped the association's goals and contributed selflessly to its scientific programmes, publications and educational and charitable activities. Looking ahead to the next 60 years, it is essential that IAH does not rest on past achievements but listens and adjusts to the needs of members while continuing to pursue its mission of furthering the understanding, wise use and protection of groundwater resources throughout the world.

  2. The 22-year cycle in the geomagnetic 27-day recurrences reflecting on the F2-layer ionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Apostolov

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar cycle variations of the amplitudes of the 27-day solar rotation period reflected in the geomagnetic activity index Ap, solar radio flux F10.7cm and critical frequency foF2 for mid-latitude ionosonde station Moscow from the maximum of sunspot cycle 18 to the maximum of cycle 23 are examined. The analysis shows that there are distinct enhancements of the 27-day amplitudes for foF2 and Ap in the late declining phase of each solar cycle while the amplitudes for F10.7cm decrease gradually, and the foF2 and Ap amplitude peaks are much larger for even-numbered solar cycles than for the odd ones. Additionally, we found the same even-high and odd-low pattern of foF2 for other mid-latitude ionosonde stations in Northern and Southern Hemispheres. This property suggests that there exists a 22-year cycle in the F2-layer variability coupled with the 22-year cycle in the 27-day recurrence of geomagnetic activity.

    Key words. Ionosphere (mid-latitude ionosphere; ionosphere- magnetosphere interactions – Magnetospheric physics (solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  3. Daye Non-ferrous Metal Plans 2 Billion Investment in Xianning Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>Recently Daye Non-ferrous Metal signed a cooperation contract with Xianning Municipal Government on a 5-year RMB2-billion project for the development and intensive processing of non-ferrous metal.

  4. The oxygen isotope evolution of seawater: A critical review of a long-standing controversy and an improved geological water cycle model for the past 3.4 billion years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffrés, Jasmine B. D.; Shields, Graham A.; Wallmann, Klaus

    2007-07-01

    Controversy over the oxygen isotope composition of seawater began in the 1950's, since which time there has been no agreement over whether the oxygen isotope composition of the oceans has changed over time. Resolving this uncertainty would allow the δ18O values of demonstrably well preserved marine authigenic precipitates to be used to reconstruct surface climate trends back to early Archean times and would help towards a more quantitative description of Earth's global water cycle on geological time scales. Isotopic studies of marine carbonate and silica reveal a trend of increasing δ18O values with decreasing age since the Archean. This trend has been interpreted by some to reflect a progressive increase in seawater δ18O through time; however, it is generally accepted on the basis of ophiolite studies and theoretical considerations that seawater δ18O cannot change significantly because of the buffering effects of ocean crust alteration at mid-ocean ridges. As a result many alternative interpretations have been proposed, including meteoric alteration; warmer paleoclimates; higher seawater pH; salinity stratification and biased sampling. Here we review these interpretations in the light of an updated compilation of marine carbonate δ18O from around the world, covering the Phanerozoic and Precambrian rock records. Recent models of the geological water cycle demonstrate how long-term trends in chemical weathering and hydrothermal circulation can indeed influence the O-isotope composition of the global ocean to the extent necessary to explain the carbonate δ18O trend, with residual variation attributed to climatic fluctuations and post-depositional alteration. We present the further development of an existing model of the geological water cycle. In the model, seawater δ18O increased from about - 13.3‰ to - 0.3‰ over a period of 3.4 Ga, with average surface temperatures fluctuating between 10 °C to 33 °C, which is consistent with known biological

  5. Billion silicon-disc markets in solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generation of solar power is estimated to increase ten times higher than it is at present. The nominal power is estimated to be 150 MW by the year 2010. The capacity of a solar cell (100 cm2; efficiency 15%) is 1.5W under good illumination conditions. So the growth estimate, given by the Swiss Saras Bank, requires the processing of over one billion silicon discs in ten years to pn-junction solar cells. The researches, carried out at Helsinki University of Technology and VTT Electronics are presented in the article

  6. Achieving Excellence and Equity: Reflections on the Development of Practices in One Local District over 10 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainscow, Mel

    2010-01-01

    As education systems in many countries respond to demands for higher standards, they face the challenge of how to achieve equity. Put simply, how can systems continue to raise overall levels of achievement whilst reducing the gap between higher and lower performing groups of learners? This paper reflects on evidence collected as a result of a…

  7. RMB26 Billion to Protect Energy Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Rcently, Beijing International Power Develop and Investment Corporation and Beijing Comprehensive Investment Company announced the merge and establishment of Beijing Energy Investment (Group) Co., Ltd.Some insider said this"big cruiser" of total energy worthy RMB26 billion will offer more solid and reliable assurance for capital energy security.

  8. Higher wear-rate of third-generation metal-backed Reflection cups with eto-sterilised UHMWPE at a mean 13 years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengst, David M; Thomsen, Per B; Homilius, Morten; Hansen, Torben B; Stilling, Maiken

    2014-12-01

    Polyethylene (PE) wear and osteolysis is a recognised problem with non-cross linked PE liners and first generation modular cup designs. Wear particles induce osteolysis leading to aseptic loosening. We retrospectively compared the linear PE wear and implant survival and revision rates of the Reflection Cup and the Duraloc 300. After a mean clinical follow-up of 13 years (range 11-15 years), the 2D linear PE wear-rate of the Reflection liner (n = 68) was 0.23 mm/year, with a mean total wear of 3.14 mm (1.04-7.36), SD 1.45. The wear-rate of the Duraloc 300 cups (n = 32) was 0.14 mm/year, with a mean total wear of 1.84 mm (0.55-4.63), SD 1.07. The difference in PE wear-rate as well as mean total wear was highly significant (p = 0.0001). There was a positive correlation between wear-rate and both Oxford Hip Score and Harris Hip Score (p = 0.02). Large acetabular cup size (>54 mm), HA coating on the stem and age <50 years did not influence PE wear. The higher wear-rate in the Reflection liners could be related to the EtO sterilisation. Intermediate and long-term follow-up is advisable.

  9. The Growth of Galaxies over the last 12 Billion Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, M.

    2016-09-01

    One of the key unsolved problems in astrophysics is to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies. There are many complementary approaches to study the evolution of galaxies and infer how distant galaxies are connected to galaxies in the present day universe. These canonical ways are either focused on the evolution of luminosity/mass function, star formation rate density, or the evolution of the observed scaling relations of galaxies. Among the scaling relations, the relation between the stellar mass and sizes of galaxies has considerable importance. Evidence is provided by many recent studies that the size of galaxies were smaller at higher redshifts compared to galaxies of similar mass in the local Universe. Studying these galaxy properties at different epochs can place important constrains on the underlying processes assumed for the galaxy mass and structural evolution. I will present the study of the mass-size evolution of galaxies from redshift z=7 to z=1 and the stellar mass-size relation for nearby galaxies (z=0). Also, I will present the stellar mass assembly history of quiescent and star-forming galaxies between z=2 and z=0.5, by studying the radial mass profile of these galaxies.

  10. Galaxy Evolution Over the Past Eleven Billion Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Man, Wing Shan

    Galaxy evolution studies have been revolutionized by the advent of near-infrared observations over the last decade. An intriguingly population of distant red galaxies, only visible at near-infrared wavelengths, was discovered. They were previously overlooked, since they are invisible even in the ...... on state-of-the-art observations as well as theoretical models....

  11. Learning from Primary Health Care Centers in Nepal: reflective writings on experiential learning of third year Nepalese medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Dhital, Rolina; Subedi, Madhusudan; Prasai, Neeti; Shrestha, Karun; Malla, Milan; Upadhyay, Shambhu

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical education can play important role in cultivating the willingness among the medical students to work in underprivileged areas after their graduation. Experiential learning through early exposure to primary health care centers could help students better understand the opportunities and challenges of such settings. However, the information on the real experiences and reflections of medical students on the rural primary health care settings from low-income countries like Nepal ...

  12. Reflecting Reflective Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Simone

    2012-01-01

    This paper demystifies reflective practice on teaching by focusing on the idea of reflection itself and how it has been conceived by two philosophers, Plato and Irigaray. It argues that reflective practice has become a standardized method of defining the teacher in teacher education and teacher accreditation systems. It explores how practices of…

  13. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    Reflection has moved from the margins to the mainstream in supervision. Notions of reflection have become well established since the late 1980s. These notions have provided useful framing devices to help conceptualize some important processes in guidance and counseling. However, some applications...... associated with reflection and an exploration of alternative conceptions that view reflection within the context of settings which have a more group- and team-based orientation. Drawing on an action research project on health care supervision, the paper questions whether we should reject earlier views...... of reflection, rehabilitate them in order to capture broader connotations or move to new ways of regarding reflection that are more in keeping with not only reflective but also emotive, normative and formative views on supervision. The paper presents a critical perspective on supervision that challenge...

  14. Hispanic First-Generation Commuter Students at a Private College Reflect on Their Experience through the First Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurvey, Phyllis C.

    2011-01-01

    A volunteer sample of 16 Hispanic first-generation commuter college students, 9 women and 7 men, 18-30 years of age, attending a private college in the Northeast, were interviewed about their first-year college experience, with an emphasis on issues related to cultural capital and habitus. Five aspects of cultural capital were of interest:…

  15. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity

    OpenAIRE

    Mesfin M. Mekonnen; Arjen Y. Hoekstra

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater scarcity is increasingly perceived as a global systemic risk. Previous global water scarcity assessments, measuring water scarcity annually, have underestimated experienced water scarcity by failing to capture the seasonal fluctuations in water consumption and availability. We assess blue water scarcity globally at a high spatial resolution on a monthly basis. We find that two-thirds of the global population (4.0 billion people) live under conditions of severe water scarcity at lea...

  16. [Reflections about the historical development of biomedical sciences in Chile and the role of Revista Médica de Chile: an homage on 130-years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Fernández, Luis

    2002-12-01

    When Revista Médica de Chile turns to be 130 years old, the author reflects about the difficulties that scientific and technological creativity faces in Chile, considering that there was a 70 years gap between its historical origin in Chile compared to developed countries. The scientific progress erases the boundaries between Biomedicine and science and technology. This progress has resulted in an improvement in the quality of scientific publications in Revista Medica de Chile. The editorial work has also contributed to this improvement. Revista Medica de Chile has obtained international recognition and stands in a good position as a medical journal in Latin America and Chile.

  17. TOU' rates hold out $13-billion prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaboszewicz, C.

    1994-03-15

    By 2000, U.S. electric utilities will add 90,000 MW of generating capacity to meet peaking needs. Rather than spend $45 billion on these power plants, which will be used only a couple of hundred hours each year, electric utilities could use incentive pricing-residential time-of-use (TOU) rates-to save consumers up to $13 billion. The combination of market forces and new technology to support automatic meter reading and other applications makes these savings not only possible but practical. Unlike prices at other capacity-constrained industries such as airlines or telephone companies, electric utility prices usually do not vary by time of day. The result is average capacity factors of 43.8 percent (based on 1989 data), compared to a U.S. airlines average of 63.2 percent. Significantly, the airline average use to be below 50 percent in 1970, when they, like electric utilities, were closely regulated. Through incentive pricing, airlines were able to achieve almost a 30-percent increase in efficiency. According to studies by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Edison Electric Institute (EEI), TOU pricing could increase the efficiency of U.S. power plant use by nearly 15 percent. Power plant needs for the next seven years offer an excellent opportunity to use TOU pricing to save consumers billions of dollars. According to Burns McDonnell, an engineering firm, new electric generation resources will not be needed before the turn of the century to prevent to projected deficit of peaking capacity. Indeed, Burns McDonnell estimates a current excess of 152,000 MW in nation-wide baseload capacity. TOU pricing, according to EPRI and EEI, causes residential consumers to reduce their onpeak electricity consumption by 20 percent. With a residential peak load of 183,000 MW, this reduction translates into over 36,000 MW of capacity.

  18. An Academic Comparison of Third Grade Reading Scores: Reflecting the Impact of Four-Year-Old Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Debra

    2013-01-01

    In Wisconsin, increased academic performance has been a general assumption supporting the institutionalization and public funding of early childhood instruction. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between attendance in public four-year-old kindergarten and elementary level reading performance. This study…

  19. Language as Moral Action and the Ethical Dimensions of Teaching and Texts: Reflections on the 25th Year of Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulich, Evelyn

    In the 1970s, women's literature had not yet arrived in the high school classroom, nor in graduate studies. Only some 20 years later was attention turned to women's literature through the publication of the "Norton Anthology of Literature by Women." Contemporary works by women writers that speak powerfully to the issue of women's voicelessness are…

  20. Empowering billions with food safety and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There are virtually millions of people -who die needlessly every year due to contaminated water and food. There are virtually many millions more who are starving due to an inadequate supply of food. Billions of pounds of food are unnecessarily wasted due to insect and other damage. Deaths and illness due to contaminated food or inadequate food are at catastrophic levels in many regions of the world. A majority of the food and water borne illnesses and deaths are preventable. It can be prevented by improved food production methods, improved food processing technologies, improved food distribution systems and improved personal hygiene. Food irradiation technology is over 100 years old. Yet, this technology is poorly understood by governments and corporate decision makers all around the world. Many consumers also are unfortunately misinformed of this technology. There is an urgent need for nations and people around the world to empower themselves with the knowledge and the expertise to harness this powerful technology. Widespread and sensible adoption of this technology can empower billions around the world with clean and abundant food supplies. It is unconscionable in the 21st century for governments to allow people to die or go hungry when the technology to prevent them is readily available

  1. Terrestrial input and nutrient change reflected by sediment records of the Changjiang River Estuary in recent 80 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Junlong; ZHENG Binghui; HU Xupeng; WANG Yiming; DING Ye; LIU Fang

    2015-01-01

    A variety of environmental problems have been observed in the Changjiang River Estuary and adjacent coastal area, including eutrophication, harmful algal blooms (HABs), and hypoxia in recent decades. Application of sedimentary biogenic element indicators on the study of paleoenvironment can reconstruct environmental evolution history of waters. Two 210Pb-dated cores were collected from the Changjiang River Estuary (S3) and adjacent coastal area (Z13), and total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), biogenic silicon (BSi), total phosphorus (TP) and phosphorus (P) species were analyzed. Three stages of environmental changes are deduced by the nutrient sedimentary records. First, nutrient concentration increased rapidly since the 1950s, which attributed to agriculture development and overused chemical fertilizers. Second, nutrient concentration kept high and primary production began to promote during the 1960s to 1980s, while diatom abundance and proportion began to decline since the 1970s, accompanied by reduced 23SiO − concentration and flux from the river. Third, due to several dams and bridges constructed, river runoff and coastal hydrodynamic conditions reduced to a certain extent since the 1990s, which aggravated the unbal-ance in nutrient structure. Multi-nutrient proxies in sediment can reflect the natural environm-ental changes as well as influence of human activities.

  2. Qijiang Plans to Build 50 Billion Yuan Industrial Cluster for Transport-use Aluminum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The reporter learned from the China International Transport-use Aluminum Forum2015 that 5 years later Qijiang District is expected to develop transport-use aluminum industrial cluster with annual output of 50billion yuan.According to statistics,last year 1 in every 9automobile OEM manufacturers nationwide

  3. Tertiary resurfacing after one of the first free flaps in Europe, a reflection on 30 years of microsurgical progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, A M; Tollan, C J; Dabernig, J; Acland, R; Taggart, I

    2007-01-01

    Free flaps have been used for over 30 years. During this period, improved anatomical understanding has increased donor options and available pedicle lengths, permitting safer, single-stage reconstructions with simpler anastomoses. Refinements, such as perforator flaps in particular, have greatly improved donor morbidity, recipient site cosmesis, and the ability to replace 'like with like' while retaining options for innervation. This case highlights the evolution from one of Europe's first free tissue transfers, effectively a perforator flap, through the advent of free muscle flaps to the current generation of contourable perforator flaps. Free flap transfer has become increasingly sophisticated, safer, and more predictable, yet the potential quality of reconstructive outcome has changed little.

  4. The peripatetic cultural psychiatrist: reflections on a forty-five year longitudinal study of a South India village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Helen E

    2011-04-01

    This article presents one woman's odyssey, which began with a career in linguistics and later incorporated cultural psychiatry. While engaged in fieldwork as a linguist, studying the syntactic structure of Havyaka Kannada and dialectal accommodation among the castes in a South India village, I developed language skills and rapport with the village residents. Then I transferred my community-wide rapport to research on depression as a cultural psychiatrist. The articles I wrote on depression and its relationship to socialized passivity and endorsed assertiveness in progressive generations of South Indian women, illustrate the impact of change on mental health. The cultural background from my community-based longitudinal study of more than forty-five years has contributed to my understanding disorders in Indian patients living in a globalized world. PMID:21511853

  5. Income inequality, drug-related arrests, and the health of people who inject drugs: Reflections on seventeen years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Samuel R; Tempalski, Barbara; Brady, Joanne E; West, Brooke S; Pouget, Enrique R; Williams, Leslie D; Des Jarlais, Don C; Cooper, Hannah L F

    2016-06-01

    This paper reviews and then discusses selected findings from a seventeen year study about the population prevalence of people who inject drugs (PWID) and of HIV prevalence and mortality among PWID in 96 large US metropolitan areas. Unlike most research, this study was conducted with the metropolitan area as the level of analysis. It found that metropolitan area measures of income inequality and of structural racism predicted all of these outcomes, and that rates of arrest for heroin and/or cocaine predicted HIV prevalence and mortality but did not predict changes in PWID population prevalence. Income inequality and measures of structural racism were associated with hard drug arrests or other properties of policing. These findings, whose limitations and implications for further research are discussed, suggest that efforts to respond to HIV and to drug injection should include supra-individual efforts to reduce both income inequality and racism. At a time when major social movements in many countries are trying to reduce inequality, racism and oppression (including reforming drug laws), these macro-social issues in public health should be both addressable and a priority in both research and action. PMID:27198555

  6. Past, present, and prospects: Reflections 40 years on from the selective impairment of semantic memory (Warrington, 1975).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Rosaleen A; Warrington, Elizabeth K

    2016-10-01

    We summarize the main findings and conclusions of Warrington's (1975) paper, The Selective Impairment of Semantic memory, a neuropsychological paper that described three cases with degenerative neurological conditions [Warrington, E. K. (1975). The selective impairment of semantic memory. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 27, 635-657]. We consider the developments that have followed from its publication and give a selective overview of the field in 2014. The initial impact of the paper was on neuropsychological investigations of semantic loss followed some 14 years later by the identification of Semantic Dementia (the condition shown by the original cases) as a distinctive form of degenerative disease with unique clinical and pathological characteristics. We discuss the distinction between disorders of semantic storage and refractory semantic access, the evidence for category- and modality-specific impairments of semantics, and the light that has been shed on the structure and organization of semantic memory. Finally we consider the relationship between semantic memory and the skills of reading and writing, phonological processing, and autobiographical memory.

  7. Using research to change public policy: reflections on 20 years of effort to eliminate corporal punishment in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, I A

    1996-10-01

    In the past 20 years, over half of the states have abolished corporal punishment in schools. Without the use of ethically questionable, experimental studies in which students were randomly assigned to paddlings, advocacy researchers were able to integrate the literature and experimental research on reward, punishment, and motivation, and conduct enough studies to provide sufficient data for policy changes. Further, every popular school discipline training program promotes well-proven positive and preventive techniques and punishments that do not inflict physical pain. Research on alternatives, naturalistic evidence from schools that eliminated corporal punishment, and survey research prove that schools do not need to use corporal punishment. The movement to eliminate parental spanking is at a stage similar to the beginning of the school corporal punishment debate in 1976. Even though some studies may show that moderate parental spanking may do no short-term harm, there is little scientific evidence that it is necessary. There are no data to indicate that schools which eliminated corporal punishment became any worse. The same demographic factors and political polarizations that have kept about half of American school children from the protections against paddling afforded students in almost all other Western democracies also impede the movement to eliminate parental spanking. Since we know that corporal punishment too often leads to excesses, and since we have a multitude of effective positive approaches, what is the worst thing that would happen if all Americans stopped hitting children in any setting? The same children who are hit for misbehavior would continue that misbehavior and other ineffective punishments would be used. Most parents and teachers would discover what behavioral scientists already know. A combination of reward, positive motivational techniques and appropriate, nonphysical punishments would prevent most misbehavior. Other factors being equal, in

  8. Reflective Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Thomas Farrell's "Reflective Teaching" outlines four principles that take teachers from just doing reflection to making it a way of being. Using the four principles, Reflective Practice Is Evidence Based, Reflective Practice Involves Dialogue, Reflective Practice Links Beliefs and Practices, and Reflective Practice Is a Way of Life,…

  9. Price of next big thing in physics: $6.7 billion

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The price of exploring inner space went up Thursday. The machine discusses in a news conference in Beijing, will be 20 miles long and would cost about $6.7 billion and 13'000 person-years of labor to be built. (1,5 page)

  10. Cancer costs projected to reach at least $158 billion in 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on growth and aging of the U.S. population, medical expenditures for cancer in the year 2020 are projected to reach at least $158 billion (in 2010 dollars) – an increase of 27 percent over 2010. If newly developed tools for cancer diagnosis, treatme

  11. Chinalco Plans to Invest 6 Billion Yuan in Guizhou in 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to Xiong Weiping,President of Chinalco,Chinalco plans to invest 6 billion yuan in Guizhou this year;it will step up aluminum industrial base projects and co-generation projects in Guiyang and Zunyi,take strong measures to support deep processing of aluminumin Guizhou,extend the industry chain,and

  12. Chongqing Bosai plans to make an investment of RMB 10 billion in bauxite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Following the acquisition of Guyana bauxite mine with USD 600 million,Chongqing Bosai Group has planned to make an investment of RMB 10 billion in expansion of bauxite pro- duction in the coming 5 years and to purchase a

  13. U of M seeking $1.1 billion in projects for Soudan Mine lab.

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The University of Minnesota is hoping that groundbreaking research underway at its labs at the Soudan Underground Mine near Tower will help secure up to $1.1 billion in the next 5 to 20 years to expand its work into particle physics (1 page).

  14. Sneak Peek to the 2016 Billion-Ton Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    The 2005 Billion-Ton Study became a landmark resource for bioenergy stakeholders, detailing for the first time the potential to produce at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually in a sustainable manner from U.S. agriculture and forest resources. The 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update expanded and updated the analysis, and in 2016, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office plans to release the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy.

  15. ZTE Records 21.52% Increase in Revenue to RMB37.3 Billion in the First Half of 2011%ZTE Records 21.52% Increase in Revenue to RMB37.3 Billion in the First Half of 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On August 30, 2011, ZTE Corporation announced a 21.52% increase in operating revenue to RMB37.337 billion for the half year ended June 30, 2011. Based on HKFRS, interim net profit fell 12.33% to RMB769 million. Basic earnings per share were RMB0.27. Applying PRC ASBEs, operating revenue for the first half rose 21.52% to RMB37.34 billion.

  16. Reflection, Reflective Practice and Embodied Reflective Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Leigh, Jennifer S; Bailey, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Although widely employed in professional practice of all kinds, ‘reflection’ and ‘reflective practice’ can be considered ‘success words’. That is, they elicit positive and supportive responses and yet the concepts are vague, ill-defined, contradictory and reflective skills can be hard to teach. Using examples from education and somatic movement therapy, we argue that a purely analytical approach to reflective practice that involves reflecting on thoughts alone is likely to lead into a negativ...

  17. Proton collider breaks the six-billion-dollar barrier

    CERN Multimedia

    Vaughan, C

    1990-01-01

    The SSC will cost at least 1 billion more than its estimated final price of 5.9 billion dollars. Critics in congress believe the final bill could be double that figure. The director of the SSC blames most of the increase in cost on technical problems with developing the superconducting magnets for the SSC (1/2 page).

  18. Economic toll of AIDS put at $10 billion in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-29

    John McCallum, Chief economist at the Royal Bank of Canada, announced that AIDS has cost the nation's economy $10 billion since 1981. These calculations included losses in both direct medical care and human capital. This monetary figure is expected to rise to $36 billion by 2010. An estimated 42,500 to 45,000 Canadians are infected with HIV. PMID:11364044

  19. Xinjiang Hongze Mining Invests 1 billion-1.2 billion yuan in a 20,000-ton Copper Mining Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Xinjiang Hongze Mining Co.,Ltd.plans to invest 1 billion-1.2 billion yuan in a 20,000-ton copper mining project in Wuqia County.So far, it has completed registration,and completed consolidation of 7 mining rights of copper,lead

  20. LLNL's Big Science Capabilities Help Spur Over $796 Billion in U.S. Economic Activity Sequencing the Human Genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Jeffrey S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-28

    LLNL’s successful history of taking on big science projects spans beyond national security and has helped create billions of dollars per year in new economic activity. One example is LLNL’s role in helping sequence the human genome. Over $796 billion in new economic activity in over half a dozen fields has been documented since LLNL successfully completed this Grand Challenge.

  1. Reflective Practitioner Account

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    干青

    2009-01-01

    This article focus on the reflective account of an English teacher learning and teaching in higher education with the British post-graduate certificate program of the Yunnan Agdculture University.As n practitioner for smny years in English learning and teaching for many years,it reflects in four fields.

  2. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Stokes, Bryce [Navarro Research & Engineering; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL

    2011-08-01

    -diameter trees were considered. The 2005 BTS did not attempt to include any wood that would normally be used for higher-valued products (e.g., pulpwood) that could potentially shift to bioenergy applications. This would have required a separate economic analysis, which was not part of the 2005 BTS. The agriculture resources in the 2005 BTS included grains used for biofuels production; crop residues derived primarily from corn, wheat, and small grains; and animal manures and other residues. The cropland resource analysis also included estimates of perennial energy crops (e.g., herbaceous grasses, such as switchgrass, woody crops like hybrid poplar, as well as willow grown under short rotations and more intensive management than conventional plantation forests). Woody crops were included under cropland resources because it was assumed that they would be grown on a combination of cropland and pasture rather than forestland. In the 2005 BTS, current resource availability was estimated at 278 million dry tons annually from forestlands and slightly more than 194 million dry tons annually from croplands. These annual quantities increase to about 370 million dry tons from forestlands and to nearly 1 billion dry tons from croplands under scenario conditions of high-yield growth and large-scale plantings of perennial grasses and woody tree crops. This high-yield scenario reflects a mid-century timescale ({approx}2040-2050). Under conditions of lower-yield growth, estimated resource potential was projected to be about 320 and 580 million dry tons for forest and cropland biomass, respectively. As noted earlier, the 2005 BTS emphasized the primary resources (agricultural and forestry residues and energy crops) because they represent nearly 80% of the long-term resource potential. Since publication of the BTS in April 2005, there have been some rather dramatic changes in energy markets. In fact, just prior to the actual publication of the BTS, world oil prices started to increase as a result

  3. Summary and Comparison of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report with the 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    In terms of the magnitude of the resource potential, the results of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report (BT16) are consistent with the original 2005 Billion-Ton Study (BTS) and the 2011 report, U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry (BT2. An effort was made to reevaluate the potential forestland, agricultural, and waste resources at the roadside, then extend the analysis by adding transportation costs to a biorefinery under specified logistics assumptions to major resource fractions.

  4. Academic Pork Barrel Tops $2-Billion for the First Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Jeffrey; Borrego, Anne Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes how, despite the growing budget deficit, Congress directed a record $2 billion to college projects in 2003, many of them dealing with security and bioterrorism. Includes data tables on the earmarks. (EV)

  5. God particle disappears down 6 billion pound drain

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, M

    2001-01-01

    An estimated 6 billion pounds has been spent looking for the Higgs particle over the last three decades. Recent results from LEP though, are now causing some scientists to doubt that it exists at all (1 page).

  6. Projections, plans, policies and politics in Prince George: reflections on five years of climate change adaptation in a northern Canadian community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picketts, I. M.; Dery, S. J.; Curry, J.

    2013-12-01

    The City of Prince George, in central British Columbia, Canada, has partnered with academics and collaborators for over five years to address climate change adaptation at the local level. The first phase of research involved conducting a detailed overview of past climate trends and future projections for the region using the outputs of GCMs and downscaled RCMs. This information was communicated to senior local staff and community members, and feedback was applied to create a detailed adaptation strategy for the City, which identified priority impacts and outlined potential strategies to address them at the local level. The top priority impacts for Prince George are forest changes, increased flooding, and impacts to transportation infrastructure. During a second implementation phase of the project, eight local initiatives were completed focusing on: incorporating adaptation into a local sustainability plan and land use plan; exploring impacts related to forests, flooding and transportation infrastructure; and assessing trends and projections in freeze-thaw cycles and heavy rainfall events. This presentation will outline the adaptation initiatives undertaken in the City of Prince George during the second phase of research, and evaluate their effectiveness through reflections from interviews with local planners, engineers, managers, community champions and politicians. The initiatives deemed to be most successful - and most likely to be implemented - focus on topics that: are of high public concern; have clear cost implications; incorporate adaptation into policy; and/or incorporate adaptation into an ongoing project. Outcomes highlight challenges local researchers, practitioners and leaders face as they strive to implement proactive adaptation measures in policy and practice without strong support from policy and professional practices, and with a paucity of successful case study examples to build upon. Outcomes also reveal challenges as municipalities strive to do

  7. Chongqing Hechuan District Plans to Build 10 Billion Yuan Size Aluminum Industry Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Recently,the reporter learned from Chongqing Hechuan District Aluminum Industry Integration Enterprise Discussion Meeting that Hechuan District would build aluminum industrial park at Caojie Development Park,and strive to fulfill 10 billion yuan output value within 3 to 5 years.It has been learned that Hechuan District currently has 29 aluminum product enterprises(including enterprises with aluminum and aluminum products as raw material),in which 9

  8. Medicare, Medicaid fraud a billion-dollar art form in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korcok, M

    1997-01-01

    Medicare and Medicaid fraud costs billions of dollars each year in the US. Investigators have shown that fraud is found in all segments of the health care system. Even though the Canadian system has stricter regulations and tighter controls, can regulators here afford to be complacent about believing that such abuse would not happen here? One province has established an antifraud unit to monitor its health insurance scheme; it already has 1 prosecution under its belt. PMID:9141996

  9. Mining survival in parts per billion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the economic situation in the coal industry of Utah. Coal prices are down for the tenth year in a row, Utah is isolated from major markets and freight rates are high, and the state legislature has not dropped the issue of a coal severance tax. The author believes the only potential for increased use of Utah coal is the Pacific Rim countries. Environmental issues are also discussed

  10. Reflected Glory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  11. From Cradle to Brave New World: The First 20 Years of Developing a Research Field in New Technologies and Teacher Education, as Reflected in the Pages of JITTE/TPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Tim; Fisher, Tony; Higgins, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the development of the Journal over the first 20 years of its existence, reflecting a period of ongoing change in educational technologies and their role in teacher education and development. This exploration is undertaken through an analysis of the abstracts of articles published in the first 19 volumes of the Journal. Word…

  12. Ten Years A-Talking! Reflecting on the Role of the EERA Council from the Perspective of National Educational Research Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Joe; Holm, Gunilla

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on their personal experiences, the authors reflect on the relationship between the European Educational Research Association (EERA) Council and the National Educational Research Associations (NERAs). The article will argue that while much of the work undertaken by the EERA Council is hugely valuable, at times it can be difficult to see a…

  13. Quantifying Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    ´ These are all based on Blooms taxonomy and levels of competence and form a major part of individual student and group learning portfolios. Key Words :Project-Based learning, Reflective Portfolios, Self assessment, Defining learning gains, Developing learning strategies , Reflections on and for learning....... It contrasts the students’ self-assessment in a range of ‘product’ skills such as Revit, Structural Design, Mathematics of construction, Technical Installations; as well as ‘process’ competencies such as ‘Working in a team’, Sharing knowledge, Maintaining a portfolio and Reflecting ON learning and FOR learning......This paper documents 1st semester student reflections on “learning to learn” in a team-based PBL environment with quantitative and qualitative student reflective feedback on the learning gains of 60 Architectural Technology and Construction Management students at VIA University College, Denmark...

  14. Tendances Carbone no. 75 'The CDM: let's not discard a tool that raised over US$ 200 billion'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO2 allowances. This issue addresses the following points: Everyone wonders which miraculous instrument will enable the Green Climate Fund to mobilize the pledged US$100 billion per year in climate finance by 2020. Developing countries are now asking for interim targets to quench their mounting skepticism that this level of commitment can be reached. In the meantime paradoxically, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) - a tool that managed to leverage over US$200 billion of mostly private investment for climate change mitigation - is left dying without much regret

  15. Shanghai 2010 Apparel Retail Sales Report Top 10 Department Stores Retail Worth CNY5 billion in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Shanghai – According to Shanghai Apparel Association, CNY5.22 billion was spent in Shanghai top 10 department stores in the whole year of 2010, rising by about 8.7 per cent y/y. We’ve seen distinct growth in the average retail

  16. China’s Foreign Trade of Metals Exceeded US$65 Billion in 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>China’s foreign trade of nonferrous metals kept increasing in 2006 with the total trade value reaching US$65.43 billion, which is an increase of US$18,585 billion or 39.68 per cent over that in 2005. Export in 2006 was US$23.98 billion, up by 45.4 per cent or US$7.493 billion over that in 2005, and import was US$41.45 billion, up by 36.5 per cent or US$11.09 billion. The total foreign trade value showed an unfavorable value of US$17.47 billion.

  17. OPEC 1991 results reflect hard times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that low crude oil prices and economic tough times in industrial countries cause a lean 1991 for members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. OPEC's 1991 annual report the member countries reported an overall loss of $12 billion in 1991 on oil revenues that fell 16.2%. Iraq and Kuwait were not included because of their unusual circumstances in the wake of the Persian Gulf war. Reduced oil revenues reflected a slide to $18.66/bbl in 1991 from $22.26/bbl in 1990 for the average price of OPEC basket crudes. As of last June 5 OPEC's basket crude price has averaged only $17.42/bbl this year, OPEC News Agency (Opecna) reported. First quarter 1992 prices averaged $16.77/bbl, compared wit $19.31/bbl in fourth quarter 1991. The average price jumped 52 cent/bbl the first week in June this year to $19.93/bbl, bouyed by Saudi Arabia's move at the end of May to shift its policy from price moderation to one in favor of higher prices, Opecna the. OPEC members increased production 1% in 1991 to an average 23.28 million b/d in spite of negligible production from Iraq and Kuwait and reduced production from Qatar

  18. A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jens; Ma, Chung-Pei; McConnell, Nicholas J; Greene, Jenny E; Blakeslee, John P; Janish, Ryan

    2016-04-21

    Quasars are associated with and powered by the accretion of material onto massive black holes; the detection of highly luminous quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 suggests that black holes of up to ten billion solar masses already existed 13 billion years ago. Two possible present-day 'dormant' descendants of this population of 'active' black holes have been found in the galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 at the centres of the Leo and Coma galaxy clusters, which together form the central region of the Great Wall--the largest local structure of galaxies. The most luminous quasars, however, are not confined to such high-density regions of the early Universe; yet dormant black holes of this high mass have not yet been found outside of modern-day rich clusters. Here we report observations of the stellar velocity distribution in the galaxy NGC 1600--a relatively isolated elliptical galaxy near the centre of a galaxy group at a distance of 64 megaparsecs from Earth. We use orbit superposition models to determine that the black hole at the centre of NGC 1600 has a mass of 17 billion solar masses. The spatial distribution of stars near the centre of NGC 1600 is rather diffuse. We find that the region of depleted stellar density in the cores of massive elliptical galaxies extends over the same radius as the gravitational sphere of influence of the central black holes, and interpret this as the dynamical imprint of the black holes. PMID:27049949

  19. A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jens; Ma, Chung-Pei; McConnell, Nicholas J; Greene, Jenny E; Blakeslee, John P; Janish, Ryan

    2016-04-21

    Quasars are associated with and powered by the accretion of material onto massive black holes; the detection of highly luminous quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 suggests that black holes of up to ten billion solar masses already existed 13 billion years ago. Two possible present-day 'dormant' descendants of this population of 'active' black holes have been found in the galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 at the centres of the Leo and Coma galaxy clusters, which together form the central region of the Great Wall--the largest local structure of galaxies. The most luminous quasars, however, are not confined to such high-density regions of the early Universe; yet dormant black holes of this high mass have not yet been found outside of modern-day rich clusters. Here we report observations of the stellar velocity distribution in the galaxy NGC 1600--a relatively isolated elliptical galaxy near the centre of a galaxy group at a distance of 64 megaparsecs from Earth. We use orbit superposition models to determine that the black hole at the centre of NGC 1600 has a mass of 17 billion solar masses. The spatial distribution of stars near the centre of NGC 1600 is rather diffuse. We find that the region of depleted stellar density in the cores of massive elliptical galaxies extends over the same radius as the gravitational sphere of influence of the central black holes, and interpret this as the dynamical imprint of the black holes.

  20. The China-ROK Trade Surpasses US$130 Billion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ In 2006,the important trade partnership between China and POK was further strengthened and consolidated.By the end of 2005,POK recognized China's status of market economy, making the bilateral trade environment more fair and reasonable.The governments of both sides have strived for the target of increasing the bilateral trade to US$200 billion by 2012.

  1. With US$5 Billion,China Purchases 42 Boeing Planes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On August 8, Air China, China Eastern Airlines, Shanghai Airlines, Xiamen Airlines signed the final Purchase agreement of 42 Boeing planes with Boeing. The price in catalogue is US$5.04 billion. The first plane will be delivered in 2008.

  2. With US$5 Billion,China Purchases 42 Boeing Planes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      On August 8, Air China, China Eastern Airlines, Shanghai Airlines, Xiamen Airlines signed the final Purchase agreement of 42 Boeing planes with Boeing. The price in catalogue is US$5.04 billion. The first plane will be delivered in 2008.……

  3. Value reflected health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a value-reflected approach in health education by demonstrating the nature of professional competence development connected to this approach. It is based on findings from two three-year health educational development projects carried out by school health nurses...... and researchers at primary schools in Denmark from 2004-2009. We argue for the importance of reflecting on values in school health nursing in order to navigate between human values and values deriving from medicine. Our studies demonstrate that value clarification, peer observation and reflective spaces at work...

  4. Cost of solving mysteries of universe: $6.7 billion

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    "An international consortium of physicists on Thursday released the first detailed design of what they believe will be the next big thing in physics. The machine, 20 miles long, will slam together electrons and their opposites, positrons, to produce fireballs of energy re-creating conditions when the universe was only a trillionth of a second old. It would cost about $6.7 billion." (1 page)

  5. Inspiring Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    A numberof Chris Freeman's colleagues were asked to reflect on what they thought describes his life and work in a few words. Some of the colleagues replied including former SPRU students that were taught or supervised by Chris Freeman. Their views on what they thought were Chris Freeman's defining...... but also social exclusion, equity and social justice....

  6. Co-parenting and feeding in early childhood: Reflections of parent dyads on how they manage the developmental stages of feeding over the first three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thullen, Matthew; Majee, Wilson; Davis, Alexandra N

    2016-10-01

    Family-level influences on the development of healthy eating behaviors start in infancy and toddlerhood with how families manage developmental stages of feeding. Little research on home feeding environments for young children has examined how mothers and fathers collaborate around feeding issues or contribute jointly to feeding. The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine co-parenting with regard to infant/toddler feeding practices. Twenty-four sets of co-resident, biological parents with a child between 6 months and 3 years were interviewed together about their feeding practices and how they discussed and collaborated on feeding during the main stages of feeding development in the first three years. Analyses illuminate themes related to how specific domains of co-parenting (satisfaction with labor, support, agreement, conflict) factor into infant and toddler feeding as well as how additional factors such as having older children and employment schedules shape how both food parenting practices and co-parenting are managed in relation to feeding. Mothers were the primary managers of feeding labor. Fathers participated in feeding in different ways and levels starting in infancy and increased involvement in feeding over the first few years requiring an ongoing negotiation around co-parenting related to feeding. Overall, this study develops insights into how multiple caregivers construct a family environment specifically related to early feeding - a perspective missing from current conceptualizations of home feeding environment. Attention to the concept of co-parenting within home feeding environments should help inform more effective approaches to intervene with families on issues around childhood obesity and family health. PMID:27288148

  7. Areva excellent business volume: backlog as of december 31, 2008: + 21.1% to 48.2 billion euros. 2008 revenue: + 10.4% to 13.2 billion euros; Areva excellent niveau d'activite: carnet de commandes au 31/12/2008: + 21,1% a 48,2 Mds d'euros. Chiffre d'affaires de l'exercice 2008: + 10,4% a 13,2 Mds d'euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    AREVA's backlog stood at 48.2 billion euros as of December 31, 2008, for 21.1% growth year-on-year, including 21.8% growth in Nuclear and 16.5% growth in Transmission and Distribution. The Nuclear backlog came to 42.5 billion euros at December 31, 2008. The Transmission and Distribution backlog came to 5.7 billion euros at year-end. The group recognized revenue of 13.2 billion euros in 2008, for year-on-year growth of 10.4% (+9.8% like-for-like). Revenue outside France was up 10.5% to 9.5 billion euros, representing 72% of total revenue. Revenue was up 6.5% in the Nuclear businesses (up 6.3% LFL), with strong performance in the Reactors and Services division (+10.9% LFL) and the Front End division (+7.2% LFL). The Transmission and Distribution division recorded growth of 17% (+15.8% LFL). Revenue for the fourth quarter of 2008 rose to 4.1 billion euros, up 5.2% (+1.6% LFL) from that of the fourth quarter of 2007. Revenue for the Front End division rose to 3.363 billion euros in 2008, up 7.1% over 2007 (+7.2% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 53 million euros. Revenue for the Reactors and Services division rose to 3.037 billion euros, up 11.8% over 2007 (+10.9% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 47 million euros. Revenue for the Back End division came to 1.692 billion euros, a drop of 2.7% (-2.5% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 3.5 million euros. Revenue for the Transmission and Distribution division rose to 5.065 billion euros in 2008, up 17.0% (+15.8% LFL)

  8. Survivability demonstration and characterization of a multi-billion shot, Q-switched, Nd:YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallas, J.L.; Stephen, M.A.; Afzal, R.S. [NASA, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    As part of NASA`s suite of Earth Observing Satellites, Goddard Space Flight Center is developing a laser altimeter for measuring the polar ice sheet mass balance. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) requires a diode pumped, Q-switched, Nd:YAG laser transmitter producing 150 mJ, 4 ns pulses at a 40 Hz repetition rate in a single transverse mode. The mission lifetime goal is five years (6.3 billion shots). The projected performance of the GLAS laser can be limited by a number of failure sources including optical damage to the components and degradation of the pump laser diodes. To the authors` knowledge, no data exists describing the multi-billion shot accumulative exposure effect Q-switched, 4 ns pulses have on intracavity optical components. To obtain multi-billion shot results in a reasonable time, an accelerated repetition rate (500 Hz) version of the GLAS oscillator was built with modifications for thermal management. An Accelerated GLAS Exposure Station (AGES) was developed to autonomously monitor the laser`s vital signs. Upon analysis of the stored data, the system dynamics were decoupled to identify the sources of degradation. Over 7 billion shots were accumulated during AGES` non-stop 5.5 month operation.

  9. Predicting ambient aerosol thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) measurements from infrared spectra: extending the predictions to different years and different sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggente, Matteo; Dillner, Ann M.; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-02-01

    Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) are major components of atmospheric particulate matter (PM), which has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality, climate change, and reduced visibility. Typically OC and EC concentrations are measured using thermal-optical methods such as thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) from samples collected on quartz filters. In this work, we estimate TOR OC and EC using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE Teflon) filters using partial least square regression (PLSR) calibrated to TOR OC and EC measurements for a wide range of samples. The proposed method can be integrated with analysis of routinely collected PTFE filter samples that, in addition to OC and EC concentrations, can concurrently provide information regarding the functional group composition of the organic aerosol. We have used the FT-IR absorbance spectra and TOR OC and EC concentrations collected in the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network (USA). We used 526 samples collected in 2011 at seven sites to calibrate the models, and more than 2000 samples collected in 2013 at 17 sites to test the models. Samples from six sites are present both in the calibration and test sets. The calibrations produce accurate predictions both for samples collected at the same six sites present in the calibration set (R2 = 0.97 and R2 = 0.95 for OC and EC respectively), and for samples from 9 of the 11 sites not included in the calibration set (R2 = 0.96 and R2 = 0.91 for OC and EC respectively). Samples collected at the other two sites require a different calibration model to achieve accurate predictions. We also propose a method to anticipate the prediction error; we calculate the squared Mahalanobis distance in the feature space (scores determined by PLSR) between new spectra and spectra in the calibration set. The squared Mahalanobis distance provides a crude method for assessing the

  10. Does present use of cardiovascular medication reflect elevated cardiovascular risk scores estimated ten years ago? A population based longitudinal observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straand Jørund

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is desirable that those at highest risk of cardiovascular disease should have priority for preventive measures, eg. treatment with prescription drugs to modify their risk. We wanted to investigate to what extent present use of cardiovascular medication (CVM correlates with cardiovascular risk estimated by three different risk scores (Framingham, SCORE and NORRISK ten years ago. Methods Prospective logitudinal observational study of 20 252 participants in The Hordaland Health Study born 1950-57, not using CVM in 1997-99. Prescription data obtained from The Norwegian Prescription Database in 2008. Results 26% of men and 22% of women aged 51-58 years had started to use some CVM during the previous decade. As a group, persons using CVM scored significantly higher on the risk algorithms Framingham, SCORE and NORRISK compared to those not treated. 16-20% of men and 20-22% of women with risk scores below the high-risk thresholds for the three risk scores were treated with CVM, while 60-65% of men and 25-45% of women with scores above the high-risk thresholds received no treatment. Among women using CVM, only 2.2% (NORRISK, 4.4% (SCORE and 14.5% (Framingham had risk scores above the high-risk values. Low education, poor self-reported general health, muscular pains, mental distress (in females only and a family history of premature cardiovascular disease correlated with use of CVM. Elevated blood pressure was the single factor most strongly predictive of CVM treatment. Conclusion Prescription of CVM to middle-aged individuals by large seems to occur independently of estimated total cardiovascular risk, and this applies especially to females.

  11. 找矿突破战略行动三年回眸与反思%Three years review and reflection of prospecting breakthrough strategic action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李嫦; 张秀荣

    2015-01-01

    自2011年颁布《找矿突破战略行动纲要(2011~2020年)》以来 ,至今已走过了一个三年的目标阶段.三年来 ,找矿突破战略行动目标的实施 ,实现了找矿重大进展 ,形成一批资源基地雏形 ,为找矿突破打下坚实基础.其中的经验是 :阶梯式认识论是实施找矿突破的理论驱动 ;高位推动协同跟进是实施找矿突破的首要驱动 ;科技创新是实施找矿突破的核心驱动 ;创新找矿模式是实施找矿突破的直接驱动.但也存在着一些不足 :矿产品价格的下跌是矿业权市场活力减弱的直接原因 ;国有地勘单位市场改革不到位是阻碍找矿效率下降的深层原因 ;公益性地质资料服务不到位是阻碍找矿工作进展的重要原因.%A three-year target phase has passed since the promulgation of The Action Scheme of Prospecting Breakthrough Strategy(2011-2020) in 2011 .Over the past three years ,the implementation of the action of the prospecting breakthrough strategy goal have achieved significant progress in prospecting ,it formed a number of resource base shape and laid a solid foundation for prospecting breakthrough .The experiences are:stepwise epistemology is the theory of the implementation of prospecting breakthrough drive;high push and collaborative follow-up is the first drive for prospecting breakthrough ;technological innovation is the core of the implementation of prospecting breakthough;the innovative prospecting model is a direct drive for the implementation of prospecting breakthrough .However there are also some defects :decline in the price of mineral products is the direct cause of the mining right market activity weakened;the market reform of the state-owned geological prospecting unit is not in place which is the deep reason of hindering the prospecting ;the public welfare geological data services is an important reason of hindering ore-prospecting work progress .

  12. 找矿突破战略行动三年回眸与反思%Three years review and reflection of prospecting breakthrough strategic action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李嫦; 张秀荣

    2015-01-01

    A three-year target phase has passed since the promulgation of The Action Scheme of Prospecting Breakthrough Strategy(2011-2020) in 2011 .Over the past three years ,the implementation of the action of the prospecting breakthrough strategy goal have achieved significant progress in prospecting ,it formed a number of resource base shape and laid a solid foundation for prospecting breakthrough .The experiences are:stepwise epistemology is the theory of the implementation of prospecting breakthrough drive;high push and collaborative follow-up is the first drive for prospecting breakthrough ;technological innovation is the core of the implementation of prospecting breakthough;the innovative prospecting model is a direct drive for the implementation of prospecting breakthrough .However there are also some defects :decline in the price of mineral products is the direct cause of the mining right market activity weakened;the market reform of the state-owned geological prospecting unit is not in place which is the deep reason of hindering the prospecting ;the public welfare geological data services is an important reason of hindering ore-prospecting work progress .%自2011年颁布《找矿突破战略行动纲要(2011~2020年)》以来 ,至今已走过了一个三年的目标阶段.三年来 ,找矿突破战略行动目标的实施 ,实现了找矿重大进展 ,形成一批资源基地雏形 ,为找矿突破打下坚实基础.其中的经验是 :阶梯式认识论是实施找矿突破的理论驱动 ;高位推动协同跟进是实施找矿突破的首要驱动 ;科技创新是实施找矿突破的核心驱动 ;创新找矿模式是实施找矿突破的直接驱动.但也存在着一些不足 :矿产品价格的下跌是矿业权市场活力减弱的直接原因 ;国有地勘单位市场改革不到位是阻碍找矿效率下降的深层原因 ;公益性地质资料服务不到位是阻碍找矿工作进展的重要原因.

  13. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Stokes, Bryce [Navarro Research & Engineering; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL

    2011-08-01

    -diameter trees were considered. The 2005 BTS did not attempt to include any wood that would normally be used for higher-valued products (e.g., pulpwood) that could potentially shift to bioenergy applications. This would have required a separate economic analysis, which was not part of the 2005 BTS. The agriculture resources in the 2005 BTS included grains used for biofuels production; crop residues derived primarily from corn, wheat, and small grains; and animal manures and other residues. The cropland resource analysis also included estimates of perennial energy crops (e.g., herbaceous grasses, such as switchgrass, woody crops like hybrid poplar, as well as willow grown under short rotations and more intensive management than conventional plantation forests). Woody crops were included under cropland resources because it was assumed that they would be grown on a combination of cropland and pasture rather than forestland. In the 2005 BTS, current resource availability was estimated at 278 million dry tons annually from forestlands and slightly more than 194 million dry tons annually from croplands. These annual quantities increase to about 370 million dry tons from forestlands and to nearly 1 billion dry tons from croplands under scenario conditions of high-yield growth and large-scale plantings of perennial grasses and woody tree crops. This high-yield scenario reflects a mid-century timescale ({approx}2040-2050). Under conditions of lower-yield growth, estimated resource potential was projected to be about 320 and 580 million dry tons for forest and cropland biomass, respectively. As noted earlier, the 2005 BTS emphasized the primary resources (agricultural and forestry residues and energy crops) because they represent nearly 80% of the long-term resource potential. Since publication of the BTS in April 2005, there have been some rather dramatic changes in energy markets. In fact, just prior to the actual publication of the BTS, world oil prices started to increase as a result

  14. Growing trees in child brains: graph theoretical analysis of electroencephalography-derived minimum spanning tree in 5- and 7-year-old children reflects brain maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Maria; Smit, Dirk J A; Boomsma, Dorret I; De Geus, Eco J C; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A; Stam, Cornelis J

    2013-01-01

    The child brain is a small-world network, which is hypothesized to change toward more ordered configurations with development. In graph theoretical studies, comparing network topologies under different conditions remains a critical point. Constructing a minimum spanning tree (MST) might present a solution, since it does not require setting a threshold and uses a fixed number of nodes and edges. In this study, the MST method is introduced to examine developmental changes in functional brain network topology in young children. Resting-state electroencephalography was recorded from 227 children twice at 5 and 7 years of age. Synchronization likelihood (SL) weighted matrices were calculated in three different frequency bands from which MSTs were constructed, which represent constructs of the most important routes for information flow in a network. From these trees, several parameters were calculated to characterize developmental change in network organization. The MST diameter and eccentricity significantly increased, while the leaf number and hierarchy significantly decreased in the alpha band with development. Boys showed significant higher leaf number, betweenness, degree and hierarchy and significant lower SL, diameter, and eccentricity than girls in the theta band. The developmental changes indicate a shift toward more decentralized line-like trees, which supports the previously hypothesized increase toward regularity of brain networks with development. Additionally, girls showed more line-like decentralized configurations, which is consistent with the view that girls are ahead of boys in brain development. MST provides an elegant method sensitive to capture subtle developmental changes in network organization without the bias of network comparison.

  15. Scalable in-memory RDFS closure on billions of triples.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Eric L.; Mizell, David (Cray, Inc, Seattle, WA)

    2010-06-01

    We present an RDFS closure algorithm, specifically designed and implemented on the Cray XMT supercomputer, that obtains inference rates of 13 million inferences per second on the largest system configuration we used. The Cray XMT, with its large global memory (4TB for our experiments), permits the construction of a conceptually straightforward algorithm, fundamentally a series of operations on a shared hash table. Each thread is given a partition of triple data to process, a dedicated copy of the ontology to apply to the data, and a reference to the hash table into which it inserts inferred triples. The global nature of the hash table allows the algorithm to avoid a common obstacle for distributed memory machines: the creation of duplicate triples. On LUBM data sets ranging between 1.3 billion and 5.3 billion triples, we obtain nearly linear speedup except for two portions: file I/O, which can be ameliorated with the additional service nodes, and data structure initialization, which requires nearly constant time for runs involving 32 processors or more.

  16. Does Cancer Literature Reflect Multidisciplinary Practice? A Systematic Review of Oncology Studies in the Medical Literature Over a 20-Year Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, Emma B. [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ahmed, Awad A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Yoo, Stella K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hoffman, Karen E., E-mail: KHoffman1@mdanderson.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Quality cancer care is best delivered through a multidisciplinary approach requiring awareness of current evidence for all oncologic specialties. The highest impact journals often disseminate such information, so the distribution and characteristics of oncology studies by primary intervention (local therapies, systemic therapies, and targeted agents) were evaluated in 10 high-impact journals over a 20-year period. Methods and Materials: Articles published in 1994, 2004, and 2014 in New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet Oncology, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology, Radiotherapy and Oncology, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, Annals of Surgical Oncology, and European Journal of Surgical Oncology were identified. Included studies were prospectively conducted and evaluated a therapeutic intervention. Results: A total of 960 studies were included: 240 (25%) investigated local therapies, 551 (57.4%) investigated systemic therapies, and 169 (17.6%) investigated targeted therapies. More local therapy trials (n=185 [77.1%]) evaluated definitive, primary treatment than systemic (n=178 [32.3%]) or targeted therapy trials (n=38 [22.5%]; P<.001). Local therapy trials (n=16 [6.7%]) also had significantly lower rates of industry funding than systemic (n=207 [37.6%]) and targeted therapy trials (n=129 [76.3%]; P<.001). Targeted therapy trials represented 5 (2%), 38 (10.2%), and 126 (38%) of those published in 1994, 2004, and 2014, respectively (P<.001), and industry-funded 48 (18.9%), 122 (32.6%), and 182 (54.8%) trials, respectively (P<.001). Compared to publication of systemic therapy trial articles, articles investigating local therapy (odds ratio: 0.025 [95% confidence interval: 0.012-0.048]; P<.001) were less likely to be found in high-impact general medical journals. Conclusions: Fewer studies evaluating local therapies, such as surgery and radiation, are published in

  17. O SUS nos seus 20 anos: reflexões num contexto de mudanças Twenty years of SUS: reflections in a context of changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Costa de Araújo Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A partir de uma breve retrospectiva sobre o direito à saúde conquistado pelo cidadão brasileiro, este artigo tem como objetivo discorrer sobre o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS ao longo da sua trajetória de 20 anos, destacando em forma de análise crítica os avanços conquistados na saúde e os desafios a serem superados. São discutidas as temáticas do direito à saúde como responsabilidade do Estado a partir da Conferência de Alma-Ata, da Constituição Federal e das Leis Orgânicas da Saúde; as diretrizes do SUS envolvendo as competências da União, do Estado e do Município. Discute ainda a importância da Estratégia Saúde da Família na consolidação da Atenção Básica no Brasil, as dificuldades do processo de regionalização e o papel da gestão e da participação social como bases para a construção do SUS que queremos.From a brief review of the right to healthcare won by the Brazilian citizens, this article aims to discuss Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS - National Health System throughout its trajectory of 20 years, providing a critical review of the progress achieved in healthcare and the challenges to be overcome. It discusses the issues of: the right to healthcare as the State's responsibility based on the Alma-Ata Conference, the Federal Constitution and the Organic Laws on Health; SUS guidelines involving the competences of the Union, States and Municipalities. It also approaches the importance of the Family Health Strategy for the consolidation of Primary Care in Brazil, the difficulties in the process of regional health planning, and the role of management and social participation as the bases for the construction of the SUS we want.

  18. Does Cancer Literature Reflect Multidisciplinary Practice? A Systematic Review of Oncology Studies in the Medical Literature Over a 20-Year Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Quality cancer care is best delivered through a multidisciplinary approach requiring awareness of current evidence for all oncologic specialties. The highest impact journals often disseminate such information, so the distribution and characteristics of oncology studies by primary intervention (local therapies, systemic therapies, and targeted agents) were evaluated in 10 high-impact journals over a 20-year period. Methods and Materials: Articles published in 1994, 2004, and 2014 in New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet Oncology, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology, Radiotherapy and Oncology, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, Annals of Surgical Oncology, and European Journal of Surgical Oncology were identified. Included studies were prospectively conducted and evaluated a therapeutic intervention. Results: A total of 960 studies were included: 240 (25%) investigated local therapies, 551 (57.4%) investigated systemic therapies, and 169 (17.6%) investigated targeted therapies. More local therapy trials (n=185 [77.1%]) evaluated definitive, primary treatment than systemic (n=178 [32.3%]) or targeted therapy trials (n=38 [22.5%]; P<.001). Local therapy trials (n=16 [6.7%]) also had significantly lower rates of industry funding than systemic (n=207 [37.6%]) and targeted therapy trials (n=129 [76.3%]; P<.001). Targeted therapy trials represented 5 (2%), 38 (10.2%), and 126 (38%) of those published in 1994, 2004, and 2014, respectively (P<.001), and industry-funded 48 (18.9%), 122 (32.6%), and 182 (54.8%) trials, respectively (P<.001). Compared to publication of systemic therapy trial articles, articles investigating local therapy (odds ratio: 0.025 [95% confidence interval: 0.012-0.048]; P<.001) were less likely to be found in high-impact general medical journals. Conclusions: Fewer studies evaluating local therapies, such as surgery and radiation, are published in

  19. On Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how the concept of reflexivity is used in intercultural education. Reflexivity is often presented as a key learning goal in acquiring intercultural competence (ICC). Yet, reflexivity can be defined in different ways, and take different forms across time and space, depending...... on the concepts of selfhood that prevail and how notions of difference are constructed. First, I discuss how the dominant usages of reflexivity in intercultural education reflect and reproduce a Cartesian view of the self that shapes how ICC is conceptualized and taught. I discuss three assumptions that this view...... in designing learning objectives in intercultural education and in devising ways to attain them. Greater attention is also needed in intercultural education to the ways in which selfhood, and hence also reflexivity and constructions of difference, differ across space and time....

  20. A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Jens; McConnell, Nicholas J; Greene, Jenny E; Blakeslee, John P; Janish, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Quasars are associated with and powered by the accretion of material onto massive black holes; the detection of highly luminous quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 suggests that black holes of up to ten billion solar masses already existed 13 billion years ago. Two possible present-day dormant descendants of this population of active black holes have been found in the galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 at the centres of the Leo and Coma galaxy clusters, which together form the central region of the Great Wall - the largest local structure of galaxies. The most luminous quasars, however, are not confined to such high-density regions of the early Universe; yet dormant black holes of this high mass have not yet been found outside of modern-day rich clusters. Here we report observations of the stellar velocity distribution in the galaxy NGC 1600 - a relatively isolated elliptical galaxy near the centre of a galaxy group at a distance of 64 Mpc from Earth. We use orbit superposition models to determine that the ...

  1. Some Reflections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Tao

    2006-01-01

    @@ Since September 11, terrorism and counter-terrorism campaigns have become important driving forces for international relations and security setups. In these five years, the international political situation has undergone a series of profound changes. All countries have set down their policies one after another. Therefore it is necessary for people to rethink, from different points of view, about this great event. In so doing, we can better understand the future international political situation and lessen confusion.

  2. Thoughts on Reflection (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2010-06-01

    Evidence in Practice section uses a standardized format enabling practitioners to share their experience of integrating research evidence into their practice. The final section of these brief articles asks the writers to reflect on their experience. Although it is not research, the individual reflection allies with what Schön (1983 called “reflection on action” and such reflections over time form a practical, tacit knowledge that we use to inform our work. Within this section of the journal, we hope readers will become more aware of how different types of evidence can be integrated into real‐world decision making. Not everything requires a full blown research study, and this section allows readers to see what other practitioners are doing, and in turn it should enable them to reflect upon what they are doing in their own practice. Being aware of situations where things may or may not have worked, and reflecting on the reasons why, brings together our sense of critical thought and practical experience that go a long way in filling the “librarian observed” and “professional judgements” parts of the EBLIP definition (Booth and Brice 2004. Acquiring professional knowledge does not end when we complete a graduate program, or have a certain number of years experience under our belts. It needs to be continually and consciously cultivated via reflection on our practice, our research, and simply what works and why. Research knowledge only takes us so far. People often ask me, “What do I do when there is no evidence? Or when the research evidence is weak?” Does this stop us from moving ahead? No. A decision still needs to be made. Evidence based practice is not only about acting when there is good evidence. Enhancing our professional judgments via a career built on analytical reflection, will provide knowledge that goes a long way towards making difficult decisions a little bit easier; even (or perhaps, especially in the cases when there is already a large body of

  3. PetroChina to Invest US$60 Billion for Worldwide Expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Geng

    2010-01-01

    @@ PetroChina plans to spend at least US$60 billion in the next decade on overseas acquisitions,challenging ExxonMobil and BP in the race to control oil and gas fields."Ten years ago,PetroChina was a State-owned oil company,but now we aim at becoming an international,integrated energy company,"Jiang Jiemin,chairman of the world's largest company by market value,said in an interview with news media in late March,in which he announced the investment plan.This move aims to secure the company's annual output of oil and natural gas in foreign lands equivalent to 200 million tons of oil.

  4. Tough Year Ahead for Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN WEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ The steel industry, a top beneficiary of the country's sizzling economic growth, is this year likely to see only a meager profit or even report losses, according to a report by the National Development and Reform Commission. Mounting demand for steel in real estate construction and auto making during the past years resulted in an investment craze into the sector, and has caused a glut on the market. Average steel prices fell by a third last year, though domestic steel makers still managed to post a profit of 127.4 billion yuan (US$15.9 billion) on aggregate.

  5. Connecting galaxy and supermassive black hole growth during the last 8 billion years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneau, Stephanie

    It has become increasingly clear that a complete picture of galaxy evolution requires a better understanding of the role of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). In particular, they could be responsible for regulating star formation and galaxy growth via feedback processes. There are also competing views about the main modes of stellar growth and supermassive black hole growth in galaxies that need to be resolved. With high infrared luminosities (thus star formation rates) and a frequent occurrence of AGN, galaxies selected in the far-infrared wavebands form an ideal sample to search for a connection between AGN and star formation. The first part of this thesis contains a detailed analysis of the molecular gas properties of nearby infrared luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs). We find that the enhanced molecular gas density in the most IR-luminous systems can be explained by major galaxy mergers, and that AGN are more likely to reside in higher-density systems. While the frequent concurrence of AGN and galaxy mergers in ULIRGs was already established, this work provides a coherent framework that explains trends observed with five molecular gas tracers with a broad range of critical densities, and a comparison with simulations that reproduce observed molecular line ratios without invoking AGN-induced chemistry. The second part of the thesis presents an analysis of the AGN content of intermediate redshift galaxies (0.3 < z < 1). However, identifying complete AGN samples at these redshift is challenging because it is difficult to find X-ray weak or absorbed AGN. To alleviate this problem, we developed the Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagram, which is applicable out to redshift of ˜ 1 with existing optical spectra. It improves the overall AGN census by detecting AGN that are missed in even the most sensitive X-ray surveys. The new diagnostic was used to study the concurrence of star formation and AGN in 70 micron-selected galaxies from the Far-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy survey. When multiple AGN diagnostics are combined, we find not only a high AGN fraction in FIR-selected galaxies (as high as for nearby FIR-selected galaxies), but a high incidence of X-ray absorbed AGN. These findings may have considerable implications for current views about the main mode of AGN growth.

  6. Illuminating the past 8 billion years of cold gas towards two gravitationally lensed quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, J R; Macquart, J -P; Curran, S J; Duchesne, S W; Mahony, E K; Sadler, E M; Whiting, M T; Bannister, K W; Chippendale, A P; Edwards, P G; Harvey-Smith, L; Heywood, I; Indermuehle, B T; Lenc, E; Marvil, J; McConnell, D; Sault, R J

    2016-01-01

    Using the Boolardy Engineering Test Array of the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP BETA), we have carried out the first $z = 0 - 1$ survey for HI and OH absorption towards the gravitationally-lensed quasars PKSB1830-211 and MGJ0414+0534. Although we detected all previously reported intervening systems towards PKSB1830-211, in the case of MGJ0414+0534 three systems were not found, indicating that the original identifications may have been confused with radio frequency interference. Given the sensitivity of our data, we find that our detection yield is consistent with the expected frequency of intervening HI systems estimated from previous surveys for 21-cm emission in nearby galaxies and $z \\sim 3$ damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ absorbers. We find spectral variability in the $z = 0.886$ face-on spiral galaxy towards PKSB1830-211, from observations undertaken with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope in 1997/1998 and ASKAP BETA in 2014/2015. The HI equivalent width varies by a few per cent over app...

  7. The Formation of Submillimetre-Bright Galaxies from Gas Infall over a Billion Years

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, Desika; Feldmann, Robert; Robitaille, Thomas; Hopkins, Philip; Thompson, Robert; Hayward, Christopher; Ball, David; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre; Keres, Dusan

    2015-01-01

    Submillimetre-luminous galaxies at high-redshift are the most luminous, heavily star-forming galaxies in the Universe, and are characterised by prodigious emission in the far-infrared at 850 microns (S850 > 5 mJy). They reside in halos ~ 10^13Msun, have low gas fractions compared to main sequence disks at a comparable redshift, trace complex environments, and are not easily observable at optical wavelengths. Their physical origin remains unclear. Simulations have been able to form galaxies with the requisite luminosities, but have otherwise been unable to simultaneously match the stellar masses, star formation rates, gas fractions and environments. Here we report a cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulation that is able to form a submillimetre galaxy which simultaneously satisfies the broad range of observed physical constraints. We find that groups of galaxies residing in massive dark matter halos have rising star formation histories that peak at collective rates ~ 500-1000 Msun/yr at z=2-3, by wh...

  8. Intergalactic Lyman continuum photon budget in the past 5 billion years

    CERN Document Server

    Gaikwad, Prakash; Choudhury, Tirthankar Roy; Srianand, Raghunathan

    2016-01-01

    We constrain the H I photoionization rate $(\\Gamma_{\\rm HI})$ at $z \\lesssim 0.45$ by comparing the flux probability distribution function and power spectrum of the Ly-$\\alpha$ forest data along 82 QSO sightlines obtained using Cosmic Origins Spectrograph with models generated from smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations. We have developed a module named "Code for Ionization and Temperature Evolution (CITE)" for calculating the intergalactic medium (IGM) temperature evolution from high to low redshifts by post-processing the GADGET-2 simulation outputs. Our method, that produces results consistent with other simulations, is computationally less expensive thus allowing us to explore a large parameter space. It also allows rigorous estimation of the error covariance matrix for various statistical quantities of interest. We find that the best-fit $\\Gamma_{\\rm HI}(z)$ increases with $z$ and follows $(4 \\pm 0.1) \\times 10^{-14}\\:(1+z)^{4.99 \\pm 0.12}$ s$^{-1}$. At any given $z$ the typical uncertainties $\\Delta...

  9. Could organic matter have been preserved on Mars for 3.5 billion years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavarioti, Anastassia; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    1990-01-01

    About 3.5 Gyr ago, when it is thought that Mars and earth had similar climates, biological evolution on earth had made considerable progress, such that life was abundant. It is therefore surmised that prior to this time period, the advent of chemical evolution and subsequent origin of life occurred on earth and may have occurred on Mars. Analysis for organic compounds in the soil buried beneath the Martian surface may yield useful information regarding the occurrence of chemical evolution and possibly biological evolution. Calculations based on the stability of amino acids lead to the conclusion that remnants of these compounds, if they existed on Mars 3.5 Gyr ago, might have been preserved buried beneath the surface oxidizing layer. For example, if phenylalanine, an amino acid of average stability, existed on Mars 3.5 Gyr ago, then 1.6 percent would remain buried today. Martian soil may exist from remnants of meteoritic and cometary bombardment, assuming that 1 percent of the organics survived impact.

  10. The discovery of fullerenes in the 1.85 billion-year-old Sudbury meteorite crater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, L.; Bada, J.L. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States); Winans, R.E.; Hunt, J.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bunch, T.E. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Moffett Field, CA (United States). Ames Research Center; French, B.M. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Fullerenes (C{sub 60}, C{sub 70}) have been identified by laser time-of-flight and electron-ionization mass spectroscopy in rock samples (black tuff in the Onaping formation) from the crater. They were likely synthesized within the impact plume from carbon contained in the meteorite. The isotopic ratios suggest {sup 13}C enrichment. They are associated with sulfur which may have protected them. This is the largest known deposit of naturally occurring fullerenes.

  11. A Powerful Toolkit for Synthetic Biology: Over 3.8 Billion Years of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2010-01-01

    The combination of evolutionary with engineering principles will enhance synthetic biology. Conversely, synthetic biology has the potential to enrich evolutionary biology by explaining why some adaptive space is empty, on Earth or elsewhere. Synthetic biology, the design and construction of artificial biological systems, substitutes bio-engineering for evolution, which is seen as an obstacle. But because evolution has produced the complexity and diversity of life, it provides a proven toolkit of genetic materials and principles available to synthetic biology. Evolution operates on the population level, with the populations composed of unique individuals that are historical entities. The source of genetic novelty includes mutation, gene regulation, sex, symbiosis, and interspecies gene transfer. At a phenotypic level, variation derives from regulatory control, replication and diversification of components, compartmentalization, sexual selection and speciation, among others. Variation is limited by physical constraints such as diffusion, and chemical constraints such as reaction rates and membrane fluidity. While some of these tools of evolution are currently in use in synthetic biology, all ought to be examined for utility. A hybrid approach of synthetic biology coupled with fine-tuning through evolution is suggested

  12. Evidence for oxygenic photosynthesis half a billion years before the Great Oxidation Event

    OpenAIRE

    Planavsky, Noah J.; Asael, Dan; Hofman, Axel; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Lalonde, Stefan V; Knudsen, Andrew; Wang, Xiangli; Ossa, Frantz Ossa; Pecoits, Ernest; Smith, Albertus J. B.; Beukes, Nicolas J.; Bekker, Andrey; Johnson, Thomas M.; Konhauser, Kurt O.; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2014-01-01

    The early Earth was characterized by the absence of oxygen in the ocean–atmosphere system, in contrast to the well-oxygenated conditions that prevail today. Atmospheric concentrations first rose to appreciable levels during the Great Oxidation Event, roughly 2.5–2.3 Gyr ago. The evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis is generally accepted to have been the ultimate cause of this rise, but it has proved difficult to constrain the timing of this evolutionary innovation. The oxidation of manganese ...

  13. The role of bars in AGN fueling in disk galaxies over the last seven billion years

    CERN Document Server

    Cisternas, Mauricio; Salvato, Mara; Knapen, Johan H; Civano, Francesca; Santini, Paola

    2014-01-01

    We present empirical constraints on the influence of stellar bars on the fueling of active galactic nuclei (AGN) out to z=0.84 using a sample of X-ray-selected AGN hosted in luminous face-on disk galaxies from the Chandra COSMOS survey. Using high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging to identify bars, we find that the fraction of barred active galaxies displays a similar behavior as that of inactive spirals, declining with redshift from 71% at z~0.3, to 35% at z~0.8. With active galaxies being typically massive, we compare them against a mass-matched sample of inactive spirals and find that the AGN bar fraction is higher, with this enhancement being marginal at z>0.4, but becoming more pronounced at low redshift. The presence of a bar has no influence on the AGN strength, with barred and unbarred active galaxies showing equivalent X-ray luminosity distributions, though barred galaxies on average seem to show higher levels of central star formation. From our results, we conclude that the role of bars is r...

  14. Martian impact cratering rate over the last 3 billions years derived from layered ejecta craters dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagain, Anthony; Bouley, Sylvain; Costard, François; Baratoux, David

    2016-04-01

    All chronology models used in dating planetary surfaces are based on the lunar chronology system. The cratering density of the Moon has been calibrated with absolute ages from Apollo lunar samples. However, there are no lunar samples between 3 Gy and 800 My and only four samples have been dated between 800 My and present. Therefore, the evolution of the cratering rate after the LHB and before 3 Gy is well constrained. The cratering rate between 3 Gy and present has been assumed to be constant [1, 2]. Nevertheless, this assumption is challenged by the analysis of the geological record, such as the frequency of landslide on Mars as a function of time [3, 4]. It is therefore necessary to re-examine the validity of this assumption and place constraints on the cratering rate since the last 3 Gy. For this purpose, we study the rate of impact cratering using small craters on a set of 53 layered ejecta craters larger than 5 km in diameter in Acidalia Planitia, Mars. LECs larger than 5km have large enough surfaces to date their formation by counting craters larger than 100m present on their blankets. Furthermore, limits of their ejecta blankets are clearly defined by a terminal bead. In order to determine the crater emplacement ages, we have applied the methodology dating described in our previous study [6] on all ejecta layers. Errors on measured ages were calculated following [7]. The age of the study area is 2.8±0.2 Gy. Our crater counts on distal ejecta blankets reveal ages younger than the age of the surrounding surface, as expected. It is essential to take into account errors on measured ages. The statistical sample used to build this emplacement frequency distribution and our dating methodology are sufficiently reliable to deduce that a constant impact cratering rate over the last 3 Gy is not a correct approximation. The excessive number of craters emplaced 1Gy ago compared to the cratering rate used suggests a decreased impact cratering rate over the last 1Gy and the presence of one or several peaks of cratering rate (possibly associated with disruption events in the asteroid belt ?). This study confirms that the assumption of a constant cratering rate for the last 3 Gy should be revised. References: [1] Hartmann W.K. (1973) JGR, 78:4096-4116. [2] Hartmann W.K. and Neukum G. (2001) Sp. Sci. Reviews, 96:165-194. [3] Hartmann W.K. (2007). Icarus, 189:274-278. [4] Quantin C. et al. (2007) Icarus, 186:1-10. [5] Hartmann W.K. (2005) Icarus, 174:294-320. [6] Lagain A. et al. (2015) LPS XLVI, Abstract #1920. [7] Levine J. et al. (2005) GRL, 32:L15201.

  15. Evolution of the brain: from behavior to consciousness in 3.4 billion years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oró, John J

    2004-06-01

    Once life began as single-cell organisms, evolution favored those able to seek nutrients and avoid risks. Receptors sensed the environment, memory traces were laid, and adaptive responses were made. Environmental stress, at times as dramatic as the collision of an asteroid, resulted in extinctions that favored small predators with dorsal nerve cords and cranially positioned brains. Myelination, and later thermoregulation, led to increasingly efficient neural processing. As somatosensory, visual, and auditory input increased, a neocortex developed containing both sensory and motor neural maps. Hominids, with their free hands, pushed cortical development further and began to make simple stone tools. Tools and increasing cognition allowed procurement of a richer diet that led to a smaller gut, thus freeing more energy for brain expansion. Multimodal association areas, initially developed for processing incoming sensory information, blossomed and began to provide the organism with an awareness of self and environment. Advancements in memory storage and retrieval gave the organism a sense of continuity through time. This developing consciousness eventually left visible traces, which today are dramatically evident on cave walls in France and Spain. We will take this journey from the single cell to human consciousness.

  16. Rapid oxygenation of Earths atmosphere 2.33 billion years ago

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Genming; Ono, Shuhei; Beukes, Nicolas J.; Wang, David T.; Xie, Shucheng; Summons, Roger E.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular oxygen (O[subscript 2]) is, and has been, a primary driver of biological evolution and shapes the contemporary landscape of Earth’s biogeochemical cycles. Although “whiffs” of oxygen have been documented in the Archean atmosphere, substantial O2 did not accumulate irreversibly until the Early Paleoproterozoic, during what has been termed the Great Oxygenation Event (GOE). The timing of the GOE and the rate at which this oxygenation took place have been poorly constrained until now. ...

  17. Oxidative Weathering of Earth's Surface 3.7 Billion Years ago? - A Chromium Isotope Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, R.; Crowe, S.; Bau, M.; Polat, A.; Fowle, D. A.; Døssing, L. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Great Oxidation Event signals the first large-scale oxygenation of the atmosphere roughly 2.4 Gyr ago. Geochemical signals diagnostic of oxidative weathering, however, extend as far back as 3.3-2.9 Gyr ago. 3.8-3.7 Gyr old rocks from Isua, Greenland stand as a deep time outpost, recording information on Earth's earliest surface chemistry and the low oxygen primordial biosphere. We find positive Cr isotope values (average δ53Cr = +0.05 +/- 0.10 permil; δ53Cr = (53Cr/52Cr)sample/(53Cr/52Cr)SRM 979 - 1) x 1000, where SRM 979 denotes Standard Reference Material 979 in both the Fe and Si-rich mesobands of 7 compositionally distinct quartz-magnetite and magnesian banded iron formation (BIF) samples collected from the eastern portion of the Isua BIF (Western Greenland). These postively fractioned Cr isotopes, relative to the igneous silicate Earth reservoir, in metamorphosed BIFs from Isua indicate oxidative Cr cycling 3.8-3.7 Gyr ago. We also examined the distribution of U, which is immobile in its reduced state but mobile when it is oxidized. Elevated U/Th ratios (mean U/Th ratio of 0.70 ± 0.29) in these BIFs relative to the contemporary crust, also signal oxidative mobilization of U. We suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulated in Earth's surface environment inducing the oxidative weathering of rocks during the deposition of the Isua BIFs. The precise threshold atmospheric O2 concentrations for the induction of Cr isotope fractionation remain uncertain, but we argue that our data are consistent with the very low levels of oxygen or other ROS indicated by other proxies. Importantly, any trace of Cr that cycled through redox reactions on land would tend both to be heavy, and to mobilize into the contemporaneous run-off more readily than Cr weathered directly as Cr(III). Once having reached the oceans, this fractionated Cr would have been stripped from seawater by Fe (oxy)hydroxides formed during the deposition of BIFs from low oxygen oceans. The reactive oxygen species recorded in Isua sediments may also have been sufficient to support aerobic metabolisms, which are known to occur in extant bacteria at oxygen concentrations as low as 10-8 atm.

  18. The Last Eight-Billion Years of Intergalactic SiIV Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Cooksey, Kathy L; Thom, Christopher; Chen, Hsiao-Wen

    2010-01-01

    We identified 24 SiIV absorption systems with z 3 sigma. The absorber line density of the G = 1 doublets was dN_SiIV/dX = 1.4+0.4/-0.3 for log N(Si+3) > 12.9. The best-fit power law to the G = 1 frequency distribution of column densities f(N(Si+3)) had normalization k = (1.2+0.5/-0.4) x 10^{-14} cm^-2 and slope alpha = -1.6+0.3/-0.3. Using the power-law model of f(N(Si+3)), we measured the Si+3 mass density relative to the critical density: Omega(Si+3) = (3.71+2.82/-1.68) x 10^-8. From a simple linear fit to Omega(Si+3) over the age of the Universe, we estimated a slow and steady increase from z = 5.5 --> 0 with dOmega/dt_age = (0.61+/-0.13) x 10^-8 Gyr^-1. We compared our ionic ratios N(Si+3)/N(C+3) to a 2 < z < 4.5 sample and concluded, from survival analysis, that the two populations are similar, with mean N(Si+3)/N(C+3) ~ 0.16.

  19. Deliveries of district heat amounted 5.1 billion FIM in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sales of district heat in 1999 was 26.2 TWh, which is about 5% less than in 1998. The decrease was due to milder weather conditions. The year 1999 was more than 1 deg C warmer than the long-term average. The value of the sales was 5.1 billion FIM. The share of residences of the district heat sales was 52%, corresponding to 2.7 billion FIM. The number of district heated residences at the end of 1999 was 1 080 000. Nearly a half of the buildings in Finland were connected to district heating. In largest cities the share is nearly 90%. In total 28 TWh of district heat was generated in 1999, which is nearly 5% less than in 1998. About 77% of the district heat was generated at combined heat and power plants. About 12.2 TWh of electric power was generated at combined heat and power plants. The share of electric power generated at combined heat and power plants decreased by 4% from the year 1998. About 36% of district heat and co-generation power were generated with natural gas. The share of coal was 26%, which is 3.5% less than in 1998. The shares of indigenous fuels remained on the same level as in 1998. A fifth of the fuels was peat. The share of peat decreased by 1%. The share of other indigenous fuels (wood, biogas, and industrial waste heat) was 8%, being the same as the share of oil. The average price of district heat was 19.5 p/kWh, which is about 1% higher than in 1998. The share of taxes of the price of district heat is 30%. The article is based on the preliminary information on generation and delivery of district heat in 1999. The press release is available in URL http://www.energia.fi/sky/eindex.htm

  20. The Effect of Reflective Activities on Reflective Thinking Ability in an Undergraduate Pharmacy Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsingos-Lucas, Cherie; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Schneider, Carl R; Smith, Lorraine

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of integrating reflective practice activities into a second-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and their impact on reflective thinking ability. Design. A cross-over design with repeated measures was employed. Newly developed reflective modules based on real hospital and community pharmacy cases were integrated into the second-year pharmacy practice curriculum. A novel strategy, the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA), was introduced to enhance self- and peer reflection. Assessment. Student responses (n=214) to the adapted Kember et al(1) Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ) were compared before and after reflective activities were undertaken. Significant improvement in three indicators of reflective thinking was shown after students engaged in reflective activities. Conclusion. Integration of reflective activities into a pharmacy curriculum increased the reflective thinking capacity of students. Enhancing reflective thinking ability may help students make better informed decisions and clinical judgments, thus improving future practice. PMID:27293232

  1. Another Record Year for Academic Pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how, fueled by the war on terrorism, Congress has awarded a record $1.8 billion in academic earmarks in the 2002 fiscal year. Profiles several recipient programs and includes a campus-by-campus list of projects. (EV)

  2. Yichuan Power’s High-precision Aluminum Belt Project Invests RMB2.95 Billion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>Yichuan Power Group’s continuous casting and rolling aluminum belt project features an annual production capacity of 250,000 tons and commenced construction in April 2009.Total investment in the project will be RMB2.95 billion, and following production,sales income are projected to reach RMB5.2 billion,with profits and taxes amounting to RMB0.6 billion.

  3. A Reflective Look at Reflecting Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, Rebecca L.; Stinchfield, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    This article reviewed existing literature and research on the reflecting team process. There is a dearth of empirical research that explores the reflecting team process and the outcome of counseling that uses reflecting teams. Implications of using reflecting teams for counselors, counselor educators, and clients will be discussed. A call for…

  4. Opioid Epidemic Costs U.S. $78.5 Billion Annually: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161089.html Opioid Epidemic Costs U.S. $78.5 Billion Annually: CDC ... HealthDay News) -- Abuse of powerful prescription painkillers called opioids costs the U.S. economy $78.5 billion a ...

  5. A Multi-billion Parcel Atmospheric Trajectory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, C.; Clune, T. L.; Lait, L. R.; Ranawake, U.; Burns, R. W.

    2009-12-01

    We present a new parallel implementation of an atmospheric trajectory modelling framework which provides improved numerical accuracy, greater flexibility for specifying experiments, and sufficient raw performance to simultaneously simulate billions of parcel trajectories on suitable computing platforms. The application is parallelized using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library and can scale efficiently on a wide variety of modern computing platforms. The ability to treat such large numbers of parcels is expected to enable a new generation of experiments to explore questions related to global stratosphere-troposphere exchange, age-of-air spectra, and transport of trace gases and aerosols. The modelling framework is written in C++ for easy integration with other computing technologies. It also provides a great deal of flexibility by allowing users to select from (or add to) alternative subclasses for vertical coordinates (pressure, potential temperature), integration schemes (Runge-Kutta, Euler), meteorological data sources (NCEP/NCAR Reanalsyis, MERRA), data interpolation methods (linear, log-linear, splines), and output (parcel histories, summary statistics, min/max quantities encountered). Significantly improved numerical accuracy, especially near the poles, is provided by expressing integration in terms of purely geometric constructs which avoid various complications associated with spherical coordinates near the poles. The entire package has been rigorously developed using Test-Driven Development (TDD) which both provides confidence in the implementation and should also assist other developers that wish to extend the framework. Several tests are performed to demonstrate the fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration scheme with our spherical geometric constructs. Tilted solid body rotation provides a baseline synthetic wind field for assessing model performance, and a time-varying case is used to examine the errors introduced by interpolating linearly in time

  6. NREL Helps Clean Cities Displace Billions of Gallons of Petroleum, One Vehicle at a Time (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-01

    With more than 15 years and nearly 3 billion gallons of displaced petroleum under its belt, the Clean Cities program relies on the support and expertise of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). An initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Clean Cities creates public-private partnerships with a common mission: to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Since the inception of Clean Cities in 1993, NREL has played a central role in supporting the program, an effort that stems from the laboratory's strategy to put scientific innovation into action in the marketplace.

  7. Reflective Teaching in English New Curriculum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪建华

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, reflective teaching has become the core focus in English new curriculum. This paper, by introducingand discussing the concept as well as the characteristics of reflective teaching, analyses the interactive relationship between teachers andstudents. It then discusses the role of reflective teaching in teachers’professional development. Finally, it presents a few ways on howreflective teaching can be done.

  8. Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, Ashok J.; Derby, Elisabeth A.

    2003-06-01

    Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015, the global community will need to provide an additional one billion urban residents and 600 million rural residents with safe water within the next twelve years. This paper examines current water treatment measures and implementation methods for delivery of safe drinking water, and offers suggestions for making progress towards the goal of providing a timely and equitable solution for safe water provision. For water treatment, based on the serious limitations of boiling water and chlorination, we suggest an approach based on filtration coupled with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, combined with public education. Additionally, owing to the capacity limitations for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to take on this task primarily on their own, we suggest a strategy based on financially sustainable models that include the private sector as well as NGOs.

  9. Reflective Teaching in English New Curriculum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪建华

    2009-01-01

    In recent years,reflective teaching has become the core focus in English new curriculum.This paper,by inlroducing and discussing the concept as well as the characteristics of reflective teaching.analyses the interactive relationship between teachers and gudents.It then discusses the role of reflective teaching in teachers'professional development.Finally,it presents a few ways on how reflective teaching Call be done.

  10. Self-Reflection and Academic Performance: Is There a Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Magdeleine D. N.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were two-fold: first, to evaluate whether reflection journal writing was effective in promoting self-reflection and learning, and whether students become better at self-reflection if they engage continuously in reflection journal writing. To that end, the reflection journals of 690 first-year applied science…

  11. Reflectable bases for affine reflection systems

    CERN Document Server

    Azam, Saeid; Yousofzadeh, Malihe

    2011-01-01

    The notion of a "root base" together with its geometry plays a crucial role in the theory of finite and affine Lie theory. However, it is known that such a notion does not exist for the recent generalizations of finite and affine root systems such as extended affine root systems and affine reflection systems. As an alternative, we introduce the notion of a "reflectable base", a minimal subset $\\Pi$ of roots such that the non-isotropic part of the root system can be recovered by reflecting roots of $\\Pi$ relative to the hyperplanes determined by $\\Pi$. We give a full characterization of reflectable bases for tame irreducible affine reflection systems of reduced types, excluding types $E_{6,7,8}$. As a byproduct of our results, we show that if the root system under consideration is locally finite then any reflectable base is an integral base.

  12. 30 Years,Open Wisely

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2009-01-01

    @@ Over the 30 years,since the Reform and Opening-up, to the outside world, Chinese foreign trade has inreased from 20.6 billion USD in 1978 to 2.17 trilliion USD in 2007,up by 105 times, with an average annual growth of 17.4%.

  13. Reflectivity, reflexivity and situated reflective practice

    OpenAIRE

    Malthouse, R; Roffey-Barentsen, J; Watts, DM

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an aspect of reflective practice referred to as ‘Situated Reflective Practice’ (SRP). The overarching theory is derived from social theories of structuration and reflexivity. In particular, from Giddens’s (1984) theory of structuration, this sees social life as interplay of agency and structure. Discussion of the research reported here centres on the nature of such situated reflection, considers related literature and presents the data collected in a recent small-scale st...

  14. CNPC Achievements in Exploration & Development in the Eighth Five-Year Plan Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhengyu

    1996-01-01

    @@ In the Eighth Five-Year Plan period, the cumulative proved oil in place of onshore industry was 2.8 billion tons,with a cumulative crude oil production of 694 million tons;the cumulative proved gas reserves was 547 billion cubic meters and more, equal to the total of the whole nation proved gas reserves in the past 40 years, and cumulative natural gas production is over 79 billion cubic meters.

  15. Forecast 1978: $45.2-Billion for R and D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbacher, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses Research and Development (R&D) funding trends from industry and the federal government. A real increase for the third consecutive year is forecast for 1978, if inflation stays below 7.9 percent. (SL)

  16. An ultraluminous quasar with a twelve-billion-solar-mass black hole at redshift 6.30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Wang, Feige; Fan, Xiaohui; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Thompson, David; Beletsky, Yuri

    2015-02-26

    So far, roughly 40 quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 have been discovered. Each quasar contains a black hole with a mass of about one billion solar masses (10(9) M Sun symbol). The existence of such black holes when the Universe was less than one billion years old presents substantial challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the coevolution of black holes and galaxies. Here we report the discovery of an ultraluminous quasar, SDSS J010013.02+280225.8, at redshift z = 6.30. It has an optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z > 6 quasars. On the basis of the deep absorption trough on the blue side of the Lyman-α emission line in the spectrum, we estimate the proper size of the ionized proximity zone associated with the quasar to be about 26 million light years, larger than found with other z > 6.1 quasars with lower luminosities. We estimate (on the basis of a near-infrared spectrum) that the black hole has a mass of ∼1.2 × 10(10) M Sun symbol, which is consistent with the 1.3 × 10(10) M Sun symbol derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion rate. PMID:25719667

  17. Modes of collaborative reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Degeling, Martin; Prilla, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe different modes of collaborative reflection as processes of learning at the workplace. We explain why reflection is a decisive means of learning and - based on the modes we describe - how groups of people can be supported in reflection together. For this, we describe how scheduled, concurrent and spontaneous collaborative reflection can be supported by articulation, guidance and synergizing.

  18. 77 FR 29458 - Supervisory Guidance on Stress Testing for Banking Organizations With More Than $10 Billion in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... organizations with consolidated assets of $10 billion or less. \\1\\ See 76 FR 35072 (June 15, 2011). All banking... agencies with more than $10 billion in total consolidated assets, including state member banks, bank... interest-rate risk management. However, no institution at or below $10 billion in total consolidated...

  19. Environmentally Benign Coal Mining: Target One Billion Tonne Coal Production by CIL by 2019-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh1,2 and

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Coal is the most abundant fuel resource in India. Coal is the major source of energy and is the principal contributor for the industrial growth of the developing nation like India. Coal is a bridge component in a current, balanced energy group. It is connection for the future as a vital low cost energy solution for achieving sustainability challenges for competing with the developed countries. The largest consumer of coal in India is power sector, and the industrial sector is coming next to power sector. The major consumption of coal in India is in steel plant, cement plant and brick-manufacturing units.52%of primary energy is coal dependent1.About 66% of India's power generation is based upon coal production1. While coal is considered the most significant element for the growth of country, it faces major and massive social and environmental issues. Environmental worries are the most important parameter for the coal industry’s future. In comparison to the other fossil fuels, coal is more pollution causing and less energy efficient. Coal has an important role in fulfillment of current needs. 212.10 Million Tonnes of coal was imported in the financial year 2014-152.The coal demand will be increasing due to increase in electricity demand of the country. Coal India being the largest producer of coal in India has to plan accordingly to fulfill the coal demand of country. A road map for enhancement of coal production up to 1 Billion of coal by 2019-2020 has been prepared by Coal India3. Due to coal mining the key environmental impacts are on air, water, land, forest, biodiversity, and climate etc. The biggest challenge is to put on the innovative technologies in the most efficient and environmentally friendly manner and to solve social issues by taking care of the implementation of rehabilitation and resettlement (R&R.Thrust is now to promote inclusive growth of mining areas by adequate corporate social responsibilities (CSR activities4,5. Thus the

  20. If slow rate of health care spending growth persists, projections may be off by $770 billion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, David M; Sahni, Nikhil R

    2013-05-01

    Despite earlier forecasts to the contrary, US health care spending growth has slowed in the past four years, continuing a trend that began in the early 2000s. In this article we attempt to identify why US health care spending growth has slowed, and we explore the spending implications if the trend continues for the next decade. We find that the 2007-09 recession, a one-time event, accounted for 37 percent of the slowdown between 2003 and 2012. A decline in private insurance coverage and cuts to some Medicare payment rates accounted for another 8 percent of the slowdown, leaving 55 percent of the spending slowdown unexplained. We conclude that a host of fundamental changes--including less rapid development of imaging technology and new pharmaceuticals, increased patient cost sharing, and greater provider efficiency--were responsible for the majority of the slowdown in spending growth. If these trends continue during 2013-22, public-sector health care spending will be as much as $770 billion less than predicted. Such lower levels of spending would have an enormous impact on the US economy and on government and household finances. PMID:23650316

  1. Large data analysis: automatic visual personal identification in a demography of 1.2 billion persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugman, John

    2014-05-01

    The largest biometric deployment in history is now underway in India, where the Government is enrolling the iris patterns (among other data) of all 1.2 billion citizens. The purpose of the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) is to ensure fair access to welfare benefits and entitlements, to reduce fraud, and enhance social inclusion. Only a minority of Indian citizens have bank accounts; only 4 percent possess passports; and less than half of all aid money reaches its intended recipients. A person who lacks any means of establishing their identity is excluded from entitlements and does not officially exist; thus the slogan of UIDAI is: To give the poor an identity." This ambitious program enrolls a million people every day, across 36,000 stations run by 83 agencies, with a 3-year completion target for the entire national population. The halfway point was recently passed with more than 600 million persons now enrolled. In order to detect and prevent duplicate identities, every iris pattern that is enrolled is first compared against all others enrolled so far; thus the daily workflow now requires 600 trillion (or 600 million-million) iris cross-comparisons. Avoiding identity collisions (False Matches) requires high biometric entropy, and achieving the tremendous match speed requires phase bit coding. Both of these requirements are being delivered operationally by wavelet methods developed by the author for encoding and comparing iris patterns, which will be the focus of this Large Data Award" presentation.

  2. FlashGraph: Processing Billion-Node Graphs on an Array of Commodity SSDs

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Da; Mhembere, Disa; Burns, Randal; Vogelstein, Joshua; Carey E. Priebe; Szalay, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    Graph analysis performs many random reads and writes, thus, these workloads are typically performed in memory. Traditionally, analyzing large graphs requires a cluster of machines so the aggregate memory exceeds the graph size. We demonstrate that a multicore server can process graphs with billions of vertices and hundreds of billions of edges, utilizing commodity SSDs with minimal performance loss. We do so by implementing a graph-processing engine on top of a user-space SSD file system desi...

  3. China total ship export broke through 3 billion US dollars in 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Kezeng

    2004-01-01

    @@ In accordance with the statistics of Customs,China total ship import/export value accumulated into USD3.834 billion in 2003. Among them, the ship export took USD3.022 billion which increased 56.93% than 2002 and also made a new height of the history. The ship import took USD812 million which increased 33.7% than 2002.

  4. 1.3 Billion People: A Weighty Responsibility——China's Population Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LURUCAI

    2005-01-01

    A sample survey of the 2004 population increase releasedby the State Statistics Bureau shows that by the end of 2004 the total population of the Chinese mainland was 1.29988 billion, and that it was increasing by 208,000 people per day. According to this data,on January 6, 2005,China's population(excluding HongKong, Macao andTaiwan) reached 1.3 billion.

  5. Reflectivity, Reflexivity and Situated Reflective Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malthouse, Richard; Roffey-Barentsen, Jodi; Watts, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an aspect of reflective practice referred to as situated reflective practice. The overarching theory is derived from social theories of structuration and reflexivity. In particular, from Giddens' theory of structuration, which sees social life as an interplay of agency and structure. Discussion of the research reported…

  6. Reflections on Ethics in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Helen R.

    2009-01-01

    Each profession has its own code of ethics. The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (2008) defines professional ethics as "the principles of conduct governing an individual or a group." The Code of Ethics of the American Library Association (ALA Council 2008) has served librarians for seventy years and reflects the ideals toward which all librarians…

  7. Creative reflection in industrial design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation is a reflection of the writer on his career as an industrial designer of Demand-Driven Design for a period of approximately 25 years. This period is exposed with a discussion of five designs. The projects are introduced by developments in the surrounding design landscape, such as Dr

  8. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply, April 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country’s present petroleum consumption – the goal set by the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  9. Understanding reflective practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Jacqueline Sian; Dosser, Isabel

    2016-05-01

    The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) requires that nurses and midwives use feedback as an opportunity for reflection and learning, to improve practice. The NMC revalidation process stipulates that practitioners provide examples of how they have achieved this. To reflect in a meaningful way, it is important to understand what is meant by reflection, the skills required, and how reflection can be undertaken successfully. Traditionally, reflection occurs after an event encountered in practice. The authors challenge this perception, suggesting that reflection should be undertaken before, during and after an event. This article provides practical guidance to help practitioners use reflective models to write reflective accounts. It also outlines how the reflective process can be used as a valuable learning tool in preparation for revalidation. PMID:27154119

  10. Square and Delta reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Fontanella, Laura; Hayut, Yair

    2016-01-01

    Starting from infinitely many supercompact cardinals, we force a model of ZFC where $\\aleph_{\\omega^2+1}$ satisfies simultaneously a strong principle of reflection, called $\\Delta$-reflection, and a version of the square principle, denoted $\\square(\\aleph_{\\omega^2+1}).$ Thus we show that $\\aleph_{\\omega^2+1}$ can satisfy simultaneously a strong reflection principle and an anti-reflection principle.

  11. Teaching Critical Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Despite long-standing commitment to the notion of critical reflection across the healthcare professions it is unusual for critical theory and practice to be taught as explicit subjects in healthcare higher education. There is evidence to show that reflective techniques such as critical portfolios and reflective diaries can help students to…

  12. Liberating Moral Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  13. Reflective Learning in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockbank, Anne, Ed.; McGill, Ian, Ed.; Beech, Nic, Ed.

    This book contains 22 papers on reflective learning in practice. The following papers are included: "Our Purpose" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "The Nature and Context of Learning" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning and Organizations" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning in Practice" (Ann…

  14. Improving Inquiry Teaching through Reflection on Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotter, Christine R.; Miller, Cory

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we explore middle school science teachers' learning of inquiry-based instructional strategies through reflection on practice teaching sessions during a summer enrichment program with middle level students. The reflection sessions were part of a larger year-long inquiry professional development program in which teachers learned science content and inquiry pedagogy. The program included a 2-week summer institute in which teachers participated in science content sessions, practice teaching to middle level students, and small group-facilitated reflection sessions on their teaching. For this study, data collection focused on teachers' recorded dialogue during the facilitator - run reflection sessions, the teachers' daily written reflections, a final written reflection, and a written reflection on a videotaped teaching session. We investigated the teachers' reflection levels and the themes teachers focused on during their reflection sessions. Teachers were found to reflect at various reflection levels, from simple description to a more sophisticated focus on how to improve student learning. Recurrent themes point to the importance of providing situated learning environments, such as the practice teaching with immediate reflection for teachers to have time to practice new instructional strategies and gain insight from peers and science educators on how to handle student learning issues.

  15. External observer reflections on QBism

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    In this short review I present my personal reflections on QBism. I have no intrinsic sympathy neither to QBism nor to subjective interpretation of probability in general. However, I have been following development of QBism from its very beginning, observing its evolution and success, sometimes with big surprise. Therefore my reflections on QBism can be treated as "external observer" reflections. I hope that my representation of this interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) has some degree of objectivity. It may be useful for researchers who are interested in quantum foundations, but do not belong to the QBism-community, because I tried to analyze essentials of QBism critically (i.e., not just emphasizing its advantages, as in a typical publication of QBists). QBists may be interested as well - in comments of an external observer who monitored development of this approach to QM during last 16 years. The second part of the paper is devoted to interpretations of probability, objective versus subjective, and view...

  16. Reflection Positive Doubles

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffe, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Here we introduce reflection positive doubles, a general framework for reflection positivity, covering a wide variety of systems in statistical physics and quantum field theory. These systems may be bosonic, fermionic, or parafermionic in nature. Within the framework of reflection positive doubles, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for reflection positivity. We use a reflection-invariant cone to implement our construction. Our characterization allows for a direct interpretation in terms of coupling constants, making it easy to check in concrete situations. We illustrate our methods with numerous examples.

  17. Wave Reflection Coefficient Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞聿修; 邵利民; 柳淑学

    2003-01-01

    The wave reflection coefficient frequency spectrum and directional spectrum for concrete face slope breakwaters and rubble mound breakwaters are investigated through physical model tests in the present study. The reflection coefficients of oblique irregular waves are analyzed by the Modified Two-Point Method (MTPM) proposed by the authors. The results show that the wave reflection coefficient decreases with increasing wave frequency and incident angle or decreasing structure slope. The reflection coefficient frequency spectrum and its variation with Iribarren number are given in this paper. The paper also suggests an empirical 3-dimensional reflection coefficient spectrum, i.e. reflection coefficient directional spectrum, which can be used to illustrate quantitatively the variation of reflection coefficient with the incident angle and the Iribarren number for oblique irregular waves.

  18. The billion-dollar question: who will pay for the junking of Hibernia's drilling platform?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two issues faced by the Hibernia Management and Development Co. (HMDC) which could determine the profitability of the Hibernia project, were examined. One of the issues concerns the gravity-based structure (GBS), which will form the project's artificial island and storage cavern off the Newfoundland shore, which must be towed out to the oil field and attached to the topside production platform. HMDC has not yet found an insurer for the GBS. Even partial insurance may cost $200 million, according to Ian Doig, publisher of Doig's Digest, a Calgary-based energy newsletter. The second issue is the eventual disposal of the GBS when the oilfield is depleted in about 20 years. It was estimated that the disposal of the GBS could cost $1 billion (U.S.). Environmental effects of disposal are a major concern for HMDC. Recently, Shell U.K. Ltd. abandoned plans to dispose of its Brent Spar North Sea oil-storage platform at sea. Greenpeace activists threatened action against the company. Dismantling the Shell platform on land would quintuple disposal costs to $105 million. The Hibernia platform will be four times the volume of the Brent Spar. One solution for disposal of the Hibernia GBS suggested was to scrub the interior and leaving it intact for use as a search-and-rescue base. Even this solution would be very costly for HMDC, although less so than dismantling. Meanwhile, there have been reports that another oil reservoir has been found on Newfoundland's northwest coast, on the Port au Port Peninsula. It is not yet known if the reservoir contains enough oil for commercialization. Hunt Oil Co. and PanCanadian Petroleum Ltd. have been buying up exploration rights in surrounding areas. Other competitors are also involved at this site. It was estimated that exploration, development and production costs would be only a fraction of Hibernia's

  19. A Reflective Approach to Teaching Practicum Debriefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minott, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the teaching profession has embraced the notion of the teacher as reflective practitioner, which has led to an increased emphasis on teacher education programs offering learning experiences that model and encourage reflective practice. This qualitative instrumental case study research explored the usefulness, benefits, and…

  20. Shandong Gold Plans to Purchase 10 billion Yuan Worth of Assets through Private Placement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The mysterious"veil"of Shandong Gold’s major asset restructuring maneuver has finally been lifted:The Company plans to issue about 296 million shares at the price of 33.72 yuan/share,to purchase assets of Shandong Gold Group and other companies totaling 9.984 billion yuan,through which it will increase 401 tonnes of gold reserve.Meanwhile,it also plans to raise supporting funds of no more than 3 billion yuan through private placement.After the

  1. Federal STEM Policy and Politics and Their Impact on Astronomy EPO: Reflections and Provocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, G.; Storksdieck, M.; Canright, S.

    2015-11-01

    The federal government invests more than $3 billion each year across its various units in supporting STEM education and outreach. Efforts in recent years to understand and better coordinate these investments have resulted in considerable pushback, particularly those efforts that aimed at consolidation and elimination of programs deemed ineffective or duplicative. While initial plans to streamline federal STEM education were defeated, many agencies nonetheless saw cuts and elimination, and a high-level effort to coordinate STEM education at the cross-agency level is now gaining steam (CoSTEM: Committee on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education). What do all of these developments mean for education and public outreach in astronomy and related fields? How should this community operate within the opportunities and threats that CoSTEM might pose? Former director of the National Academy of Science's Board on Science Education, and now director of the Center for Research on Lifelong STEM Learning, Martin Storksdieck, reflected on past and recent developments from the perspective of a close observer, and from the perspective of someone who has been involved in astronomy education research and evaluation for nearly 20 years. Shelley Canright, Senior Advisor for Education Integration at the NASA Office of Education, shared her insights and perspectives with respect to CoSTEM and EPO, in particular from co-chairing the Federal Coordination in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education (FC-STEM) group.

  2. The Relevance of Reflection: An Empirical Examination of the Role of Reflection in Ethic of Caring, Leadership, and Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Julie J.; Millora, Melissa L.

    2012-01-01

    This article is an empirical examination of reflection for first-year and third-year students using data from the College Students' Beliefs and Values survey. Frequency of self-reflection increased between the first and third years of college. Two self-reported measures of reflection, engaging in self-reflection and having classes that…

  3. Media for Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article develops the concept media for reflection in the interest of conceptualizing the interpretative frames that enable and limit reflection in management and leadership education. The concept ‘media for reflection’ allows us to conceptualize the social and cultural mediation of reflection...... without reducing reflection to an effect of the social structures and cultural norms in which it is embedded. Based on the developed theoretical framework, this article analyses how a renaissance ‘mirror for princes’ and contemporary research-based management education mediate reflection. The content...... of the mediations is analysed as well as the societal and organizational background. Furthermore, the means by which the two media enable and limit reflection in different ways is compared. Finally, the article discusses possible implications of the analysis in terms of management and leadership education....

  4. Reflection in professional practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hetzner, Stefanie Bianca

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the research on professional learning through reflective practice. The main goal is to examine—against the backdrop of workplace changes and errors—individual and contextual factors that are theoretically assumed to influence reflection in the context of professional work. Reflective practice is defined as a retrospective but future- and goal-oriented cognitive-affective process that basically involves (a) the awareness and review of incident...

  5. The Other Inconvenient Truth: Feeding 9 Billion While Sustaining the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    As the international community focuses on climate change as the great challenge of our era, we have been largely ignoring another looming problem — the global crisis in agriculture, food security and the environment. Our use of land, particularly for agriculture, is absolutely essential to the success of the human race: we depend on agriculture to supply us with food, feed, fiber, and, increasingly, biofuels. Without a highly efficient, productive, and resilient agricultural system, our society would collapse almost overnight. But we are demanding more and more from our global agricultural systems, pushing them to their very limits. Continued population growth (adding more than 70 million people to the world every year), changing dietary preferences (including more meat and dairy consumption), rising energy prices, and increasing needs for bioenergy sources are putting tremendous pressure on the world’s resources. And, if we want any hope of keeping up with these demands, we’ll need to double the agricultural production of the planet in the next 30 to 40 years. Meeting these huge new agricultural demands will be one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. At present, it is completely unclear how (and if) we can do it. If this wasn’t enough, we must also address the massive environmental impacts of our current agricultural practices, which new evidence indicates rival the impacts of climate change. Simply put, providing for the basic needs of 9 billion-plus people, without ruining the biosphere in the process, will be one of the greatest challenges our species has ever faced. In this presentation, I will present a new framework for evaluating and assessing global patterns of agriculture, food / fiber / fuel production, and their relationship to the earth system, particularly in terms of changing stocks and flows of water, nutrients and carbon in our planetary environment. This framework aims to help us manage the challenges of increasing global food

  6. Medicare overpayments to private plans, 1985-2012: shifting seniors to private plans has already cost Medicare US$282.6 billion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellander, Ida; Himmelstein, David U; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented Medicare overpayments to the private Medicare Advantage (MA) plans that compete with traditional fee-for-service Medicare. This research has assessed individual categories of overpayment for, at most, a few years. However, no study has calculated the total overpayments to private plans since the program's inception. Prior to 2004, selective enrollment of healthier seniors was the major source of excess payments. We estimate this has added US$41 billion to Medicare's costs since 1985. Medicare adopted a risk-adjustment scheme in 2004, but this has not curbed private plans' ability to game the payment system. This has added US$122.5 billion to Medicare's costs since 2004. Congress mandated increased payment to private plans in the 2003 Medicare Modernization Act, which was mitigated, to a degree, by the subsequent Affordable Care Act. In total, we find that Medicare has overpaid private insurers by US$282.6 billion since 1985. Risk adjustment does not work in for-profit MA plans, which have a financial incentive, the data, and the ingenuity to game whatever system Medicare devises. It is time to end Medicare's costly experiment with privatization. The U.S. needs to adopt a single-payer national health insurance program with effective methods for controlling costs.

  7. Shangdong Electrc Power,CNOOC-Shell ink 1.51-billion-yuan contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The EPC contract for CNOOC-Shell Petrochemical Complex Project has recently been signed in Huizhou City,Cuangdong Province between Shangdong Electric Power Construction Corporation (SEPCC)and CNOOC-Shell Petrochemical Limited.Under the contract valued at 1.51 billion yuan

  8. High-Stakes Hustle: Public Schools and the New Billion Dollar Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Lawrence A.; Stanley, Gregory Kent

    2004-01-01

    High-stakes testing costs up to $50 billion per annum, has no impact on student achievement, and has changed the focus of American public schools. This article analyzes the benefits and costs of the accountability movement, as well as discusses its roots in the eugenics movements of the early 20th century.

  9. Nickel Ores With a Value More than RMB130billion is Found Out in Nanyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>According to the report from Henan Provincial Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources,it has found out a large copper and nickel mineral deposit in Zhouan,Tanghe county.With a total worth of RMB 130billion,it is the largest nickel

  10. Anhui Tongling Invests 1 Billion Yuan to Set up “Copper Industry Fund”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>On September 12, the signing ceremony for "Anhui Copper Industry Fund" set up by Anhui Tongling Development & Investment Group Co., Ltd. and Shanghai V. Stone Investment Management Co., Ltd. was held in Tongling. The fund is 1 billion yuan.

  11. Chongqing Clothing Enterprises Grasp 1.3-billion-yuan Orders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Fashion Festival of Chongqing held on Sep. 25th provides the city with a platform for international communication, bringing business opportunities. At the negotiation meeting & the signing ceremony among the firms processing export garment, the signed 1.3-billion-yuan orders attracted people's attention.

  12. Guangdong Aluminum to Raise RMB 3 billion for New Production Base in Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>On July 7, a loan signing ceremony was held between the Guangdong Aluminum Group, China Construction Bank, Hua Xia Bank and Guangzhou Bank Consortium. It is reported that these banks will provide Guangdong Aluminum Group with RMB 30 billion for an alu-minum oxide and supporting bauxite mining project in Guizhou.

  13. Chongqing Clothing Enterprises Grasp 1.3-billion-yuan Orders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Fashion Festival of Chongqing held on Sep. 25th provides the city with a platform for international communication, bringing business opportunities. At the negotiation meeting & the signing ceremony among the firms processing export garment, the signed 1.3-billion-yuan orders attracted people’s attention.

  14. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-07-06

    This product builds on previous efforts, namely the 2005 Billion-Ton Study (BTS) and the 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update (BT2).With each report, greater perspective is gained on the potential of biomass resources to contribute to a national energy strategy. Similarly, each successive report introduces new questions regarding commercialization challenges. BTS quantified the broad biophysical potential of biomass nationally, and BT2 elucidated the potential economic availability of these resources. These reports clearly established the potential availability of up to one billion tons of biomass resources nationally. However, many questions remain, including but not limited to crop yields, climate change impacts, logistical operations, and systems integration across production, harvest, and conversion. The present report aims to address many of these questions through empirically modeled energy crop yields, scenario analysis of resources delivered to biorefineries, and the addition of new feedstocks. Volume 2 of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report is expected to be released by the end of 2016. It seeks to evaluate environmental sustainability indicators of select scenarios from volume 1 and potential climate change impacts on future supplies.

  15. Differences of silicon photodiode spectral reflectance among the same batch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.L.Mu(n)oz Zurita; J.Campos Acosta; A.Pons Aglio; A.Shcherbakov

    2008-01-01

    Photodiode's reflectance plays an important role regarding the relation between responsivity and the incident flux. In this work we analyze how the spectral reflectance changes among photodiodes from the same manufacturer and batch and how the reflectance of three standard photodiodes has drifted during six years. The results show that the reflectance changes from diode to diode within the same batch and also show th.at the reflectance ofphotodiodes changes on time. This ageing is spectrally dependent.

  16. Self-reflection and academic performance: is there a relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, Magdeleine D. N.; Schmidt, Henk

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe purposes of the present study were two-fold: first, to evaluate whether reflection journal writing was effective in promoting self-reflection and learning, and whether students become better at self-reflection if they engage continuously in reflection journal writing. To that end, the reflection journals of 690 first-year applied science students at a local polytechnic were studied by means of an automated coding procedures using software. Data was collected twice, once at the...

  17. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Reflective monitoring of research practices is essential. However, we often lack formal training in the practices of doing action research, and descriptions of actual inquiry practice are seldom included in publications. Our aim is to provide a glimpse of self-reflective practices based on our...

  18. Earth's Reflection: Albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Brandon; Hamilton, Cheri

    2011-01-01

    When viewing objects of different colors, you might notice that some appear brighter than others. This is because light is reflected differently from various surfaces, depending on their physical properties. The word "albedo" is used to describe how reflective a surface is. The Earth-atmosphere has a combined albedo of about 30%, a number that is…

  19. Areva at September 30, 2012: Backlog at a record level of euros 47 bn (+10.1% year on year). Revenue up sharply to euros 6.542 bn (+10.0% compared with September 2011, +8.5% like for like)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AREVA generated consolidated revenue of 6.542 billion euros over the first nine months of 2012, representing growth of 10.0% (+8.5% growth like for like) compared with the same period in 2011. Revenue growth was fueled by a 7.0% increase in recurring business (+5.6% like for like) and ramp-up of the renewable business. Revenue from nuclear operations was 6.035 billion euros over the first nine months of 2012, compared with 5.731 billion euros for the first nine months of 2011, representing a 5.3% increase (+3.9% like for like). Like for like, revenue was led by the Mining BG (+28.0%), the Reactors and Services BG (+2.1%) and the Back End BG (+11.8%), offsetting the downturn in business in the Front End BG (-12.1%). Revenue was up 272% like for like in renewable energies. Foreign exchange had a positive impact of 130 million euros over the period. The change in consolidation scope had a negative impact of 52 million euros. Revenue growth was balanced between France and internationally, reflecting AREVA's ability to capture market opportunities while capitalizing on long-standing relations with its customers. Sales revenue for the third quarter of 2012 was 2.214 billion euros, an increase of 13.4% (+12.4% like for like) compared with the third quarter of 2011. Foreign exchange had a positive impact of 52 million euros over the period, while the change in consolidation scope had a negative impact of 34 million euros. At September 30, 2012, the consolidated backlog for the nuclear and renewable energy businesses was the highest since the Group was established, at a total of 47 billion euros. This represents an increase of 10.1% in relation to September 30, 2011 (42.7 billion euros) and an increase of 4.1% in relation to June 30, 2012 (45.2 billion euros). The increase is attributable mainly to the Mining, Front End and Reactors and Services BGs. Order intakes over the first nine months of the year were up 87% compared with first nine months of 2011. Order cancellations

  20. Textile Machinery Saw Greater Increases in Profits Year on Year——Economic Operation Overview of Textile Machinery Industry,First Half Year of 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Fei

    2011-01-01

    January to April in 2011,the textile machinery industry saw total profits of 1.861 billion yuan,increasing 45.19% year on year;the overall operating performance of the industry presents a stable development momentum with a decline in gross profits.From January to May of this year,the cumulative total import and export value amounts to 3.209 billion USD,rising 51.39% over the same period

  1. Reflection and teaching: a taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, Henk; Cowan, John

    2009-01-01

    A major problem in teaching reflection is that educational objectives for reflection in terms of student behaviour are lacking. Therefore a taxonomy of reflection has been developed based on Bloom’s taxonomy. Reflective assignments can then be better focused on any chosen educational objectives. The act of reflection has been analysed and abstracted from goal, content, context, means, and moment of reflecting. Reflection was operationalised as answering reflective questions. Bloom’s taxonomy ...

  2. Reflectivity in Research Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigina Mortari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article grounds on the assumption that researchers, in order to be not mere technicians but competent practitioners of research, should be able to reflect in a deep way. That means they should reflect not only on the practical acts of research but also on the mental experience which constructs the meaning about practice. Reflection is a very important mental activity, both in private and professional life. Learning the practice of reflection is fundamental because it allows people to engage into a thoughtful relationship with the world-life and thus gain an awake stance about one’s lived experience. Reflection is a crucial cognitive practice in the research field. Reflexivity is largely practiced in qualitative research, where it is used to legitimate and validate research procedures. This study introduces different perspectives of analysis by focusing the discourse on the main philosophical approaches to reflection: pragmatistic, critical, hermeneutic, and finally phenomenological. The thesis of this study is that the phenomenological theory makes possible to analyze in depth the reflective activity and just by that to support an adequate process of training of the researcher.

  3. Review of Teacher's Teaching Reflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爽爽

    2015-01-01

    Teacher's teaching reflection has become the core focus in school.However,there are different understandings of the concept of teacher's teaching reflection.The paper introduces and compares different understandings of the concept of teachers' teaching reflection.Based on the summarizing of the concept on reflection and teaching reflection,this paper tries to provide reference for the teacher's teaching reflection.

  4. Reflections On Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammu K Radhakrishnan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade or so, Medical education all overthe world has been inundated with innovations ineducation, which include innovations in curriculardesign, delivery as well as assessments. There is a needto reflect on the effectives of these innovationson the learner. Hence the theme chosen for the2009 International Medical Education Conference(IMEC 2009 was “Reflections on Innovations”.The Organising Committee felt that it was timely formedical educators everywhere to reflect and evaluatethe effect of the many innovations adopted by theirschools.

  5. A Historical Reflection upon Studies of Literature of the "Seventeen Years" : The Case of Zhao Shuli%关于"十七年"文学研究的历史反思——以赵树理小说为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董之林

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ In the 1980s, China's modernization was in full swing in all fields: political, economic,cultural and art, involving everyone in all walks of life - workers, peasants, business people, students and soldiers. The national spirit that had not been banished in the previous hundred years burst out.

  6. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus-Rødje, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Reflective monitoring of research practices is essential. However, we often lack formal training in the practices of doing action research, and descriptions of actual inquiry practice are seldom included in publications. Our aim is to provide a glimpse of self-reflective practices based on our...... experience of enacting action research. Our engagement in a large action research project brought about many dilemmas and uncertainties related to our roles and interventions. We focus on these uncertainties as a way of opening the ?black box? of action research ?in the making?. We conceptualize a...... methodological reflective approach that provides space for taking seriously uncertainties experienced in the field as these can be a catalyst for learning and sharpening our theoretical and empirical skills as action researchers. Through first-person inquiry, we investigate how our reflective conversations...

  7. Ten years of fighting bird flu

    OpenAIRE

    Parry, Jane

    2007-01-01

    This year marks a decade since the first human outbreak of H5N1 avian influenza in Hong Kong. Since then, US $1.9 billion has been pledged to fight avian influenza and a global effort is under way to prevent and be prepared for a pandemic.

  8. Engineering Design Projects as a Reflection Promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabag, Nissim; Trotskovsky, Elena; Waks, Shlomo

    2014-01-01

    This article describes examples of reflection documented in a longitudinal research comprising two studies: a three-year three-stage study on technology project-based learning (TPBL) and a three-year two-stage study on engineering thinking (ET). Both studies used qualitative tools such as interviews, active observations, and document analysis.…

  9. Improving Bilayer Product Quantization for Billion-Scale Approximate Nearest Neighbors in High Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Babenko, Artem; Lempitsky, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The top-performing systems for billion-scale high-dimensional approximate nearest neighbor (ANN) search are all based on two-layer architectures that include an indexing structure and a compressed datapoints layer. An indexing structure is crucial as it allows to avoid exhaustive search, while the lossy data compression is needed to fit the dataset into RAM. Several of the most successful systems use product quantization (PQ) for both the indexing and the dataset compression layers. These sys...

  10. Molycorp to acquire leading rare earth processor Neo Material Technologies in $1.3 Billion Deal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Molycorp, Inc. ("Molycorp") and /Neo Material Technologies Inc. ("Neo Materials,' or "Neo") announced on March 8th the signing of a definitive agreement under which Molycorp will acquire Neo Materials for approximately CDN $1.3 billion. This will create one of the most technologically advanced, vertically integrated rare earth companies in the world.

  11. Re-thinking reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    suggested that professional practitioners and students could and should develop their work and skills by thinking critically about their actions. However, over the last twenty years, the ideas about reflective practice – what it means and how it is done – have moved away form their radical roots. The idea...... of reflective practice has been formalized by regulatory bodies as a way to develop the professionalism of both individual professional practitioners as students through continuing professional developmental processes. Consequently, reflection is often used as a `tool´ for personal and professional development......, and practitioners and students are expected to document this, typically in some sort of written record or portfolio. Thus, reflection is often limited to assessment issues, and the original idea of reflection as a modus of critical praxis is reversed and turned into a tool for control and orthodoxy (Kilminster et...

  12. Two ten-billion-solar-mass black holes at the centres of giant elliptical galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Nicholas J; Ma, Chung-Pei; Gebhardt, Karl; Wright, Shelley A; Murphy, Jeremy D; Lauer, Tod R; Graham, James R; Richstone, Douglas O

    2011-12-01

    Observational work conducted over the past few decades indicates that all massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres. Although the luminosities and brightness fluctuations of quasars in the early Universe suggest that some were powered by black holes with masses greater than 10 billion solar masses, the remnants of these objects have not been found in the nearby Universe. The giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 hosts the hitherto most massive known black hole, which has a mass of 6.3 billion solar masses. Here we report that NGC 3842, the brightest galaxy in a cluster at a distance from Earth of 98 megaparsecs, has a central black hole with a mass of 9.7 billion solar masses, and that a black hole of comparable or greater mass is present in NGC 4889, the brightest galaxy in the Coma cluster (at a distance of 103 megaparsecs). These two black holes are significantly more massive than predicted by linearly extrapolating the widely used correlations between black-hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion or bulge luminosity of the host galaxy. Although these correlations remain useful for predicting black-hole masses in less massive elliptical galaxies, our measurements suggest that different evolutionary processes influence the growth of the largest galaxies and their black holes.

  13. Constraints on the Star-Forming Interstellar Medium in Galaxies Back to the First Billion Years of Cosmic Time

    CERN Document Server

    Riechers, Dominik A

    2011-01-01

    Constraints on the molecular gas content of galaxies at high redshift are crucial to further our understanding of star formation and galaxy evolution through cosmic times, as molecular gas is the fuel for star formation. Since its initial detection at large cosmic distances almost two decades ago, studies of molecular gas in the early universe have come a long way. We have detected CO emission from >100 galaxies, covering a range of galaxy populations at z>1, reaching out to z>6, down to sub-kpc scale resolution, and spanning ~2 orders of magnitude in gas mass (aided by gravitational lensing). Recently, it has even become possible to directly identify distant galaxies through their molecular emission lines without prior knowledge of their redshifts. The new generation of powerful long wavelength interferometers such as the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) and Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA) thus hold the promise to liberate studies of molecular gas in high redshift galaxies from their heavy pre-sel...

  14. Organic Geochemistry of a 1.4-Billion-Year-Old Evaporitic Lake: Insights for the Mars 2020 SHERLOC Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhout, J. T.; Czaja, A. D.; Fralick, P. W.

    2016-05-01

    Evaporitic lakes on Mars have been considered interesting target sites for astrobiological investigations on Mars. Findings from this study provide a useful geochemical context for interpreting future detections of sedimentary organics by Mars 2020.

  15. Formation and Settling of a Disc Galaxy During the Last 8 Billion Years in a Cosmological Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ceverino, Daniel; Dekel, Avishai; Kassin, Susan A

    2016-01-01

    We present results of a high-resolution zoom cosmological simulation of the evolution of a low-mass galaxy with a maximum velocity of V=100 km/s at z=0, using the initial conditions from the AGORA project (Kim et al 2014). The final disc-dominated galaxy matches local disc scaling relations. The galaxy evolves from a compact, dispersion-dominated galaxy into a rotation-dominated but dynamically hot disc in about 0.5 Gyr (from z=1.4 to z=1.2). The disc dynamically cools down for the following 7 Gyr, as the gas velocity dispersion decreases over time, in agreement with observations. The primary cause of this slow evolution of velocity dispersion in this low-mass galaxy is stellar feedback. It is related to the decline in gas fraction, and to the associated gravitational disk instability, as the disc slowly settles from a global Toomre Q>1 turbulent disc to a marginally unstable disc (Q=1).

  16. The Evolution of the Galaxy Rest-frame Ultraviolet Luminosity Function over the First Two Billion Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Ryan, Russell E., Jr.; Papovich, Casey; Dickinson, Mark; Song, Mimi; Somerville, Rachel S.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Salmon, Brett; Giavalisco, Mauro; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Behroozi, Peter; Castellano, Marco; Dunlop, James S.; Faber, Sandy M.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Fontana, Adriano; Grogin, Norman A.; Hathi, Nimish; Jaacks, Jason; Kocevski, Dale D.; Livermore, Rachael; McLure, Ross J.; Merlin, Emiliano; Mobasher, Bahram; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Rafelski, Marc; Tilvi, Vithal; Willner, S. P.

    2015-09-01

    We present a robust measurement and analysis of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity functions at z = 4-8. We use deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging over the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey/GOODS fields, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, and the Hubble Frontier Field deep parallel observations near the Abell 2744 and MACS J0416.1-2403 clusters. The combination of these surveys provides an effective volume of 0.6-1.2 × 106 Mpc3 over this epoch, allowing us to perform a robust search for faint ({M}{UV}=-18) and bright (M{}{UV}\\lt -21) high-redshift galaxies. We select candidate galaxies using a well-tested photometric redshift technique with careful screening of contaminants, finding a sample of 7446 candidate galaxies at 3.5 \\lt z \\lt 8.5, with >1000 galaxies at z ≈ 6-8. We measure both a stepwise luminosity function for candidate galaxies in our redshift samples, and a Schechter function, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to measure robust uncertainties. At the faint end, our UV luminosity functions agree with previous studies, yet we find a higher abundance of UV-bright candidate galaxies at z ≥slant 6. Our best-fit value of the characteristic magnitude {M}{UV}* is consistent with -21 at z ≥slant 5, which is different than that inferred based on previous trends at lower redshift, and brighter at ˜2σ significance than previous measures at z = 6 and 7. At z = 8, a single power law provides an equally good fit to the UV luminosity function, while at z = 6 and 7 an exponential cutoff at the bright end is moderately preferred. We compare our luminosity functions to semi-analytical models, and find that the lack of evolution in {M}{UV}* is consistent with models where the impact of dust attenuation on the bright end of the luminosity function decreases at higher redshift, although a decreasing impact of feedback may also be possible. We measure the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate (SFR) density by integrating our observed luminosity functions to {M}{UV}=-17, correcting for dust attenuation, and find that the SFR density declines proportionally to (1 +z){}-4.3+/- 0.5 at z \\gt 4, which is consistent with observations at z ≥slant 9. Our observed luminosity functions are consistent with a reionization history that starts at z ≳ 10, completes at z \\gt 6, and reaches a midpoint (x{}{{H} {{II}}} = 0.5) at 6.7 \\lt z \\lt 9.4. Finally, using a constant cumulative number density selection and an empirically derived rising star-formation history, our observations predict that the abundance of bright z = 9 galaxies is likely higher than previous constraints, although consistent with recent estimates of bright z ˜ 10 galaxies.

  17. Northwest Africa 8159: An approximately 2.3 Billion Year Old Martian Olivine-Bearing Augite Basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J. I.; Peters, T. J.; Tappa, M. J.; Agee, C. B.

    2014-01-01

    Based on petrology, mineralogy, and bulk composition, the new NWA 8159 martian meteorite is distinct from all known samples from Mars. In particular, the augite compositional trends are unique, but most similar to those of nakhite intercumulus. Whether NWA 8159 represents a new lithology or is related to a known meteorite group remains to be determined. Sr and Nd isotopic analyses will allow comparison of source characteristics with SNC and other new ungrouped meteorites (e.g., NWA 7635). Here we report initial Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic results for NWA 8159 with the objective to determine its formation age and to potentially identify similarities and potential source affinities with other martian rocks.

  18. The Evolution of the Galaxy Rest-Frame Ultraviolet Luminosity Function Over the First Two Billion Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Ryan, Russell E., Jr.; Papovich, Casey; Dickinson, Mark; Song, Mimi; Somerville, Rachel; Ferguson, Henry C.; Salmon, Brett; Giavalisco, Mauro; Koekomoer, Anton M.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Behroozi, Peter; Castellano, Marco; Dunlop, James S.; Faber, Sandy M.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Fontana, Adriano; Grogin, Norman A.; Hathi, Nimish; Jaacks, Jason; Kocevski, Dale D.; Livermore, Rachael; McLure, Ross J.; Merlin, Emiliano; Rafelski, Marc Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We present a robust measurement and analysis of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function at z = 4 to 8. We use deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging over the CANDELS/GOODS fields, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and the Hubble Frontier Field deep parallel observations near the Abell 2744 and MACS J0416.1- 2403 clusters. The combination of these surveys provides an effective volume of 0.6-1.2 ×10(exp 6) Mpc(exp 3) over this epoch, allowing us to perform a robust search for bright (M(sub UV) less than -21) and faint (M(sub UV) = -18) galaxies. We select galaxies using a well-tested photometric redshift technique with careful screening of contaminants, finding a sample of 7446 galaxies at 3.5 less than z less than 8.5, with more than 1000 galaxies at z of approximately 6 - 8. We measure both a stepwise luminosity function for galaxies in our redshift samples, as well as a Schechter function, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to measure robust uncertainties. At the faint end our UV luminosity functions agree with previous studies, yet we find a higher abundance of UV-bright galaxies at z of greater than or equal to 6. Our bestfit value of the characteristic magnitude M* is consistent with -21 at z of greater than or equal to 5, different than that inferred based on previous trends at lower redshift. At z = 8, a single power-law provides an equally good fit to the UV luminosity function, while at z = 6 and 7, an exponential cutoff at the bright-end is moderately preferred. We compare our luminosity functions to semi-analytical models, and find that the lack of evolution in M* is consistent with models where the impact of dust attenuation on the bright-end of the luminosity function decreases at higher redshift, though a decreasing impact of feedback may also be possible. We measure the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate (SFR) density by integrating our observed luminosity functions to M(sub UV) = -17, correcting for dust attenuation, and find that the SFR density declines proportionally to (1 + z)((exp -4.3)(+/-)(0.5)) at z greater than 4, consistent with observations at z greater than or equal to 9. Our observed luminosity functions are consistent with a reionization history that starts at redshift of approximately greater than 10, completes at z greater than 6, and reaches a midpoint (x(sub HII) = 0.5) at 6.7 less than z less than 9.4. Finally, using a constant cumulative number density selection and an empirically derived rising star-formation history, our observations predict that the abundance of bright z = 9 galaxies is likely higher than previous constraints, though consistent with recent estimates of bright z similar to 10 galaxies.

  19. A rise in the ionizing photons in star-forming galaxies over the past 5 billion years

    CERN Document Server

    Kewley, Lisa J; Geller, Margaret J; Dopita, Michael A; Hwang, Ho Seong; Fabricant, Dan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the change in ionizing photons in galaxies between 0.2

  20. The Dawn of the Red: Star formation histories of group galaxies over the past 5 billion years

    CERN Document Server

    McGee, Sean L; Wilman, David J; Bower, Richard G; Mulchaey, John S; Parker, Laura C; Oemler, Augustus

    2010-01-01

    We examine the star formation properties of group and field galaxies in two surveys, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS; at z ~ 0.08) and the Group Environment and Evolution Collaboration (GEEC; at z ~ 0.4). Using UV imaging from the GALEX space telescope, along with optical and, for GEEC, near infrared photometry, we compare the observed spectral energy distributions to large suites of stellar population synthesis models. This allows us to accurately determine star formation rates and stellar masses. We find that star forming galaxies of all environments undergo a systematic lowering of their star formation rate between z=0.4 and z=0.08 regardless of mass. Nonetheless, the fraction of passive galaxies is higher in groups than the field at both redshifts. Moreover, the difference between the group and field grows with time and is mass-dependent, in the sense the the difference is larger at low masses. However, the star formation properties of star forming galaxies, as measured by their average specific star f...

  1. Creation, Identity and Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Beatrice Cheşcă

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Creation, Identity and Reflection” approaches the identification in the “mirror” of reality with creation, in other words seeking the authors’ identity in the reflected images. Reflection means attempting to find oneself, the mirror being the main principle of creation. Many characters become interesting only when they step into the world beyond the mirror, when their faces are doubled by the other self or when their selves are returned by other characters. The narcissistic concept of the mirror, i.e. the reflection in the mirror and the representation of the mirror itself, is a recurrent one in literature, but the reflection of the self which is not the self (as it is a reflection does not necessarily appear in a mirror or in a photograph or portrait. Sometimes, the not-self is returned to the self by another person or character. As far as Oscar Wilde’s theories are concerned, the main idea is that people are interesting for their masks, not for their inner nature. What Wilde calls “inner nature” is the characters’ un-reflected self and the mask is the reflection, the self in the mirror. Some characters’ relationships develop within a fiction that they dramatically try to preserve and protect with the risk of suffering. They refuse to take off the masks which define them in the others’ minds and hearts; the narcissistic individuals (both artists and characters seek and love their own image which they project upon facts, thus creating a fictive realm.

  2. Reflective Practice in Dance: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembrioti, Lara; Tsangaridou, Niki

    2014-01-01

    The importance of reflective practice is frequently noted in the literature; indeed, reflective capacity is regarded as an essential characteristic for professional competence. The ability to think about why and what one does is critical to intelligent practice, practice that is reflective rather than routine. In recent years, higher education…

  3. Honesty in Critically Reflective Essays: An Analysis of Student Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Stephen; Tai, Joanna Hong-Meng; Lo, Kristin; Molloy, Elizabeth; Ilic, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    In health professional education, reflective practice is seen as a potential means for self-improvement from everyday clinical encounters. This study aims to examine the level of student honesty in critical reflection, and barriers and facilitators for students engaging in honest reflection. Third year physiotherapy students, completing summative…

  4. Reflective practice in ESL teacher development groups from practices to principles

    CERN Document Server

    Farrell, Thomas SC

    2013-01-01

    Reflective Practise in ESL Teacher Development Groups discusses the concept of reflective practice in ESL teachers using data from a 3-year collaborative partnership in which three ESL teachers in Canada explored their professional development through reflective practice.

  5. Fiscal year 2013 energy department budget: Proposed investments in clean energy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    Energy and environmental research programs generally fared well in President Barack Obama's proposed budget for the Department of Energy (DOE) for fiscal year (FY) 2013. In his State of the Union address, Obama called for the United States to pursue an "all of the above" energy strategy that includes fossil fuels, as well as a variety of renewable sources of energy. The DOE budget request supports that strategy, Energy Secretary Steven Chu said in a 13 February press briefing announcing the budget proposal. The proposed budget gives DOE 27.2 billion overall, a 3.2% increase from the FY 2012 enacted budget (see Table 1). This budget "reflects some tough choices," Chu said. The proposed budget would cut 4 billion in subsidies for oil and gas companies; many Republican members of Congress have already indicated that they oppose such cuts, suggesting that congressional approval of this budget may run into stumbling blocks. The budget would also cut funding for research and development projects that are already attracting private-sector investment or that are not working, and would reduce some of the department's operational costs.

  6. Facilitating management learning: Developing critical reflection through reflective tools

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, David E

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how the practice of critical reflection within a management learning process can be facilitated through the application of reflective processes and tools. A distinction is drawn between reflection as a form of individual development (of, say, the reflective practitioner), and critical reflection as a route to collective action and a component of organizational learning and change. Critical reflection, however, is not a process that comes naturally to many...

  7. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  8. Reflecting telescope optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Raymond N

    2004-01-01

    R.N. Wilson's two-volume treatise on reflecting telescope optics has become a classic in its own right. It is intended to give a complete treatment of the subject, addressing professionals in research and industry as well as students of astronomy and amateur astronomers. This first volume, Basic Design Theory and its Historical Development, is devoted to the theory of reflecting telescope optics and systematically recounts the historical progress. The author's approach is morphological, with strong emphasis on the historical development. The book is richly illustrated including spot-diagrams a

  9. 八年制医学教育临床导师制探索%Exploration and reflection on clinical tutorial system in eight-year program medical education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘道洪; 陈豪; 王海明; 刘杰

    2014-01-01

    Clinical tutor system is a unique exploration and practice with characteristics of our school,which has been carried out in the process of clinical course learning and clinical practice among eight-year-program clinical majors.Through analyzing and summarizing the implementation among 2005 and 2006 grade students,we found that the clinical tutor played an active role in cultivating students' clinical thoughts and personal ethics and in improving clinical ability and scientific ability.However,some problem were existed in tutors themselves-specialized major,busy,unclear cultivation objective,etc.Therefore,further improvement of the system was needed in order to better meet the needs of the eight-year-program medical talent training and to provide related references.%在八年制医学教育专业临床医学课程学习、见习、实习阶段实施临床导师制是我校一项颇具特色的探索.通过对2005、2006级学生实施临床导师制的情况进行分析和总结发现,临床导师对培养学生临床思维、职业精神,提升其临床和科研能力有着积极作用.但存在导师专业性过强、业务繁忙、对培养目标定位不清等问题,需要对导师制进一步优化和完善,以更好地适应八年制医学人才培养的需要,并为国内八年制医学教育改革提供参考.

  10. Integral representation of Skorokhod reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Anantharam, Venkat; Konstantopoulos, Takis

    2010-01-01

    We show that a certain integral representation of the one-sided Skorokhod reflection of a continuous bounded variation function characterizes the reflection in that it possesses a unique maximal solution which solves the Skorokhod reflection problem.

  11. Reflection in learning at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Steen Høyrup

    2006-01-01

    Three domains and approaches of learning - adult learning, problem-solving and cirtical reflection theory are used as different lenses through which the question: what is reflection and how is reflection related to learning, - are interpreted.......Three domains and approaches of learning - adult learning, problem-solving and cirtical reflection theory are used as different lenses through which the question: what is reflection and how is reflection related to learning, - are interpreted....

  12. Reflecting on Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Rudolf V.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a two-day optics laboratory activity that investigates the scientific phenomenon of reflection, which students are generally familiar with but usually have not studied in depth. This investigation can be used on its own or as part of a larger unit on optics. This lesson encourages students to think critically and…

  13. Lights, Camera, Reflection!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourlam, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    There are many ways to critique teaching, but few are more effective than video. Personal reflection through the use of video allows one to see what really happens in the classrooms--good and bad--and provides a visual path forward for improvement, whether it be in one's teaching, work with a particular student, or learning environment. This…

  14. The Reflective Methodologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Bjørg

    2013-01-01

    in which the practical sense and tacit knowledge are related to questions of power and social actors’ strategies for positioning themselves within a social space. This demands a particular focus on the historical effect of the concept of ‘the reflective practitioner’ as a symbolic marker of identity...

  15. Changes Brought by Reflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Feng: A number of changes have taken place in Europe after reflection, such as specific anti-terrorist measures, progress in the construction of integration, changes in the structure of political forces and adjustments in the EU foreign policy. Would you make some comments first, Dr. Sun?

  16. Reflection by Porro Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2010-04-01

    Students all know that reflection from a plane mirror produces an image that is reversed right to left and so cannot be read by anyone but Leonardo da Vinci, who kept his notes in mirror writing. A useful counter-example is the Porro prism, which produces an image that is not reversed.

  17. Wave Reflection Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul

    The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...

  18. 10-Year Modification and Reflection of The Full-time Compulsory Education English Curriculum Standards%《义务教育英语课程标准》十年修订与反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文

    2013-01-01

    《义务教育英语课程标准》(实验稿)自2001年试验以来,经过十年的实践、摸索与反思,对我国义务教育英语教学产生了深远的影响。《义务教育英语课程标准》(2011年版)在秉承实验稿基本理念的基础上进行了合理的修订,更加贴近《国家中长期教育改革和发展规划纲要(2010-2020年)》的精神和我国英语教育的实际情况。%Since it was experimented in 2001 , The Full -time Compulsory Education English Curriculum Standards has affected English teaching deeply from opinion to practice in China in 10 years.The Full-time Com-pulsory Education English Curriculum Standards (2011) accepted basic principles of the original version of 2001, but it is also modified soundly to adapt to The National Outline for Medium and Long -term Education Reform and Development (2010-2020 ) and the practical situation of English education in our country .

  19. Behind the ink : multi-billion dollar oil deal between Venezuela and China not necessarily bad for either the United States or Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although China has recently signed large contracts with Venezuela for crude oil, experts are convinced that Chinese refiners will want more Canadian crude oil because they have greater confidence in Canada as a reliable provider. Production difficulties with nationalized oil industries in Venezuela and Mexico will create further opportunities for Canadian oil producers. The recent recession has caused delays in plans to increase pipeline capacity. China may invest $US 8 billion in Venezuelan oil in order to increase exports to China to over a million barrels per day by 2015. The Chinese government granted the Venezuelan government a $4 billion loan last year. The Venezuelan government has increased the maximum royalty rates paid by foreign oil companies. The Venezuelan-owned Citgo operates more than 7000 gasoline retail outlets in the United States. The country is capable of processing 1.3 million barrels per day. Studies have suggested that the Chinese see their investments as a business opportunity, and not as a means of antagonizing western countries. It was concluded that economists are predicting that Venezuela's currency will be devalued this year. 3 figs

  20. Behind the ink : multi-billion dollar oil deal between Venezuela and China not necessarily bad for either the United States or Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentein, J.

    2009-06-15

    Although China has recently signed large contracts with Venezuela for crude oil, experts are convinced that Chinese refiners will want more Canadian crude oil because they have greater confidence in Canada as a reliable provider. Production difficulties with nationalized oil industries in Venezuela and Mexico will create further opportunities for Canadian oil producers. The recent recession has caused delays in plans to increase pipeline capacity. China may invest $US 8 billion in Venezuelan oil in order to increase exports to China to over a million barrels per day by 2015. The Chinese government granted the Venezuelan government a $4 billion loan last year. The Venezuelan government has increased the maximum royalty rates paid by foreign oil companies. The Venezuelan-owned Citgo operates more than 7000 gasoline retail outlets in the United States. The country is capable of processing 1.3 million barrels per day. Studies have suggested that the Chinese see their investments as a business opportunity, and not as a means of antagonizing western countries. It was concluded that economists are predicting that Venezuela's currency will be devalued this year. 3 figs.

  1. Teacher Reflection as Teacher Change, and Teacher Change as Moral Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boody, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Teacher reflection has been a popular topic during the past twenty years. The literature generally discusses teacher reflection as either (a) retrospection, (b) problem solving, (c) critical reflection, or (d) reflection-in-action. This qualitative study went beyond these typical descriptors to characterize teacher reflection instead as teacher…

  2. 亚裔美国史学五十年:反思与展望%Fifty Years of Asian- American Historiography: Reflecting on the Past and Looking into the Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王心扬

    2012-01-01

    This essay aims to examine the merits and problems of Asian -American historiography in the past 50 years. In the early days, a major problem in the field was an ideology -guided, monistic approach to academic research. By only focusing on racial discrimination and by deterring others from exploring Asian immigration history from different or additional perspectives, this approach dominated the field for nearly three decades at the cost of a fuller and more balanced picture of historical events. In recent years, however, there have emerged some new trends challenging the dogmatic approach to Asian - American studies. By examining the relationships between whites, blacks, and Asians as a triangulated relationship instead of a binary one, scholars writing since the mid - 1990s have refuted the traditional "black and white" theory on race relations in America. Meanwhile, those who explore Asian - American history from a transnational perspective have argued, persuasively, that Asian immigrants had dual nationalism and dual- cultural identities. In particular, they have discovered that Japanese immigration and Japanese expansionism were closely intertwined. Behind the decision to relocate the Japanese during World War II, "military necessity" did exist, ese new trends indicate that Asian- American historiography is headed toward maturity.%回顾和检讨亚裔美国史学在过去半个世纪里所走过的道路可以发现,早期亚裔美国史学中一个最突出的问题是以意识形态为主导的一元论历史观。在近30年的时间里,学者大都仅仅从“种族歧视”这一个角度去诠释历史事件,反对从其他视野去观察亚洲移民的经历。不过,最近15年来,这个领域中出现了冲破一元论历史观束缚的趋势。新一代学者提出了白人、黑人和亚裔之间三角形关系的论点,从而否定了“有色对白种”的双重种族关系理论模式。从“跨国主义”的视野观察

  3. The Review and Reflection of the Development of Shanghai Community College in Recent Twenty Years%上海社区学院发展20年的回顾与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋亦芳

    2013-01-01

    自1993年上海提出组建社区学院到现在已有20年的历程,伴随着上海社区教育和学习型社会建设的稳步推进,上海社区学院也经历了一段不平凡的发展过程,既面临体制与机制架构之难题,也经历功能定位之困惑,在不断探索与实践中逐步找到自己的位置并得到稳步的发展。在“完善终身教育体系,建设学习型社会”的新形势下,上海社区学院应怎样发展,应如何进一步发挥其作用,需要我们进一步探索和思考。%Since 1993 ,Shanghai proposed to set up community college till now for 20 years .With Shanghai community education and the construction of learning society ,Shanghai’s community college has gone through an extraordinary development process ,facied the problem of system and mechanism framework and experienced the confusion of functional localization .In the continuous exploration and practice gradually found their ow n positions and achieve steady development . In new situation “to perfect lifelong education system and build a learning society” ,it is necessary to further explore and think that the Shanghai community college should be how to develop and how to further play its role .

  4. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 1994-95. Statistics in Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    Over $273 billion of revenues were raised by local, state, and federal governments to fund public education for students in prekindergarten through the 12th grade in school year 1994-95. Current expenditures (those excluding construction, equipment, and debt financing) came to $244 billion. Three out of every five dollars were spent on teachers,…

  5. Being a reflective teacher——reflection on group management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan; Lehui

    2015-01-01

    <正>Introduction According to Pollard and Triggs(1997),reflective teaching is a process through which the capacity to make such professional judgments can be developed and maintained.Then what is a reflective teacher?Reflective teacher is someone who reflects systematically on her practice in a constant attempt to improve

  6. 词之起源:一个千年学案的当代反思%The origins of ci:A contemporary reflection on a thousand-year-old academic controversy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昌集

    2008-01-01

    The academic controversy over the"origin of ci"has lasted over a thousand years throughout the study of this Chinese poetic genre.According to their own account by literati of the Tang dynasty,ci was collected from folks of the fields for both its phrase and tune.But since the Song dynasty,different arguments have arisen.Some held that ci had its origin in the so-called "long-and-short lines",while others postulated"phrase-filling in uniform tunes";still others believed in its derivation from"foreign-tune with Chinese Phrase".Starting from the 20th century,the fo CUS of debate shifted to whether ci had evolved from native vemacular songs or been invented for new tunes,and,if the an isolated and undefined academic context and research orientation;(ii) a method of substituting the part for the whole.which may have distorted the true picture of Chinese-foreign music exchange;(iii)the false premise that new tunes gave rise to new genres of poetry;and(iV)the disregard of the reality in learning and spread of ci performance and composition,and neglect of the role played by social changes and human subjectivity in the budding ofnew literary genres.%"词之起源"是词学研究中的千年学案.唐人自述其歌词曲调主源乃"采民吐者".宋以后至今,逐步形成"长短句源流"说、"填实泛声"说、"胡乐入华而词生"说等主要观点.20世纪以来,出现了"词源民间"与"胡乐生词"说的争锋,继有以胡乐为主体和以华乐为主体的两种"燕乐生词"说.20世纪的"词之起源"论存在着若干学理缺陷:学术语境和研究指向单调模糊;以局部现象覆盖整体,歪曲唐代华乐、胡乐交流实况;阐释前提"新音乐生成新词体"不能成立;脱离词的传唱和创作实践,忽视文艺形式建树中的社会运行和人的主体性.

  7. Barium fluoride whispering-gallery-mode disk-resonator with one billion quality-factor

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Guoping; Diallo, Souleymane; Henriet, Rémi; Jacquot, Maxime; Chembo, Yanne K.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a monolithic optical whispering gallery mode resonator fabricated with barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) with an ultra-high quality ($Q$) factor above $10^9$ at $1550$ nm, and measured with both the linewidth and cavity-ring-down methods. Vertical scanning optical profilometry shows that the root mean square surface roughness of $2$ nm is achieved for our mm-size disk. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that one billion $Q$-factor is achievable by precision polish...

  8. Reflections from the Journal of Turkish Librarianship, Living Its Golden Year Altın Yılını Yaşayan Türk Kütüphaneciliği Dergisinden Yansımalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Gürdal

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The most specific characteristic of publishing is no doubt, creativity. Escarpit, describes publisher as a "midwife". Actually there happens a labor. For this reason it is painfull and has risks as evey labor. Thus, the journal of Turkish Librarianship which is the publish of Turkish Library Association, performs this unique phenomenon, the " labor fact" since 50 years for its readers. It shares the hapiness of labor both with its authors and readers. The paper, calls collegues and readers of the journal, to think about the requirement of how to enrich it by context. For instance supporting it with articles refering to intellectual efforts and theoretical paradigmas, and also about the ways how to increase its usage. At the same time the paper concerns data about "citation analysis" based on last decade of the journal of Turkish Librarianship refering its usage. Yayıncılığın en belirgin karakteristiği, kuşkusuz, yaratıcılıktır. Escarpit, yayıncıya "ebe" sıfatını yakıştırmaktadır. Gerçekten de ortada bir doğum olayı söz konusudur; bu sebeple her doğum gibi sancılı ve risklerle doludur. İşte Türk Kütüphaneciler Derneği'nin yayını olan Türk Kütüphaneciliği dergisi, 50 yıldır bu biricik olguyu "doğum olayını" okurları için gerçekleştiriyor, yazar ve okurlarıyla doğum sonrası mutluluğu paylaşıyor. Yazı, meslektaşları ve dergi okurlarını, dergi kullanılırlığının artırılması ve dergi içeriğinin, entelektüel çaba ve kuramsal paradigmalara yönelik makalelerle zenginleştirilmesi gereği üzerinde düşünmeye çağırıyor. Makale aynı zamanda, Türk Kütüphaneciliği ve eski adıyla Türk Kütüphaneciler Derneği Bülteni'nin kullanılırlığına yönelik, Türk Kütüphaneciliği dergisinin son 10 yılı baz alınarak gerçekleştirilen "atıf analizi" verilerini içermektedir.

  9. Reflective Practice: A Tool for Readmission Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Deanne T; Burton, M Caroline; Hakim, Fayaz A; Manning, Dennis M; Klocke, David L; Caine, Natalie A; Hembre, Kristin M; Varkey, Prathibha

    2016-05-01

    Factors intrinsic to local practice, but not captured by the medical record, contribute to readmissions. Frontline providers familiar with their practice systems can identify these. The objective was to decrease 30-day hospital readmissions. The intervention involved retrospective review by hospitalists of their own patients' readmissions, using reflective practice guided by a chart review tool. Subjects were patients discharged by hospitalists and readmitted to a tertiary care academic medical center. Hospitalists reviewed 193 readmissions of 170 patients. Factors contributing to readmission were grouped under patient characteristics, operational factors, and care transition. After reflection, physicians scheduled earlier follow-up appointments while nurse practitioners and physician assistants improved discharge instructions. Readmissions decreased during the review period, and the decrease sustained for one year after the review period. Hospitalists reflected on and identified local practice factors that contributed to their own patients' 30-day readmissions. Reflective practice may be an effective strategy to decrease hospital readmissions. PMID:25661842

  10. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  11. Reflections and Interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reflections and Interpretations is an anthology on The Freedom Writers’ methodology. It is an anthology for all those with a professional need for texts explaining, not only how The Freedom Writers’ tools are being used, but also why they work so convincingly well. It is not an anthology of guide...... of guidelines; it is an anthology of explanations based on theory. And it is an anthology written by Freedom Writer Teachers – who else could do it?...

  12. CSIC's main economic indexes fulfilled with over 30% increase in first half year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ With a yearly increase of 26% during the period of the 10th five year plan, in the first half year of 2006, CSIC kept a strong momentum for development. The main economic indexes were over-fulfilled by an increase of more than 30% while the profit increased 150%. The gross economic revenue was 30.5 billion Yuan,up 34% from the same period of the previous year. The main business revenue was 23 billion Yuan, up 44% from the same period of the previous year. An added value of 5.6 billion Yuan was achieved, up 33% from the previous year. The new construction orders amounted to 3.98 million dwt, up 63% from the same period of the previous year. In the first half year, the increase of each item of cost was below that of main business revenue.873 million Yuan of profit was made, up 150%from the same period of the previous year.

  13. Greenhouse gas implications of a 32 billion gallon bioenergy landscape in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, E. H.; Hudiburg, T. W.; Wang, W.; Khanna, M.; Long, S.; Dwivedi, P.; Parton, W. J.; Hartman, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Sustainable bioenergy for transportation fuel and greenhouse gas (GHGs) reductions may require considerable changes in land use. Perennial grasses have been proposed because of their potential to yield substantial biomass on marginal lands without displacing food and reduce GHG emissions by storing soil carbon. Here, we implemented an integrated approach to planning bioenergy landscapes by combining spatially-explicit ecosystem and economic models to predict a least-cost land allocation for a 32 billion gallon (121 billion liter) renewable fuel mandate in the US. We find that 2022 GHG transportation emissions are decreased by 7% when 3.9 million hectares of eastern US land are converted to perennial grasses supplemented with corn residue to meet cellulosic ethanol requirements, largely because of gasoline displacement and soil carbon storage. If renewable fuel production is accompanied by a cellulosic biofuel tax credit, CO2 equivalent emissions could be reduced by 12%, because it induces more cellulosic biofuel and land under perennial grasses (10 million hectares) than under the mandate alone. While GHG reducing bioenergy landscapes that meet RFS requirements and do not displace food are possible, the reductions in GHG emissions are 50% less compared to previous estimates that did not account for economically feasible land allocation.

  14. Reflective writing: a management skill

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze students' reflective writing in terms of identifiable outcomes and explore students' thoughts on reflection and reflective writing as a process. Design/methodology/approach – A mixed methods approach is taken with a qualitative analysis of 116 written reflections from MA Librarianship studying management over an eight-month period. A quantitative statistical analysis assesses the relationships between reflective writing and a number of po...

  15. "Building Schools for the Future": Reflections on a New Social Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, Pat; Hextall, Ian; Richardson, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    The Labour Government launched the "Building Schools for the Future" programme (BSF) in February 2003 with the aim of refurbishing or rebuilding all secondary schools in England over a 15-year period, with an anticipated budget of 45 billion British Pounds. In this article, we locate BSF in a wider public policy context which has already had…

  16. Seismic reflection imaging, accounting for primary and multiple reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Kees; van der Neut, Joost; Thorbecke, Jan; Broggini, Filippo; Slob, Evert; Snieder, Roel

    2015-04-01

    Imaging of seismic reflection data is usually based on the assumption that the seismic response consists of primary reflections only. Multiple reflections, i.e. waves that have reflected more than once, are treated as primaries and are imaged at wrong positions. There are two classes of multiple reflections, which we will call surface-related multiples and internal multiples. Surface-related multiples are those multiples that contain at least one reflection at the earth's surface, whereas internal multiples consist of waves that have reflected only at subsurface interfaces. Surface-related multiples are the strongest, but also relatively easy to deal with because the reflecting boundary (the earth's surface) is known. Internal multiples constitute a much more difficult problem for seismic imaging, because the positions and properties of the reflecting interfaces are not known. We are developing reflection imaging methodology which deals with internal multiples. Starting with the Marchenko equation for 1D inverse scattering problems, we derived 3D Marchenko-type equations, which relate reflection data at the surface to Green's functions between virtual sources anywhere in the subsurface and receivers at the surface. Based on these equations, we derived an iterative scheme by which these Green's functions can be retrieved from the reflection data at the surface. This iterative scheme requires an estimate of the direct wave of the Green's functions in a background medium. Note that this is precisely the same information that is also required by standard reflection imaging schemes. However, unlike in standard imaging, our iterative Marchenko scheme retrieves the multiple reflections of the Green's functions from the reflection data at the surface. For this, no knowledge of the positions and properties of the reflecting interfaces is required. Once the full Green's functions are retrieved, reflection imaging can be carried out by which the primaries and multiples are

  17. The seismic reflection inverse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seismic reflection method seeks to extract maps of the Earth's sedimentary crust from transient near-surface recording of echoes, stimulated by explosions or other controlled sound sources positioned near the surface. Reasonably accurate models of seismic energy propagation take the form of hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations, in which the coefficients represent the spatial distribution of various mechanical characteristics of rock (density, stiffness, etc). Thus the fundamental problem of reflection seismology is an inverse problem in partial differential equations: to find the coefficients (or at least some of their properties) of a linear hyperbolic system, given the values of a family of solutions in some part of their domains. The exploration geophysics community has developed various methods for estimating the Earth's structure from seismic data and is also well aware of the inverse point of view. This article reviews mathematical developments in this subject over the last 25 years, to show how the mathematics has both illuminated innovations of practitioners and led to new directions in practice. Two themes naturally emerge: the importance of single scattering dominance and compensation for spectral incompleteness by spatial redundancy. (topical review)

  18. Preschoolers' use of reflective properties: identification of reflections on partially transparent surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, E S; Wittgenstein, K M; Benson, K

    2001-12-01

    This exploratory study extended past studies of children's ability to reference the mirror as a tool in locating the source of reflected images to preschoolers' ability to use the affordances of a transparency. Thirty-six children (3.5 to 5 years old) were shown nonreflected lights and lights reflected on a partially transparent, glassy surface. Children did not spontaneously locate the source of the reflected image. However, they were able to verbally discriminate reflected from nonreflected images following training. These findings indicate that, although preschoolers may not spontaneously use transparencies as a perceptual tool, the ability to distinguish visual differences of reflected from nonreflected images on transparencies is likely within preschool children's developmental capacity.

  19. Reflections on a Trip: Two Decades Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Berman, Jennifer; Berman, Dene

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal qualitative study that involves the interviews of four adults who participated in one of two 10-day wilderness therapy trips 25 years ago. Using qualitative data collection techniques, we conducted in-depth interviews. Respondents were asked to reflect on their lives, the wilderness therapy trip, and the…

  20. Methodological Reflections: Inter- ethnic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    ) are also considered. The issues related to the social relevance of the research deriving from psycho political validity implying consideration of power dynamics in the personal, relational and collective domains are included. The primary basis for these reflections is a follow-up study concerning young...... adults’ life trajectories including ethnic minority and ethnic majority young adults (n= 9) in Denmark; the first wave conducted in the mid-nineties and the second wave 10 years later. In addition, some issues are taken up from a research project about youth intimate partnership formation patterns...... and the middle aged parents originating from different countries and residing in Denmark.   The article indicates some constructive ways of conducting research in contexts with diversity such as explicit awareness about social relevance of the research, modulating position and distance with respect to being...

  1. Reflections on Design Methodology Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    shall draw on our extensive experience of design research and design teaching, and on the recent book The Future of Design Methodology, edited by Professor Herbert Birkhofer. We shall also refer to a model that links the Results, Practices, Methods, and Sciences of designing. Some initial conclusions......We shall reflect on the results of Design Methodology research and their impact on design practice. In the past 50 years the number of researchers in the field has expanded enormously – as has the number of publications. During the same period design practice and its products have changed...... and produced are also now far more complex and distributed, putting designers under ever increasing pressure. We shall address the question: Are the results of Design Methodology research appropriate and are they delivering the expected results in design practice? In our attempt to answer this question we...

  2. Reflections on leadership in healthcare: the past 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Leadership in the hospital sector has been characterized by a state of change since the early 1960s. Heavily influenced by the emergence of the principles of the Canadian health system, leadership at the time was shaped in many ways by the post-World War II construction boom. It was significantly impacted by the developing professional unions in the clinical professions and the resultant and conflicted labour relations of the 60s and 70s. The environment of leadership was in those days predominantely a transactional style, and was frequently confrontational. But the many leaders of Canada's hospitals were also characterized by a caring cadre of often-colourful personalities who challenged, debated and strove to ensure adequate funding and a harmony among the diverse clinical, community and political interests confronting their organizations. The major restructuring of an ever-more expensive health system has set the stage for substantial innovation and reform as the leaders in the system integrate new technologies, personalized pharmaceuticals, devolving scopes of practice and entrepreneurial opportunities related to incentive funding. The development of leadership competencies such as the Leaders for Life framework across the health workforce will be essential to successfully guide our health delivery system into the future. PMID:23107907

  3. 30 Years of TEFL/TESL: A Personal Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack C Richards

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to answer eight questions, which are as follows. (1 What are the goals of teach English?; (2 What is the best way to teach a language?; (3 What is the role of grammar in language teaching?; (4 What processes are involved in second language learning?; (5 What is the role of the learner?; (6 How can we teach the four skills?; (7 How can we access students' learner?; (8 How can we prepare language teachers?

  4. Twenty Years on: Reflections on the CEDISYS Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudol, Gerard; Castellani, Ilaria; Hennessy, Matthew;

    2008-01-01

    We recall some memories of the Esprit Basic Research Action CEDISYS, a small, well-focussed and fruitful project which brought together researchers at the meeting point of true concurrency and process algebra, in the period 1988-1991. The project was initiated and effectively animated by Ugo...

  5. REFLECTION AND TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korolkova Svetlana Azadovna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the correlation between reflection and translation and proves the possibility to extrapolate the notion of "hermeneutic circle" into translation. Translation, which is understood as a specific speech activity, has a hermeneutic character as in its basis there is a "reflexive delay", a specific state of intelligence which occurs as a result of a language, ethnic or cultural barrier and demands a reflective action. At that, the circle is transformed into a spiral, which lets conceive the essence of every text fragment through its integration into the former comprehended layer. Interpretation, a reflexive action, which has a three-level structure, creates a unified image of a foreign text in the translator's consciousness and provides the integration of the text concept into the translator's pragmatic net, the representative of a foreign language community, and promotes the target text creation which conforms to the recipient's expectations. At that, the interpreter's personality, their ability to interpret, total existential competence and active position are of precedence for sense comprehension. Reflexive abilities refer to the category of the over-subjective; however, they provide adequate interpretation of the source text and creation of the so-called natural target text. The so-called des-objective reading, predicted synthesis and retrospective analysis are the key notions for the translator. Such abilities are the basis of the professional competence of the translator, who becomes not only a professional but also an intelligent personality that has existential and academic background.

  6. Reflecting on Reflective Practice: (Re)Visiting Dewey and Schon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the author began work in reflective practice, at first informally in the late 1970s and then more formally in the mid-1980s, he has always looked at reflective practice as a compass of sorts to guide teachers when they may be seeking direction as to what they are doing in their classrooms. The metaphor of reflection as a compass enables…

  7. 苏联解体20年俄罗斯文化背景下教育发展的反思%Reflections upon the Educational Development against the Background of Russian Culture during the 20 years of the Disintegration of the Soviet Union

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秋野

    2011-01-01

    The educational theories in the former Soviet Union once produced far-reaching impacts on the educational development in China. It has been 20 years since the Soviet Union disintegrated and something new has happened in the growth and reform of Russian education. Russian scholars deep reflections upon the problems in their educational development against the background of Russian culture are of great enlightenment to China.%原苏联教育理论对我国教育发展产生过深远影响,苏联解体已有20年,俄罗斯的教育发展及改革出现了许多新的情况,俄罗斯学者们在其文化背景下对教育发展存在问题的深刻反思对我国具有启示。

  8. Ship export increased by 70% in first half of year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ According to custom house statistics, China kept its momentum in ship export in the first half of the year, which totaled 357964 ships or a value of 3.4 billion US dollars, averaging 500 million dollars per month, up 66.8% from the same period of previous year. But ship import also increased significantly in the first half of the year, totaling 2393 ships or a value of 246 million US dollars, up 36% from the same period of last year.

  9. Leveraging Billions of Faces to Overcome Performance Barriers in Unconstrained Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Taigman, Yaniv

    2011-01-01

    We employ the face recognition technology developed in house at face.com to a well accepted benchmark and show that without any tuning we are able to considerably surpass state of the art results. Much of the improvement is concentrated in the high-valued performance point of zero false positive matches, where the obtained recall rate almost doubles the best reported result to date. We discuss the various components and innovations of our system that enable this significant performance gap. These components include extensive utilization of an accurate 3D reconstructed shape model dealing with challenges arising from pose and illumination. In addition, discriminative models based on billions of faces are used in order to overcome aging and facial expression as well as low light and overexposure. Finally, we identify a challenging set of identification queries that might provide useful focus for future research.

  10. Barium fluoride whispering-gallery-mode disk-resonator with one billion quality-factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guoping; Diallo, Souleymane; Henriet, Rémi; Jacquot, Maxime; Chembo, Yanne K

    2014-10-15

    We demonstrate a monolithic optical whispering-gallery-mode resonator fabricated with barium fluoride (BaF₂) with an ultra-high quality (Q) factor above 10⁹ at 1550 nm, and measured with both the linewidth and cavity-ring-down methods. Vertical scanning optical profilometry shows that the root mean square surface roughness of 2 nm is achieved for our mm-size disk. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that one billion Q-factor is achievable by precision polishing in relatively soft crystals with mohs hardness of 3. We show that complex thermo-optical dynamics can take place in these resonators. Beside usual applications in nonlinear optics and microwave photonics, high-energy particle scintillation detection utilizing monolithic BaF₂ resonators potentially becomes feasible. PMID:25361142

  11. GERLUMPH Data Release 2: 2.5 billion simulated microlensing light curves

    CERN Document Server

    Vernardos, Georgios; Bate, Nicholas F; Croton, Darren; Vohl, Dany

    2015-01-01

    In the upcoming synoptic all--sky survey era of astronomy, thousands of new multiply imaged quasars are expected to be discovered and monitored regularly. Light curves from the images of gravitationally lensed quasars are further affected by superimposed variability due to microlensing. In order to disentangle the microlensing from the intrinsic variability of the light curves, the time delays between the multiple images have to be accurately measured. The resulting microlensing light curves can then be analyzed to reveal information about the background source, such as the size of the quasar accretion disc. In this paper we present the most extensive and coherent collection of simulated microlensing light curves; we have generated $>2.5$ billion light curves using the GERLUMPH high resolution microlensing magnification maps. Our simulations can be used to: train algorithms to measure lensed quasar time delays, plan future monitoring campaigns, and study light curve properties throughout parameter space. Our ...

  12. Barium fluoride whispering-gallery-mode disk-resonator with one billion quality-factor

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Guoping; Henriet, Rémi; Jacquot, Maxime; Chembo, Yanne K

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a monolithic optical whispering gallery mode resonator fabricated with barium fluoride (BaF$_2$) with an ultra-high quality ($Q$) factor above $10^9$ at $1550$ nm, and measured with both the linewidth and cavity-ring-down methods. Vertical scanning optical profilometry shows that the root mean square surface roughness of $2$ nm is achieved for our mm-size disk. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that one billion $Q$-factor is achievable by precision polishing in relatively soft crystals with mohs hardness of ~$3$. We show that complex thermo-optical dynamics can take place in these resonators. Beside usual applications in nonlinear optics and microwave photonics, high energy particle scintillation detection utilizing monolithic BaF$_2$ resonators potentially becomes feasible.

  13. ICI bites demerger bullet, Zeneca guns for Brit-pounds 1.3-billion rights issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any lingering doubts as to ICI's (London) intentions to follow through its demerger proposals were dispelled last week. The company will hive off its bioscience business into Zeneca Group plc, which will make a Brit-pounds 1.3-billion ($1.9 billion) rights issue in June 1993. Shareholders, whose approval for the historic move will be sought in late May, will receive one fully paid Zeneca share for each ICI share. Proceeds from the rights issue will be used to reduce Zeneca's indebtedness to ICI by about 70%. Acknowledging that ICI had 'spread the jam too thinly' during its expansion in the 1980s, chief executive Ronnie Hampel says the new ICI will be a cost-conscious, no-frills' organization and that businesses that failed to perform would be restructured or closed. He is 'not expecting any help from the economy' in 1993. Of ICI's remaining petrochemicals and plastics businesses, Hampel says that despite 'stringent measures to reduce the cost base hor-ellipsis it is clear they will not reach a return on capital that will justify reinvestment by ICI.' He does not see them as closure candidates but as 'businesses that will require further restructuring.' Hampel notes 'a dozen clearly identified areas for expansion,' including paints, catalysts, titanium dioxide, and chlorofluorocarbon replacements. Losses in materials, where substantial rationalization has failed to halt the slide, will be reduced on completion of the DuPont deal - expected by midyear. 'Further measures' would be necessary for the 'residual bit of advanced materials in the US,' he says

  14. Reflections on Conformal Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hyungrok; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2015-01-01

    We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions $\\Delta_0$ of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite $\\Delta_0$ as well as for large $\\Delta_0$. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function.

  15. Reflections on Conformal Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions Δ0 of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite Δ0 as well as for large Δ0. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function. (based on 1510.08772 with Kim & Ooguri). This seminar will be given via videolink

  16. KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT THROUGH REFLECTIVE PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Kehily, Dermot

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the development of knowledge through reflective practice and more specifically the development of the author’s knowledge as a result of engaging in reflection on an issue in the field of the author’s research interest. The author commences by consulting and analysing existing published research on reflective practice. The paper sets out the theory of reflective practice as documented by eminent authors in the field. The author addresses the concept of action learning and f...

  17. Twenty-Year Reunion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    A massive earthquake measuring 7.8 on the Richter Scale struck the city of Tangshan at 3:42 a.m. on July 28, 1976. The city, which had history of well over 100 years and a population of over one million people, was left in ruins. The violent earthquake killed 242,469 people, with 164,851 people sustaining injuries, 2,652 children under 16 years of age left as orphans and 885 elderly people as widowers. Some 96 percent of the city’s buildings and houses collapsed, with a direct economic loss of 10 billion yuan. Earthquake tremors spread over a two million square kilometer area, with hundreds of millions people placed in peril by the natural disaster.The Tangshan earthquake set a record as the world’s strongest earthquake of the century. The people of Tangshan have set a new record for the rate of reconstruction accomplished over the past 20 years. The support of the People’s Liberation Army and people across the nation combined with the unyielding efforts of survivors led to the establishment of a new Ta

  18. Action Research and Reflective Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阿莉

    2008-01-01

    Reflection is an impontant core of professional development and action research in which the teachers reflect through the Systematic collection and analym of data is a form of srrucured reflection.The teachers can be provided with powerful means of professional development.

  19. AREVA - First quarter 2011 revenue: 2.7% growth like for like to 1.979 billion euros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The group reported consolidated revenue of 1.979 billion euros in the 1. quarter of 2011, for 2.2% growth compared with the 1. quarter of 2010 (+ 2.7% like for like). The increase was driven by the Mining / Front End Business Group (+ 20.8% LFL). Revenue from outside France rose 12.0% to 1.22 billion euros and represented 62% of total revenue. The impacts of foreign exchange and changes in consolidation scope were negligible during the period. The March 11 events in Japan had no significant impact on the group's performance in the 1. quarter of 2011. The group's backlog of 43.5 billion euros at March 31, 2011 was stable in relation to March 31, 2010. The growth in the backlog of the Mining / Front End and Renewable Energies Business Groups offset the partial depletion of the backlog in the Reactors and Services and Back End Business Groups as contracts were completed

  20. Reflectance measurements from particulate surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoniemi, J.; Gritsevich, M.; Hakala, T.; Penttilä, A.; Eskelinen, J.; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P.; Arnalds, O.; Guirado, D.; Muinonen, K.

    2014-07-01

    Asteroids consists of, e.g., metals and rocky materials, and comets consist of, e.g., icy and rocky materials and dust. Their surfaces can be covered by small particles. To certain extent, these surfaces can resemble some natural or artificial surfaces on the Earth, such as snow layers, sand, gravels, or silt. By measuring the reflectance from such surfaces, one can gain better understanding on how to interpret astronomical observations of asteroids and comets. Even if not completely analogous, these samples and measurements provide a strict test bed for the scattering models applied to interpret observations of small Solar System bodies. FIGIFIGO (Finnish Geodetic Institute's Field Gonio-spectro-polari- radiometer) can measure the bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) of surface targets of a diameter of around 10 cm, in a selected angular range and resolution, in the spectral range of 400-2400 nm, at about 10-nm resolution, including linear polarisation (Stokes I, Q, and U, or reflection coefficient matrix elements R_{11}, R_{12}, and R_{13}). Using FIGIFIGO, over 500 samples have been measured over the past years, including over 100 snow samples and almost 100 samples resembling sand, silt, soil, dust, or gravel. For planetary studies, especially interesting are dark volcanic ash and silt samples from Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvönt eruptions. These have been measured loose and compressed, smooth and rough, purely and deposited on snow. Further single-scattering measurements using the Granada setup and measurements using the Univ. Helsinki integrating sphere complement the picture. Generally, we have observed that the reflectance from volcanic materials behaves mostly as expected and modelled. BRF shows typical bowl shape with strong phase-angle dependence. Spectral features are smooth, with slight angular dependence. Polarisation depends strongly on the phase angle, weaker on other angles defining the scattering geometry, and smoothly on the wavelength. There

  1. Towards the development of a reflective radiographer: challenges and constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, MA

    2008-01-01

    Currently there is overwhelming support from the health professions for universities to devise curricular approaches that lead to the development of undergraduate reflective skills, and over time, reflective practice. However, in the case of radiography, irrespective of the degree to which radiographers might engage in reflective practice they constantly struggle to shed the perception they are little more than technical operatives. The four-year Bachelor of Radiography and Medical Imaging wa...

  2. Does self reflection and insight correlate with academic performance in medical students?

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Sandra E; Johnson, Paula H

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical students in academic difficulty are often described as lacking insight. The Self Reflection and Insight Scale (SRIS) is a tool for measuring insight which has been validated in medical students. We investigated whether self reflection and insight scores correlate with academic performance in Year 4 medical students from a six year undergraduate medical degree, and whether self reflection and insight changes after one year of clinical training. Methods Self reflection and in...

  3. 從八年研究實驗課程經驗反思高中課程改革的挑戰 Challenges of the High School Curriculum Reform: Reflections from the Experimental Curriculum Experience of the Eight-Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    宋明娟 Min-Chuan Sung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 高中課程改革的問題牽涉多端,本文旨在藉由美國二十世紀30至40年代之著名教育實驗「八年研究」中的課程議題,反思高中課程改革所面臨的挑戰。論述架構主要分為四個層面,首先回顧八年研究實驗課程的歷史意義與評價,其次討論八年研究推動過程中所涉入的課程實務議題;繼之據以提出八年研究實驗課程經驗的批判反思,來釐清課程改革之目的、定位、意義與價值的重要;最後則延 伸探討其對高中課程改革的啟示,藉之,希冀能為臺灣高中課程改革議題,提供不同的思維面向,以促進更審慎、更周延的高中課程改革決策。 High school curriculum reform involves many complicated issues. This study aims to discuss the challenges of high school curriculum reform by addressing the curriculum issues reflected in the Eight-Year Study, the well-known educational experiment conducted in the United States from 1930s to 1940s. Firstly, the authors review the historical significance of the experimental curriculum and the recommendations rendered by the Progressive Education Association at the end of the experiment. Then, this study discusses the issues involved in the implementation of the experimental curriculum in the Eight-Year Study. Additionally, the authors offer some critical reflections to rethink the curriculum experiment experience of the Eight-Year Study. Finally, this study addresses the implications of the issues and recommendations for the current high school curriculum reform in Taiwan. It is hoped that through the review of the historical curriculum events, this paper can provide different perspectives for more thoughtful deliberation in the policy making of the current high school curriculum reform.

  4. Investigations of boreal forest bidirectional reflectance factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, H. Peter

    view/illumination geometries. Forward mode validation of FLAIR demonstrates its ability to reproduce canopy reflectance values using reasonable canopy properties as input. Inversion of FLAIR to produce a canopy BRF function based on a limited number of observed reflectance values indicate the model's ability to characterize boreal canopy BRF. Difficulties are found with hotspot reflectance values when the modelled BRF function is extrapolated to illumination angles significantly beyond those associated with the observed reflectance. Data for this research was obtained as part of the BOReal Atmosphere-Ecosystem Study (BOREAS), with BRF of various pure canopy stands obtained during five periods of the year (winter, thaw, late spring, mid-summer, and early autumn). Airborne spectral imagery was acquired using the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI). The sensor mount allows multiple view directions ranging from +45° to -45°, and was flown along, perpendicular to, and at 45° to the solar illumination plane. This provides full resolution multi- angular imagery ( ~ 2 x 2 meters) with relevant spectral bands for a significant angular sampling of canopy BRF. Nadir viewing understorey reflectance data was also obtained using field spectrometers.

  5. Using Reflection to Promote Students' Writing Process Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amicucci, Ann N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I demonstrate how the use of reflective writing assignments in first-year composition facilitated students' understanding of their own writing process strategies. I first discuss the theoretical roots from which reflective practice among student writers grows. Next, I employ my students' voices to demonstrate that reflection…

  6. Connecting Reflective Practice, Dialogic Protocols, and Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring, James; Laboy, Wilfredo T.; Catarius, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, elements of reflective practice have been popularized in state school professional development. As reflective practice has moved into the mainstream, dialogic protocols have been developed by numerous organizations to structure discourse for deep understanding, enhance professional practice and advance organizational learning.…

  7. Personal Theory and Reflection in a Professional Practice Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Portfolios are widely used in the assessment of professional learning. Although claims are made that portfolios promote reflection, the nature of such reflection and the mechanisms that promote it in the portfolio process are not well understood. A four-year action research project investigated a professional practice portfolio for high stakes…

  8. Using Observation for Reflective Practice with Older People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Mark; Heycox, Karen

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the use of observation for reflective practice with older people, particularly the benefits and challenges of this learning tool. It outlines a study with 26 third-year Bachelor of Social Work students who undertook an elective course on reflective practice with older people. Using qualitative document analysis, the authors…

  9. Journalling and Public Health Education: Thinking about Reflecting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendall, Marguerite C.; Domocol, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to understand reflective journalling in a first year Public Health practice unit. Design/methodology/approach: This research uses pure phenomenography to interpret students' descriptions of reflective journalling. Data were collected from 32 students enrolled in PUB215 Public Health Practice in the School…

  10. Cultivating Reflective Practitioners in Technology Preparation: Constructing TPACK through Reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Liangyue Lu

    2013-01-01

    Teaching is a complex profession, which is further complicated by the integration of technology into classrooms. Reflection can help teachers unpack the complexity in their practice. Reflection can be an effective instructional strategy in helping preservice teachers develop technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK), the complex and dynamic knowledge necessary for effective technology integration into instruction. In this study, reflective activities were integrated into a Learning ...

  11. Nurse teachers' constructions of reflection and reflective practice

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Aideen; Hyde, Abbey; Treacy, Margaret P.

    2010-01-01

    This article concerns the meanings that a sample of nurse teachers ascribed to the concepts of reflection and reflective practice as aspects of an undergraduate nursing curriculum. It represents one of the major findings in a qualitative study that set out to explore nurse teachers’ perceptions and experiences of using reflection with diploma nursing students in the Republic of Ireland. Eleven nurse teachers were interviewed intensively, and data were analysed using a strategy ...

  12. Apprenticeship or reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This case-study investigates the implementation of blended learning in two undergraduate bachelor educations. The main focus is how blended learning affects the knowledge development in these educations. It is stressed, that knowledge development among students as well as in the professions...... are influenced by the periods of vocational training in internship in practice. The professional practitioners role as instructors of students seems to some extend to limit the students access to valuable forms of knowledge if apprenticeship is dismissed. So, the question raised in this paper, is how this causes...... a pragmatic approach of mixed method. The empirical data are derived from survey, document analysis, observation studies and focus group interviews of students, lectures, and practitioners. Data are collected in the first half year of the students’ education at a university college in Denmark in the years...

  13. Reflective Journal Writing on the Way to Becoming Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyza Doyran

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this qualitative research study, the purpose was to analyze the reflective journal entries of the 26 pre-service teachers attending the teacher education department of a state university. These teacher candidates were asked to write their reflections on a weekly basis during the “school experience” course in the fall semester. Twelve weekly entries and the end of the year reflection reports of these pre-service teachers (338 documents all together were analyzed according to the contents; similar issues were coded; common themes were found; in the second phase, the findings were analyzed again in the light of reflective practice research to find out about the learning experiences of the pre-service teachers and to analyze in which stage of reflective practice their entries mostly fell into. The results revealed that pre-service teachers benefitted from keeping reflective journals and their reflections mostly fell under the “interpersonal stage” and did not have many comments reflecting the other stages which were procedural and conceptual. The results show that in order for the pre-service teachers to gain more awareness through reflective writing, they need to be trained on how to write reflections effectively and on the different stages related to the reflective practice.

  14. East Sichuan to Double Gas Production in 10 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Huachun

    2001-01-01

    @@ The general plan for annual 10-billion-cubic-meter productivity of natural gas in East Sichuan basin has recently passed appraisal by the expert group, indicating that China's current largest onshore natural gas field under production will double its output in a period of more than nine years from now to 2010.

  15. Private Donations to Colleges Rise for 4th Consecutive Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Brad

    2008-01-01

    Backed by a strong economy and a growing stock market, American colleges and universities raised an estimated $29.8-billion in the 2007 fiscal year, the highest total ever recorded, according to a report released last week by the Council for Aid to Education. But the country's recent economic troubles have some fund-raising experts concerned that…

  16. Shandong XinfaPlans to Invest 70 billion Yuan to Develop CoalPower-Aluminum Project in Zunyi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>DOn April 18, Shandong Xinfa Group and Zunyi People’s Government formally signed a framework cooperation agreement for coalpower-aluminum integrated project, planning to invest 70 billion yuan to concentrate on building North Guizhou coal-power-aluminum integrated resource downstream processing base.

  17. BASF and Sinopec Break Ground on $1.4 Billion Expansion of Nanjing Joint Venture Chemical Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ BASF and Sinopec began the construction for the expansion of their joint venture,BASF-YPC Co.,Ltd.(BYC).BASF and Sinopec plan to jointly invest approximately $1.4 billion in technologies to produce downstream chemical intermediates and specialties for the Chinese market.

  18. 77 FR 3075 - Resolution Plans Required for Insured Depository Institutions With $50 Billion or More in Total...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... institutions with less than $50 billion in assets should not be because their holding company structures and... depository institution. In a multi-tiered holding company structure, parent company means the top-tier of the... by the CIDI. In a multi-tier holding company structure, the term includes all holding companies...

  19. Mental Disorders Top The List Of The Most Costly Conditions In The United States: $201 Billion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrig, Charles

    2016-06-01

    Estimates of annual health spending for a comprehensive set of medical conditions are presented for the entire US population and with totals benchmarked to the National Health Expenditure Accounts. In 2013 mental disorders topped the list of most costly conditions, with spending at $201 billion. PMID:27193027

  20. Student Chemical Engineering Reflective ePortfolios--ChE Student Perceptions of Learning from Reflective ePortfolio Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrstrom, Catherine A.; Raisor, Cindy; Fowler, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Engineering educators and employers value and prioritize communication skills, but developing and assessing such skills in engineering programs is challenging. Reflective ePortfolios provide opportunities to enhance communication skills. The purpose of this three-­year qualitative case study was to investigate the use of reflective ePortfolios in…

  1. Demystifying the reflective clinical journal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Student learning on clinical placement is a complex issue and cannot be defined solely by just doing things. Reflection during clinical practice is essential if the student is going to learn from the experience. Therefore it is important for educators to include as part of clinical education programs learning strategies that encourage reflection. The reflective clinical journal is an educational tool that is employed by the School of Medical Radiation Sciences at the University of Sydney to encourage reflection of undergraduate radiation therapy students whilst on clinical placement. This discussion paper explores the key concepts of reflection and the reflective clinical journal. Due to the paucity of information about this issue in radiation therapy the literature reviewed is from across all areas of the health sciences

  2. Ankylosing Spondylitis: a Reflection and a Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Deysi Hernández Martín

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the synovial membrane, joint entheses and para-articular structures of the spine, including the sacroiliac joints and limbs. We present a case of ankylosing spondylitis that had evolved for 12 years despite the relatively early diagnosis and treatment, showing flexion deformity and limitation of spinal movements. On radiological examination an early evolution to ankylosis was observed, which motivated us to make a reflection and a question.

  3. Web Science and Reflective Practice

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hara, Kieron; Hall, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The notion of reflective practice has been influential in professional practice of all kinds, including engineering. Reflective practice suggests that knowledge and practice are linked, that improvisation based on actual practice, as opposed to the application of formalised theory, drives understanding in many applied fields. A key feature of reflective practice is a feedback loop between actions and their effects, which need to be evaluated to produce understanding. The WWW is of course a pi...

  4. Broadcasts for a billion: the growth of commercial television in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, C

    1987-01-01

    At present, Chinese television reaches 35% of the population (80-90% in urban areas) and is used by the government as a source of education and information. In recognition of the potential market represented by 1.1 billions consumers, Western advertisers have commissioned elaborate market research studies. Drama, sports, news, and movies are consistently identified as the favorite type of programming among Chinese television viewers. About 75% of Beijing adults watch television daily, making the medium both an important target for advertising campaigns and a way for Westerners to influence Chinese business and government leaders. Western advertisers have tended to concentrate their investments in the more urban, affluent regions where products have the greatest likelihood of being sold. There has been a recent trend, however, toward industrial commercials, with British and French companies buying television time to promote their image as partners in China's modernization. Key to the future of commercial advertising on Chinese Television. In many provinces, local television stations have developed a unique character and portray different sociocultural values than the national channel. Outside advertisers have sometimes experienced problems with local networks that substitute local advertising without informing the network. To correct this situation, the government is enacting pro-sponsor regulations that forbid the preemption of the national channel and its advertisements. At the same time, efforts are being made to improve relationships with local television stations by either paying them a fee or airing local commercials on the national network. PMID:12342936

  5. Gaia Data Release 1: Astrometry - one billion positions, two million proper motions and parallaxes

    CERN Document Server

    Lindegren, L; Bastian, U; Hernández, J; Klioner, S; Hobbs, D; Bombrun, A; Michalik, D; Ramos-Lerate, M; Butkevich, A; Comoretto, G; Joliet, E; Holl, B; Hutton, A; Parsons, P; Steidelmüller, H; Abbas, U; Altmann, M; Andrei, A; Anton, S; Bach, N; Barache, C; Becciani, U; Berthier, J; Bianchi, L; Biermann, M; Bouquillon, S; Bourda, G; Brüsemeister, T; Bucciarelli, B; Busonero, D; Carlucci, T; Castañeda, J; Charlot, P; Clotet, M; Crosta, M; Davidson, M; de Felice, F; Drimmel, R; Fabricius, C; Fienga, A; Figueras, F; Fraile, E; Gai, M; Garralda, N; Geyer, R; González-Vidal, J J; Guerra, R; Hambly, N C; Hauser, M; Jordan, S; Lattanzi, M G; Lenhardt, H; Liao, S; Löffler, W; McMillan, P J; Mignard, F; Mora, A; Morbidelli, R; Portell, J; Riva, A; Sarasso, M; Serraller, I; Siddiqui, H; Smart, R; Spagna, A; Stampa, U; Steele, I; Taris, F; Torra, J; van Reeven, W; Vecchiato, A; Zschocke, S; de Bruijne, J; Gracia, G; Raison, F; Lister, T; Marchant, J; Messineo, R; Soffel, M; Osorio, J; de Torres, A; O'Mullane, W

    2016-01-01

    Gaia Data Release 1 (Gaia DR1) contains astrometric results for more than 1 billion stars brighter than magnitude 20.7 based on observations collected by the Gaia satellite during the first 14 months of its operational phase. We give a brief overview of the astrometric content of the data release and of the model assumptions, data processing, and validation of the results. For stars in common with the Hipparcos and Tycho-2 catalogues, complete astrometric single-star solutions are obtained by incorporating positional information from the earlier catalogues. For other stars only their positions are obtained by neglecting their proper motions and parallaxes. The results are validated by an analysis of the residuals, through special validation runs, and by comparison with external data. Results. For about two million of the brighter stars (down to magnitude ~11.5) we obtain positions, parallaxes, and proper motions to Hipparcos-type precision or better. For these stars, systematic errors depending e.g. on positi...

  6. Stop-and-Stare: Optimal Sampling Algorithms for Viral Marketing in Billion-scale Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Hung T; Dinh, Thang N

    2016-01-01

    Influence Maximization (IM), that seeks a small set of key users who spread the influence widely into the network, is a core problem in multiple domains. It finds applications in viral marketing, epidemic control, and assessing cascading failures within complex systems. Despite the huge amount of effort, IM in billion-scale networks such as Facebook, Twitter, and World Wide Web has not been satisfactorily solved. Even the state-of-the-art methods such as TIM+ and IMM may take days on those networks. In this paper, we propose SSA and D-SSA, two novel sampling frameworks for IM-based viral marketing problems. SSA and D-SSA are up to 1200 times faster than the SIGMOD 15 best method, IMM, while providing the same $(1- 1/e-\\epsilon)$ approximation guarantee. Underlying our frameworks is an innovative Stop-and-Stare strategy in which they stop at exponential check points to verify (stare) if there is adequate statistical evidence on the solution quality. Theoretically, we prove that SSA and D-SSA are the first appr...

  7. Yucca Mountain, a high-level nuclear waste repository over a billion barrel oil field?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New structural models and source rock data suggest that the proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada, high-level nuclear waste repository lies in the Central Nevada thrust belt. The Central Nevada thrust belt could contain billion-barrel oil fields. The Central Nevada thrust belt coincides with an organic richness fairway and a maturation fairway of Mississippian source rocks that have already produced more than 25 million barrels of oil. Giant thrust-related structures along the thrust belt have yet to be tested. However, new work in the Tempahute Range, which lies between Yucca Mountain and the prolific Grant Canyon field, confirms the thrust belt concept and sheds light on source and reservoir rock quality and thrust belt geometry. Klippen of overmature Mississippian rocks are distinct on maturation maps such as the Diamond Range klippe in central Nevada. Thrust trends suggest that the Eleana Range near Yucca Mountain may be another klippe of overmature rocks over Mississippian source rocks in the oil window. There is a strong possibility that the subthrust source rocks may have generated large quantities of hydrocarbons that may be trapped in large thrust features beneath Yucca Mountain

  8. "GiGa": the Billion Galaxy HI Survey -- Tracing Galaxy Assembly from Reionization to the Present

    CERN Document Server

    Windhorst, R A; Hathi, N P; Jansen, R A; Ryan, R E

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we review the Billion Galaxy Survey that will be carried out at radio--optical wavelengths to micro--nanoJansky levels with the telescopes of the next decades. These are the Low-Frequency Array, the Square Kilometer Array and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope as survey telescopes, and the Thirty Meter class Telescopes for high spectral resolution+AO, and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for high spatial resolution near--mid IR follow-up. With these facilities, we will be addressing fundamental questions like how galaxies assemble with super-massive black-holes inside from the epoch of First Light until the present, how these objects started and finished the reionization of the universe, and how the processes of star-formation, stellar evolution, and metal enrichment of the IGM proceeded over cosmic time. We also summarize the high-resolution science that has been done thus far on high redshift galaxies with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Faint galaxies have steadily decreasing sizes a...

  9. Signals for specular Andreev reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyun; Fu, Deyi; Wang, Baigeng; Zhang, R; Xing, D Y

    2008-07-25

    We report a theoretical investigation of the spin-dependent Andreev reflection at the interface of a graphene-based ferromagnet/superconductor junction. It is found that the ferromagnetic exchange interaction in the ferromagnet can suppress Andreev retroreflection but enhance the specular Andreev reflection. There is a transition between the specular Andreev reflection and Andreev retroreflection at which the shot noise vanishes and the Fano factor has a universal value. The present work provides a new method of detecting the specular Andreev reflection, which can be experimentally tested within the present-day technique. PMID:18764360

  10. Students’ Learning through Reflective Journaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvyda Liuolienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to get acquainted with the types of journals used in education to help students to learn. The paper presents some ways of fostering student’s learning through reflective journaling. It also describes the key aspects of a new method ARRIVE cycle in connection with teachers preparation to use reflective journals in a classroom. The article also presents self-assessment in reflective journaling and students’ need to self-evaluate their learning process. Reflective journaling as central to students’ self-evaluation is described as a means of fostering metacognition.

  11. Self-sputtering and reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-sputtering and reflection are investigated with the Monte Carlo program TRIMSP. The results include particle and energy reflection coefficients, sputtering yields and sputtered energy versus incident angle and energy. Angular and energy distributions of reflected and sputtered particles are also given. Reflection and sputtering values are compared to show their contributions to selfsputtering. A comparison of calculated sputtering yields and sputtering efficiencies (sputtering energy) with experimental data is carried out. The systems investigated are mainly the bombardment of C, Ni, and W with self-ions. (orig.)

  12. Reflective Practice Interventions: Raising Levels of Reflective Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Audrey; Schoen, Lea

    2009-01-01

    Reflective practice is a major focus of teacher preparation programs (Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 1992; Putnam & Borko, 2000; Zeichner, 1986; Zeichner & Liston, 1987), yet Zeichner (1986) asserts that developing reflective practice in preservice teachers has focused primarily on short-term, less systematic interventions and that interventions must be…

  13. Studies of the Reflection, Refraction and Internal Reflection of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanchester, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive apparatus and associated experiments are described for studying the basic laws of reflection and refraction of light at an air-glass interface, and multiple internal reflections within a glass block. In order to motivate students and encourage their active participation, a novel technique is described for determining the refractive…

  14. Postgraduate Education to Support Organisation Change: A Reflection on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jim; Keegan, Anne; Stevens, Pam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore how teaching and assessing reflective learning skills can support postgraduate practitioners studying organisational change and explores the challenges for tutors in assessing these journals. Design/methodology/approach: Assessment criteria were developed from the literature on reflective practice and…

  15. Audible reflection density for different late reflection criteria in rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Donata; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas;

    2012-01-01

    For reasonably accurate but practical auralizations, some simplifications and approximations are needed. The main issue in the present investigation is that the reflection density of a room impulse response, in theory, increases so fast as a quadratic function of the elapsed time, even assuming...... only specular reflections. Therefore in this study, the upper threshold for audible reflection density is investigated for four different transition times of 25, 50, 75, and 100 ms through a headphone listening test. Binaural impulse responses and speech signals simulated in three rooms with different...... characteristics (an empty office, a lecture room, and an auditorium) are used as stimuli. Subjects are asked to increase/decrease the reflection density of a stimulus until they cannot distinguish it from the stimulus that follows the theoretical reflection density for the different transition times in the three...

  16. Reagan Seeks a Record $8.8-Billion for Aid to Students: $9.2-Billion Would Go to University R&D, Up 13 Pct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin; And Others

    1988-01-01

    President Reagan abandoned his seven-year effort to make drastic reductions in federal spending on education, recommending record high amounts for programs aiding colleges and students. However, the administration suggested curtailments in some programs, including college construction and renovation. (MSE)

  17. Ubuntu feminism: Tentative reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drucilla Cornell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The starting-point for the article is to provide a brief background on the Ubuntu Project that Prof. Drucilla Cornell convened in 2003; most notably the interviews conducted in Khayamandi, the support of a sewing collective, and the continued search to launch an Ubuntu Women�s Centre. The article will reflect on some of the philosophical underpinnings of ubuntu, whereafter debates in Western feminism will be revisited. Ubuntu feminism is suggested as a possible response to these types of feminisms. The authors support an understanding of ubuntu as critique and ubuntu feminism accordingly as a critical intervention that recalls a politics of refusal. The article ends by raising the importance of thinking about spatiality through ubuntu, and vice versa. It may seem strange to title an article Ubuntu feminism when feminism itself has often been identified as a European or Western idea. But, this article will argue that ubuntu offers conceptions of transindividuality and ways of social belonging that could respond in a meaningful way to some of European feminism�s own dilemmas and contradictions. Famously, one of the most intense debates in feminism was between those who defended an ethic of care in a relational view of the self, on one side, and those feminists who held on to more traditional conceptions of justice, placing an emphasis on individuality and autonomy, on the other side. The authors will suggest that ubuntu could address this tension in feminism. Thus, in this article the focus will not simply be on ubuntu, in order to recognise that there are other intellectual heritages worthy of consideration, other than those in Europe and the United States. It will also take a next step in arguing that ubuntu may be a better standpoint entirely from which to continue thinking about what it means to be a human being, as well as how to conceive of the integral interconnection human beings all have with one another. This connection through

  18. Reflective Writing in the Competency-Based Curriculum at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Isaacson, J Harry; Salas, Renee; Koch, Carl; McKenzie, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    The Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University is a five-year medical school where the major emphasis is to train physician investigators. In this article we describe our experience with reflective writing in our competency-based medical school, which has reflective practice as one of the nine core competencies. We outline how we use reflective writing as a way to help students develop their reflective practice skills. Reflective writing opportunities, exce...

  19. The Art of Reflection: Turning the Strange into the Familiar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Kaethe

    2016-06-01

    There are a great many useful articles on the dynamics and pragmatics of reflecting teams but few articles address what constitutes a good or inept reflection and why. I provide a conceptual model for thinking about what a good reflection does, distinguishing it from a nice reflection. With some further refinements in place, I then illustrate how reflections can be part of any relationship, not just clinical ones. We have opportunities to make them and to recognize when others make them to us. By using examples from my personal life-as a grandmother, daughter, radio listener, cancer survivor, and client-I attempt to ease the personal/professional binary, a project of mine for the last 35 years. In the second part of the article, I address how writing can serve reflection. Although best offered at the moment one is called for, it is never too late for a reflection. Writing allows people to offer reflections after the fact to those who have shared their stories. Sometimes, it is to ourselves we offer those reflections, when the reflector has long since dropped the thread of obligation or interest. I provide an example of working with iconic imagery to unpack meaning so that reflection can eventually take place, allowing integration to proceed, facilitating the strange becoming the familiar. PMID:26118842

  20. Can Reflective Practice Be Taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Gail; Thomas, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Almost ubiquitous in discourses about the development of teachers, reflective practice describes the process that occurs when persons are apprenticed to any meaningful activity. But reflective practice is a descriptive term for that process: it does not imply that the process is itself open to dissection and instruction. We contend that mistaken…

  1. Reflectivity in Supervision and Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Steve; Friedland, Billie

    This paper reports on a strategy for encouraging preservice teachers to use reflective techniques when developing lesson plans. A focus on reflective practice incorporates and integrates the minimal teaching competencies required by West Virginia State Teacher Certification. Practicum students must provide evidence demonstrating at least minimal…

  2. Reflection Positivity for Majorana Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffe, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    We establish reflection positivity for Gibbs trace states defined by a certain class of Hamiltonians that describe the interaction of Majorana fermions on a lattice. These Hamiltonians may include many-body interactions, as long as the signs of the associated coupling constants satisfy certain restrictions. We show that reflection positivity holds on an even subalgebra of Majorana fermions.

  3. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  4. A Review of Reflective Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘屹

    2013-01-01

      This thesis aims at exploring theoretical basis of reflective learning in learning experience and providing the learners from all walks of life with an effective way of learning by observing and explaining how the learning as well as practice is promoted effectively and consciously through reflective activities.

  5. Non-specular Reflective Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, Timir; Wang, Yunjin; Wescott, Michael; Foster, Richard; Bowers, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Geometrically decorated two-dimensional (2D) discrete surfaces can be more effective than conventional smooth reflectors in managing wave radiation. Constructive non-specular wave scattering permits the scattering angle to be other than twice that of incidence and can result in gross violations of the law of reflection. Hence significant fraction of the phase space becomes accessible. A wide range of novel reflective behaviors ensues; including the phenomenon of negative reflection were energy transport remains on the same side of the normal. Also, at a critical incidence coherent superposition can force both the transmitted and reflected waves to graze the scattering surface thus synergistically reinforcing the diffractive process in a behavior reminiscent of critical internal reflection of ray optics. We experimentally demonstrate the concept with measurements on a one-dimensionally periodic system (grating) where the scattering angle is shown to be an inverse circular function of a function that depends on...

  6. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasability of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.

    2005-12-15

    whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country's present petroleum consumption--the goal set by the Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  7. [Concept analysis of reflective thinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vuuren, M; Botes, A

    1999-09-01

    The nursing practice is described as a scientific practice, but also as a practice where caring is important. The purpose of nursing education is to provide competent nursing practitioners. This implies that future practitioners must have both critical analytical thinking abilities, as well as empathy and moral values. Reflective thinking could probably accommodate these thinking skills. It seems that the facilitation of reflective thinking skills is essential in nursing education. The research question that is relevant in this context is: "What is reflective thinking?" The purpose of this article is to report on the concept analysis of reflective thinking and in particular on the connotative meaning (critical attributes) thereof. The method used to perform the concept analysis is based on the original method of Wilson (1987) as described by Walker & Avant (1995). As part of the concept analysis the connotations (critical attributes) are identified, reduced and organized into three categories, namely pre-requisites, processes and outcomes. A model case is described which confirms the essential critical attributes of reflective thinking. Finally a theoretical definition of reflective thinking is derived and reads as follows: Reflective thinking is a cyclic, hierarchical and interactive construction process. It is initiated, extended and continued because of personal cognitive-affective interaction (individual dimension) as well as interaction with the social environment (social dimension). to realize reflective thinking, a level of internalization on the cognitive and affective domain is required. The result of reflective thinking is a integrated framework of knowledge (meaningful learning) and a internalized value system providing a new perspective on and better understanding of a problem. Reflective thinking further leads to more effective decision making- and problem solving skills. PMID:11040626

  8. No Photon Left Behind: How Billions of Spectral Lines are Transforming Planetary Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Geronimo L.

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of realistic potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment surface (DMS) descriptions, theoretically computed linelists can now synthesize accurate spectral parameters for billions of spectral lines sampling the untamed high-energy molecular domain. Being the initial driver for these databases the characterization of stellar spectra, these theoretical databases, in combination with decades of precise experimental studies (nicely compiled in community databases such as HITRAN and GEISA), are leading to unprecedented precisions in the characterization of planetary atmospheres. Cometary sciences are among the most affected by this spectroscopic revolution. Even though comets are relatively cold bodies (T˜100 K), their infrared molecular emission is mainly defined by non-LTE solar fluorescence induced by a high-energy source (Sun, T˜5600 K). In order to interpret high-resolution spectra of comets acquired with extremely powerful telescopes (e.g., Keck, VLT, NASA-IRTF), we have developed advanced non-LTE fluorescence models that integrate the high-energy dynamic range of ab-initio databases (e.g., BT2, VTT, HPT2, BYTe, TROVE) and the precision of laboratory and semi-empirical compilations (e.g., HITRAN, GEISA, CDMS, WKMC, SELP, IUPAC). These new models allow us to calculate realistic non-LTE pumps, cascades, branching-ratios, and emission rates for a broad range of excitation regimes for H2O, HDO, HCN, HNC and NH3. We have implemented elements of these compilations to the study of Mars spectra, and we are now exploring its application to modeling non-LTE emission in exoplanets. In this presentation, we present application of these advanced models to interpret highresolution spectra of comets, Mars and exoplanets.

  9. Layout finishing of a 28nm, 3 billions transistors, multi-core processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey-Chaisemartin, Philippe; Beisser, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Designing a fully new 256 cores processor is a great challenge for a fabless startup. In addition to all architecture, functionalities and timing issues, the layout by itself is a bottleneck due to all the process constraints of a 28nm technology. As developers of advanced layout finishing solutions, we were involved in the design flow of this huge chip with its 3 billions transistors. We had to face the issue of dummy patterns instantiation with respect to design constraints. All the design rules to generate the "dummies" are clearly defined in the Design Rule Manual, and some automatic procedures are provided by the foundry itself, but these routines don't take care of the designer requests. Such a chip, embeds both digital parts and analog modules for clock and power management. These two different type of designs have each their own set of constraints. In both cases, the insertion of dummies should not introduce unexpected variations leading to malfunctions. For example, on digital parts were signal race conditions are critical on long wires or bus, introduction of uncontrolled parasitic along these nets are highly critical. For analog devices such as high frequency and high sensitivity comparators, the exact symmetry of the two parts of a current mirror generator should be guaranteed. Thanks to the easily customizable features of our dummies insertion tool, we were able to configure it in order to meet all the designer requirements as well as the process constraints. This paper will present all these advanced key features as well as the layout tricks used to fulfill all requirements.

  10. The Operation and Impact of Participants' Trans-Expedition Reflective Practice: Structuring and Optimising the Transfer Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Mark; Collins, Dave

    2014-01-01

    With gap year activities, including expeditions, for young people worth an estimated £2 billion annually, the subject of transfer (or ensuring that outcomes offer positive benefits to participants' general lives) from these experiences is an important topic in outdoor education. This paper argues that many of the claims for a positive…

  11. Molecular dynamics beyonds the limits: Massive scaling on 72 racks of a BlueGene/P and supercooled glass dynamics of a 1 billion particles system

    KAUST Repository

    Allsopp, Nicholas

    2012-04-01

    We report scaling results on the world\\'s largest supercomputer of our recently developed Billions-Body Molecular Dynamics (BBMD) package, which was especially designed for massively parallel simulations of the short-range atomic dynamics in structural glasses and amorphous materials. The code was able to scale up to 72 racks of an IBM BlueGene/P, with a measured 89% efficiency for a system with 100 billion particles. The code speed, with 0.13. s per iteration in the case of 1 billion particles, paves the way to the study of billion-body structural glasses with a resolution increase of two orders of magnitude with respect to the largest simulation ever reported. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our code by studying the liquid-glass transition of an exceptionally large system made by a binary mixture of 1 billion particles. © 2012.

  12. 10 years with Planet Earth essence in the primary school children drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addezio, Giuliana

    2016-04-01

    "10 years with Planet Earth" is the title of the 2016 INGV calendar for primary schools representing the review of a project conceived as support and complement of 15 years long INGV dissemination activities with schools. We realized 10 calendars together with and for primary schools, every year with a subject related to a World in constant evolution. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunami waves, magnetic storms and other phenomena are manifestations of the complexity and dynamicity, which began more than four billion years ago and never halted. Since the Earth originated to the first presence of water, life and oxygen, the Cambrian explosion of species, the domain of dinosaurs, the great extinctions and glaciations, the surface of our planet experiences continents collisions, mountains and oceans formation and life forms emerging and disappearing. Every year we have launched a competition asking children to send drawings on themes chosen to stimulate learning about Earth Sciences and Planet Earth dynamics. We intended to raise awareness on issues as water resources availability, protection against natural disasters and control of environmental degradation. For each competition, we chose the most significant drawings to be included in the yearly calendar about the Earth. The authors of drawings were awarded by scientists, journalists, artists and science communicators and even by a minister. Besides the competitions, these drawings depict their own impressions and reflections, providing an opportunity to illustrate the children's point of view. From drawings and texts arise a great consideration and respect for the Planet, raising hopes that similar initiatives can contribute to increase the knowledge of the Earth and of the fragile human ecosystem in the hearts and minds of future active citizens. The project was made possible thanks to the teachers and to the wonderful students of more than 200 schools that sent about 10,000 drawings that have intrigued

  13. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Budget Estimates, Fiscal Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The Budget includes three new robust exploration programs: (1) Technology demonstration program, $7.8 five years. Funds the development and demonstration of technologies that reduce the cost and expand the capabilities of future exploration activities, including in-orbit refueling and storage. (2) Heavy-Lift and Propulsion R&D, $3.1 billion over five years. Funds R&D for new launch systems, propellants, materials, and combustion processes. (3) Robotic precursor missions, $3.0 billion over five years. Funds cost-effective means to scout exploration targets and identify hazards and resources for human visitation and habitation. In addition, the Budget enhances the current Human Research Program by 42%; and supports the Participatory Exploration Program at 5 million per year for activities across many NASA programs.

  14. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past few years, total reflection X-ray flourescence analysis (TXRF) has found an increasing number of assignments and applications. Experience of trace element analysis using TXRF and examples of applications are already widespread. Therefore, users of TXRF had the opportunity of an intensive exchange of their experience at the 1st workshop on total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis which took place on May 27th and 28th 1986 at the GKSS Research Centre at Geesthacht. In a series of lectures and discussions dealing with the analytical principle itself, sample preparation techniques and applications as well as comuter programs for spectrum evaluation, the present state of development and the range of applications were outlined. 3 studies out of a total of 14 were included separately in the INIS and ENERGY databases. With 61 figs., 12 tabs

  15. China Nonferrous Metal Invested 1.3-billion in a Rare Earth Separation Project in Xinfeng,Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>On the 9th Oct,a signing ceremony on project investment and construction was held between China Nonferrous Metal Industry’s Foreign Engineering and Construction Co.,Ltd.and the Xinfeng County Government,Guangdong.According to agreement,the company will invest RMB 1.3 billion in Xinfeng County to develop a rare earth separation project in the south,in

  16. Worldwide Marine Seismic Reflection Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a large volume of both Analog and Digital seismic reflection data. Currently only a limited number of lines are available online. Digital data...

  17. Exports reflect "safety of products"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Most of the made-in-China products are absolutely safe, and the steady increase in exports despite the recent widespread criticism reflects their safety standards, a Ministry of Commerce official said Thursday.

  18. Subsampled open-reference clustering creates consistent, comprehensive OTU definitions and scales to billions of sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Ram Rideout

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a performance-optimized algorithm, subsampled open-reference OTU picking, for assigning marker gene (e.g., 16S rRNA sequences generated on next-generation sequencing platforms to operational taxonomic units (OTUs for microbial community analysis. This algorithm provides benefits over de novo OTU picking (clustering can be performed largely in parallel, reducing runtime and closed-reference OTU picking (all reads are clustered, not only those that match a reference database sequence with high similarity. Because more of our algorithm can be run in parallel relative to “classic” open-reference OTU picking, it makes open-reference OTU picking tractable on massive amplicon sequence data sets (though on smaller data sets, “classic” open-reference OTU clustering is often faster. We illustrate that here by applying it to the first 15,000 samples sequenced for the Earth Microbiome Project (1.3 billion V4 16S rRNA amplicons. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest OTU picking run ever performed, and we estimate that our new algorithm runs in less than 1/5 the time than would be required of “classic” open reference OTU picking. We show that subsampled open-reference OTU picking yields results that are highly correlated with those generated by “classic” open-reference OTU picking through comparisons on three well-studied datasets. An implementation of this algorithm is provided in the popular QIIME software package, which uses uclust for read clustering. All analyses were performed using QIIME’s uclust wrappers, though we provide details (aided by the open-source code in our GitHub repository that will allow implementation of subsampled open-reference OTU picking independently of QIIME (e.g., in a compiled programming language, where runtimes should be further reduced. Our analyses should generalize to other implementations of these OTU picking algorithms. Finally, we present a comparison of parameter settings in

  19. Planar Reflection of Gaseous Detonations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damazo, Jason Scott

    Pipes containing flammable gaseous mixtures may be subjected to internal detonation. When the detonation normally impinges on a closed end, a reflected shock wave is created to bring the flow back to rest. This study built on the work of Karnesky (2010) and examined deformation of thin-walled stainless steel tubes subjected to internal reflected gaseous detonations. A ripple pattern was observed in the tube wall for certain fill pressures, and a criterion was developed that predicted when the ripple pattern would form. A two-dimensional finite element analysis was performed using Johnson-Cook material properties; the pressure loading created by reflected gaseous detonations was accounted for with a previously developed pressure model. The residual plastic strain between experiments and computations was in good agreement. During the examination of detonation-driven deformation, discrepancies were discovered in our understanding of reflected gaseous detonation behavior. Previous models did not accurately describe the nature of the reflected shock wave, which motivated further experiments in a detonation tube with optical access. Pressure sensors and schlieren images were used to examine reflected shock behavior, and it was determined that the discrepancies were related to the reaction zone thickness extant behind the detonation front. During these experiments reflected shock bifurcation did not appear to occur, but the unfocused visualization system made certainty impossible. This prompted construction of a focused schlieren system that investigated possible shock wave-boundary layer interaction, and heat-flux gauges analyzed the boundary layer behind the detonation front. Using these data with an analytical boundary layer solution, it was determined that the strong thermal boundary layer present behind the detonation front inhibits the development of reflected shock wave bifurcation.

  20. Automated reasoning for reflective programs

    OpenAIRE

    Horsfall, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Reflective programming allows one to construct programs that manipulate or examine their behaviour or structure at runtime. One of the benefits is the ability to create generic code that is able to adapt to being incorporated into different larger programs, without modifications to suit each concrete setting. Due to the runtime nature of reflection, static verification is difficult and has been largely ignored or only weakly supported. This work focusses on supporting verification for cases w...

  1. Green Criminology: Reflections, Connections, Horizons

    OpenAIRE

    Nigel South

    2014-01-01

    This paper traces aspects of the development of a ‘green’ criminology. It starts with personal reflections and then describes the emergence of explicit statements of a green criminological perspective. Initially these statements were independently voiced, in different parts of the world but they reflected shared concerns. These works have found unification as a ‘green’, ‘eco-global’ or ‘conservation’ criminology. The paper reviews the classifications available when talking about not only lega...

  2. Reflections on intuition and expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M A

    2000-01-01

    Reflective practice now appears firmly established in the English speaking world of professional nursing practice and development. Outside this linguistic context, however, the concept seems less well-known. This paper describes an experience drawn from clinical practice and education in French-speaking Switzerland followed by explicit reflection grounded in questions generated by Johns' model for structured reflection. Thus, a concept well-described in the English-language literature underpins an innovative approach to a French-language clinical teaching situation. The professional implications of this situation are explored through meaningful reflection providing new insight into familiar circumstances as they relate to the nurse tutor's role. This exploration is followed by a critical approach to the experience and the subsequent structured reflection in order to address relationships between intuition and expertise and self-awareness through reflection. A hermeneutic perspective provides additional insight into the nurse-patient relationship where both come to the situation with their own 'pre-understandings'. Individual horizons thus endorse a new understanding going beyond taken-for-granted meanings.

  3. Assessing progress in reducing the at-risk population after 13 years of the global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela J Hooper; Brian K Chu; Alexei Mikhailov; Ottesen, Eric A.; Mark Bradley

    2014-01-01

    In 1997, the World Health Assembly adopted Resolution 50.29, committing to the elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem, subsequently targeted for 2020. The initial estimates were that 1.2 billion people were at-risk for LF infection globally. Now, 13 years after the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) began implementing mass drug administration (MDA) against LF in 2000-during which over 4.4 billion treatments have been distributed in 56 endem...

  4. Assessing Progress in Reducing the At-Risk Population after 13 Years of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela J Hooper; Brian K Chu; Alexei Mikhailov; Ottesen, Eric A.; Mark Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Background In 1997, the World Health Assembly adopted Resolution 50.29, committing to the elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem, subsequently targeted for 2020. The initial estimates were that 1.2 billion people were at-risk for LF infection globally. Now, 13 years after the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) began implementing mass drug administration (MDA) against LF in 2000—during which over 4.4 billion treatments have been distributed ...

  5. Grating light reflection spectroelectrochemistry for detection of trace amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY,MICHAEL J.; SWEATT,WILLIAM C.; KEMME,SHANALYN A.; KASUNIC,K.J.; BLAIR,DIANNA S.; ZAIDI,S.H.; MCNEIL,J.R.; BURGESS,L.W.; BRODSKY,A.M.; SMITH,S.A.

    2000-04-01

    Grating light reflection spectroscopy (GLRS) is an emerging technique for spectroscopic analysis and sensing. A transmission diffraction grating is placed in contact with the sample to be analyzed, and an incident light beam is directed onto the grating. At certain angles of incidence, some of the diffracted orders are transformed from traveling waves to evanescent waves. This occurs at a specific wavelength that is a function of the grating period and the complex index of refraction of the sample. The intensities of diffracted orders are also dependent on the sample's complex index of refraction. The authors describe the use of GLRS, in combination with electrochemical modulation of the grating, for the detection of trace amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons. The diffraction grating consisted of chromium lines on a fused silica substrate. The depth of the grating lines was 1 {micro}m, the grating period was 1 {micro}m, and the duty cycle was 50%. Since chromium was not suitable for electrochemical modulation of the analyte concentration, a 200 nm gold layer was deposited over the entire grating. This gold layer slightly degraded the transmission of the grating, but provided satisfactory optical transparency for the spectroelectrochemical experiments. The grating was configured as the working electrode in an electrochemical cell containing water plus trace amounts of the aromatic hydrocarbon analytes. The grating was then electrochemically modulated via cyclic voltammetry waveforms, and the normalized intensity of the zero order reflection was simultaneously measured. The authors discuss the lower limits of detection (LLD) for two analytes, 7-dimethylamino-1,2-benzophenoxazine (Meldola's Blue dye) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), probed with an incident HeNe laser beam ({lambda} = 543.5 nm) at an incident angle of 52.5{degree}. The LLD for 7-dimethylamino-1,2-benzophenoxazine is approximately 50 parts per billion (ppb), while the LLD for TNT is approximately

  6. Promotion of Reflective Learning through Gamification

    OpenAIRE

    Sæter, Sondre Løberg; Valle, Bjørnar

    2013-01-01

    This thesis suggests that the use of game elements may improve the results in processes of reflective learning. The inclusion of game elements in an existing application called ?Timeline? is used as a case study for testing our hypothesis.During the last few years there has been an explosive interest in gamification for a wide range of purposes, from marketing to education. The term gamification may be defined as the use of game elements to motivate people in performing non-game tasks.The eff...

  7. Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Vikkelsø, Signe

    2012-01-01

    The notion of ‘change’ has become pervasive in contemporary organizational discourse. On the one hand, change is represented as an organizational imperative that increasingly appears to trump all other concerns. On the other hand, change is addressed as an abstract, generic entity that can be the...

  8. Reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Mary B

    2008-01-01

    In the two decades after the founding of Neuron, we witnessed the unfolding of the “molecular biology revolution” and its culmination in the sequencing of individual genomes. Cloning of cDNAs and rapid nucleotide sequencing were invented in the early 1970s. By the mid-1980s, “cDNA-cloning” was all the rage. A new breed of “molecular neuroscientists” began cloning and sequencing transcripts encoding neuronal receptors, ion channels, and signaling enzymes. The wealth of molecular data they gene...

  9. Venus: global surface radar reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettengill, G H; Ford, P G; Nozette, S

    1982-08-13

    Observations of the surface of Venus, carried out by the Pioneer Venus radar mapper at a wavelength of 17 centimeters, reveal a global mean reflectivity at normal incidence of 0.13 +/- 0.03. Over the surface, variations from a low of 0.03 +/- 0.01 to a high of 0.4 +/- 0.1 are found, with Theia Mons, previously identified as possibly volcanic, showing a value of 0.28 +/- 0.07. Regions of high reflectivity may consist of rocks with substantial inclusions of highly conductive sulfides. PMID:17817535

  10. Reflection algebra and functional equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galleas, W., E-mail: w.galleas@uu.nl; Lamers, J., E-mail: j.lamers@uu.nl

    2014-09-15

    In this work we investigate the possibility of using the reflection algebra as a source of functional equations. More precisely, we obtain functional relations determining the partition function of the six-vertex model with domain-wall boundary conditions and one reflecting end. The model's partition function is expressed as a multiple-contour integral that allows the homogeneous limit to be obtained straightforwardly. Our functional equations are also shown to give rise to a consistent set of partial differential equations satisfied by the partition function.

  11. Reflective writing in the competency-based curriculum at the cleveland clinic lerner college of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, J Harry; Salas, Renee; Koch, Carl; McKenzie, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    The Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University is a five-year medical school where the major emphasis is to train physician investigators. In this article we describe our experience with reflective writing in our competency-based medical school, which has reflective practice as one of the nine core competencies. We outline how we use reflective writing as a way to help students develop their reflective practice skills. Reflective writing opportunities, excerpts of student pieces, and faculty and student perspectives are included. We have experienced the value of reflective writing in medical school education and believe elements of our program can be adapted to other training environments.

  12. Review of Teacher’s Teaching Reflection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爽爽

    2015-01-01

    Teacher’s teaching reflection has become the core focus in school.However,there are different understandings of the concept of teacher’s teaching reflection.The paper introduces and compares different understandings of the concept of teachers’teaching reflection.Based on the summarizing of the concept on reflection and teaching reflection,this paper tries to provide reference for the teacher’s teaching reflection.

  13. Trainee Teachers' Experience of Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Liz

    2015-01-01

    This article reports an investigation of trainee teachers' experience of reflection whilst undertaking a teaching qualification for the post-compulsory sector. The study used a sequential, mixed-methods design, employing a structured questionnaire and a semi-structured interview; 127 individuals completed the questionnaire about their experience…

  14. Reflections on Equivalence in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王皓

    2011-01-01

    The comparison of texts in different languages inevitably involves a theory of equivalence.To shed as much as possible light on theories and writings that have dealt with the notion of equivalence,this essay attempts to present a few in-depth reflections

  15. Vegetables, Coctails & Reflections / Marco Laimre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laimre, Marko, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    Pealkirja "Vegetables, Coctails & Reflections" kandis Tallinna Kunstihoones 8.04.-28.05.2006 avatud Elin Kardi, Marko Mäetamme, Marco Laimre ja Andres Tali ühisnäitusel "Vägivald ja propaganda" Marco Laimre installatsioon. Marco Laimre esinemine raadiosaates "kunst.er" Klassikaraadios 16.04.2006

  16. Reflectivity of metallodielectric photonic glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velikov, K.P.; Vos, W.L.; Moroz, A.; Blaaderen, van A.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and optical properties of metallodielectric photonic glasses of colloidal silver spheres with a radius ranging from 200 to 420 nm and volume fractions around 60%. Strong modulations (~25%) in the optical reflectivity were observed in the visible range for these structure

  17. Reflectivity of metallodielectric photonic glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velikov, K.; Vos, W.L.; Moroz, A.; van Blaaderen, A.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and optical properties of metallodielectric photonic glasses of colloidal silver spheres with a radius ranging from 200 to 420 nm and volume fractions around 60%. Strong modulations (∼25%) in the optical reflectivity were observed in the visible range for these structure

  18. REFLECTION IN RUSSIAN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, J.M.C.; Tomic, W.

    2008-01-01

    The present article explores the theoretical underpinnings upon which Russian psychologists base their analysis of reflection. The intention is to arrive at a clearer understanding of their research aims and research methods, and to explore the relevance of their research to educational practice. Th

  19. MODIS solar reflective calibration traceability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, Jim

    2009-08-01

    Long-term climate data records often consist of observations made by multiple sensors. It is, therefore, extremely important to have instrument overlap, to be able to track instrument stability, to quantify measurement uncertainties, and to establish an absolute measurement scale traceable to the International System of Units (SI). The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a key instrument for both the Terra and Aqua missions, which were launched in December 1999 and May 2002, respectively. It has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) with wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.2μm and observes the Earth at three nadir spatial resolutions: 0.25km, 0.5km, and 1km. MODIS RSB on-orbit calibration is reflectance based with reference to the bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) of its on-board solar diffuser (SD). The SD BRF characterization was made pre-launch by the instrument vendor using reference samples traceable directly to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). On-orbit SD reflectance degradation is tracked by an on-board solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). This paper provides details of this calibration chain, from pre-launch to on-orbit operation, and associated uncertainty assessments. Using MODIS as an example, this paper also discusses challenges and key design requirements for future missions developed for accurate climate studies.

  20. Reflection modeling in ultraviolet phototherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Ultraviolet phototherapy is a widely used treatment which has exceptional success with a variety of skin conditions. Over-exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can however be detrimental and cause side effects such as erythema, photokeratisis, and even skin cancer. Quantifying patient dose is therefore imperative to ensure biologically effective treatment while minimizing negative repercussions. A dose model for treatment would be valuable in achieving these ends. Methods: Prior work by the authors concentrated on modeling the output of the lamps used in treatment and it was found a line source model described the output from the sources to a high degree. In practice, these lamps are surrounded by reflective anodized aluminum in patient treatment cabins and this work extends the model to quantify specular reflections from these planes on patient dose. Results: The extension of the model to allow for reflected images in addition to tube output shows a remarkably good fit to the actual data measured. Conclusions: The reflection model yields impressive accuracy and is a good basis for full UVR cabin modeling.

  1. MODIS Solar Reflective Calibration Traceability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Long-term climate data records often consist of observations made by multiple sensors. It is, therefore, extremely important to have instrument overlap, to be able to track instrument stability, to quantify, measurement uncertainties, and to establish absolute scale traceable to the International System of Units (SI). The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a key instrument for both the Terra and Aqua missions, which were launched in December 1999 and May 2002, respectively. It has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) with wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.2 micrometers and observes the Earth at three nadir spatial resolutions: 0.25km, 0.5km, and 1km. MODIS RSB on-orbit calibration is reflectance based with reference to the bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) of its on-board solar diffuser (SD). The SD BRF characterization was made pre-launch by the instrument vendor using reference samples traceable directly to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). On-orbit SD reflectance degradation is tracked by an on-board solar diffuser monitor (SDSM). This paper provides details of this calibration chain, from prelaunch to on-orbit operation, and associated uncertainty assessments. Using MODIS as an example, this paper also discusses challenges and key design requirements for future missions developed for accurate climate studies.

  2. A Critically Reflective Social Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Marge

    1990-01-01

    Examines social studies in the twenty-first century from a critical theory perspective. Traces critical reflection's origins from Marxist educational theories to Jurgen Habermas's critical theory. Highlights Fred Newmann's curricular model, "Education for Citizen Action," for developing competent action in public affairs. Advocates infusing…

  3. Reflective Shields for Artificial Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, F. L.

    1986-01-01

    Report proposes reflective shield that protects spacecraft from radiant energy. Also gives some protection against particle beams and cosmic rays. Conceptual shield essentially advanced version of decorative multifaceted mirror balls often hung over dance floors. Mirror facets disperse radiant energy in many directions.

  4. Computerized Ultrasound Risk Evaluation (CURE) System: Development of Combined Transmission and Reflection Ultrasound with New Reconstruction Algorithms for Breast Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littrup, P J; Duric, N; Azevedo, S; Chambers, D; Candy, J V; Johnson, S; Auner, G; Rather, J; Holsapple, E T

    2001-09-07

    Our Computerized Ultrasound Risk Evaluation (CURE) system has been developed to the engineering prototype stage and generated unique data sets of both transmission and reflection ultrasound (US). This paper will help define the clinical underpinnings of the developmental process and interpret the imaging results from a similar perspective. The CURE project was designed to incorporate numerous diagnostic parameters to improve upon two major areas of early breast cancer detection. CURE may provide improved tissue characterization of breast masses and reliable detection of abnormal microcalcifications found in some breast cancers and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Current breast US is limited to mass evaluation, whereas mammography also detects and guides biopsy of malignant calcifications. Screening with CURE remains a distant goal, but improved follow-up of mammographic abnormalities may represent a feasible breakthrough. Improved tissue characterization could result in reduction of the estimated one million benign biopsies each year in the United States, costing up to several billion dollars. Most breast calcifications are benign and comprise-80% of stereotactic biopsies guided by mammography. Ultrasound has the capability of finding some groups of calcifications, but further improvements in resolution should also address tissue characterization to define the soft tissue filling of ducts by DCIS. In this manner, CURE may be able to more accurately identify the malignant calcifications associated with progression of DCIS or early cancers. Currently, high-resolution US images of the breast are performed in the reflection mode at higher frequencies, which also limits depth of penetration. Reconstruction of reflection ultrasound images relies upon acoustic impedance differences in the tissue and includes only direct backscatter of the ultrasound signal. Resolution and tissue contrast of current US continues to improve with denser transducer arrays and image

  5. Professional knowledge and the epistemology of reflective practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne

    2010-01-01

    Reflective practice is one of the most popular theories of professional knowledge in the last 20 years and has been widely adopted by nursing, health, and social care professions. The term was coined by Donald Schön in his influential books The Reflective Practitioner, and Educating the Reflective Practitioner, and has garnered the unprecedented attention of theorists and practitioners of professional education and practice. Reflective practice has been integrated into professional preparatory programmes, continuing education programmes, and by the regulatory bodies of a wide range of health and social care professions. Yet, despite its popularity and widespread adoption, a problem frequently raised in the literature concerns the lack of conceptual clarity surrounding the term reflective practice. This paper seeks to respond to this problem by offering an analysis of the epistemology of reflective practice as revealed through a critical examination of philosophical influences within the theory. The aim is to discern philosophical underpinnings of reflective practice in order to advance increasingly coherent interpretations, and to consider the implications for conceptions of professional knowledge in professional life. The paper briefly examines major philosophical underpinnings in reflective practice to explicate central themes that inform the epistemological assumptions of the theory. The study draws on the work of Donald Schön, and on texts from four philosophers: John Dewey, Nelson Goodman, Michael Polanyi, and Gilbert Ryle. Five central epistemological themes in reflective practice are illuminated: (1) a broad critique of technical rationality; (2) professional practice knowledge as artistry; (3) constructivist assumptions in the theory; (4) the significance of tacit knowledge for professional practice knowledge; and (5) overcoming mind body dualism to recognize the knowledge revealed in intelligent action. The paper reveals that the theory of reflective

  6. China’s Total Bauxite Resource Volume has Topped 4 Billion Tonnes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>According to data published in the "Communiqué on Land and Resources of China for 2012" by The Ministry of Land and Resources, in the whole year of 2012, the volume of newly added identified bauxite resource amounted to 210 million tonnes, at the end of 2012 the total volume of domestic identified bauxite resource

  7. Xinjiang Nonferrous Metals Group Achieved Annual Sales Revenue of RMB 50 Billion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Xinjiang Nonferrous Metals Group has officially presented the following ideas for development in the 12th Five-Year Plan period: "take effective measures such as resource integration, scale expansion, capital operation and technological innovation, etc. to boost the

  8. Reflecting on Reflection: A Phenomenological Inquiry into Principals' Use of Reflective Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstutz, Dennis Scott

    2012-01-01

    Today's principals work in a setting that has become increasingly complex and characterized by a great deal of uncertainty and variety. Reflective practice is a process that principals can utilize to develop expertise in effectively operating under these conditions (Short & Reinhart, 1993). The purpose of the study was to explore the…

  9. White Light Demonstration of One Hundred Parts per Billion Irradiance Suppression in Air by New Starshade Occulters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinton, Douglas B.; Cash, Webster C.; Gleason, Brian; Kaiser, Michael J.; Levine, Sara A.; Lo, Amy S.; Schindhelm, Eric; Shipley, Ann F.

    2007-01-01

    A new mission concept for the direct imaging of exo-solar planets called the New Worlds Observer (NWO) has been proposed. The concept involves flying a meter-class space telescope in formation with a newly-conceived, specially-shaped, deployable star-occulting shade several meters across at a separation of some tens of thousands of kilometers. The telescope would make its observations from behind the starshade in a volume of high suppression of incident irradiance from the star around which planets orbit. The required level of irradiance suppression created by the starshade for an efficacious mission is of order 0.1 to 10 parts per billion in broadband light. This paper discusses the experimental setup developed to accurately measure the suppression ratio of irradiance produced at the null position behind candidate starshade forms to these levels. It also presents results of broadband measurements which demonstrated suppression levels of just under 100 parts per billion in air using the Sun as a light source. Analytical modeling of spatial irradiance distributions surrounding the null are presented and compared with photographs of irradiance captured in situ behind candidate starshades.

  10. Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis of sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis (CSCIA and CSHIA) has been increasingly used to study the source, transport, and bioremediation of organic contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons. In natural aquatic systems, dissolved contaminants represent the bioavailable fraction that generally is of the greatest toxicological significance. However, determining the isotopic ratios of waterborne hydrophobic contaminants in natural waters is very challenging because of their extremely low concentrations (often at sub-parts ber billion, or even lower). To acquire sufficient quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with 10 ng/L concentration for CSHIA, more than 1000 L of water must be extracted. Conventional liquid/liquid or solid-phase extraction is not suitable for such large volume extractions. We have developed a new approach that is capable of efficiently sampling sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons for CSIA. We use semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to accumulate hydrophobic contaminants from polluted waters and then recover the compounds in the laboratory for CSIA. In this study, we demonstrate, under a variety of experimental conditions (different concentrations, temperatures, and turbulence levels), that SPMD-associated processes do not induce C and H isotopic fractionations. The applicability of SPMD-CSIA technology to natural systems is further demonstrated by determining the ??13C and ??D values of petroleum hydrocarbons present in the Pawtuxet River, RI. Our results show that the combined SPMD-CSIA is an effective tool to investigate the source and fate of hydrophobic contaminants in the aquatic environments.

  11. Columbine High: Five Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Marianne D.

    2004-01-01

    A few weeks before the fifth anniversary of the Columbine High School shootings on April 20, 1999, Principal Frank DeAngelis reflects on how his school has changed over the past five years. Much like the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks against the United States, "Columbine" carries a chilling meaning that resonates across the country. That…

  12. Surplus Journalists, New Technologies & Billions of People Needing Accurate Information: What to Do

    OpenAIRE

    Beckman, James

    2011-01-01

    Today many journalists are concerned personally with the matter of adequate employment after years of education and sometimes even experience. The demise of the “Big City” press in most American cities has been joined by new technologies to create a “perfect storm of threat AND opportunity. Using some ideas from the economist Josef Schumpeter, and making comparisons with the American academic job market, we consider options both within and outside traditional journalism. It is apparent that j...

  13. VALUE-ADDING 20 BILLION BY 2005: IMPACT AT THE ALBERTA FARM GATE

    OpenAIRE

    Unterschultz, James R.; Jeffrey, Scott R.; Quagrainie, Kwamena K.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction In recent years in Canada, direct support provided by governments to the agricultural sector has been decreasing due to international obligations under the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade/World Trade Organization (GATT/WTO) and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Consequently, governments and the agriculture industry are exploring ways of generating and sustaining farmers' revenue from the marketplace. In Western Canada, there is a renewed interest in the conce...

  14. Sinopec Remarkable for Half-year Business Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China Petrochemical Corporation(Sinopec Corp.)reported increased profits for the first half of the year along with plans to expand operations in Latin America and Africa.In a statement released in late August at a media briefing,Sinopec said a 6.7 percent increase in net profits for the first half of 2010 to 35.46 billion yuan thanks to higher oil prices and stronger fuel demand.

  15. Drama and Spirituality: reflective connections

    OpenAIRE

    Grainger, Teresa; Kendall-Seatter, Sue

    2003-01-01

    This paper illustrates the powerful role that drama can play in facilitating spiritual development. The opportunities offered through the experience of improvisation are explored through a detailed examination of a single drama session. The children's engagement in and reflection upon the drama are seen as sensitive vehicles to build a sense of community, increase self-knowledge, develop empathy, search for meaning and purpose and experience a sense of the transcendent. Examples are given of ...

  16. REFLECTION IN RUSSIAN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Nelissen, J.M.C.; Tomic, W.

    2008-01-01

    The present article explores the theoretical underpinnings upon which Russian psychologists base their analysis of reflection. The intention is to arrive at a clearer understanding of their research aims and research methods, and to explore the relevance of their research to educational practice. The discussion is largely restricted to those studies which are significant for education and educational psychology. The reader will no doubt notice that most of the sources cited in the article dat...

  17. Crossing the threshold into reflective practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Encouraging reflective practice across postgraduate programmes for health professionals is challenging. Assessing reflections and determining the level of reflective practice reached can be difficult. Understanding reflection as a threshold concept may be useful to help meet the pedagogical challenges of such a valuable skill.

  18. Planar Para Algebras, Reflection Positivity

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffe, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    We define the notion of a planar para algebra, which arises naturally from combining planar algebras with the idea of $\\Z_{N}$ para symmetry in physics. A subfactor planar para algebra is a Hilbert space representation of planar tangles with parafermionic defects, that are invariant under isotopy. For each $\\Z_{N}$, we construct a family of subfactor planar para algebras which play the role of Temperley-Lieb-Jones planar algebras. The first example in this family is the parafermion planar para algebra. Based on this example, we introduce parafermion Pauli matrices, quaternion relations, and braided relations for parafermion algebras which one can use in the study of quantum information. Two different reflections play an important role in the theory of planar para algebras. One is the adjoint operator; the other is the modular conjugation in Tomita-Takesaki theory. We use the latter one to define the double algebra and to introduce reflection positivity. We give a new and geometric proof of reflection positivi...

  19. Developing mathematical practices through reflection cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholz, Daniel L.

    2016-09-01

    This paper focuses on reflection in learning mathematical practices. While there is a long history of research on reflection in mathematics, it has focused primarily on the development of conceptual understanding. Building on notion of learning as participation in social practices, this paper broadens the theory of reflection in mathematics learning. To do so, it introduces the concept of reflection cycles. Each cycle begins with prospective reflection, which guides one's actions during an experience, and ends with retrospective reflection, which consolidates the experience and informs the next reflection cycle. Using reflection cycles as an organizing framework, this paper synthesizes the literature on reflective practices at a variety of levels: (1) metacognition, (2) self-assessment, (3) noticing, and (4) lifelong learning. These practices represent a spectrum of reflection, ranging from the micro level (1) to macro level (4).

  20. Defense Funds to Colleges and Non-Profit Groups Total $2.6-Billion for 1986, Up 7.3 Pct. in a Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Defense Department contracts to colleges, universities, and other non-profit organizations were for research, development, testing, and evaluation for military projects and for civilian water-resource projects. A list of those with contracts of $500,000 or more is presented. (MLW)