WorldWideScience

Sample records for billion year history

  1. Oxygen - A Four Billion Year History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    The air we breathe is twenty-one percent oxygen, an amount higher than on any other known world. While we may take our air for granted, Earth was not always an oxygenated planet. How did it become this way? Oxygen is the most current account of the history of atmospheric oxygen on Earth. Donald...... Canfield--one of the world's leading authorities on geochemistry, earth history, and the early oceans--covers this vast history, emphasizing its relationship to the evolution of life and the evolving chemistry of the Earth. With an accessible and colorful first-person narrative, he draws from a variety...... of fields, including geology, paleontology, geochemistry, biochemistry, animal physiology, and microbiology, to explain why our oxygenated Earth became the ideal place for life. Describing which processes, both biological and geological, act to control oxygen levels in the atmosphere, Canfield traces...

  2. A two-billion-year history for the lunar dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoo, Sonia M; Weiss, Benjamin P; Shuster, David L; Suavet, Clément; Wang, Huapei; Grove, Timothy L

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic studies of lunar rocks indicate that the Moon generated a core dynamo with surface field intensities of ~20 to 110 μT between at least 4.25 and 3.56 billion years ago (Ga). The field subsequently declined to lunar dynamo by at least 1 billion years. Such a protracted history requires an extraordinarily long-lived power source like core crystallization or precession. No single dynamo mechanism proposed thus far can explain the strong fields inferred for the period before 3.56 Ga while also allowing the dynamo to persist in such a weakened state beyond ~2.5 Ga. Therefore, our results suggest that the dynamo was powered by at least two distinct mechanisms operating during early and late lunar history.

  3. Galaxy growth in a massive halo in the first billion years of cosmic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrone, D. P.; Spilker, J. S.; Hayward, C. C.; Vieira, J. D.; Aravena, M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M. B.; Béthermin, M.; Brodwin, M.; Bothwell, M. S.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chapman, S. C.; Chen, Chian-Chou; Crawford, T. M.; Cunningham, D. J. M.; De Breuck, C.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Greve, T. R.; Hezaveh, Y. D.; Lacaille, K.; Litke, K. C.; Lower, S.; Ma, J.; Malkan, M.; Miller, T. B.; Morningstar, W. R.; Murphy, E. J.; Narayanan, D.; Phadke, K. A.; Rotermund, K. M.; Sreevani, J.; Stalder, B.; Stark, A. A.; Strandet, M. L.; Tang, M.; Weiß, A.

    2018-01-01

    According to the current understanding of cosmic structure formation, the precursors of the most massive structures in the Universe began to form shortly after the Big Bang, in regions corresponding to the largest fluctuations in the cosmic density field. Observing these structures during their period of active growth and assembly—the first few hundred million years of the Universe—is challenging because it requires surveys that are sensitive enough to detect the distant galaxies that act as signposts for these structures and wide enough to capture the rarest objects. As a result, very few such objects have been detected so far. Here we report observations of a far-infrared-luminous object at redshift 6.900 (less than 800 million years after the Big Bang) that was discovered in a wide-field survey. High-resolution imaging shows it to be a pair of extremely massive star-forming galaxies. The larger is forming stars at a rate of 2,900 solar masses per year, contains 270 billion solar masses of gas and 2.5 billion solar masses of dust, and is more massive than any other known object at a redshift of more than 6. Its rapid star formation is probably triggered by its companion galaxy at a projected separation of 8 kiloparsecs. This merging companion hosts 35 billion solar masses of stars and has a star-formation rate of 540 solar masses per year, but has an order of magnitude less gas and dust than its neighbour and physical conditions akin to those observed in lower-metallicity galaxies in the nearby Universe. These objects suggest the presence of a dark-matter halo with a mass of more than 100 billion solar masses, making it among the rarest dark-matter haloes that should exist in the Universe at this epoch.

  4. THE SOUTHERN FRAGMENT OF THE SIBERIAN CRATON: “LANDSCAPE” HISTORY OVER TWO BILLION YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkady M. Stanevich

    2010-01-01

    background of sub-continental sedimentation. In the Late Paleozoic, the geologic development was marked by major transformation of the pattern of tectonic structures, that was most likely related to inside-plate extension and thinning of the continental crust. In the Mid and Late Carbon (Fig. 4A, the integrated Tungusskiy sedimentation basin was formed as a result of continuous and uniform bending. In the Early Permian (see Fig. 4Б, positive tectonic movements led to significant dewatering of the Paleozoic basins, so that they turned into a washed-out area. Overall raising of the Siberian Platform preconditioned climate changes, such as aridization and climate cooling. In the Mesozoic, landscapes were presented by a combination of flat uplands, wide river valleys with swampy plains and lakes wherein carbonous sediments were accumulated. Basic volcanism with shield eruptions and sub-volcanic rocks was typical then. In the Jurassic (see Fig. 4B, elements observed in the recent topography of the Siberian Platform were formed. In that period, major structural transformation occurred in association with the largest diastrophic cycles in the territory of the Eastern Asia, including formation of the Baikal rift and its branches.From the analyses of the available data which are briefly presented above, it is obvious that the period of two billion years in the Earth history includes numerous epochs of diastrophic processes of tremendous destructive capacity. Unconformities of formations differing in ages by millions and even hundreds of million years, as those dating back to the Pre-Cambrian, suggest quite realistic yet astounding visions. At the background of scenarios of floods, rock up-thrusts, volcanic explosions and earthquakes evidenced from the very remote past, the current geological and climatic phenomena may seem quite trivial.

  5. $17 billion needed by year 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R

    1995-09-01

    The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) estimates that US$17 billion will be needed to fund reproductive health care in developing countries by the year 2000. About US$10 billion of would go for family planning: currently, the amount spent on family planning is about US$5 billion. Donors are focusing on fewer countries because of limited resources. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is planning to phase out support for family planning in Jamaica and Brazil because the programs there have advanced sufficiently. Resources will be shifted to countries with more pressing needs. Dr. Richard Osborn, senior technical officer for UNFPA, states that UNFPA works with national program managers in allocating resources at the macro level (commodities, training). Currently, two-thirds of family planning funds spent worldwide come from developing country governments (mainly China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa, Turkey, and Bangladesh). Sustaining programs, much less adding new services, will be difficult. User fees and public-private partnerships are being considered; worldwide, consumers provide, currently, about 14% of family planning funds (The portion is higher in most Latin American countries.). In a few countries, insurance, social security, and other public-private arrangements contribute. Social marketing programs are being considered that would remove constraints on prescriptions and prices and improve the quality of services so that clients would be more willing to pay for contraceptives. Although governments are attempting to fit family planning into their health care budgets, estimates at the national level are difficult to make. Standards are needed to make expenditure estimates quickly and at low cost, according to Dr. Barbara Janowitz of FHI, which is developing guidelines. Studies in Bangladesh, Ecuador, Ghana, Mexico, and the Philippines are being conducted, with the assistance of The Evaluation Project at the Population

  6. Origins fourteen billion years of cosmic evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Neil deGrasse

    2004-01-01

    Origins explores cosmic science's stunning new insights into the formation and evolution of our universe--of the cosmos, of galaxies and galaxy clusters, of stars within galaxies, of planets that orbit those stars, and of different forms of life that take us back to the first three seconds and forward through three billion years of life on Earth to today's search for life on other planets. Drawing on the current cross-pollination of geology, biology and astrophysics, Origins explains the thrilling daily breakthroughs in our knowledge of the universe from dark energy to life on Mars to the mysteries of space and time. Distilling complex science in clear and lively prose, co-authors Neil deGrasse Tyson and Donald Goldsmith conduct a galvanising tour of the cosmos revealing what the universe has been up to while turning part of itself into us.

  7. Oxygen - A Four Billion Year History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    of fields, including geology, paleontology, geochemistry, biochemistry, animal physiology, and microbiology, to explain why our oxygenated Earth became the ideal place for life. Describing which processes, both biological and geological, act to control oxygen levels in the atmosphere, Canfield traces...... guides readers through the various lines of scientific evidence, considers some of the wrong turns and dead ends along the way, and highlights the scientists and researchers who have made key discoveries in the field. Showing how Earth's atmosphere developed over time, Oxygen takes readers...

  8. Cosmic rays and the biosphere over 4 billion years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Variations in the flux of cosmic rays (CR) at Earth during the last 4.6 billion years are constructed from information about the star formation rate in the Milky Way and the evolution of the solar activity. The constructed CR signal is compared with variations in the Earths biological productivit...... as recorded in the isotope delta C-13, which spans more than 3 billion years. CR and fluctuations in biological productivity show a remarkable correlation and indicate that the evolution of climate and the biosphere on the Earth is closely linked to the evolution of the Milky Way....

  9. To reactivate or not to reactivate: nature and varied behavior of structural inheritance in the Proterozoic basement of the Eastern Colorado mineral belt over 1.7 billion years of earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Jonathan S.; Ridley, John; Wessel, Zachary R.

    2010-01-01

    The eastern central Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado has long been a region of geologic interest because of Laramide-age hydrothermal polymetallic vein-related ores. The region is characterized by a well-exposed array of geologic structures associated with ductile and brittle deformation, which record crustal strain over 1.7 billion years of continental growth and evolution. The mineralized areas lie along a broad linear zone termed the Colorado Mineral Belt. This lineament has commonly been interpreted as following a fundamental boundary, such as a suture zone, in the North American Proterozoic crust that acted as a persistent zone of weakness localizing the emplacement of magmas and associated hydrothermal fluid flow. However, the details on the controls of the location, orientation, kinematics, density, permeability, and relative strength of various geological structures and their specific relationships to mineral deposit formation are not related to Proterozoic ancestry in a simple manner. The objectives of this field trip are to show key localities typical of the various types of structures present, show recently compiled and new data, offer alternative conceptual models, and foster dialogue. Topics to be discussed include: (1) structural history of the eastern Front Range; (2) characteristics, kinematics, orientations, and age of ductile and brittle structures and how they may or may not relate to one another and mineral deposit permeability; and (3) characteristics, localization, and evolution of the metal and non–metal-bearing hydrothermal systems in the eastern Colorado Mineral Belt.

  10. Orbital forcing of climate 1.4 billion years ago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Hammarlund, Emma U

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuating climate is a hallmark of Earth. As one transcends deep into Earth time, however, both the evidence for and the causes of climate change become difficult to establish. We report geochemical and sedimentological evidence for repeated, short-term climate fluctuations from the exceptionally...... well-preserved ∼1.4-billion-year-old Xiamaling Formation of the North China Craton. We observe two patterns of climate fluctuations: On long time scales, over what amounts to tens of millions of years, sediments of the Xiamaling Formation record changes in geochemistry consistent with long-term changes...... reflect what appear to be orbitally forced changes in wind patterns and ocean circulation as they influenced rates of organic carbon flux, trace metal accumulation, and the source of detrital particles to the sediment....

  11. A SWIRE Picture is Worth Billions of Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: SWIRE View of Distant Galaxies [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2Figure 3 Figure 4 These spectacular images, taken by the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) Legacy project, encapsulate one of the primary objectives of the Spitzer mission: to connect the evolution of galaxies from the distant, or early, universe to the nearby, or present day, universe. The Tadpole galaxy (main image) is the result of a recent galactic interaction in the local universe. Although these galactic mergers are rare in the universe's recent history, astronomers believe that they were much more common in the early universe. Thus, SWIRE team members will use this detailed image of the Tadpole galaxy to help understand the nature of the 'faint red-orange specks' of the early universe. The larger picture (figure 2) depicts one-sixteenth of the SWIRE survey field called ELAIS-N1. In this image, the bright blue sources are hot stars in our own Milky Way, which range anywhere from 3 to 60 times the mass of our Sun. The fainter green spots are cooler stars and galaxies beyond the Milky Way whose light is dominated by older stellar populations. The red dots are dusty galaxies that are undergoing intense star formation. The faintest specks of red-orange are galaxies billions of light-years away in the distant universe. Figure 3 features an unusual ring-like galaxy called CGCG 275-022. The red spiral arms indicate that this galaxy is very dusty and perhaps undergoing intense star formation. The star-forming activity could have been initiated by a near head-on collision with another galaxy. The most distant galaxies that SWIRE is able to detect are revealed in a zoom of deep space (figure 4). The colors in this feature represent the same objects as those in the larger field image of ELAIS-N1. The observed SWIRE

  12. Galaxies in the First Billion Years After the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Daniel P.

    2016-09-01

    In the past five years, deep imaging campaigns conducted with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based observatories have delivered large samples of galaxies at 6.5space density of luminous galaxies has been shown to decrease by 15-20× over 4Space Telescope demonstrates that z>6 UV-selected galaxies are relatively compact with blue UV continuum slopes, low stellar masses, and large specific star formation rates. In the last year, ALMA (the Atacama Large Millimeter Array) and ground-based infrared spectrographs have begun to complement this picture, revealing minimal dust obscuration and hard radiation fields, and providing evidence for metal-poor ionized gas. Weak low-ionization absorption lines suggest a patchy distribution of neutral gas surrounds O and B stars, possibly aiding in the escape of ionizing radiation. Gamma ray burst afterglows and Lyman-α surveys have provided evidence that the intergalactic medium (IGM) evolves from mostly ionized at z≃6-6.5 ([Formula: see text]) to considerably neutral at z≃7-8 ([Formula: see text]). The reionization history that emerges from considering the UV output of galaxies over 6

  13. A field like today's? The strength of the geomagnetic field 1.1 billion years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprain, Courtney J.; Swanson-Hysell, Nicholas L.; Fairchild, Luke M.; Gaastra, Kevin

    2018-06-01

    Palaeomagnetic data from ancient rocks are one of the few types of observational data that can be brought to bear on the long-term evolution of Earth's core. A recent compilation of palaeointensity estimates from throughout Earth history has been interpreted to indicate that Earth's magnetic field strength increased in the Mesoproterozoic (between 1.5 and 1.0 billion years ago), with this increase taken to mark the onset of inner core nucleation. However, much of the data within the Precambrian palaeointensity database are from Thellier-style experiments with non-ideal behaviour that manifests in results such as double-slope Arai plots. Choices made when interpreting these data may significantly change conclusions about long-term trends in the intensity of Earth's geomagnetic field. In this study, we present new palaeointensity results from volcanics of the ˜1.1-billion-year-old North American Midcontinent Rift. While most of the results exhibit non-ideal double-slope or sagging behaviour in Arai plots, some flows have more ideal single-slope behaviour leading to palaeointensity estimates that may be some of the best constraints on the strength of Earth's field for this time. Taken together, new and previously published palaeointensity data from the Midcontinent Rift yield a median field strength estimate of 56.0 ZAm2—very similar to the median for the past 300 Myr. These field strength estimates are distinctly higher than those for the preceding billion years (Ga) after excluding ca. 1.3 Ga data that may be biased by non-ideal behaviour—consistent with an increase in field strength in the late Mesoproterozoic. However, given that ˜90 per cent of palaeointensity estimates from 1.1 to 0.5 Ga come from the Midcontinent Rift, it is difficult to evaluate whether these high values relative to those estimated for the preceding billion years are the result of a stepwise, sustained increase in dipole moment. Regardless, palaeointensity estimates from the Midcontinent

  14. IRON AND {alpha}-ELEMENT PRODUCTION IN THE FIRST ONE BILLION YEARS AFTER THE BIG BANG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, George D.; Carswell, Robert F. [Kavli Institute for Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Sargent, Wallace L. W. [Palomar Observatory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rauch, Michael, E-mail: gdb@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: acalver@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: wws@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: mr@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    We present measurements of carbon, oxygen, silicon, and iron in quasar absorption systems existing when the universe was roughly one billion years old. We measure column densities in nine low-ionization systems at 4.7 < z < 6.3 using Keck, Magellan, and Very Large Telescope optical and near-infrared spectra with moderate to high resolution. The column density ratios among C II, O I, Si II, and Fe II are nearly identical to sub-damped Ly{alpha} systems (sub-DLAs) and metal-poor ([M/H] {<=} -1) DLAs at lower redshifts, with no significant evolution over 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 6. The estimated intrinsic scatter in the ratio of any two elements is also small, with a typical rms deviation of {approx}< 0.1 dex. These facts suggest that dust depletion and ionization effects are minimal in our z > 4.7 systems, as in the lower-redshift DLAs, and that the column density ratios are close to the intrinsic relative element abundances. The abundances in our z > 4.7 systems are therefore likely to represent the typical integrated yields from stellar populations within the first gigayear of cosmic history. Due to the time limit imposed by the age of the universe at these redshifts, our measurements thus place direct constraints on the metal production of massive stars, including iron yields of prompt supernovae. The lack of redshift evolution further suggests that the metal inventories of most metal-poor absorption systems at z {approx}> 2 are also dominated by massive stars, with minimal contributions from delayed Type Ia supernovae or winds from asymptotic giant branch stars. The relative abundances in our systems broadly agree with those in very metal-poor, non-carbon-enhanced Galactic halo stars. This is consistent with the picture in which present-day metal-poor stars were potentially formed as early as one billion years after the big bang.

  15. Rapid emergence of subaerial landmasses and onset of a modern hydrologic cycle 2.5 billion years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindeman, I N; Zakharov, D O; Palandri, J; Greber, N D; Dauphas, N; Retallack, G J; Hofmann, A; Lackey, J S; Bekker, A

    2018-05-01

    The history of the growth of continental crust is uncertain, and several different models that involve a gradual, decelerating, or stepwise process have been proposed 1-4 . Even more uncertain is the timing and the secular trend of the emergence of most landmasses above the sea (subaerial landmasses), with estimates ranging from about one billion to three billion years ago 5-7 . The area of emerged crust influences global climate feedbacks and the supply of nutrients to the oceans 8 , and therefore connects Earth's crustal evolution to surface environmental conditions 9-11 . Here we use the triple-oxygen-isotope composition of shales from all continents, spanning 3.7 billion years, to provide constraints on the emergence of continents over time. Our measurements show a stepwise total decrease of 0.08 per mille in the average triple-oxygen-isotope value of shales across the Archaean-Proterozoic boundary. We suggest that our data are best explained by a shift in the nature of water-rock interactions, from near-coastal in the Archaean era to predominantly continental in the Proterozoic, accompanied by a decrease in average surface temperatures. We propose that this shift may have coincided with the onset of a modern hydrological cycle owing to the rapid emergence of continental crust with near-modern average elevation and aerial extent roughly 2.5 billion years ago.

  16. A large neutral fraction of cosmic hydrogen a billion years after the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyithe, J Stuart B; Loeb, Abraham

    2004-02-26

    The fraction of ionized hydrogen left over from the Big Bang provides evidence for the time of formation of the first stars and quasar black holes in the early Universe; such objects provide the high-energy photons necessary to ionize hydrogen. Spectra of the two most distant known quasars show nearly complete absorption of photons with wavelengths shorter than the Lyman alpha transition of neutral hydrogen, indicating that hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) had not been completely ionized at a redshift of z approximately 6.3, about one billion years after the Big Bang. Here we show that the IGM surrounding these quasars had a neutral hydrogen fraction of tens of per cent before the quasar activity started, much higher than the previous lower limits of approximately 0.1 per cent. Our results, when combined with the recent inference of a large cumulative optical depth to electron scattering after cosmological recombination therefore suggest the presence of a second peak in the mean ionization history of the Universe.

  17. Spatial variability in oceanic redox structure 1.8 billion years ago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulton, Simon W.; Fralick, Philip W.; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2010-01-01

    to reconstruct oceanic redox conditions from the 1.88- to 1.83-billion-year-old Animikie group from the Superior region, North America. We find that surface waters were oxygenated, whereas at mid-depths, anoxic and sulphidic (euxinic) conditions extended over 100 km from the palaeoshoreline. The spatial extent...

  18. Plate tectonic influences on Earth's baseline climate: a 2 billion-year record

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, R.; Evans, D. A.; Eglington, B. M.; Planavsky, N.

    2017-12-01

    Plate tectonic processes present strong influences on the long-term carbon cycle, and thus global climate. Here we utilize multiple aspects of the geologic record to assess the role plate tectonics has played in driving major icehouse­-greenhouse transitions for the past 2 billion years. Refined paleogeographic reconstructions allow us to quantitatively assess the area of continents in various latitudinal belts throughout this interval. From these data we are able to test the hypothesis that concentrating continental masses in low-latitudes will drive cooler climates due to increased silicate weathering. We further superimpose records of events that are believed to increase the `weatherability' of the crust, such as large igneous province emplacement, island-arc accretion, and continental collisional belts. Climatic records are then compared with global detrital zircon U-Pb age data as a proxy for continental magmatism. Our results show a consistent relationship between zircon-generating magmatism and icehouse-greenhouse transitions for > 2 billion years, whereas paleogeographic records show no clear consistent relationship between continental configurations and prominent climate transitions. Volcanic outgassing appears to exert a first-order control on major baseline climatic shifts; however, paleogeography likely plays an important role in the magnitude of this change. Notably, climatic extremes, such as the Cryogenian icehouse, occur during a combination of reduce volcanism and end-member concentrations of low-latitudinal continents.

  19. Mars’ First Billion Years: Key Findings, Key Unsolved Paradoxes, and Future Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlmann, Bethany

    2017-10-01

    In the evolution of terrestrial planets, the first billion years are the period most shrouded in mystery: How vigorous is early atmospheric loss? How do planetary climates respond to a brightening sun? When and how are plate tectonic recycling processes initiated? How do voluminous volcanism and heavy impact bombardment influence the composition of the atmosphere? Under what conditions might life arise? Looking outward to terrestrial planets around other stars, the record from Venus, Earth and Mars in this solar system is crucial for developing models of physical can chemical processes. Of these three worlds, Mars provides the longest record of planetary evolution from the first billion years, comprising >50% of exposed geologic units, which are only lightly overprinted by later processes.Orbital observations of the last decade have revealed abundant evidence for surface waters in the form of lakes, valley networks, and evidence of chemically open-system near-surface weathering. Groundwaters at temperatures ranging from just above freezing to hydrothermal have also left a rich record of process in the mineralogical record. A rsuite of environments - similar in diversity to Earth’s - has been discovered on Mars with water pH, temperature, redox, and chemistries varying in space and time.Here, I will focus on the consequences of the aqueous alteration of the Martian crust on the composition of the atmosphere based on recent work studying aspects of the volatile budget (Usui et al., 2015; Edwards & Ehlmann, 2015; Hu et al., 2015; Jakosky et al., 2017, Wordsworth et al., 2017, and Ehlmann, in prep.). The solid crust and mantle of Mars act as volatile reservoirs and volatile sources through volcanism, mineral precipitation, and release of gases. We examine the extent to which the budget is understood or ill-understood for hydrogen and carbon, and associated phases H2O, CO2, and CH4. Additionally, I identify some key stratigraphies where a combination of focused in

  20. Searching for Organics Preserved in 4.5 Billion Year Old Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Fries, M.; Steele, A.; Bodnar, R.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of early solar system fluids took a dramatic turn a decade ago with the discovery of fluid inclusion-bearing halite (NaCl) crystals in the matrix of two freshly fallen brecciated H chondrite falls, Monahans and Zag. Both meteorites are regolith breccias, and contain xenolithic halite (and minor admixed sylvite -- KCl, crystals in their regolith lithologies. The halites are purple to dark blue, due to the presence of color centers (electrons in anion vacancies) which slowly accumulated as 40K (in sylvite) decayed over billions of years. The halites were dated by K-Ar, Rb-Sr and I-Xe systematics to be 4.5 billion years old. The "blue" halites were a fantastic discovery for the following reasons: (1) Halite+sylvite can be dated (K is in sylvite and will substitute for Na in halite, Rb substitutes in halite for Na, and I substitutes for Cl). (2) The blue color is lost if the halite dissolves on Earth and reprecipitates (because the newly-formed halite has no color centers), so the color serves as a "freshness" or pristinity indicator. (3) Halite frequently contains aqueous fluid inclusions. (4) Halite contains no structural oxygen, carbon or hydrogen, making them ideal materials to measure these isotopic systems in any fluid inclusions. (5) It is possible to directly measure fluid inclusion formation temperatures, and thus directly measure the temperature of the mineralizing aqueous fluid. In addition to these two ordinary chondrites halite grains have been reliably reported in several ureilites, an additional ordinary chondrite (Jilin), and in the carbonaceous chondrite (Murchison), although these reports were unfortunately not taken seriously. We have lately found additional fluid inclusions in carbonates in several additional carbonaceous chondrites. Meteoritic aqueous fluid inclusions are apparently relatively widespread in meteorites, though very small and thus difficult to analyze.

  1. Prodigious degassing of a billion years of accumulated radiogenic helium at Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Evans, William C.; Bergfeld, D.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents1. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot2. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by α-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude) any conceivable rate of generation within the crust. It seems that helium has accumulated for (at least) many hundreds of millions of years in Archaean (more than 2.5 billion years old) cratonic rocks beneath Yellowstone, only to be liberated over the past two million years by intense crustal metamorphism induced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Our results demonstrate the extremes in variability of crustal helium efflux on geologic timescales and imply crustal-scale open-system behaviour of helium in tectonically and magmatically active regions.

  2. One billion year-old Mid-continent Rift leaves virtually no clues in the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmann, T. A.; Frederiksen, A. W.; van der Lee, S.; Wolin, E.; Revenaugh, J.; Wiens, D.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Wysession, M. E.; Stein, S.; Jurdy, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    We measured the relative arrival times of more than forty-six thousand teleseismic P waves recorded by seismic stations of Earthscope's Superior Province Rifting Earthscope Experiment (SPREE) and combined them with a similar amount of such measurements from other seismic stations in the larger region. SPREE recorded seismic waves for two and a half years around the prominent, one billion year-old Mid-continent Rift structure. The curvilinear Mid-continent Rift (MR) is distinguished by voluminous one billion year-old lava flows, which produce a prominent gravity high along the MR. As for other seismic waves, these lava flows along with their underplated counterpart, slightly slow down the measured teleseismic P waves, on average, compared to P waves that did not traverse structures beneath the Mid-continent Rift. However, the variance in the P wave arrival times in these two groups is nearly ten times higher than their average difference. In a seismic-tomographic inversion, we mapped all measured arrival times into structures deep beneath the crust, in the Earth's mantle. Beneath the crust we generally find relatively high P velocities, indicating relatively cool and undeformable mantle structures. However, the uppermost mantle beneath the MR shows several patches of slightly decreased P velocities. These patches are coincident with where the gravity anomalies peak, in Iowa and along the northern Minnesota/Wisconsin border. We will report on the likelihood that these anomalies are indeed a remaining mantle-lithospheric signature of the MR or whether these patches indirectly reflect the presence of the lava flows and their underplated counterparts at the crust-mantle interface. Other structures of interest and of varying depth extent in our tomographic image locate at 1) the intersection of the Superior Craton with the Penokean Province and the Marshfield Terrane west of the MR in southern Minnesota, 2) the intersection of the Penokean, Yavapai, and Mazatzal Terranes

  3. Evidence for oxygenic photosynthesis half a billion years before the Great Oxidation Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planavsky, Noah J.; Asael, Dan; Hofmann, Axel; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Knudsen, Andrew; Wang, Xiangli; Ossa Ossa, Frantz; Pecoits, Ernesto; Smith, Albertus J. B.; Beukes, Nicolas J.; Bekker, Andrey; Johnson, Thomas M.; Konhauser, Kurt O.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Rouxel, Olivier J.

    2014-04-01

    The early Earth was characterized by the absence of oxygen in the ocean-atmosphere system, in contrast to the well-oxygenated conditions that prevail today. Atmospheric concentrations first rose to appreciable levels during the Great Oxidation Event, roughly 2.5-2.3 Gyr ago. The evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis is generally accepted to have been the ultimate cause of this rise, but it has proved difficult to constrain the timing of this evolutionary innovation. The oxidation of manganese in the water column requires substantial free oxygen concentrations, and thus any indication that Mn oxides were present in ancient environments would imply that oxygenic photosynthesis was ongoing. Mn oxides are not commonly preserved in ancient rocks, but there is a large fractionation of molybdenum isotopes associated with the sorption of Mo onto the Mn oxides that would be retained. Here we report Mo isotopes from rocks of the Sinqeni Formation, Pongola Supergroup, South Africa. These rocks formed no less than 2.95 Gyr ago in a nearshore setting. The Mo isotopic signature is consistent with interaction with Mn oxides. We therefore infer that oxygen produced through oxygenic photosynthesis began to accumulate in shallow marine settings at least half a billion years before the accumulation of significant levels of atmospheric oxygen.

  4. A Massive Galaxy in Its Core Formation Phase Three Billion Years After the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erica; van Dokkum, Pieter; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Schreiber, Natascha M. Forster; da Cunha, Elisabete; Tacconi, Linda; Bezanson, Rachel; Kirkpatrick, Allison; hide

    2014-01-01

    Most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores at early cosmic epochs. However, cores in their formation phase have not yet been observed. Previous studies have found galaxies with high gas velocity dispersions or small apparent sizes but so far no objects have been identified with both the stellar structure and the gas dynamics of a forming core. Here we present a candidate core in formation 11 billion years ago, at z = 2.3. GOODS-N-774 has a stellar mass of 1.0 × 10 (exp 11) solar mass, a half-light radius of 1.0 kpc, and a star formation rate of 90 (sup +45 / sub -20) solar mass/yr. The star forming gas has a velocity dispersion 317 plus or minus 30 km/s, amongst the highest ever measured. It is similar to the stellar velocity dispersions of the putative descendants of GOODS-N-774, compact quiescent galaxies at z is approximately equal to 2 (exp 8-11) and giant elliptical galaxies in the nearby Universe. Galaxies such as GOODS-N-774 appear to be rare; however, from the star formation rate and size of the galaxy we infer that many star forming cores may be heavily obscured, and could be missed in optical and near-infrared surveys.

  5. Galaxy evolution. Evidence for mature bulges and an inside-out quenching phase 3 billion years after the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacchella, S; Carollo, C M; Renzini, A; Förster Schreiber, N M; Lang, P; Wuyts, S; Cresci, G; Dekel, A; Genzel, R; Lilly, S J; Mancini, C; Newman, S; Onodera, M; Shapley, A; Tacconi, L; Woo, J; Zamorani, G

    2015-04-17

    Most present-day galaxies with stellar masses ≥10(11) solar masses show no ongoing star formation and are dense spheroids. Ten billion years ago, similarly massive galaxies were typically forming stars at rates of hundreds solar masses per year. It is debated how star formation ceased, on which time scales, and how this "quenching" relates to the emergence of dense spheroids. We measured stellar mass and star-formation rate surface density distributions in star-forming galaxies at redshift 2.2 with ~1-kiloparsec resolution. We find that, in the most massive galaxies, star formation is quenched from the inside out, on time scales less than 1 billion years in the inner regions, up to a few billion years in the outer disks. These galaxies sustain high star-formation activity at large radii, while hosting fully grown and already quenched bulges in their cores. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Four billion years of ophiolites reveal secular trends in oceanic crust formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Furnes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We combine a geological, geochemical and tectonic dataset from 118 ophiolite complexes of the major global Phanerozoic orogenic belts with similar datasets of ophiolites from 111 Precambrian greenstone belts to construct an overview of oceanic crust generation over 4 billion years. Geochemical discrimination systematics built on immobile trace elements reveal that the basaltic units of the Phanerozoic ophiolites are dominantly subduction-related (75%, linked to backarc processes and characterized by a strong MORB component, similar to ophiolites in Precambrian greenstone sequences (85%. The remaining 25% Phanerozoic subduction-unrelated ophiolites are mainly (74% of Mid-Ocean-Ridge type (MORB type, in contrast to the equal proportion of Rift/Continental Margin, Plume, and MORB type ophiolites in the Precambrian greenstone belts. Throughout the Phanerozoic there are large geochemical variations in major and trace elements, but for average element values calculated in 5 bins of 100 million year intervals there are no obvious secular trends. By contrast, basaltic units in the ophiolites of the Precambrian greenstones (calculated in 12 bins of 250 million years intervals, starting in late Paleo- to early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 2.0–1.8 Ga, exhibit an apparent decrease in the average values of incompatible elements such as Ti, P, Zr, Y and Nb, and an increase in the compatible elements Ni and Cr with deeper time to the end of the Archean and into the Hadean. These changes can be attributed to decreasing degrees of partial melting of the upper mantle from Hadean/Archean to Present. The onset of geochemical changes coincide with the timing of detectible changes in the structural architecture of the ophiolites such as greater volumes of gabbro and more common sheeted dyke complexes, and lesser occurrences of ocelli (varioles in the pillow lavas in ophiolites younger than 2 Ga. The global data from the Precambrian ophiolites, representative of nearly 50

  7. Strongly baryon-dominated disk galaxies at the peak of galaxy formation ten billion years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzel, R; Schreiber, N M Förster; Übler, H; Lang, P; Naab, T; Bender, R; Tacconi, L J; Wisnioski, E; Wuyts, S; Alexander, T; Beifiori, A; Belli, S; Brammer, G; Burkert, A; Carollo, C M; Chan, J; Davies, R; Fossati, M; Galametz, A; Genel, S; Gerhard, O; Lutz, D; Mendel, J T; Momcheva, I; Nelson, E J; Renzini, A; Saglia, R; Sternberg, A; Tacchella, S; Tadaki, K; Wilman, D

    2017-03-15

    In the cold dark matter cosmology, the baryonic components of galaxies-stars and gas-are thought to be mixed with and embedded in non-baryonic and non-relativistic dark matter, which dominates the total mass of the galaxy and its dark-matter halo. In the local (low-redshift) Universe, the mass of dark matter within a galactic disk increases with disk radius, becoming appreciable and then dominant in the outer, baryonic regions of the disks of star-forming galaxies. This results in rotation velocities of the visible matter within the disk that are constant or increasing with disk radius-a hallmark of the dark-matter model. Comparisons between the dynamical mass, inferred from these velocities in rotational equilibrium, and the sum of the stellar and cold-gas mass at the peak epoch of galaxy formation ten billion years ago, inferred from ancillary data, suggest high baryon fractions in the inner, star-forming regions of the disks. Although this implied baryon fraction may be larger than in the local Universe, the systematic uncertainties (owing to the chosen stellar initial-mass function and the calibration of gas masses) render such comparisons inconclusive in terms of the mass of dark matter. Here we report rotation curves (showing rotation velocity as a function of disk radius) for the outer disks of six massive star-forming galaxies, and find that the rotation velocities are not constant, but decrease with radius. We propose that this trend arises because of a combination of two main factors: first, a large fraction of the massive high-redshift galaxy population was strongly baryon-dominated, with dark matter playing a smaller part than in the local Universe; and second, the large velocity dispersion in high-redshift disks introduces a substantial pressure term that leads to a decrease in rotation velocity with increasing radius. The effect of both factors appears to increase with redshift. Qualitatively, the observations suggest that baryons in the early (high

  8. Constraint on a Varying Proton-Electron Mass Ratio 1.5 Billion Years after the Big Bang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagdonaite, J.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Murphy, M.T.; Withmore, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    A molecular hydrogen absorber at a lookback time of 12.4 billion years, corresponding to 10% of the age of the Universe today, is analyzed to put a constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio, μ. A high resolution spectrum of the J1443+2724 quasar, which was observed with the Very Large

  9. $17 billion needed for population programme to year 2000: Dr. Nafis Sadik launches State of World Population Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), in her address on July 11 to the Foreign Press Association in London on the occasion of the release of the "1995 State of the World Population Report," stated that governments needed to invest in people, and that the estimated amount needed to reduce population numbers in developing countries was $17 billion for the year 2000. Two-thirds of the cost would be supplied by the developing countries. She said that coordinating population policies globally through such documents as the Programme of Action from the Cairo Conference would aid in slowing population growth. World population, currently 5.7 billion, is projected to reach 7.1-7.83 billion in 2015 and 7.9-11.9 billion in 2050. She also noted that certain conditions faced by women bear upon unsustainable population growth. The cycle of poverty continues in developing countries because very young mothers, who face higher risks in pregnancy and childbirth than those who delay childbearing until after the age of 20, are less likely to continue their education, more likely to have lower-paying jobs, and have a higher rate of separation and divorce. The isolation of women from widespread political participation and the marginalization of women's concerns from mainstream topics has resulted in ineffective family planning programs, including prevention of illness or impairment related to pregnancy or childbirth. Women, in most societies, cannot fully participate in economic and public life, have limited access to positions of influence and power, have narrower occupational choices and lower earnings than men, and must struggle to reconcile activities outside the home with their traditional roles. Sustainable development can only be achieved when social development expands opportunities for individuals (men and women), and their families, empowering them in the attainment of their social, economic, political, and cultural aspirations.

  10. A Record Year at the Federal Trough: Colleges Feast on $1.67-Billion in Earmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Jeffrey; Southwick, Ron

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how for fiscal year 2001, Congress earmarked more money for federal projects for specific colleges than ever before. It provided a 60 percent increase over the previous year, although such earmarks have drawn criticism as wasteful and harmful to merit-based competition for funds. Includes a list of top recipients of "pork." (EV)

  11. Backlog at December 31, 2007: euro 39,8 billion, up by 55% from year-end 2006. 2007 sales revenue: euro 11.9 billion, up by 9.8% (+10.4% like-for-like)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The AREVA group's backlog reached a record level of euro 39.834 billion as of December 31, 2007, up by 55% from that of year-end 2006. In Nuclear, the backlog was euro 34.927 billion at year-end 2007 (+58%), due in particular to the signature of a contract in a record amount with the Chinese utility CGNPC. The series of agreements concluded provide among other things for the construction of two new-generation EPR nuclear islands and the supply of all of the materials and services needed for their operation through 2027. CGNPC also bought 35% of the production of UraMin, the mining company acquired by AREVA in August 2007. Industrial cooperation in the Back End of the cycle was launched with the signature of an agreement between China and France. In addition, the group signed several long-term contracts in significant amounts, particularly with KHNP of South Korea, EDF and Japanese utilities. The Transmission and Distribution division won several major contracts in Libya and Qatar at the end of the year approaching a total of euro 750 million. For the entire year, new orders grew by 34% to euro 5.816 billion. The backlog, meanwhile, grew by 40% to euro 4.906 billion at year-end. The group cleared sales revenue of euro 11.923 billion in 2007, up by 9.8% (+10.4% like-for-like) in relation to 2006 sales of euro 10.863 billion. Sales revenue for the 4. quarter of 2007 rose to euro 3.858 billion, for growth of 16.7% (+18.8% like-for-like) over one year. Sales revenue for the year was marked by: - Growth of 7.6% (+10.6% like-for-like) in Front End sales revenue, which rose to euro 3.140 billion. The division's Enrichment operations posted strong growth. - Sales were up by 17.5% (+15.2% like-for-like) to euro 2.717 billion in the Reactors and Services division. Sales revenue was driven in particular by the growth of Services operations, after weak demand in 2006, by progress on OL3 construction, and by the start of Flamanville 3, the second EPR. For the Back End division

  12. Constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio 1.5 billion years after the big bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdonaite, J; Ubachs, W; Murphy, M T; Whitmore, J B

    2015-02-20

    A molecular hydrogen absorber at a lookback time of 12.4 billion years, corresponding to 10% of the age of the Universe today, is analyzed to put a constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio, μ. A high resolution spectrum of the J1443+2724 quasar, which was observed with the Very Large Telescope, is used to create an accurate model of 89 Lyman and Werner band transitions whose relative frequencies are sensitive to μ, yielding a limit on the relative deviation from the current laboratory value of Δμ/μ=(-9.5 ± 5.4(stat)± 5.3(syst))×10(-6).

  13. Two billion year old natural analogs for nuclear waste disposal: the natural nuclear fission reactors in Gabon (Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier-Lafaye, F.

    2002-01-01

    Two billion years ago, the increase of oxygen in atmosphere and the high 235 U/ 238 U uranium ratio (> 3%) made possible the occurrence of natural nuclear reactors on Earth. These reactors are considered to be a good natural analogue for nuclear waste disposal. Their preservation during such a long period of time is mainly due to the geological stability of the site, the occurrence of clays surrounding the reactors and acting as an impermeable shield, and the occurrence of organic matter that maintained the environment in reducing conditions, favourable for the stability of uraninite. Hydrogeochemical studies and modelling have shown the complexity of the geochemical system at Oklo and Bangombe (Gabon) and the lack of precise data about uranium and fission products retention and migration mechanisms in geological environments. (author)

  14. Taking out one billion tones of carbon: the magic of China's 11thFive-Year Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark D.; Fridley, David

    2007-05-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious targetfor energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country sgross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20 percent from 2005 to2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and bindingtarget has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift inChina's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energydevelopment. The 20 percent energy intensity target also translates intoan annual reduction of over one billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making theChinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in theworld today. While it is still too early to tell whether China willachieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend inenergy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options towardmeeting the 20 percent target using a detailed endues energymodel.

  15. Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jiang; Zhou Nan; Levine, Mark; Fridley, David

    2008-01-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20% from 2005 to 2010 [National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), 2006. Overview of the 11th Five Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development. NDRC, Beijing]. This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20% energy-intensity target also translates into an annual reduction of over 1.5 billion tons of CO 2 by 2010, making the Chinese effort one of the most significant carbon mitigation efforts in the world today. While it is still too early to tell whether China will achieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend in energy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options toward meeting the 20% target using a detailed end-use energy model

  16. ALMA Shows that Gas Reservoirs of Star-forming Disks over the Past 3 Billion Years Are Not Predominantly Molecular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortese, Luca; Catinella, Barbara; Janowiecki, Steven, E-mail: luca.cortese@uwa.edu.au [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2017-10-10

    Cold hydrogen gas is the raw fuel for star formation in galaxies, and its partition into atomic and molecular phases is a key quantity for galaxy evolution. In this Letter, we combine Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and Arecibo single-dish observations to estimate the molecular-to-atomic hydrogen mass ratio for massive star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 0.2 extracted from the HIGHz survey, i.e., some of the most massive gas-rich systems currently known. We show that the balance between atomic and molecular hydrogen in these galaxies is similar to that of local main-sequence disks, implying that atomic hydrogen has been dominating the cold gas mass budget of star-forming galaxies for at least the past three billion years. In addition, despite harboring gas reservoirs that are more typical of objects at the cosmic noon, HIGHz galaxies host regular rotating disks with low gas velocity dispersions suggesting that high total gas fractions do not necessarily drive high turbulence in the interstellar medium.

  17. Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Fridley, David

    2007-07-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20% from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20% energy intensity target also translates into an annual reduction of over 1.5 billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making the Chinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in the world today. While it is still too early to tell whether China will achieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend in energy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options toward meeting the 20% target using a detailed end-use energy model.

  18. An eighty years long history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Fabbio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An eighty years long historyAnnals of Silvicultural Research (ASR take over and are the on line follow-up of the former Annali. The Annali are a body of 36 volumes issued since 1970 from the Experimental Institute of Silviculture, then Forestry Research Centre of the Consiglio per la Ricerca e la sperimentazione in Agricoltura (CRA. They originate from the series of Papers of the same Institution (n. 15-18, 1968-69 and formerly of the Royal Station of Silviculture in Firenze (n. 1-14, 1932-67. The history of Annals dates therefore back to 80 years ago and covers quite completely the activity of our Institution since its early establishment in Firenze in 1922.Institutional duty of the Annali was the scientific dissemination of research trials’ outcomes and findings to the manifold stakeholders’ levels and was aimed at an effective transfer of knowledge and innovation in the practice of forestry. The Annali housed original research papers produced inside and in cooperation with researchers outside on the subject-matters of forest ecology, silviculture of semi-natural forests and forest plantations for environmental restoration and wood/ non-wood productions, tree farming and agro-forestry, forest mensuration and stand dynamics, dendro-ecology, conservation and valorization of genetic resources and levels and types of biodiversity, protection and provision of forest ecosystems services, maintenance of their multifunctional role, up to the more recent theme of the adaptive management framed within the environmental change in progress and related issues of forests’ mitigation & carbon sequestration/ stocking ability.A review of research topics and thematic volumes handled throughout the eighty years highlights the attention paid towards the national emerging subject-matters, since the Experiments on the introduction of exotic species in Italy by Pavari and De Philippis (1941, to its conclusive follow-up forty years later Role of exotic species

  19. Fluid-chemical evidence for one billion years of fluid flow through Mesoproterozoic deep-water carbonate mounds (Nanisivik zinc district, Nunavut)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, K. E.; Turner, E. C.; Kontak, D. J.; Fayek, M.

    2018-02-01

    -filling mineral phases spans over 1 billion years, and was decipherable only because of the in situ protocol used. The multiple-method in situ analytical protocol employed in this study substantially augments the knowledge of an area's geological history, parts of which cannot be discerned by means other than meticulous study of diagenetic phases, and should become routine in similar studies.

  20. The First Billion Years project: constraining the dust attenuation law of star-forming galaxies at z ≃ 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, F.; McLure, R. J.; Khochfar, S.; Dunlop, J. S.; Dalla Vecchia, C.

    2017-09-01

    We present the results of a study investigating the dust attenuation law at z ≃ 5, based on synthetic spectral energy distributions (SEDs) calculated for a sample of N = 498 galaxies drawn from the First Billion Years (FiBY) simulation project. The simulated galaxies at z ≃ 5, which have M1500 ≤ -18.0 and 7.5 ≤ log(M/M}_{⊙}) ≤ 10.2, display a mass-dependent α-enhancement, with a median value of [α /{Fe}]_{z=5} ˜eq 4 × [α /{Fe}]_{Z_{⊙}}. The median Fe/H ratio of the simulated galaxies is 0.14 ± 0.05 which produces steep intrinsic ultraviolet (UV) continuum slopes; 〈βI〉 = -2.4 ± 0.05. Using a set of simple dust attenuation models, in which the wavelength-dependent attenuation is assumed to be of the form A(λ) ∝ λn, we explore the parameter values which best reproduce the observed z = 5 luminosity function (LF) and colour-magnitude relation (CMR). We find that a simple model in which the absolute UV attenuation is a linearly increasing function of log stellar mass (A1500 = 0.5 × log(M/M⊙) - 3.3), and the dust attenuation slope (n) is within the range -0.7 ≤ n ≤ -0.3, can successfully reproduce the LF and CMR over a wide range of stellar population synthesis model assumptions, including the effects of massive binaries. This range of attenuation curves is consistent with a power-law fit to the Calzetti attenuation law in the UV (n = -0.55). In contrast, curves as steep as the Small Magellanic Cloud extinction curve (n = -1.24) are formally ruled out. Finally, we show that our models are consistent with recent 1.3 mm Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, and predict the form of the z ≃ 5 infrared excess (IRX)-β relation.

  1. 12 billion DM for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The German atomic industry has achieved the break-through to the world market: Brazil orders eight nuclear electricity generating plants from Siemens-AEG daughter Kraftwerk-Union. US concerns attacked the twelve billion DM deal, the biggest export order in the history of German industry. Without avail - the contract is to be signed in Bonn this week. (orig./LH) [de

  2. Stable Isotope Geochemistry of Extremely Well-Preserved 2.45-Billion-Year-Old Hydrothermal Systems in the Vetreny Belt, Baltic Shield: Insights into Paleohydrosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, D. O.; Bindeman, I. N.

    2015-12-01

    The early Paleoproterozoic was an eventful period in the Earth's history. The first portions of free oxygen emerged in the atmosphere, Snowball Earth glaciations happened several times and the first supercontinent broke up due to extensive rifting. These events should have affected the stable isotopic composition of the hydrosphere. In this study, we use rocks that were altered in underwater hydrothermal systems to investigate the stable isotopic composition of the hydrosphere 2.39-2.45 billion years ago (hereinafter, Ga). Extremely low-δ18O (down to -27.5‰ SMOW) rocks from 2.39 Ga metamorphosed subglacial hydrothermal systems of the Belomorian belt, Baltic Shield formed at near-equatorial latitudes suggesting a Snowball (or Slushball) Earth glaciation. These results motivated us to look at temporally and geographically close hydrothermal systems from the unmetamorhposed 2.45 Ga Vetreny Belt rift. The length of the rift is 250 km and it is composed of high-Mg basalts, mafic-ultramafic intrusions and sedimentary successions. We examined several localities of high-Mg basalt flows that include astonishingly fresh pillow lavas, often with preserved volcanic glass, eruptive breccias, and hydrothermal alteration zones. Collected samples serve a great textural evidence of water-rock interaction that occurred in situ while basalts were cooling. The preliminary results from coexisting quartz and epidote (T, D18O=311°C), and from coexisting calcite and quartz (T, D18O=190°C) yield values of δ18O of involved water between -1.6 and -0.9 ‰. The values of δ13C in calcites vary between -4.0 and -2.3 ‰. It is likely that hydrothermal fluids operated in the Vetreny Belt rift were derived from seawater that is no different from modern oceanic water in terms of δ18O. Apparently, the rift was a Paleoproterozoic analog of the modern Red Sea, filled with oceanic water. The result is important because the Vetreny Belt rift predates the onset of Snowball Earth glaciation at 2

  3. Chemical pre-processing of cluster galaxies over the past 10 billion years in the IllustrisTNG simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anshu; Yuan, Tiantian; Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark; Martizzi, Davide; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Marinacci, Federico; Nelson, Dylan; Pillepich, Annalisa; Hernquist, Lars; Genel, Shy; Springel, Volker

    2018-06-01

    We use the IllustrisTNG simulations to investigate the evolution of the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) for star-forming cluster galaxies as a function of the formation history of their cluster host. The simulations predict an enhancement in the gas-phase metallicities of star-forming cluster galaxies (109 cluster galaxies appears prior to their infall into the central cluster potential, indicating for the first time a systematic `chemical pre-processing' signature for infalling cluster galaxies. Namely, galaxies that will fall into a cluster by z = 0 show a ˜0.05 dex enhancement in the MZR compared to field galaxies at z ≤ 0.5. Based on the inflow rate of gas into cluster galaxies and its metallicity, we identify that the accretion of pre-enriched gas is the key driver of the chemical evolution of such galaxies, particularly in the stellar mass range (109 clusters. Our results motivate future observations looking for pre-enrichment signatures in dense environments.

  4. Evidence for 3.3-billion-year-old oceanic crust in the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grosch, E. G.; Sláma, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 8 (2017), 695-698 ISSN 0091-7613 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : volcanic rocks * subduction zone * mountain land * evolution * geochemistry * constraints * komatiites * Kaapvaal * mantle * craton Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 4.635, year: 2016

  5. Countdown to Six Billion Teaching Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This teaching kit features six activities focused on helping students understand the significance of the world population reaching six billion for our society and our environment. Featured activities include: (1) History of the World: Part Six Billion; (2) A Woman's Place; (3) Baby-O-Matic; (4) Earth: The Apple of Our Eye; (5) Needs vs. Wants; and…

  6. History of 10 years of KEPCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This book is the history of Korea power engineering company for 10 years. It describes the background of establishment of the company and development of nuclear energy and engineering, the procession of the establishment, the course of development in three parts of period, organization of the company, the progression of the business in the nuclear energy, hydraulic power and thermal power, development of technique and manpower and management for prospect of the company.

  7. Thirty years history of Daeduk Science Town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    This book records the history of Daeduk science town for 30 years, which includes plan of construction and selection of location like background of construction and general idea of construction, transition of basic plan to construct Daeduk science town such as change of promotion organization and plan, and establishment of construction general planning, building base for town like land, infrastructure, and measures to control speculative investment, construction and present situation of moving into the science town, management of Daeduk science town, public welfare for researchers, and fruit and image of the future of the town.

  8. AN ACCOUNTING OF THE DUST-OBSCURED STAR FORMATION AND ACCRETION HISTORIES OVER THE LAST ∼11 BILLION YEARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E. J.; Chary, R.-R.; Dickinson, M.; Pope, A.; Frayer, D. T.; Lin, L.

    2011-01-01

    We report on an accounting of the star-formation- and accretion-driven energetics of 24 μm-detected sources in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North field. For sources having infrared (IR; 8-1000 μm) luminosities ∼>3 x 10 12 L sun when derived by fitting local spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to 24 μm photometry alone, we find these IR luminosity estimates to be a factor of ∼4 times larger than those estimated when the SED fitting includes additional 16 and 70 μm data (and in some cases mid-IR spectroscopy and 850 μm data). This discrepancy arises from the fact that high-luminosity sources at z >> 0 appear to have far- to mid-IR ratios, as well as aromatic feature equivalent widths, typical of lower luminosity galaxies in the local universe. Using our improved estimates for IR luminosity and active galactic nucleus (AGN) contributions, we investigate the evolution of the IR luminosity density versus redshift arising from star formation and AGN processes alone. We find that, within the uncertainties, the total star-formation-driven IR luminosity density is constant between 1.15 ∼ 2. AGNs appear to account for ∼ 11 L sun ≤ L IR 12 L sun ) appear to dominate the star formation rate density along with normal star-forming galaxies (L IR 11 L sun ) between 0.6 ∼ 2, the contribution from ultraluminous infrared galaxies (L IR ≥ 10 12 L sun ) becomes comparable with that of LIRGs. Using our improved IR luminosity estimates, we find existing calibrations for UV extinction corrections based on measurements of the UV spectral slope typically overcorrect UV luminosities by a factor of ∼2, on average, for our sample of 24 μm-selected sources; accordingly we have derived a new UV extinction correction more appropriate for our sample.

  9. Connecting the last billion

    OpenAIRE

    Ben David, Yahel

    2015-01-01

    The last billion people to join the online world, are likely to face at least one of two obstacles:Part I: Rural Internet AccessRural, sparsely populated, areas make conventional infrastructure investments unfeasible: Bigcorporations attempt to address this challenge via the launch of Low-Earth-Orbiting (LEO) satelliteconstellations, fleets of high-altitude balloons, and giant solar-powered drones; although thesegrandiose initiatives hold potential, they are costly and risky. At the same time...

  10. 40 CFR 68.42 - Five-year accident history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.42... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.42 Five-year accident history. (a) The owner or operator shall include in the five-year accident history all accidental releases from...

  11. Chlorine isotopic compositions of apatite in Apollo 14 rocks: Evidence for widespread vapor-phase metasomatism on the lunar nearside ∼4 billion years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Nicola J.; Barnes, Jessica J.; Tartèse, Romain; Franchi, Ian A.; Anand, Mahesh

    2018-06-01

    Compared to most other planetary materials in the Solar System, some lunar rocks display high δ37Cl signatures. Loss of Cl in a H ≪ Cl environment has been invoked to explain the heavy signatures observed in lunar samples, either during volcanic eruptions onto the lunar surface or during large scale degassing of the lunar magma ocean. To explore the conditions under which Cl isotope fractionation occurred in lunar basaltic melts, five Apollo 14 crystalline samples were selected (14053,19, 14072,13, 14073,9, 14310,171 along with basaltic clast 14321,1482) for in situ analysis of Cl isotopes using secondary ion mass spectrometry. Cl isotopes were measured within the mineral apatite, with δ37Cl values ranging from +14.6 ± 1.6‰ to +40.0 ± 2.9‰. These values expand the range previously reported for apatite in lunar rocks, and include some of the heaviest Cl isotope compositions measured in lunar samples to date. The data here do not display a trend between increasing rare earth elements contents and δ37Cl values, reported in previous studies. Other processes that can explain the wide inter- and intra-sample variability of δ37Cl values are explored. Magmatic degassing is suggested to have potentially played a role in fractionating Cl isotope in these samples. Degassing alone, however, could not create the wide variability in isotopic signatures. Our favored hypothesis, to explain small scale heterogeneity, is late-stage interaction with a volatile-rich gas phase, originating from devolatilization of lunar surface regolith rocks ∼4 billion years ago. This period coincides with vapor-induced metasomastism recorded in other lunar samples collected at the Apollo 16 and 17 landing sites, pointing to the possibility of widespread volatile-induced metasomatism on the lunar nearside at that time, potentially attributed to the Imbrium formation event.

  12. 16 Years, 16 Cruises, 1.6 Billion Soundings: a Compilation of High-Resolution Multibeam Bathymetry of the Active Plate Boundary Along the Chilean Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrebe, W.; Flueh, E. R.; Hasert, M.; Behrmann, J. H.; Voelker, D.; Geersen, J.; Ranero, C. R.; Diaz-Naveas, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Chile, a country stranding the active plate boundary between the South-American and the Nazca Plate is afflicted by recurrent earthquakes and hazardous volcanic eruptions. The strongest earthquake ever recorded occurred here, and volcanic hazards are frequent. Consequently, this area has been studied by geoscientists for many years to improve the understanding of subduction zone processes. Swath bathymetry mapping of the ocean floor has proven to bear a large potential for the interpretation of subduction-related processes, such as tectonic deformation of the marine forearc, release and migration of fluids as well as earthquake-triggered mass wasting. Multibeam bathymetry data of 16 major cruises of German, British, and Chilean research vessels recorded between 1995 and December 2010, in total more than 10,000 data files comprising about 1.6 billion soundings, have now been carefully reprocessed, compiled and merged into a unifying set of high-resolution bathymetric maps of the Chilean continental margin from latitude 40°S to 20°S. The imprint of subsurface processes on the surface morphology is well displayed in the case of the Chilean continental margin. The 3,500 km long Chilean convergent margin is not uniform, as various segments with different tectonic characteristics can be distinguished. Major factors that control margin morphology and thus the style of subduction are (1) relief and structure of the incoming oceanic plate, (2) supply of trench sediment, (3) turbidite transport within the trench, and (4) the input of terrigeneous sediments down the continental slope. A major segment boundary occurs at latitude 32°-33° S where the hotspot-related volcanic chain of Juan Fernandez is presently subducting. South of the area of ridge subduction the trench is filled with turbidites, and accretionary ridges develop across the base of the slope along most of the segment, whereas north of this boundary the turbiditic infill is reduced and subduction erosion is

  13. The Orgueil meteorite: 150 years of history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounelle, Matthieu; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this paper is to summarize 150 yr of history of a very special meteorite. The Orgueil meteorite fell near Montauban in southwestern France on May 14, 1864. The bolide, which was the size of the full Moon, was seen across Western France, and almost immediately made the news in local and Parisian newspapers. Within a few weeks of the fall, a great diversity of analyses were performed under the authority of Gabriel Auguste Daubrée, geology professor at the Paris Museum, and published in the Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. The skilled scientists reported the presence of iron sulfides, hydrated silicates, and carbonates in Orgueil. They also characterized ammonium salts which are now gone, and observed sulfates being remobilized at the surface of the stone. They identified the high water and carbon contents, and noted similarities with the Alais meteorite, which had fallen in 1806, 300 km away. While Daubrée and his colleagues noted the similarity of the Orgueil organic matter with some terrestrial humus, they were cautious not to make a direct link with living organisms. One century later, Nagy and Claus were less prudent and announced the discovery of "organized" elements in some samples of Orgueil. Their observations were quickly discredited by Edward Anders and others who also discovered that some pollen grains were intentionally placed into the rock back in the 1860s. Orgueil is now one of the most studied meteorites, indeed one of the most studied rocks of any kind. Not only does it contain a large diversity of carbon-rich compounds, which help address the question of organo-synthesis in the early solar system but its chemical composition is also close to that of the Sun's photosphere and serves as a cosmic reference. Secondary minerals, which make up 99% of the volume of Orgueil, were probably formed during hydrothermal alteration on the parent-body within the first few million years of the solar system; their study is essential to our

  14. Molecular Gas in a Submillimeter Galaxy at z = 4.5: Evidence for a Major Merger at 1 Billion Years after the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinnerer, E.; Carilli, C. L.; Capak, P.; Martinez-Sansigre, A.; Scoville, N. Z.; Smolčić, V.; Taniguchi, Y.; Yun, M. S.; Bertoldi, F.; Le Fevre, O.; de Ravel, L.

    2008-12-01

    We report the detection of CO molecular line emission in the z = 4.5 millimeter-detected galaxy COSMOS J100054+023436 (hereafter J1000+0234) using the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI) and NRAO's Very Large Array (VLA). The 12CO(4-3) line as observed with PdBI has a full line width of ~1000 km s-1, an integrated line flux of 0.66 Jy km s-1, and a CO luminosity of 3.2 × 1010 L⊙. Comparison to the 3.3 σ detection of the CO(2-1) line emission with the VLA suggests that the molecular gas is likely thermalized to the J = 4-3 transition level. The corresponding molecular gas mass is 2.6 × 1010 M⊙ assuming an ULIRG-like conversion factor. From the spatial offset of the red- and blueshifted line peaks and the line width a dynamical mass of 1.1 × 1011 M⊙ is estimated assuming a merging scenario. The molecular gas distribution coincides with the rest-frame optical and radio position of the object while being offset by 0.5'' from the previously detected Lyα emission. J1000+0234 exhibits very typical properties for lower redshift (z ~ 2) submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) and thus is very likely one of the long sought after high-redshift (z > 4) objects of this population. The large CO(4-3) line width taken together with its highly disturbed rest-frame UV geometry suggest an ongoing major merger about a billion years after the big bang. Given its large star formation rate (SFR) of >1000 M⊙ yr-1 and molecular gas content this object could be the precursor of a "red and dead" elliptical observed at a redshift of z = 2. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).

  15. 40 CFR 68.168 - Five-year accident history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Five-year accident history. 68.168 Section 68.168 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.168 Five-year accident history...

  16. History, Archaeology and the Bible Forty Years after "Historicity"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In History, Archaeology and the Bible Forty Years after “Historicity”, Hjelm and Thompson argue that a ‘crisis’ broke in the 1970s, when several new studies of biblical history and archaeology were published, questioning the historical-critical method of biblical scholarship. The crisis formed...... articles from some of the field’s best scholars with comprehensive discussion of historical, archaeological, anthropological, cultural and literary approaches to the Hebrew Bible and Palestine’s history. The essays question: “How does biblical history relate to the archaeological history of Israel...

  17. The history of Korean Institute Chemical Engineers for fifteen years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This book reports the history of Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers with commemorative message, three congratulatory address and photos for fifty years. Nest, it consists of five chapters, which deals with development this institute by chronological classification. It reports the development history by activity such as education, research, publishing branch, international activity, data, woman, and executive office. It records challenge of chemical engineering, remembrance for past presidents and appendixes on history and a list of members.

  18. The history of Korean Institute Chemical Engineers for fifteen years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This book reports the history of Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers with commemorative message, three congratulatory address and photos for fifty years. Nest, it consists of five chapters, which deals with development this institute by chronological classification. It reports the development history by activity such as education, research, publishing branch, international activity, data, woman, and executive office. It records challenge of chemical engineering, remembrance for past presidents and appendixes on history and a list of members.

  19. A brief 100 year history of carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Terence J

    2017-09-01

    Elemental carbon has been known from time immemorial in its forms of diamond and graphite, while the Industrial Revolution was powered by coal. The molecular structures of diamond and graphite were established following the inception of X-ray crystallography while the complex natures of charcoal and coal have been investigated for 100 years. Recent developments in activated charcoal are described in an article in this issue of Science Progress. However, no-one could have guessed that carbon would have presented such structural surprises as those of C60 fullerene, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. Materials science has benefited from the discovery of carbon fibres, and our understanding of the spectroscopy and bonding in the simplest carbon molecule, C2, has reached new depths.

  20. Uroradiology in 117 year history of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, N.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: ‘In order to understand the present and see the future, you must know the past'. This motto, used by Professor Jean-Franois Moreau in his presentation ‘A Century uroradiology in Europe 1896 -1996’, is the occasion, with his consent and participation to complement the presentation not only with what comes as a change in our profession in recent years, but also to celebrate milestones in the development of uroradiology in Bulgaria. One of the major health problems in Europe, not only in the late 19th century, but today is renal calculi. For this reason, five months after the described by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen X- rays attempts to use them in medical practice by urologists namely in seeking opportunities to demonstrate calculi began. What you will learn: This justifies the first phase, covering 1896-1929, has not only uroradiology but of radiology as a whole, in which it is a hobby of the urologists. Summarizing the main points as in the technical development of radiological equipment, but above all the introduction of diagnostic methods, some of which have not lost their relevance and today, this period naturally ends with one of the most epochal discoveries in medicine and first diagnostic method combining morphological with functional diagnostics - excretory urography . The second step, covering the period of 1929-1960, is characterized by increasing further improvement of the equipment, but also of the applied diagnostic methods, as the urologist is still leading in applying these methods, but now with the technical assistance of the radiologist. After World War II, this approach began to change, besides the appearance of chapters on uroradiology in major guidelines in diagnostic radiology, new methods have been developed, and including vascular contrast diagnostic are made and implemented by radiologists. The third stage, cover the period 1960-1980, entitled ‘Fathers of uroradiology’ account entry of CT low-osmolar nonionic

  1. 100 billion suns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippenhahn, R.

    1983-01-01

    A work on the world of astrophysics primarily for lay readers. The author writes only about the discoveries he ''experienced'' during the past 25 years (before 1979). Illustrated somewhat in color plus a set of superb colar plates. Contents, abridged: The long life of stars. The life story of the sun. The life story of massive stars. The end of stars. How stars are born. Planets and their inhabitants

  2. LLNL's Big Science Capabilities Help Spur Over $796 Billion in U.S. Economic Activity Sequencing the Human Genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Jeffrey S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-28

    LLNL’s successful history of taking on big science projects spans beyond national security and has helped create billions of dollars per year in new economic activity. One example is LLNL’s role in helping sequence the human genome. Over $796 billion in new economic activity in over half a dozen fields has been documented since LLNL successfully completed this Grand Challenge.

  3. Nuclear business worth billions begins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.; Marcan, P.; Slovak, K.

    2005-01-01

    The first V1 unit of Bohunice nuclear power station is to be shutdown by the end of next year. However, its decommissioning can only start in 2011 as before the decommissioning can start the second unit must be shutdown and the nuclear fuel to be stored in a basin must cool down. But in spite of these limitations, the decommissioning process has already started. Various analyses and projects have been put out to tender, work on the technical division of the decommissioned V1 units from the V2 units, which will remain in service, has also began. The state owned company, GovCo, a.s., will be in charge of the decommissioning of the V1 units. The method to be applied to the decommissioning of the V1 units has not yet been selected. The project management unit of Slovak Electric favours immediate decommissioning. 'Not only will decommissioning start immediately following the removal of the nuclear fuel, but it will also be done continuously,'explained unit director, Peter Hlbocky. Using this procedure, decommissioned could be complete by 2026. The question as to whether the power plant will be completely decommissioned to create a green field site will, according to P. Hlbocky, depend on Slovakia's future plans regarding nuclear energy generation at Jaslovske Bohunice, which could be a suitable location for building a new nuclear power station. In such a case, a part of the infrastructure would remain in place. 'Should Slovakia decide to continue its nuclear program, it would be a waste not to take advantage of the existing infrastructure,' said P. Hlbocky. The cabinet is to decide on the method to be used for decommissioning of the V1 reactor and the time frame for the process by the end of next year. The cabinet will decide mainly on the basis of cost estimates to be prepared together with decommissioning concept that is currently under preparation. The decommissioning concept financed by the Bohunice International Decommissioning Support Fund should provide more

  4. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Downsizing of the blue cloud and the influence of galaxy size on mass quenching over the last eight billion years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, C. P.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Guzzo, L.; Davidzon, I.; Bolzonella, M.; Garilli, B.; Scodeggio, M.; Granett, B. R.; de la Torre, S.; De Lucia, G.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; Franzetti, P.; Fritz, A.; Gargiulo, A.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; Moutard, T.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Zamorani, G.; Bel, J.; Branchini, E.; Coupon, J.; Ilbert, O.; Moscardini, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Siudek, M.

    2017-08-01

    We use the full VIPERS redshift survey in combination with SDSS-DR7 to explore the relationships between star-formation history (using d4000), stellar mass and galaxy structure, and how these relationships have evolved since z 1. We trace the extents and evolutions of both the blue cloud and red sequence by fitting double Gaussians to the d4000 distribution of galaxies in narrow stellar mass bins, for four redshift intervals over 0 1011M⊙, d4000 web site is http://www.vipers.inaf.it/

  5. FY97 nuclear-related budgets total 493 billion yen (4.4 billion dollars)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    On September 13, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan announced the estimated nuclear-related budget requests for FY1997 (April, 1997 - Mach, 1998), giving the breakdowns for eight ministries and agencies. The total amount requested by the government bodies was 493.3 billion yen, 0.8% increase as compared with FY96. this figure includes the budget requests of the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Transport, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the Okinawa Development Agency, and the Ministry of Home Affairs, but excludes the budget request made by the Ministry of Education. The budget requests of STA and MITI are 360 billion yen and 126 billion yen, respectively. On August 29, STA released its estimated FY97 budget request. The nuclear-related 360.4 billion yen is 0.9% more than that in year before. Of this sum, 199.9 billion yen is in the general account, and 160.6 billion yen is in the special account for power source development. The details of the nuclear-related amounts are explained. On August 26, MITI released its estimated budget request for FY97, and of the nuclear-related 125.7 billion yen (0.1% increase from FY96), 200 million yen is in the general account, and 98.9 billion yen and 26.6 billion yen are in the special accounts for power resource development and power source diversification, respectively. (K.I.)

  6. 1.8 billion years of fluid-crust interaction: A zircon oxygen isotope record for the lower crust, western Churchill Province, Canadian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petts, Duane C.; Moser, Desmond E.; Longstaffe, Frederick J.; Davis, William J.; Stern, Richard A.

    2014-04-01

    The western Churchill Province of the Canadian Shield experienced a prolonged and complex formation history (ca. 4.04 to 1.70 Ga), with evidence for multiple episodes of orogenesis and regional magmatic activity. Here we report on the oxygen isotopic compositions of garnet and zircon recovered from lower crustal xenoliths, which have U-Pb ages between ca. 3.5 and 1.7 Ga. Overall, zircon from four metabasite xenoliths from the Rankin Inlet sample suite have δ18O values ranging from + 5.5 to + 8.6‰. Zircon from three metatonalite/anorthosite xenoliths and five metabasite xenoliths from the Repulse Bay sample suite have δ18O values of + 5.6 to + 8.3‰. High δ18O values (> + 6.0‰) for the oldest igneous zircon cores (ca. 3.5 Ga and 3.0-2.6 Ga) indicate that their metatonalite/anorthosite protolith magmas were generated from, or had assimilated, supracrustal rocks that interacted previously with surface-derived fluids. Igneous zircon cores (ca. 2.9-2.6 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith have δ18O values of + 5.6 to + 6.4‰, which suggests a formation from a mantle-derived basaltic/gabbroic magma. Metamorphic zircon cores (ca. 2.0-1.9 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith commonly have δ18O values between + 6.0 and + 6.3‰, which is indicative of a basalt/gabbro protolith and localized reworking of the lower crust caused by regional-scale plate convergence. The wide range of δ18O values (+ 5.5 to + 8.3‰) for ca. 1.75-1.70 Ga metamorphic zircon rims (identified in all xenoliths) indicates regional transient heating and reworking of mantle- and supracrustal-derived crust, induced by magmatic underplating along the crust-mantle boundary.

  7. A billion-dollar bonanza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, J.

    1993-01-01

    In late May -- only weeks after Congress had rejected the president's economic stimulus package because it would add to the federal deficit -- the House of Representatives generously allocated an extra $1.2 billion to the Pentagon. This article discusses some of the rationalizations House members gave for the gift and describes the attempts of a bipartisan group to defeat this request for funds propounded by Pennsylvania Democrat John Murtha. This gist of the arguments for and against the $1.2 billion and the results of votes on the bill are presented

  8. Three-dimensional preservation of cellular and subcellular structures suggests 1.6 billion-year-old crown-group red algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtson, Stefan; Sallstedt, Therese; Belivanova, Veneta

    2017-01-01

    The ~1.6 Ga Tirohan Dolomite of the Lower Vindhyan in central India contains phosphatized stromatolitic microbialites. We report from there uniquely well-preserved fossils interpreted as probable crown-group rhodophytes (red algae). The filamentous form Rafatazmia chitrakootensis n. gen, n. sp. has....... The wider affinities of Denaricion are uncertain. Ramathallus lobatus n. gen., n. sp. is a lobate sessile alga with pseudoparenchymatous thallus, “cell fountains,” and apical growth, suggesting florideophycean affinity. If these inferences are correct, Rafatazmia and Ramathallus represent crown......-group multicellular rhodophytes, antedating the oldest previously accepted red alga in the fossil record by about 400 million years....

  9. Fifty years of IAA History Symposia (1967-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, A. Ingemar; Hall, R. Cargill

    2017-05-01

    The International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) Symposia on the History of Rocketry and Astronautics have been held annually at the International Astronautical Congresses since 1967. During these past 50 years nearly 800 papers have been presented and subsequently published in the proceedings. With a 20-year rule imposed for historical presentations, the first 10 symposia concentrated on pre-World War II and early 1950s activities. A surprisingly large number of papers on early, less well-known Soviet-Russian contributions to rocketry and astronautics were presented in the first symposia, despite the ongoing Space Race between the U.S and USSR. Another important element in these symposia involved memoir papers offered by pre- and post-war rocket and astronautics pioneers from many countries, and the participation of many of these pioneers in person. In sum, the history of national space and rocket projects from some 40 countries were presented over the years in IAA History Symposia. These 50 symposia have provided a platform for scholars and professional and non-professional historians to meet and discuss the history of rocketry and astronautics, and to personally interview many space pioneers, most of whom today are deceased. Their personal recollections have since been shared with a large audience. Over time, IAA history papers divided into recognizable periods: ancient times through the 19th century, and the 20th and 21st centuries, which separate among actions and events that took place before 1945, in 1945 to 1957, and after 1957 (which marked the beginning of the space age). Proceedings of the IAA History Symposia have been published in English, ultimately in the History Series of the American Astronautical Society (AAS) and its publishing arm, Univelt Inc., under an agreement secured with the IAA. This paper presents an overview of the IAA History Symposia. It examines the early years of the history committee and its first symposium, the evolution of

  10. Probing the Big Bang at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) (or Probing the Big Bang 13.7 billion years later)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, David M

    2010-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in the USA is a variable energy proton-proton and ion-ion collider that is the first accelerator capable of colliding heavy ions. RHIC was designed to do experiments that provide important information about the Standard Model of particle physics, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). QCD predicts that in the early part of the Universe just after the Big Bang the world consisted of a Quark Gluon Plasma, a weakly interacting collection of quarks and gluons. At RHIC we can recreate the conditions of the early Universe by colliding heavy ions at 200 GeV. This paper will give a general overview of the physics motivation for studying the QGP, how our experiments are designed to study the QGP, what we have learned over the last 9 years, and what the future holds.

  11. Are History Textbooks More "Considerate" after 20 Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley, Sheri; King-Sears, Margaret E.; Hott, Brittany L.; Bradley-Black, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Features of eighth-grade history textbooks were examined through replication of a 20-year-old study that investigated "considerateness" of textbooks. Considerate texts provide clear, coherent information and include features that promote students' comprehension, such as explicit use of organizational structures, a range of question types…

  12. Brain Science and Teaching: A Forty-Year Personal History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Linda Faye

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the sharing of a record, the personal history of an educator pursuing an interest in knowledge of the brain. Over the years, this fascination sparked the idea to create a course for teachers based on brain science, with a twist. Certain course assignments would require teachers to interpret knowledge of the brain in the context of…

  13. Exploring 350 Years of Jewish American History on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Michael J.; Cruz, Barbara C.

    2005-01-01

    The recent Library of Congress exhibition, From Haven to Home: 350 Years of Jewish Life in America, has sparked renewed interest in the history of Jews in the United States. The collection featured more than 200 documents, images, and artifacts that chronicle the Jewish American experience. In exhibit from September through December 2004, From…

  14. Student Interviews Fifty Years Later: An Oral History

    OpenAIRE

    2018-01-01

    The Regional History Project at UC Santa Cruz has rich collections of interviews with generations of narrators, ranging across the administration, faculty, and staff. In the early years of the campus, founding director Elizabeth Spedding Calciano conducted two rounds of interviews focused on the student experience at what was then the newest campus of the University of California. Those interviews, conducted in 1967 and 1969 as the campus was still adding a new college every year, give a wind...

  15. Three-dimensional preservation of cellular and subcellular structures suggests 1.6 billion-year-old crown-group red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Stefan; Sallstedt, Therese; Belivanova, Veneta; Whitehouse, Martin

    2017-03-01

    The ~1.6 Ga Tirohan Dolomite of the Lower Vindhyan in central India contains phosphatized stromatolitic microbialites. We report from there uniquely well-preserved fossils interpreted as probable crown-group rhodophytes (red algae). The filamentous form Rafatazmia chitrakootensis n. gen, n. sp. has uniserial rows of large cells and grows through diffusely distributed septation. Each cell has a centrally suspended, conspicuous rhomboidal disk interpreted as a pyrenoid. The septa between the cells have central structures that may represent pit connections and pit plugs. Another filamentous form, Denaricion mendax n. gen., n. sp., has coin-like cells reminiscent of those in large sulfur-oxidizing bacteria but much more recalcitrant than the liquid-vacuole-filled cells of the latter. There are also resemblances with oscillatoriacean cyanobacteria, although cell volumes in the latter are much smaller. The wider affinities of Denaricion are uncertain. Ramathallus lobatus n. gen., n. sp. is a lobate sessile alga with pseudoparenchymatous thallus, "cell fountains," and apical growth, suggesting florideophycean affinity. If these inferences are correct, Rafatazmia and Ramathallus represent crown-group multicellular rhodophytes, antedating the oldest previously accepted red alga in the fossil record by about 400 million years.

  16. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2016-02-01

    Freshwater scarcity is increasingly perceived as a global systemic risk. Previous global water scarcity assessments, measuring water scarcity annually, have underestimated experienced water scarcity by failing to capture the seasonal fluctuations in water consumption and availability. We assess blue water scarcity globally at a high spatial resolution on a monthly basis. We find that two-thirds of the global population (4.0 billion people) live under conditions of severe water scarcity at least 1 month of the year. Nearly half of those people live in India and China. Half a billion people in the world face severe water scarcity all year round. Putting caps to water consumption by river basin, increasing water-use efficiencies, and better sharing of the limited freshwater resources will be key in reducing the threat posed by water scarcity on biodiversity and human welfare.

  17. Oklo 2 Billion Years Before Fermi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.

    2005-02-01

    The author aims to present the little-known story of the Oklo natural reactors. He recalls the historical aspects of the Oklo reactors discovery by the CEA in 1972, he explains the scientific phenomenon and the interest, notably as a ''natural analogue'' for the geological disposal of high level radioactive wastes. (A.L.B.)

  18. 50-year-old history of the Korean physical society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    This book introduces the root of Korean physics, the dawning of Korean physics, foundation and childhood of Korean physics society, growth of Korean physics society, revival of Korean physics society, corporation Korean physics society, leap of Korean physics society and challenges towards future. It also deals with 50-year-old history of the Korean physical society according to committees, special interest groups, branches in cities and provinces, branches in universities, laboratories, society bureau, and commemoration business to celebrate 50th anniversary.

  19. Total Hip Arthroplasty – over 100 years of operative history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Richard Knight

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Total hip arthroplasty (THA has completely revolutionised the nature in which the arthritic hip is treated, and is considered to be one of the most successful orthopaedic interventions of its generation (1. With over 100 years of operative history, this review examines the progression of the operation from its origins, together with highlighting the materials and techniques that have contributed to its development. Knowledge of its history contributes to a greater understanding of THA, such as the reasons behind selection of prosthetic materials in certain patient groups, while demonstrating the importance of critically analyzing research to continually determine best operative practice. Finally, we describe current areas of research being undertaken to further advance techniques and improve outcomes.

  20. 30 years history of KINS 1990-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    This describes 20 years history of KINS from 1990 to 2010. It starts with enactment and safety supervision of atomic energy law, establishment and safety confirmation of building of nuclear plant, operating of plant and light-water reactor of North Korea, improvement of safety regulation system, international cooperation of nuclear energy safety. The next part deals with system change and safety regulation system, safety regulation of new building of nuclear plant, safety regulation of operating of nuclear plant and safety regulation of extra nuclear facilities. The last part shows the vision, direction of development, prevention of disasters and cooperation for infrastructure of safety regulation.

  1. The JWST Extragalactic Mock Catalog: Modeling Galaxy Populations from the UV through the Near-IR over 13 Billion Years of Cosmic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christina C.; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Hainline, Kevin N.; Chevallard, Jacopo; Robertson, Brant E.; Charlot, Stephane; Endsley, Ryan; Stark, Daniel P.; Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Alberts, Stacey; Amorin, Ricardo; Arribas, Santiago; Baum, Stefi; Bunker, Andrew; Carniani, Stefano; Crandall, Sara; Egami, Eiichi; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Ferruit, Pierre; Husemann, Bernd; Maseda, Michael V.; Maiolino, Roberto; Rawle, Timothy D.; Rieke, Marcia; Smit, Renske; Tacchella, Sandro; Willott, Chris J.

    2018-06-01

    We present an original phenomenological model to describe the evolution of galaxy number counts, morphologies, and spectral energy distributions across a wide range of redshifts (0.2colors, sizes, star formation, and chemical properties of the observed galaxy population. Unlike other existing approaches, our model includes a self-consistent treatment of stellar and photoionized gas emission and dust attenuation based on the BEAGLE tool. The mock galaxy catalogs generated with our new model can be used to simulate and optimize extragalactic surveys with future facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and to enable critical assessments of analysis procedures, interpretation tools, and measurement systematics for both photometric and spectroscopic data. As a first application of this work, we make predictions for the upcoming JWST Advanced Deep Extragalactic Survey (JADES), a joint program of the JWST/NIRCam and NIRSpec Guaranteed Time Observations teams. We show that JADES will detect, with NIRCam imaging, 1000s of galaxies at z ≳ 6, and 10s at z ≳ 10 at {m}{AB}≲ 30 (5σ) within the 236 arcmin2 of the survey. The JADES data will enable accurate constraints on the evolution of the UV luminosity function at z > 8, and resolve the current debate about the rate of evolution of galaxies at z ≳ 8. Ready-to-use mock catalogs and software to generate new realizations are publicly available as the JAdes extraGalactic Ultradeep Artificial Realizations (JAGUAR) package.

  2. Escalating energy costs threaten health care for critically ill and homebound seniors: home care nurses, aides and therapists drive 4.8 billion miles per year to reach shut-in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The rapidly rising cost of fuel has had a profound impact on the home care and hospice industry. In an effort to quantify the increased burden, the National Association for Home Care & Hospice's (NAHC) Foundation for Hospice and Home Care conducted a study showing that home care and hospice providers drive over 5 billion miles per year to deliver services --about two-and-a-half times the number driven by United Parcel Service, the international delivery service. The findings garnered significant interest by the media and elected officials. Reprinted in this issue of CARING Magazine are the press release that NAHC issued regarding the study, as well as a graphic representation of the study's findings that was circulated to the National Conference of State Legislatures at its most recent meeting in July. Also represented on these pages is a reprint from the Congressional Record of July 11, 2008, in which Senator Debbie Stabenow (D-MI), one of the highest ranking Democrats in the US. Senate, entered into the record an article from the front page of the New York Times of July 5, 2008, that covered the mileage study.

  3. Millions and Billions of Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Darren; Horowitz, Paul

    The history of the Harvard SETI group is inextricably linked with the history of Paul Horowitz. Horowitz became enamored with SETI as a student at Harvard, reading Ed Purcell's paper "Radio Astronomy and Communication Through Space" (Purcell, 1960), discussing with his roommates a class that Carl Sagan was teaching there using a draft of Shklovskii and Sagan's "Intelligent Life in the Universe" (Shklovskii and Sagan, 1966) as a text, and finally attending a Loeb Lecture series at Harvard by Frank Drake (Drake, 1969). The series was officially about pulsars but Drake did manage to slip in one inspiring talk about SETI. Horowitz says that "It was this lecture that launched me into this field; it was a revelation that you could go beyond idle speculation - you could actually calculate stuff."

  4. A Cautionary Analysis of a Billion Dollar Athletic Expenditure: The History of the Renovation of California Memorial Stadium and the Construction of the Barclay Simpson Student Athlete High Performance Center. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.3.17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, John

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a description and analysis of the history of the renovation of Memorial Stadium and the building of the Barclay Simpson Student Athlete High Performance Center (SAHPC) on the Berkeley campus, showing how incremental changes over time result in a much riskier and financially less viable project than originally anticipated. It…

  5. History, Archaeology and the Bible Forty Years after "Historicity"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    within the field of Old Testament studies since the ground breaking works of Thomas Thompson and John van Seters in 1974 and 1975 (both republished in 2014). The book is divided in three sections: changing perspectives in biblical studies, history and cult, and ideology and history, presenting new...

  6. Modern history of weather service for one hundred years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    This book describes meteorological history of Korea for a century. It consists of eleven chapters, which deals with the ancient history of meteorologic services, the beginning of modem history of meteorologic services from 1894 to 1910, meteorologic services in Japanese colonial era, meteorologic services in the U. S Military Government in Korea from 1945 to 1948, transition period from 1948 to 1950, Korean war period from 1950 to 1953, foundation construction period from 1953 to 1960, growth period in 1970s'. period of development in 1980s' foundation construction period for advanced technologies of meteorologic services in 1990s' and leaping period of meteorologic services in 2000s'.

  7. Interaction, at Ambient Temperature and 80 °C, between Minerals and Artificial Seawaters Resembling the Present Ocean Composition and that of 4.0 Billion Years Ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Cristine E A; Stabile, Antonio C; Gomes, Frederico P; da Costa, Antonio C S; Zaia, Cássia T B V; Zaia, Dimas A M

    2017-09-01

    Probably one of the most important roles played by minerals in the origin of life on Earth was to pre-concentrate biomolecules from the prebiotic seas. There are other ways to pre concentrate biomolecules such as wetting/drying cycles and freezing/sublimation. However, adsorption is most important. If the pre-concentration did not occur-because of degradation of the minerals-other roles played by them such as protection against degradation, formation of polymers, or even as primitive cell walls would be seriously compromised. We studied the interaction of two artificial seawaters with kaolinite, bentonite, montmorillonite, goethite, ferrihydrite and quartz. One seawater has a major cation and anion composition similar to that of the oceans of the Earth 4.0 billion years ago (ASW 4.0 Ga). In the other, the major cations and anions are an average of the compositions of the seawaters of today (ASWT). When ASWT, which is rich in Na + and Cl - , interacted with bentonite and montmorrilonite structural collapse occurred on the 001 plane. However, ASW 4.0 Ga, which is rich in Mg 2+ and SO 4 2- , did not induce this behavior. When ASW 4.0 Ga was reacted with the minerals for 24 h at room temperature and 80 °C, the release of Si and Al to the fluid was below 1 % of the amount in the minerals-meaning that dissolution of the minerals did not occur. In general, minerals adsorbed Mg 2+ and K + from the ASW 4.0 Ga and these cations could be used for the formation of polymers. Also, when the minerals were mixed with ASW 4.0 Ga at 80 °C and ASWT at room temperature or 80 °C it caused the precipitation of CaSO 4 ∙2H 2 O and halite, respectively. Finally, further experiments (adsorption, formation of polymers, protection of molecules against degradation, primitive cell wall formation) performed under the conditions described in this paper will probably be more representative of what happened on the prebiotic Earth.

  8. History of Korean Chemical Society for 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    This book records the history of Korean Chemical Society from 1946 to 1996, which is divided into five chapters. The first chapter breaks the history into periodic characteristics. The second chapter introduces committee and executive office like chemical education committee and international cooperation committee. The third chapter lists the department of KCS such as departments of organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, industrial chemistry, biochemistry and physical chemistry. The fourth chapter reports each branch of KCS. The last chapter has a chronological table and articles of association and organizations.

  9. Backlog at December 31, 2007: euro 39,8 billion, up by 55% from year-end 2006. 2007 sales revenue: euro 11.9 billion, up by 9.8% (+10.4% like-for-like); Carnet de commandes au 31 decembre 2007: 39,8 milliards d'euros, en progression de 55% par rapport a fin 2006. Chiffre d'affaires de l'exercice 2007: 11,9 milliards d'euros, en progression de 9,8% (+10,4% en donnees comparables)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The AREVA group's backlog reached a record level of euro 39.834 billion as of December 31, 2007, up by 55% from that of year-end 2006. In Nuclear, the backlog was euro 34.927 billion at year-end 2007 (+58%), due in particular to the signature of a contract in a record amount with the Chinese utility CGNPC. The series of agreements concluded provide among other things for the construction of two new-generation EPR nuclear islands and the supply of all of the materials and services needed for their operation through 2027. CGNPC also bought 35% of the production of UraMin, the mining company acquired by AREVA in August 2007. Industrial cooperation in the Back End of the cycle was launched with the signature of an agreement between China and France. In addition, the group signed several long-term contracts in significant amounts, particularly with KHNP of South Korea, EDF and Japanese utilities. The Transmission and Distribution division won several major contracts in Libya and Qatar at the end of the year approaching a total of euro 750 million. For the entire year, new orders grew by 34% to euro 5.816 billion. The backlog, meanwhile, grew by 40% to euro 4.906 billion at year-end. The group cleared sales revenue of euro 11.923 billion in 2007, up by 9.8% (+10.4% like-for-like) in relation to 2006 sales of euro 10.863 billion. Sales revenue for the 4. quarter of 2007 rose to euro 3.858 billion, for growth of 16.7% (+18.8% like-for-like) over one year. Sales revenue for the year was marked by: - Growth of 7.6% (+10.6% like-for-like) in Front End sales revenue, which rose to euro 3.140 billion. The division's Enrichment operations posted strong growth. - Sales were up by 17.5% (+15.2% like-for-like) to euro 2.717 billion in the Reactors and Services division. Sales revenue was driven in particular by the growth of Services operations, after weak demand in 2006, by progress on OL3 construction, and by the start of Flamanville 3, the second EPR. For the Back End

  10. The first 800 million years of earth's history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. V.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that there is no direct geological information on the first 750 Ma of earth history. Consequently the reported study is based on controversial inferences drawn from the moon, other planets and meteorites, coupled with backward extrapolation from surviving terrestrial rocks, especially those of Archaean age. Aspects of accretion are considered, taking into account cosmochemical and cosmophysical evidence, a new earth model, and convection systems. Attention is given to phase-equilibrium constraints, estimates of heat production, the bombardment history of the moon and implications for the earth, and the nature of the early crust. From a combination of physical, chemical, and petrological arguments, it is concluded that the earth's surface underwent intense volcanism in the pre-Archaean era, and that the rock types were chemically similar to those found in the early Archaean era.

  11. 195-Year History of Mykolayiv Observatory: Events and People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulga, O.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic stages of the history of the Mykolaiv Astronomical Observatory are shown. The main results of the Observatory activities are presented by the catalogs of star positions, major and minor planets in the Solar system, space objects in the Earth orbit. The information on the qualitative and quantitative structure of the Observatory, cooperation with the observatories of Ukraine and foreign countries as well as major projects carried out in the Observatory is provided.

  12. Big History or the 13800 million years from the Big Bang to the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gústafsson, Ludvik E.

    2017-04-01

    Big History is the integrated history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity. It is an attempt to understand our existence as a continuous unfolding of processes leading to ever more complex structures. Three major steps in the development of the Universe can be distinguished, the first being the creation of matter/energy and forces in the context of an expanding universe, while the second and third steps were reached when completely new qualities of matter came into existence. 1. Matter comes out of nothing Quantum fluctuations and the inflation event are thought to be responsible for the creation of stable matter particles in what is called the Big Bang. Along with simple particles the universe is formed. Later larger particles like atoms and the most simple chemical elements hydrogen and helium evolved. Gravitational contraction of hydrogen and helium formed the first stars und later on the first galaxies. Massive stars ended their lives in violent explosions releasing heavier elements like carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and iron into the universe. Subsequent star formation led to star systems with bodies containing these heavier elements. 2. Matter starts to live About 9200 million years after the Big Bang a rather inconspicous star of middle size formed in one of a billion galaxies. The leftovers of the star formation clumped into bodies rotating around the central star. In some of them elements like silicon, oxygen, iron and many other became the dominant matter. On the third of these bodies from the central star much of the surface was covered with an already very common chemical compound in the universe, water. Fluid water and plenty of various elements, especially carbon, were the ingredients of very complex chemical compounds that made up even more complex structures. These were able to replicate themselves. Life had appeared, the only occasion that we human beings know of. Life evolved subsequently leading eventually to the formation of multicellular

  13. History of the JAERI linac facility for 33 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Makio; Mizumoto, Motoharu; Nakajima, Yutaka; Mashiko, Katsuo

    1994-01-01

    The JAERI electron linear accelerator will be shutdown and disassembled at the end of 1993. At the JAERI, a prototype 20 MeV linac was constructed at 1960, and was used for the neutron time-of-flight experiments and for the isotope productions. An upgraded 120 MeV linac was constructed at 1972, and was used for many fields of research works until 1993. History of the JAERI Linac and the results of the works made using these facilities are reviewed, and also R/D on the accelerator engineering are described briefly. (author)

  14. [A 43-year-old woman with 18 years history of parkinsonism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Y; Yokochi, M; Ida, A; Mori, H; Shirai, T; Imai, H; Mizuno, Y

    1996-10-01

    We report a 43-year-old woman who died after 18 years history of parkinsonism. She was well until 25 years of the age (1976) when she noted a difficulty in stepping her feet. In the next year, she started to drag her feet. She was treated with levodopa with good response, however, she developed dyskinesia when she was 33 years of the age. She was evaluated in another hospital in 1984. She showed normal intelligence, normal ocular movement, masked face, small voice, small step gait, stooped posture, freezing of the gait, retropulsion, and cogwheel rigidity in limbs. No tremor or ataxia was noted. She received left ventrolateral thalamotomy at that time. Rigidity on the right side markedly reduced, however, she continued to show bradykinesia and motor fluctuations. On August 1 of 1994, she developed fever of 40 degrees C and dyspnea. On the next day, she expired from acute respiratory distress. She was able to walk unsupported until just before her last admission. The patient was discussed in a neurological CPC. The chief discussant arrived at the conclusion that this patient had Lewy body-positive young onset Parkinson's disease. Opinions were divided into two groups, i.e., young onset Lewy-body positive Parkinson's disease and Lewy-body negative young onset parkinsonism. Post-mortem examination revealed moderate loss of pigmented neurons in the substantia nigra more in the ventro-lateral part. Lewy bodies were found in the remaining neurons. Lewy bodies were more frequently seen in the locus coeruleus, although neuronal loss was less prominent in the locus coeruleus. The dorsal vagal motor nucleus showed moderate loss of neurons. Otherwise, the central nervous system was unremarkable. To our knowledge, this patient had the second youngest age of the onset so far reported in the literature for Lewy-body positive typical Parkinson's disease.

  15. Concluding remarks: Reflections on the forty year's history of TNF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.W.

    1994-01-01

    The History of NATO's TNF policy is much wider than it may first appear, for NATO TNF policy has been the heart of the whole nuclear question since shortly after it was first so dramatically posed in 1945. Admittedly the ultimate foundation of deterrence has been the overarching balance of strategic nuclear weapons between the two Superpowers. These have provided the strategic open-quotes monitorclose quotes of ultimately unacceptable damage that inspires cautious behavior at lower levels of conflict. But if the strategic weapons inculcate the caution, it has been with TNF that the opposing blocs have chiefly tried to harness nuclear weapons to particular situations and manipulate them to their advantage. The key characteristic of nuclear weapons that distinguishes them from all others is their virtually unlimited destructive potential. Powers disposing of large strategic nuclear forces cannot readily, perhaps ever, be deprived of an ultimate capacity to do outrageous harm. If they are to be defeated, it must therefore be by outmaneuvering them so that they yield the essential prizes without recourse to their worst possibilities. If nuclear weapons are to be used in this process, whether actually or by latent influence on particular issues, it must be in some limited form. NATO's TNF policy constitutes the best example of this so far in nuclear history

  16. Oral history of Florence Downs; the early years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairman, J; Mahon, M M

    2001-01-01

    Florence Downs is a well-recognized nursing leader, educator, editor, and scholar who helped shape nursing as an intellectual discipline, and wrote extensively about the importance of links between research and practice. Through the use of oral history data garnered over 15 hours of interviews, we constructed a narrative that describes some of Downs' formative experiences. Oral history is used to place the "stories" of an individual into a social and cultural context, in this case, the development of the profession of nursing. From the interviews, several strands emerged that defined Downs' extended career, including the importance of developing a community of scholars both in and outside of nursing, the dangers of parochialism, and the necessity of a perspective on life that melded a keen sense of humor. Factors that affected Downs' style and choice, especially her mother, and her educational experiences, were revealed. From the interviews we gained a sense of how Downs constructed her conceptual universe of nursing, as well as the language and political effectiveness to overcome barriers confronting the intellectual growth of nursing mounted by other nursing leaders as well as traditional academic disciplines.

  17. One billion cubic meters of gas produced in Kikinda area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicicevic, M; Duric, N

    1969-10-01

    The Kikinda gas reservoir has just passed a milestone in producing one billion cubic meters of natural gas. The reservoir was discovered in 1962, and its present production amounts to 26 million cu m. One of the biggest problems was formation of hydrates, which has successfully been solved by using methanol. Four tables show production statistics by years and productive formations.

  18. Congress OKs $2 Billion Boost for the NIH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    President Donald Trump last week signed a $1.1 trillion spending bill for fiscal year 2017, including a welcome $2 billion boost for the NIH that will support former Vice President Joe Biden's Cancer Moonshot initiative, among other priorities. However, researchers who rely heavily on NIH grant funding remain concerned about proposed cuts for 2018. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. 5000 years of geometry mathematics in history and culture

    CERN Document Server

    Scriba, Christoph J

    2015-01-01

    The present volume provides a fascinating overview of geometrical ideas and perceptions from the earliest cultures to the mathematical and artistic concepts of the 20th century. It is the English translation of the 3rd edition of the well-received German book “5000 Jahre Geometrie,” in which geometry is presented as a chain of developments in cultural history and their interaction with architecture, the visual arts, philosophy, science, and engineering. Geometry originated in the ancient cultures along the Indus and Nile Rivers and in Mesopotamia, experiencing its first “Golden Age” in Ancient Greece. Inspired by the Greek mathematics, a new germ of geometry blossomed in the Islamic civilizations. Through the Oriental influence on Spain, this knowledge later spread to Western Europe. Here, as part of the medieval Quadrivium, the understanding of geometry was deepened, leading to a revival during the Renaissance. Together with parallel achievements in India, China, Japan and the ancient American cultur...

  20. Bismarck in the Bush: Year 12 Write Zambia's History for Zambian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Peter Gray explains how his Year 12 students came to research and write a resource on the history of Zambia, for history teachers "in" Zambia. The construction of the resource stretched the Year 12 students in new ways: the Internet was useless and there were no easy digests in A-Level textbooks to get them started. They would have to…

  1. General RMP Guidance - Chapter 3: Five-Year Accident History

    Science.gov (United States)

    This involves the reporting of significant accidental releases of one or more of the regulated toxic or flammable substances from a covered process in the five years prior to the submission of an initial or updated Risk Management Plan.

  2. Synthetic detergents: 100 years of history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Kogawa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2016 the synthetic detergents complete 100 years and in this story they evolved as cleaners. They are already part of the routine of thousands of people worldwide. For a higher power of cleaning of the detergent, today, are added phosphates, the main responsible for environmental problems. After 100 years of synthetic detergents, the effect of the combination of various cleaners on the environment is a gap. Legislation and guidelines about the other components of the formula of cleaners still missing. Even the term biodegradable can be best placed on the diversity of products currently entitled biodegradable. A lot attitudes can still be taken to continuously improve the relationship between the parties involved, animals, plants, waters and men, so that in another 100 years continues to exist this interaction with the environment without destroying it. The marketing used by synthetic detergent companies evolved a lot over the years and showed maturity to deal with changes in theories and strategies for promotion and even with the constant social reform that its consumer lived, accompanying them intelligently to be able to capture their changing needs and desires, and so assemble the best way to connect to them. This paper focuses on the subject synthetic detergents as well as (i types and applications, (ii threats, (iii sustainability, (iv legislation, (v packaging and (vi marketing strategies.

  3. Synthetic detergents: 100 years of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogawa, Ana Carolina; Cernic, Beatriz Gamberini; do Couto, Leandro Giovanni Domingos; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes

    2017-09-01

    In the year 2016 the synthetic detergents complete 100 years and in this story they evolved as cleaners. They are already part of the routine of thousands of people worldwide. For a higher power of cleaning of the detergent, today, are added phosphates, the main responsible for environmental problems. After 100 years of synthetic detergents, the effect of the combination of various cleaners on the environment is a gap. Legislation and guidelines about the other components of the formula of cleaners still missing. Even the term biodegradable can be best placed on the diversity of products currently entitled biodegradable. A lot attitudes can still be taken to continuously improve the relationship between the parties involved, animals, plants, waters and men, so that in another 100 years continues to exist this interaction with the environment without destroying it. The marketing used by synthetic detergent companies evolved a lot over the years and showed maturity to deal with changes in theories and strategies for promotion and even with the constant social reform that its consumer lived, accompanying them intelligently to be able to capture their changing needs and desires, and so assemble the best way to connect to them. This paper focuses on the subject synthetic detergents as well as (i) types and applications, (ii) threats, (iii) sustainability, (iv) legislation, (v) packaging and (vi) marketing strategies.

  4. Fifty years of CERN history in the spotlight

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The programme of events for CERN's Golden Jubilee year was officially unveiled at a press conference on 8 March. The first of these events took place the following day, when the Swiss commemorative postage stamp issued in the Laboratory's honour went on sale in post offices throughout Switzerland.

  5. A case of astrocytoma, 19 year history after BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamano, Shuji

    2006-01-01

    A 39-year-old man had received Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in 1987 for a Grade II Astrocytoma. He gradually exacerbated and received a second operation in 1994. The mass taken in the second operation is almost competent with radiation necrosis. Following that, he shows no signs of recurrence. Currently, he has returned to full time employment in physical labor. This case suggests effectiveness of BNCT for rather low-grade astrocytomas. (author)

  6. Tissue banking in South Africa: a 19-year history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeque, B G P; Lindeque, A M; Hausner, H; Le Roux, T L B

    2005-01-01

    The establishment of a Tissue Bank and the science of Tissue Banking in South Africa started in the 1960s and is still developing. This article describes the development and growth of Tissue Banking in South Africa. The current emphasis is to supply viable bone products that have been produced under the best possible quality controlled circumstances; with the collaboration between different Organ Donation Organisations. Through collaboration, a dramatic increase in the number of donors was noted over the years. Concurrently, there was a dramatic increase in the usage of different allograft products and now necessitates the development of new graft materials for expanding patient options. As an ongoing concern, the Tissue Bank in South Africa experienced an ever increase in costs to enhance quality/safety controls: increase in historical patient information, documentation and serological testing in a population struggling to control HIV. To date, the South African Tissue Bank has not experienced any untoward patient incidence since the 1960s and currently is getting over 500 donors per year.

  7. Seven Billion People: Fostering Productive Struggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawska, Jaclyn M.

    2018-01-01

    How can a cognitively demanding real-world task such as the Seven Billion People problem promote productive struggle "and" help shape students' mathematical dispositions? Driving home from school one evening, Jaclyn Murawska heard a commentator on the radio announce three statements: (1) experts had determined that the world population…

  8. [Electrical burns in children. 3 years of case histories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneira, E; Serafim, Z; Duarte, R; Leal, M J

    1996-01-01

    The Burn Unit of Dona Estefânia Hospital admitted a total of 454 patients from January 1992 to January 1995, 24 of these patients suffered from electric shock. Of these 24 patients 3 suffered burns in the mouth, 15 in one or both hands and 6 multiple burns. In 19 patients the burns were up to 1%. A description is made of 5 cases, male children between the ages of 9 and 13 years, which were deemed severe. The incidents occurred outdoors with different voltages and in activities considered of ludic or experimental nature: two on the roof of a house, two with railway cables and one with an electrical cable in a port zone. The burnt areas vary between 4% and 70%, all of them 2nd and 3rd degree, with hospitalization lasting from 36 to 116 days. In addition to early and coordinated medical and rehabilitative treatment, according to individual needs, a description is also made of the cutaneous sequelae (deforming cicatrices, bridles), neurologic and psychologic sequelae, with emphasis on a patient who underwent amputation of the lower left leg and 4th and 5th ranges of the right foot. It was concluded that measures should be taken in education and legislation to prevent these accidents. Relevance is given to the need for a multidisciplinary team and specialized center for the treatment of these patients.

  9. The neurobehavioral teratology of retinoids: a 50-year history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jane

    2010-10-01

    This review of the central nervous system (CNS) and behavioral teratology of the retinoids over the last 50 years is a commemorative retrospective organized by decade to show the prominent research focus within each period and the most salient findings. In the 1960s, research focused on the gross CNS malformations associated with exposure and the delineation of dose-response and stage-specific responses in rodent models. Relevant scientific events before and during the 1960s are also discussed to provide the zeitgeist in which the field of neurobehavioral teratology emerged in the 1970s. During this period, studies demonstrated that adverse effects on postnatal behavior could be produced in animals exposed to doses of vitamin A lower than those that were teratogenic or impacted growth. Work during the 1980s showed an overrepresentation of behavioral studies focused on the reliability of screening methods, while the marked effects of human exposure were illustrated in children born to women treated with isotretinoin during pregnancy. The human catastrophe invigorated research during the 1990s, a period when technological advances allowed more elegant examinations of the developing CNS, of biochemical, cellular, and molecular developmental events and regulatory actions, and of the effects of direct genetic manipulations. Likewise, research in the 1990s reflected a reinvigoration of research in neurobehavioral teratology evinced in studies that used animal models to try to better understand human vulnerability. These foci continued in the 2000-2010 period while examinations of the role of retinoids in brain development and lifelong functioning became increasingly sophisticated and broader in scope. This review of the work on retinoids also provides a lens on the more general ontogeny of the field of neurobehavioral teratology. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. RMP Guidance for Chemical Distributors - Chapter 3: Five-Year Accident History

    Science.gov (United States)

    A five year accident history must be completed for each covered process, and all accidental release events meeting specified criteria must be reported in the Risk Management Plan (RMP) for that process.

  11. Oncology pharma costs to exceed $150 billion by 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide costs of oncology drugs will rise above $150 billion by 2020, according to a report by the IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics. Many factors are in play, according to IMS, including the new wave of expensive immunotherapies. Pembrolizumab (Keytruda), priced at $150,000 per year per patient, and nivolumab (Opdivo), priced at $165,000, may be harbingers of the market for cancer immunotherapies.

  12. Ubiquitous Supercritical Wing Design Cuts Billions in Fuel Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A Langley Research Center engineer’s work in the 1960s and ’70s to develop a wing with better performance near the speed of sound resulted in a significant increase in subsonic efficiency. The design was shared with industry. Today, Renton, Washington-based Boeing Commercial Airplanes, as well as most other plane manufacturers, apply it to all their aircraft, saving the airline industry billions of dollars in fuel every year.

  13. History of Division 29, 1993-2013: another 20 years of psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elizabeth Nutt; Barnett, Jeffrey E; Canter, Mathilda B

    2013-03-01

    The history of Division 29 (Psychotherapy) of the American Psychological Association (APA) from 1993 to 2013 is reviewed. The 20 years of history can be traced via the Division's primary publications (the journal Psychotherapy and its newsletter Psychotherapy Bulletin) as well as the history of those who have served leadership roles in the Division and have won Divisional awards. Several recurring themes emerge related to the Division's articulations of its own identity, the Division's advocacy efforts vis-à-vis the profession and the APA, and the work of the Division on behalf of major social issues (such as disaster relief and the nation's health care).

  14. L'etat, c'est moi. Fifty years of history and philosophy of evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, Michael

    2016-01-01

    I reflect on my fifty-year history as a philosopher of biology, showing how it has taken me from rather narrow analytic studies, through the history of ideas, and now on to issues to do with science and religion. I argue that moral concerns were and still are a major motivation behind what I do and write. Copyright: © 2016 by Fabrizio Serra editore, Pisa · Roma.

  15. Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…

  16. History of Animals using Isotope Records (HAIR): a 6-year dietary history of one family of African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E; Wittemyer, George; Ehleringer, James R; Remien, Christopher H; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2009-05-19

    The dietary and movement history of individual animals can be studied using stable isotope records in animal tissues, providing insight into long-term ecological dynamics and a species niche. We provide a 6-year history of elephant diet by examining tail hair collected from 4 elephants in the same social family unit in northern Kenya. Sequential measurements of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotope rations in hair provide a weekly record of diet and water resources. Carbon isotope ratios were well correlated with satellite-based measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the region occupied by the elephants as recorded by the global positioning system (GPS) movement record; the absolute amount of C(4) grass consumption is well correlated with the maximum value of NDVI during individual wet seasons. Changes in hydrogen isotope ratios coincided very closely in time with seasonal fluctuations in rainfall and NDVI whereas diet shifts to relatively high proportions of grass lagged seasonal increases in NDVI by approximately 2 weeks. The peak probability of conception in the population occurred approximately 3 weeks after peak grazing. Spatial and temporal patterns of resource use show that the only period of pure browsing by the focal elephants was located in an over-grazed, communally managed region outside the protected area. The ability to extract time-specific longitudinal records on animal diets, and therefore the ecological history of an organism and its environment, provides an avenue for understanding the impact of climate dynamics and land-use change on animal foraging behavior and habitat relations.

  17. Ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions: the first billion seconds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baym, Gordon

    2016-12-15

    I first review the early history of the ultrarelativistic heavy ion program, starting with the 1974 Bear Mountain Workshop, and the 1983 Aurora meeting of the U.S. Nuclear Science Committtee, just one billion seconds ago, which laid out the initial science goals of an ultrarelativistic collider. The primary goal, to discover the properties of nuclear matter at the highest energy densities, included finding new states of matter – the quark-gluon plasma primarily – and to use collisions to open a new window on related problems of matter in cosmology, neutron stars, supernovae, and elsewhere. To bring out how the study of heavy ions and hot, dense matter in QCD has been fulfilling these goals, I concentrate on a few topics, the phase diagram of matter in QCD, and connections of heavy ion physics to cold atoms, cosmology, and neutron stars.

  18. What history tells us XIII. Fifty years of the Central Dogma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-05-14

    May 14, 2008 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 33; Issue 2. What history tells us XIII. Fifty years of the Central Dogma. Michel Morange. Series Volume 33 Issue 2 June 2008 pp 171-175. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/033/02/0171-0175 ...

  19. History as a Foreign Language: Can We Teach Year 11 Pupils to Write with Flair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Disappointed that the use of the "PEEL" writing scaffold had led her Year 11 students to write some rather dreary essays, Claire Simmonds reflected that a lack of specific training on historical writing might be to blame. Drawing on genre theory and the work of the history teaching community, Simmonds attempted to theorise the…

  20. Screening history of women with cervical cancer: a 6-year study in Aarhus, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingemann-Hansen, O; Lidang, M; Niemann, I; Dinesen, J; Baandrup, U; Svanholm, H; Petersen, Lk

    2008-04-08

    To identify possible weaknesses in cervical screening in Aarhus County, 10 years after the programme was introduced, screening histories were examined. A major problem for the screening programme was that 31% of women were never screened and 61% under-screened, the latter group being significantly dominated by older women and high-stage tumours.

  1. Nuclear budget for FY1991 up 3.6% to 409.7 billion yen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A total of yen409.7 billion was approved for the Governmental nuclear energy draft budget for fiscal 1991 on December 28, as the Cabinet gave its approval. The total, the highest ever, was divided into yen182.6 billion for the general account and yen227.1 billion for the special account for power resources development, representing a 3.6% increase over the ongoing fiscal year's level of yen395.5 billion. The draft budget will be examined for approval of the Diet session by the end of March. The nuclear energy budget devoted to research and development projects governed by the Science and Technology Agency amounts yen306.4 billion, up 3.5% exceeding yen300 billion for the first time. The nuclear budget for the Ministry of International Trade and Industry is yen98.1 billion, up 3.5%. For the other ministries, including the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, yen5.1 billion was allotted to nuclear energy-related projects. The Government had decided to raise the unit cost of the power plant siting promotion subsidies in the special account for power resources development by 25% --- from yen600/kw to yen750/kw --- in order to support the siting of plants. Consequently, the power resources siting account of the special accounts for both STA and MITI showed high levels of growth rates: 6.3% and 7.5%, respectively. (N.K.)

  2. Fulfilling the atomic promise: Ten years history gives pointers for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Ten years is a short period in human history, and a short period in the life of an international organization. Nevertheless the ten years now completed by the International Atomic Energy Agency has seen much work accomplished and has brought greater realization than ever before of the promise held out by the atom for peaceful benefits leading to the promotion of peace, health and prosperity throughout the world

  3. US Adults Drink 17 Billion Binge Drinks a Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... result in dangerous driving, risky sexual behavior, and violent behavior. Over time, binge drinking also increases the ... Am J Prev Med 2018; 54(4). Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ...

  4. Galaxy Evolution Over the Past Eleven Billion Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Man, Wing Shan

    mechanism in evolving the sizes and stellar masses of quiescent galaxies? Are quiescent galaxies truly passive, or are their stellar populations in fact not old but reddened by dust? The goal of this thesis is to address these two outstanding questions, in order to verify the existence of such an extreme...

  5. Uranium in Canada: Billion-dollar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whillans, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    In 1988, Canada maintained its position as the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium; five primary uranium producers reported concentrate output containing 12,400 MT of uranium, or about one-third of Western production. Uranium shipments made by these producers in 1988 exceeded 13,200 MT, worth Canadian $1.1 billion. Because domestic requirements represent only 15% of current Canadian output, most of Canada's uranium production is available for export. Despite continued market uncertainty in 1988, Canada's uranium producers signed new sales contracts for some 14,000 MT, twice the 1987 level. About 90% of this new volume is with the US, now Canada's major uranium customer. The recent implementation of the Canada/US Free Trade agreement brings benefits to both countries; the uranium industries in each can now develop in an orderly, free market. Canada's uranium industry was restructured and consolidated in 1988 through merger and acquisition; three new uranium projects advanced significantly. Canada's new policy on nonresident ownership in the uranium mining sector, designed to encourage both Canadian and foreign investment, should greatly improve efforts to finance the development of recent Canadian uranium discoveries

  6. Smoking duration, respiratory symptoms, and COPD in adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Pleasants, Roy A; Croft, Janet B; Wheaton, Anne G; Heidari, Khosrow; Malarcher, Ann M; Ohar, Jill A; Kraft, Monica; Mannino, David M; Strange, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of smoking duration with respiratory symptoms and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey in 2012. Methods Data from 4,135 adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression that accounted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and current smoking status, as well as the complex sampling design. Results The distribution of smoking duration ranged from 19.2% (1–9 years) to 36.2% (≥30 years). Among 1,454 respondents who had smoked for ≥30 years, 58.3% were current smokers, 25.0% had frequent productive cough, 11.2% had frequent shortness of breath, 16.7% strongly agreed that shortness of breath affected physical activity, and 25.6% had been diagnosed with COPD. Prevalence of COPD and each respiratory symptom was lower among former smokers who quit ≥10 years earlier compared with current smokers. Smoking duration had a linear relationship with COPD (Psmoking status and other covariates. While COPD prevalence increased with prolonged smoking duration in both men and women, women had a higher age-adjusted prevalence of COPD in the 1–9 years, 20–29 years, and ≥30 years duration periods. Conclusion These state population data confirm that prolonged tobacco use is associated with respiratory symptoms and COPD after controlling for current smoking behavior. PMID:26229460

  7. Empowering billions with food safety and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, Suresh D.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: There are virtually millions of people -who die needlessly every year due to contaminated water and food. There are virtually many millions more who are starving due to an inadequate supply of food. Billions of pounds of food are unnecessarily wasted due to insect and other damage. Deaths and illness due to contaminated food or inadequate food are at catastrophic levels in many regions of the world. A majority of the food and water borne illnesses and deaths are preventable. It can be prevented by improved food production methods, improved food processing technologies, improved food distribution systems and improved personal hygiene. Food irradiation technology is over 100 years old. Yet, this technology is poorly understood by governments and corporate decision makers all around the world. Many consumers also are unfortunately misinformed of this technology. There is an urgent need for nations and people around the world to empower themselves with the knowledge and the expertise to harness this powerful technology. Widespread and sensible adoption of this technology can empower billions around the world with clean and abundant food supplies. It is unconscionable in the 21st century for governments to allow people to die or go hungry when the technology to prevent them is readily available

  8. Rewiew of history lessons during 2001-2012 academic year by the external assessors

    OpenAIRE

    Survutaitė, Dalia; Vaičekauskienė, Snieguolė

    2012-01-01

    Recently a lot of attention has been paid to the search of education innovation and modernization. However in the educational environment empirical data analysis and evaluation of subjects of general education of educational practice are rarely found. This article analyzes quality characteristics of history lessons for years 5-12 in the educational practice, reports of external evaluation of the quality of the activities of country's different general education schools were used. Data interpr...

  9. Juvenile osteochondritis dissecans: a 5-year review of the natural history using clinical and MRI evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Jacqueline A.; Cook, Jane V.; Warren, Mary E.; Churchill, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    Although MRI prognostic features for juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD) have been determined, the natural history of JOCD on serial MRI has not been fully documented. To document the natural history of JOCD on serial MRI and to correlate this with arthroscopy and clinical outcome over a 5-year follow-up. Twenty-one knees in 19 patients (15 boys, 4 girls; age range 5-15 years) with JOCD underwent MRI and clinical follow-up over 5 years. Lesions were classified as stable or unstable on MRI and compared with clinical and arthroscopic data. On 5-year follow-up, 17 of 19 patients were asymptomatic and 2 of 19 had minimal pain. Fourteen arthroscopies were performed on 11/21 knees. One of twenty-one had fragment fixation. On initial MRI, eight knees had marked fragmentation, high signal at the fragment/bone interface and incomplete defects in the hyaline cartilage (MRI stage III-stable), but no tear. Of these, five had arthroscopy, all confirming intact cartilage. One of twenty-one knees was unstable (MRI stage IVb) with a detached osteochondral fragment, requiring surgery. Despite extensive subchondral bone changes on MRI, all cases with intact cartilage (95%) improved with conservative treatment. Early MRI allows prompt diagnosis and institution of conservative treatment. This results in healing and avoidance of surgery in most patients. (orig.)

  10. Juvenile osteochondritis dissecans: a 5-year review of the natural history using clinical and MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Jacqueline A.; Cook, Jane V.; Warren, Mary E. [Radiology Department, Queen Mary' s Hospital for Children, Epsom and St Helier NHS Trust, Carshalton, Surrey SM5 1AA (United Kingdom); Churchill, Mark A. [Orthopaedic Department, Queen Mary' s Hospital for Children, Epsom and St Helier NHS Trust, Carshalton (United Kingdom)

    2003-06-01

    Although MRI prognostic features for juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD) have been determined, the natural history of JOCD on serial MRI has not been fully documented. To document the natural history of JOCD on serial MRI and to correlate this with arthroscopy and clinical outcome over a 5-year follow-up. Twenty-one knees in 19 patients (15 boys, 4 girls; age range 5-15 years) with JOCD underwent MRI and clinical follow-up over 5 years. Lesions were classified as stable or unstable on MRI and compared with clinical and arthroscopic data. On 5-year follow-up, 17 of 19 patients were asymptomatic and 2 of 19 had minimal pain. Fourteen arthroscopies were performed on 11/21 knees. One of twenty-one had fragment fixation. On initial MRI, eight knees had marked fragmentation, high signal at the fragment/bone interface and incomplete defects in the hyaline cartilage (MRI stage III-stable), but no tear. Of these, five had arthroscopy, all confirming intact cartilage. One of twenty-one knees was unstable (MRI stage IVb) with a detached osteochondral fragment, requiring surgery. Despite extensive subchondral bone changes on MRI, all cases with intact cartilage (95%) improved with conservative treatment. Early MRI allows prompt diagnosis and institution of conservative treatment. This results in healing and avoidance of surgery in most patients. (orig.)

  11. Seven Billion Microcosms: Evolution within Human Microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Tami D

    2018-01-01

    Rational microbiome-based therapies may one day treat a wide range of diseases and promote wellness. Yet, we are still limited in our abilities to employ such therapies and to predict which bacterial strains have the potential to stably colonize a person. The Lieberman laboratory is working to close this knowledge gap and to develop an understanding of how individual species and strains behave in the human microbiome, including with regard to their niche ranges, survival strategies, and the degree to which they adapt to individual people. We employ system-level approaches, with a particular emphasis on using de novo mutations and evolutionary inference to reconstruct the history of bacterial lineages within individuals.

  12. Sneak Peek to the 2016 Billion-Ton Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    The 2005 Billion-Ton Study became a landmark resource for bioenergy stakeholders, detailing for the first time the potential to produce at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually in a sustainable manner from U.S. agriculture and forest resources. The 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update expanded and updated the analysis, and in 2016, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office plans to release the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy.

  13. The continuous time random walk, still trendy: fifty-year history, state of art and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutner, Ryszard; Masoliver, Jaume

    2017-03-01

    In this article we demonstrate the very inspiring role of the continuous-time random walk (CTRW) formalism, the numerous modifications permitted by its flexibility, its various applications, and the promising perspectives in the various fields of knowledge. A short review of significant achievements and possibilities is given. However, this review is still far from completeness. We focused on a pivotal role of CTRWs mainly in anomalous stochastic processes discovered in physics and beyond. This article plays the role of an extended announcement of the Eur. Phys. J. B Special Issue [open-calls-for-papers/123-epj-b/1090-ctrw-50-years-on">http://epjb.epj.org/open-calls-for-papers/123-epj-b/1090-ctrw-50-years-on] containing articles which show incredible possibilities of the CTRWs. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Continuous Time Random Walk Still Trendy: Fifty-year History, Current State and Outlook", edited by Ryszard Kutner and Jaume Masoliver.

  14. The 10 years of history on the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    This book reports the 10 years of history of Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety which is divided into three part. The first part includes summary, beginning and launching of KINS and establishment and development of KINS. The second deals with inspection safety on nuclear power facilities, protection of radiation and surveillance for environment, safe criterion and development of safe regulation and providing assistance of safe regulation. The third part mentions direction of safe regulation on nuclear power, long term vision and innovation of management, future for KINS. It has appendixes such as a chronological table current condition of budget and human resources.

  15. 500.000 years of environmental history in Eastern Anatolia: The PALEOVAN drilling project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litt, Thomas; Anselmetti, Flavio; Baumgarten, Henrike

    2012-01-01

    International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) drilled a complete succession of the lacustrine sediment sequence deposited during the last ~500,000 years in Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia (Turkey). Based on a detailed seismic site survey, two sites at a water depth of up to 360 m were...... drilled in summer 2010, and cores were retrieved from sub-lake-floor depths of 140 m (Northern Basin) and 220 m (Ahlat Ridge). To obtain a complete sedimentary section, the two sites were multiple-cored in order to investigate the paleoclimate history of a sensitive semi-arid region between the Black...

  16. The history for thirty years of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This book gives description of history for thirty years of KAERI. It contains five chapters, which reports the process and development of KAERI, embryonic stage with nuclear energy for peace, the process of establishment of KAERI and building of the KAERI in 1960s, period of growth with change of international situation and measurement of KAERI and launching for KAERI in 1970s, period of technical independence for safe regulation and establishment nuclear safe center in 1980s and prospect on technical development of nuclear energy research like basic R and D.

  17. A MUSIC HISTORY LESSON FROM V. AXIONOVS COURSE IN DIACRONIC PERSPECTIVE: 30 YEARS AGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BADRAJAN SVETLANA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article contains an analysis of a lesson in Universal Music History from the course taught by Vladimir Axionov 30 years ago. It highlights the methodology by which the content is presented, the bibliographic support, the logic of the discourse in each subject, as well as the systemic approach to the topic, including the connections created at different levels — such as ideas, concepts, principles, structures, language, compositional techniques etc. — within the work of one composer and in relation to other composers both during the same period and other periods, currents and trends. On top of that, the article underlines V. Axionov’s teaching skills.

  18. [30 years since the first AIDS cases were reported: history and the present. Part I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brůcková, Marie

    2012-05-01

    The 30-year natural history of AIDS disease is presented from the first clinical cases reported in 1981 to the identification of the HIV as the etiological agent of the disease. The priority dispute between Robert C. Gallo and Luc Montagnier over the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus is briefly addressed. The final confirmation of the French priority was provided by the fact that the Nobel Prize in Medicine 2008 was awarded to Luc Montagnier and Francoise Barré--Sinoussi from the Pasteur Institute in Paris.

  19. Plant and equipment division laboratory services series: a ten-year building-maintenance cost history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keesee, H.F.

    1976-09-01

    Maintaining a multifacility national laboratory in a safe, reliable condition is a complex management responsibility in terms of budgets, costs, and proper utilization of personnel and material resources. Increasing wage rates and material costs, combined with decreased budgets and aging facilities, create unusual challenges to maintenance managers. A ten-year history of building-maintenance costs, a brief description of the maintenance program, analyses of personnel requirements, cost increase indexes, unit costs, cost controls, procedures, and a brief discussion of alterations and improvements are presented

  20. A Host of Histories: Helping Year 9s Explore Multiple Narratives through the History of a House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, David

    2014-01-01

    Described by the author Monica Ali as a building that 'sparks the imagination and sparks conversations', 19 Princelet Street, now a Museum of Diversity and Immigration, captivated the imagination of teacher David Waters. He was struck by the building's potential not merely for exploring the diverse histories of migrant communities in London, but…

  1. Bibliometric Analysis of Female Authorship Trends and Collaboration Dynamics Over JBMR's 30-Year History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wininger, Austin E; Fischer, James P; Likine, Elive F; Gudeman, Andrew S; Brinker, Alexander R; Ryu, Jonathan; Maupin, Kevin A; Lunsford, Shatoria; Whipple, Elizabeth C; Loder, Randall T; Kacena, Melissa A

    2017-12-01

    In academia, authorship is considered a currency and is important for career advancement. As the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (JBMR) is the highest-ranked journal in the field of bone, muscle, and mineral metabolism and is the official publication of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, we sought to examine authorship changes over JBMR's 30-year history. Two bibliometric methods were used to collect the data. The "decade method" included all published manuscripts throughout 1 year in each decade over the past 30 years starting with the inaugural year, yielding 746 manuscripts for analysis. The "random method" examined 10% of published manuscripts from each of the 30 years, yielding 652 manuscripts for analysis. Using both methods, the average number of authors per manuscript, numerical location of the corresponding author, number of collaborating institutions, number of collaborating countries, number of printed manuscript pages, and the number of times each manuscript was cited all significantly increased between 1986 and 2015 (p authorship trends over the past 30 years and demonstrate those countries having the most changes and where challenges still exist. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  2. Parental depressive history, parenting styles, and child psychopathology over six years: The contribution of each parent’s depressive history to the other’s parenting styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Jelinek, Caitlin; Kessel, Ellen; Frost, Allison; Allmann, Anna E.S.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2017-01-01

    The link between parental depressive history and parenting styles is well established, as is the association of parenting with child psychopathology. However, little research has examined whether a depressive history in one parent predicts the parenting style of the other parent. As well, relatively little research has tested transactional models of the parenting-child psychopathology relationship in the context of parents’ depressive histories. In this study, mothers and fathers of 392 children were assessed for a lifetime history of major depression when their children were 3 years old. They then completed measures of permissiveness and authoritarianism and their child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms when children were 3, 6, and 9 years old. Results showed that a depressive history in one parent predicted the other parent’s permissiveness. Analyses then showed that child externalizing symptoms at age 3 predicted maternal permissiveness and authoritarianism and paternal permissiveness at age 6. Maternal permissiveness at age 6 predicted child externalizing symptoms at age 9. No relationships in either direction were found between parenting styles and child internalizing symptoms. Results highlight the importance of considering both parents’ depressive histories when understanding parenting styles, and support transactional models of parenting styles and child externalizing symptoms. PMID:28414019

  3. Parental depressive history, parenting styles, and child psychopathology over 6 years: The contribution of each parent's depressive history to the other's parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Jelinek, Caitlin; Kessel, Ellen M; Frost, Allison; Allmann, Anna E S; Klein, Daniel N

    2017-10-01

    The link between parental depressive history and parenting styles is well established, as is the association of parenting with child psychopathology. However, little research has examined whether a depressive history in one parent predicts the parenting style of the other parent. As well, relatively little research has tested transactional models of the parenting-child psychopathology relationship in the context of parents' depressive histories. In this study, mothers and fathers of 392 children were assessed for a lifetime history of major depression when their children were 3 years old. They then completed measures of permissiveness and authoritarianism and their child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms when children were 3, 6, and 9 years old. The results showed that a depressive history in one parent predicted the other parent's permissiveness. Analyses then showed that child externalizing symptoms at age 3 predicted maternal permissiveness and authoritarianism and paternal permissiveness at age 6. Maternal permissiveness at age 6 predicted child externalizing symptoms at age 9. No relationships in either direction were found between parenting styles and child internalizing symptoms. The results highlight the importance of considering both parents' depressive histories when understanding parenting styles, and support transactional models of parenting styles and child externalizing symptoms.

  4. 500,000 Years of Environmental History in Eastern Anatolia: The PALEOVAN Drilling Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Glombitza, and Jens Kallmeyer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP drilled a complete succession of the lacustrine sediment sequence deposited during the last ~500,000 years in Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia (Turkey. Based on a detailed seismic site survey, two sites at a water depth of up to 360 m were drilled in summer 2010, and cores were retrieved from sub-lake-floor depths of 140 m (Northern Basin and 220 m (Ahlat Ridge. To obtain a complete sedimentary section, the two sites were multiple-cored in order to investigate the paleoclimate history of a sensitive semi-arid region between theBlack, Caspian, and Mediterranean seas. Further scientific goals of the PALEOVAN project are the reconstruction of earthquake activity, as well as the temporal, spatial, and compositional evolution of volcanism as reflected in the deposition of tephra layers. The sediments host organic matter from different sources and hence composition, which will be unravelled using biomarkers. Pathways for migration of continental and mantle-derived noble gases will be analyzed in pore waters. Preliminary 40Ar/39Ar single crystal dating of tephra layers and pollen analyses suggest that the AhlatRidge record encompasses more than half a million years of paleoclimate and volcanic/geodynamic history, providing the longest continental record in the entire Near East to date.

  5. Essay-writing module for second-year students of history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carstens, Adelia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence from corpus, discourse and genre analysis has indicated that there is significant variation between disciplines in the way that they structure their discourses, in particular their written genres. Therefore, discipline-specific approaches in language teaching have gained much support in recent years. However, few studies have thus far given a systematic account of relationships between disciplinary purposes and writing conventions, or have used such information as input for course design. This article analyses the purposes of historical writing, and relates these to the salient concepts, genres and modes found in historical discourse. In particular, the discursive and lexicogrammatical choices that are available to the historian for the construal of time, cause and effect, and judgement or evaluation are explored. One particular aspect of evaluation, viz. engagement, is teased out in more detail to demonstrate the pedagogical value of corpus-based genre analysis. The findings underscore the assumption that disciplinary purposes shape texts in a discipline, and show that there is a clear relationship between the main purposes of a subject-field and its writing conventions – at least as far as History is concerned. A genre-based syllabus for a writing course aimed at second-year students of history is subsequently proposed, and a preview is given of the follow-up research that is envisaged to evaluate the effect of the intervention as well as to compare it with the effect of a generic intervention.

  6. Tokamaks: from A D Sakharov to the present (the 60-year history of tokamaks)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizov, E A

    2012-01-01

    The paper is prepared on the basis of the report presented at the session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) at the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS on 25 May 2011, devoted to the 90-year jubilee of Academician Andrei D Sakharov - the initiator of controlled nuclear fusion research in the USSR. The 60-year history of plasma research work in toroidal devices with a longitudinal magnetic field suggested by Andrei D Sakharov and Igor E Tamm in 1950 for the confinement of fusion plasma and known at present as tokamaks is described in brief. The recent (2006) agreement among Russia, the EU, the USA, Japan, China, the Republic of Korea, and India on the joint construction of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) in France based on the tokamak concept is discussed. Prospects for using the tokamak as a thermonuclear (14 MeV) neutron source are examined. (conferences and symposia)

  7. Proton collider breaks the six-billion-dollar barrier

    CERN Multimedia

    Vaughan, C

    1990-01-01

    The SSC will cost at least 1 billion more than its estimated final price of 5.9 billion dollars. Critics in congress believe the final bill could be double that figure. The director of the SSC blames most of the increase in cost on technical problems with developing the superconducting magnets for the SSC (1/2 page).

  8. Mining survival in parts per billion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the economic situation in the coal industry of Utah. Coal prices are down for the tenth year in a row, Utah is isolated from major markets and freight rates are high, and the state legislature has not dropped the issue of a coal severance tax. The author believes the only potential for increased use of Utah coal is the Pacific Rim countries. Environmental issues are also discussed

  9. Natural history of heartburn: a 10-year population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, Linda Bjork; Gudjonsson, Hallgrimur; Jonsdottir, Heidur Hrund; Thjodleifsson, Bjarni

    2011-02-07

    To study the natural history and prevalence of heartburn at a 10-year interval, and to study the effect of heartburn on various symptoms and activities. A population-based postal study was carried out. Questionnaires were mailed to the same age- and gender-stratified random sample of the Icelandic population (aged 18-75 years) in 1996 and again in 2006. Subjects were classified with heartburn if they reported heartburn in the preceding year and/or week, based on the definition of heartburn. Heartburn in the preceding year was reported in 42.8% (1996) and 44.2% (2006) of subjects, with a strong relationship between those who experienced heartburn in both years. Heartburn in the preceding week was diagnosed in 20.8%. There was a significant relationship between heartburn, dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. Individuals with a body mass index (BMI) below or higher than normal weight were more likely to have heartburn. Heartburn caused by food or beverages was reported very often by 20.0% of subjects. Heartburn is a common and chronic condition. Subjects with a BMI below or higher than normal weight are more likely to experience heartburn. Heartburn has a great impact on daily activities, sleep and quality of life.

  10. The joint impact of family history of myocardial infarction and other risk factors on 12-year coronary heart disease mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, J M; Feskens, E.J.; Verschuren, W M Monique; Seidell, J C; Kromhout, D.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the impact of family history of myocardial infarction on 12-year coronary heart disease mortality. Men and women with a family history had an increased risk for coronary heart disease death, irrespective of other risk factors (RR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.17-2.13 and RR = 2.12; 95% CI =

  11. Areva excellent business volume: backlog as of december 31, 2008: + 21.1% to 48.2 billion euros. 2008 revenue: + 10.4% to 13.2 billion euros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    AREVA's backlog stood at 48.2 billion euros as of December 31, 2008, for 21.1% growth year-on-year, including 21.8% growth in Nuclear and 16.5% growth in Transmission and Distribution. The Nuclear backlog came to 42.5 billion euros at December 31, 2008. The Transmission and Distribution backlog came to 5.7 billion euros at year-end. The group recognized revenue of 13.2 billion euros in 2008, for year-on-year growth of 10.4% (+9.8% like-for-like). Revenue outside France was up 10.5% to 9.5 billion euros, representing 72% of total revenue. Revenue was up 6.5% in the Nuclear businesses (up 6.3% LFL), with strong performance in the Reactors and Services division (+10.9% LFL) and the Front End division (+7.2% LFL). The Transmission and Distribution division recorded growth of 17% (+15.8% LFL). Revenue for the fourth quarter of 2008 rose to 4.1 billion euros, up 5.2% (+1.6% LFL) from that of the fourth quarter of 2007. Revenue for the Front End division rose to 3.363 billion euros in 2008, up 7.1% over 2007 (+7.2% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 53 million euros. Revenue for the Reactors and Services division rose to 3.037 billion euros, up 11.8% over 2007 (+10.9% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 47 million euros. Revenue for the Back End division came to 1.692 billion euros, a drop of 2.7% (-2.5% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 3.5 million euros. Revenue for the Transmission and Distribution division rose to 5.065 billion euros in 2008, up 17.0% (+15.8% LFL)

  12. Hydroelectric dams need billions for rehab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, F.H.; Soast, A.

    1993-01-01

    Many of the Corps of Engineers older hydroelectric dams will require major rehabilitation over the next ten years. Preventive maintenance, repair work, and major rehabilitation of the Corp's hydro dams in inadequate because the revenue generated by sales of electricity, by law, is returned to the Treasury. Most multimillion dollar rehabilitation projects require specific approval for funding by Congress and securing it is a long and difficult process. It is hoped the funding problem will soon be addressed by the Clinton administration. Already, nearly one-sixth of the 2,154 Mw of hydro is unavailable because with hydro units are either out of service or operating at less than full capacity

  13. Readability of the web: a study on 1 billion web pages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heus, Marije; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    We have performed a readability study on more than 1 billion web pages. The Automated Readability Index was used to determine the average grade level required to easily comprehend a website. Some of the results are that a 16-year-old can easily understand 50% of the web and an 18-year old can easily

  14. Dongfeng has fixed a sales goal of 80 billion yuan supported by Nissan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    <正> The Nissan and Dongfeng Group-based Dongfeng Automobile Co., Ltd, which has the largest investment in the history of the industry, opened officially for business on July 1. With a total investment of USD 2 billion and 70,000 employees, the company is the first joint venture in China which plans a full range of truck, light commercial and passenger vehicles. According to president Nakamura, the company has established a management

  15. Fiscal 1988 draft budget for nuclear energy up 1.9% to yen 369 billion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    AT the cabinet meeting held on December 28, the government approved the fiscal 1988 draft budget, with a general account of yen 56.6 trillion. The nuclear energy related budget is yen 181.124 billion from the general account and yen 186.098 billion from the special account for power sources development, totalling yen 367.222 billion, up 1.9% on the previous year. The largest appropriation goes to the Science and Technology Agency (STA) totaling yen 271 billion. The STA is promoting safety studies and R and D for extensive nuclear energy utilization but the budget shows a 0.7% decrease from the previous year, reflecting completion of the construction of JT-60, which is one of the Agency's major projects. MITI, with its budget of yen 91 billion will carry on policies related to the promotion of commercial nuclear power program as well as support for the industrialization program of the nuclear fuel cycle. Nuclear related budget of Ministry of Foreign Affairs is yen 2.8 billion, consisting mainly of IAEA subscriptions and contributions and OECD/NEA subscriptions. Besides these three government agencies, a large sum of yen 1.2 billion is allocated to the Okinawa Development Agency for the prevention and elimination of melon-flies in Kume Island and islands around Okinawa main island. The draft government budget will be submitted to the ordinary session of the Diet when it resumes towards the end of January. After deliberation in the Budget Committees of the House of Representatives and the House of Councilors, the draft budget will be put to the vote in the plenary session. Assuming that all proceeds smoothly, the budget is expected to be approved by the end of March without any major revision. (author)

  16. Toxoplasma gondii in women with bad obstetric history and infertility: a five-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abida Malik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the role of Toxoplasma gondii in women with bad obstetric (BOH history and in women with primary and secondary infertility. Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital for a period of 5 years from January 2004 to December 2009. Quantitative determination of IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii infection was done by IgM capture ELISA in patients with history of BOH or infertility. Results: Out of a total of 441 subjects included in the study, 417 (94.6% had a BOH and 24 (5.4% subjects had infertility. Toxoplasma was found to be more common in females with two or more abortions 52 (76.5%. Similarly in patients with infertility due to Toxoplasma, secondary infertility (66.7% was more common than primary infertility. About 40.3% patients with BOH and 20% patients with infertility had healthy live issues after treatment with spiramycin. Conclusions: Toxoplasmosis is thus, an easily treatable cause of abortions and infertility. All antenatal females and females with infertility should be screened for toxoplasmosis.

  17. One million years of glaciation and denudation history in west Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strunk, Astrid; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Egholm, David Lundbek

    2017-01-01

    The influence of major Quaternary climatic changes on growth and decay of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and associated erosional impact on the landscapes, is virtually unknown beyond the last deglaciation. Here we quantify exposure and denudation histories in west Greenland by applying a novel Markov......-Chain Monte Carlo modelling approach to all available paired cosmogenic 10Be-26Al bedrock data from Greenland. We find that long-term denudation rates in west Greenland range from >50 m Myr−1 in low-lying areas to ∼2 m Myr−1 at high elevations, hereby quantifying systematic variations in denudation rate among...... different glacial landforms caused by variations in ice thickness across the landscape. We furthermore show that the present day ice-free areas only were ice covered ca. 45% of the past 1 million years, and even less at high-elevation sites, implying that the Greenland Ice Sheet for much of the time...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION MONITORING IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - HISTORY AND RESULTS 25 YEARS AFTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes results of the radiation environmental monitoring performed in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) during the period following the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. This article presents a brief overview of five comprehensive reports generated under Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR18500 (Washington Savannah River Company LLC, Subcontract No. AC55559N, SOW No. ON8778) and summarizes characteristics of the ChEZ and its post-accident status and the history of development of the radiation monitoring research in the ChEZ is described. This article addresses characteristics of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ, its major goals and objectives, and changes of these goals and objectives in the course of time, depending on the tasks associated with the phase of mitigation of the ChNPP accident consequences. The results of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ during the last 25 years are also provided.

  19. Environmental Radiation Monitoring In The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - History And Results 25 Years After

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes results of the radiation environmental monitoring performed in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) during the period following the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. This article presents a brief overview of five comprehensive reports generated under Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR18500 (Washington Savannah River Company LLC, Subcontract No. AC55559N, SOW No. ON8778) and summarizes characteristics of the ChEZ and its post-accident status and the history of development of the radiation monitoring research in the ChEZ is described. This article addresses characteristics of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ, its major goals and objectives, and changes of these goals and objectives in the course of time, depending on the tasks associated with the phase of mitigation of the ChNPP accident consequences. The results of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ during the last 25 years are also provided.

  20. Regional Feedstock Partnership Summary Report: Enabling the Billion-Ton Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Vance N. [South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States). North Central Sun Grant Center; Karlen, Douglas L. [Dept. of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Ames, IA (United States). National Lab. for Agriculture and the Environment; Lacey, Jeffrey A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Process Science and Technology Division

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Sun Grant Initiative established the Regional Feedstock Partnership (referred to as the Partnership) to address information gaps associated with enabling the vision of a sustainable, reliable, billion-ton U.S. bioenergy industry by the year 2030 (i.e., the Billion-Ton Vision). Over the past 7 years (2008–2014), the Partnership has been successful at advancing the biomass feedstock production industry in the United States, with notable accomplishments. The Billion-Ton Study identifies the technical potential to expand domestic biomass production to offset up to 30% of U.S. petroleum consumption, while continuing to meet demands for food, feed, fiber, and export. This study verifies for the biofuels and chemical industries that a real and substantial resource base could justify the significant investment needed to develop robust conversion technologies and commercial-scale facilities. DOE and the Sun Grant Initiative established the Partnership to demonstrate and validate the underlying assumptions underpinning the Billion-Ton Vision to supply a sustainable and reliable source of lignocellulosic feedstock to a large-scale bioenergy industry. This report discusses the accomplishments of the Partnership, with references to accompanying scientific publications. These accomplishments include advances in sustainable feedstock production, feedstock yield, yield stability and stand persistence, energy crop commercialization readiness, information transfer, assessment of the economic impacts of achieving the Billion-Ton Vision, and the impact of feedstock species and environment conditions on feedstock quality characteristics.

  1. Large data analysis: automatic visual personal identification in a demography of 1.2 billion persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugman, John

    2014-05-01

    The largest biometric deployment in history is now underway in India, where the Government is enrolling the iris patterns (among other data) of all 1.2 billion citizens. The purpose of the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) is to ensure fair access to welfare benefits and entitlements, to reduce fraud, and enhance social inclusion. Only a minority of Indian citizens have bank accounts; only 4 percent possess passports; and less than half of all aid money reaches its intended recipients. A person who lacks any means of establishing their identity is excluded from entitlements and does not officially exist; thus the slogan of UIDAI is: To give the poor an identity." This ambitious program enrolls a million people every day, across 36,000 stations run by 83 agencies, with a 3-year completion target for the entire national population. The halfway point was recently passed with more than 600 million persons now enrolled. In order to detect and prevent duplicate identities, every iris pattern that is enrolled is first compared against all others enrolled so far; thus the daily workflow now requires 600 trillion (or 600 million-million) iris cross-comparisons. Avoiding identity collisions (False Matches) requires high biometric entropy, and achieving the tremendous match speed requires phase bit coding. Both of these requirements are being delivered operationally by wavelet methods developed by the author for encoding and comparing iris patterns, which will be the focus of this Large Data Award" presentation.

  2. Polycythemia vera: the natural history of 1213 patients followed for 20 years. Gruppo Italiano Studio Policitemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    To reassess the natural history of polycythemia vera and to obtain reliable estimates of both incidence of thrombosis and survival for use in defining the sample size for therapeutic clinical trials. Retrospective cohort study of patients with polycythemia who had been followed for 20 years. 11 Italian hematology institutions. 1213 patients with polycythemia vera, which was diagnosed according to criteria established by the Polycythemia Vera Study Group and commonly used in clinical practice. All-cause mortality, venous and arterial thrombosis, and hematologic and nonhematologic neoplastic disease. Myocardial infarction and stroke were classified as major thrombotic events, and venous and peripheral arterial thrombosis were considered minor thrombotic events. The number of patients who died and the number of those who had major thrombotic events (combined end point) were used as a comprehensive measure of the benefit-risk ratio associated with the use of myelosuppressive agents. 634 fatal and nonfatal arterial and venous thromboses were recorded in 485 patients (41%); 36% of these episodes occurred during follow-up in 230 patients (19%), and 64% occurred either at presentation or before diagnosis. Thrombotic events occurred more frequently in the 2 years preceding diagnosis, suggesting a causal relation between the latent myeloproliferative disorder and the vascular event. The incidence of thrombosis during follow-up was 3.4%/y; older patients or those with a history of thrombosis had a higher risk for thrombosis. Overall mortality was 2.9/100 patients per year; thrombotic events and hematologic or nonhematologic cancers had similar effects on mortality. Patients receiving chemotherapy died three to four times more frequently than those not receiving chemotherapy. The increased risk for cancer in patients receiving myelosuppressive agents was seen approximately 6 years after diagnosis. In addition, the combined end point, computed as the sum of the hardest

  3. [History of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  4. Summary and Comparison of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report with the 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    In terms of the magnitude of the resource potential, the results of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report (BT16) are consistent with the original 2005 Billion-Ton Study (BTS) and the 2011 report, U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry (BT2. An effort was made to reevaluate the potential forestland, agricultural, and waste resources at the roadside, then extend the analysis by adding transportation costs to a biorefinery under specified logistics assumptions to major resource fractions.

  5. [1913: A hundred years ago, the Society of the History of Pharmacy was born].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Thierry

    2014-10-01

    The "Société d'histoire de la pharmacie" was chronologically the first society for the history of pharmacy in the world. It was initiated by a triumvirate : Eugene-Humbert Guitard (1884-1976), a young graduate of the "Ecole des chartes", Charles Buchet (1848-1933), director of an important pharmaceutical cooperative named "Pharmacie central de France", and Paul Dorveaux (1851-1938), the librarian of the Superior School of Pharmacy of Paris. Those three men were perfectly complementary: the pharmacist Buchet was the "financial", the doctor Dorveaux was the "strategist" and Guitard was in charge of the practical realization. To carry out this project, they appealed to men of good will. Finally, on February 1, 1913, seventy founding members gave birth to the "Societe d'histoire de la pharmacie". These founders came from diverse backgrounds. Some of them, such Dorveaux, belonged to the "Société française d'histoire de la medecine", founded ten years ago. Others were members of the Supervisory Committee of the "Pharmacie centrale de France". A third group consisted of university teachers, as Leon Guignard, the former director of the Superior School of Pharmacy of Paris. There was also some archivists and writers, for example Camille Bloch, Ferdinand Brunot and, of course, Eugene-Humbert Guitard. The largest contingent was made up of French historians and collectors, like Antoine Balland and Charles-Henri Fialon. There was also four foreign founders: the Danish John William Schibbye Johnsson (1868-1929), the American Edward Kremers (1865-1941), and the Germans Hermann Emil Schelenz (1848-1922) and Karl Sudhoff (1853-1938). All of them were correspondents and friends of Paul Dorveaux. As Guitard wrote in 1938, Dorveaux office was, at that time, the "world center" of the studies ofhistory of pharmacy. Morever, according Guitard, the new group could have be called "Societe internationale d'histoire de la pharmacie". The term "international" seemed unfortunately too

  6. The history of South American tropical precipitation for the past 25,000 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P A; Seltzer, G O; Fritz, S C; Dunbar, R B; Grove, M J; Tapia, P M; Cross, S L; Rowe, H D; Broda, J P

    2001-01-26

    Long sediment cores recovered from the deep portions of Lake Titicaca are used to reconstruct the precipitation history of tropical South America for the past 25,000 years. Lake Titicaca was a deep, fresh, and continuously overflowing lake during the last glacial stage, from before 25,000 to 15,000 calibrated years before the present (cal yr B.P.), signifying that during the last glacial maximum (LGM), the Altiplano of Bolivia and Peru and much of the Amazon basin were wetter than today. The LGM in this part of the Andes is dated at 21,000 cal yr B.P., approximately coincident with the global LGM. Maximum aridity and lowest lake level occurred in the early and middle Holocene (8000 to 5500 cal yr B.P.) during a time of low summer insolation. Today, rising levels of Lake Titicaca and wet conditions in Amazonia are correlated with anomalously cold sea-surface temperatures in the northern equatorial Atlantic. Likewise, during the deglacial and Holocene periods, there were several millennial-scale wet phases on the Altiplano and in Amazonia that coincided with anomalously cold periods in the equatorial and high-latitude North Atlantic, such as the Younger Dryas.

  7. Reflections on the history of indoor air science, focusing on the last 50 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundell, J

    2017-07-01

    The scientific articles and Indoor Air conference publications of the indoor air sciences (IAS) during the last 50 years are summarized. In total 7524 presentations, from 79 countries, have been made at Indoor Air conferences held between 1978 (49 presentations) and 2014 (1049 presentations). In the Web of Science, 26 992 articles on indoor air research (with the word "indoor" as a search term) have been found (as of 1 Jan 2016) of which 70% were published during the last 10 years. The modern scientific history started in the 1970s with a question: "did indoor air pose a threat to health as did outdoor air?" Soon it was recognized that indoor air is more important, from a health point of view, than outdoor air. Topics of concern were first radon, environmental tobacco smoke, and lung cancer, followed by volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and sick building syndrome, house dust-mites, asthma and allergies, Legionnaires disease, and other airborne infections. Later emerged dampness/mold-associated allergies and today's concern with "modern exposures-modern diseases." Ventilation, thermal comfort, indoor air chemistry, semi-volatile organic compounds, building simulation by computational fluid dynamics, and fine particulate matter are common topics today. From their beginning in Denmark and Sweden, then in the USA, the indoor air sciences now show increasing activity in East and Southeast Asia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. 100-year history of the development of bread winter wheat breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. А. Литвиненко

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Review of the main achievements of the Wheat Breeding and Seed ProductionDepartment in the Plant Breeding and Genetic Institute – National Centre of Seed and Cultivar Investigation in the developing theoretical principles of breeding and creation of winter wheat varieties of different types during 100-year (1916–2016 period of breeding programs realization. Results. The main theoretical, methodical developments and breeding achievements of Wheat Breeding and Seed Production Department during 100-year (1916–2016 history have been considered. In the course of the Department activity, the research and metho­dology grounds of bread winter wheat breeding and seed production have been laid, 9 stages of breeding programs development have been accomplished. As a result, more than 130 varieties of different types have been created, 87 of them have been released in some periods or registered in the State registers of plants varieties of Ukraine and other countries and grown in the total sowing area about 220 million hectares.

  9. 1.6 billion euros for nuclear research through the 'Horizon 2020' program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union Council has approved the budget for the future European program for research and innovation called 'Horizon 2020'. A global funding of 77 billion euros has been allocated to 'Horizon 2020' for the 2014 to 2020 years. The share for nuclear sciences will reach 1.6 billion euros and will break down as follows: 316 million euros for fundamental research on fission, 728 million euros for fundamental research on fusion (ITER not included) and 560 million euros for the research projects of the European Joint Research Center (JRC). (A.C.)

  10. Price of next big thing in physics: $6.7 billion

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The price of exploring inner space went up Thursday. The machine discusses in a news conference in Beijing, will be 20 miles long and would cost about $6.7 billion and 13'000 person-years of labor to be built. (1,5 page)

  11. Universities Report $1.8-Billion in Earnings on Inventions in 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Universities and their inventors earned more than $1.8-billion from commercializing their academic research in the 2011 fiscal year, collecting royalties from new breeds of wheat, from a new drug for the treatment of HIV, and from longstanding arrangements over enduring products like Gatorade. Northwestern University earned the most of any…

  12. U of M seeking $1.1 billion in projects for Soudan Mine lab.

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The University of Minnesota is hoping that groundbreaking research underway at its labs at the Soudan Underground Mine near Tower will help secure up to $1.1 billion in the next 5 to 20 years to expand its work into particle physics (1 page).

  13. Twelve-year history of late-life depression and subsequent feelings to God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, Arjan W; Schaap-Jonker, Hanneke; van der Horst, Marleen H L; Steunenberg, Bas; Beekman, Aartjan T F; van Tilburg, Willem; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2014-11-01

    Growing evidence shows several possible relations between religiousness and late-life depression. Emotional aspects of religiousness such as facets of the perceived relationship with God can be crucial in this connection. The aim of the current study was to examine the association between the course of late-life depression and feelings about God and religious coping. Longitudinal survey study; naturalistic; 12-year follow-up. Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam; population-based, in three regions in The Netherlands. A subsample of 343 respondents (mean age: 77.2 years), including all respondents with high levels of depressive symptoms at any measurement cycle between 1992 and 2003 (assessed by using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule) and a random sample of nondepressed respondents who completed a postal questionnaire in 2005. Scales on God Image and Religious Coping. Twelve-year depression course trajectories serve as predicting variables and are specified according to recency and seriousness. Persistent and emergent depression are significantly associated with fear of God, feeling wronged by God, and negative religious coping. In terms of negative religious coping, significant associations were observed after adjustment for concurrent depression with a history of repeated minor depression and previous major depression. Late-life depression seems to maintain a pervasive relationship over time with affective aspects of religiousness. Religious feelings may parallel the symptoms of anhedonia or a dysphoric mood and could represent the experience of an existential void. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Uncharted territory - environment and population beyond six billion

    OpenAIRE

    Benedick, Richard Elliot

    2000-01-01

    "That human populations can exert strains upon their natural surrounding is nothing new. However, from the dawn of history until about thirty years ago, the impacts of human activities were primarily localized. Early regional civilizations – Mesopotamia in the Near East, Mohenjo Daro in Southwest Asia, the Mayans of Central America, possibly the Anasazi in the southwest of what is now the United States – collapsed due to a likely combination of overpopulation and scarcity or ...

  15. L'annee psychologique: history of the founding of a 100-year-old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, S; Segui, J; Ferrand, L

    2000-02-01

    The authors present the history of the founding of the French journal L'Annee Psychologique. The names of Theodule Ribot (1839-1916), Henry Beaunis (1830-1921), and Alfred Binet (1857-1911) are closely associated with the journal. Ribot's election to the chair of Experimental and Comparative Psychology at the College de France in 1888 marked the official emancipation of psychology in France. Because there was no laboratory associated with the chair, Beaunis, a physiological psychologist from Nancy, proposed to Ribot the creation of the first French laboratory of experimental psychology (1889). Under Beaunis's direction, this laboratory was established at the Sorbonne in Paris but was in fact dependent on another educational institution, L'Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes. In 1893 the laboratory's research was first published in a yearly journal named Travaux du Laboratoire de Psychologie Physiologique (2 volumes: 1893-1894). Binet, who joined the laboratory in 1891, was not satisfied by the form of this publication. With Beaunis's agreement, he then created L'Annee Psychologique in 1894 to develop the reputation of the laboratory's research. The authors present the evolution and vicissitudes of the journal from 1895 to 1912, with a glance up to the present.

  16. Practical applications of injury surveillance: a brief 25-year history of the Connecticut Injury Prevention Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidus, Garry; Borrup, Kevin; DiVietro, Susan; Campbell, Brendan T; Beebe, Rebecca; Grasso, Damion; Rogers, Steven; Joseph, D'Andrea; Banco, Leonard

    2016-04-01

    The mission of the Connecticut Injury Prevention Center (CIPC), jointly housed in Connecticut Children's Medical Center and Hartford Hospital, is to reduce unintentional injury and violence among Connecticut residents, with a special focus on translating research into injury prevention programmes and policy. The CIPC engages in four core activities: research, education and training, community outreach programmes and public policy. As surveillance is an essential element of injury prevention, the CIPC has developed a robust statewide fatal and non-fatal injury surveillance system that has guided our prior work and continues to inform our current projects. The purpose of this article is to review the projects, programmes, and collaborative relationships that have made the CIPC successful in reducing unintentional injury and violence in Connecticut throughout the course of its 25 years history. Retrospective review of the application of injury surveillance. We believe that the application of our surveillance system can serve as a model for others who wish to engage in collaborative, community-based, data-driven injury prevention programmes in their own communities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. [A 65-year-old man with history of claudication, palpable purpura and livedo reticularis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, N; Kimmel, M; Grabner, A; Ott, G; Alscher, M D

    2010-04-01

    A 65-year-old man was admitted with history of claudication symptoms and painful skin lesions of the lower legs. Physical examination showed palpable purpura of the lower legs and livedo reticularis, most marked at the forefoot and toes. Computed tomography (CT) showed an aortic mass 2 cm above the bifurcation. This was treated after angiography with a covered stent. Biopsy of the skin lesions showed no sign of vasculitis and no cholesterol crystals. The patient was discharged and remained symptom-free for 9 months. He was readmitted at that time with recurrent complaints. CT revealed a subtotal stenosis of the aortic stent. A skin biopsy showed CD31-positive tumor cells in small arteries. Biopsy of a new osteolytic lesion in the ileum confirmed the diagnosis of angiosarcoma of the aorta. The patient decided in favor of palliative care and was discharged from the hospital. Primary tumors of the aorta, although they are rare, should be considered in the presence of an intravascular mass with stenosis to blood flow. A skin biopsy is easy to conduct and often leads to the final diagnosis. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.

  18. Studying Africa’s hydroclimate history over the last 2000 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs De Cort

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Water-resource availability is one of the most important environmental factors on which Africa’s agricultural societies are reliant. However, our knowledge of the natural background variability of rainfall and drought over Africa is currently still inadequate to allow a full grasp of the relevant climate-dynamical mechanisms and guidance of much-needed forecasts of future trends. This report presents two new efforts to improve insights into how hydroclimate has varied throughout the continent over the past two millennia. Firstly, a thorough synthesis of data from instrumental measurements, historical accounts and natural climate archives resulted in an extensive review of Africa’s hydroclimate history. Secondly, the focus is narrowed to East Africa, where the sediments of hypersaline Lake Bogoria were used to reconstruct how a variable climate has driven large lake-level fluctuations over the last 1,300 years. Key words: paleoclimatology, natural climate archive, lake-level change, sedimentology, Lake Bogoria National Reserve

  19. Coolmine Therapeutic Community, Dublin: a 40-year history of Ireland's first voluntary drug treatment service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Shane

    2016-02-01

    To document the evolution over 40 years (from 1973 to 2013) of Coolmine Therapeutic Community (Ireland's first voluntary drug treatment service) against a background of broader drug policy developments in the Republic of Ireland and elsewhere during this period. Data were gathered by means of archival research within Coolmine, complemented by semi-structured interviews with former clients, current and former Coolmine management and staff, and representatives of outsider stakeholder interests. Coolmines's history has three phases: (1) an early and uncontentious phase, in which external authorities provided financial support for Coolmine without questioning its work practices or outcomes; (2) a middle, controversial phase, in which Coolmine struggled for survival in an external policy environment now dominated by harm reduction strategies; and (3) a final phase in which, through the use of conventional corporate governance, Coolmine management sought to repair its damaged reputation by introducing evidence-based clinical practices. Coolmine Therapeutic Community was established when drug treatment services in Ireland were in their infancy, and its changing fortunes over subsequent decades reflected changing perceptions of what constitutes appropriate addiction treatment-and in particular the role to be played by former addicts within addiction treatment systems-as well as changing perceptions of funding relationships between statutory authorities and voluntary providers of health and social services. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Shaping the History of Education? : The first 50 years of Paedagogica Historica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Jeroen J.H.; Simon, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In 1961 the Centre for the Study of the History of Education at Ghent University, Belgium published the first issue of the multilingual journal Paedagogica Historica: International Journal of the History of Education. This book celebrates its fiftieth volume. In fourteen contributions written by

  1. Star formation histories of irregular galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.S. III; Hunter, D.A.; Tutukov, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    We explore the star formation histories of a selection of irregular and spiral galaxies by using three parameters that sample the star formation rate (SFR) at different epochs: (1) the mass of a galaxy in the form of stars measures the SFR integrated over a galaxy's lifetime; (2) the blue luminosity is dominated primarily by stars formed over the past few billion years; and (3) Lyman continuum photon fluxes derived from Hα luminosities give the current ( 8 yr) SFR

  2. Reconstructing the tectonic history of Fennoscandia from its margins: The past 100 million years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir Wood, R [EQE International Ltd (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-01

    In the absence of onland late Mesozoic and Cenozoic geological formations the tectonic history of the Baltic Shield over the past 100 million years can be reconstructed from the thick sedimentary basins that surround Fennoscandia on three sides. Tectonic activity around Fennoscandia through this period has been diverse but can be divided into four main periods: a. pre North Atlantic spreading ridge (100-60 Ma) when transpressional deformation on the southern margins of Fennoscandia and transtensional activity to the west was associated with a NNE-SSW maximum compressive stress direction; b. the creation of the spreading ridge (60-45 Ma) when there was rifting along the western margin; c. the re-arrangement of spreading axes (45-25 Ma) when there was a radial compression around Fennoscandia, and d. the re-emergence of the Iceland hot-spot (25-0 Ma) when the stress-field has come to accord with ridge or plume `push`. Since 60 Ma the Alpine plate boundary has had little influence on Fennoscandia. The highest levels of deformation on the margins of Fennoscandia were achieved around 85 Ma, 60-55 Ma, with strain-rates around 10{sup -9}/year. Within the Baltic Shield long term strain rates have been around 10{sup -1}1/year, with little evidence for significant deformations passing into the shield from the margins. Fennoscandian Border Zone activity, which was prominent from 90-60 Ma, was largely abandoned following the creation of the Norwegian Sea spreading ridge, and with the exception of the Lofoten margin, there is subsequently little evidence for deformation passing into Fennoscandia. Renewal of modest compressional deformation in the Voering Basin suggest that the `Current Tectonic Regime` is of Quaternary age although the orientation of the major stress axis has remained consistent since around 10 Ma. The past pattern of changes suggest that in the geological near-future variations are to be anticipated in the magnitude rather than the orientation of stresses.

  3. Reconstructing the tectonic history of Fennoscandia from its margins: The past 100 million years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir Wood, R.

    1995-12-01

    In the absence of onland late Mesozoic and Cenozoic geological formations the tectonic history of the Baltic Shield over the past 100 million years can most readily be reconstructed from the thick sedimentary basins that surround Fennoscandia on three sides. Tectonic activity around Fennoscandia through this period has been diverse but can be divided into four main periods: a. pre North Atlantic spreading ridge (100-60 Ma) when transpressional deformation on the southern margins of Fennoscandia and transtensional activity to the west was associated with a NNE-SSW maximum compressive stress direction; b. the creation of the spreading ridge (60-45 Ma) when there was rifting along the western margin; c. the re-arrangement of spreading axes (45-25 Ma) when there was a radial compression around Fennoscandia, and d. the re-emergence of the Iceland hot-spot (25-0 Ma) when the stress-field has come to accord with ridge or plume 'push'. Since 60 Ma the Alpine plate boundary has had little influence on Fennoscandia. The highest levels of deformation on the margins of Fennoscandia were achieved around 85 Ma, 60-55 Ma, with strain-rates around 10 -9 /year. Within the Baltic Shield long term strain rates have been around 10 -1 1/year, with little evidence for evidence for significant deformations passing into the shield from the margins. Fennoscandian Border Zone activity, which was prominent from 90-60 Ma, was largely abandoned following the creation of the Norwegian Sea spreading ridge, and with the exception of the Lofoten margin, there is subsequently very little evidence for deformation passing into Fennoscandia. Renewal of modest compressional deformation in the Voering Basin suggest that the 'Current Tectonic Regime' is of Quaternary age although the orientation of the major stress axis has remained approximately consistent since around 10 Ma. The past pattern of changes suggest that in the geological near-future variations are to be anticipated in the magnitude rather

  4. Winglets Save Billions of Dollars in Fuel Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The upturned ends now featured on many airplane wings are saving airlines billions of dollars in fuel costs. Called winglets, the drag-reducing technology was advanced through the research of Langley Research Center engineer Richard Whitcomb and through flight tests conducted at Dryden Flight Research Center. Seattle-based Aviation Partners Boeing -- a partnership between Aviation Partners Inc., of Seattle, and The Boeing Company, of Chicago -- manufactures Blended Winglets, a unique design featured on Boeing aircraft around the world. These winglets have saved more than 2 billion gallons of jet fuel to date, representing a cost savings of more than $4 billion and a reduction of almost 21.5 million tons in carbon dioxide emissions.

  5. How do you interpret a billion primary care records?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Heaven

    2017-04-01

    To establish this we explored just over 1 billion unique Read coded records generated in the time period 1999 to 2015 by GP practices participating in the provision of anonymised records to SAIL, aligning, filtering and summarising the data in a series of observational exercises to generate hypotheses related to the capture and recording of the data. Results A fascinating journey through 1 billion GP practice generated pieces of information, embarked upon to aid interpretation of our Supporting People results, and providing insights into the patterns of recording within GP data.

  6. [2000 year history of tonsillectomy. Images from the history of otorhinolaryngology, highlighted by instruments from the collection of the German Medical History Museum in Ingolstadt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, H

    1997-12-01

    The etymology of the anatomical terms and their use in history are elucidated: "Tonsil" (from Latin tonsa = the oar) in use since Celsus (about 40 AD). The Greek terms of that time, "antiádes", "paristhmia", were not adopted in later medical terminology. "Amygdala" (Greek/Latin = the almond) was introduced by Vesalius in 1543. Vesalius was also the first to depict the tonsils in a specimen of the whole human body; Duverney (1761) gives the first exact depiction of the pharyngeal region. Special anatomical and histological studies of the tonsils were carried out in the 19 century. Cornelius Celsus in Rome (about 40 AD) described the blunt removal of the tonsils by use of the finger. This method was favoured anew by numerous laryngologists at the beginning of the 20th century when it had been realised that a gentle enucleation of the entire tonsil including its capsule was advisable against cutting off a slice, but before long this procedure was discarded again for hygienic reasons. Precursors of special instruments for tonsillectomy were instruments designed for shortening the uvula: uvulotomy. Paré (1564) and Scultetus (1655) devised instruments that permitted placing a thread shaped like a snare around the uvula and cutting it off by strangulation. Hildanus (1646), Scultetus (1655) and Heister (1763) presented an instrument of the guillotine-type for uvulotomy. This instrument was modified by P. S. Physick (USA 1828) and used for tonsillotomy. It became the prototype for a number of similar instruments which were to follow: W. M. F. Fahnestock (USA 1832). M. Mackenzie (London 1880), G. Sluder (USA 1911). Besides these guillotines snares were also perfected and used for tonsillotomy, e.g. by W. Brünings (1908). The concentration on tonsillotomy aimed at performing the operation as quickly as possible, especially in children, as it was not yet possible to sustain general anaesthesia for a longer period of time while doing surgery in the pharynx. The operation of

  7. The natural history of Becker expandable breast implants: a single-center 10-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindali, Katia; Davis, Marcus; Mughal, Maleeha; Orkar, Kusu S

    2013-09-01

    Use of Becker expandable breast implants in single-stage breast surgery is a well-established technique; however, replacement with fixed-volume implants is common. The authors sought to analyze the long-term natural history of these implants over a wide range of surgical indications. A retrospective review of 330 consecutive patients who underwent 384 Becker expander breast reconstructions over a 10-year period in a dedicated plastic surgery unit was undertaken. Implant indication, Becker type, volume and site, complications, expander lifespan, and explant reasons were assessed. Two hundred twenty-eight patients (267 implants) and 102 patients (117 implants) underwent implantation for congenital deformities and breast cancer reconstruction, respectively. One hundred eighty-seven (48 percent) were explanted at a median period of 13.0 months (range, 9.0 to 26.0 months), 149 (39 percent) for aesthetic reasons and 38 (10 percent) for complications. Complication rates were higher in breast cancer reconstruction compared with congenital patients (19.6 percent versus 7.9 percent; p = 0.002), driven by an increased rate of wound complications (13.7 percent versus 4.4 percent; p = 0.003). Cancer-related surgery and advancing age were the only predictors of complication risk. The overall Becker expander retention rate was 24.9 percent and 46.8 percent at 150 months in the cancer reconstruction and congenital groups, respectively. Forty-seven percent of Becker implants were retained long term after congenital corrective surgery; only 25 percent were retained after postmastectomy reconstruction. Poor aesthetics was driving the exchange for fixed-volume implants, indicating that after breast cancer reconstruction, Becker expanders were being used as part of a two-stage reconstructive strategy.

  8. How does one do the history of disability in antiquity? One thousand years of case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laes, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Exploring literary sources from the first century BCE up to the eleventh century CE, this article demonstrates how the history of disabilities in antiquity can go further than just collecting 'interesting case histories'. Using a model developed by Michel Vovelle, the sources are interpreted on different levels, taking into account both the cultural context in which the text arose and the intentions of the author.

  9. International collaboration in SSC (or any $4 billion scientific project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses the superconducting supercollider. This is a project that costs U.S. $4.4 billion. The author spends a short time giving the motivation (which is a scientific motivation) and also giving the idea of how it is possible, with U.S. deficits

  10. Working Paper 5: Beyond Collier's Bottom Billion | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-16

    Dec 16, 2010 ... The heart of the narrative presented in the book is that a group of almost 60 countries, with a population of about a billion people, are caught in four main traps. Their prospects for escaping the traps are poor, and they need a set of actions from the international community to achieve the rapid rates of growth ...

  11. The natural history of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A in adults: a 5-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhamme, Camiel; van Schaik, Ivo N.; Koelman, Johannes H. T. M.; de Haan, Rob J.; de Visser, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A is the most prevalent hereditary demyelinating polyneuropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the natural history of the disease in adults during a 5-year follow-up and to compare the changes over time with those found in normal ageing. In a cohort of 46 adult

  12. Workshop Physics and Related Curricula: "A 25-Year History of Collaborative Learning Enhanced by Computer Tools for Observation and Analysis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Priscilla W.; Willis, Maxine C.; Sokoloff, David R.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the 25-year history of development of the activity-based Workshop Physics (WP) at Dickinson College, its adaptation for use at Gettysburg Area High School, and its synergistic influence on curricular materials developed at the University of Oregon and Tufts University and vice versa. WP and these related curricula: 1) are…

  13. Visual Thinking in Teaching History: Reading the Visual Thinking Skills of 12 Year-Old Pupils in Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilek, Gulcin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore the visual thinking skills of some sixth grade (12-13 year-old) primary pupils who created visual interpretations during history courses. Pupils drew pictures describing historical scenes or events based on visual sources. They constructed these illustrations by using visual and written primary and secondary sources in…

  14. Using Event-history Analysis: Lessons from Fifteen Years of Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Bourdais, Céline

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishInnovative statistical methods and new longitudinal surveys paved the way forthe widespread use of event-history analysis in social science during the last two decades. This paperdoes not attempt to provide a comprehensive review of these innovative methods. More modestly, it aimsat identifying and describing the problems encountered by two privileged users. Two types of problemsare discussed here. The first arises from the design of the surveys, or the way data are collected,and the difficulty in testing specific hypotheses with the existing databases. This is the kind ofproblem that Le Bordais has faced in analyzing family dynamics. The second has to do with thelimitations of the survival regression models when the longitudinal phenomena studied can no longerproperly be thought of as a small number of unique events. This is the type of problem enountered byRenaud in his ten-year Quebec panel sturvey of new immigrants.FrenchLes avancées récentes de la statistique et le développement de nouvellesenquêtes longitudinales ont suscité un engouement pour l’analyse des transitionsen sciences sociales au cours des deux dernières décennies. Cet article necherche pas à présenter une revue exhaustive des progrès qui ont été réalisésgrâce à l’utilisation de cette méthode d’analyse statistique. Plus modestement, iltente d’identifier et de décrire les problèmes rencontrés par deux chercheurs lorsde l’application de l’analyse des transitions. Deux types de problèmes sontdiscutés ici. Le premier est lié à la structure des enquêtes, soit à la nature mêmedes données recueillies, et à la difficulté de tester certaines hypothèses à partirdes bases de données existantes; c’est le type de problème rencontré par LeBourdais dans ses travaux sur la dynamique familiale. Le second tient auxlimites des modèles de l’analyse des transitions quand les phénomènes étudiésne peuvent plus être conceptualisés comme

  15. Reconsidering a Classic: Assessing the History of Women's Higher Education a Dozen Years after Barbara Solomon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Linda

    1997-01-01

    A critique of Barbara Miller Solomon's 1985 book "In the Company of Educated Women" identifies its ground-breaking contributions but shows how it limited women's educational history by overemphasizing access to higher education and neglecting wider influences such as economics, women's occupational choices, and women's status in society.…

  16. Histories of Cyprus : the disputed years of Ottoman Rule 1571-1878

    OpenAIRE

    Smilden, Jan-Erik

    2007-01-01

    Summary Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots have their respective versions of the history of Cyprus during the Ottoman rule from 1571 to 1878. This thesis examines how this period is presented and constructed by present Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot historians.

  17. Introduction: A brief journey through the 80 year history of the International Association of Schools of Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The leaders of the International Association of Schools of Social Work (IASSW have played major roles in shaping the organization over its 80 year history. This brief introduction will put their roles in the context of the organization’s history. While influenced by its presidents in significant ways, the organization’s trajectory has also been affected by the political, economic and social developments of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st. Significant changes have occurred in the organization and in social work education, yet, as Feustel (2006 observed, “the history of the IASSW demonstrates lines of continuity that are even more remarkable for the fact that it was caught up in the great historical ruptures of the 20th century” (p. 3.

  18. Rewriting rural community and dictatorial history through magical realism in Márquez’s One Hundred Years of Solitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Abu Shahid

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Márquez was greatly influenced by his grandmother’s story-telling ability, and was highly indebted to the socio-political history of Latin America, particularly Colombia. In One Hundred Years of Solitude, he wants to reconstruct the lost world of childhood by using magical realism which gives expression to the world-view of a rural people who live in isolation from modern world. By retelling the official history from the perspective of the oppressed, he reveals the fact that history is never factual and impartial but serves the interest of those who write it. Through the banana company massacre and the subsequent hide and seek over the number of dead workers, Márquez exposes the way official history becomes fabricated and distorted by authorities, and fails to provide the original occurrences. He was disgusted with the political violence and civil wars which had distraught people; he was also against capitalism, scientific and technological inventions, and so-called modernization, which are the means through which foreign culture brings corruption and brutality, dominates, exploits and oppresses the natives, and threatens the native culture and identity. By employing magical realism, he was able to recreate Colombian history to protest against the way capitalism dominated the socio-political and economic structure of the region.

  19. Areva - First quarter 2009 revenue climbs 8.5% to 3.003 billion euros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    First quarter 2009 revenue was up 8.5% compared with the same period last year, to 3.003 billion euros. At constant exchange rates and consolidation scope, growth came to 3.9%. Currency translation had a positive impact of 57 million euros over the quarter. Changes in the consolidation scope had an impact of 66 million euros, primarily due to the consolidation of acquisitions made in 2008 in Transmission and Distribution and in Renewable Energies. The growth engines for first quarter revenue were the Reactors and Services division and the Transmission and Distribution division, with growth of 9.2% and 16.1% respectively. Outside France, revenue rose to 2.032 billion euros, compared with 1.857 billion euros in the first quarter of 2008, and represents 68% of total revenue. Orders were steady in the first quarter, particularly in the Front End, which posted several significant contracts with US and Asian utilities, and in Transmission and Distribution, with orders up sharply in Asia and South America. As of March 31, 2009, the group's backlog reached 49.5 billion euros, for 28.3% growth year-on-year, including 31.3% growth in Nuclear and 10.2% in Transmission and Distribution. For the year as a whole, the group confirms its outlook for backlog and revenue growth as well as rising operating income It should be noted that revenue may vary significantly from one quarter to the next in nuclear operations. Accordingly, quarterly data cannot be viewed as a reliable indicator of annual trends

  20. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from Volume 1 (Volume 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langholtz, M. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, K. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stokes, B. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-13

    On behalf of all the authors and contributors, it is a great privilege to present the 2016 Billion-Ton Report (BT16), volume 2: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from volume 1. This report represents the culmination of several years of collaborative effort among national laboratories, government agencies, academic institutions, and industry. BT16 was developed to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s efforts towards national goals of energy security and associated quality of life.

  1. Impacts and tectonism in Earth and moon history of the past 3800 million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1992-01-01

    The moon's surface, unlike the Earth's, displays a comparatively clear record of its past bombardment history for the last 3800 Myr, the time since active lunar tectonism under the massive premare bombardment ended. From Baldwin's (1987) tabulation of estimated ages for a representative sample of large lunar craters younger than 3800 Ma, six major cratering episodes can be discerned. These six bombardment episodes, which must have affected the Earth too, appear to match in time the six major episodes of orogenic tectonism on Earth, despite typical resolution errors of +/- 100 Myr and the great uncertainties of the two chronologies. Since more highly resolved events during the Cenozoic and Mesozoic Eras suggest the same correlation, it is possible that large impacts have influenced plate tectonics and other aspects of geologic history, perhaps by triggering flood basalt eruptions.

  2. Gaia: Science with 1 billion objects in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusti, Timo

    2018-02-01

    Gaia is an operational satellite in the ESA science programme. It is gathering data for more than a billion objects. Gaia measures positions and motions of stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, but captures many asteroids and extragalactic sources as well. The first data release has already been made and exploitation by the world-wide scientific community is underway. Further data releases will be made with further increasing accuracy. Gaia is well underway to provide its promised set of fundamental astronomical data.

  3. Document de travail 5: Beyond Collier's Bottom Billion | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    16 déc. 2010 ... L'ouvrage de Paul Collier, The Bottom Billion, suscite un grand intérêt dans le domaine du développement. Il repose sur la thèse selon laquelle un groupe de près de 60 pays, dont la population totale avoisine un milliard de personnes, sont pris dans quatre pièges principaux.

  4. Cost of solving mysteries of universe: $6.7 billion

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    "An international consortium of physicists on Thursday released the first detailed design of what they believe will be the next big thing in physics. The machine, 20 miles long, will slam together electrons and their opposites, positrons, to produce fireballs of energy re-creating conditions when the universe was only a trillionth of a second old. It would cost about $6.7 billion." (1 page)

  5. $35 billion habit: will nuclear cost overruns bankrupt the utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has proposed some 150 modifications in the design and operation of nuclear power plants as a result of the accident at Three Mile Island. The Atomic Industrial Forum estimates the total cost of the NRC's proposed rule changes at $35.5 billion ($3.5 billion in capital costs for the entire industry, and $32 billion in outage and construction-delay costs to the utilities) for existing facilities and for those with construction well underway. The changes range from improved training for reactor workers to a major overhaul of the reactor-containment design. The nuclear industry is asking the NRC to modify the proposals citing excessive costs (like the $100 million changes needed for a plant that cost $17 million to build) and safety (some of the complex regulations may interfere with safety). Financing the changes has become a major problem for the utilities. If the regulators allow all the costs to be passed along to the consumer, the author feels electricity will be too expensive for the consumer

  6. Testing Convergence Versus History: Convergence Dominates Phenotypic Evolution for over 150 Million Years in Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Daniel S; Morlon, Hélène; Wiens, John J

    2016-01-01

    Striking evolutionary convergence can lead to similar sets of species in different locations, such as in cichlid fishes and Anolis lizards, and suggests that evolution can be repeatable and predictable across clades. Yet, most examples of convergence involve relatively small temporal and/or spatial scales. Some authors have speculated that at larger scales (e.g., across continents), differing evolutionary histories will prevent convergence. However, few studies have compared the contrasting roles of convergence and history, and none have done so at large scales. Here we develop a two-part approach to test the scale over which convergence can occur, comparing the relative importance of convergence and history in macroevolution using phylogenetic models of adaptive evolution. We apply this approach to data from morphology, ecology, and phylogeny from 167 species of anuran amphibians (frogs) from 10 local sites across the world, spanning ~160 myr of evolution. Mapping ecology on the phylogeny revealed that similar microhabitat specialists (e.g., aquatic, arboreal) have evolved repeatedly across clades and regions, producing many evolutionary replicates for testing for morphological convergence. By comparing morphological optima for clades and microhabitat types (our first test), we find that convergence associated with microhabitat use dominates frog morphological evolution, producing recurrent ecomorphs that together encompass all sampled species in each community in each region. However, our second test, which examines whether and how much species differ from their inferred optima, shows that convergence is incomplete: that is, phenotypes of most species are still somewhat distant from the estimated optimum for each microhabitat, seemingly because of insufficient time for more complete adaptation (an effect of history). Yet, these effects of history are related to past ecologies, and not clade membership. Overall, our study elucidates the dominant drivers of

  7. The discovery of radium 100 years ago and the impact on the early history of nuclear science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adloff, J.P. [University Louis Pasteur, 63 Rue Saint Urbain 67100 Strasbourg (France)

    1999-09-01

    One hundred years ago, Pierre and Marie Curie reawakened the topic of uranic rays and discovered two radioelements, polonium in July 1898 and radium in December. The circumstances of these events which announced the beginning of radiochemistry are reviewed at the light of the laboratory notebooks and the publications of the authors. The role of radium in the early history of radioactivity and nuclear sciences is emphasized. (author)

  8. The discovery of radium 100 years ago and the impact on the early history of nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adloff, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    One hundred years ago, Pierre and Marie Curie reawakened the topic of uranic rays and discovered two radioelements, polonium in July 1898 and radium in December. The circumstances of these events which announced the beginning of radiochemistry are reviewed at the light of the laboratory notebooks and the publications of the authors. The role of radium in the early history of radioactivity and nuclear sciences is emphasized. (author)

  9. From Melusine to MINATEC. 1956-2006. 50 years of CENG history, which has become CEA-Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This book, fully illustrated, relates 50 years of history of the nuclear research center of Grenoble (CENG), which is today the CEA-Grenoble. The book follows the chronological order, from the building up of the research center and of the Melusine reactor in the 1950's to the first steps in microelectronic research in the 1960's and to the creation in 2003 of MINATEC the first European research center on micro- and nano-technologies. (J.S.)

  10. Fracture predictive ability of physical performance tests and history of falls in elderly women: a 10-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihlborg, A; Englund, M; Åkesson, K; Gerdhem, P

    2015-08-01

    In a large cohort of elderly women followed for 10 years, we found that balance, gait speed, and self-reported history of fall independently predicted fracture. These clinical risk factors are easily evaluated and therefore advantageous in a clinical setting. They would improve fracture risk assessment and thereby also fracture prevention. The aim of this study was to identify additional risk factors for osteoporosis-related fracture by investigating the fracture predictive ability of physical performance tests and self-reported history of falls. In the population-based Osteoporosis Prospective Risk Assessment study (OPRA), 1044 women were recruited at the age of 75 and followed for 10 years. At inclusion, knee extension force, standing balance, gait speed, and bone mineral density (BMD) were examined. Falls the year before investigation was assessed by questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to determine fracture hazard ratios (HR) with BMD, history of fracture, BMI, smoking habits, bisphosphonate, vitamin D, glucocorticoid, and alcohol use as covariates. Continuous variables were standardized and HR shown for each standard deviation change. Of all women, 427 (41%) sustained at least one fracture during the 10-year follow-up. Failing the balance test had an HR of 1.98 (1.18-3.32) for hip fracture. Each standard deviation decrease in gait speed was associated with an HR of 1.37 (1.14-1.64) for hip fracture. Previous fall had an HR of 1.30 (1.03-1.65) for any fracture; 1.39 (1.08-1.79) for any osteoporosis-related fracture; and 1.60 (1.03-2.48) for distal forearm fracture. Knee extension force did not show fracture predictability. The balance test, gait speed test, and self-reported history of fall all hold independent fracture predictability. Consideration of these clinical risk factors for fracture would improve the fracture risk assessment and subsequently also fracture prevention.

  11. Gathering the forgotten voices: an oral history of the CFHT's early years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laychak, Mary Beth; Bryson, Liz

    2011-06-01

    They came to the Big Island from as far away as Murrumbeena, Australia, and as near by as Hilo, Hawaii. They were progeny of Scottish coal miners, French physicists, Chicago truck drivers, Japanese samurai and Big Island cane workers. Together, these men and women would build and commission one of the most dynamic and productive 3.6 meter telescopes in the world that remains in the forefront of science and technology. The CFHT oral history DVD preserves the stories of the first decade and a half of the observatory.

  12. Critical assembly: a technical history of Los Alamos during the Oppenheimer years, 1943-1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoddeson, Lillian; Henriksen, P.W.; Meade, R.A.; Westfall, Catherine.

    1993-01-01

    This book sets out the history of the technical developments at the Los Alamos Laboratory which produced the first atomic bombs. Based on both classified and unclassified material it looks at the methodology of the research at Los Alamos. The research and development which led to the implosion and gun weapons, the research that enabled physics, chemistry and metallurgy that enabled scientists to design the weapons and to conceive the idea of the thermonuclear bomb are all chronicled. The methodology of the 'big science' carried out in national laboratories is studied. (UK)

  13. Critical assembly: a technical history of Los Alamos during the Oppenheimer years, 1943-1945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoddeson, Lillian; Henriksen, P.W.; Meade, R.A.; Westfall, Catherine.

    1993-01-01

    This book sets out the history of the technical developments at the Los Alamos Laboratory which produced the first atomic bombs. Based on both classified and unclassified material it looks at the methodology of the research at Los Alamos. The research and development which led to the implosion and gun weapons, the research that enabled physics, chemistry and metallurgy that enabled scientists to design the weapons and to conceive the idea of the thermonuclear bomb are all chronicled. The methodology of the 'big science' carried out in national laboratories is studied. (UK).

  14. A clinical procedures curriculum for undergraduate medical students: the eight-year history of a third-year immersive experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Thompson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Procedural skills training is a critical component of medical education, but is often lacking in standard clinical curricula. We describe a unique immersive procedural skills curriculum for medical students, designed and taught primarily by emergency medicine faculty at The Ohio State University College of Medicine. Objectives: The primary educational objective of this program was to formally introduce medical students to clinical procedures thought to be important for success in residency. The immersion strategy (teaching numerous procedures over a 7-day period was intended to complement the student's education on third-year core clinical clerkships. Program design: The course introduced 27 skills over 7 days. Teaching and learning methods included lecture, prereading, videos, task trainers, peer teaching, and procedures practice on cadavers. In year 4 of the program, a peer-team teaching model was adopted. We analyzed program evaluation data over time. Impact: Students valued the selection of procedures covered by the course and felt that it helped prepare them for residency (97%. The highest rated activities were the cadaver lab and the advanced cardiac life support (97 and 93% positive endorsement, respectively. Lectures were less well received (73% positive endorsement, but improved over time. The transition to peer-team teaching resulted in improved student ratings of course activities (p<0.001. Conclusion: A dedicated procedural skills curriculum successfully supplemented the training medical students received in the clinical setting. Students appreciated hands-on activities and practice. The peer-teaching model improved course evaluations by students, which implies that this was an effective teaching method for adult learners. This course was recently expanded and restructured to place the learning closer to the clinical settings in which skills are applied.

  15. The Hospital de Santiago in Cuenca: an institution with 800 years history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Solís García del Pozo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hospital de Santiago in the city of Cuenca is one of the Spanish healthcare institutions that has maintained its activity for a longer time. Initially, this hospital was an institution for the redemption of captives in a border area of the kingdom of Castile with Al-Andalus, later it functioned as a hospital for the sick poor, maintaining its assistance activity despite the different destructions that the building has gone throughout its history. Currently, the hospital is a geriatric residence. Historical studies on hospitals have extended their scope of action, leaving the particular scope of institutional functioning and entering into areas as the hospital's relationship with the political, religious, social and economic environment. From this point of view, the hospital in Cuenca is still a little-explored ground to study these relationships in a city in interior Spain during a large part of the historical stages it has gone through, and especially from the Modern Age.

  16. Naïve observers' perceptions of family drawings by 7-year-olds with disorganized attachment histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Sheri; Goldberg, Susan; Moran, Greg; Pederson, David R

    2004-09-01

    Previous research has succeeded in distinguishing among drawings made by children with histories of organized attachment relationships (secure, avoidant, and resistant); however, drawings of children with histories of disorganized attachment have yet to be systematically investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether naïve observers would respond differentially to family drawings of 7-year-olds who were classified in infancy as disorganized vs. organized. Seventy-three undergraduate students from one university and 78 from a second viewed 50 family drawings of 7-year-olds (25 by children with organized infant attachment and 25 by children with disorganized infant attachment). Participants were asked to (1) circle the emotion that best described their reaction to the drawings and (2) rate the drawings on 6 bipolar scales. Drawings from children classified as disorganized in infancy evoked positive emotion labels less often and negative emotion labels more often than those children classified as organized. Furthermore, drawings from children classified as disorganized in infancy received higher ratings on scales for disorganization, carelessness, family chaos, bizarreness, uneasiness, and dysfunction. These data indicate that naive observers are relatively successful in distinguishing selected features of drawings by children with histories of disorganized vs. organized attachment.

  17. All that wheezes is not asthma: a 6-year-old with foreign body aspiration and no suggestive history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Amy; Gopalakaje, Saikiran; Eastham, Katherine

    2012-12-12

    The authors report the case of a 6-year-old girl, presenting with a 4-month history of wheeze associated with barking cough which frequently became wet requiring antibiotics. Her care was transferred to a paediatrician with specialist interest in paediatric respiratory medicine when she had continued symptoms despite bronchodilators and oral steroids for suspected asthma. Spirometry showed a forced expiratory volume 1 of 79% with no evidence of reversibility. The child was investigated for chronic wet cough. Immunoglobulins, sweat test and chest x-ray were all normal. There was no history suggestive of foreign body aspiration (FBA). Tracheomalacia was considered in view of the nature of the cough. The recurrence of an unusual inspiratory noise prompted referral for bronchoscopy. A small piece of plastic tube was removed from the bronchus intermedius. All symptoms resolved. The importance of clinical assessment to ascertain 'wheeze' when acutely unwell is emphasised. Current literature concerning FBA is reviewed.

  18. 500-year periodicity of political instability in the history of ancient Egypt and China. Androgens at work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páles, Emil; Mikulecký, Miroslav

    2008-08-01

    DISCOVERY: A periodicity of 500 years has been discovered in the political history of ancient Egypt and documented by means of inferential statistics. Periods of chaos and waning of central power (some of them called "intermediate periods") recurred every 500 years. Input for the computation is the mean duration of ruling dynasties calculated per each half century. Fisher's periodogram analysis and Halberg's cosinor regression have been used. A highly significant (p god Nergal. The same periodicity has been described by the Chinese philosopher Mencius in the 3rd century B.C. and attributed to the will of tian (heaven). Egyptians elevated their war god Seth every 500 years and European kings assumed masculine nicknames. This recurring cultural pattern of aggressiveness and strife resembles overall traits of male psyche or mid-life crisis. We suggest to look for an unknown cosmophysical factor impacting the neuroendocrine system of man by raising the levels of androgens periodically. EXPLANATION HYPOTHESES: Sun impacts global weather on Earth, but there is no known significant periodicity of 500 years in solar activity. The Wheeler weather cycle almost fits the cycle of Egyptian political history. But his cold-dry periods seem to lag behind the periods of social destabilization and hence can not cause them. An alternative view (based on idealistic rather than materialistic presuppositions) is, that periodic long-term shifts of archetypes take place within the collective unconscious of mankind independently of external environment.

  19. A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jens; Ma, Chung-Pei; McConnell, Nicholas J; Greene, Jenny E; Blakeslee, John P; Janish, Ryan

    2016-04-21

    Quasars are associated with and powered by the accretion of material onto massive black holes; the detection of highly luminous quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 suggests that black holes of up to ten billion solar masses already existed 13 billion years ago. Two possible present-day 'dormant' descendants of this population of 'active' black holes have been found in the galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 at the centres of the Leo and Coma galaxy clusters, which together form the central region of the Great Wall--the largest local structure of galaxies. The most luminous quasars, however, are not confined to such high-density regions of the early Universe; yet dormant black holes of this high mass have not yet been found outside of modern-day rich clusters. Here we report observations of the stellar velocity distribution in the galaxy NGC 1600--a relatively isolated elliptical galaxy near the centre of a galaxy group at a distance of 64 megaparsecs from Earth. We use orbit superposition models to determine that the black hole at the centre of NGC 1600 has a mass of 17 billion solar masses. The spatial distribution of stars near the centre of NGC 1600 is rather diffuse. We find that the region of depleted stellar density in the cores of massive elliptical galaxies extends over the same radius as the gravitational sphere of influence of the central black holes, and interpret this as the dynamical imprint of the black holes.

  20. The Boring Billion, a slingshot for Complex Life on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Indrani; Large, Ross R; Corkrey, Ross; Danyushevsky, Leonid V

    2018-03-13

    The period 1800 to 800 Ma ("Boring Billion") is believed to mark a delay in the evolution of complex life, primarily due to low levels of oxygen in the atmosphere. Earlier studies highlight the remarkably flat C, Cr isotopes and low trace element trends during the so-called stasis, caused by prolonged nutrient, climatic, atmospheric and tectonic stability. In contrast, we suggest a first-order variability of bio-essential trace element availability in the oceans by combining systematic sampling of the Proterozoic rock record with sensitive geochemical analyses of marine pyrite by LA-ICP-MS technique. We also recall that several critical biological evolutionary events, such as the appearance of eukaryotes, origin of multicellularity & sexual reproduction, and the first major diversification of eukaryotes (crown group) occurred during this period. Therefore, it appears possible that the period of low nutrient trace elements (1800-1400 Ma) caused evolutionary pressures which became an essential trigger for promoting biological innovations in the eukaryotic domain. Later periods of stress-free conditions, with relatively high nutrient trace element concentration, facilitated diversification. We propose that the "Boring Billion" was a period of sequential stepwise evolution and diversification of complex eukaryotes, triggering evolutionary pathways that made possible the later rise of micro-metazoans and their macroscopic counterparts.

  1. Parental depressive history, parenting styles, and child psychopathology over six years: The contribution of each parent’s depressive history to the other’s parenting styles

    OpenAIRE

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Jelinek, Caitlin; Kessel, Ellen; Frost, Allison; Allmann, Anna E.S.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2017-01-01

    The link between parental depressive history and parenting styles is well established, as is the association of parenting with child psychopathology. However, little research has examined whether a depressive history in one parent predicts the parenting style of the other parent. As well, relatively little research has tested transactional models of the parenting-child psychopathology relationship in the context of parents’ depressive histories. In this study, mothers and fa...

  2. Reproductive history, socioeconomic status and disability in the women aged 65 years or older in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Belgin; Ege, Emel; Koçoğlu, Deniz; Arslan, Selda Y; Bilgili, Naile

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy and childbirth are an important physiological and emotional phenomenon in their lives for most women and studies have shown that this process may have a significant impact on their health at later ages. The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between functional disabilities in women over the age of 65 and their reproductive history and socioeconomic status. This is a cross-sectional study. The study group consisted of 543 women aged 65 or over. A general questionnaire and the Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ) were used to collect data with face-to-face interview in home visits. Of the women 79.2% have disability. First childbirth was experienced at the average age of 19.6+/-3.3 and the average age at which the women experienced their last delivery was 32.5+/-6.3. Parity was 4.1+/-1.7. Advanced age, being widowed and illiterate, less income, being outside of the middle class and having more than four children are important determinants for later life disability. The study highlights the importance of focusing not just on the short-term effects of childbearing and socioeconomic factors, but also of taking into account the possibility of long-term effects on disability in older women.

  3. The Atomic Testing Museum: Presenting the History and Preservation of a 50 Year Journey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troy E, Wade II

    2009-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is one of the premier test and evaluation sites belonging to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), a part of the Department of Energy. Founded in 1950, it is a major domestic location for the testing of nuclear components and nuclear weapons destined for the stockpile, the nuclear deterrent of the United States. From 1951 until 1992 there were 100 atmospheric and 828 underground nuclear tests conducted at the NTS. Those tests resulted in the development of a nuclear deterrent that helped prevent a world war and played a major role in the final defeat of the Soviet Union in the Cold War. Those tests lead to the development of yield measurement techniques that allowed the United States Government to take the lead in the negotiations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), which took effect in 1992, ending the requirement to do routine nuclear tests. This paper describes the walk through the history of the NTS' Cold War battlefield. (authors)

  4. A brief history of 25 years (or more) of infrared imaging radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Bernard R., Jr.; Orlove, Gary L.

    2003-04-01

    Modern thermal imaging radiometers are infrared systems usually endowed with some means of making surface temperature measurements of objects, as well as providing an image. These devices have evolved considerably over the past few decades, and are continuing to do so at an accelerating rate. Changes are not confined to merely camera size and user interface, but also include critical parameters, such as sensitivity, accuracy, dynamic range, spectral response, capture rates, storage media, and numerous other features, options, and accessories. Familiarity with this changing technology is much more than an academic topic. A misunderstanding or false assumption concerning system differences, could lead to misinterpretation of data, inaccurate temperature measurements, or disappointing, ambiguous results. Marketing demands have had considerable influence in the design and operation of these systems. In the past, many thermographers were scientists, engineers and researchers. Today, however, the majorities of people using these instruments work in the industrial sector and are involved in highly technical skilled trades. This change of operating personnel has effectively changed the status of these devices from a 'scientific instrument', to an 'essential tool'. Manufacturers have recognized this trend and responded accordingly, as seen in their product designs. This paper explores the history of commercial infrared imaging systems and accessories. Emphasis is placed on, but not confined to, real time systems with video output, capable of temperature measurements.

  5. Lake tourism fatalities: a 46-year history of death at Lake Powell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W

    2018-05-01

    This study investigates tourist mortality at Lake Powell over a 46-year period. To date no comprehensive long-term investigation examining the relationship between the lake environment and tourist mortality exists. A retrospective study was conducted of all tourist fatalities between 1959 and 2005. There were 351 fatal incidents resulting in 386 deaths between 1959 and 2005. Over the 46-year period, the average number of fatalities was 8.4 (±5.26) per year. Out of all fatalities, 282 were classified as accidental, 80 were classified as natural deaths, 13 were suicides and 5 were classified as homicides. Males accounted for 80% of fatalities and tourists aged 20-29 years and 10-19 years accounted for 36% of all fatalities. The highest number of fatalities was recorded in July (74), May (64), August (63) and June (59). Out of all accidental deaths, boating (29%) and swimming (22%) were the most common pre-death activities. High winds capsizing boats and carbon monoxide poisoning from boat engines were common factors contributing to 31 boating fatalities. Fatigue and exhaustion contributed to 22 swimming deaths. Recreational boating and swimming account for over half of all accidental deaths. Tourists visiting Lake Powell for recreational purposes should be informed of the risks associated with the lake environment.

  6. Epidemiological-based childhood headache natural history study: after an interval of six years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozge, Aynur; Sasmaz, Tayyar; Cakmak, Sema Erol; Kaleagasi, Hakan; Siva, Aksel

    2010-06-01

    Headache is a common problem among adolescents, and variations can be observed in headache types and characteristics. The present study aimed to reach 5562 Turkish children who were investigated six years previously in a school-based childhood headache project, and to evaluate their current headache status. Investigators interviewed the available students with structured questionnaires. New and old data were matched and analyzed. The present study included 1155 adolescents (mean age 15.2 +/- 1.1 years), with 582 boys (50.4%) and 573 girls (49.6%). The prevalence of headache was 78.7% (tension-type headache [TTH] 57.5%, migraine 18.6%, unspecified 2.6%). The prevalence of headache was 45.2% six years previously. In the intervening six years, headache prevalence increased and the headache types changed significantly (Kappa: 0.04, p < .01). The most important variation during this time was the significant increase in TTH. Analgesic use was determined in 70.2% of adolescents with headache, with this ratio being higher in migraineurs. In conclusion, there were an increase in headache prevalence and a significant change in headache types over the previous six years. It can also be suggested that new country-based management strategies are required.

  7. The unnatural history of pulmonary stenosis up to 40 years after surgical repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, Judith A A E; Menting, Myrthe E; Opić, Petra; Utens, Elisabeth M W J; Helbing, Willem A.; Witsenburg, Maarten; van den Bosch, Annemien E; van Domburg, Ron T.; Baart, Sara J; Boersma, Eric; Meijboom, Folkert J.; Bogers, Ad J. J. C.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To provide prospective information on long-term outcome after surgical correction of valvular pulmonary stenosis (PS). Methods: Fifty-three consecutive patients operated for PS during childhood between 1968 and 1980 in one centre are followed longitudinally for 37±3.4 years, including

  8. The unnatural history of pulmonary stenosis up to 40 years after surgical repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, Judith A. A. E.; Menting, Myrthe E.; Opić, Petra; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Helbing, Willem A.; Witsenburg, Maarten; van den Bosch, Annemien E.; van Domburg, Ron T.; Baart, Sara J.; Boersma, Eric; Meijboom, Folkert J.; Bogers, Ad J. J. C.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.

    2017-01-01

    To provide prospective information on long-term outcome after surgical correction of valvular pulmonary stenosis (PS). Fifty-three consecutive patients operated for PS during childhood between 1968 and 1980 in one centre are followed longitudinally for 37±3.4 years, including extensive in-hospital

  9. Twenty years of the journal of product innovation management : History, participants and knowledge stock and flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moenaert, R.K.; Griffin, A.; Biemans, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Journal of Product Innovation Management (JPIM) serves as a marketplace for science-based, innovative ideas that are produced and consumed by scholars and businesspeople. Now that JPIM has existed for 20 years, two intriguing questions emerge: (1) How has the journal evolved over time in terms

  10. Twenty years of the Journal of product innovation management : History, participants, and knowledge stock and flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Wim; Griffin, Abbie; Moenaert, Rudy

    The Journal of Product Innovation Management (JPIM) serves as a marketplace for science-based, innovative ideas that are produced and consumed by scholars and businesspeople. Now that JPIM has existed for 20 years, two intriguing questions emerge: (1) How has the journal evolved over time in terms

  11. The history of fifty years of institute of electrical engineers 1947-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This book starts with the survey of a century of Korea electrical industry. It includes a business of electric power and electrical machinery industry. Next, it deals with the survey of fifty years of Korea institute electrical engineers. Then, it enumerates the articles of association, organization, board members, the role of the administrative organization, study and institute business activities in detail.

  12. The unnatural history of the ventricular septal defect: outcome up to 40 years after surgical closure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menting, Myrthe E.; Cuypers, Judith A. A. E.; Opić, Petra; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Witsenburg, Maarten; van den Bosch, Annemien E.; van Domburg, Ron T.; Meijboom, Folkert J.; Boersma, Eric; Bogers, Ad J. J. C.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.

    2015-01-01

    Few prospective data are available regarding long-term outcomes after surgical closure of a ventricular septal defect (VSD). The objective of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes>30 years after surgical VSD closure. Patients who underwent surgical VSD closure during childhood between 1968

  13. The unnatural history of the ventricular septal defect : outcome up to 40 years after surgical closure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menting, Myrthe E; Cuypers, Judith A A E; Opić, Petra; Utens, Elisabeth M W J; Witsenburg, Maarten; van den Bosch, Annemien E; van Domburg, Ron T; Meijboom, Folkert J; Boersma, Eric; Bogers, Ad J J C; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few prospective data are available regarding long-term outcomes after surgical closure of a ventricular septal defect (VSD). OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes>30 years after surgical VSD closure. METHODS: Patients who underwent surgical VSD

  14. The unnatural history of the ventricular septal defect: Outcome up to 40 years after surgical closure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Menting (Myrthe); J.A.A.E. Cuypers (Judith); P. Opic (Petra); E.M.W.J. Utens (Elisabeth); M. Witsenburg (Maarten); A.E. van den Bosch (Annemien); R.T. van Domburg (Ron); F.J. Meijboom (Folkert); H. Boersma (Eric); A.J.J.C. Bogers (Ad); J.W. Roos-Hesselink (Jolien)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground Few prospective data are available regarding long-term outcomes after surgical closure of a ventricular septal defect (VSD). Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes >30 years after surgical VSD closure. Methods Patients who underwent

  15. Length limits fail to restructure a Largemouth Bass population: A 28‐year case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Colvin, M.E.; Shamaskin, A. C.; Bull, L. A.; Holman, T.; Jones, R.

    2017-01-01

    Length limits have been implemented by fisheries management agencies to achieve population density, size structure, and angler satisfaction objectives. By redirecting harvest towards or away from particular length‐ or age‐groups, length limits rely on harvest by anglers to maintain a population at or near a desired state. The fish population changes that follow the implementation of harvest regulations may take several years to manifest, so long‐term monitoring may be needed to adequately evaluate length limits. We used an innovative application of cluster analysis to facilitate evaluation of the effects of three consecutive length limits on a population of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides over a 28‐year period in Ross Barnett Reservoir, Mississippi. A 13–16‐in protected slot length limit (10 years), followed by a 15‐in minimum length limit (MLL; 11 years), followed by a 12‐in MLL (7 years) failed to restructure the Largemouth Bass population due to what we suggest was the expansion of a voluntary catch‐and‐release attitude that started in the first decade of the study period. Various population metrics shifted towards values expected in an unharvested population, and the observed shifts can be attributed to a harvest deficit created by the prevailing catch‐and‐release attitude. Largemouth Bass harvest regulations may no longer be relevant in many waters. The utility of regulations for restructuring Largemouth Bass populations is largely dependent on harvesting attitudes that vary geographically, depending on cultural characteristics and demographics.

  16. Young woman with a four-year history of epilepsy and progressive focal cortical atrophy — What is the diagnosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of disease progression in drug-refractory epilepsy is poorly understood. We report the case of a young woman with a four-year history of epilepsy that progressed rapidly as evidenced by the development of progressive focal cortical atrophy. She underwent biopsy that showed perinatal ischemia and a prominent inflammatory response, including T-cell infiltration and microglial activation. There was no consensus reached on the final diagnosis although the hypothesis of dual pathology (adult variant of Rasmussen's encephalitis and perinatal stroke was considered. The possible role of inflammation in the progression of epilepsy caused by a “static” lesion (perinatal stroke is discussed.

  17. History of wheat cultivars released by Embrapa in forty years of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In forty years of genetic breeding of wheat, Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation has developed over a hundred new cultivars for different regions of Brazil. Information regarding identification of these cultivars is often requested from Embrapa breeders. Data on year of release, name of pre-commercial line, the cross made, and the company unit responsible for indication of the cultivar are not always easily accessible and are often scattered throughout different documents. The aim of this study was to conduct a historical survey of all the wheat cultivars released by Embrapa, aggregating the information in a single document. Since 1974, Embrapa has released 112 wheat cultivars, including 12 by Embrapa Soybean - CNPSo (Londrina, PR, 14 by Embrapa Cerrado - CPAC (Brasília, DF, 9 by Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste - CPAO (Dourados, MS, and 77 by Embrapa Wheat - CNPT (Passo Fundo, RS.

  18. Academic posts at The University of Melbourne - 28 years of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski-Nankervis, Jo-Anne; Vergara, Edward; Daniel, Deepa; Young, Doris

    2011-12-01

    General practice registrars have the opportunity to undertake an academic post during their training. This 12 month part time post provides an opportunity to train in various facets of the emerging area of primary care research. The Department of General Practice (DGP) at The University of Melbourne (UoM) has hosted academic registrars for the past 28 years. Over this time, some important changes have occurred.

  19. 40 years of progress in NDT - History as a guide to the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farley, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The paper is focussed on the progress which has been made over 40 years in the science, technology and application of NDT/NDE both during manufacture and in-service, from the perspective of the author and his background in the energy industries in the UK. New techniques not dreamt of 40 years ago and new technology such as personal computers, lasers and robotics which are now common-place in everyday life have transformed some aspects of NDT. But other aspects have remained unchanged, including the continued use of the more basic NDT methods and the challenges of recruitment, training, certification and motivation of personnel. There have been major changes in the world scene over 40 years including the globalization of trade, the emergence of new countries as industrial powers, and the ageing of safety critical infrastructure. These have impacted on NDT business and on the activities of the international NDT community (including ICNDT, the International Committee for NDT). The paper concludes by introducing the activities championed by ICNDT to promote the understanding of the importance of NDT, to support the development of NDT Societies around the world, to educate users on the correct use of personnel certification and to pursue the objective of global harmonisation and recognition of third party certification

  20. 40 years of progress in NDT - History as a guide to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farley, Mike [Chairman, International Committee for NDT (ICNDT) and Secretariat: The British Institute of NDT, Newton Building, St George' s Avenue, Northampton NN2 6JB (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-18

    The paper is focussed on the progress which has been made over 40 years in the science, technology and application of NDT/NDE both during manufacture and in-service, from the perspective of the author and his background in the energy industries in the UK. New techniques not dreamt of 40 years ago and new technology such as personal computers, lasers and robotics which are now common-place in everyday life have transformed some aspects of NDT. But other aspects have remained unchanged, including the continued use of the more basic NDT methods and the challenges of recruitment, training, certification and motivation of personnel. There have been major changes in the world scene over 40 years including the globalization of trade, the emergence of new countries as industrial powers, and the ageing of safety critical infrastructure. These have impacted on NDT business and on the activities of the international NDT community (including ICNDT, the International Committee for NDT). The paper concludes by introducing the activities championed by ICNDT to promote the understanding of the importance of NDT, to support the development of NDT Societies around the world, to educate users on the correct use of personnel certification and to pursue the objective of global harmonisation and recognition of third party certification.

  1. A 10-year review of the dose history of radiation workers in the University of Surrey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parami, V.K.

    1991-09-01

    This thesis presents data on internally and externally received doses for radiation workers whose records are kept at the Safety Office of the University of Surrey for the period 1981-1990. The distribution of doses by range is presented and analysed. The patterns of the collective equivalent dose (CED) and the average individual equivalent dose (IED) over the 10-year period are presented. The annual CED is very low, so that even the total for the 10-year period is less than 1 man-Sv. Likewise, the annual average IED is extremely low, well below the average annual dose to the U.K. population from overall sources of ionising radiation. Some relevant aspects of the 1990 ICRP Recommendations are examined and the impact of these to the 'practices' and sources of ionising radiation in the University is given consideration. The results of the 10-year review provide more evidence of over designation of radiation workers in the University. A recommendation is made to reduce the number of workers who are routinely monitored and justification and options are presented. This study is viewed as a useful database which could be of particular importance in the procedure of optimisation of radiation protection in the University of Surrey and U.K. establishments for higher education as a whole. (author)

  2. SETI as a part of Big History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccone, Claudio

    2014-08-01

    Big History is an emerging academic discipline which examines history scientifically from the Big Bang to the present. It uses a multidisciplinary approach based on combining numerous disciplines from science and the humanities, and explores human existence in the context of this bigger picture. It is taught at some universities. In a series of recent papers ([11] through [15] and [17] through [18]) and in a book [16], we developed a new mathematical model embracing Darwinian Evolution (RNA to Humans, see, in particular, [17] and Human History (Aztecs to USA, see [16]) and then we extrapolated even that into the future up to ten million years (see 18), the minimum time requested for a civilization to expand to the whole Milky Way (Fermi paradox). In this paper, we further extend that model in the past so as to let it start at the Big Bang (13.8 billion years ago) thus merging Big History, Evolution on Earth and SETI (the modern Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence) into a single body of knowledge of a statistical type. Our idea is that the Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM), so far used as the key stochastic process of financial mathematics (Black-Sholes models and related 1997 Nobel Prize in Economics!) may be successfully applied to the whole of Big History. In particular, in this paper we derive the Statistical Drake Equation (namely the statistical extension of the classical Drake Equation typical of SETI) can be regarded as the “frozen in time” part of GBM. This makes SETI a subset of our Big History Theory based on GBMs: just as the GBM is the “movie” unfolding in time, so the Statistical Drake Equation is its “still picture”, static in time, and the GBM is the time-extension of the Drake Equation. Darwinian Evolution on Earth may be easily described as an increasing GBM in the number of living species on Earth over the last 3.5 billion years. The first of them was RNA 3.5 billion years ago, and now 50 million living species or more exist, each

  3. Atherosclerosis across 4000 years of human history: the Horus study of four ancient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Randall C; Allam, Adel H; Lombardi, Guido P; Wann, L Samuel; Sutherland, M Linda; Sutherland, James D; Soliman, Muhammad Al-Tohamy; Frohlich, Bruno; Mininberg, David T; Monge, Janet M; Vallodolid, Clide M; Cox, Samantha L; Abd el-Maksoud, Gomaa; Badr, Ibrahim; Miyamoto, Michael I; el-Halim Nur el-Din, Abd; Narula, Jagat; Finch, Caleb E; Thomas, Gregory S

    2013-04-06

    Atherosclerosis is thought to be a disease of modern human beings and related to contemporary lifestyles. However, its prevalence before the modern era is unknown. We aimed to evaluate preindustrial populations for atherosclerosis. We obtained whole body CT scans of 137 mummies from four different geographical regions or populations spanning more than 4000 years. Individuals from ancient Egypt, ancient Peru, the Ancestral Puebloans of southwest America, and the Unangan of the Aleutian Islands were imaged. Atherosclerosis was regarded as definite if a calcified plaque was seen in the wall of an artery and probable if calcifications were seen along the expected course of an artery. Probable or definite atherosclerosis was noted in 47 (34%) of 137 mummies and in all four geographical populations: 29 (38%) of 76 ancient Egyptians, 13 (25%) of 51 ancient Peruvians, two (40%) of five Ancestral Puebloans, and three (60%) of five Unangan hunter gatherers (p=NS). Atherosclerosis was present in the aorta in 28 (20%) mummies, iliac or femoral arteries in 25 (18%), popliteal or tibial arteries in 25 (18%), carotid arteries in 17 (12%), and coronary arteries in six (4%). Of the five vascular beds examined, atherosclerosis was present in one to two beds in 34 (25%) mummies, in three to four beds in 11 (8%), and in all five vascular beds in two (1%). Age at time of death was positively correlated with atherosclerosis (mean age at death was 43 [SD 10] years for mummies with atherosclerosis vs 32 [15] years for those without; phuman beings raises the possibility of a more basic predisposition to the disease. National Endowment for the Humanities, Paleocardiology Foundation, The National Bank of Egypt, Siemens, and St Luke's Hospital Foundation of Kansas City. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A 6900-year history of landscape modification by humans in lowland Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, M. B.; Correa-Metrio, A.; McMichael, C. H.; Sully, S.; Shadik, C. R.; Valencia, B. G.; Guilderson, T.; Steinitz-Kannan, M.; Overpeck, J. T.

    2016-06-01

    A sedimentary record from the Peruvian Amazon provided evidence of climate and vegetation change for the last 6900 years. Piston cores collected from the center of Lake Sauce, a 20 m deep lake at 600 m elevation, were 19.7 m in length. The fossil pollen record showed a continuously forested catchment within the period of the record, although substantial changes in forest composition were apparent. Fossil charcoal, found throughout the record, was probably associated with humans setting fires. Two fires, at c. 6700 cal BP and 4270 cal BP, appear to have been stand-replacing events possibly associated with megadroughts. The fire event at 4270 cal BP followed a drought that caused lowered lake levels for several centuries. The successional trajectories of forest recovery following these large fires were prolonged by smaller fire events. Fossil pollen of Zea mays (cultivated maize) provided evidence of agricultural activity at the site since c. 6320 cal BP. About 5150 years ago, the lake deepened and started to deposit laminated sediments. Maize agriculture reached a peak of intensity between c. 3380 and 700 cal BP. Fossil diatom data provided a proxy for lake nutrient status and productivity, both of which peaked during the period of maize cultivation. A marked change in land use was evident after c. 700 cal BP when maize agriculture was apparently abandoned at this site. Iriartea, a hyperdominant of riparian settings in western Amazonia, increased in abundance within the last 1100 years, but declined markedly at c. 1070 cal BP and again between c. 80 and -10 cal BP.

  5. CELIAC DISEASE IN CHILDREN. A HISTORY CASE WITH ONSET AT THE AGE OF 17 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Revnova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Being one of the most common representatives of malabsorbtion syndrome celiac disease has been diagnosed more and more often in Russia. Celiac disease is a hereditary condition with high prevalence and different symptoms called «Great Mimic». The article deals with diagnostics based on testing the antibodies to tTG, DPG, biopsies of the duodenum and gluten free diet. There is given an example of severe case of celiac disease in a 17-years-old boy with weight loss, delayed sexual development and severe gastrointestinal symptoms. Gluten free diet and proper treatment led to permanent remission.

  6. The history of healthcare quality: The first 100 years 1860–1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Helen Sheingold

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st Century, health care systems across the world are focusing policy efforts on improving the quality of healthcare delivered to their population. In contrast, healthcare quality improvement in earlier time periods arose from a series of seemingly unrelated incidents and developments. In this paper, we sequentially review key international historical events that improved health care quality during the years 1860–1960, including innovation in health care financing, care delivery and workforce diversity. The modern nursing workforce of today continues to encounter many of these same challenges across the globe.

  7. On the radiation exposure dose and health management history during 50 years of x-ray working

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tomihiro

    1981-01-01

    My X-ray working history has become 50 years at the end of April, 1980. At this chance, the following data were summarized; the case numbers of X-ray photographs (517,132 cases), total amounts of radiation exposure dose (66.85 roentgen) and the results of blood test, which were experienced during past 50 years. The amounts of exposure dose during 35 years till 1965 were measured using my own method, which measured the film blackening as 30 milli-roentgen per week by certain standard method. After 1966 till 1980, the exposure dose were recorded using that of the film-badge service of Nippon Hoan Yohin Kyokai. The total amounts of exposure dose during 50 years were about 1/4 of D = 5 (N - 18). The results of blood test during last 27 years were found to be normal values. Then, it is happy to say that my body has been protected completely, from radiation hazard as a result of taking radiation protection and checking blood test always at my daily radiation works. The data of my own experiences during 50 years are summarized and reported in this paper. (author)

  8. One hundred and fifty years of Coulomb stress history along the California-Nevada border, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdecchia, Alessandro; Carena, Sara

    2015-02-01

    The region north of the Garlock Fault between the Sierra Nevada and Death Valley has experienced at least eight Mw ≥ 6 earthquakes in historical times, beginning with the 1872, Mw 7.5, Owens Valley earthquake. Furthermore, since 1978, the Long Valley Caldera has been undergoing periods of unrest, with earthquake swarms and resurgence. Our goal is to determine whether the 1872 Owens Valley earthquake and the caldera unrest have influenced the evolution of seismicity in the area. We model the evolution of coseismic, postseismic, and interseismic Coulomb stress change (Coulomb failure stress (ΔCFS)) in the region due to both Mw ≥ 6 earthquakes and caldera inflation in the last 150 years. Our results show that the 1872 Owens Valley earthquake has an important influence on subsequent events, strongly encouraging faulting in northern Owens Valley while inhibiting it elsewhere. There is also a correlation between caldera inflation and seismicity in northern Owens Valley, evidenced by the west-to-east migration of earthquakes from the Long Valley Caldera toward the White Mountains immediately following the 1978 caldera inflation event. Finally, we show that a total ΔCFS increase of up to 30 bars in the last 150 years has occurred on part of the White Mountains fault, making it a possible candidate for the next major earthquake in this region.

  9. Energy tax price tag for CPI: $1.2 billion, jobs, and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begley, R.

    1993-01-01

    If President Clinton's proposed energy tax had been fully in place last year, it would have cost the US chemical industry an additional $1.2 billion and 9,900 jobs, according to Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA; Washington) estimates. It also would have driven output down 3% and prices up 5%, CMA says. Allen Lenz, CMA director/trade and economics, says the increase in production costs that would accompany the tax will not be shared by foreign competitors, cannot be neutralized with higher border taxes because of existing trade agreements, and provides another reason to move production offshore. Worse, the US chemical industry's generally impressive trade surplus declined by $2.5 billion last year, and a further drop is projected for this year. The margin of error gets thinner all the time as competition increases, Lenz says. We're not concerned only with the chemical industry, but the rest of US-based manufacturing because they taken half our output, he adds. One problem is the energy intensiveness of the chemical process industries-a CMA report says that 55% of the cost of producing ethylene glycol is energy related. And double taxation of such things as coproducts returned for credit to oil refineries could add up to $115 million/year, the report says

  10. Tendances Carbone no. 75 'The CDM: let's not discard a tool that raised over US$ 200 billion'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishlov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO 2 allowances. This issue addresses the following points: Everyone wonders which miraculous instrument will enable the Green Climate Fund to mobilize the pledged US$100 billion per year in climate finance by 2020. Developing countries are now asking for interim targets to quench their mounting skepticism that this level of commitment can be reached. In the meantime paradoxically, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) - a tool that managed to leverage over US$200 billion of mostly private investment for climate change mitigation - is left dying without much regret

  11. [Quality assurance systems and occupational medicine system: an history twenty years along].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostoli, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Along the last tventy years, in our country the quality assurance systems and the occupational medicine deeply interacted both in theoretical and practical fields of interest at three levels: (i) the need of preventive and therefore of occupational medicine in quality assurance systems; (ii) the need on reverse of quality in prevention and occupational mnedicine mainly in qualification and updating process; (iii) the evidence, proofs of efficacy or appropriateness of different preventive procedures and occupational physician activities; (iv) the connection with European and national legal directives and with technical or good practice norms. Finally we discuss about the role of occupational physician as the global consultant for enterprise, as a mandatory strategic technical figure in a typical multidisciplinary processes as the implementation of the quality systems.

  12. The history of antiretrovirals: key discoveries over the past 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Erik

    2009-09-01

    Within 25 years after zidovudine (3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine, AZT) was first described as an inhibitor of HIV replication, 25 anti-HIV drugs have been formally approved for clinical use in the treatment of HIV infections: seven nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs): zidovudine, didanosine, zalcitabine, stavudine, lamivudine, abacavir and emtricitabine; one nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NtRTI): tenofovir [in its oral prodrug form: tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)]; four non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs): nevirapine, delavirdine, efavirenz and etravirine; ten protease inhibitors (PIs): saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir, lopinavir, atazanavir, fosamprenavir, tipranavir and darunavir; one fusion inhibitor (FI): enfuvirtide; one co-receptor inhibitor (CRI): maraviroc and one integrase inhibitor (INI): raltegravir. These compounds are used in various drug combination (some at fixed dose) regimens so as to achieve the highest possible benefit and tolerability, and to diminish the risk of virus-drug resistance development. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Urinary incontinence persisting after childbirth: extent, delivery history, and effects in a 12-year longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, C; Wilson, D; Herbison, P; Lancashire, R J; Hagen, S; Toozs-Hobson, P; Dean, N; Glazener, C

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the extent of persistent urinary incontinence (UI) 12 years after birth, and association with delivery-mode history and other factors. Twelve-year longitudinal cohort study. Maternity units in Aberdeen, Birmingham, and Dunedin. Women who returned questionnaires 3 months and 12 years after index birth. Data on all births over a period of 12 months were obtained from the units and then women were contacted by post. Persistent UI reported at 12 years, with one or more previous contact. Of 7879 women recruited at 3 months, 3763 (48%) responded at 12 years, with 2944 also having responded at 6 years; non-responders had similar obstetric characteristics. The prevalence of persistent UI was 37.9% (1429/3763). Among those who had reported UI at 3 months, 76.4% reported it at 12 years. Women with persistent UI had lower SF12 quality of life scores. Compared with having only spontaneous vaginal deliveries (SVDs), women who delivered exclusively by caesarean section were less likely to have persistent UI (odds ratio, OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.33-0.54). This was not the case in women who had a combination of caesarean section and SVD births (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.78-1.30). Older age at first birth, greater parity, and overweight/obesity were associated with persistent UI. Of 54 index primiparae with UI before pregnancy, 46 (85.2%) had persistent UI. This study, demonstrating that UI persists to 12 years in about three-quarters of women, and that risk was only reduced with caesarean section if women had no other delivery mode, has practice implications. A longitudinal study of 3763 women showed a prevalence of persistent UI 12 years after birth of 37.9%. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. A 300-year history of Pacific Northwest windstorms inferred from tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Paul A.; Hadley, Keith S.

    2012-07-01

    Hurricane-force winds are frequently allied with mid-latitude cyclones yet little is known about their historical timing and geographic extent over multiple centuries. This research addresses these issues by extending the historical record of major mid-latitude windstorms along North America's Pacific Northwest (PNW) coast using tree-ring data collected from old-growth (> 350 years), wind-snapped trees sampled at seven coastal sites in Oregon, USA. Our objectives were to: 1) characterize historical windstorm regimes; 2) determine the relationship between high-wind events (HWEs) and phases of the PDO, ENSO and NPI; and 3) test the hypothesis that PNW HWEs have migrated northward. We based our study on the identification of tree-growth anomalies resulting from windstorm-induced canopy changes corresponding to documented (1880-2003) and projected HWEs (1701-1880). Our methods identified all major windstorm events recorded since the late 1800s and confirmed that variations in coastal tree-growth are weakly related to temperature, precipitation, and drought, but are significantly related to peak wind speeds. These results suggest wind-induced changes in canopy conditions control tree growth at all sites. Comparisons between the tree-ring record and the PDO, NPI, and ENSO revealed a significant positive correlation between HWEs and neutral to warm PDO conditions and a slightly weaker correlation with the NPI. ENSO events were not significantly related to the occurrence of HWEs. Latitudinal groupings of our sites revealed a gradual and non-significant northerly shift of HWEs until the late 19th century followed by a significant northward shift during the past 120 years. These results mark the application of dendroanemology as a method for characterizing windstorm regimes for multiple centuries.

  15. A History of the Environmental Management Advisory Board: 20 Years of Service and Partnership - 13219

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Kristen; Schmitt, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The Environmental Management Advisory Board (EMAB or Board) was chartered under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) in 1992 to provide the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management (EM) with independent and external advice, information, and recommendations on corporate issues relating to accelerated site clean-up and risk reduction throughout the EM complex. Over the course of the past 20 years, the composition and focus of the Board have varied widely to address the changing needs of the program. EMAB began as the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Advisory Committee, formed to provide advice on an EM Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. In 1994, the Board was restructured to function more as an executive-level, limited member advisory board whose membership provides insight of leading industry experts and the viewpoints of representatives from critical stakeholder constituencies. Throughout the 20 years of its existence, EMAB has covered a wide variety of topics and produced nearly 200 recommendations. These recommendations have resulted in several policy changes and improvements within EM. Most recently, EMAB has been credited for its contribution to the EM Energy Park Initiative, forerunner of the DOE Asset Revitalization Initiative; creation of the EM Offices of Communications and External Affairs; improvement of acquisition and project management strategies and culture; and several recommendations related to the Waste Treatment Plant and the tank waste programs at Hanford and the Savannah River Site. The wealth of experience and knowledge the Assistant Secretary can leverage through utilization of the Board continues to support fulfillment of EM's mission. In commemoration of EMAB's 20. anniversary, this paper will provide further context for the evolution of the Board, the role FACA plays in its administration, and a look at the members' current objectives and EM's expectations for the future. (authors)

  16. A History of the Environmental Management Advisory Board: 20 Years of Service and Partnership - 13219

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Kristen; Schmitt, Elizabeth [Environmental Management Advisory Board, US DoE (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Environmental Management Advisory Board (EMAB or Board) was chartered under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) in 1992 to provide the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management (EM) with independent and external advice, information, and recommendations on corporate issues relating to accelerated site clean-up and risk reduction throughout the EM complex. Over the course of the past 20 years, the composition and focus of the Board have varied widely to address the changing needs of the program. EMAB began as the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Advisory Committee, formed to provide advice on an EM Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. In 1994, the Board was restructured to function more as an executive-level, limited member advisory board whose membership provides insight of leading industry experts and the viewpoints of representatives from critical stakeholder constituencies. Throughout the 20 years of its existence, EMAB has covered a wide variety of topics and produced nearly 200 recommendations. These recommendations have resulted in several policy changes and improvements within EM. Most recently, EMAB has been credited for its contribution to the EM Energy Park Initiative, forerunner of the DOE Asset Revitalization Initiative; creation of the EM Offices of Communications and External Affairs; improvement of acquisition and project management strategies and culture; and several recommendations related to the Waste Treatment Plant and the tank waste programs at Hanford and the Savannah River Site. The wealth of experience and knowledge the Assistant Secretary can leverage through utilization of the Board continues to support fulfillment of EM's mission. In commemoration of EMAB's 20. anniversary, this paper will provide further context for the evolution of the Board, the role FACA plays in its administration, and a look at the members' current objectives and EM's expectations for the future. (authors)

  17. Tales from the hundred year history of the American Physical Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, H.

    1999-05-01

    The tale to be told on this occasion - a tale only slightly out of school - is that of the punctuated evolution of the APS in pursuing its hundred years old mission, "the advancement and diffusion of the knowledge of physics". For long periods this goal was pursued, singlemindedly and impressively, through scientfic meetings and the Society's journals. However, within a year of its founding, the APS,in concert with other scientific societies, had already "lobbied" successfully for the establishment of the Bureau of Standards. But then all was quiet on the public front until after World War II. Since that time there have been three waves of forays into the public arena. The first, which spanned the "McCarthy period", was in defense of the freedom of scientists to practice their profession across national boundaries; of the right to announce the results of their research even if they trod on powerful toes (the Astin case); and of individual physicists, such as E.U. Condon and J.Robert Oppenheimer,who had been unfairly accused and badly treated. The second wave occurred in the late sixties and early seventies when, initially much pushed by activist members, the Society's leadership came to grips with broad social issues, such as segregation in the South, the Equal Rights Amendment, and, eventually, arms control and nuclear weapons. The third immersion in public affairs, which is still very much in progress, can be characterized as worrying and speaking out on what physics can do for the country (provide authoritative studies on nuclear energy, renewables, directed energy weapons, etc.) and what the country can do for physics (provide more money). Although lobbying for better funding is still a relatively minor occupation of the Society, it raises the question how physics -an elitist pursuit -can be truthfully and effectively "sold" in a democratic and egalitarian society.

  18. Developing and Enacting Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teaching History: An Exploration of Two Novice Teachers' Growth over Three Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte-Sano, Chauncey; Budano, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Using artifacts of teachers' practices, classroom observations, and teacher interviews, we explore the development and enactment of 2 novices' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching history. We identify and track 4 components of PCK that are relevant to teaching history: representing history, transforming history, attending to students'…

  19. A case study of systemic curricular reform: A forty-year history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Timothy Alan

    What follows is a description of the development of a particular inquiry-based elementary school science curriculum program and how its theoretical underpinnings positively influenced a school district's (K-12) science program and also impacted district- and state-wide curriculum reform initiatives. The district's science program has evolved since the inception of the inquiry-based elementary school science curriculum reform forty years ago. Therefore, a historical case study, which incorporated grounded theory methodology, was used to convey the forty-year development of a science curriculum reform effort and its systemic influences. Data for this study were collected primarily through artifacts, such as technical and non-technical documents, and supported and augmented with interviews. Fifteen people comprised the interview consortium with professional responsibilities including (a) administrative roles, such as superintendents, assistant superintendents, principals, and curriculum consultants/coordinators; (b) classroom roles, such as elementary and secondary school teachers who taught science; (c) partnership roles, such as university faculty who collaborated with those in administrative and classroom positions within the district; and (d) the co-director of SCIS who worked with the SCIS trial center director. Data were analyzed and coded using the constant comparative method. The analysis of data uncovered five categories or levels in which the curriculum reform evolved throughout its duration. These themes are Initiation, Education, Implementation, Confirmation, and Continuation. These five categories lead to several working hypotheses that supported the sustaining and continuing of a K-12 science curriculum reform effort. These components are a committed visionary; a theory base of education; forums promoting the education of the theory base components; shared-decision making; a university-school partnership; a core group of committed educators and teachers

  20. [Dermatosurgery and other interventional techniques in dermatology: a more than 2000 year-history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribier, B

    2016-12-01

    Surgical dermatology has probably existed since the first steps of antique medicine, especially for cutaneous cancer excision and wound reparation. Wonderful descriptions of surgical flaps can be found in the Encyclopedy of Celse, a Roman doctor living in the first century AC. Major progresses in local anesthesy were achieved at the end of the XIXth century, allowing the first dermatologists of the XXth century to perform biopsies and cutaneous surgery with a good control of patient's pain. Electricity was introduced in medicine at the end of the XIXth century, and our ancestors dermatologists used it for electrocoagulation, cauterization and electric hair removal. In the « Pratique dermatologique », the first encyclopedy of dermatology published in 1900, many chapters show how important instrumental and surgical dermatology was. Pigmentary changes induced by surgery and other procedures were probably well known then but were less important than troubles due to scarring, which are mentioned in the early literature. Spontaneous or post-interventional cheloids are well discussed in the early works of Alibert, in the years 1810. This article shows that surgical dermatology is far more ancient than the creation of societies dedicated to it in the XXth century. © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.

  1. Management of Amelogenesis Imperfecta: A 15-Year Case History of Two Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, E; Savard, E; Vargas, C; Loison-Robert, L; Cherifi, H; Bdeoui, F; Landru, M-M

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a heterogenous genetic disorder that interferes with normal enamel formation in the absence of systemic disorders. The patients' main concerns are caries susceptibility, poor esthetics, and generalized sensitivity. There is a broad clinical spectrum, from discolorations to consequent enamel alterations. This case report describes the 15-year case study and the full-mouth rehabilitation of two siblings affected by a hypocalcified AI. Clinical Considerations: In these two patients, conservative care with stainless steel crowns and direct composite restorations was undertaken to restore function and esthetics and to reduce sensitivities in primary and mixed dentitions. The difficulties in monitoring resulted in severe infectious complications (dental abscess with cutaneous fistula), important dental defects, and loss of spaces with subsequent malocclusion. In the young adult dentition, they were treated by extractions, root canal therapies, and new restorations: stainless steel crowns for permanent molars, direct composite restorations (with strip crowns) for incisors and maxillary canines (to improve the crown morphology as well as to mask the discolorations and the malpositions), and adjusted composite crown molds using a thermoforming procedure for premolars and the mandibular canines. The main difficulties were rapid tooth surface loss, bonding to atypical enamel, developing dentition, long-term follow-up. Restoring function and esthetics in AI-affected patients is a challenge from primary to adult dentition. Early corrections are essential to avoid dental damage and for psychological benefits. This clinical report highlights the adhesive rehabilitation for anterior and premolar areas and the difficulty of patient follow-up.

  2. The Arthroscopy Association of North America Advanced Arthroscopy Traveling Fellowship: A 10-Year History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahey, Mary K; Waterman, Brian R

    2016-10-01

    In its brief 10-year existence, the Arthroscopy Association of North America Advanced Arthroscopy Traveling Fellowship has quickly established itself as the paramount educational experience for aspiring young surgeons in sports medicine and arthroscopy. The Traveling Fellowship is structured as a 10-day experience with visits to 3 host sites and culminates at the AANA Annual Meeting. With 4 selected fellows and an honorary "Godfather," the Traveling Fellowship affords a unique and invaluable opportunity to forge enduring friendships and rare mentorships with established leaders in the field of Arthroscopy. Potential applicants can anticipate not only developing their surgical acumen and aspects of clinical practice, but also assimilating key leadership skills, pearls on work-life balance, and a broader commitment to life-long education. The Dr. Don Johnson AANA Traveling Fellowship Alumni Group, named in honor of the two-time godfather and AANA Past President, represent an emerging class of leaders within AANA who are poised to contribute immensely to its mission of continuing medical education and collaboration. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. All rights reserved.

  3. A personal perspective: 100-year history of the humoral theory of transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Paul I

    2012-04-27

    The humoral theory states that antibodies cause the rejection of allografts. From 1917 to 1929, extensive efforts were made to produce antibodies against tumors. It was finally realized that the antibodies were produced against the transplant antigens present on transplantable tumors, not against the tumor-specific antigens. To get around this problem, inbred mouse strains were developed, leading to identification of the transplant antigens determined by the H-2 locus of mice. The antibodies were hemagglutinating and cytotoxic antibodies. The analogous human leukocyte antigen system was established by analysis of lymphocytotoxic alloantibodies that were made by pregnant women, directed against mismatched antigens of the fetus. The human leukocyte antigen antibodies were then found to cause hyperacute rejection, acute rejection, and chronic rejection of kidneys. Antibodies appeared in almost all patients after rejection of kidneys. With Luminex single antigen bead technology, donor-specific antibodies could be identified before rise in serum creatinine and graft failure. Antibodies were shown to be predictive of subsequent graft failure in kidney, heart, and lung transplants: patients without antibodies had superior 4-year graft survival compared with those who did have antibodies. New evidence that antibodies are also associated with chronic failure has appeared for liver and islet transplants. Four studies have now shown that removal or reduction of antibodies result in higher graft survival. If removal of antibodies prevents chronic graft failure, final validation of the humoral theory can be achieved.

  4. Dentition and Life History of a 16-year-old Known-age Free-living Male Lion Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758 from the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.J. Whyte

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Wear in the dentition of a known-age, free-living, 16-year-old male lion is described and compared to existing age-determination techniques. Aspects of his life history are described as they are in some contrast to what is known of male lions' life history strategies.

  5. A 30-year history of earthquake crisis communication in California and lessons for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.

    2015-12-01

    The first statement from the US Geological Survey to the California Office of Emergency Services quantifying the probability of a possible future earthquake was made in October 1985 about the probability (approximately 5%) that a M4.7 earthquake located directly beneath the Coronado Bay Bridge in San Diego would be a foreshock to a larger earthquake. In the next 30 years, publication of aftershock advisories have become routine and formal statements about the probability of a larger event have been developed in collaboration with the California Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (CEPEC) and sent to CalOES more than a dozen times. Most of these were subsequently released to the public. These communications have spanned a variety of approaches, with and without quantification of the probabilities, and using different ways to express the spatial extent and the magnitude distribution of possible future events. The USGS is re-examining its approach to aftershock probability statements and to operational earthquake forecasting with the goal of creating pre-vetted automated statements that can be released quickly after significant earthquakes. All of the previous formal advisories were written during the earthquake crisis. The time to create and release a statement became shorter with experience from the first public advisory (to the 1988 Lake Elsman earthquake) that was released 18 hours after the triggering event, but was never completed in less than 2 hours. As was done for the Parkfield experiment, the process will be reviewed by CEPEC and NEPEC (National Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council) so the statements can be sent to the public automatically. This talk will review the advisories, the variations in wording and the public response and compare this with social science research about successful crisis communication, to create recommendations for future advisories

  6. Climatic history of the northeastern United States during the past 3000 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Marlon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many ecosystem processes that influence Earth system feedbacks – vegetation growth, water and nutrient cycling, disturbance regimes – are strongly influenced by multidecadal- to millennial-scale climate variations that cannot be directly observed. Paleoclimate records provide information about these variations, forming the basis of our understanding and modeling of them. Fossil pollen records are abundant in the NE US, but cannot simultaneously provide information about paleoclimate and past vegetation in a modeling context because this leads to circular logic. If pollen data are used to constrain past vegetation changes, then the remaining paleoclimate archives in the northeastern US (NE US are quite limited. Nonetheless, a growing number of diverse reconstructions have been developed but have not yet been examined together. Here we conduct a systematic review, assessment, and comparison of paleotemperature and paleohydrological proxies from the NE US for the last 3000 years. Regional temperature reconstructions (primarily summer show a long-term cooling trend (1000 BCE–1700 CE consistent with hemispheric-scale reconstructions, while hydroclimate data show gradually wetter conditions through the present day. Multiple proxies suggest that a prolonged, widespread drought occurred between 550 and 750 CE. Dry conditions are also evident during the Medieval Climate Anomaly, which was warmer and drier than the Little Ice Age and drier than today. There is some evidence for an acceleration of the longer-term wetting trend in the NE US during the past century; coupled with an abrupt shift from decreasing to increasing temperatures in the past century, these changes could have wide-ranging implications for species distributions, ecosystem dynamics, and extreme weather events. More work is needed to gather paleoclimate data in the NE US to make inter-proxy comparisons and to improve estimates of uncertainty in reconstructions.

  7. 2000 Years of Grazing History and the Making of the Cretan Mountain Landscape, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouffroy-Bapicot, Isabelle; Vannière, Boris; Iglesias, Virginia; Debret, Maxime; Delarras, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes that led to the recent evolution of Mediterranean landscapes is a challenging question that can be addressed with paleoecological data. Located in the White Mountains of Crete, Asi Gonia peat bog constitutes an exceptional 2000-years-long sedimentary archive of environmental change. In this study, we document the making of the White Mountains landscape and assess human impact on ecosystem trajectories. The paleoenvironmental reconstruction is based on high-resolution analyses of sediment, pollen, dung fungal spores and charcoal obtained from a 6-m core collected from the bog. Multiproxy analyses and a robust chronological control have shed light on anthropogenic and natural processes that have driven ecological changes, giving rise to the present-day Mediterranean ecosystem. Our results suggest that sediment accumulation began during the transition from the Hellenistic to the Roman period, likely due to watershed management. The evolution of the peat bog as well as vegetation dynamics in the surrounding area were linked to past climate changes but were driven by human activities, among which breeding was of great importance. Charcoal analysis reveals that fire was largely used for the construction and maintenance of sylvo-agropastoral areas. Pollen data allow the identification of three main vegetation assemblages: 1) evergreen oak forest (before ca. 850 AD), 2) heather maquis (ca. 850 to 1870 AD), 3) phrygana/steppe landscape. Rapid changes between phases in vegetation development are associated with tipping-points in ecosystem dynamics resulting from anthropogenic impact. The modern ecosystem did not get established until the 20th century, and it is characterized by biodiversity loss along with a dramatic drying of the peat bog.

  8. 150 Years of Coulomb Stress History Along the California-Nevada Border, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carena, S.; Verdecchia, A.

    2014-12-01

    The temporal and spatial correlation among earthquakes in diffuse plate boundary zones is not well understood yet. The region north of the Garlock fault between the Sierra Nevada and Death Valley is part of a diffuse plate boundary zone, which absorbs a significant fraction of the plate motion between Pacific and North America. This area has experienced at least eight Mw ≥ 6 earthquakes in historical times, beginning with the 1872 Mw 7.5 Owens Valley earthquake. Furthermore, since 1978 Long Valley caldera has been undergoing periods of unrest, with earthquake swarms and resurgence. Our goal is to determine whether the 1872 Owens Valley earthquake has influenced the seismicity and volcanic activity in the area. We model the evolution of coseismic, interseismic and postseismic Coulomb stress (ΔCFS) in the region due to both earthquakes and caldera activity in the last 150 years. Our results show that the 1872 Owens Valley earthquake strongly encourages faulting in northern Owens Valley. In addition, there is a correlation among smaller events, in the form of a west-to-east migration of earthquakes from Long Valley caldera toward the White Mountains immediately following the 1978 caldera inflation event. The last event in this sequence, the 1986 Mw 6.3 Chalfant Valley earthquake, controls the location of over 80% of its own aftershocks, which occur in areas of positive ΔCFS and reach Mw 5.7. We also calculate the cumulative ΔCFS on several major active faults in the region. Stresses up to 30 bars and 10 bars respectively have accumulated on the White Mountains (Central section) and Deep Springs faults, comparable to the expected stress drop in an average earthquake. Because no surface ruptures more recent than 1.8 ka have been identified on these faults [dePolo, 1989; Lee et al., 2001], we consider them as likely candidates for the next major earthquake in the region.

  9. 2000 Years of Grazing History and the Making of the Cretan Mountain Landscape, Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Jouffroy-Bapicot

    Full Text Available Understanding the processes that led to the recent evolution of Mediterranean landscapes is a challenging question that can be addressed with paleoecological data. Located in the White Mountains of Crete, Asi Gonia peat bog constitutes an exceptional 2000-years-long sedimentary archive of environmental change. In this study, we document the making of the White Mountains landscape and assess human impact on ecosystem trajectories. The paleoenvironmental reconstruction is based on high-resolution analyses of sediment, pollen, dung fungal spores and charcoal obtained from a 6-m core collected from the bog. Multiproxy analyses and a robust chronological control have shed light on anthropogenic and natural processes that have driven ecological changes, giving rise to the present-day Mediterranean ecosystem. Our results suggest that sediment accumulation began during the transition from the Hellenistic to the Roman period, likely due to watershed management. The evolution of the peat bog as well as vegetation dynamics in the surrounding area were linked to past climate changes but were driven by human activities, among which breeding was of great importance. Charcoal analysis reveals that fire was largely used for the construction and maintenance of sylvo-agropastoral areas. Pollen data allow the identification of three main vegetation assemblages: 1 evergreen oak forest (before ca. 850 AD, 2 heather maquis (ca. 850 to 1870 AD, 3 phrygana/steppe landscape. Rapid changes between phases in vegetation development are associated with tipping-points in ecosystem dynamics resulting from anthropogenic impact. The modern ecosystem did not get established until the 20th century, and it is characterized by biodiversity loss along with a dramatic drying of the peat bog.

  10. An 11 000-year-long record of fire and vegetation history at Beaver Lake, Oregon, central Willamette Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Megan K.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Whitlock, Cathy; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Worona, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution macroscopic charcoal and pollen analysis were used to reconstruct an 11??000-year-long record of fire and vegetation history from Beaver Lake, Oregon, the first complete Holocene paleoecological record from the floor of the Willamette Valley. In the early Holocene (ca 11??000-7500 calendar years before present [cal??yr??BP]), warmer, drier summers than at present led to the establishment of xeric woodland of Quercus, Corylus, and Pseudotsuga near the site. Disturbances (i.e., floods, fires) were common at this time and as a result Alnus rubra grew nearby. High fire frequency occurred in the early Holocene from ca 11??200-9300??cal??yr??BP. Riparian forest and wet prairie developed in the middle Holocene (ca 7500??cal??yr??BP), likely the result of a decrease in the frequency of flooding and a shift to effectively cooler, wetter conditions than before. The vegetation at Beaver Lake remained generally unchanged into the late Holocene (from 4000??cal??yr??BP to present), with the exception of land clearance associated with Euro-American settlement of the valley (ca 160??cal??yr BP). Middle-to-late Holocene increases in fire frequency, coupled with abrupt shifts in fire-episode magnitude and charcoal composition, likely indicate the influence anthropogenic burning near the site. The paleoecological record from Beaver Lake, and in particular the general increase in fire frequency over the last 8500??years, differs significantly from other low-elevation sites in the Pacific Northwest, which suggests that local controls (e.g., shifts in vegetation structure, intensification of human land-use), rather than regional climatic controls, more strongly influenced its environmental history. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. 1972-1997, Twenty-five years of energy and environmental history : lessons learned.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, H.

    1997-12-17

    Given the events of the past 25 years concerning energy and environmental issues and our reaction to them, what lessons can we learn? First, the individual American consumer wants and expects energy to be a stable commodity with low prices and easy availability. As evidenced by the heated debate over increasing the federal gasoline tax by $.05 per gallon (which would still leave Americans paying only one-third of what Europeans pay for gasoline), increases in energy prices elicit very strong public and political opposition. As further evidence, it has been argued that the general public support of the Gulf War was due, in part, to a recognition of the need to maintain a stable source of cheap oil from the region. The American public wants to maintain the benefits of cheap and abundant energy and expects its political leaders to make it happen. A second lesson is that if constraints on the energy supply do occur (e.g., the OPEC-imposed oil embargo) ardor environmental impacts from energy use do appear to be significant (e.g., SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions), the preference is for a technology fix rather than a behavioral change. This is evidenced by our reliance on moving low-sulfur coal more than 1,000 miles from Wyoming to burn in Illinois power plants rather than reducing the demand for electricity with energy-efficient measures in residential, commercial, and industrial activities. National research programs to produce an automobile that gets 80+ miles per gallon take higher priority over working to get people to use mass transit to reduce their driving mileage. Americans expect that advanced technology can be relied upon to come up with solutions to energy and environmental problems without having to change their lifestyles. The experience with natural gas, in which a regulatory change (deregulation) was combined with technology developments (horizontal drilling and improved gas turbines for electricity generation) to increase available supply and hold

  12. Fuel efficient stoves for the poorest two billion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2012-03-01

    About 2 billion people cook their daily meals on generally inefficient, polluting, biomass cookstoves. The fuels include twigs and leaves, agricultural waste, animal dung, firewood, and charcoal. Exposure to resulting smoke leads to acute respiratory illness, and cancers, particularly among women cooks, and their infant children near them. Resulting annual mortality estimate is almost 2 million deaths, higher than that from malaria or tuberculosis. There is a large diversity of cooking methods (baking, boiling, long simmers, brazing and roasting), and a diversity of pot shapes and sizes in which the cooking is undertaken. Fuel-efficiency and emissions depend on the tending of the fire (and thermal power), type of fuel, stove characteristics, and fit of the pot to the stove. Thus, no one perfect fuel-efficient low-emitting stove can suit all users. Affordability imposes a further severe constraint on the stove design. For various economic strata within the users, a variety of stove designs may be appropriate and affordable. In some regions, biomass is harvested non-renewably for cooking fuel. There is also increasing evidence that black carbon emitted from stoves is a significant contributor to atmospheric forcing. Thus improved biomass stoves can also help mitigate global climate change. The speaker will describe specific work undertaken to design, develop, test, and disseminate affordable fuel-efficient stoves for internally displaced persons (IDPs) of Darfur, Sudan, where the IDPs face hardship, humiliation, hunger, and risk of sexual assault owing to their dependence on local biomass for cooking their meals.

  13. Effective interventions for unintentional injuries: a systematic review and mortality impact assessment among the poorest billion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I; Jafri, Aisha; Hyder, Adnan A

    2018-05-01

    Between 1990 and 2015, the global injury mortality declined, but in countries where the poorest billion live, injuries are becoming an increasingly prevalent cause of death. The vulnerability of this population requires immediate attention from policy makers to implement effective interventions that lessen the burden of injuries in these countries. Our aim was two-fold; first, to review all the evidence on effective interventions for the five main types of unintentional injury; and second, to estimate the potential number of lives saved by effective injury interventions among the poorest billion. For our systematic review we used references in the Disability Control Priorities third edition, and searched PubMed and the Cochrane database for papers published until Sept 10, 2016, using a comprehensive search strategy to find interventions for the five major causes of unintentional injuries: road traffic crashes, falls, drowning, burns, and poisoning. Studies were included if they presented evidence with significant effects sizes for any outcome; no inclusions or exclusions made on the basis of where the study was carried out (ie, low-income, middle-income, or high-income country). Then we used data from the Global Burden of Disease 2015 study and a Monte Carlo simulation technique to estimate the potential annual attributable number of lives saved among the poorest billion by these evidence-based injury interventions. We estimated results for 84 countries where the poorest billion live. From the 513 papers identified, 47 were eligible for inclusion. We identified 11 interventions that had an effect on injury mortality. For road traffic deaths, the most successful interventions in preventing deaths are speed enforcement (>80 000 lives saved per year) and drink-driving enforcement (>60 000 lives saved per year). Interventions potentially most effective in preventing deaths from drowning are formal swimming lessons for children younger than 14 years (>25 000 lives

  14. Effective interventions for unintentional injuries: a systematic review and mortality impact assessment among the poorest billion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres I Vecino-Ortiz, PhD

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Between 1990 and 2015, the global injury mortality declined, but in countries where the poorest billion live, injuries are becoming an increasingly prevalent cause of death. The vulnerability of this population requires immediate attention from policy makers to implement effective interventions that lessen the burden of injuries in these countries. Our aim was two-fold; first, to review all the evidence on effective interventions for the five main types of unintentional injury; and second, to estimate the potential number of lives saved by effective injury interventions among the poorest billion. Methods: For our systematic review we used references in the Disability Control Priorities third edition, and searched PubMed and the Cochrane database for papers published until Sept 10, 2016, using a comprehensive search strategy to find interventions for the five major causes of unintentional injuries: road traffic crashes, falls, drowning, burns, and poisoning. Studies were included if they presented evidence with significant effects sizes for any outcome; no inclusions or exclusions made on the basis of where the study was carried out (ie, low-income, middle-income, or high-income country. Then we used data from the Global Burden of Disease 2015 study and a Monte Carlo simulation technique to estimate the potential annual attributable number of lives saved among the poorest billion by these evidence-based injury interventions. We estimated results for 84 countries where the poorest billion live. Findings: From the 513 papers identified, 47 were eligible for inclusion. We identified 11 interventions that had an effect on injury mortality. For road traffic deaths, the most successful interventions in preventing deaths are speed enforcement (>80 000 lives saved per year and drink-driving enforcement (>60 000 lives saved per year. Interventions potentially most effective in preventing deaths from drowning are formal swimming

  15. Vizualization Challenges of a Subduction Simulation Using One Billion Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, M. L.; Gerya, T. V.; Yuen, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    Recent advances in supercomputing technology have permitted us to study the multiscale, multicomponent fluid dynamics of subduction zones at unprecedented resolutions down to about the length of a football field. We have performed numerical simulations using one billion tracers over a grid of about 80 thousand points in two dimensions. These runs have been performed using a thermal-chemical simulation that accounts for hydration and partial melting in the thermal, mechanical, petrological, and rheological domains. From these runs, we have observed several geophysically interesting phenomena including the development of plumes with unmixed mantle composition as well as plumes with mixed mantle/crust components. Unmixed plumes form at depths greater than 100km (5-10 km above the upper interface of subducting slab) and consist of partially molten wet peridotite. Mixed plumes form at lesser depth directly from the subducting slab and contain partially molten hydrated oceanic crust and sediments. These high resolution simulations have also spurred the development of new visualization methods. We have created a new web-based interface to data from our subduction simulation and other high-resolution 2D data that uses an hierarchical data format to achieve response times of less than one second when accessing data files on the order of 3GB. This interface, WEB-IS4, uses a Javascript and HTML frontend coupled with a C and PHP backend and allows the user to perform region of interest zooming, real-time colormap selection, and can return relevant statistics relating to the data in the region of interest.

  16. The Influence of Phonotactic Probability on Nonword Repetition and Fast Mapping in 3-Year-Olds with a History of Expressive Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Dalton, Kevin Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of phonotactic probability on sublexical (phonological) and lexical representations in 3-year-olds who had a history of being late talkers in comparison with their peers with typical language development. Method: Ten 3-year-olds who were late talkers and 10 age-matched typically…

  17. [Preparation of a "chronological table of main diseases in Japanese history" for pharmacy students of the 6-year program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Jun; Iida, Kotaro

    2005-01-01

    A chronological table of the main diseases that have appeared throughout Japanese history was prepared for pharmacy students, especially for students of clinical pharmacy in the new 6-year system. In ancient times (even in the 8th century), smallpox and measles prevailed in Japan. Japanese people prayed to gods and Buddha to cure the sick. New infectious diseases, like ruebella, pest, typhoid fever, dysentery, cholera, leprosy, etc., prevailed with the increasing exchange of culture from foreign countries. After the vaccines and the toxides were prepared, these infectious diseases were gradually stamped out in Japan early in the Meiji Era. While, public nuisances like the Minamata disease (CH3HgCl), Itaiitai disease (Cd), and atmospheric pollution with sulfurous acid gas, drug-induced suffering (Thalidomide, Sumon, AIDS, etc.) and toxin contaminations in foods have recently increased and produced new diseases. However, these diseases can be prevented if the workers in factories and government officers keep in mind the medical ethics and the ethics for pharmacists to protect the health of people from diseases. Today, cancer, diseases of cerebral vessels, heart diseases, and pneumonia are the four most important causes of death related to aging.

  18. Large-scale unassisted smoking cessation over 50 years: lessons from history for endgame planning in tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2013-05-01

    In the 50 years since the twentieth century's smoking epidemic began to decline from the beginning of the 1960s, hundreds of millions of smokers around the world have stopped smoking permanently. Overwhelmingly, most stopped without any formal assistance in the form of medication or professional assistance, including many millions of former heavy smokers. Nascent discussion about national and global tobacco endgame scenarios is dominated by an assumption that transitioning from cigarettes to alternative forms of potent, consumer-acceptable forms of nicotine will be essential to the success of endgames. This appears to uncritically assume (1) the hardening hypothesis: that as smoking prevalence moves toward and below 10%, the remaining smokers will be mostly deeply addicted, and will be largely unable to stop smoking unless they are able to move to other forms of 'clean' nicotine addiction such as e-cigarettes and more potent forms of nicotine replacement; and (2) an overly medicalised view of smoking cessation that sees unassisted cessation as both inefficient and inhumane. In this paper, we question these assumptions. We also note that some vanguard nations which continue to experience declining smoking prevalence have long banned smokeless tobacco and non-therapeutic forms of nicotine delivery. We argue that there are potentially risky consequences of unravelling such bans when history suggests that large-scale cessation is demonstrably possible.

  19. Large-scale unassisted smoking cessation over 50 years: lessons from history for endgame planning in tobacco control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2013-01-01

    In the 50 years since the twentieth century's smoking epidemic began to decline from the beginning of the 1960s, hundreds of millions of smokers around the world have stopped smoking permanently. Overwhelmingly, most stopped without any formal assistance in the form of medication or professional assistance, including many millions of former heavy smokers. Nascent discussion about national and global tobacco endgame scenarios is dominated by an assumption that transitioning from cigarettes to alternative forms of potent, consumer-acceptable forms of nicotine will be essential to the success of endgames. This appears to uncritically assume (1) the hardening hypothesis: that as smoking prevalence moves toward and below 10%, the remaining smokers will be mostly deeply addicted, and will be largely unable to stop smoking unless they are able to move to other forms of ‘clean’ nicotine addiction such as e-cigarettes and more potent forms of nicotine replacement; and (2) an overly medicalised view of smoking cessation that sees unassisted cessation as both inefficient and inhumane. In this paper, we question these assumptions. We also note that some vanguard nations which continue to experience declining smoking prevalence have long banned smokeless tobacco and non-therapeutic forms of nicotine delivery. We argue that there are potentially risky consequences of unravelling such bans when history suggests that large-scale cessation is demonstrably possible. PMID:23591504

  20. Hypothyroidism in a five-year-old boy with rhabdomyolysis and recent history of cardiac tamponade: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzana Claudia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cardiac tamponade is a rare manifestation of hypothyroidism, and a less rare cause of pericardial effusion. The accumulation of the pericardial fluid is gradual, and often does not compromise cardiac hemodynamic function. There is a relationship between the severity and chronicity of the disease with the presence of pericardial effusion. There are few cases describing associated pericardial tamponade published in the literature. When a tamponade occurs, a concomitant provocative factor such as a viral pericarditis may be related. Our patient's case appears to be the youngest patient described so far. Case presentation We report the case of a previously healthy five-year-old Hispanic (non-indigenous boy who developed rhabdomyolysis with a history of a recent pericardial effusion and tamponade two months before that required the placement of a percutaneous pericardial drainage. Pericardial effusion was considered to be viral. Later on readmission, clinical primary hypothyroidism was diagnosed and thought to be associated with the previous cardiac tamponade. He developed rhabdomyolysis, which was considered to be autoimmune and was treated with steroids. The level of creatine phosphate kinase and creatine kinase MB fraction returned to within the reference rangeone week after our patient was started on steroids and three weeks after he was started on thyroid hormones. Conclusions Physicians should consider hypothyroidism as a differential diagnosis in patients with pericardial effusion. Pericardial effusion may progress and cause a cardiac tamponade with hemodynamic instability. The fact that our patient did not have any manifestations of hypothyroidism might have delayed diagnosis.

  1. Lower P300 amplitude in eight-year-old offspring of alcoholic fathers with a delinquent history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana-Wackermann, Paula C; Furtado, Erikson F; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin H; Laucht, Manfred

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the P300 amplitude as a possible vulnerability marker in children of alcoholic (COA) fathers with and without paternal delinquency. Event-related potentials (ERPs) of 122 children aged 8 years (63 boys, 59 girls) were compared depending on father's alcoholism subtype: 30 COAs without paternal delinquency, 10 COAs with paternal delinquency, and 82 children of non-alcoholic and non-delinquent fathers. ERPs were recorded from Fz, Cz, and Pz, using an auditory oddball paradigm. Sinus tones of 60 dB HL were presented binaurally at 1,000 Hz (standard stimulus) and 2,000 Hz (target stimulus), at a relative frequency ratio of 80:20. Two trial blocks of 250 stimuli each were collected. Results indicated that only COAs with paternal delinquency displayed significant differences from the control group, characterized by reduced P300 amplitude at frontal site and in the second trial block. Thus, the combination of fathers' alcoholism and delinquency was more likely to relate to attenuated P300 amplitude in the offspring than paternal alcoholism alone. Our results suggest that both alcoholic and delinquent family history appear to play a role in P300 amplitude reduction in the offspring.

  2. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Biochemist Waldo E. Cohn, Ph.D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    In September 1994, the Department of Energy began an oral history project as part of the Openess initiative on the documentation of the human radiation experiments. This paper presents the oral history of Waldo E Cohn, Ph.D., a Biochemist who worked for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Manhattan Project

  3. ICDP project DeepCHALLA: reconstructing East African climate change and environmental history over the past 250,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, Dirk; Van Daele, Maarten; Wolff, Christian; Waldmann, Nicolas; Meyer, Inka; Ombori, Titus; Peterse, Francien; O'Grady, Ryan; Schnurrenberger, Doug; Olago, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Sediments on the bottom of Lake Challa, a 92-meter deep crater lake on the border of Kenya and Tanzania near Mt. Kilimanjaro, contain a uniquely long and continuous record of past climate and environmental change. The near-equatorial location and exceptional quality of this natural archive provide great opportunities to study tropical climate variability at both short (inter-annual to decadal) and long (glacial-interglacial) time scales; and the influence of this climate variability on the region's freshwater resources, the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and the history of the East African landscape in which modern humans (our species, Homo sapiens) evolved and have lived ever since. Supported in part by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Programme (ICDP), the DeepCHALLA project has now recovered the sediment record of Lake Challa down to 214.8 meter below the lake floor, with almost certain 100% cover of the uppermost 121.3 meter (ca.150,000 year BP to present) and estimated 85% cover over the lower part of the sequence, down to the lowermost distinct reflector in the available seismic stratigraphy. This reflector represents a 2 meter thick layer of volcanic sand and silt deposited ca.250,000 years ago, and overlies still older silty lacustrine clays deposited during early lake development. Down-hole logging produced continuous profiles of in-situ sediment composition that confer an absolute depth scale to both the recovered cores and their three-dimensional representation in seismic stratigraphy. As readily observed through the transparent core liners, Lake Challa sediments are finely laminated throughout most of the recovered sequence. Combined with the great time span, the exquisite temporal resolution of these sediments promises to greatly increase our understanding of tropical climate and ecosystem dynamics, and create a long-awaited equatorial counterpart to the high-latitude climate records extracted from the ice sheets of Greenland

  4. Surface history of Mercury - Implications for terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, B. C.; Strom, R. G.; Trask, N. J.; Gault, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    A plausible surface history of Mercury is presented which is suggested by Mariner 10 television pictures. Five periods are postulated which are delineated by successive variations in the modification of the surface by external and internal processes: accretion and differentiation, terminal heavy bombardment, formation of the Caloris basin, flooding of that basin and other areas, and light cratering accumulated on the smooth plains. Each period is described in detail; the overall history is compared with the surface histories of Venus, Mars, and the moon; and the implications of this history for earth are discussed. It is tentatively concluded that: Mercury is a differentiated planet most likely composed of a large iron core enclosed by a relatively thin silicate layer; heavy surface bombardment occurred about four billion years ago, which probably affected all the inner planets, and was followed by a period of volcanic activity; no surface modifications caused by tectonic, volcanic, or atmospheric processes took place after the volcanic period.

  5. Balkan Wars in Social Studies and History Course Books Instructed at Primary and Secondary Education between 1997 and 2012 Years

    OpenAIRE

    KÖSE, Meliha

    2014-01-01

    1912-1913 Balkan Wars ended with important social, economical, cultural and political results for both Southeast Europe and Ottoman Empire. It is a significant turning point for the history of Turkey as well as World History. Balkan Wars had important effects on from dawn of Modern Turkey to starting of national struggle war and coming fore of national identity wars. That’s why It is a point to be emphasized how Balkan Wars are taught in both Turkish and Balkan history books. Primary educatio...

  6. 180 billion pounds to fix transport or save New Labour?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    This article considers that the UK government's ten-year transport plan, launched in July 2000, is as much about boosting New Labour's popularity as it is about addressing the nation's transport problems

  7. Spintharus flavidus in the Caribbean-a 30 million year biogeographical history and radiation of a 'widespread species'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziki, Austin; Binford, Greta J; Coddington, Jonathan A; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2015-01-01

    The Caribbean island biota is characterized by high levels of endemism, the result of an interplay between colonization opportunities on islands and effective oceanic barriers among them. A relatively small percentage of the biota is represented by 'widespread species,' presumably taxa for which oceanic barriers are ineffective. Few studies have explored in detail the genetic structure of widespread Caribbean taxa. The cobweb spider Spintharus flavidus Hentz, 1850 (Theridiidae) is one of two described Spintharus species and is unique in being widely distributed from northern N. America to Brazil and throughout the Caribbean. As a taxonomic hypothesis, Spintharus "flavidus" predicts maintenance of gene flow among Caribbean islands, a prediction that seems contradicted by known S. flavidus biology, which suggests limited dispersal ability. As part of an extensive survey of Caribbean arachnids (project CarBio), we conducted the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of S. flavidus with the primary goal of testing the 'widespread species' hypothesis. Our results, while limited to three molecular loci, reject the hypothesis of a single widespread species. Instead this lineage seems to represent a radiation with at least 16 species in the Caribbean region. Nearly all are short range endemics with several distinct mainland groups and others are single island endemics. While limited taxon sampling, with a single specimen from S. America, constrains what we can infer about the biogeographical history of the lineage, clear patterns still emerge. Consistent with limited overwater dispersal, we find evidence for a single colonization of the Caribbean about 30 million years ago, coinciding with the timing of the GAARLandia landbridge hypothesis. In sum, S. "flavidus" is not a single species capable of frequent overwater dispersal, but rather a 30 my old radiation of single island endemics that provides preliminary support for a complex and contested geological hypothesis.

  8. Tracing the 4000 year history of organic thin films: From monolayers on liquids to multilayers on solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, J. E. [University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping (Sweden); National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-15

    The recorded history of organic monolayer and multilayer thin films spans approximately 4000 years. Fatty-acid-based monolayers were deposited on water by the ancients for applications ranging from fortune telling in King Hammurabi's time (∼1800 BC, Mesopotamia) to stilling choppy waters for sailors and divers as reported by the Roman philosopher Pliny the Elder in ∼78 AD, and then much later (1774) by the peripatetic American statesman and natural philosopher Benjamin Franklin, to Japanese “floating-ink” art (suminagashi) developed ∼1000 years ago. The modern science of organic monolayers began in the late-1800s/early-1900s with experiments by Lord Rayleigh and the important development by Agnes Pockels, followed two decades later by Irving Langmuir, of the tools and technology to measure the surface tension of liquids, the surface pressure of organic monolayers deposited on water, interfacial properties, molecular conformation of the organic layers, and phase transitions which occur upon compressing the monolayers. In 1935, Katherine Blodgett published a landmark paper showing that multilayers can be synthesized on solid substrates, with controlled thickness and composition, using an apparatus now known as the Langmuir-Blodgett (L-B) trough. A disadvantage of LB films for some applications is that they form weak physisorbed bonds to the substrate. In 1946, Bigelow, Pickett, and Zisman demonstrated, in another seminal paper, the growth of organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) via spontaneous adsorption from solution, rather than from the water/air interface, onto SiO{sub 2} and metal substrates. SAMs are close-packed two-dimensional organic crystals which exhibit strong covalent bonding to the substrate. The first multicomponent adsorbed monolayers and multilayer SAMs were produced in the early 1980s. Langmuir monolayers, L-B multilayers, and self-assembled mono- and multilayers have found an extraordinarily broad range of applications including

  9. Tracing the 4000 year history of organic thin films: From monolayers on liquids to multilayers on solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    The recorded history of organic monolayer and multilayer thin films spans approximately 4000 years. Fatty-acid-based monolayers were deposited on water by the ancients for applications ranging from fortune telling in King Hammurabi's time (∼1800 BC, Mesopotamia) to stilling choppy waters for sailors and divers as reported by the Roman philosopher Pliny the Elder in ∼78 AD, and then much later (1774) by the peripatetic American statesman and natural philosopher Benjamin Franklin, to Japanese “floating-ink” art (suminagashi) developed ∼1000 years ago. The modern science of organic monolayers began in the late-1800s/early-1900s with experiments by Lord Rayleigh and the important development by Agnes Pockels, followed two decades later by Irving Langmuir, of the tools and technology to measure the surface tension of liquids, the surface pressure of organic monolayers deposited on water, interfacial properties, molecular conformation of the organic layers, and phase transitions which occur upon compressing the monolayers. In 1935, Katherine Blodgett published a landmark paper showing that multilayers can be synthesized on solid substrates, with controlled thickness and composition, using an apparatus now known as the Langmuir-Blodgett (L-B) trough. A disadvantage of LB films for some applications is that they form weak physisorbed bonds to the substrate. In 1946, Bigelow, Pickett, and Zisman demonstrated, in another seminal paper, the growth of organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) via spontaneous adsorption from solution, rather than from the water/air interface, onto SiO 2 and metal substrates. SAMs are close-packed two-dimensional organic crystals which exhibit strong covalent bonding to the substrate. The first multicomponent adsorbed monolayers and multilayer SAMs were produced in the early 1980s. Langmuir monolayers, L-B multilayers, and self-assembled mono- and multilayers have found an extraordinarily broad range of applications including

  10. Tracing the 5000-year recorded history of inorganic thin films from ˜3000 BC to the early 1900s AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Gold is very likely the first metal discovered by man, more than 11 000 years ago. However, unlike copper (˜9000 BC), bronze (˜3500 BC), and wrought iron (˜2500-3000 BC), gold is too soft for fabrication of tools and weapons. Instead, it was used for decoration, religious artifacts, and commerce. The earliest documented inorganic thin films were gold layers, some less than 3000 Å thick, produced chemi-mechanically by Egyptians approximately 5000 years ago. Examples, gilded on statues and artifacts (requiring interfacial adhesion layers), were found in early stone pyramids dating to ˜2650 BC in Saqqara, Egypt. Spectacular samples of embossed Au sheets date to at least 2600 BC. The Moche Indians of northern Peru developed electroless gold plating (an auto-catalytic reaction) in ˜100 BC and applied it to intricate Cu masks. The earliest published electroplating experiments were ˜1800 AD, immediately following the invention of the dc electrochemical battery by Volta. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of metal films was reported in 1649, atmospheric arc deposition of oxides (Priestley) in the mid-1760s, and atmospheric plasmas (Siemens) in 1857. Sols were produced in the mid-1850s (Faraday) and sol-gel films synthesized in 1885. Vapor phase film growth including sputter deposition (Grove, 1852), vacuum arc deposition ("deflagration," Faraday, 1857), plasma-enhanced CVD (Barthelot, 1869) and evaporation (Stefan, Hertz, and Knudsen, 1873-1915) all had to wait for the invention of vacuum pumps whose history ranges from ˜1650 for mechanical pumps, through ˜1865 for mercury pumps that produce ballistic pressures in small systems. The development of crystallography, beginning with Plato in 360 BC, Kepler in 1611, and leading to Miller indices (1839) for describing orientation and epitaxial relationships in modern thin film technology, was already well advanced by the 1780s (Haüy). The starting point for the development of heterogeneous thin film nucleation theory was

  11. Missing billions. How the Australian government's climate policy is penalising farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riguet, T.

    2006-10-01

    The Climate Institute analysis suggests ratifying the Kyoto Protocol and implementing a national emissions trading scheme today could provide Australian farmers with an income of $1.8 billion over the period 2008-2012, due to the emissions saved by limiting land clearing. Separately, a report to the National Farmers Federation by the Allen Consulting Group earlier this year concluded that a carbon emission trading system which recognised Kyoto Protocol rules could create an additional income stream of $0.7-0.9 billion over a five year period from revenue to farmers from forestry sinks. These two studies suggest that ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and the introduction of a national emissions trading scheme could provide farmers an income stream in the order of $2.5 billion. A central tenet of the Federal Government's greenhouse policy for over a decade has been to not ratify Kyoto, but to meet its Kyoto target - a national emissions increase of 8% from 1990 levels, in the period 2008-2012. Australia's National Greenhouse Gas Accounts show that farmers, by reducing land clearing rates since 1990, have offset substantial increases in greenhouse gas emissions from other sectors, mainly energy. Official Federal Government projections show that without land clearing reductions, Australia's greenhouse emissions would be 30% above 1990 levels by 2010. Australia's farmers have been responsible for virtually the entire share of the nation's greenhouse gas emissions reductions, but their efforts, worth around $2 billion, have not been recognised or financially rewarded by the Government. By reducing land clearing, farmers have already reduced greenhouse gas emissions by about 75 million tonnes since 1990. By 2010, the savings are projected to be about 83 million tonnes. This level of emissions reductions is equivalent to eliminating the total annual emissions of New Zealand or Ireland. Over that same period, emissions from energy and transport have and continue to sky

  12. [Journal AMHA - Acta medico-historica Adriatica: 14 years of patient work on the scientific valorisation of the history of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eterović, Igor

    2017-12-01

    In this paper the first 14 years of publication of scientific journal AMHA - Acta medico‑historica Adriatica (2002-2016) are presented and shortly analysed. This journal has undoubtedly become and remained the central activity of the Croatian Scientific Society for the History of Health Culture, which has rapidly become a globally esteemed journal of history of medicine. The beginning and the context of publishing the journal with the reference to scientific meeting "Rijeka and Its Citizens in Medical History" is presented, as well as the journal's profiling into distinguished international journal and its fast development in later years. The analysis shows the growth of journal's visibility through indexation in different international journal databases, the number and ratio of scientific articles and the variety of published material. Finally, a review of the potential future directions of development and the significance of this journal within the national, regional and international context is given.

  13. Community access networks: how to connect the next billion to the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community access networks: how to connect the next billion to the Internet. Despite recent progress with mobile technology diffusion, more than four billion people worldwide are unconnected and have limited access to global communication infrastructure. The cost of implementing connectivity infrastructure in underserved ...

  14. Interactive (statistical) visualisation and exploration of a billion objects with vaex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breddels, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    With new catalogues arriving such as the Gaia DR1, containing more than a billion objects, new methods of handling and visualizing these data volumes are needed. We show that by calculating statistics on a regular (N-dimensional) grid, visualizations of a billion objects can be done within a second

  15. Boltzmann's dynamic on the primitive earth about 3.9 billion years ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuno, Koichiro

    1995-01-01

    An evolutionary significant event that could have happened on the primitive earth would be a process of enhancing energy concentrations locally. Once the concentrated energy be released, it could drive various molecular association and dissociation. We have examined, both theoretically and experimentally, a possibility of forming such microscopic heat engines feeding upon the then available thermal environment. Theoretically, Boltzmann's dynamics of molecules that would lose their memory of pas collisions with others is found to uphold those molecules that could feed upon thermal energy if the thermal environment would fluctuate through, for instance, a diurnal cycle. Experimentally, thermal heterocomplex molecules from amino acids, that could have been ubiquitous on the primitive earth, are shown to carry with themselves a wide variety of quasi-stable states such that they could remain in excited states for a considerable period of time even if the temperature of the thermal environment is lowered. The stored energy in these excited states, once released, can be utilized as a factor for driving various molecular association and dissociation. (author). Abstract only

  16. Evidence for the effect of disease management: is $1 billion a year a good investment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattke, Soeren; Seid, Michael; Ma, Sai

    2007-12-01

    To assess the evidence for the effect of disease management on quality of care, disease control, and cost, with a focus on population-based programs. Literature review. We conducted a literature search for and a structured review of studies on population-based disease management programs, as well as for reviews and meta-analyses of disease management interventions. We identified 3 evaluations of large-scale population-based programs, as well as 10 meta-analyses and 16 systematic reviews, covering 317 unique studies. We found consistent evidence that disease management improves processes of care and disease control but no conclusive support for its effect on health outcomes. Overall, disease management does not seem to affect utilization except for a reduction in hospitalization rates among patients with congestive heart failure and an increase in outpatient care and prescription drug use among patients with depression. When the costs of the intervention were appropriately accounted for and subtracted from any savings, there was no conclusive evidence that disease management leads to a net reduction of direct medical costs. Although disease management seems to improve quality of care, its effect on cost is uncertain. Most of the evidence to date addresses small-scale programs targeting high-risk individuals, while only 3 studies evaluate large population-based interventions, implying that little is known about their effect. Payers and policy makers should remain skeptical about vendor claims and should demand supporting evidence based on transparent and scientifically sound methods.

  17. A Powerful Toolkit for Synthetic Biology: Over 3.8 Billion Years of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2010-01-01

    The combination of evolutionary with engineering principles will enhance synthetic biology. Conversely, synthetic biology has the potential to enrich evolutionary biology by explaining why some adaptive space is empty, on Earth or elsewhere. Synthetic biology, the design and construction of artificial biological systems, substitutes bio-engineering for evolution, which is seen as an obstacle. But because evolution has produced the complexity and diversity of life, it provides a proven toolkit of genetic materials and principles available to synthetic biology. Evolution operates on the population level, with the populations composed of unique individuals that are historical entities. The source of genetic novelty includes mutation, gene regulation, sex, symbiosis, and interspecies gene transfer. At a phenotypic level, variation derives from regulatory control, replication and diversification of components, compartmentalization, sexual selection and speciation, among others. Variation is limited by physical constraints such as diffusion, and chemical constraints such as reaction rates and membrane fluidity. While some of these tools of evolution are currently in use in synthetic biology, all ought to be examined for utility. A hybrid approach of synthetic biology coupled with fine-tuning through evolution is suggested

  18. The rapid formation of a large rotating disk galaxy three billion years after the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzel, R; Tacconi, L J; Eisenhauer, F; Schreiber, N M Förster; Cimatti, A; Daddi, E; Bouché, N; Davies, R; Lehnert, M D; Lutz, D; Nesvadba, N; Verma, A; Abuter, R; Shapiro, K; Sternberg, A; Renzini, A; Kong, X; Arimoto, N; Mignoli, M

    2006-08-17

    Observations and theoretical simulations have established a framework for galaxy formation and evolution in the young Universe. Galaxies formed as baryonic gas cooled at the centres of collapsing dark-matter haloes; mergers of haloes and galaxies then led to the hierarchical build-up of galaxy mass. It remains unclear, however, over what timescales galaxies were assembled and when and how bulges and disks--the primary components of present-day galaxies--were formed. It is also puzzling that the most massive galaxies were more abundant and were forming stars more rapidly at early epochs than expected from models. Here we report high-angular-resolution observations of a representative luminous star-forming galaxy when the Universe was only 20% of its current age. A large and massive rotating protodisk is channelling gas towards a growing central stellar bulge hosting an accreting massive black hole. The high surface densities of gas, the high rate of star formation and the moderately young stellar ages suggest rapid assembly, fragmentation and conversion to stars of an initially very gas-rich protodisk, with no obvious evidence for a major merger.

  19. Detection of pristine gas two billion years after the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Michele; O'Meara, John M; Prochaska, J Xavier

    2011-12-02

    In the current cosmological model, only the three lightest elements were created in the first few minutes after the Big Bang; all other elements were produced later in stars. To date, however, heavy elements have been observed in all astrophysical environments. We report the detection of two gas clouds with no discernible elements heavier than hydrogen. These systems exhibit the lowest heavy-element abundance in the early universe, and thus are potential fuel for the most metal-poor halo stars. The detection of deuterium in one system at the level predicted by primordial nucleosynthesis provides a direct confirmation of the standard cosmological model. The composition of these clouds further implies that the transport of heavy elements from galaxies to their surroundings is highly inhomogeneous.

  20. Potential effects of the next 100 billion hamburgers sold by McDonald's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Elsa H; Frank, Erica; McIntosh, Nichole F

    2005-05-01

    McDonald's has sold >100 billion beef-based hamburgers worldwide with a potentially considerable health impact. This paper explores whether there would be any advantages if the next 100 billion burgers were instead plant-based burgers. Nutrient composition of the beef hamburger patty and the McVeggie burger patty were obtained from the McDonald's website; sales data were obtained from the McDonald's customer service. Consuming 100 billion McDonald's beef burgers versus the same company's McVeggie burgers would provide, approximately, on average, an additional 550 million pounds of saturated fat and 1.2 billion total pounds of fat, as well as 1 billion fewer pounds of fiber, 660 million fewer pounds of protein, and no difference in calories. These data suggest that the McDonald's new McVeggie burger represents a less harmful fast-food choice than the beef burger.

  1. Twenty-Five year (1982-2007) history of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe animal vectors and ethephon control on the Fraser Experimental Forest in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas. Nicholls

    2009-01-01

    This is a summary of the 25-year history of studies of mammal and bird vectors of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum), ethephon control of dwarf mistletoe, and the ecology of the most important dwarf mistletoe vector, the gray jay (Persisoreus canadensis), on the USDA Forest Service, Fraser Experimental Forest...

  2. CAC-RA1 1958-1998. The first years of the Constituyentes Atomic Center (CAC). History of the first Argentine nuclear reactor (RA-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forlerer, Elena; Palacios, Tulio A.

    1998-01-01

    After giving the milestones of the development of the Constituyentes Atomic Center since 1957, the history of the construction of the first nuclear reactor (RA-1) in Argentina, including the local fabrication of its fuel elements, is surveyed. The RA-1 reached criticality on January 17, 1958. The booklet commemorates the 40th year of the reactor operation

  3. Triumphs Show: What Makes Art History? Year 7 Exploit the Resources of the Victoria and Albert Museum's Medieval Gallery to Create and Curate Their Own Answer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copsey, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    What do 14 Year 7 students, an art teacher, a history teacher and the Victoria and Albert Museum have in common? They are all part of the "Stronger Together" Museum Champion project run by The Langley Academy and the River & Rowing Museum and supported by Arts Council England, designed to engage students, teachers and museum staff…

  4. Leiomyosarcoma of the bladder in a 16-year-old girl with a history of cyclophosphamide therapy for bilateral retinoblastoma during infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Zahrani, Ali A.; Kamal, Baher A.; Eldarawani, Hamed M.; Hashim, Tariq M.

    2006-01-01

    A 16-year-old female with bladder leiomyosarcoma had a history of bilateral retinoblastoma at 6 months of life. She received cyclophosphamide chemotherapy after surgical enucleation. In this report, we discussed the possible role of retinoblastoma or cyclophosphamide as a target for development of bladder leiomyosarcoma. (author)

  5. History of Overweight/Obesity as Predictor of Care Received at 1-year Follow-Up in Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa or Atypical Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Grace A; Forman, Sara F; Woods, Elizabeth R; Hergenroeder, Albert C; Mammel, Kathleen A; Fisher, Martin M; Ornstein, Rollyn M; Callahan, S Todd; Golden, Neville H; Kapphahn, Cynthia J; Garber, Andrea K; Rome, Ellen S; Richmond, Tracy K

    2017-06-01

    Previous research has indicated that patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) or atypical AN with premorbid history of overweight/obesity have greater weight loss and longer illness duration than patients with no such history. However, little is known about the association of premorbid overweight/obesity and receiving inpatient medical care during treatment for an eating disorder. Using logistic regression, we sought to determine if history of overweight/obesity was associated with receiving inpatient medical care in a sample of 522 patients (mean age 15.5 years, 88% female) with AN/atypical AN. Binary results demonstrated greater percent weight loss (27.4% vs. 16.2%) and higher percent median body mass index (%mBMI, 99.8% vs. 85.2%) at presentation in those with a history of overweight/obesity (p obesity was associated with lower odds of receiving inpatient medical care (odds ratio .60 [95% confidence interval: .45-.80]) at 1-year follow-up. However, these associations were no longer significant after adjusting for %mBMI. Mediation results suggest that %mBMI fully mediates the relationship between history of overweight/obesity and inpatient medical care, in that those with a history of overweight/obesity are less likely to receive care due to presenting at a higher weight. Our findings suggest that, despite greater degree of weight loss and no difference in duration of illness, participants with a history of overweight/obesity are less likely to receive inpatient medical care. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfray, H Charles J; Beddington, John R; Crute, Ian R; Haddad, Lawrence; Lawrence, David; Muir, James F; Pretty, Jules; Robinson, Sherman; Thomas, Sandy M; Toulmin, Camilla

    2010-02-12

    Continuing population and consumption growth will mean that the global demand for food will increase for at least another 40 years. Growing competition for land, water, and energy, in addition to the overexploitation of fisheries, will affect our ability to produce food, as will the urgent requirement to reduce the impact of the food system on the environment. The effects of climate change are a further threat. But the world can produce more food and can ensure that it is used more efficiently and equitably. A multifaceted and linked global strategy is needed to ensure sustainable and equitable food security, different components of which are explored here.

  7. Past 20,000-year history of Himalayan aridity: Evidence from oxygen isotope records in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    Late Quaternary climate history of the Himalayas is inferred from sea surface salinity (SSS) changes determined from the oxygen isotope in planktonic foraminifers, in a turbidity-free, 14C-dated core from the Bay of Bengal. The heaviest d18O...

  8. The natural history of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, 2, 3, and 6: a 2-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobi, H.; Bauer, P.; Giunti, P.; Labrum, R.; Sweeney, M.G.; Charles, P.; Durr, A.; Marelli, C.; Globas, C.; Linnemann, C.; Schols, L.; Rakowicz, M.; Rola, R.; Zdzienicka, E.; Schmitz-Hubsch, T.; Fancellu, R.; Mariotti, C.; Tomasello, C.; Baliko, L.; Melegh, B.; Filla, A.; Rinaldi, C.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Verstappen, C.C.P.; Szymanski, S.; Berciano, J.; Infante, J.; Timmann, D.; Boesch, S.; Hering, S.; Depondt, C.; Pandolfo, M.; Kang, J.S.; Ratzka, S.; Schulz, J.; Tezenas du Montcel, S.; Klockgether, T.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To obtain quantitative data on the progression of the most common spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) and identify factors that influence their progression, we initiated the EUROSCA natural history study, a multicentric longitudinal cohort study of 526 patients with SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, or SCA6.

  9. Recognizing history in range ecology: 100 years of science and management on the Santa Rita Experimental Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan F. Sayre

    2003-01-01

    At the centennial of the Santa Rita Experimental Range, historical analysis is called for on two levels. First, as a major site in the history of range ecology, the Santa Rita illuminates past successes and failures in science and management and the ways in which larger social, economic, and political factors have shaped scientific research. Second, with the turn away...

  10. Feeding nine billion: the challenge to sustainable crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Peter J; George, Timothy S

    2011-11-01

    In the recent past there was a widespread working assumption in many countries that problems of food production had been solved, and that food security was largely a matter of distribution and access to be achieved principally by open markets. The events of 2008 challenged these assumptions, and made public a much wider debate about the costs of current food production practices to the environment and whether these could be sustained. As in the past 50 years, it is anticipated that future increases in crop production will be achieved largely by increasing yields per unit area rather than by increasing the area of cropped land. However, as yields have increased, so the ratio of photosynthetic energy captured to energy expended in crop production has decreased. This poses a considerable challenge: how to increase yield while simultaneously reducing energy consumption (allied to greenhouse gas emissions) and utilizing resources such as water and phosphate more efficiently. Given the timeframe in which the increased production has to be realized, most of the increase will need to come from crop genotypes that are being bred now, together with known agronomic and management practices that are currently under-developed.

  11. Areva excellent business volume: backlog as of december 31, 2008: + 21.1% to 48.2 billion euros. 2008 revenue: + 10.4% to 13.2 billion euros; Areva excellent niveau d'activite: carnet de commandes au 31/12/2008: + 21,1% a 48,2 Mds d'euros. Chiffre d'affaires de l'exercice 2008: + 10,4% a 13,2 Mds d'euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    AREVA's backlog stood at 48.2 billion euros as of December 31, 2008, for 21.1% growth year-on-year, including 21.8% growth in Nuclear and 16.5% growth in Transmission and Distribution. The Nuclear backlog came to 42.5 billion euros at December 31, 2008. The Transmission and Distribution backlog came to 5.7 billion euros at year-end. The group recognized revenue of 13.2 billion euros in 2008, for year-on-year growth of 10.4% (+9.8% like-for-like). Revenue outside France was up 10.5% to 9.5 billion euros, representing 72% of total revenue. Revenue was up 6.5% in the Nuclear businesses (up 6.3% LFL), with strong performance in the Reactors and Services division (+10.9% LFL) and the Front End division (+7.2% LFL). The Transmission and Distribution division recorded growth of 17% (+15.8% LFL). Revenue for the fourth quarter of 2008 rose to 4.1 billion euros, up 5.2% (+1.6% LFL) from that of the fourth quarter of 2007. Revenue for the Front End division rose to 3.363 billion euros in 2008, up 7.1% over 2007 (+7.2% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 53 million euros. Revenue for the Reactors and Services division rose to 3.037 billion euros, up 11.8% over 2007 (+10.9% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 47 million euros. Revenue for the Back End division came to 1.692 billion euros, a drop of 2.7% (-2.5% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 3.5 million euros. Revenue for the Transmission and Distribution division rose to 5.065 billion euros in 2008, up 17.0% (+15.8% LFL)

  12. Natural gas. The LNG trade exceeds the 100 billions of m3 limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    1996 has been a particularly favourable year for the international natural gas industry with a 10% increase of the international trade. The worldwide commercialized production of natural gas (2310 billions of m 3 ) has shown a 5% increase with respect to the previous year, with a strong increase in the OECD countries (+15.5%), in particular in the North Sea. High growing rates were recorded also in Latin America (9.5%) and Middle East (8%). Natural gas production in the CIS (Community of Independent States) reached 714 Gm 3 in 1996 with 600 Gm 3 from the Russian federation. The international trade has shown a 10% increase and reached 429.3 Gm 3 . The methane tanker ship trade has shown a 10 Gm 3 increase mainly in the Asian market (Japan and South Korea). Natural gas consumption growth has been high too (+4.9%) and reached 11.6% in Europe due to the climate conditions and to an increasing electric power demand. (J.S.)

  13. Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, Ashok J.; Derby, Elisabeth A.

    2003-06-01

    Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015, the global community will need to provide an additional one billion urban residents and 600 million rural residents with safe water within the next twelve years. This paper examines current water treatment measures and implementation methods for delivery of safe drinking water, and offers suggestions for making progress towards the goal of providing a timely and equitable solution for safe water provision. For water treatment, based on the serious limitations of boiling water and chlorination, we suggest an approach based on filtration coupled with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, combined with public education. Additionally, owing to the capacity limitations for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to take on this task primarily on their own, we suggest a strategy based on financially sustainable models that include the private sector as well as NGOs.

  14. Depositional history and tectonic regimes within and in the margins of the Fennoscandian shield during the last 1300 million years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulamaeki, S.; Kuivamaeki, A.

    2006-05-01

    This report is a literature review, which describes the occurrences of Meso- and Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks in Finland and their depositional history The report also summarizes the tectonic and magmatic events within and in the margins of the Fennoscandian Shield during the last 1200 - 1300 million years. Mesoproterozoic (Middle Riphean) and Neoproterozoic (Late Vendian) sandstones and siltstones are presently found only in some tectonically protected basins, e.g., Satakunta and Muhos grabens, Bothnian Sea basin and Bothnian Bay basin, or in the impact structures, but they may have originally distributed over a much larger area. During the Lower and Middle Cambrian, arenaceous and argillaceous sediments were probably deposited in most of the western, southern and central Finland. During the Ordovician, carbonates were deposited in an epicontinental sea with repeated transgressions and regressions. In several occasions, the Bothnian Sea and Aaland Sea basins, as well as southern and south-western Finland were covered by the sea, and in the Middle Ordovician, the sea reached as far as central Finland. No Late Palaeozoic (Silurian to Permian) sedimentary rocks have been recognized. The apatite fission track studies indicate, however, that extensive Silurian to Devonian deposits most likely covered large parts of the Fennoscandian Shield, with an estimated thickness of 3 - 4 km in Sweden and ca. 1 km in Finland. In eastern Lapland, the clay bed of Akanvaara was deposited in early Tertiary (Eocene) under marine conditions. The Mesoproterozoic tectonics was dominated by the Sveconorwegian orogeny (ca. 1250 - 900 Ma), which mainly affected the present south-western Sweden and southern Norway. In Finland, the 'Postjotnian' olivine diabases, dated at 1270 - 1250 Ma, are considered to be connected to the initial rifting at the onset of the orogeny. After the Sveconorwegian orogeny, the Fennoscandian Shield was part of the worldwide supercontinent

  15. Bitola Destination for Cultural Tourism – 7000 Years of History – (From Gurgur through to Heraclea Bitola)

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Bitola is a major city in the country with several millennium history. It is a city which played hundreds of important historical events, town center of provinces, cities that were born, lived or resided important historical figures, and the city its cultural - historical heritage tourist successfully managed. In Bitola, today, are the most important tourist valorized cultural - historical monuments, events and ambient parts. Bitola, the more tourism fairs in Europe...

  16. 100 years of X-rays, 20 years of absorption spectroscopy with the synchrotron radiation: history, principles and a few examples of applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalowicz, A.; Moscovici, J.; Mimouni, A.

    1995-01-01

    The centenary of the discovery of X-rays is the occasion to summarize the history of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and its development on synchrotron radiation sources, to give the underlying principles and to illustrate the possible uses of this spectroscopy by three examples: (a) the structural characterization of disordered spin transition coordination compounds by EXAFS spectroscopy; (b) the ligand binding to vitamin B 12 by XANES spectroscopy; and (c) the chemical analysis of sulfur compounds included in fly-ashes by low-energy XANES spectroscopy. (authors). 23 refs., 8 figs

  17. Evaluation of mammographic surveillance services in women aged 40-49 years with a moderate family history of breast cancer: a single-arm cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, S W; Mackay, J; Thomas, S; Anderson, E; Chen, T H H; Ellis, I; Evans, G; Fielder, H; Fox, R; Gui, G; Macmillan, D; Moss, S; Rogers, C; Sibbering, M; Wallis, M; Warren, R; Watson, E; Whynes, D; Allgood, P; Caunt, J

    2013-03-01

    Women with a significant family history of breast cancer are often offered more intensive and earlier surveillance than is offered to the general population in the National Breast Screening Programme. Up to now, this strategy has not been fully evaluated. To evaluate the benefit of mammographic surveillance for women aged 40-49 years at moderate risk of breast cancer due to family history. The study is referred to as FH01. This was a single-arm cohort study with recruitment taking place between January 2003 and February 2007. Recruits were women aged women were offered annual mammography for at least 5 years and observed for the occurrence of breast cancer during the surveillance period. The age group 40-44 years was targeted so that they would still be aged women, 94% of whom were aged women aged 40-49 years with a significant family history of breast or ovarian cancer is both clinically effective in reducing breast cancer mortality and cost-effective. There is a need to further standardise familial risk assessment, to research the impact of digital mammography and to clarify the role of breast density in this population. National Research Register N0484114809. This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 17, No. 11. See the HTA programme website for further project information.

  18. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Stokes, Bryce [Navarro Research & Engineering; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL

    2011-08-01

    The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small

  19. Marital history from age 15 to 40 years and subsequent 10-year mortality: a longitudinal study of Danish males born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Osler, Merete

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aims of the present study are to analyse the association between marital status at age 24, 29, 34, and 39 years and subsequent mortality in a cohort of men born in 1953 (sensitive period); to study the impact of number of years married, number of years divorced/widowed, and number...... of Copenhagen, Denmark. Marital status in 1992 as well as start and termination of all previous marital status events from 1968 to 1992 were retrieved from the Danish Civil Registration System. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Were hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality from age 40 to 49 years. RESULTS: We found...... a strong protective effect of being married compared with never being married or divorced/widowed at every age. The association increased in strength with increasing age. Number of years divorced was associated with increased mortality risk in a dose-dependent manner at age 34 and 39 years. One or more...

  20. First Episode of Psychosis in a Middle-Aged Patient with a 14-Year History of Conversion Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaios Peritogiannis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a middle-aged male patient with a long history of conversion disorder and histrionic personality, who presented with newly onset psychotic symptoms while being engaged to treatment with a community mental health team in a primary care setting. The symptoms could not be attributed to an organic cause. After a short course of olanzapine treatment which caused adverse effects, the symptomatology responded well to low dose amisulpride. Conversion symptoms were stable throughout the psychotic episode. This case illustrates the complex interplay between disorders classified in different categories (somatoform versus psychotic disorders.

  1. BITOLA DESTINATION FOR CULTURAL TOURISM – 7000 YEARS OF HISTORY – (FROM GURGUR THROUGH TO HERACLEA BITOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola V. Dimitrov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bitola is a major city in the country with several millennium history. It is a city which played hundreds of important historical events, town center of provinces, cities that were born, lived or resided important historical figures, and the city its cultural - historical heritage tourist successfully managed. In Bitola, today, are the most important tourist valorized cultural - historical monuments, events and ambient parts. Bitola, the more tourism fairs in Europe, successfully launched its cultural - historical heritage and cultural events, becoming the most avant-garde tourist destination in cultural tourism in the Balkans.

  2. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Dr. George Voelz, M.D., November 29, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Dr. George Voelz was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). This oral history covers Dr. Voelz`s research on Manhattan Engineering District plutonium workers, the acute and long term effects of radiation, his inhalation studies, and his activities at the 1961 INL reactor accident (SL-1 Reactor). After a brief biographical sketch, Dr. Voelz his remembrances on tissue studies of plutonium workers, the plutonium injection studies of 1945-1946, the controlled environmental radioiodine tests of 1963-1968, and tracer studies with human volunteers at Los Alamos. Dr. Voelz states his opinions concerning misconceptions about the Los Alamos Human Radiation Experiments.

  3. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Dr. George Voelz, M.D., November 29, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    Dr. George Voelz was interviewed by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments (OHRE). This oral history covers Dr. Voelz's research on Manhattan Engineering District plutonium workers, the acute and long term effects of radiation, his inhalation studies, and his activities at the 1961 INL reactor accident (SL-1 Reactor). After a brief biographical sketch, Dr. Voelz his remembrances on tissue studies of plutonium workers, the plutonium injection studies of 1945-1946, the controlled environmental radioiodine tests of 1963-1968, and tracer studies with human volunteers at Los Alamos. Dr. Voelz states his opinions concerning misconceptions about the Los Alamos Human Radiation Experiments

  4. Nordic energy co-operation can save the equivalent of 4 - 10 billion USD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2000-01-01

    Better co-ordination of the energy- and environment policies among the Nordic countries can be very profitable from the socio-economic point of view and facilitate the fulfilment of the Kyoto agreement. A Swedish calculation shows that up to 10 billion USD can be saved by building a trans-nordic gasline and at the same time preparing for a common implementation of the Kyoto agreement, combined with increased electricity trade, improving the efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy sources. The consumption of natural gas must then increase threefold the next 25 years. There is no alternative to natural gas of the same potential if coal and oil are to be replaced to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide. The importance of natural gas is further increased by the phase-out of nuclear energy in Sweden. After 2025 the use of natural gas will be reduced and in 2040 biomass energy, wind energy and solar energy will contribute as much as the natural gas, that is, 250 TWh. Throughout the entire period more than half of the electricity production will be hydropower. It is presupposed that the cogeneration sector and the district heating network are substantially expanded, even in South Norway. The Nordic energy system is quite flexible with respect to fulfilling future CO 2 targets. Although the different Nordic countries have different commitments with respect to the Kyoto agreement, they will profit economically from acting jointly within the sum of their individual emission quotas

  5. Development of multicomponent parts-per-billion-level gas standards of volatile toxic organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoderick, G.C.; Zielinski, W.L. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the demand for stable, low-concentration multicomponent standards of volatile toxic organic compounds for quantifying national and state measurement of ambient air quality and hazardous waste incineration emissions has markedly increased in recent years. In response to this demand, a microgravimetric technique was developed and validated for preparing such standards; these standards ranged in concentration from several parts per million (ppm) down to one part per billion (ppb) and in complexity from one organic up to 17. Studies using the gravimetric procedure to prepare mixtures of different groups of organics. including multi-components mixtures in the 5 to 20 ppb range, revealed a very low imprecision. This procedure is based on the separate gravimetric introduction of individual organics into an evacuated gas cylinder, followed by the pressurized addition of a precalculated amount of pure nitrogen. Additional studies confirmed the long-term stability of these mixtures. The uncertainty of the concentrations of the individual organics at the 95% confidence level ranged from less than 1% relative at 1 ppm to less than 10% relative at 1 ppb. Over 100 primary gravimetric standards have been developed, validated, and used for certifying the concentrations of a variety of mixtures for monitoring studies

  6. Pb pollution from leaded gasoline in South America in the context of a 2000-year metallurgical history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Anja; Gramlich, Gabriela; Kellerhals, Thomas; Tobler, Leonhard; Schwikowski, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Exploitation of the extensive polymetallic deposits of the Andean Altiplano in South America since precolonial times has caused substantial emissions of neurotoxic lead (Pb) into the atmosphere; however, its historical significance compared to recent Pb pollution from leaded gasoline is not yet resolved. We present a comprehensive Pb emission history for the last two millennia for South America, based on a continuous, high-resolution, ice core record from Illimani glacier. Illimani is the highest mountain of the eastern Bolivian Andes and is located at the northeastern margin of the Andean Altiplano. The ice core Pb deposition history revealed enhanced Pb enrichment factors (EFs) due to metallurgical processing for silver production during periods of the Tiwanaku/Wari culture (AD 450–950), the Inca empires (AD 1450–1532), colonial times (AD 1532–1900), and tin production at the beginning of the 20th century. After the 1960s, Pb EFs increased by a factor of 3 compared to the emission level from metal production, which we attribute to gasoline-related Pb emissions. Our results show that anthropogenic Pb pollution levels from road traffic in South America exceed those of any historical metallurgy in the last two millennia, even in regions with exceptional high local metallurgical activity. PMID:26601147

  7. Pb pollution from leaded gasoline in South America in the context of a 2000-year metallurgical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Anja; Gramlich, Gabriela; Kellerhals, Thomas; Tobler, Leonhard; Schwikowski, Margit

    2015-03-01

    Exploitation of the extensive polymetallic deposits of the Andean Altiplano in South America since precolonial times has caused substantial emissions of neurotoxic lead (Pb) into the atmosphere; however, its historical significance compared to recent Pb pollution from leaded gasoline is not yet resolved. We present a comprehensive Pb emission history for the last two millennia for South America, based on a continuous, high-resolution, ice core record from Illimani glacier. Illimani is the highest mountain of the eastern Bolivian Andes and is located at the northeastern margin of the Andean Altiplano. The ice core Pb deposition history revealed enhanced Pb enrichment factors (EFs) due to metallurgical processing for silver production during periods of the Tiwanaku/Wari culture (AD 450-950), the Inca empires (AD 1450-1532), colonial times (AD 1532-1900), and tin production at the beginning of the 20th century. After the 1960s, Pb EFs increased by a factor of 3 compared to the emission level from metal production, which we attribute to gasoline-related Pb emissions. Our results show that anthropogenic Pb pollution levels from road traffic in South America exceed those of any historical metallurgy in the last two millennia, even in regions with exceptional high local metallurgical activity.

  8. Materials for the history of the Ospedale Maggiore of Milan: the Chapter resolutions of the years 1456-1498

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Albini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The history of charity and assistance in Milan at the end of the Middle Ages has as basic term of reference the documentary sources of the Ospedale Maggiore, the new great hospital result of a long process of reform that took place in the course of the 15th century. The Chapter of the Ospedale Maggiore became a management centre which planned and controlled the activities of other charitable-attendance structures, the most important of them represented in the corporative administrative body of the Ospedale Maggiore itself. The Ospedale Maggiore Chapter left evidence of its meetings and decisions in more than 3000 proceedings, registered in seven records. The board resolutions of the Ospedale Maggiore of Milan are a basic source for the history of hospitals of all Lombardy. Moreover, they shed light on economic, social and political dynamics of the Duchy of Milan at the end of Quattrocento: the organization of the Ospedale Maggiore board highlights on politics and strategies of the ruling groups of Milan and of the Sforza dynasty as well. Object of this work is the edition, in the form of regestum, of the Ospedale Maggiore Chapter resolutions; a map of the country estate, land, farms, mills, of the Ospedale Maggiore, is edited too.

  9. Sixty-Five Million Years of Change in Temperature and Topography Explain Evolutionary History in Eastern North American Plethodontid Salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Richard; Clark, Adam Thomas

    2017-07-01

    For many taxa and systems, species richness peaks at midelevations. One potential explanation for this pattern is that large-scale changes in climate and geography have, over evolutionary time, selected for traits that are favored under conditions found in contemporary midelevation regions. To test this hypothesis, we use records of historical temperature and topographic changes over the past 65 Myr to construct a general simulation model of plethodontid salamander evolution in eastern North America. We then explore possible mechanisms constraining species to midelevation bands by using the model to predict plethodontid evolutionary history and contemporary geographic distributions. Our results show that models that incorporate both temperature and topographic changes are better able to predict these patterns, suggesting that both processes may have played an important role in driving plethodontid evolution in the region. Additionally, our model (whose annotated source code is included as a supplement) represents a proof of concept to encourage future work that takes advantage of recent advances in computing power to combine models of ecology, evolution, and earth history to better explain the abundance and distribution of species over time.

  10. History of radiation protection in the Czech Republic. Ten years of the National Radiation Protection Institute, 1995-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabkova, A.

    2006-01-01

    The first part of the publication, highlighting the history of radiation protection in the country which today is the Czech Republic, is divided into the following sections: Inception of the field of science and applications 'Protection from ionizing radiation'; Beginnings of work with ionizing radiation in the Czech lands; Formulation of the first health physics and radiation protection requirements in the Czech lands; Beginnings of institutionalization of radiation protection in Czechoslovakia after World War II; The Clinic and Institute of Occupational Medicine in Prague; Institute of Occupational Hygiene and Occupational Diseases in Prague and the regional Institute of Occupational Hygiene and Occupational Diseases in Bratislava; Peaceful uses of atomic energy in Czechoslovakia; First man-made radioisotopes in Czechoslovakia; Health rules and standards applicable to work with ionizing radiation; The responsibilities of the Ministry of Health in the area of health physics and radiation protection within peaceful uses of atomic energy in the Czech Socialist Republic; Research Institute of Health Physics; Institute of Occupational Hygiene and Prevention of Occupational Diseases in the Mining and Processing of Radioactive Raw Materials; Health physics and radiation protection in sectorial and national research plans; Health Physics Centre, Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology; National Radiation Protection Institute (as a subsidiary of the State Office for Nuclear Safety). The second part of the publication gives details of the recent history of the National Radiation Protection Institute. (P.A.)

  11. [Value of history and clinical and laboratory data for the diagnosis of dehydration due to acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruvost, Isabelle; Dubos, François; Aurel, Marie; Hue, Valérie; Martinot, Alain

    2008-04-01

    Acute diarrhea is frequent, costly because of the number of hospital admissions required, and sometimes serious, even fatal to children in France. The clinical diagnosis of dehydration is difficult, but essential to determine management. To summarize the published data on the value of clinical history, clinical signs and laboratory results for diagnosing dehydration during acute diarrhea in young (1 month-5 years) non-malnourished children. Four databases (Medline, INIST, Ovid, and Cochrane) were searched through November 2006, with the key words "dehydration" subcategories "diagnosis, or etiology, or history", "diarrhea" subcategory "diagnosis", and age limits "infant or preschool child". We selected the articles and reviews that included as an endpoint for dehydration "weight gain > 5% after recovery" (the gold standard). Thirteen studies were selected. No single clinical history item, clinical sign or laboratory value was sufficient to discriminate between children with and without dehydration. The reproducibility of clinical signs varied substantially between studies. Persistent skin folds and signs of vasoconstriction contributed the most information, with good specificity but sensitivity dehydration. No dehydration scale has been validated. None of the studies selected had a very high level of proof (level 1 and 2); neither signs nor scores have been validated internally or externally because of the low number of subjects. The diagnosis of dehydration due to acute diarrhea in young children depends on the number of signs present, since no individual element of clinical history, clinical picture or laboratory tests distinguished dehydration. Other studies are necessary.

  12. Theoretical innovation and technical progress will usher in a production period of gas fields with an annual capacity of ten billion cubic meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwei Gan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Challenged by the increasing complexity of targets and the tense situation of turning losses into profits during the 12th Five-Year Plan, by virtue of technological innovation, Sinopec Southwest Oil & Gas Company proposed the theories of gas exploration in continental clastic rock and marine carbonate rock, and developed the development technologies for reef, channel sandstone and tight sandstone reservoirs. Moreover, it innovatively formed a series of engineering technologies, including intelligent sliding sleeve staged fracturing, blasting–packing–fracturing stimulation, impulse fracturing, and drilling, completion and production technologies for ultra-deep horizontal wells with high sulfur contents. With these innovated theories and improved technologies, great discoveries have been made in the continental clastic rocks and marine carbonate rocks in West Sichuan Basin, the marine shale in South Sichuan Basin, and the marine carbonate rocks in Yuanba area of NE Sichuan Basin, and three 100 billion-m3 class commercial gas reserves zones were discovered. Moreover, two medium- and large-sized gas fields were proved, and three medium- and large-sized gas fields were completely constructed. Both reserves and production reached a new record in history. During the 13th Five-Year Plan, Sinopec Southwest Oil & Gas Company will focus on the exploration and development of deep marine carbonate reservoirs, commercial development of deep shale gas, safe development of gas fields with high sulfur, and enhancement of recovery in mature gas fields. By the end of the 13th Five-Year Plan, it is expected that the annual gas production of (10–12 × 109 m3 will be achieved.

  13. Ice core based Pb pollution from gasoline in South America in the context of a 2000 year metallurgical history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Anja; Gramlich, Gabriela; Kellerhals, Thomas; Tobler, Leonhard; Schwikowski, Margit

    2015-04-01

    Lead (Pb) is highly neurotoxic and, in contrast to many other heavy metals including cobalt, copper, and zinc, it has no beneficial effects to humans even at low concentrations. The introduction of leaded gasoline in the 1920s initiated a period of unabated growth in the global emissions of Pb. Prior to the onset of leaded gasoline phase-out in the 1970s, atmospheric Pb levels increased dramatically. Long-term histories of Pb pollution in Eastern and Western Europe, Asia, and North America suggest that emissions from leaded gasoline within the Northern Hemisphere are dominant compared to that from metallurgy and coal combustion during the second half of the 20th century. However, there is no equivalent data for Southern America. Although exploitation of the extensive polymetallic deposits of the Andean Altiplano in South America since pre-colonial times has caused substantial emissions of neurotoxic Pb into the atmosphere, its historical significance compared to recent Pb pollution from leaded gasoline is not yet resolved. Here we present the first comprehensive, high-resolution two millennia Pb emission history for South America, based on ice core records of Pb concentrations, Pb enrichment factors (EFs), and Pb isotope ratios from Illimani glacier in Bolivia. Complementary to local air pollution recorded in lake sediments, ice cores from mid latitude glaciers provide information about more extended source areas. Illimani is the highest mountain of the eastern Bolivian Andes and is located at the northeastern margin of the Bolivian Altiplano. The ice core Pb deposition history revealed enhanced Pb EFs due to metallurgical processing for silver production during periods of the Tiwanaku/Wari culture (AD 450-950), the Inca empires (AD 1450-1532), colonial times (AD 1532-1900), and tin production at the beginning of the 20th century. After the 1960s 208Pb/207Pb ratios decreased significantly, whereas Pb EFs increased by a factor of three compared to the emission level

  14. PEAT ACCRETION HISTORIES DURING THE PAST 6000 YEARS IN MARSHES OF THE SACRAMENTO - SAN JOAQUIN DELTA, CALIFORNIA, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drexler, J Z; de Fontaine, C S; Brown, T A

    2009-07-20

    Peat cores were collected in 4 remnant marsh islands and 4 drained, farmed islands throughout the Sacramento - San Joaquin Delta of California in order to characterize the peat accretion history of this region. Radiocarbon age determination of marsh macrofossils at both marsh and farmed islands showed that marshes in the central and western Delta started forming between 6030 and 6790 cal yr BP. Age-depth models for three marshes were constructed using cubic smooth spline regression models. The resulting spline fit models were used to estimate peat accretion histories for the marshes. Estimated accretion rates range from 0.03 to 0.49 cm yr{sup -1} for the marsh sites. The highest accretion rates are at Browns Island, a marsh at the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Porosity was examined in the peat core from Franks Wetland, one of the remnant marsh sites. Porosity was greater than 90% and changed little with depth indicating that autocompaction was not an important process in the peat column. The mean contribution of organic matter to soil volume at the marsh sites ranges from 6.15 to 9.25% with little variability. In contrast, the mean contribution of inorganic matter to soil volume ranges from 1.40 to 8.45% with much greater variability, especially in sites situated in main channels. These results suggest that marshes in the Delta can be viewed as largely autochthonous vs. allochthonous in character. Autochthonous sites are largely removed from watershed processes, such as sediment deposition and scour, and are dominated by organic production. Allochthonous sites have greater fluctuations in accretion rates due to the variability of inorganic inputs from the watershed. A comparison of estimated vertical accretion rates with 20th century rates of global sea-level rise shows that currently marshes are maintaining their positions in the tidal frame, yet this offers little assurance of sustainability under scenarios of increased sea-level rise in

  15. The History of Stuttering by 7 Years of Age: Follow-Up of a Prospective Community Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Vogel, Adam; Pezic, Angela; Mensah, Fiona; Conway, Laura; Bavin, Edith; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: For a community cohort of children confirmed to have stuttered by the age of 4 years, we report (a) the recovery rate from stuttering, (b) predictors of recovery, and (c) comorbidities at the age of 7 years. Method: This study was nested in the Early Language in Victoria Study. Predictors of stuttering recovery included child, family, and…

  16. Association Between History of Multiple Concussions and Health Outcomes Among Former College Football Players: 15-Year Follow-up From the NCAA Concussion Study (1999-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Thomas, Leah C; Simon, Janet E; McCrea, Michael; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2018-06-01

    Previous research has examined associations between concussion history and adverse health outcomes among former professional football players. Less is known about the potential effects of concussion among former college football players without additional exposure at the professional level. To examine the association between concussion and adverse health outcomes in a cohort of former college football players without exposure to professional football, 15 years after their playing careers ended. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A sample of 204 former collegiate football players (23.4% of eligible athletes with available contact information)-all of whom played at least 1 season of football from 1999 to 2001 in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and had no professional football exposure-completed a general health survey that assessed lifetime concussion history and included the following: the Veterans RAND 36 Item Health Survey, containing a physical composite score (PCS) and mental composite score (MCS); the depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire; and the 4-item CAGE alcohol dependence questionnaire (for "cutting down, annoyance by criticism, guilty feeling, and eye-openers"). Multivariable binomial regression models estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) with 95% CIs while controlling for demographics and playing history covariates through forward selection model building. Most participants reported a concussion history (84.3%). Overall, 22.1% and 39.2% of participants reported a PCS and an MCS history of multiple concussions and adverse health outcomes were found among former collegiate football players without professional football exposure but were limited to those reporting ≥3 prior concussions. Because only 23.4% of eligible athletes responded to the survey, the possibility of ascertainment bias exists, and our findings should thus be interpreted with some caution. Continued examination within nonprofessional

  17. History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine”: The Last Ten Years. A Survey of Course Content, Methods and Structural Preconditions at Twenty-nine German Medical Faculties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildmann, Jan; Bruns, Florian; Hess, Volker; Vollmann, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: “History, Theory, Ethics of Medicine” (German: “Geschichte, Theorie, Ethik der Medizin”, abbreviation: GTE) forms part of the obligatory curriculum for medical students in Germany since the winter semester 2003/2004. This paper presents the results of a national survey on the contents, methods and framework of GTE teaching. Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire dispatched in July 2014 to 38 institutions responsible for GTE teaching. Descriptive analysis of quantitative data and content analysis of free-text answers. Results: It was possible to collect data from 29 institutes responsible for GTE teaching (response: 76%). There is at least one professorial chair for GTE in 19 faculties; two professorial chairs or professorships remained vacant at the time of the survey. The number of students taught per academic year ranges from 350. Teaching in GTE comprises an average of 2.18 hours per week per semester (min: 1, max: 6). Teaching in GTE is proportionally distributed according to an arithmetic average as follows: history: 35.4%, theory 14.7% and ethics 49.9%. Written learning objectives were formulated for GTE in 24 faculties. The preferred themes of teaching in history, theory or ethics which according to respondents should be taught comprise a broad spectrum and vary. Teaching in ethics (79 from a max. of 81 possible points) is, when compared to history (61/81) and theory (53/81), attributed the most significance for the training of medical doctors. Conclusion: 10 years after the introduction of GTE the number of students and the personnel resources available at the institutions vary considerably. In light of the differences regarding the content elicited in this study the pros and cons of heterogeneity in GTE should be discussed. PMID:28584871

  18. "History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine": The Last Ten Years. A Survey of Course Content, Methods and Structural Preconditions at Twenty-nine German Medical Faculties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildmann, Jan; Bruns, Florian; Hess, Volker; Vollmann, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: "History, Theory, Ethics of Medicine" (German: "Geschichte, Theorie, Ethik der Medizin", abbreviation: GTE) forms part of the obligatory curriculum for medical students in Germany since the winter semester 2003/2004. This paper presents the results of a national survey on the contents, methods and framework of GTE teaching. Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire dispatched in July 2014 to 38 institutions responsible for GTE teaching. Descriptive analysis of quantitative data and content analysis of free-text answers. Results: It was possible to collect data from 29 institutes responsible for GTE teaching (response: 76%). There is at least one professorial chair for GTE in 19 faculties; two professorial chairs or professorships remained vacant at the time of the survey. The number of students taught per academic year ranges from 350. Teaching in GTE comprises an average of 2.18 hours per week per semester (min: 1, max: 6). Teaching in GTE is proportionally distributed according to an arithmetic average as follows: history: 35.4%, theory 14.7% and ethics 49.9%. Written learning objectives were formulated for GTE in 24 faculties. The preferred themes of teaching in history, theory or ethics which according to respondents should be taught comprise a broad spectrum and vary. Teaching in ethics (79 from a max. of 81 possible points) is, when compared to history (61/81) and theory (53/81), attributed the most significance for the training of medical doctors. Conclusion: 10 years after the introduction of GTE the number of students and the personnel resources available at the institutions vary considerably. In light of the differences regarding the content elicited in this study the pros and cons of heterogeneity in GTE should be discussed.

  19. Reconstructing and analyzing China's fifty-nine year (1951–2009 drought history using hydrological model simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Y. Wu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 1951–2009 drought history of China is reconstructed using daily soil moisture values generated by the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC land surface macroscale hydrology model. VIC is applied over a grid of 10 458 points with a spatial resolution of 30 km × 30 km, and is driven by observed daily maximum and minimum air temperature and precipitation from 624 long-term meteorological stations. The VIC soil moisture is used to calculate the Soil Moisture Anomaly Percentage Index (SMAPI, which can be used as a measure of the severity of agricultural drought on a global basis. We have developed a SMAPI-based drought identification procedure for practical uses in the identification of both grid point and regional drought events. As a result, a total of 325 regional drought events varying in time and strength are identified from China's nine drought study regions. These drought events can thus be assessed quantitatively at different spatial and temporal scales. The result shows that the severe drought events of 1978, 2000 and 2006 are well reconstructed, which indicates that the SMAPI is capable of identifying the onset of a drought event, its progression, as well as its termination. Spatial and temporal variations of droughts in China's nine drought study regions are studied. Our result shows that on average, up to 30% of the total area of China is prone to drought. Regionally, an upward trend in drought-affected areas has been detected in three regions (Inner Mongolia, Northeast and North from 1951–2009. However, the decadal variability of droughts has been weak in the rest of the five regions (South, Southwest, East, Northwest, and Tibet. Xinjiang has even been showing steadily wetter since the 1950s. Two regional dry centres are discovered in China as the result of a combined analysis on the occurrence of drought events from both grid points and drought study regions. The first centre is located in the area partially covered by the North

  20. Heathlands, fire and grazing. A palaeoenvironmental view of Las Hurdes (Cáceres, Spain history during the last 1200 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Abel-Schaad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. The diachronic study of vegetation change through palynological analysis of sedimentary deposits is an essential tool both to design sound strategies on landscape  management and to understand its anthropogenic dynamics.Area of study. La Meseguera mire (Ladrillar, Cáceres, Spain is located in the Hurdes region in the western part of Iberian Central System and started to develop at the beginning of the Islamic period (ca. 770 cal AD, in an area widely dominated by heathland.  Material and methods. Pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs and charcoal accumulation rate (CHAR combined with historical data are useful indicators to assess the increasing role of human influence on vegetation.Main results. The use of fire and livestock husbandry represents the main drivers of landscape change in the course of the history. The establishment of forest afforestation plans, from the middle of 20th century, changed substantially the regional features. The sporadic presence of beech pollen is detected until 16th century, which implies the most western location in the Iberian Central Mountain System.Research highlights. The integration of pollen analysis and historical data is an essential tool when studying the changes in Holocene vegetation. These changes have been mainly driven by anthropogenic disturbances, more specifically by fire and livestock husbandry.Key Words: Anthropogenic dynamics; Central Mountain System; microcharcoals; non-pollen palynomorphs.  

  1. An ultraluminous quasar with a twelve-billion-solar-mass black hole at redshift 6.30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Wang, Feige; Fan, Xiaohui; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Thompson, David; Beletsky, Yuri

    2015-02-26

    So far, roughly 40 quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 have been discovered. Each quasar contains a black hole with a mass of about one billion solar masses (10(9) M Sun symbol). The existence of such black holes when the Universe was less than one billion years old presents substantial challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the coevolution of black holes and galaxies. Here we report the discovery of an ultraluminous quasar, SDSS J010013.02+280225.8, at redshift z = 6.30. It has an optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z > 6 quasars. On the basis of the deep absorption trough on the blue side of the Lyman-α emission line in the spectrum, we estimate the proper size of the ionized proximity zone associated with the quasar to be about 26 million light years, larger than found with other z > 6.1 quasars with lower luminosities. We estimate (on the basis of a near-infrared spectrum) that the black hole has a mass of ∼1.2 × 10(10) M Sun symbol, which is consistent with the 1.3 × 10(10) M Sun symbol derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion rate.

  2. A 40-Year History of End-of-Life Offerings in US Medical Schools: 1975-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, George E

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study of US medical schools over a 40-year period was to ascertain their offerings on end-of-life (EOL) issues. At 5-year intervals, beginning in 1975, US medical schools were surveyed via a questionnaire to determine their EOL offerings. Data were reported with frequency distributions. The Institute of Medicine has encouraged more emphasis on EOL issues over the past 2 decades. Findings revealed that undergraduate medical students in the United States are now exposed to death and dying, palliative care, and geriatric medicine. The inclusion of EOL topics has definitely expanded over the 40-year period as findings reveal that US undergraduate medical students are currently exposed in over 90% of programs to death and dying, palliative care, and geriatric medicine, with the emphasis on these topics varying with the medical programs. Such inclusion should produce future favorable outcomes for undergraduate medical students, patients, and their families.

  3. Effects of yearling sale purchase price, exercise history, lameness, and athletic performance on purchase price of Thoroughbreds at 2-year-old in-training sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephanie A; Brown, Murray P; Chmielewski, Terese L; Trumble, Troy N; Zimmel, Dana N; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2012-12-01

    To determine the effects of yearling sale purchase price, exercise history, lameness, and athletic performance (speed) on purchase price of 2-year-old in-training Thoroughbreds and to compare the distance exercised within 60 days prior to 2-year-old in-training sales between horses with high yearling sale purchase prices versus those with low yearling sale purchase prices and between horses with lameness during training and those without lameness during training. Prospective study. 51 Thoroughbreds. Thoroughbreds purchased at a yearling sale were trained prior to resale at 2-year-old in-training sales. Amount of exercise and lameness status during training and speed of horses at 2-year-old in-training sales were determined. Data were analyzed via the Wilcoxon rank sum test and ANOVA. Median purchase price of horses at 2-year-old in-training sales was $37,000. The 2-year-old in-training sale purchase price was associated with yearling sale purchase price and distance galloped within 60 days prior to and speed recorded at 2-year-old in-training sales. Horses with high yearling sale purchase prices typically had high 2-year-old in-training sale purchase prices, had low distances galloped within 60 days prior to 2-year-old in-training sales, and were classified as fast at 2-year-old in-training sales. Lameness alone was not associated with 2-year-old in-training sales purchase price. However, lameness was associated with a low distance galloped before 2-year-old in-training sales, particularly for horses with a high yearling sale purchase price; this finding suggested that yearling sale purchase price can affect training management decisions for horses with lameness.

  4. A 28,000 year history of vegetation and climate from Lower Red Rock Lake, Centennial Valley, Southwestern Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Stephanie Ann; Whitlock, Cathy; Pierce, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    A sediment core extending to 28,000 cal yr BP from Lower Red Rock Lake in the Centennial Valley of southwestern Montana provides new information on the nature of full-glacial vegetation as well as a history of late-glacial and Holocene vegetation and climate in a poorly studied region. Prior to 17,000 cal yr BP, the eastern Centennial Valley was occupied by a large lake (Pleistocene Lake Centennial), and valley glaciers were present in adjacent mountain ranges. The lake lowered upon erosion of a newly formed western outlet in late-glacial time. High pollen percentages of Juniperus, Poaceae, Asteraceae, and other herbs as well as low pollen accumulation rates suggest sparse vegetation cover. Inferred cold dry conditions are consistent with a strengthened glacial anticyclone at this time. Between 17,000 and 10,500 cal yr BP, high Picea and Abies pollen percentages suggest a shift to subalpine parkland and warmer conditions than before. This is attributed to the northward shift of the jet stream and increasing summer insolation. From 10,500 to 7100 cal yr BP, pollen evidence of open dry forests suggests warm conditions, which were likely a response to increased summer insolation and a strengthened Pacific subtropical high-pressure system. From 7100 to 2400 cal yr BP, cooler moister conditions promoted closed forest and wetlands. Increases in Picea and Abies pollen percentages after 2400 cal yr BP suggest increasing effective moisture. The postglacial pattern of Pseudotsuga expansion indicates that it arrived later on the Atlantic side of the Continental Divide than on the Pacific side. The Divide may have been a physical barrier for refugial populations or it delimited different climate regions that influenced the timing of Pseudotsuga expansion.

  5. A ∼180,000 years sedimentation history of a perialpine overdeepened glacial trough (Wehntal, N-Switzerland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmetti, F. S.; Drescher-Schneider, R.; Furrer, H.; Graf, H. R.; Lowick, S. E.; Preusser, F.; Riedi, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    A 30 m-deep drill core from a glacially overdeepened trough in Northern Switzerland recovered a ∼ 180 ka old sedimentary succession that provides new insights into the timing and nature of erosion-sedimentation processes in the Swiss lowlands. The luminescence-dated stratigraphic succession starts at the bottom of the core with laminated carbonate-rich lake sediments reflecting deposition in a proglacial lake between ∼ 180 and 130 ka ago (Marine Isotope Stage MIS 6). Anomalies in geotechnical properties and the occurrence of deformation structures suggest temporary ice contact around 140 ka. Up-core, organic content increases in the lake deposits indicating a warming of climate. These sediments are overlain by a peat deposit characterised by pollen assemblages typical of the late Eemian (MIS 5e). An abrupt transition following this interglacial encompasses a likely hiatus and probably marks a sudden lowering of the water level. The peat unit is overlain by deposits of a cold unproductive lake dated to late MIS 5 and MIS 4, which do not show any direct influence from glaciers. An upper peat unit, the so-called M ammoth peat , previously encountered in construction pits, interrupts this cold lacustrine phase and marks more temperate climatic conditions between 60 and 45 ka (MIS 3). In the upper part of the core, a succession of fluvial and alluvial deposits documents the Late Glacial and Holocene sedimentation in the basin. The sedimentary succession at Wehntal confirms that the glaciation during MIS 6 did not apparently cause the overdeepening of the valley, as the lacustrine basin fill covering most of MIS 6 is still preserved. Consequently, erosion of the basin is most likely linked to an older glaciation. This study shows that new dating techniques combined with paleoenvironmental interpretations of sediments from such overdeepened troughs provide valuable insights into the past glacial history. (authors)

  6. A {approx}180,000 years sedimentation history of a perialpine overdeepened glacial trough (Wehntal, N-Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmetti, F. S. [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Drescher-Schneider, R. [Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften, Karl-Fanzen-Universitaet Graz, Graz (Austria); Furrer, H. [Palaeontologisches Institut und Museum, Universitaet Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Graf, H. R. [Matousek, Baumann und Niggli AG, Baden (Switzerland); Lowick, S. E.; Preusser, F. [Institut fuer Geologie, Universitaet Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Riedi, M. A. [Marc A. Riedi, Susenbuehlstrasse 41, Chur (Switzerland)

    2010-11-15

    A 30 m-deep drill core from a glacially overdeepened trough in Northern Switzerland recovered a {approx} 180 ka old sedimentary succession that provides new insights into the timing and nature of erosion-sedimentation processes in the Swiss lowlands. The luminescence-dated stratigraphic succession starts at the bottom of the core with laminated carbonate-rich lake sediments reflecting deposition in a proglacial lake between {approx} 180 and 130 ka ago (Marine Isotope Stage MIS 6). Anomalies in geotechnical properties and the occurrence of deformation structures suggest temporary ice contact around 140 ka. Up-core, organic content increases in the lake deposits indicating a warming of climate. These sediments are overlain by a peat deposit characterised by pollen assemblages typical of the late Eemian (MIS 5e). An abrupt transition following this interglacial encompasses a likely hiatus and probably marks a sudden lowering of the water level. The peat unit is overlain by deposits of a cold unproductive lake dated to late MIS 5 and MIS 4, which do not show any direct influence from glaciers. An upper peat unit, the so-called {sup M}ammoth peat{sup ,} previously encountered in construction pits, interrupts this cold lacustrine phase and marks more temperate climatic conditions between 60 and 45 ka (MIS 3). In the upper part of the core, a succession of fluvial and alluvial deposits documents the Late Glacial and Holocene sedimentation in the basin. The sedimentary succession at Wehntal confirms that the glaciation during MIS 6 did not apparently cause the overdeepening of the valley, as the lacustrine basin fill covering most of MIS 6 is still preserved. Consequently, erosion of the basin is most likely linked to an older glaciation. This study shows that new dating techniques combined with paleoenvironmental interpretations of sediments from such overdeepened troughs provide valuable insights into the past glacial history. (authors)

  7. Lifestyle and health status in a sample of Swedish women four years after pregnancy: a comparison of women with a history of normal pregnancy and women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Margareta; Winkvist, Anna; Mogren, Ingrid

    2015-03-13

    Despite the recommendations to continue the regime of healthy food and physical activity (PA) postpartum for women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), the scientific evidence reveals that these recommendations may not be complied to. This study compared lifestyle and health status in women whose pregnancy was complicated by GDM with women who had a normal pregnancy and delivery. The inclusion criteria were women with GDM (ICD-10: O24.4 A and O24.4B) and women with uncomplicated pregnancy and delivery in 2005 (ICD-10: O80.0). A random sample of women fulfilling the criteria (n = 882) were identified from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. A questionnaire was sent by mail to eligible women approximately four years after the pregnancy. A total of 444 women (50.8%) agreed to participate, 111 diagnosed with GDM in their pregnancy and 333 with normal pregnancy/delivery. Women with previous GDM were significantly older, reported higher body weight and less PA before the index pregnancy. No major differences between the groups were noticed regarding lifestyle at the follow-up. Overall, few participants fulfilled the national recommendations of PA and diet. At the follow-up, 19 participants had developed diabetes, all with previous GDM. Women with previous GDM reported significantly poorer self-rated health (SRH), higher level of sick-leave and more often using medication on regular basis. However, a history of GDM or having overt diabetes mellitus showed no association with poorer SRH in the multivariate analysis. Irregular eating habits, no regular PA, overweight/obesity, and regular use of medication were associated with poorer SRH in all participants. Suboptimal levels of PA, and fruit and vegetable consumption were found in a sample of women with a history of GDM as well as for women with normal pregnancy approximately four years after index pregnancy. Women with previous GDM seem to increase their PA after childbirth, but still they perform their PA at

  8. The thousand-year history of the Slovak Karst inferred from pollen in bat guano inside the Domica Cave (Slovakia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svitavská-Svobodová, Helena; Andreas, M.; Krištůfek, Václav; Beneš, J.; Novák, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2015), s. 49-61 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : bat * pollen * guano Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; EF - Botanics (BC-A) Impact factor: 1.433, year: 2015

  9. A Brief History of International Latin American Student Fraternities: A Movement That Lasted 86 Years (1889-1975)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    An international Latin American student fraternity movement preceded the current Latino Greeks that are seen on college campuses today. This document provides new information that has not been published. The movement lasted 86 years and primarily served wealthy international Latin American students who came to the United States to study and, once…

  10. The rise and fall of traditional forest management in southern Moravia: A history of the past 700 years

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müllerová, Jana; Szabó, Péter; Hédl, Radim

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 331, Nov 1 (2014), s. 104-115 ISSN 0378-1127 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : archival sources * coppicing * GIS Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.660, year: 2014

  11. Restricted Consonant Inventories of 2-Year-Old Finnish Children with a History of Recurrent Acute Otitis Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, Sini; Niemitalo-Haapola, Elina; Raappana, Antti; Kujala, Tiia; Kujala, Teija; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira

    2015-01-01

    Many children experience recurrent acute otitis media (RAOM) in early childhood. In a previous study, 2-year-old children with RAOM were shown to have immature neural patterns for speech sound discrimination. The present study further investigated the consonant inventories of these same children using natural speech samples. The results showed…

  12. THE CHALLENGES OF INSTITUTIONALIZATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF HISTORY-CRITICAL PEDAGOGY IN EARLY YEARS OF BASIC EDUCATION ITAIPULÂNDIA-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Sidinei Balzan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is situated within the history of education and its purpose is to investigate the challenges of institutionalization of historical-critical pedagogy (PHC at the early elementary school years in municipal network Itaipulândia-PR. In it, we try to analyze briefly articulated with the proposals and actions carried out over several years, especially in 2010 itaipulandiense educational trajectory. These achievements currently make up the municipal public education policy that includes training programs that articulate with better working conditions, teaching and learning. Based on documents and literature review, discuss and seek to understand how the teachers of this county propositions developed from the study of the major challenges that the historical-critical pedagogy faces in Brazilian education, using experiences, educational programs and projects of State Governments and federal. In addressing the specific conditions that focus on education, the school and the organization of the teaching work through the analysis of its historical and educational history, we intend to analyze the process of institutionalization and implementation of this pedagogical trend in the early years of basic education in the municipality of Itaipulândia.

  13. Electron capture detection of sulphur gases in carbon dioxide at the parts-per-billion level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pick, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    A gas chromatograph with an electron capture detector has been used to determine sulphur gases in CO 2 at the parts-per-billion level, with particular application to the analysis of coolant from CO 2 cooled nuclear reactors. For COS, CS 2 , CH 3 SH, H 2 S and (CH 3 ) 2 S 2 the detector has a sensitivity comparable with the more commonly used flame photometric detector, but it is much less sensitive towards (CH 3 ) 2 S and thiophene. In addition, the paper describes a simple method for trapping sulphur gases which might enable detection of sub parts-per-billion levels of sulphur compounds. (Auth.)

  14. The History of Neurosurgery at the National Hospital, Queen Square, London, with Some Personal Recollections from 1948 Onwards: The Early Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Michael P

    2017-07-01

    The National Hospital, Queen Square, London was founded as a charitable institution in 1860, becoming the first dedicated neuroscience hospital in the world. Sir Victor Horsley, the first neurosurgeon was appointed in 1886, and since that time, Queen Square neurosurgeons have been prominent on the World neurosurgical stage, including Sir Wylie McKissock and Prof Lindsay Symon, inter alia. This article gives the history taken from both published records and personal stories, recorded by a neurosurgeon who has worked at the hospital for thirty five years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of precious metals at parts-per-billion levels in industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tickner, James; O'Dwyer, Joel; Roach, Greg; Smith, Michael; Van Haarlem, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Precious metals, including gold and the platinum group metals (notable Pt, Pd and Rh), are mined commercially at concentrations of a few parts-per-million and below. Mining and processing operations demand sensitive and rapid analysis at concentrations down to about 100 parts-per-billion (ppb). In this paper, we discuss two technologies being developed to meet this challenge: X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and gamma-activation analysis (GAA). We have designed on-stream XRF analysers capable of measuring targeted elements in slurries with precisions in the 35–70 ppb range. For the past two years, two on-stream analysers have been in continuous operation at a precious metals concentrator plant. The simultaneous measurement of feed and waste stream grades provides real-time information on metal recovery, allowing changes in operating conditions and plant upsets to be detected and corrected more rapidly. Separately, we have been developing GAA for the measurement of gold as a replacement for the traditional laboratory fire-assay process. High-energy Bremsstrahlung X-rays are used to excite gold via the 197 Au(γ,γ′) 197 Au-M reaction, and the gamma-rays released in the decay of the meta-state are then counted. We report on work to significantly improve accuracy and detection limits. - Highlights: • X-ray fluorescence analysis at sub-parts-per-million concentration in bulk materials. • Gamma activation analysis of gold at high accuracy and low concentrations. • Use of advanced Monte Carlo techniques to optimise radiation-based analysers. • Industrial application of XRF and GAA technologies for minerals processing.

  16. 100 years from the invention of X-rays. From the history of the radiology in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutarna, A.

    1996-01-01

    The survey of the development of radiology after the First World War (after disintegration of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy) as well as after the Second World War in Slovakia is given. Attention is dedicated to the development of radiodiagnostic and radiotherapeutic methods in Slovakia, as well as to personal occupation of the heads of radiologic clinics. In the last decade radiologic working-places and the departments are equipped with modern and efficient techniques. While in the year 1962 a number of the radiologists was about 90 doctors, in the year 1995 a number more than 360 doctors was registered from which are 80 doctors of radiotherapy. A number of radiologic assistants is about 1200. In Slovak hospitals are about 370 departments of radiology and more than 300 radiodiagnostic working-places and 12 departments of radiotherapy. 29 refs

  17. The Russian Orthodox and Catholic Church in 1980 – the 1990th Years: to History of Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa A. Koroleva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In article relationship of Russian Orthodox Church and Catholic in 1980 – the 1990th years is considered. Dialogue development between them had not only internal political, but also foreign policy value. One of the most painful questions in relationship of Russian Orthodox Church and the question of the uniatsky church earlier existing in the territory of Ukraine and Belarus and restored in the second half of the 1980th years was Catholic. Divergences in a number of theological questions remained. In particular, it belonged to the doctrine confirmed with the Second Vatican Cathedral about Papal infallibility and a primacy of the Roman High priest. Peacekeeping activity was that sphere where the Russian Orthodox and Catholic churches most successfully cooperated though rivalry was present and here.

  18. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of biophysicist Robert Edmund Rowland, Ph.D., January 27, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This report provides a transcript of an oral interview with Dr. Robert Edmund Rowland by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Research on January 27, 1995. Dr. Rowland was involved with the study of radium in the human body since 1950 and relates his knowledge of over 40 years of study of radium in the human body including dial painters, inmates of Elgin State Hospital, and other treated therapeutically with radium

  19. An Analysis of the History of Taiwanese Character and Moral Education (1949-2014 and Its Implications for the 12-Year Basic Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hua Fang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to analyze the history of character and moral education (CME during the past 65 years in Taiwan to form a complete image of CME and provide suggestions for the formulation and implementation of the 12-Year Basic Education Curriculum Guidelines. Concretely, the researchers reviewed the documents and literature of CME and divided the history from 1949 to 2014 into three phases - the Martial Law Phase, the Post-Martial Law Phase, and the 9-Year Curriculum Phase. During the Martial Law Phase, although CME was taught as a stand-alone subject, it played a role in transmitting political ideology. During the Post-Martial Law Phase, the goal was to implement a student-centered curriculum, but the period was too short to achieve total transformation. During the 9-Year Curriculum Phase, CME was omitted from the Curriculum Guidelines and replaced by the ‘Character and Moral Education Improving Project’ proclaimed by the Ministry of Education. As a result, CME was passively infused into the curriculum during this phase. Finally, the researchers proposed several suggestions as follows: The centrality of CME should be emphasized in the National Curriculum Guidelines to correspond to the public’s expectations and current international trends. Concrete contents of CME should be actively incorporated into the Curriculum Guidelines of each learning area in order to ensure effective integration and applicable transformation. Also, CME should be fully implemented in the 12-Year Basic Education Plan and include values of social justice and multiple developmental strategies.

  20. 100 years of Drosophila research and its impact on vertebrate neuroscience: a history lesson for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellen, Hugo J; Tong, Chao; Tsuda, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Discoveries in fruit flies have greatly contributed to our understanding of neuroscience. The use of an unparalleled wealth of tools, many of which originated between 1910–1960, has enabled milestone discoveries in nervous system development and function. Such findings have triggered and guided many research efforts in vertebrate neuroscience. After 100 years, fruit flies continue to be the choice model system for many neuroscientists. The combinational use of powerful research tools will ensure that this model organism will continue to lead to key discoveries that will impact vertebrate neuroscience.

  1. Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics: building on the 20-year history of a BCS Health peer review journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon de Lusignan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available After 20-years as Informatics in Primary Care the journal is renamed Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics. The title was carefully selected to reflect that:(1 informatics provides the opportunity to innovate rather than simply automates;(2 implementing informatics solutions often results in unintended consequences, and many implementations fail and benefits and innovations may go unrecognised;(3 health informatics is a boundary spanning discipline and is by its very nature likely to give rise to innovation.Informatics is an innovative science, and informaticians need to innovate across professional and discipline boundaries.

  2. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group--DBCG: History, organization, and status of scientific achievements at 30-year anniversary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichert-Toft, M.; Christiansen, Peter; Mouridsen, H.T.

    2008-01-01

    treatment programmes including in situ lesions and primary invasive breast cancer. Probands are subdivided into risk groups based on a given risk pattern and allocated to various treatment programmes accordingly. The scientific initiatives are conducted in the form of register- and cohort analysis...... on a risk scale. The main achievements resulted in a reduction of relative risk of death amounting up to 20% and increased 5-year overall survival ascending from 60% to roughly 80%. This article is partly based on a Danish paper to be published in the Centenary Jubilee book of the Danish Surgical Society...

  3. Sixty thousand years of magmatic volatile history before the caldera-forming eruption of Mount Mazama, Crater Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heather M.; Bacon, Charles R.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Sisson, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The well-documented eruptive history of Mount Mazama, Oregon, provides an excellent opportunity to use pre-eruptive volatile concentrations to study the growth of an explosive silicic magmatic system. Melt inclusions (MI) hosted in pyroxene and plagioclase crystals from eight dacitic–rhyodacitic eruptive deposits (71–7.7 ka) were analyzed to determine variations in volatile-element concentrations and changes in magma storage conditions leading up to and including the climactic eruption of Crater Lake caldera. Temperatures (Fe–Ti oxides) increased through the series of dacites, then decreased, and increased again through the rhyodacites (918–968 to ~950 to 845–895 °C). Oxygen fugacity began at nickel–nickel-oxide buffer (NNO) +0.8 (71 ka), dropped slightly to NNO +0.3, and then climbed to its highest value with the climactic eruption (7.7 ka) at NNO +1.1 log units. In parallel with oxidation state, maximum MI sulfur concentrations were high early in the eruptive sequence (~500 ppm), decreased (to ~200 ppm), and then increased again with the climactic eruption (~500 ppm). Maximum MI sulfur correlates with the Sr content (as a proxy for LREE, Ba, Rb, P2O5) of recharge magmas, represented by basaltic andesitic to andesitic enclaves and similar-aged lavas. These results suggest that oxidized Sr-rich recharge magmas dominated early and late in the development of the pre-climactic dacite–rhyodacite system. Dissolved H2O concentrations in MI do not, however, correlate with these changes in dominant recharge magma, instead recording vapor solubility relations in the developing shallow magma storage and conduit region. Dissolved H2O concentrations form two populations through time: the first at 3–4.6 wt% (with a few extreme values up to 6.1 wt%) and the second at ≤2.4 wt%. CO2 concentrations measured in a subset of these inclusions reach up to 240 ppm in early-erupted deposits (71 ka) and are below detection in climactic deposits (7.7 ka). Combined H2O and

  4. Natural History of Parkinson's Disease in the Province of Segovia: Disability in a 20 Years Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jacinto; García Olmos, Luis Miguel; Mendoza, Amelia; Martínez Pueyo, Ángel; Clavería, Luis Erik

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease mainly affects the elderly population causing a progressive functional disability with motor, psychic, and cognitive deterioration. This study was carried out to evaluate disability caused by Parkinson's disease by analyzing the median time to reach Hoehn and Yahr stage III and to investigate predictor variables based on a 20-year longitudinal follow-up study. We examined 273 patients with Parkinson's disease recruited between 1978 and 1998. We performed a survival analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method to determine the time to disability and we used a Cox regression model to adjust prognosis factors. The median time to reach Hoehn and Yahr stage III was 7.73 years (95% CI: 5.95-8.05). Independent predictors of disability were: age at onset, the hazard ratio (HR) = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.08-1.12; UPDRS II (activities of daily living) HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03-1.14; and akinesia and rigidity at onset HR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.07-2.24. Patients with Parkinson's disease evolve gradually toward disability, and prognostic factors of this evolution were identified. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Natural history and management of Fanconi anemia patients with head and neck cancer: A 10-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutler, David I; Patel, Krupa R; Auerbach, Arleen D; Kennedy, Jennifer; Lach, Francis P; Sanborn, Erica; Cohen, Marc A; Kuhel, William I; Smogorzewska, Agata

    2016-04-01

    To describe the management and outcomes of Fanconi anemia (FA) patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cohort study. Demographic information, prognostic factors, therapeutic management, and survival outcomes for FA patients enrolled in the International Fanconi Anemia Registry who developed head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) were analyzed. Thirty-five FA patients were diagnosed with HNSCC at a mean age of 32 years. The most common site of primary cancer was the oral cavity (26 of 35, 74%). Thirty patients underwent surgical resection of the cancer. Sixteen patients received radiation therapy with an average radiation dose of 5,050 cGy. The most common toxicities were high-grade mucositis (9 of 16, 56%), hematologic abnormalities (8 of 16, 50%), and dysphagia (8 of 16, 50%). Three patients received conventional chemotherapy and had significant complications, whereas three patients who received targeted chemotherapy with cetuximab had fewer toxicities. The 5-year overall survival rate was 39%, with a cause-specific survival rate of 47%. Fanconi anemia patients have a high risk of developing aggressive HNSCC at an early age. Fanconi anemia patients can tolerate complex ablative and reconstructive surgeries, but careful postoperative care is required to reduce morbidity. The treatment of FA-associated HNSCC is difficult secondary to the poor tolerance of radiation and chemotherapy. However, radiation should be used for high-risk cancers due to the poor survival in these patients. 4. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Community access networks: how to connect the next billion to the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community access networks: how to connect the next billion to the Internet ... services is a prerequisite to sustainable socio-economic development. ... It will provide case studies and formulate recommendations with respect to ... An IDRC delegation will join international delegates and city representatives at the ICLEI World ...

  7. Guangdong Aluminum to Raise RMB 3 billion for New Production Base in Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>On July 7, a loan signing ceremony was held between the Guangdong Aluminum Group, China Construction Bank, Hua Xia Bank and Guangzhou Bank Consortium. It is reported that these banks will provide Guangdong Aluminum Group with RMB 30 billion for an alu-minum oxide and supporting bauxite mining project in Guizhou.

  8. Anhui Tongling Invests 1 Billion Yuan to Set up “Copper Industry Fund”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>On September 12, the signing ceremony for "Anhui Copper Industry Fund" set up by Anhui Tongling Development & Investment Group Co., Ltd. and Shanghai V. Stone Investment Management Co., Ltd. was held in Tongling. The fund is 1 billion yuan.

  9. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-07-06

    This product builds on previous efforts, namely the 2005 Billion-Ton Study (BTS) and the 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update (BT2).With each report, greater perspective is gained on the potential of biomass resources to contribute to a national energy strategy. Similarly, each successive report introduces new questions regarding commercialization challenges. BTS quantified the broad biophysical potential of biomass nationally, and BT2 elucidated the potential economic availability of these resources. These reports clearly established the potential availability of up to one billion tons of biomass resources nationally. However, many questions remain, including but not limited to crop yields, climate change impacts, logistical operations, and systems integration across production, harvest, and conversion. The present report aims to address many of these questions through empirically modeled energy crop yields, scenario analysis of resources delivered to biorefineries, and the addition of new feedstocks. Volume 2 of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report is expected to be released by the end of 2016. It seeks to evaluate environmental sustainability indicators of select scenarios from volume 1 and potential climate change impacts on future supplies.

  10. A 58-Year-Old Woman with Left-Sided Weakness and a History of a Pediatric Brain Tumor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaakir Hasan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: An uncommon but well-established complication of cranial irradiation is secondary neoplasm. This case presentation documents a radiation-induced malignant glioma 55 years after being diagnosed with “cerebral sarcoma,” now defined as atypical meningioma. This not only represents the longest reported latency period for a patient initially receiving over 30 Gy, but also provides a valuable historical perspective of neuro-oncology. Clinical Presentation: A 58-year-old female presenting with progressive left-sided upper and lower extremity weakness with a past medical history significant for “cerebral sarcoma” was diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme. This patient had previously been treated with resection and adjuvant radiation therapy via a 280-kVP orthovoltage machine and received 3,390 rad to the posterior three-quarters of the skull for “cerebral sarcoma.” Conclusion: A comprehensive investigation of the past medical history helped uncover a mysterious pediatric diagnosis, helped drive the management 5 decades later, and serves as a reminder that seemingly safe interventions may still cause harm.

  11. Long term (>1 year) postpartum glucose tolerance status among Indian women with history of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) diagnosed by IADPSG criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Alpesh; Gupta, Yashdeep; Kalaivani, Mani; Sankar, M Jeeva; Kachhawa, Garima; Bhatla, Neerja; Gupta, Nandita; Tandon, Nikhil

    2018-05-24

    To determine prevalence of long term dysglycemia and its risk factors among women with history of GDM diagnosed using IADPSG criteria at a tertiary care hospital in North India. Women with GDM diagnosed between 2012 and 2016 were invited. Socio-demographic, anthropometric, medical data were collected and 75 gm OGTT with serum insulin estimation, HbA1c and fasting lipid profile were done at the hospital visit. Women (N = 267) were tested at 32.5 (±4.6) years of age and at a median (q 25- q 75 ) of 20 (12-44) months following the index delivery. Dysglycemia was found in 57.7% by ADA criteria [Diabetes in 10.5% and prediabetes in 47.2%]. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease were significantly more prevalent among these women. On multivariable analysis, HOMA-IR correlated positively, while insulinogenic index correlated negatively with postpartum dysglycemia. This is possibly the first long term (>1 year) glucose tolerance outcome study in South Asian women with history of GDM diagnosed by IADPSG criteria, which demonstrates significantly elevated risk of postpartum dysglycemia. While the IADPSG criteria identify women with a lower future conversion to diabetes compared with previous criteria, prediabetes conversion remains high, thereby offering an opportunity to intervene early and prevent progression to future diabetes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical and diagnosis characteristics of breast cancers in women with a history of radiotherapy in the first 30years of life: A French multicentre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoor-Goldschmidt, C; Supiot, S; Oberlin, O; Helfre, S; Vigneron, C; Brillaud-Meflah, V; Bernier, V; Laprie, A; Ducassou, A; Claude, L; Mahé, M A; de Vathaire, F

    2017-08-01

    Irradiation (>3Gy) to the breast or axillae before 30years of age increases the risk of secondary breast cancer (SBC). The purpose of this article is to describe the clinical characteristics of SBC and the way of diagnosis in young women (before the age of national screening) in France who had received previous radiotherapy for a childhood or a young adulthood cancer. This retrospective, multicentre study reviewed the medical records of women with SBC before the age of the national screening who had received irradiation (≥3Gy) on part or all of the breast before 30years of age, for any type of tumour except BC. A total of 121 SBC were detected in 104 women with previous radiotherapy. Twenty percent of SBC were detected during regular breast screening and 16% of the women had a regular radiological follow-up. Our results points out that the main proportion of childhood cancer survivors did not benefit from the recommended breast cancer screening. This result is comparable to other previously published studies in other countries. A national screening programme is necessary and should take into account the patient's age, family history, personal medical history and previous radiotherapy to reduce the number of SBC diagnosed at an advanced stage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Detailed history of atmospheric trace elements from the Quelccaya ice core (Southern Peru) during the last 1200 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglietti, C.; Gabrielli, P.; Thompson, L. G.

    2013-12-01

    The recent increase in trace element concentrations, for example Cr, Cu, Zn, Ag, Pb, Bi, and U, in polar snow and ice has provided compelling evidence of a hemispheric change in atmospheric composition since the nineteenth century. This change has been concomitant with the expansion of the Industrial Revolution and points towards an anthropogenic source of trace elements in the atmosphere. There are very few low latitude trace element ice core records and these are believed to be sensitive to perturbations of regional significance. To date, these records have not been used to document a preindustrial anthropogenic impact on atmospheric composition at low latitudes. Ice cores retrieved from the tropical Andes are particularly interesting because they have the potential to reveal detailed information about the evolution and environmental consequences of mineral exploitation related to the Pre Inca Civilizations, the Inca Empire (1438-1533 AD) and the subsequent Spanish invasion and dominance (1532-1833 AD). The chemical record preserved in the ice of the Quelccaya ice cap (southern Peruvian Andes) offers the exceptional opportunity to geochemically constrain the composition of the tropical atmosphere at high resolution over the last ~1200 years. Quantification of twenty trace elements (Ag, Al, As, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sn, Ti, Tl, U, V, and Zn) was performed by ICP-SFMS over 105 m of the Quelccaya North Dome core (5600 m asl, 128.57 m) by analyzing 2450 samples. This provides the first atmospheric trace element record in South America spanning continuously and at high resolution for the time period between 1990 and 790 AD. Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, Sb, Sn, Pb and Zn show increases in concentration and crustal enrichment factor starting at different times between 1450 and 1550 AD, in concomitance with the expansions of the Inca Empire and, subsequently, the Spanish Empire well before the inception of the Industrial Revolution. This

  14. Cosmo-geo-anthropo-logical history and political and deep future events in climate and life evolution conveyed by a physical/virtual installation at a scale of 1 mm per 100 years across Denmark during the COP15 climate summit meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm Jacobsen, Bo

    2010-05-01

    During the COP15 climate summit meeting a physical and virtual installation of time was performed at a linear scale of 1 mm per 100 years. The "track of time" was carefully anchored geographically so that highlights in time history coincided with landmarks of historical and cultural significance to both tourists and the local Danish population; with Big Bang at the site of early royal settlements from the Viking age (13.7 billion years ~ 137 km from now), Earth origin at Kronborg in Elsinore (4.6 bil. Years ~ 46 km), and fish go on land at The Little Mermaid (390 mil. Years ~ 3900 m). The venue of the COP15 meeting coincided with the position of severe global warming, driven by the steady solar constant increase, to be expected 600 million years into the future. Nested in this grand track of time were the Quaternary ice-ages (2.6 mil. years ~ 26 m), human origin as species (100,000 years ~ 1 m), human history (graphs of temperature, CO2 and sealevel development and scenarios were prepared to scale for the period 4000 BP to 1000 years into the future. Along the time line from "Fish on land" to the present 3900 chalk marks were placed on the street surface, one for every metre = time span of Man as a species so far. A "NowGate" marking the present was implemented physically as a door frame, where citizens could meet and discuss time and political and technological milestones in climate/biodiversity remediation and energy system developments. Meanwhile, children and young of mind tested who could take the longest jump into the future. This case study in teaching of scientific time confirmed that 1 mm per 100 years is an adequate linear scale when conveying a joint comprehension of even the longest scientific time scales together with time scales of personal/ethical/political choice. Virtual media of the installation are available for download at www.1mmper100y.dk.

  15. Coral Bleaching Susceptibility Is Decreased following Short-Term (1–3 Year Prior Temperature Exposure and Evolutionary History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Haslun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coral exposed to short periods of temperature stress (≥1.0°C above mean monthly maximum and/or increased frequencies of high temperatures may bolster resilience to global warming associated with climate change. We compared Montastraea cavernosa (Linnaeus, 1767; Cnidaria, Scleractinia, Faviidae from the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS and the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS. Thermal stress has been reported frequently within the FKNMS; however, corals in the FGBNMS experience nominal exposures to similar stressors. Corals were exposed to three temperatures (27°C, 31°C, and 35°C for 72 h. Colonies from the FKNMS lost significantly fewer viable and necrotic zooxanthellae under conditions of acute stress (35°C than the FGBNMS colonies. This indicates that the FKNMS corals are less temperature-sensitive than those in the FGBNMS. The observed differences point to greater prior temperature exposure and adaptation in the former versus the latter site when correlated to previous years of thermal exposure.

  16. Exploring the Role of Humans and Climate over the Balkan Landscape: 500 Years of Vegetational History of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Charuta; Peteet, Dorothy; Boger, Rebecca; Heusser, Linda

    2016-01-01

    We present the first, well-dated, high-resolution record of vegetation and landscape change from Serbia, which spans the past 500 years. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis through X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS C-14 dating from a western Serbian sinkhole core suggest complex woodland-grassland dynamics and strong erosional signals throughout the Little Ice Age (LIA). An open landscape with prominent steppe vegetation (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae) and minor woodland exists during 1540-1720 CE (early LIA), while the late LIA (1720-1850 CE) in this record shows higher tree percentages possibly due to increased moisture availability. The post LIA Era (1850-2012 CE) brings a disturbed type of vegetation with the presence of weedy genera and an increase in regional woodland. Anthropogenic indicators for agricultural, pastoral and fire practices in the region together attest to the dominant role of humans in shaping this Balkan landscape throughout the interval. The changing nature of human interference, potentially as a response to underlying climatic transitions, is evident through large-scale soil depletion resulting from grazing and land clearance during the early LIA and stabilization of arable lands during the late and post-LIA eras.

  17. Surgical intervention for paediatric liver injuries is almost history - a 12-year cohort from a major Scandinavian trauma centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Tomohide; Skattum, Jorunn; Engelsen, Peder; Eken, Torsten; Gaarder, Christine; Naess, Pål Aksel

    2016-11-29

    Although nonoperative management (NOM) has become standard care, optimal treatment of liver injuries in children is still challenging since many of these patients have multiple injuries. Moreover, the role of angiography remains poorly defined, and a high index of suspicion of complications is warranted. This study reviews treatment and outcomes in children with liver injuries at a major Scandinavian trauma centre over a 12-year period. Patients trauma registry and medical records. A total of 66 children were included. The majority was severely injured as reflected by a median injury severity score of 20.5 (mean 22.2). NOM was attempted in 60 (90.9%) patients and was successful in 57, resulting in a NOM success rate of 95.0% [95% CI 89.3 to 100]. Only one of the three NOM failures was liver related, occurred in the early part of the study period, and consisted in operative placement of drains for bile leak. Two (3.0%) patients underwent angiographic embolization (AE). Complications occurred in 18 (27.3% [95 % CI 16.2 to 38.3]) patients. Only 2 (3.0%) patients had liver related complications, in both cases bile leak. Six (9.1%) patients underwent therapeutic laparotomy for non-liver related injuries. Two (3.0%) patients died secondary to traumatic brain injury. This single institution paediatric liver injury cohort confirms high attempted NOM and NOM success rates even in patients with high grade injuries and multiple accompanying injuries. AE can be a useful NOM adjunct in the treatment of paediatric liver injuries, but is seldom indicated. Moreover, bile leak is the most common liver-related complication and the need for liver-related surgery is very infrequent. NOM is the treatment of choice in almost all liver injuries in children, with operative management and interventional radiology very infrequently indicated.

  18. History of labour market attachment as a determinant of health status: a 12-year follow-up of the Northern Swedish Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waenerlund, Anna-Karin; Gustafsson, Per E; Hammarström, Anne; Virtanen, Pekka

    2014-02-14

    The present study aims at using trajectory analysis to measure labour market attachment (LMA) over 12 years and at examining whether labour market tracks relate to perceived health status. Data were retrieved from a 26-year prospective cohort study, the Northern Swedish Cohort. All ninth grade students (n=1083) within the municipality of Luleå in northern Sweden were included in the baseline investigation in 1981. The vast majority (94%) of the original cohort participated at the fourth follow-up. In this study, 969 participants were included. Perceived health status (psychological distress and non-optimal self-rated health) at age 42 and the data obtained from questionnaires. We have identified four tracks in relation to LMA across the 12-year period: 'permanent', 'high level', 'strengthening' and 'poor level' of attachment. LMA history relates to psychological distress. High level (OR 1.55 (95% CI 1.06 to 2.27)), strengthening (OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.29 to 2.93)) and poor attachment (OR 3.14 (95% CI 2.10 to 4.70) involve higher OR for psychological distress compared with permanent attachment. The overall p value remained significant in the final model (p=0.001). Analyses regarding non-optimal self-rated health displayed a similar pattern but this was not significant in the final model. Our results suggest that health status in mid-life, particularly psychological distress, is related to patterns of LMA history, to a large part independently of other social risk factors and previous health. Consideration of heterogeneity and time in LMA might be important when analysing associations with perceived health.

  19. History of Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    back to history page Back Particle Physics Timeline For over two thousand years people have thought the Standard Model. We invite you to explore this history of particle physics with a focus on the : Quantum Theory 1964 - Present: The Modern View (the Standard Model) back to history page Back Sections of

  20. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply, April 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country’s present petroleum consumption – the goal set by the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  1. Quinina: 470 anos de história, controvérsias e desenvolvimento Quinine: 470 years of history, controversy and science development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ricardo Marques de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available After 470 years, a history of development, international seed smuggling and scientific development that caused deep changes in our society, has reached an end. In 1638, the countess of Chinchón contracted a disease while in the Amazon rain forest and was healed by a potion used by the native inhabitants. In 1856, William H. Perkin while attempting to obtain synthetic quinine, discovered the mauveína, a molecule that changed the world. The synthesis of quinine was also the subject of a bitter controversy among two excellent scientists of the 20th century. During centuries, quinine was the only hope against malaria disease and its exploration almost extinguished the Cinchona tree.

  2. Interactive (statistical) visualisation and exploration of a billion objects with vaex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breddels, M. A.

    2017-06-01

    With new catalogues arriving such as the Gaia DR1, containing more than a billion objects, new methods of handling and visualizing these data volumes are needed. We show that by calculating statistics on a regular (N-dimensional) grid, visualizations of a billion objects can be done within a second on a modern desktop computer. This is achieved using memory mapping of hdf5 files together with a simple binning algorithm, which are part of a Python library called vaex. This enables efficient exploration or large datasets interactively, making science exploration of large catalogues feasible. Vaex is a Python library and an application, which allows for interactive exploration and visualization. The motivation for developing vaex is the catalogue of the Gaia satellite, however, vaex can also be used on SPH or N-body simulations, any other (future) catalogues such as SDSS, Pan-STARRS, LSST, etc. or other tabular data. The homepage for vaex is http://vaex.astro.rug.nl.

  3. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  4. CONCEPTIONS ABOUT THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE PRESENTED IN THE TEXTBOOKS OF THE EARLY YEARS IN THE STATE OF GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenyffer Soares Estival Murça

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The approach of the History of Science (HC in science teaching and textbooks (LD has been gaining ground in discussions involving teacher training, may be one way to combat naive conceptions about the Nature of Science (NDC. The present study sought to identify and analyze the presence of HC in the collection of Sciences textbook intended for the early years of elementary school (1st to 5th year, the largest acquisition for public schools in the state of Goiás. The collection of LDs used was approved in PNLD 2013-2015 collection, Open Door Collection (2011. Insertion of HC, by using categorization information for HC were analyzed. The analysis revealed eight inserted in the collection (Human Body, Energy, Evolution, Interaction, Environment, Health, Technology and Universe Theme, where were possible to identify only 17 inserts HC, surface and related mode of knowledge production. Thus, it is concluded that the insertion of the HC in the early years still gives a very modest way, should be reconsidered and discussed in training courses for teachers.

  5. BUILDING A BILLION SPATIO-TEMPORAL OBJECT SEARCH AND VISUALIZATION PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kakkar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With funding from the Sloan Foundation and Harvard Dataverse, the Harvard Center for Geographic Analysis (CGA has developed a prototype spatio-temporal visualization platform called the Billion Object Platform or BOP. The goal of the project is to lower barriers for scholars who wish to access large, streaming, spatio-temporal datasets. The BOP is now loaded with the latest billion geo-tweets, and is fed a real-time stream of about 1 million tweets per day. The geo-tweets are enriched with sentiment and census/admin boundary codes when they enter the system. The system is open source and is currently hosted on Massachusetts Open Cloud (MOC, an OpenStack environment with all components deployed in Docker orchestrated by Kontena. This paper will provide an overview of the BOP architecture, which is built on an open source stack consisting of Apache Lucene, Solr, Kafka, Zookeeper, Swagger, scikit-learn, OpenLayers, and AngularJS. The paper will further discuss the approach used for harvesting, enriching, streaming, storing, indexing, visualizing and querying a billion streaming geo-tweets.

  6. Building a Billion Spatio-Temporal Object Search and Visualization Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, D.; Lewis, B.

    2017-10-01

    With funding from the Sloan Foundation and Harvard Dataverse, the Harvard Center for Geographic Analysis (CGA) has developed a prototype spatio-temporal visualization platform called the Billion Object Platform or BOP. The goal of the project is to lower barriers for scholars who wish to access large, streaming, spatio-temporal datasets. The BOP is now loaded with the latest billion geo-tweets, and is fed a real-time stream of about 1 million tweets per day. The geo-tweets are enriched with sentiment and census/admin boundary codes when they enter the system. The system is open source and is currently hosted on Massachusetts Open Cloud (MOC), an OpenStack environment with all components deployed in Docker orchestrated by Kontena. This paper will provide an overview of the BOP architecture, which is built on an open source stack consisting of Apache Lucene, Solr, Kafka, Zookeeper, Swagger, scikit-learn, OpenLayers, and AngularJS. The paper will further discuss the approach used for harvesting, enriching, streaming, storing, indexing, visualizing and querying a billion streaming geo-tweets.

  7. Two ten-billion-solar-mass black holes at the centres of giant elliptical galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Nicholas J; Ma, Chung-Pei; Gebhardt, Karl; Wright, Shelley A; Murphy, Jeremy D; Lauer, Tod R; Graham, James R; Richstone, Douglas O

    2011-12-08

    Observational work conducted over the past few decades indicates that all massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres. Although the luminosities and brightness fluctuations of quasars in the early Universe suggest that some were powered by black holes with masses greater than 10 billion solar masses, the remnants of these objects have not been found in the nearby Universe. The giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 hosts the hitherto most massive known black hole, which has a mass of 6.3 billion solar masses. Here we report that NGC 3842, the brightest galaxy in a cluster at a distance from Earth of 98 megaparsecs, has a central black hole with a mass of 9.7 billion solar masses, and that a black hole of comparable or greater mass is present in NGC 4889, the brightest galaxy in the Coma cluster (at a distance of 103 megaparsecs). These two black holes are significantly more massive than predicted by linearly extrapolating the widely used correlations between black-hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion or bulge luminosity of the host galaxy. Although these correlations remain useful for predicting black-hole masses in less massive elliptical galaxies, our measurements suggest that different evolutionary processes influence the growth of the largest galaxies and their black holes.

  8. An 800-year fire history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley G. Kitchen

    2010-01-01

    "Fire in the woods!" The words are a real heart stopper. Yet in spite of its capacity to destroy, fire plays an essential role in shaping plant communities. Knowledge of the patterns of fire over long time periods is critical for understanding this role. Trees often retain evidence of nonlethal fires in the form of injuries or scars in the annual growth rings...

  9. The natural history of gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms in the community and its effects on survival: a longitudinal 10-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, A C; Forman, D; Bailey, A G; Axon, A T R; Moayyedi, P

    2013-02-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) are common in the community. However, few studies have examined their long-term natural history, or impact on survival. To examine these issues in individuals recruited into a community-based screening programme for Helicobacter pylori in 1994. Data on mortality and cause of death at 10 years were obtained from the Office for National Statistics. Baseline demographic data, lifestyle factors, gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life were recorded at study entry. The effect of all these factors on persistent and new-onset GERS, and 10-year mortality, were examined using univariate and multivariate analysis, with results expressed as odds ratios (ORs) or hazard ratios (HR) with 99% confidence intervals (CI). Of 3967 individuals providing complete GERS data at baseline and 10 years, 549 (13.8%) had GERS at baseline. Of these, 183 (33.3%) had persistent symptoms. Among 3418 individuals asymptomatic at baseline, approximately 0.8% per year developed new-onset GERS. No predictors of persistent GERS were identified. New-onset symptoms were associated with lower quality of life or presence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) at baseline, and higher body mass index (BMI) at 10 years. There were 8331 (99.1%) of 8407 subjects providing complete GERS data at baseline, 1289 (15.5%) of whom were symptomatic. Presence of GERS at baseline did not affect survival (HR: 0.84; 99% CI: 0.44-1.59). Gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms persisted in one-third of individuals, whilst new-onset gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms were associated with poor quality of life, irritable bowel syndrome and higher body mass index. Gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms did not impact adversely on survival. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Storms in a lagoon: the flooding history of Schokland (Noordoostpolder, The Netherlands) during the last 1200 years derived from geological and historical archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Biggelaar, Don; Kluiving, Sjoerd; Van Balen, Ronald; Kasse, Kees

    2013-04-01

    Flevoland (central part of the Netherlands) is an area of long-term discontinuous deposition, which has been reclaimed from the Zuiderzee in the 20th century. The Zuiderzee was an inlet of the North Sea, which came into existence during Medieval times at the expense of vast peat swamps. The inhabitants of the Zuiderzee area have a long tradition of living and struggling with water. For Schokland, located in the northern part of Flevoland (The Netherlands) and its inhabitants, this tradition started at around AD 800 when peat formation came to an end in the former Flevo lagoon region. Since that time, a surficial clay cover was deposited on Schokland. The top of the peat underlying the clay is dated at ~1200 BP, while the top is dated up to ~70 BP, implying that the clay was deposited during the Medieval to Recent occupation of the former Flevo lagoon region. We have studied the clay sequence with the combined use of geological and historical archives in order to determine the most recent flooding history of Flevoland (last 1200 years). Field data, lab analyses (grainsize anlyses, TOC, pollen, microfossils) and a literature study show that storm events had a major impact on both the sedimentary and the anthropogenic history of Schokland. A comparison between geological data and documented historical storms is made and possible remnants of the eleven major storm events, mentioned in the historical sources, that eroded parts of Schokland are identified in the subsurface of the area in the form of spikes with coarser sediment relative to the background sedimentation.

  11. 2016 Billion-ton report: Advancing domestic resources for a thriving bioeconomy, Volume 1: Economic availability of feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.H. Langholtz; B.J. Stokes; L.M. Eaton

    2016-01-01

    This product builds on previous efforts, namely the 2005 Billion-Ton Study (BTS) and the 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update (BT2).With each report, greater perspective is gained on the potential of biomass resources to contribute to a national energy strategy. Similarly, each successive report introduces new questions regarding commercialization challenges. BTS quantified...

  12. The Last Hundred Years of Land Use History in the Southern Part of Valdai Hills (European Russia: Reconstruction by Pollen and Historical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novenko Elena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The last one hundred years of land use history in the southern part of Valdai Hills (European Russia were reconstructed on the base of high resolution pollen data from the peat monolith taken from the Central Forest State Reserve supplementing with historical records derived from maps of the General Land Survey of the 18th and 19th centuries and satellite images. According to the created age model provided by dating using radio-nuclides 210Pb and 137Cs, pollen data of the peat monolith allow us to reconstruct vegetation dynamics during the last one hundred years with high time resolution. The obtained data showed that, despite the location of the studied peatland in the center of the forest area and rather far away from possible croplands and hayfields, the pollen values of plants – anthropogenic indicators (Secale sereale, Centaurea cyanus, Plantago, Rumex, etc. and micro-charcoal concentration are relatively high in the period since the beginning of the 20th century to the 1970s, especially in the peat horizon formed in the 1950s. In the late 1970s – the early 1980s when the pollen values of cereals gradually diminished in assemblages, the quantity of pollen of other anthropogenic indicators were also significantly reduced, which reflects the overall processes of the agriculture decline in the forest zone of the former USSR.

  13. A very rare case of HPV-53-related cervical cancer, in a 79-year-old woman with a previous history of negative Pap cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappacosta, Roberta; Lattanzio, Giuseppe; Viola, Patrizia; Ianieri, Manuel Maria; Gatta, Daniela Maria Pia; Rosini, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of organized cervical cancer (CC) screening programs has drastically reduced the prevalence of CC. However the incidence is still too high, especially among elderly women. All guidelines strongly recommend a regular Papanicolaou (Pap) testing for young and middle-aged patients. On the other hand, many international professional societies no longer advise screening in women who have undergone hysterectomy, and in women aged 65 years and above, who have a previous history of regular Pap smears. Here we report the case of poorly differentiated CC, involving the pelvic lymph nodes and urinary bladder, occurring in a 79-year-old woman who regularly underwent Pap tests, with no reported cytological abnormalities. In this very rare case, the CC cells, as well as cells from metastatic lymph nodes and cells from urinary specimens, molecularly showed human papilloma virus (HPV)-53. With the limitations of a single case, this report brings important information to prevent CC in elderly patients: the utility of molecular tests to increase sensitivity of Pap smears in postmenopausal women; the importance of HPV-53 as one of the four "emergent" genotypes having a possible role in oncogenesis; and the presence of HPV-53 in lymph node metastases from cervical carcinoma, which would support the role of this virus in the maintenance of malignant status.

  14. Forty-two years of Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica: Some history and musings on the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.; Torres-Peimbert, S.

    2017-07-01

    After 42 years of continuously publishing the Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica, we cast a short retrospective view on its history and we share our plans for the future. RMxAA was founded in 1974. Founding editors were P. Pishmish, E. Mendoza and S. Torres-Peimbert. RMxAA has published original research papers in all areas of astronomy, astrophysics and related fields. Until 1994 RMxAA also published the proceedings of astronomical conferences held in México and Latin America. Since 1995 a Series devoted exclusively to such proceedings was founded, RMxAC, Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica (Serie de Conferencias). All papers submitted to RMxAA are sent to internationally recognized experts to be strictly refereed. RMxAA is included in Current Contents, Science Citation Index and other relevant international indexes. Both publications are fully integrated into the ADS. Their contents have always been freely available to the general public. All this ensures a wide international visibility, comparable to that of the best astronomical journals. The impact factor of RMxAA has varied over the years, mostly as a consequence of small number statistics. The average impact factor is about 2.4, far larger than that of all but a few Latin American scientific journals. The editorial independence of RMxAA, the fact that there are no page charges for authors, and that the printed version is distributed free of charge to astronomical libraries all over the world motivate us to look forward with optimism to many more years of publication. In view of recent developments in the scientific publishing field, we have applied to obtain the DOI for the published papers, and are in the process of becoming an all-electronic publication.

  15. The Comparative Reliability and Feasibility of the Past-Year Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II: Comparison of the Paper and Web Versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Siou, Geraldine; Csizmadi, Ilona; Boucher, Beatrice A; Akawung, Alianu K; Whelan, Heather K; Sharma, Michelle; Al Rajabi, Ala; Vena, Jennifer E; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Koushik, Anita; Massarelli, Isabelle; Rondeau, Isabelle; Robson, Paula J

    2017-02-13

    Advances in technology-enabled dietary assessment include the advent of web-based food frequency questionnaires, which may reduce costs and researcher burden but may introduce new challenges related to internet connectivity and computer literacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra- and inter-version reliability, feasibility and acceptability of the paper and web Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II (CDHQ-II) in a sub-sample of 648 adults (aged 39-81 years) recruited from Alberta's Tomorrow Project. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) paper, web, paper; or (2) web, paper, web over a six-week period. With few exceptions, no statistically significant differences in mean nutrient intake were found in the intra- and inter-version reliability analyses. The majority of participants indicated future willingness to complete the CDHQ-II online, and 59% indicated a preference for the web over the paper version. Findings indicate that, in this population of adults drawn from an existing cohort, the CDHQ-II may be administered in paper or web modalities (increasing flexibility for questionnaire delivery), and the nutrient estimates obtained with either version are comparable. We recommend that other studies explore the feasibility and reliability of different modes of administration of dietary assessment instruments prior to widespread implementation.

  16. Rediscovery of the 220-year-old holotype of the Banded Iguana, Brachylophus fasciatus (Brongniart, 1800) in the Paris Natural History Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ineich, Ivan; Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    The Paris Natural History Museum herpetological collection (MNHN-RA) has seven historical specimens of Brachylophus spp. collected late in the 18th and early in the 19th centuries. Brachylophus fasciatus was described in 1800 by Brongniart but its type was subsequently considered as lost and never present in MNHN-RA collections. We found that 220 year old holotype among existing collections, registered without any data, and we show that it was donated to MNHN-RA from Brongniart’s private collection after his death in 1847. It was registered in the catalogue of 1851 but without any data or reference to its type status. According to the coloration (uncommon midbody saddle-like dorsal banding pattern) and morphometric data given in its original description and in the subsequent examination of the type in 1802 by Daudin and in 1805 by Brongniart we found that lost holotype in the collections. Another MNHN-RA specimen has Horn Islands (Wallis and Futuna) as the collection location but we show that most of the collections given to MNHN-RA by its collector, Louis Arnoux, have mixed localities in the MNHN-RA catalogues. We thus conclude that the locality is wrong and that the species never inhabited those islands located west of Western Samoa and north-east of Fiji.

  17. Rediscovery of the 220-year-old holotype of the Banded Iguana, Brachylophus fasciatus (Brongniart, 1800) in the Paris Natural History Museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ineich, Ivan; Fisher, Robert N

    2016-07-15

    The Paris Natural History Museum herpetological collection (MNHN-RA) has seven historical specimens of Brachylophus spp. collected late in the 18th and early in the 19th centuries. Brachylophus fasciatus was described in 1800 by Brongniart but its type was subsequently considered as lost and never present in MNHN-RA collections. We found that 220 year old holotype among existing collections, registered without any data, and we show that it was donated to MNHN-RA from Brongniart's private collection after his death in 1847. It was registered in the catalogue of 1851 but without any data or reference to its type status. According to the coloration (uncommon midbody saddle-like dorsal banding pattern) and morphometric data given in its original description and in the subsequent examination of the type in 1802 by Daudin and in 1805 by Brongniart we found that lost holotype in the collections. Another MNHN-RA specimen has Horn Islands (Wallis and Futuna) as the collection location but we show that most of the collections given to MNHN-RA by its collector, Louis Arnoux, have mixed localities in the MNHN-RA catalogues. We thus conclude that the locality is wrong and that the species never inhabited those islands located west of Western Samoa and north-east of Fiji.

  18. EnviroInfo 2016. Environmental informatics. Stability, continuity, innovation. Current trends and future perspectives based on 30 years of history. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, Volker; Fuchs-Kittowski, Frank; Wittmann, Jochen (eds.) [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    This book covers selected keynotes, short papers and work in progress papers of the 30th edition of the long standing and established international and interdisciplinary conference series on leading environmental information and communication technologies (Envirolnfo 2016). The conference was held in September 14 - 16, 2016 at the Hochschule fiir Technik und Wirtschaft Berlin (HTW Berlin), University of Applied Sciences. Basic topics that were covered under the central focus ''Environmental Informatics - Current trends and future perspectives based on 30 years of history'' were applications of geographical information systems, environmental modelling and simulation, risk management, material and energy flow management, climate change, tools and database applications and other aspects with regard to the main topic ICT and the environment. Due to the interdisciplinary character of environmental informatics, one important goal of this conference was to bring experts from industry, research and education together to exchange ideas and proposals for solution of urgent problems and needs in the field on environmental protection and it's IT-support. Three papers are separately analyzed for this database.

  19. The Comparative Reliability and Feasibility of the Past-Year Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II: Comparison of the Paper and Web Versions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Siou, Geraldine; Csizmadi, Ilona; Boucher, Beatrice A.; Akawung, Alianu K.; Whelan, Heather K.; Sharma, Michelle; Al Rajabi, Ala; Vena, Jennifer E.; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.; Koushik, Anita; Massarelli, Isabelle; Rondeau, Isabelle; Robson, Paula J.

    2017-01-01

    Advances in technology-enabled dietary assessment include the advent of web-based food frequency questionnaires, which may reduce costs and researcher burden but may introduce new challenges related to internet connectivity and computer literacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra- and inter-version reliability, feasibility and acceptability of the paper and web Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II (CDHQ-II) in a sub-sample of 648 adults (aged 39–81 years) recruited from Alberta’s Tomorrow Project. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) paper, web, paper; or (2) web, paper, web over a six-week period. With few exceptions, no statistically significant differences in mean nutrient intake were found in the intra- and inter-version reliability analyses. The majority of participants indicated future willingness to complete the CDHQ-II online, and 59% indicated a preference for the web over the paper version. Findings indicate that, in this population of adults drawn from an existing cohort, the CDHQ-II may be administered in paper or web modalities (increasing flexibility for questionnaire delivery), and the nutrient estimates obtained with either version are comparable. We recommend that other studies explore the feasibility and reliability of different modes of administration of dietary assessment instruments prior to widespread implementation. PMID:28208819

  20. Job insecurity and the use of antidepressant medication among Danish employees with and without a history of prolonged unemployment: a 3.5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugulies, R; Thielen, K; Nygaard, E

    2010-01-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate whether job insecurity predicts incident use of antidepressant medication and whether the association is modified by a history of prolonged unemployment.......A study was undertaken to investigate whether job insecurity predicts incident use of antidepressant medication and whether the association is modified by a history of prolonged unemployment....

  1. The Intricacies of Education about the Holocaust in Poland. Ten Years after the Jedwabne Debate, What Can Polish School Students Learn about the Holocaust in History Classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosewicz-Jacobs, Jolanta; Szuchta, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In many European countries, disparities have grown between history and the memory of the Holocaust. Debates on Polish-Jewish relations during the Holocaust and empirical studies in the field of education reveal that there is a gap between research and education. The emphasis in this paper is on the content of new history textbooks published after…

  2. IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis and sclerosing cholangitis independent of autoimmune pancreatitis. A recurrent case after a 5-year history of spontaneous remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hideaki; Miyachi, Yasutaka

    2009-07-06

    A new clinicopathological concept of IgG4-related sclerosing disease affecting various organs has recently been proposed in relation to autoimmune pancreatitis. This report describes the case of IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis and sclerosing cholangitis independent of autoimmune pancreatitis, which recurred after a long period of spontaneous remission. An 80-year-old Japanese man presented with obstructive jaundice owing to a hepatic hilum bile duct stricture. Coincidentally, a soft tissue mass surrounding the abdominal aorta, suggesting retroperitoneal fibrosis, was identified. Unexpectedly, spontaneous regression of obstructive jaundice together with retroperitoneal fibrosis occurred. The presence of high serum IgG4 concentrations measured later led us to consider a possible association with autoimmune pancreatitis; however, there were no clinical features confirming autoimmune pancreatitis. After a 5-year history of spontaneous clinical remission, there was an elevation of serum IgG4 levels and renal dysfunction owing to bilateral hydronephrosis caused by a reemergence of the retroperitoneal mass. Evaluation by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed a biliary stricture, suggesting sclerosing cholangitis which was observed without the presence of any pancreatic duct abnormality. The subsequent excellent results obtained using steroid therapy, namely the decrease in serum IgG4 levels and the regression of the retroperitoneal mass, strongly suggested that the present case was an IgG4-related sclerosing disease. Aside from high serum IgG4 concentrations, markedly elevated levels of serum IgE was found retrospectively, although the clinical significance remains unknown. When we encounter fibrotic diseases of unknown etiology, we should measure serum IgG4 concentrations and monitor the disease activity over long periods even after achieving clinical remission.

  3. A very rare case of HPV-53-related cervical cancer, in a 79-year-old woman with a previous history of negative Pap cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zappacosta R

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Roberta Zappacosta,1 Giuseppe Lattanzio,2 Patrizia Viola,2 Manuel Maria Ianieri,3 Daniela Maria Pia Gatta,1 Sandra Rosini11Cytopathology Unit, Experimental and Clinical Sciences Department, Gabriele d’Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy; 2Surgical Pathology Unit, 3Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit, SS Annunziata Hospital, Chieti, ItalyAbstract: The introduction of organized cervical cancer (CC screening programs has drastically reduced the prevalence of CC. However the incidence is still too high, especially among elderly women. All guidelines strongly recommend a regular Papanicolaou (Pap testing for young and middle-aged patients. On the other hand, many international professional societies no longer advise screening in women who have undergone hysterectomy, and in women aged 65 years and above, who have a previous history of regular Pap smears. Here we report the case of poorly differentiated CC, involving the pelvic lymph nodes and urinary bladder, occurring in a 79-year-old woman who regularly underwent Pap tests, with no reported cytological abnormalities. In this very rare case, the CC cells, as well as cells from metastatic lymph nodes and cells from urinary specimens, molecularly showed human papilloma virus (HPV-53. With the limitations of a single case, this report brings important information to prevent CC in elderly patients: the utility of molecular tests to increase sensitivity of Pap smears in postmenopausal women; the importance of HPV-53 as one of the four “emergent” genotypes having a possible role in oncogenesis; and the presence of HPV-53 in lymph node metastases from cervical carcinoma, which would support the role of this virus in the maintenance of malignant status.Keywords: old women, molecular tests, cervical cancer screening, HPV-DNA test, HPV genotypingA Letter to the editor has been received and published for this articleCorrigendum for this paper has been published

  4. A parts-per-billion measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment

    CERN Document Server

    Smorra, C; Borchert, M J; Harrington, J A; Higuchi, T; Nagahama, H; Tanaka, T; Mooser, A; Schneider, G; Blaum, K; Matsuda, Y; Ospelkaus, C; Quint, W; Walz, J; Yamazaki, Y; Ulmer, S

    2017-01-01

    Precise comparisons of the fundamental properties of matter–antimatter conjugates provide sensitive tests of charge–parity–time (CPT) invariance1, which is an important symmetry that rests on basic assumptions of the standard model of particle physics. Experiments on mesons2, leptons3, 4 and baryons5, 6 have compared different properties of matter–antimatter conjugates with fractional uncertainties at the parts-per-billion level or better. One specific quantity, however, has so far only been known to a fractional uncertainty at the parts-per-million level7, 8: the magnetic moment of the antiproton, . The extraordinary difficulty in measuring with high precision is caused by its intrinsic smallness; for example, it is 660 times smaller than the magnetic moment of the positron3. Here we report a high-precision measurement of in units of the nuclear magneton μN with a fractional precision of 1.5 parts per billion (68% confidence level). We use a two-particle spectroscopy method in an advanced cryogenic ...

  5. Contamination history of suspended river sediments accumulated in oxbow lakes over the last 25 years. Morava river (Danube catchment area), Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babek, O. [Masaryk Univ., Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Palacky Univ., Olomouc (Czech Republic). Dept. of Geology; Hilscherova, K.; Holoubek, I.; Machat, J.; Klanova, J. [Masaryk Univ., Brno (Czech Republic). Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology; Nehyba, S.; Zeman, J.; Famera, M. [Masaryk Univ., Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Francu, J. [Czech Geological Survey, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2008-06-15

    Background, aims, and scope Embankment of meandering river systems in many industrial areas results in the formation of artificial oxbow lakes that may act as perennial or intermittent traps for river sediments. Their deposits can be dated using a combination of historical and stratigraphic data, providing a good means to study historical records of contamination transported by rivers. Contamination history over the last few decades is of special significance for Central and Eastern Europe as it can reflect high pollutant levels in the second half of the twentieth century and the subsequent improvement after the fall of the Iron Curtain. The purpose of this study was to investigate recent sediments of an oxbow lake of the Morava River, Czech Republic, their stratigraphic records, sediment architecture, and history of contamination. Materials and methods Seven ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles and three sediment cores up to 4 m deep were studied. The stratigraphy of the cores was inferred from visible-light spectrophotometry, X-ray radiography, grain size analysis, and semiquantitative modal analysis of sandy fractions. The sediments were dated using the {sup 137}Cs mass activity and combinations of stratigraphic and historical data. The cores were sampled for concentrations of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants. Wet sampled, lyophilized, and sieved sediments were extracted and analyzed for heavy metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) of aqua regia leachate and for persistent organic pollutants by gas chromatography (GC-ECD and GC-MS). Results Three distinct sedimentary sequences (S1, S2, and S3) were identified. The basal sequence S1 represents river channel sediments deposited before the formation of the oxbow lake, most likely before the 1930s. The boundary between the S1 and S2 sequence correlates with the level of sediment dredging from 1981 evidenced from historical data. The overlying sequences S2 and S3 represent a

  6. Contamination history of suspended river sediments accumulated in oxbow lakes over the last 25 years. Morava river (Danube catchment area), Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babek, O.

    2008-01-01

    Background, aims, and scope Embankment of meandering river systems in many industrial areas results in the formation of artificial oxbow lakes that may act as perennial or intermittent traps for river sediments. Their deposits can be dated using a combination of historical and stratigraphic data, providing a good means to study historical records of contamination transported by rivers. Contamination history over the last few decades is of special significance for Central and Eastern Europe as it can reflect high pollutant levels in the second half of the twentieth century and the subsequent improvement after the fall of the Iron Curtain. The purpose of this study was to investigate recent sediments of an oxbow lake of the Morava River, Czech Republic, their stratigraphic records, sediment architecture, and history of contamination. Materials and methods Seven ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles and three sediment cores up to 4 m deep were studied. The stratigraphy of the cores was inferred from visible-light spectrophotometry, X-ray radiography, grain size analysis, and semiquantitative modal analysis of sandy fractions. The sediments were dated using the 137 Cs mass activity and combinations of stratigraphic and historical data. The cores were sampled for concentrations of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants. Wet sampled, lyophilized, and sieved sediments were extracted and analyzed for heavy metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) of aqua regia leachate and for persistent organic pollutants by gas chromatography (GC-ECD and GC-MS). Results Three distinct sedimentary sequences (S1, S2, and S3) were identified. The basal sequence S1 represents river channel sediments deposited before the formation of the oxbow lake, most likely before the 1930s. The boundary between the S1 and S2 sequence correlates with the level of sediment dredging from 1981 evidenced from historical data. The overlying sequences S2 and S3 represent a

  7. Effect of miscarriage history on maternal-infant bonding during the first year postpartum in the first baby study: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicking Kinsey, Cara; Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Zhu, Junjia; Kjerulff, Kristen H

    2014-07-15

    Miscarriage, the unexpected loss of pregnancy before 20 weeks gestation, may have a negative effect on a mother's perception of herself as a capable woman and on her emotional health when she is pregnant again subsequent to the miscarriage. As such, a mother with a history of miscarriage may be at greater risk for difficulties navigating the process of becoming a mother and achieving positive maternal-infant bonding with an infant born subsequent to the loss. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of miscarriage history on maternal-infant bonding after the birth of a healthy infant to test the hypothesis that women with a history of miscarriage have decreased maternal-infant bonding compared to women without a history of miscarriage. We completed secondary analysis of the First Baby Study, a longitudinal cohort study, to examine the effect of a history of miscarriage on maternal-infant bonding at 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months after women experienced the birth of their first live-born baby. In a sample of 2798 women living in Pennsylvania, USA, we tested our hypothesis using linear regression analysis of Shortened Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (S-PBQ) scores, followed by longitudinal analysis using a generalized estimating equations model with repeated measures. We found that women with a history of miscarriage had similar S-PBQ scores as women without a history of miscarriage at each of the three postpartum time points. Likewise, longitudinal analysis revealed no difference in the pattern of maternal-infant bonding scores between women with and without a history of miscarriage. Women in the First Baby Study with a history of miscarriage did not differ from women without a history of miscarriage in their reported level of bonding with their subsequently born infants. It is important for clinicians to recognize that even though some women may experience impaired bonding related to a history of miscarriage, the majority of women form a healthy bond

  8. Bohmian histories and decoherent histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, James B.

    2004-01-01

    The predictions of the Bohmian and the decoherent (or consistent) histories formulations of the quantum mechanics of a closed system are compared for histories--sequences of alternatives at a series of times. For certain kinds of histories, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories may both be formulated in the same mathematical framework within which they can be compared. In that framework, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories represent a given history by different operators. Their predictions for the probabilities of histories of a closed system therefore generally differ. However, in an idealized model of measurement, the predictions of Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories coincide for the probabilities of records of measurement outcomes. The formulations are thus difficult to distinguish experimentally. They may differ in their accounts of the past history of the Universe in quantum cosmology

  9. Reinnervation of Vastus lateralis is increased significantly in seniors (70-years old with a lifelong history of high-level exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Mosole

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has long been recognized that histological changes observed in aging muscle suggest that denervation contributes to muscle deterioration and that disuse accelerates the process while running activity, sustained for decades, protects against age-related loss of motor units. Here we show at the histological level that lifelong increased physical activity promotes reinnervation of muscle fibers. In muscle biopsies from 70-year old men with a lifelong history of high-level physical activity, we observed a considerable increase in fiber-type groupings (almost exclusively of the slow type in comparison to sedentary seniors, revealing a large population of reinnervated muscle fibers in the sportsmen. Slow-type transformation by reinnervation in senior sportsmen seems to be a clinically relevant mechanism: the muscle biopsies fluctuate from those with scarce fiber-type transformation and groupings to almost fully transformed muscle, going through a process in which isolated fibers co-expressing fast and slow MHCs seems to fill the gaps. Taken together, our results suggest that, beyond the direct effects of aging on the muscle fibers, changes occurring in skeletal muscle tissue appear to be largely, although not solely, a result of sparse denervation. Our data suggest that lifelong exercise allows the body to adapt to the consequences of the age-related denervation and to preserve muscle structure and function by saving otherwise lost muscle fibers through recruitment to different, mainly slow, motor units. These beneficial effects on motoneurons and, subsequently on muscle fibers, serve to maintain size, structure and function of muscle fibers, delaying the functional decline and loss of independence that are commonly seen in late aging.

  10. Teaching-service integration and social impact in 50 years of public health history School of Dentistry of the “Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemre Adas Saliba

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available To verify the projects and programs developed during the course of 50-year history of School of Dentistry Aracatuba of the “Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (State of São Paulo -Brazil, in the public health area, in agreement with the dental models of attendance and considering the background and the progress of the Public Health policies in Brazil, with the aim of reporting on the experience of integrating teaching-service, professional education and the social impact. A documentary research of a descriptive nature was conducted, by consulting the institutional files of the Dental Faculty, considering; official texts, reports, documents, databases and publications, with reference to the period from 1957 to 2007. The descriptive analysis demonstrated that the main actions developed were: Campaign for home filters, Campaign for construction of Wells and Sewages, Campaign for Fluoridation of the Araçatuba and Area Water Supply, Epidemiologic Surveys, Extramural Dental services, Extension projects; Attendance to pregnant women, the elderly and children, Oral cancer prevention program, Program for Heterogeneous Fluoride control, Creation of master’s degree program, Municipal health counselor training courses, Training of State of São Paulo Family Health Program community agents and teams, Advisory services to municipalities and production of didactic-pedagogic materials for health education. Several programs have been and are being developed, with successful health practices in the area, accompanying the progress of health policies and promoting professional education with integration of the university into the local health and community services.

  11. Saving billions of dollars--and physicians' time--by streamlining billing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchfield, Bonnie B; Heffernan, James L; Osgood, Bradford; Sheehan, Rosemary R; Meyer, Gregg S

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. system of billing third parties for health care services is complex, expensive, and inefficient. Physicians end up using nearly 12 percent of their net patient service revenue to cover the costs of excessive administrative complexity. A single transparent set of payment rules for multiple payers, a single claim form, and standard rules of submission, among other innovations, would reduce the burden on the billing offices of physician organizations. On a national scale, our hypothetical modeling of these changes would translate into $7 billion of savings annually for physician and clinical services. Four hours of professional time per physician and five hours of practice support staff time could be saved each week.

  12. Northwest Africa 8159: An approximately 2.3 Billion Year Old Martian Olivine-Bearing Augite Basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J. I.; Peters, T. J.; Tappa, M. J.; Agee, C. B.

    2014-01-01

    Based on petrology, mineralogy, and bulk composition, the new NWA 8159 martian meteorite is distinct from all known samples from Mars. In particular, the augite compositional trends are unique, but most similar to those of nakhite intercumulus. Whether NWA 8159 represents a new lithology or is related to a known meteorite group remains to be determined. Sr and Nd isotopic analyses will allow comparison of source characteristics with SNC and other new ungrouped meteorites (e.g., NWA 7635). Here we report initial Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic results for NWA 8159 with the objective to determine its formation age and to potentially identify similarities and potential source affinities with other martian rocks.

  13. The COSMOS2015 galaxy stellar mass function . Thirteen billion years of stellar mass assembly in ten snapshots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidzon, I.; Ilbert, O.; Laigle, C.; Coupon, J.; McCracken, H. J.; Delvecchio, I.; Masters, D.; Capak, P.; Hsieh, B. C.; Le Fèvre, O.; Tresse, L.; Bethermin, M.; Chang, Y.-Y.; Faisst, A. L.; Le Floc'h, E.; Steinhardt, C.; Toft, S.; Aussel, H.; Dubois, C.; Hasinger, G.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Scoville, N.; Silverman, J. D.

    2017-09-01

    We measure the stellar mass function (SMF) and stellar mass density of galaxies in the COSMOS field up to z 6. We select them in the near-IR bands of the COSMOS2015 catalogue, which includes ultra-deep photometry from UltraVISTA-DR2, SPLASH, and Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam. At z> 2.5 we use new precise photometric redshifts with error σz = 0.03(1 + z) and an outlier fraction of 12%, estimated by means of the unique spectroscopic sample of COSMOS ( 100 000 spectroscopic measurements in total, more than one thousand having robust zspec> 2.5). The increased exposure time in the DR2, along with our panchromatic detection strategy, allow us to improve the completeness at high z with respect to previous UltraVISTA catalogues (e.g. our sample is >75% complete at 1010 ℳ⊙ and z = 5). We also identify passive galaxies through a robust colour-colour selection, extending their SMF estimate up to z = 4. Our work provides a comprehensive view of galaxy-stellar-mass assembly between z = 0.1 and 6, for the first time using consistent estimates across the entire redshift range. We fit these measurements with a Schechter function, correcting for Eddington bias. We compare the SMF fit with the halo mass function predicted from ΛCDM simulations, finding that at z> 3 both functions decline with a similar slope in thehigh-mass end. This feature could be explained assuming that mechanisms quenching star formation in massive haloes become less effective at high redshifts; however further work needs to be done to confirm this scenario. Concerning the SMF low-mass end, it shows a progressive steepening as it moves towards higher redshifts, with α decreasing from -1.47+0.02-0.02 at z ≃ 0.1 to -2.11+0.30-0.13 at z ≃ 5. This slope depends on the characterisation of the observational uncertainties, which is crucial to properly remove the Eddington bias. We show that there is currently no consensus on the method to quantify such errors: different error models result in different best-fit Schechter parameters. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under ESO programme ID 179.A-2005 and on data products produced by TERAPIX and the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit on behalf of the UltraVISTA consortium (http://ultravista.org/). Based on data produced by the SPLASH team from observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope (http://splash.caltech.edu).

  14. A 2-3 billion year old major merger paradigm for the Andromeda galaxy and its outskirts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, F.; Yang, Y. B.; Wang, J. L.; Ibata, R.; Flores, H.; Puech, M.

    2018-04-01

    Recent observations of our neighbouring galaxy M31 have revealed that its disc was shaped by widespread events. The evidence for this includes the high dispersion (V/σ ≤ 3) of stars older than 2 Gyr, and a global star formation episode, 2-4 Gyr ago. Using the modern hydrodynamical code, GIZMO, we have performed 300 high-resolution simulations to explore the extent to which these observed properties can be explained by a single merger. We find that the observed M31 disc resembles models having experienced a 4:1 merger, in which the nuclei coalesced 1.8-3 Gyr ago, and where the first passage took place 7-10 Gyr ago at a large pericentre distance (32 kpc). We also show that within a family of orbital parameters, the Giant Stream (GS) can be formed with various merger mass ratios, from 2:1 to 300:1. A recent major merger may be the only way to create the very unusual age-dispersion relation in the disc. It reproduces and explains the long-lived 10 kpc ring, the widespread and recent star formation event, the absence of a remnant of the GS progenitor, the apparent complexity of the 3D spatial distribution of the GS, the NE and G Clumps and their formation process, and the observed slope of the halo profile. These modelling successes lead us to propose that the bulk of the substructure in the M31 halo, as well as the complexity of the inner galaxy, may be attributable to a single major interaction with a galaxy that has now fully coalesced with Andromeda.

  15. Formation of a Quasar Host Galaxy through a Wet Merger 1.4 Billion Years after the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Walter, Fabian; Carilli, Christopher L.; Bertoldi, Frank; Momjian, Emmanuel

    2008-10-01

    We present high-resolution Very Large Array imaging of the molecular gas in the host galaxy of the high-redshift quasar BRI 1335-0417 (z = 4.41). Our CO(J = 2→ 1) observations have a linear resolution of 0.15' ' (1.0 kpc) and resolve the molecular gas emission both spatially and in velocity. The molecular gas in BRI 1335-0417 is extended on scales of 5 kpc, and shows a complex structure. At least three distinct components encompassing about two-thirds of the total molecular mass of 9.2 × 1010 M⊙ are identified in velocity space, which are embedded in a structure that harbors about one-third of the total molecular mass in the system. The brightest CO(J = 2→ 1) line emission region has a peak brightness temperature of 61 ± 9 K within 1 kpc diameter, which is comparable to the kinetic gas temperature as predicted from the CO line excitation. This is also comparable to the gas temperatures found in the central regions of nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxies, which are however much more compact than 1 kpc. The spatial and velocity structure of the molecular reservoir in BRI 1335-0417 is inconsistent with a simple gravitationally bound disk, but resembles a merging system. Our observations are consistent with a major, gas-rich ("wet") merger that both feeds an accreting supermassive black hole (causing the bright quasar activity), and fuels a massive starburst that builds up the stellar bulge in this galaxy. Our study of this z > 4 quasar host galaxy may thus be the most direct observational evidence that wet mergers at high redshift are related to AGN activity.

  16. Megacity Green Infrastructure Converts Water into Billions of Dollars in Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endreny, T. A.; Ulgiati, S.; Santagata, R.

    2016-12-01

    Cities can invest in green infrastructure to purposefully couple water with urban tree growth, thereby generating ecosystem services and supporting human wellbeing as advocated by United Nations sustainable development initiatives. This research estimates the value of tree-based ecosystem services in order to help megacities assess the benefits relative to the costs of such investments. We inventoried tree cover across the metropolitan area of 10 megacities, in 5 continents and biomes, and developed biophysical scaling equations using i-Tree tools to estimate the tree cover value to reductions in air pollution, stormwater, building energy, and carbon emissions. Metropolitan areas ranged from 1173 to 18,720 sq km (median value 2530 sq km), with median tree cover 21%, and potential additional tree cover 19%, of this area. Median tree cover density was 39 m2/capita (compared with global value of 7800 m2/capita), with lower density in desert and tropical biomes, and higher density in temperate biomes. Using water to support trees led to median benefits of 1.2 billion/yr from reductions in CO, NO2, SO2, PM10, and PM2.5, 27 million/yr in avoided stormwater processing by wastewater facilities, 1.2 million/yr in building energy heating and cooling savings, and 20 million/yr in CO2 sequestration. These ecosystem service benefits contributed between 0.1% and 1% of megacity GDP, with a median contribution of 0.3%. Adjustment of benefit value between different city economies considered factors such as purchasing power parity and emergy to money ratio conversions. Green infrastructure costs billions of dollars less than grey infrastructure, and stormwater based grey infrastructure provides fewer benefits. This analysis suggests megacities should invest in tree-based green infrastructure to maintain and increase ecosystem service benefits, manage their water resources, and improve human wellbeing.

  17. ICI bites demerger bullet, Zeneca guns for Brit-pounds 1.3-billion rights issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.; Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-01

    Any lingering doubts as to ICI's (London) intentions to follow through its demerger proposals were dispelled last week. The company will hive off its bioscience business into Zeneca Group plc, which will make a Brit-pounds 1.3-billion ($1.9 billion) rights issue in June 1993. Shareholders, whose approval for the historic move will be sought in late May, will receive one fully paid Zeneca share for each ICI share. Proceeds from the rights issue will be used to reduce Zeneca's indebtedness to ICI by about 70%. Acknowledging that ICI had 'spread the jam too thinly' during its expansion in the 1980s, chief executive Ronnie Hampel says the new ICI will be a cost-conscious, no-frills' organization and that businesses that failed to perform would be restructured or closed. He is 'not expecting any help from the economy' in 1993. Of ICI's remaining petrochemicals and plastics businesses, Hampel says that despite 'stringent measures to reduce the cost base hor-ellipsis it is clear they will not reach a return on capital that will justify reinvestment by ICI.' He does not see them as closure candidates but as 'businesses that will require further restructuring.' Hampel notes 'a dozen clearly identified areas for expansion,' including paints, catalysts, titanium dioxide, and chlorofluorocarbon replacements. Losses in materials, where substantial rationalization has failed to halt the slide, will be reduced on completion of the DuPont deal - expected by midyear. 'Further measures' would be necessary for the 'residual bit of advanced materials in the US,' he says

  18. A parts-per-billion measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorra, C; Sellner, S; Borchert, M J; Harrington, J A; Higuchi, T; Nagahama, H; Tanaka, T; Mooser, A; Schneider, G; Bohman, M; Blaum, K; Matsuda, Y; Ospelkaus, C; Quint, W; Walz, J; Yamazaki, Y; Ulmer, S

    2017-10-18

    Precise comparisons of the fundamental properties of matter-antimatter conjugates provide sensitive tests of charge-parity-time (CPT) invariance, which is an important symmetry that rests on basic assumptions of the standard model of particle physics. Experiments on mesons, leptons and baryons have compared different properties of matter-antimatter conjugates with fractional uncertainties at the parts-per-billion level or better. One specific quantity, however, has so far only been known to a fractional uncertainty at the parts-per-million level: the magnetic moment of the antiproton, . The extraordinary difficulty in measuring with high precision is caused by its intrinsic smallness; for example, it is 660 times smaller than the magnetic moment of the positron. Here we report a high-precision measurement of in units of the nuclear magneton μ N with a fractional precision of 1.5 parts per billion (68% confidence level). We use a two-particle spectroscopy method in an advanced cryogenic multi-Penning trap system. Our result  = -2.7928473441(42)μ N (where the number in parentheses represents the 68% confidence interval on the last digits of the value) improves the precision of the previous best measurement by a factor of approximately 350. The measured value is consistent with the proton magnetic moment, μ p  = 2.792847350(9)μ N , and is in agreement with CPT invariance. Consequently, this measurement constrains the magnitude of certain CPT-violating effects to below 1.8 × 10 -24 gigaelectronvolts, and a possible splitting of the proton-antiproton magnetic moments by CPT-odd dimension-five interactions to below 6 × 10 -12 Bohr magnetons.

  19. History Matters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2017-01-01

    In 2002, she began working as alecturer at Minzu University of China.Now, she teaches English, historicalliterature, ancient Chinese history,historical theory and method, ancientsocial history of China, ancient palacepolitical history of China and the historyof the Sui and Tang dynasties and thePeriod of Five Dynasties.

  20. Histories electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Aidan

    2004-01-01

    Working within the HPO (History Projection Operator) Consistent Histories formalism, we follow the work of Savvidou on (scalar) field theory [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3053 (2002)] and that of Savvidou and Anastopoulos on (first-class) constrained systems [Class. Quantum Gravt. 17, 2463 (2000)] to write a histories theory (both classical and quantum) of Electromagnetism. We focus particularly on the foliation-dependence of the histories phase space/Hilbert space and the action thereon of the two Poincare groups that arise in histories field theory. We quantize in the spirit of the Dirac scheme for constrained systems

  1. The Natural Science Underlying Big History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Chaisson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature’s many varied complex systems—including galaxies, stars, planets, life, and society—are islands of order within the increasingly disordered Universe. All organized systems are subject to physical, biological, or cultural evolution, which together comprise the grander interdisciplinary subject of cosmic evolution. A wealth of observational data supports the hypothesis that increasingly complex systems evolve unceasingly, uncaringly, and unpredictably from big bang to humankind. These are global history greatly extended, big history with a scientific basis, and natural history broadly portrayed across ∼14 billion years of time. Human beings and our cultural inventions are not special, unique, or apart from Nature; rather, we are an integral part of a universal evolutionary process connecting all such complex systems throughout space and time. Such evolution writ large has significant potential to unify the natural sciences into a holistic understanding of who we are and whence we came. No new science (beyond frontier, nonequilibrium thermodynamics is needed to describe cosmic evolution’s major milestones at a deep and empirical level. Quantitative models and experimental tests imply that a remarkable simplicity underlies the emergence and growth of complexity for a wide spectrum of known and diverse systems. Energy is a principal facilitator of the rising complexity of ordered systems within the expanding Universe; energy flows are as central to life and society as they are to stars and galaxies. In particular, energy rate density—contrasting with information content or entropy production—is an objective metric suitable to gauge relative degrees of complexity among a hierarchy of widely assorted systems observed throughout the material Universe. Operationally, those systems capable of utilizing optimum amounts of energy tend to survive, and those that cannot are nonrandomly eliminated.

  2. Secondhand smoke exposure at home among one billion children in 21 countries: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbulo, Lazarous; Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Andes, Linda; Morton, Jeremy; Bashir, Rizwan; Fouad, Heba; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Caixeta, Roberta; Dias, Rula Cavaco; Wijnhoven, Trudy M A; Kashiwabara, Mina; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Tursan d'Espaignet, Edouard

    2016-12-01

    Children are vulnerable to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure because of limited control over their indoor environment. Homes remain the major place where children may be exposed to SHS. Our study examines the magnitude, patterns and determinants of SHS exposure in the home among children in 21 countries (19 low-income and middle-income countries and 2 high-income countries). Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data, a household survey of people 15 years of age or older. Data collected during 2009-2013 were analysed to estimate the proportion of children exposed to SHS in the home. GATS estimates and 2012 United Nations population projections for 2015 were also used to estimate the number of children exposed to SHS in the home. The proportion of children younger than 15 years of age exposed to SHS in the home ranged from 4.5% (Panama) to 79.0% (Indonesia). Of the approximately one billion children younger than 15 years of age living in the 21 countries under study, an estimated 507.74 million were exposed to SHS in the home. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and the Philippines accounted for almost 84.6% of the children exposed to SHS. The prevalence of SHS exposure was higher in countries with higher adult smoking rates and was also higher in rural areas than in urban areas, in most countries. A large number of children were exposed to SHS in the home. Encouraging of voluntary smoke-free rules in homes and cessation in adults has the potential to reduce SHS exposure among children and prevent SHS-related diseases and deaths. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Risk Factors for Wheezing, Eczema and Rhinoconjunctivitis in the Previous 12 Months among Six-Year-Old Children in Himeji City, Japan: Food Allergy, Older Siblings, Day-Care Attendance and Parental Allergy History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitake Kurosaka

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Among Japanese children, food allergy and parents' history of allergy are risk factors for WP, ES or RS. However, early day-care attendance and presence of older siblings might be protective factors against RS. Infections in early life may affect the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in six-year-old children.

  4. Marine Environmental History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries......This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  5. Ranking economic history journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    This study ranks-for the first time-12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We also...... compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential for economic...... history, and that, although economic history is quite independent from economics as a whole, knowledge exchange between the two fields is indeed going on....

  6. Ranking Economic History Journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This study ranks - for the first time - 12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We...... also compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential...... for economic history, and that, although economic history is quite independent from economics as a whole, knowledge exchange between the two fields is indeed going on....

  7. Paleoceanographic history of the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California, during the past 15,000 years based on diatoms, silicoflagellates, and biogenic sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, J.A.; Bukry, D.; Dean, W.E.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution records of calcium carbonate, biogenic opal, diatoms, and silicoflagellates from western Guaymas Basin gravity core GGC55 and piston core JPC56 and eastern Guaymas Basin DSDP Site 480 reveal a complex paleoceanographic history of the central Gulf of California during the past 15,000 years. Prior to ??? 6.2 ka, the eastern and western Guaymas Basin proxy records were remarkably similar. After conditions similar to those of today during the B??lling-Allerod, the Younger Dryas (YD) saw a major drop in diatom production, coincident with increased calcium carbonate and tropical microfossils suggestive of El Nin??o-like conditions. Biosiliceous productivity began increasing during the latter part of the YD, but it was only during the earliest Holocene (11.6 to 11.0 ka) that conditions similar to those of the B??lling-Allerod returned to the central Gulf. Between around 11.0 and 6.2 ka, tropical diatoms and silicoflagellates were virtually absent from the central Gulf, as relatively cooler and fresher surface waters resembling those of the modern northern Gulf were present in the central Gulf. Beginning at about 6.2 ka, tropical diatoms and silicoflagellates began increasing in the central Gulf, and coccoliths returned to western Gulf sediments. The onset of modern-day monsoon conditions in the American Southwest required the presence of warm SSTs in the northern Gulf, which probably did not occur until after about 5.4 ka, when tropical diatoms and silicoflagellates became relatively common in the central Gulf. Modern east-west contrasts, which arise from late winter-early spring coastal upwelling on the mainland side and lower diatom productivity on the western side of the Gulf, commenced between 6.2 and 5.4 ka, possibly due to a shift in the direction of late winter-early spring winds more towards the southeast, or down the axis of the Gulf. This proposed wind shift might have ultimately been due to a late Holocene strengthening of ENSO-like conditions

  8. How do climate and human impact affect Sphagnum peatlands under oceanic-continental climatic conditions? 2000 years of fire and hydrological history of a bog in Northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcisz, Katarzyna; Tinner, Willy; Colombaroli, Daniele; Kołaczek, Piotr; Słowiński, Michał; Fiałkiewicz-Kozieł, Barbara; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2014-05-01

    Climate change affects many natural processes and the same applies to human impact For instance climate change and anthropogenic activities may cause increased fire activity or change peatland dynamics. Currently it is still unknown how Sphagnum peatlands in the oceanic-continental transition zone of Poland may respond to combined effects of heat waves, drought and fire. The aim of the study was to reconstruct the last 2000 years palaeohydrology and fire history at Linje bog in Northern Poland. The main task was to determine the drivers of fire episodes, particularly to identify climatic and anthropogenic forcing. A two-meter peat core was extracted and subsampled with a high resolution. Micro- and macroscopic charcoal analyses were applied to determine past fire activity and the results compared with palaeohydrological reconstructions based on testate amoeba analysis. Palynological human indicators were used to reconstruct human activity. A depth-age model including 20 14C dates was constructed to calculate peat accumulation rates and charcoal influx. We hypothesised that: 1) fire frequency in Northern Poland was determined by climatic conditions (combination of low precipitation and heat waves), as reflected in peatland water table, and that 2) past fire episodes in the last millennium were intensified by human activity. Furthermore climate may have influenced human activity over harvest success and the carrying capacity. Our study shows that fire was important for the studied ecosystem, however, its frequency has increased in the last millennium in concomitance with land use activities. Landscape humanization and vegetation opening were followed by a peatland drying during the Little Ice Age (from ca. AD 1380). Similarly to other palaeoecological studies from Poland, Linje peatland possessed an unstable hydrology during the Little Ice Age. Increased fire episodes appeared shortly before the Little Ice Age and most severe fires were present in the time when

  9. History of the stellar birthrate from lithium abundances in red giants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalo, J.M.; Miller, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    The lithium abundance at the end of main-sequence evolution should increase strongly with mass for masses less than 1.4 M/sub sun/. It is shown that because of this dependence the frequency distribution of Li abundances in red giants is a sensitive probe of the history of the stellar birthrate in the solar neighborhood since the Li distribution directly reflects the stellar age distribution. A birthrate which decreases with time gives a smaller mean red giant Li abundance than an increasing birthrate because a larger fraction of red giants are older and hence less massive. Theoretical Li abundance frequency distributions are calculated for exponentially increasing, constant, and exponentially decreasing birthrates using a semiempirical prescription for main-sequence Li destruction, theoretical main-sequence lifetimes and red giant dilution factors, and self-consistent initial mass functions. The results are compared with the observed abundance distribution for 35 giants studied by Lambert and his colleagues. Allowing for uncertainties, we find that the ratio of present birthrate to average past birthrate has a value between 0.5 and 2. These limits are consistent with results of most other methods of determining the birthrate history, but the present method provides a considerably more stringent lower limit. It is also shown that, with more observational data, fluctuations in the birthrate with a time scale of about one billion years during the period between two and six billion years ago could be resolved

  10. [History of Polish botanical and mycological researches on sheets of land of Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic in the years 1977-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Piotr; Olech, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The work includes a description of the period from the moment of setting up Polish Polar Station on King George Island (1977) to the end of International Polar Year IV in 2009. Researches on flower plants focused, among others, on plants' morphology, morphological composition of the pollen and anatomical ultra-structure of the leaves. There were also carried out biochemical and other searches for the internal mutability. Within physiological studies one concentrated on the problem of reaction to temperature stress. Biological researches focused mainly on solving taxonomic and bio-geographic problems. Finally, were published several monographs and, among others, the first in history complete description of moss' flora of the whole of Antarctic (2008). Research works over algae included also such issues as floristics, bio-geography, taxonomy and ecology (for instance, the rookery's impact on distribution of algae, or the influence of inanimate factors on dynamics of condensing the Diatoma in different water and soil-bound tanks). Up till now, within mycological investigations has been identified a variety of lichen fungi that for the most part of Antarctic are a novelty. There were scientifically described new for science genera and species of Western Antarctic. Lichenological studies were made in the field of taxonomy, geography, lichenometry, biochemistry of lichens, lichenoindication, ecophysiology and from the point of analysis of base metals' content. There were also described new for science species. Since 1991, were published the results of searches for the base metals' content and vestigial chemical elements in lichens' thallus. Ecophysiological researches concerned both micro-climatic conditions' impact on primary production and lichens' adaptation to a very cold climate. One discovered a mechanism of two-phase hydratization/dehydratization of lichens' thallus. On the ground of palaeobotanical analyzes was reconstructed a development of flora in Western

  11. Atmospheric Deposition History of Trace Metals and Metalloids for the Last 200 Years Recorded by Three Peat Cores in Great Hinggan Mountain, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunshan Bao

    2015-03-01

    , even after the ban of leaded gasoline use in China. Emissions from coal and leaded gasoline combustions in northern China are regarded as one of the major sources of anthropogenic Pb input in this region; meanwhile, the long-distance transportation of Pb-bearing aerosols from Mongolia should be also taken into consideration. The reconstructed history of TMs’ pollution over the past ca. 200 years is in agreement with the industrial development in China and clearly illustrates the influence of human activities on local rural environments. This study shows the utility of taking multi-cores to show the heterogeneity in peat accumulation and applying PCA, EF and Pb isotope methods in multi-proxies analyses for establishing a high resolution geochemical metal record from peatland.

  12. Role of adiposity and lifestyle in the relationship between family history of diabetes and 20-year incidence of type 2 diabetes in US women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Riet, E.; Dekker, J.M.; Sun, Q.; Nijpels, G.; Hu, F.B.; van Dam, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To evaluate to what extent the association between family history of diabetes and risk of type 2 diabetes can be explained by excess adiposity and lifestyle risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We analyzed data from 73,227 women who participated in the Nurses' Health Study cohort.

  13. Intelligent Design and Earth History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, W. A.

    2001-05-01

    clumsy, wasteful works of nature as seen in the suffering caused by parasites and in the delight in cruelty shown by some predators when catching and playing with their prey". The positions of other contemporary proponents of ID are far from uniform. Some, while rejecting unguided evolution, appear to accept the concepts of common descent and an Earth 4.6 billion years old. However, within the ID movement there has been very little discussion of its implications for Earth history. For example, is it valid to ask, "Were the Himalayas intelligently designed?" Or should the question be, "Is the physics of plate tectonics intelligently designed?" As well as contingency in the history of life, there are strong elements of contingency in the history of the Earth, in the history of the solar system and in the history of the cosmos. Does ID matter? From a purely operational viewpoint, the rock record could equally well be interpreted in pattern-based investigations as being the product of either naturalistic processes, or as a sequence of intelligently designed events. For example, in correlating horizons between adjacent oil wells using micropaleontology, or in doing seismic stratigraphy, it makes little difference whether foraminifera or unconformities formed by natural or supernatural agencies. However, ID is an anathema for process-based research and its cultural implications are enormous. While we must be careful in our work to separate methodological naturalism from culturally bound philosophical naturalism, methodological naturalism has been an enormously successful approach in the advancement of knowledge. We have moved from the "demon-haunted" world to the world of the human genome. We must take ID seriously; it is a retrograde step.

  14. Entangled histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotler, Jordan; Wilczek, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We introduce quantum history states and their mathematical framework, thereby reinterpreting and extending the consistent histories approach to quantum theory. Through thought experiments, we demonstrate that our formalism allows us to analyze a quantum version of history in which we reconstruct the past by observations. In particular, we can pass from measurements to inferences about ‘what happened’ in a way that is sensible and free of paradox. Our framework allows for a richer understanding of the temporal structure of quantum theory, and we construct history states that embody peculiar, non-classical correlations in time. (paper)

  15. Lifestyle intervention in prevention of type 2 diabetes in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus: one-year results of the FIN-D2D project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, Nina; Jokelainen, Jari; Korpi-Hyövälti, Eeva; Oksa, Heikki; Saaristo, Timo; Peltonen, Markku; Moilanen, Leena; Vanhala, Mauno; Uusitupa, Matti; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka

    2014-06-01

    Lifestyle interventions are effective in preventing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Women with history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) may have barriers to lifestyle changes, and the previous results of lifestyle interventions are contradictory reporting either favorable outcomes or no significant beneficial effects. Our aim was to compare cardio-metabolic risk profile and responses to a 1-year lifestyle intervention program in women with and without history of GDM. The Implementation Project of the Program for Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes (FIN-D2D) was conducted in Finland in five hospital districts. Altogether 1,661 women aged ≤45 years participated in the program. One-year follow-up was available for 393 women who did not have screen-detected T2D at baseline, and 265 of them had at least one intervention visit [115 (43.4%) women with history of GDM and 150 (56.6%) without history of GDM]. At baseline, women with GDM had similar baseline glucose tolerance but better anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure, and lipid profile than women without GDM after adjustment for age. Beneficial changes in cardiovascular risk profile existed among women with and without GDM during follow-up and the effect of lifestyle intervention was similar between the groups, except that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol improved only in women with GDM. Altogether, 4.0% of those with GDM and 5.0% of those without GDM developed T2D (p=0.959 adjustment for age). The effect of a 1-year lifestyle intervention in primary healthcare setting was similar regardless of history of GDM, both women with and without GDM benefitted from participation in the lifestyle intervention.

  16. Transdisciplinary Perspectives in Bioethics: A Co-evolutionary Introduction from the Big History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Collado-Ruano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to expand the bioethics notion expressed in the Article 17th of the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, concerning the interconnections between human beings and other life forms. For this purpose, it is combined the transdisciplinary methodology with the theoretical framework of the “Big History” to approach the co-evolutionary phenomena that life is developing on Earth for some 3.8 billion years. As a result, the study introduces us to the unification, integration and inclusion of the history of the universe, the solar system, Earth, and life with the history of human beings. In conclusion, I consider to safeguard the cosmic miracle that represents the emergence of life we must adopt new transdisciplinary perspectives into bioethics to address the ecosystem complexity of co-evolutionary processes of life on Gaia as a whole.

  17. The life history of Pseudomonas syringae: linking agriculture to earth system processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Cindy E; Monteil, Caroline L; Berge, Odile

    2013-01-01

    The description of the ecology of Pseudomonas syringae is moving away from that of a ubiquitous epiphytic plant pathogen to one of a multifaceted bacterium sans frontières in fresh water and other ecosystems linked to the water cycle. Discovery of the aquatic facet of its ecology has led to a vision of its life history that integrates spatial and temporal scales spanning billions of years and traversing catchment basins, continents, and the planet and that confronts the implication of roles that are potentially conflicting for agriculture (as a plant pathogen and as an actor in processes leading to rain and snowfall). This new ecological perspective has also yielded insight into epidemiological phenomena linked to disease emergence. Overall, it sets the stage for the integration of more comprehensive contexts of ecology and evolutionary history into comparative genomic analyses to elucidate how P. syringae subverts the attack and defense responses of the cohabitants of the diverse environments it occupies.

  18. Rapid analysis of perchlorate in drinking water at parts per billion levels using microchip electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertsch, Jana C; Noblitt, Scott D; Cropek, Donald M; Henry, Charles S

    2010-05-01

    A microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE) system has been developed for the determination of perchlorate in drinking water. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recently proposed a health advisory limit for perchlorate in drinking water of 15 parts per billion (ppb), a level requiring large, sophisticated instrumentation, such as ion chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (IC-MS), for detection. An inexpensive, portable system is desired for routine online monitoring applications of perchlorate in drinking water. Here, we present an MCE method using contact conductivity detection for perchlorate determination. The method has several advantages, including reduced analysis times relative to IC, inherent portability, high selectivity, and minimal sample pretreatment. Resolution of perchlorate from more abundant ions was achieved using zwitterionic, sulfobetaine surfactants, N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propane sulfonate (HDAPS) and N-tetradecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propane sulfonate (TDAPS). The system performance and the optimization of the separation chemistry, including the use of these surfactants to resolve perchlorate from other anions, are discussed in this work. The system is capable of detection limits of 3.4 +/- 1.8 ppb (n = 6) in standards and 5.6 +/- 1.7 ppb (n = 6) in drinking water.

  19. Billion-scale production of hepatocyte-like cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tomoki; Takayama, Kazuo; Sakurai, Fuminori; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-19

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells are expected to be utilized in drug screening and regenerative medicine. However, hepatocyte-like cells have not been fully used in such applications because it is difficult to produce such cells on a large scale. In this study, we tried to establish a method to mass produce hepatocyte-like cells using a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture bioreactor called the Rotary Cell Culture System (RCCS). RCCS enabled us to obtain homogenous hepatocyte-like cells on a billion scale (>10 9  cells). The gene expression levels of some hepatocyte markers (alpha-1 antitrypsin, cytochrome (CYP) 1A2, CYP2D6, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha) were higher in 3D-cultured hepatocyte-like cells than in 2D-cultured hepatocyte-like cells. This result suggests that RCCS could provide more suitable conditions for hepatocyte maturation than the conventional 2D cell culture conditions. In addition, more than 90% of hepatocyte-like cells were positive for albumin and could uptake low-density lipoprotein in the culture medium. We succeeded in the large-scale production of homogenous and functional hepatocyte-like cells from human iPS cells. This technology will be useful in drug screening and regenerative medicine, which require enormous numbers of hepatocyte-like cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biologic agents in rheumatology: unmet issues after 200 trials and $200 billion sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John P A; Karassa, Fotini B; Druyts, Eric; Thorlund, Kristian; Mills, Edward J

    2013-11-01

    Anti-TNF agents and other biologic therapies are widely prescribed for a variety of indications, with total sales that exceed $200 billion to date. In rheumatic diseases, biologic agents have now been studied in more than 200 randomized clinical trials and over 100 subsequent meta-analyses; however, the information obtained does not always meet the needs of patients and clinicians. In this Review, we discuss the current issues concerning the evidence derived from such studies: potential biases favouring positive results; a paucity of head-to-head comparisons between biologically active agents; overwhelming involvement of manufacturer sponsors in trials and in the synthesis of the evidence; the preference for trials with limited follow-up; and the potential for spurious findings on adverse events, leading to endless debates about malignancy risk. We debate the responsibilities of regulatory authorities, the pharmaceutical industry and academia in attempting to solve these shortcomings and challenges. We propose that improvements in the evidence regarding biologic treatments that are continually being added to the therapeutic armamentarium for rheumatic diseases might require revisiting the design and conduct of studies. For example, trials with long-term follow-up that are independent of the pharmaceutical industry, head-to-head comparisons of therapeutic agents and the use of rigorous clinical outcomes should be considered, and public availability of raw data endorsed.

  1. Broadcasts for a billion: the growth of commercial television in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, C

    1987-01-01

    At present, Chinese television reaches 35% of the population (80-90% in urban areas) and is used by the government as a source of education and information. In recognition of the potential market represented by 1.1 billions consumers, Western advertisers have commissioned elaborate market research studies. Drama, sports, news, and movies are consistently identified as the favorite type of programming among Chinese television viewers. About 75% of Beijing adults watch television daily, making the medium both an important target for advertising campaigns and a way for Westerners to influence Chinese business and government leaders. Western advertisers have tended to concentrate their investments in the more urban, affluent regions where products have the greatest likelihood of being sold. There has been a recent trend, however, toward industrial commercials, with British and French companies buying television time to promote their image as partners in China's modernization. Key to the future of commercial advertising on Chinese Television. In many provinces, local television stations have developed a unique character and portray different sociocultural values than the national channel. Outside advertisers have sometimes experienced problems with local networks that substitute local advertising without informing the network. To correct this situation, the government is enacting pro-sponsor regulations that forbid the preemption of the national channel and its advertisements. At the same time, efforts are being made to improve relationships with local television stations by either paying them a fee or airing local commercials on the national network.

  2. Behind the ink : multi-billion dollar oil deal between Venezuela and China not necessarily bad for either the United States or Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentein, J.

    2009-01-01

    Although China has recently signed large contracts with Venezuela for crude oil, experts are convinced that Chinese refiners will want more Canadian crude oil because they have greater confidence in Canada as a reliable provider. Production difficulties with nationalized oil industries in Venezuela and Mexico will create further opportunities for Canadian oil producers. The recent recession has caused delays in plans to increase pipeline capacity. China may invest $US 8 billion in Venezuelan oil in order to increase exports to China to over a million barrels per day by 2015. The Chinese government granted the Venezuelan government a $4 billion loan last year. The Venezuelan government has increased the maximum royalty rates paid by foreign oil companies. The Venezuelan-owned Citgo operates more than 7000 gasoline retail outlets in the United States. The country is capable of processing 1.3 million barrels per day. Studies have suggested that the Chinese see their investments as a business opportunity, and not as a means of antagonizing western countries. It was concluded that economists are predicting that Venezuela's currency will be devalued this year. 3 figs

  3. AREVA - First quarter 2011 revenue: 2.7% growth like for like to 1.979 billion euros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The group reported consolidated revenue of 1.979 billion euros in the 1. quarter of 2011, for 2.2% growth compared with the 1. quarter of 2010 (+ 2.7% like for like). The increase was driven by the Mining / Front End Business Group (+ 20.8% LFL). Revenue from outside France rose 12.0% to 1.22 billion euros and represented 62% of total revenue. The impacts of foreign exchange and changes in consolidation scope were negligible during the period. The March 11 events in Japan had no significant impact on the group's performance in the 1. quarter of 2011. The group's backlog of 43.5 billion euros at March 31, 2011 was stable in relation to March 31, 2010. The growth in the backlog of the Mining / Front End and Renewable Energies Business Groups offset the partial depletion of the backlog in the Reactors and Services and Back End Business Groups as contracts were completed

  4. Our World of 7 Billion: Population Studies in Today's Social Studies Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    The study of world population integrates so many themes and disciplines in the social studies because it encompasses all of human history--the rise of agriculture and civilizations, scientific progress, territorial conflicts, changing gender roles and more. It is also at the heart of human geography and how people came to dominate and alter the…

  5. National History Day 1997 Supplement: Triumph & Tragedy in History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorn, Cathy

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the procedures, standards, and topics involved in the 1997 National History Day. National History Day is a year-long contest where students research primary sources and prepare papers, projects, performances, and media based on a historical theme. The 1997 theme is "Triumph and Tragedy in History." (MJP)

  6. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  7. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of health physicist Karl Z. Morgan, Ph.D., conducted January 7, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This report provided a transcript of an interview of Dr. Karl. Z. Morgan by representatives of the DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Morgan was selected for this interview because of his research for the Manhattan Project at the Metallurgical Laboratory in Chicago and his work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The oral history covers Dr. Morgan's work as a pioneer in the field of Health Physics, his research at ORNL and his work since he retired from ORNL

  8. With billions more on earth we should not back the wheel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1999-01-01

    In a lecture give in Nice, Dr. Hans Blix, former Director General of the Vienna International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), warned against turning back the wheel of energy policy development. Blix sees major deficits in information among a number of politicians bearing responsibility in important European states. This was evident not only from the opt-out plans in Sweden and Germany, but also from the request to delete nuclear power from the catalog of safe and sustainable energy sources, which had been rejected in the European Parliament by a very slim majority. Actually, there were indications of the public acceptance of nuclear power being broader - also with a view to problems of climate - than was evident from statements by politicians. Blix accused politicians of being opportunists playing to antinuclear voters. A factor influencing this situation could be the fact that the true consequences of opting out of the use of nuclear power, including higher carbon dioxide emissions, always became apparent long after the next election date. Blix asked what the nuclear industry could do to convince the public that nuclear power, compared with other forms of energy, should be classified as a sustainable energy source not only in terms of its price, but also with respect to its environmental impact. In this connection, the former Director General of IAEA mentioned five areas in which the nuclear industry was required to make progress on its own. These included the need for still more safety in all areas of nuclear technology worldwide, from exploration in the uranium mines to the storage of nuclear waste. In particular, those responsible should seek to attain public acceptance of the need for nuclear waste management and storage strategies as soon as possible. Ultimately, this required nuclear organizations to seek a direct dialog with the public. Blix concluded with the statement that it was simply unconvincing to venture into a future for billions of people on earth

  9. No Photon Left Behind: How Billions of Spectral Lines are Transforming Planetary Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Geronimo L.

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of realistic potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment surface (DMS) descriptions, theoretically computed linelists can now synthesize accurate spectral parameters for billions of spectral lines sampling the untamed high-energy molecular domain. Being the initial driver for these databases the characterization of stellar spectra, these theoretical databases, in combination with decades of precise experimental studies (nicely compiled in community databases such as HITRAN and GEISA), are leading to unprecedented precisions in the characterization of planetary atmospheres. Cometary sciences are among the most affected by this spectroscopic revolution. Even though comets are relatively cold bodies (T˜100 K), their infrared molecular emission is mainly defined by non-LTE solar fluorescence induced by a high-energy source (Sun, T˜5600 K). In order to interpret high-resolution spectra of comets acquired with extremely powerful telescopes (e.g., Keck, VLT, NASA-IRTF), we have developed advanced non-LTE fluorescence models that integrate the high-energy dynamic range of ab-initio databases (e.g., BT2, VTT, HPT2, BYTe, TROVE) and the precision of laboratory and semi-empirical compilations (e.g., HITRAN, GEISA, CDMS, WKMC, SELP, IUPAC). These new models allow us to calculate realistic non-LTE pumps, cascades, branching-ratios, and emission rates for a broad range of excitation regimes for H2O, HDO, HCN, HNC and NH3. We have implemented elements of these compilations to the study of Mars spectra, and we are now exploring its application to modeling non-LTE emission in exoplanets. In this presentation, we present application of these advanced models to interpret highresolution spectra of comets, Mars and exoplanets.

  10. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of radiation biologist Marvin Goldman, Ph.D., conducted December 22, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report provides a transcript of an interview of Dr. Marvin Goldman by representatives of DOE's Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Goldman was chosen for this interview because of his work on bone-seeking radionuclides. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Goldman related his experiences concerning his training and work at Rochester University, his work at Brookhaven National Laboratory, his participation in the Beagle Studies at University of California at Davis, his work with the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant Accident, his consultation work with Russian authorities on the health and ecological effects in their history, and finally his opinions and recommendations on human radiation research and the environmental cleanup of DOE sites

  11. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx in patients aged 18-45 years: A case-control study to evaluate the risk factors with emphasis on stress, diet, oral hygiene, and family history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholam, K P; Chouksey, G C

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and oropharynx is reported in young adults. However, there is a paucity regarding etiology and risk factors. To evaluate the exposure potential carcinogenic factors among a sample aged 45 years and younger, diagnosed with SCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Eighty-five case samples aged 18-45 years, diagnosed with SCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx were compared with 85 controls who had never had cancer, matched for age and sex. This study was conducted by questionnaire-based interviews. Questionnaire contained items about exposure to the following risk factors: Caries prevalence, oral hygiene status, dental trauma, dental visit, stress, family history of cancer, environmental exposure to potential carcinogens, diet, body mass index (BMI), habits such as smoking, tobacco chewing, betel quid/pan, or supari. Odds ratios (ORs) of oral and pharyngeal cancer and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Poral hygiene, stress, dental trauma, low BMI, family history of cancer, exposure to environmental carcinogens, and habit of placement of quid for 11-20 years. An increased risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer was seen in cases who had poor oral hygiene, stress, dental trauma, low BMI, family history of cancer, exposure to environmental carcinogens, and habit of placement of quid.

  12. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  13. The natural history of biocatalytic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Neetika; Mitchell, John B O; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2014-05-01

    period that spanned ∼2 billion years of evolutionary history.

  14. The Fifteen-Year Attitude History of the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 Radiator and Collection Efficiencies for Micrometeoroids and Orbital Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anz-Meador, Phillip D.; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Cooke, William J.; Koehler, H.

    2010-01-01

    An examination of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC-2) radiator assembly was conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) during the summer of 2009. Immediately apparent was a distinct biasing of the largest 45 impact features towards one side of the radiator, in contrast to an approximately uniform distribution of smaller impacts. Such a distribution may be a consequence of the HST s attitude history and pointing requirements for the cold radiator, or of environmental effects, such as an anisotropic distribution of the responsible population in that size regime. Understanding the size-dependent spatial distribution of impact features is essential to the general analysis of these features. We have obtained from GSFC a 15 minute temporal resolution record of the state vector (Earth Centered Inertial position and velocity) and HST attitude, consisting of the orientation of the velocity and HST-sun vectors in HST body coordinates. This paper reviews the actual state vector and attitude history of the radiator in the context of the randomly tumbling plate assumption and assesses the statistical likelihood (or collection efficiency) of the radiator for the micrometeoroid and orbital debris environments. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center s Meteoroid Environment Model is used to assess the micrometeoroid component. The NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM) is used to model the orbital debris component. Modeling results are compared with observations of the impact feature spatial distribution, and the relative contribution of each environmental component are examined in detail.

  15. Subsampled open-reference clustering creates consistent, comprehensive OTU definitions and scales to billions of sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Jai Ram; He, Yan; Navas-Molina, Jose A; Walters, William A; Ursell, Luke K; Gibbons, Sean M; Chase, John; McDonald, Daniel; Gonzalez, Antonio; Robbins-Pianka, Adam; Clemente, Jose C; Gilbert, Jack A; Huse, Susan M; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Knight, Rob; Caporaso, J Gregory

    2014-01-01

    We present a performance-optimized algorithm, subsampled open-reference OTU picking, for assigning marker gene (e.g., 16S rRNA) sequences generated on next-generation sequencing platforms to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for microbial community analysis. This algorithm provides benefits over de novo OTU picking (clustering can be performed largely in parallel, reducing runtime) and closed-reference OTU picking (all reads are clustered, not only those that match a reference database sequence with high similarity). Because more of our algorithm can be run in parallel relative to "classic" open-reference OTU picking, it makes open-reference OTU picking tractable on massive amplicon sequence data sets (though on smaller data sets, "classic" open-reference OTU clustering is often faster). We illustrate that here by applying it to the first 15,000 samples sequenced for the Earth Microbiome Project (1.3 billion V4 16S rRNA amplicons). To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest OTU picking run ever performed, and we estimate that our new algorithm runs in less than 1/5 the time than would be required of "classic" open reference OTU picking. We show that subsampled open-reference OTU picking yields results that are highly correlated with those generated by "classic" open-reference OTU picking through comparisons on three well-studied datasets. An implementation of this algorithm is provided in the popular QIIME software package, which uses uclust for read clustering. All analyses were performed using QIIME's uclust wrappers, though we provide details (aided by the open-source code in our GitHub repository) that will allow implementation of subsampled open-reference OTU picking independently of QIIME (e.g., in a compiled programming language, where runtimes should be further reduced). Our analyses should generalize to other implementations of these OTU picking algorithms. Finally, we present a comparison of parameter settings in QIIME's OTU picking workflows and

  16. Subsampled open-reference clustering creates consistent, comprehensive OTU definitions and scales to billions of sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Ram Rideout

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a performance-optimized algorithm, subsampled open-reference OTU picking, for assigning marker gene (e.g., 16S rRNA sequences generated on next-generation sequencing platforms to operational taxonomic units (OTUs for microbial community analysis. This algorithm provides benefits over de novo OTU picking (clustering can be performed largely in parallel, reducing runtime and closed-reference OTU picking (all reads are clustered, not only those that match a reference database sequence with high similarity. Because more of our algorithm can be run in parallel relative to “classic” open-reference OTU picking, it makes open-reference OTU picking tractable on massive amplicon sequence data sets (though on smaller data sets, “classic” open-reference OTU clustering is often faster. We illustrate that here by applying it to the first 15,000 samples sequenced for the Earth Microbiome Project (1.3 billion V4 16S rRNA amplicons. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest OTU picking run ever performed, and we estimate that our new algorithm runs in less than 1/5 the time than would be required of “classic” open reference OTU picking. We show that subsampled open-reference OTU picking yields results that are highly correlated with those generated by “classic” open-reference OTU picking through comparisons on three well-studied datasets. An implementation of this algorithm is provided in the popular QIIME software package, which uses uclust for read clustering. All analyses were performed using QIIME’s uclust wrappers, though we provide details (aided by the open-source code in our GitHub repository that will allow implementation of subsampled open-reference OTU picking independently of QIIME (e.g., in a compiled programming language, where runtimes should be further reduced. Our analyses should generalize to other implementations of these OTU picking algorithms. Finally, we present a comparison of parameter settings in

  17. Portraying User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2008-01-01

    history. Next the paper analyses a selected sample of papers on UI history at large. The analysis shows that the current state-of-art is featured by three aspects: Firstly internalism, in that the papers adress the tech­nologies in their own right with little con­text­ualization, secondly whiggism...... in that they largely address prevailing UI techno­logies, and thirdly history from above in that they focus on the great deeds of the visionaries. The paper then compares this state-of-art in UI history to the much more mature fields history of computing and history of technology. Based hereon, some speculations......The user interface is coming of age. Papers adressing UI history have appeared in fair amounts in the last 25 years. Most of them address particular aspects such as an in­novative interface paradigm or the contribution of a visionary or a research lab. Contrasting this, papers addres­sing UI...

  18. The Challenge of World History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldana, Cristobal T.

    2012-01-01

    The author started teaching world history during his first year of teaching at Harlingen High School. To be given such an assignment, because of the breadth of the course, in one's first year might be considered a great misfortune. However, looking back, the author would not have preferred it any other way. World history quickly became his…

  19. Exotic minerals in 3500 million year old rocks: evidence for large meteorite impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byerly, G.R.; Lowe, D.R.; Asaro, F.

    1988-01-01

    A relatively small area of mountainous terrain in southern Africa provides scientists from all over the world a look at what the surface of the earth was like three and a half billion years ago. The Barberton Mountains lie astride the borders of the Republic of South Africa, Mozambique, and the Kingdom of Swaziland. The discovery of several widely distributed deposits that were likely formed by major terrestrial impacts of large extraterrestrial bodies during this early period of earth's history is reported. The Barberton impact deposits are being studied by electron microscopy. The impact deposits were examined for minerals that show the effects of shock metamorphism or compositions unusual in terrestrial rocks

  20. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on....

  1. Ildens historier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Henrik Roesgaard

    have been written by Andersen. In several chapters the curiously forgotten history of fire-lighting technology is outlined, and it is demonstrated that "Tællelyset" is written by a person with a modern perspective on how to light a candle - among other things. The central argument in the book springs...... from a point-by-point tracing of 'the origins and history' of Hans Christian Andersen's famous fairy tales. Where did the come from? How did they become the iconic texts that we know today? On this background it becomes quite clear that "Tællelyset" is a modern pastiche and not a genuine Hans Christian...

  2. A history of childhood trauma is associated with slower improvement rates: Findings from a one-year follow-up study of patients with a first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, Monica; Andreassen, Ole A; Aminoff, Sofie R; Færden, Ann; Romm, Kristin L; Nesvåg, Ragnar; Berg, Akiah O; Simonsen, Carmen; Agartz, Ingrid; Melle, Ingrid

    2016-05-04

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether childhood trauma was associated with more severe clinical features in patients with first-episode psychosis, both at the initial assessment and after one year. Ninety-six patients with a first-episode of a DSM-IV diagnosis of psychosis, in addition to 264 healthy controls from the same catchment area, were recruited to the TOP NORMENT study. A history of childhood trauma was obtained using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Function and symptom severity were measured using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale divided into function (GAF-F) and symptoms (GAF-S), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). All clinical assessments were completed at two time points: At an initial assessment within the first year of initiating treatment for psychosis and after one year. Childhood trauma was associated with significantly reduced global functioning and more severe clinical symptoms at both baseline and follow-up, whereas emotional neglect was associated with a significantly reduced improvement rate for global functioning (GAF-F) over the follow-up period. Our data indicate that patients with first-episode psychosis who report a history of childhood trauma constitute a subgroup characterized by more severe clinical features over the first year of treatment, as well as slower improvement rates.

  3. ICDP Project DeepCHALLA: Reconstructing 250,000 Years of Climate Change and Environmental History on the East African Equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, C.; Verschuren, D.; Van Daele, M. E.; Waldmann, N.; Meyer, I.; Lane, C. S.; Van der Meeren, T.; Ombori, T.; Kasanzu, C.; Olago, D.

    2017-12-01

    Sediments on the bottom of Lake Challa, a 92-m deep crater lake on the border of Kenya and Tanzania near Mt. Kilimanjaro, contain a uniquely long and continuous record of past climate and environmental change in easternmost equatorial Africa. Supported in part by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Programme (ICDP), the DeepCHALLA project has now recovered this sediment record down to 214.8 m below the lake floor, with 100% recovery of the uppermost 121.3 m (the last 160 kyr BP) and ca.85% recovery of the older part of the sequence, down to the lowermost distinct reflector identified in seismic stratigraphy. This acoustic basement represents a ca.2-m thick layer of coarsely laminated, diatom-rich organic mud mixed with volcanic sand and silt deposited 250 kyr ago, overlying an estimated 20-30 m of unsampled lacustrine deposits representing the earliest phase of lake development. Down-hole logging produced profiles of in-situ sediment composition that confer an absolute depth- scale to both the recovered cores and the seismic stratigraphy. An estimated 74% of the recovered sequence is finely laminated (varved), and continuously so over the upper 72.3 m (the last 90 kyr). All other sections display at least cm-scale lamination, demonstrating persistence of a tranquil, profundal depositional environment throughout lake history. The sequence is interrupted only by 32 visible tephra layers 2 to 9 mm thick; and by several dozen fine-grained turbidites up to 108 cm thick, most of which are clearly bracketed between a non-erosive base and a diatom-laden cap. Tie points between sediment markers and the corresponding seismic reflectors support a preliminary age model inferring a near-constant rate of sediment accumulation over at least the last glacial cycle (140 kyr BP to present). This great time span combined with the exquisite temporal resolution of the Lake Challa sediments provides great opportunities to study past tropical climate dynamics at both short

  4. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasability of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.

    2005-12-15

    whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country's present petroleum consumption--the goal set by the Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  5. Areva - First quarter 2009 revenue climbs 8.5% to 3.003 billion euros; Areva - Progression du chiffre d'affaires du 1. trimestre 2009: + 8,5% a 3003 millions d'euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    First quarter 2009 revenue was up 8.5% compared with the same period last year, to 3.003 billion euros. At constant exchange rates and consolidation scope, growth came to 3.9%. Currency translation had a positive impact of 57 million euros over the quarter. Changes in the consolidation scope had an impact of 66 million euros, primarily due to the consolidation of acquisitions made in 2008 in Transmission and Distribution and in Renewable Energies. The growth engines for first quarter revenue were the Reactors and Services division and the Transmission and Distribution division, with growth of 9.2% and 16.1% respectively. Outside France, revenue rose to 2.032 billion euros, compared with 1.857 billion euros in the first quarter of 2008, and represents 68% of total revenue. Orders were steady in the first quarter, particularly in the Front End, which posted several significant contracts with US and Asian utilities, and in Transmission and Distribution, with orders up sharply in Asia and South America. As of March 31, 2009, the group's backlog reached 49.5 billion euros, for 28.3% growth year-on-year, including 31.3% growth in Nuclear and 10.2% in Transmission and Distribution. For the year as a whole, the group confirms its outlook for backlog and revenue growth as well as rising operating income It should be noted that revenue may vary significantly from one quarter to the next in nuclear operations. Accordingly, quarterly data cannot be viewed as a reliable indicator of annual trends.

  6. 10 years of sanitation work at Wismut GmbH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, W.

    2001-01-01

    Ten years after the work on uranium mines abandoned in 1990 was started, all sites of the Wismut GmbH report considerable progress. Of the 13 billion DM granted in 1991 by the German state, 6.7 had been spent by the end of 2000. DM 2.7 billion were spent in East Thuringia and DM 3 billion in Sayony. The work done in 2000 amounted to DM 485 million [de

  7. The 2011-2015 physical and monetary balance for electricity: spending of over euro 50 billion in 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggemos, Fabien; Meilhac, Christophe; Riedinger, Nicolas; Martial, Elodie; Mombel, David; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Lavail, Jennyfer

    2017-09-01

    Electricity consumers (excluding the electricity sector itself) spent euro 52 billion in 2015 to consume 446 TWh. Taxes accounted for 27% of that expenditure (of which around one-half contributed to financing renewable sources of electricity and to geographical price adjustments), the cost of transmission 27%, and that of supply (including production and sales) 46%. Trade with other countries showed a positive balance of euro 2.3 billion. The residential sector was the main consuming sector, accounting for 35% of physical deliveries. Given the transmission and sales costs, higher on average for households than for businesses, the residential sector accounted for a greater proportion of the spending (48%). Conversely, industry accounted for 24% of physical consumption but only 15% of spending. The share of the services sector was around one-third, in both physical-unit and monetary terms

  8. Business History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that a cultural and narrative perspective can enrich the business history field, encourage new and different questions and answers, and provide new ways of thinking about methods and empirical material. It discusses what culture is and how it relates to narratives. Taking...

  9. LCA History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Molin, Christine

    2018-01-01

    The idea of LCA was conceived in the 1960s when environmental degradation and in particular the limited access to resources started becoming a concern. This chapter gives a brief summary of the history of LCA since then with a focus on the fields of methodological development, application...

  10. Rewriting History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Catherine Clark

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that the telling of vivid stories can help engage elementary students' emotions and increase the chances of fostering an interest in Texas history. Suggests that incorporating elements of the process approach to writing can merge with social studies objectives in creating a curriculum for wisdom. (RS)

  11. How Brazil Transferred Billions to Foreign Coffee Importers: The International Coffee Agreement, Rent Seeking and Export Tax Rebates

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Lovell S.

    2003-01-01

    Rent seeking is well known, but empirical evidence of its effects is relatively rare. This paper analyzes how the domestic and international rent seeking caused Brazil to provide coffee export tax rebates that transferred foreign exchange to coffee importers. Although Brazil was the world's largest exporter, it began to pay export tax rebates to selected coffee importers in 1965 and, by 1988, had paid rebates totaling $8 billion. Brazil explained these rebates as a mechanism to price disc...

  12. The formative years of relativity the history and meaning of Einstein's Princeton lectures : featuring Einstein's classic text The meaning of relativity in its historical context

    CERN Document Server

    Gutfreund, Hanoch

    2017-01-01

    First published in 1922 and based on lectures delivered in May 1921, Albert Einstein's The Meaning of Relativity offered an overview and explanation of the then new and controversial theory of relativity. The work would go on to become a monumental classic, printed in numerous editions and translations worldwide. Now, The Formative Years of Relativity introduces Einstein's masterpiece to new audiences. This beautiful volume contains Einstein's insightful text, accompanied by important historical materials and commentary looking at the origins and development of general relativity. Hanoch Gutfreund and Jurgen Renn provide fresh, original perspectives, placing Einstein's achievements into a broader context for all readers. In this book, Gutfreund and Renn tell the rich story behind the early reception, spread, and consequences of Einstein's ideas during the formative years of general relativity in the late 1910s and 1920s. They show that relativity's meaning changed radically throughout the nascent years of it...

  13. A short note from the history of traditional music of the Serbs in Vojvodina: To mark two hundred years of the first recorded wedding song

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The well-known wedding song 'Odbi se grana od jorgovana' dates back to 1815 when it was recorded by Franciszek Mirecki. It was sung to him by a woman who was Vuk Stefanović Karadžić's informant (Dević, 1991: 129. Specific in its character and melodic pattern, the wedding song held an important position in the wedding ceremony of native Serbs in the region of present-day Vojvodina. In the year of 2015 it had been exactly two hundred years since it was first notated.

  14. Another Record Year for Academic Pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how, fueled by the war on terrorism, Congress has awarded a record $1.8 billion in academic earmarks in the 2002 fiscal year. Profiles several recipient programs and includes a campus-by-campus list of projects. (EV)

  15. A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Verbal Short-Term Memory and Phonological Processing in 8-Year-Olds with a History of Repetitive Otitis Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve; Amand, Pierre; Boniver, Vincent; Demanez, Jean-Pierre; Demanez, Laurent; Van der Linden, Martial

    2005-01-01

    Language outcome in children experiencing fluctuant hearing loss due to otitis media (OME) remains highly equivocal. In the current study, we assessed performance on highly sensitive verbal short-term memory (STM), new word learning and phonological processing tasks in 8-year-old children who had suffered from recurrent OME before the age of 3.…

  16. From Performance to Decision Processes in 33 Years: A History of Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes under James C. Naylor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber

    1998-12-01

    For the past 33 years, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes has thrived under a single editor. That editor, James C. Naylor, is retiring from his long stewardship. This article chronicles the course of the journal under Jim's direction and marks some of the accomplishments and changes over the past three decades that go to his credit. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  17. Universal health insurance coverage for 1.3 billion people: What accounts for China's success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao

    2015-09-01

    China successfully achieved universal health insurance coverage in 2011, representing the largest expansion of insurance coverage in human history. While the achievement is widely recognized, it is still largely unexplored why China was able to attain it within a short period. This study aims to fill the gap. Through a systematic political and socio-economic analysis, it identifies seven major drivers for China's success, including (1) the SARS outbreak as a wake-up call, (2) strong public support for government intervention in health care, (3) renewed political commitment from top leaders, (4) heavy government subsidies, (5) fiscal capacity backed by China's economic power, (6) financial and political responsibilities delegated to local governments and (7) programmatic implementation strategy. Three of the factors seem to be unique to China (i.e., the SARS outbreak, the delegation, and the programmatic strategy.) while the other factors are commonly found in other countries' insurance expansion experiences. This study also discusses challenges and recommendations for China's health financing, such as reducing financial risk as an immediate task, equalizing benefit across insurance programs as a long-term goal, improving quality by tying provider payment to performance, and controlling costs through coordinated reform initiatives. Finally, it draws lessons for other developing countries. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Areva revenue growth in the first quarter of 2010: 8.4% like-for-like, i.e. 1.936 billion euros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The group's first quarter 2010 consolidated revenue rose 6.5% to 1.936 billion euros (+8.4% LFL) compared with the first quarter of 2009. Growth was driven by the Reactors and Services Business Group (+18.0% LFL). Revenue from exports was up 16.6% to 1.089 billion euros, representing 56.2% of total revenue. Foreign exchange had a negative impact of 26 million euros. Changes in consolidation scope were negligible during the period. The group's backlog of 43.6 billion euros at March 31, 2010 was stable in relation to December 31, 2009. Growth in the backlog of the Reactors and Services Business Group helped offset the drawdown of the backlog in the Back End Business Group as contracts were completed. For the full year of 2010, the group confirms its outlook for significant backlog and revenue growth, rising operating income, and a strong increase in net income attributable to owners of the parent. Mining/Front End Business Group: The Mining/Front End BG reported first quarter 2010 revenue of 674 million euros, which was stable on a reported basis and up 3.5% LFL1. Foreign exchange had a negative impact of 16 million euros. - In Mining, quarterly revenue was driven by volume growth due to a favorable delivery schedule. - In Enrichment and Fuel, volumes were down compared with the first quarter of 2009, particularly due to time-lag in customer deliveries. Reactors and Services Business Group: Revenue for the Reactors and Services BG was up 16.4% in the first quarter of 2010 (up 18.0% LFL1), to 775 million euros. Foreign exchange had a negative impact of 10 million euros. - The New Builds Business reported strong growth due to significant progress on major reactor construction projects, particularly Taishan in China. - Installed Base Business was also up due to buoyant engineering operations, particularly in Germany, and to the more favorable seasonality of unit outage campaigns than in the first quarter of 2009. Back End Business Group: First quarter 2010 revenue for

  19. Strong backlog growth of 22.3% compared to September 30, 2008. Strong third quarter revenue growth of 7.8%, bringing sales for the first nine months of 2009 to 9.7 billion, or +6.4%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    AREVA generated consolidated revenue of 9.686 billion euros over the first nine months of 2009 for growth of 6.4% (+4.0% like-for-like) compared with the same period in 2008. Revenue outside France was up 8.4% to 6.999 billion euros, representing 72% of total revenue. The main revenue growth engines were the Front End division and the Transmission and Distribution division, with growth of 7.6% and 12.4% respectively. Foreign exchange had a positive impact of 91 million euros. Changes in the consolidation scope had an impact of 117 million euros, corresponding to the consolidation of acquisitions made by AREVA TA and the Transmission and Distribution division in 2008 and 2009. Third quarter 2009 revenue rose 7.8% to 3.164 billion euros (+6.7% like-for-like) compared with the third quarter of 2008. Changes in the consolidation scope had a positive impact of 31 million euros. The foreign exchange impact was minimal for the period. Quarterly growth was fueled mostly by the Front End division (+13.7%), the Back End division (+7.1%) and the Transmission and Distribution division (+8.4%). The group's backlog stood at 47.5 billion euros as of September 30, 2009 for 22.3% growth year-on-year. The backlog is up 27.4% in Nuclear and down 5.6% in Transmission and Distribution. For 2009 as a whole, the group confirms its outlook, based on the consolidation scope as of June 30, 2009, for a strong growth in backlog and in revenue and operating income close to that of the financial year 2008

  20. Business History as Cultural History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    The paper engages with the larger question of how cultural heritage becomes taken for granted and offers a complimentary view to the anthropological ʻCopenhagen School’ of business history, one that draws attention to the way corporate wealth directly and indirectly influences the culture available...

  1. Linking growth to environmental histories in central Baltic young-of-the-year sprat, Sprattus sprattus : an approach based on otolith microstructure analysis and hydrodynamic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, H.; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Voss, R.

    2006-01-01

    Otolith microstructure analysis and hydrodynamic modelling were combined to study growth patterns in young-of-the-year (YoY) sprat, Sprattus sprattus, which were sampled in October 2002 in the central Baltic Sea. The observed 'window of survival', approximated by the distribution of back-calculat......Otolith microstructure analysis and hydrodynamic modelling were combined to study growth patterns in young-of-the-year (YoY) sprat, Sprattus sprattus, which were sampled in October 2002 in the central Baltic Sea. The observed 'window of survival', approximated by the distribution of back......-calculated days of first feeding (DFF), was narrow compared to the extended spawning season of sprat in the Baltic Sea (mean +/- SD = 22 June +/- 14.1 days) and indicated that only individuals born in summer survived until October 2002. Within the group of survivors, individuals born later in the season exhibited...

  2. Publication of the Korea-WHO Cooperation History - 70 Years of Working Together for Heath: World Health Organization and the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Heeyeon; Lee, Dong Woo; Choe, Young June; Choe, Seung Ah; Park, No Yai

    2017-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) have been in collaborative efforts with the Republic of Korea in keeping of and for better health for all for the past decades. From the control of parasites to building of community health system in rural places, the works has now resulted in healthier Korea than ever, and has transformed the role of engaging as the world leader in contribution of health and development. Seventy years of independence, war, and poverty, transforming from a recipient country of official development assistance to a significant donor to the global society, we have emphasized the importance of international cooperation and the role of WHO in the past years in Korea and neighboring countries. Looking back of the past is meaningful to diagnose the present problems, and to foresee the future of our world.

  3. Management of women with BRCA mutations: a 41-year-old woman with a BRCA mutation and a recent history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Nadine

    2011-06-01

    Ms E, a 41-year-old BRCA1 mutation carrier, was diagnosed 4 years ago as having breast cancer and opted for breast-conserving therapy. Prior to receiving chemotherapy, she harvested her eggs through in vitro fertilization and subsequently used preimplantation genetic diagnosis; 3 months ago she delivered a healthy boy. This review examines the prevalence of BRCA mutations in women with breast cancer, as well as current recommendations for surgery and systemic therapy in these women. In particular, the risk of a contralateral breast cancer is reviewed to help guide the choice of prophylactic mastectomies vs breast-conserving therapy. The technology of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and genetic testing in relatives of mutation carriers is discussed.

  4. Proterozoic Milankovitch cycles and the history of the solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Stephen R; Malinverno, Alberto

    2018-06-19

    The geologic record of Milankovitch climate cycles provides a rich conceptual and temporal framework for evaluating Earth system evolution, bestowing a sharp lens through which to view our planet's history. However, the utility of these cycles for constraining the early Earth system is hindered by seemingly insurmountable uncertainties in our knowledge of solar system behavior (including Earth-Moon history), and poor temporal control for validation of cycle periods (e.g., from radioisotopic dates). Here we address these problems using a Bayesian inversion approach to quantitatively link astronomical theory with geologic observation, allowing a reconstruction of Proterozoic astronomical cycles, fundamental frequencies of the solar system, the precession constant, and the underlying geologic timescale, directly from stratigraphic data. Application of the approach to 1.4-billion-year-old rhythmites indicates a precession constant of 85.79 ± 2.72 arcsec/year (2σ), an Earth-Moon distance of 340,900 ± 2,600 km (2σ), and length of day of 18.68 ± 0.25 hours (2σ), with dominant climatic precession cycles of ∼14 ky and eccentricity cycles of ∼131 ky. The results confirm reduced tidal dissipation in the Proterozoic. A complementary analysis of Eocene rhythmites (∼55 Ma) illustrates how the approach offers a means to map out ancient solar system behavior and Earth-Moon history using the geologic archive. The method also provides robust quantitative uncertainties on the eccentricity and climatic precession periods, and derived astronomical timescales. As a consequence, the temporal resolution of ancient Earth system processes is enhanced, and our knowledge of early solar system dynamics is greatly improved.

  5. A brief history of space and time: the scope-year index as a patent value indicator based on families and renewals

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Van Pottelsberghe; Nicolas van Zeebroeck

    2007-01-01

    The renewal of patents and their geographical scope for protection constitute two essential dimensions in a patent’s life, and probably the most frequently used patent value indicators. The intertwining of these dimensions (the geographical scope of protection may vary over time) makes their analysis complex, as any measure along one dimension requires an arbitrary choice on the second. This paper proposes a new indicator of patent value, the Scope-Year index, combining the two dimensions. Th...

  6. Children with a History of Premature Adrenarche Have Good Health-Related Quality of Life at the Age of 12 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatta, Jani; Sintonen, Harri; Utriainen, Pauliina; Voutilainen, Raimo; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo

    2018-01-01

    Children with premature adrenarche (PA) are taller and more overweight than their healthy peers, and PA girls have a slightly accelerated pubertal development. There is some evidence that early exposure to androgens may have an influence on psychosocial development. The aim of this cross-sectional case-control study was to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in PA children at the age of 12 years. The HRQoL was assessed for 43 PA (36 girls) and 63 control children (52 girls) at the median age of 12.0 years using the standardized 16D instrument, and the scores of the PA children were compared to those of the control children and reference population. The mean overall HRQoL scores did not differ between PA and control girls, PA and control boys, or all PA and control children or the reference population. Independently of PA, overweight girls had a lower mean overall HRQoL score than lean girls, and both overweight girls and boys were on average worse off on the dimension of appearance than their lean peers. PA children have as good self-rated HRQoL as their peers at the age of 12 years. Overweight is associated with a worse HRQoL profile independently of PA. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Stratigraphic and microfossil evidence for a 4500-year history of Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes and tsunamis at Yaquina River estuary, Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graehl, Nicholas A; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Witter, Robert C.; Hemphill-Haley, Eileen; Engelhart, Simon E.

    2015-01-01

    intervals.The comparison of the Yaquina Bay earthquake record to similar records at other Cascadia coastal sites helps to define potential patterns of rupture for different earthquakes, although inherent uncertainty in dating precludes definitive statements about rupture length during earthquakes. We infer that in the first half of the last millennia, the northern Oregon part of the subduction zone had a different rupture history than the southern Oregon part of the subduction zone, and we also infer that at ca. 1.6 ka, two earthquakes closely spaced in time together ruptured a length of the megathrust that extends at least from southwestern Washington to southern Oregon.

  8. A 10-year follow-up to determine the effect of YAG laser iridotomy on the natural history of pigment dispersion syndrome: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Stefano A; Ungaro, Nicola; Tardini, Maria Grazia; Ghirardini, Stella; Carta, Arturo; Mora, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    Prospective long-term analyses of the role of drug-induced mydriasis and laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) are needed to identify and manage the eyes of patients with pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) at risk for progressing to ocular hypertension. To assess the 10-year incidence of increased intraocular pressure (IOP) in the 2 eyes of patients with PDS, with 1 eye that underwent LPI and the other that did not. In a randomized clinical trial in the glaucoma research unit at the University Hospital of Parma, Italy, 72 patients with PDS underwent phenylephrine testing. Of these 72 patients, 29 (58 eyes) tested positive for succeeding IOP elevation, and 43 (59 eyes) tested negative. For the 29 high-risk patients (all in both eyes), one eye was randomly assigned to LPI, and the fellow eye was left untreated. For the 43 low-risk patients, the affected eyes were left untreated. An IOP elevation of 5 mm Hg or higher vs baseline (daily phasing) was considered to be a significant increase (ie, an event). In the high-risk group, 3 of 21 eyes that underwent LPI (14.3%) and 13 of 21 untreated eyes (61.9%) showed an increase in IOP of 5 mm Hg or higher during the follow-up period; 4 of 35 low-risk eyes (11.4%) showed a similar increase. Event-free mean (SD) time was 7.99 (0.43) years for high-risk treated eyes, 3.89 (0.68) years for high-risk untreated eyes, and 7.16 (0.23) years for low-risk eyes. The log-rank test showed the following: P < .001 for treated high-risk eyes vs untreated high-risk eyes, P = .74 for treated high-risk eyes vs low-risk eyes, and P < .001 for untreated high-risk eyes vs low-risk eyes. At the end of the 10-year follow-up, (1) approximately one-third of the whole PDS patient population showed an IOP increase of 5 mm Hg or higher in at least 1 eye; (2) phenylephrine testing identified eyes at high risk for developing IOP elevation; and (3) LPI, when performed on high-risk eyes, reduced the rate of IOP elevation to the same level as the low-risk eyes

  9. Understanding World Economic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaples, Robert

    2013-01-01

    One joy of studying history is discovering people living meaningful lives and behaving in unusual ways that are startling to the modern reader--young or old. Why did pre-modern people living hundreds or even thousands of years ago do things so differently than we do? Robert Whaples states that Economic historians conclude that the key difference…

  10. A history of gonioscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alward, Wallace L M

    2011-01-01

    The first view of the iridocorneal angle in a living human occurred accidentally in the late 1800s. Lenses were first used to see the angle in 1914, but practical gonioscopy would not come into existence for many years as the slitlamp and lenses that could be used at the slitlamp were developed. This article reviews the history of gonioscopy.

  11. Observing Children Learning History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David W.

    1981-01-01

    Compares the suitability of two kinds of history curricula for the varying levels of cognitive development of 9- to 11-year-olds. Fifteen British students studied the Victorian Era using transcripts of original documents, while 15 classmates used standard textbooks. The documents seemed to give students greater awareness of the evidence sources.…

  12. User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms; Myers, Brad A

    2008-01-01

    User Interfaces have been around as long as computers have existed, even well before the field of Human-Computer Interaction was established. Over the years, some papers on the history of Human-Computer Interaction and User Interfaces have appeared, primarily focusing on the graphical interface e...

  13. Atmospheric refraction : a history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehn, WH; van der Werf, S

    2005-01-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of

  14. River history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2012-05-13

    During the last half century, advances in geomorphology-abetted by conceptual and technical developments in geophysics, geochemistry, remote sensing, geodesy, computing and ecology-have enhanced the potential value of fluvial history for reconstructing erosional and depositional sequences on the Earth and on Mars and for evaluating climatic and tectonic changes, the impact of fluvial processes on human settlement and health, and the problems faced in managing unstable fluvial systems. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society

  15. Environmental History

    OpenAIRE

    Kearns, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    There was a time when almost all Western geography could be termed environmental history. In the late nineteenth century, physical geographers explained landscapes by describing how they had evolved. Likewise, human geographers saw society as shaped by the directing hands of the environment. By the 1960s this had very much changed. Process studies shortened the temporal framework in geographical explanation and cut the cord between nature and society. Now, physical and human...

  16. The natural link between Europe and Africa - 2.1 billion birds on migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, S.M.; Bauer, S.; Liechti, F.

    2009-01-01

    The Palaearctic–African migration system comprises enormous numbers of birds travelling between Europe and Africa twice each year. Migratory birds may form strong links between the two continents given they can act as both transport vehicles for parasites and diseases as well as temporary consumers

  17. Natural History of Dependency in the Elderly: A 24-Year Population-Based Study Using a Longitudinal Item Response Theory Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edjolo, Arlette; Proust-Lima, Cécile; Delva, Fleur; Dartigues, Jean-François; Pérès, Karine

    2016-02-15

    We aimed to describe the hierarchical structure of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and basic Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and trajectories of dependency before death in an elderly population using item response theory methodology. Data were obtained from a population-based French cohort study, the Personnes Agées QUID (PAQUID) Study, of persons aged ≥65 years at baseline in 1988 who were recruited from 75 randomly selected areas in Gironde and Dordogne. We evaluated IADL and ADL data collected at home every 2-3 years over a 24-year period (1988-2012) for 3,238 deceased participants (43.9% men). We used a longitudinal item response theory model to investigate the item sequence of 11 IADL and ADL combined into a single scale and functional trajectories adjusted for education, sex, and age at death. The findings confirmed the earliest losses in IADL (shopping, transporting, finances) at the partial limitation level, and then an overlapping of concomitant IADL and ADL, with bathing and dressing being the earliest ADL losses, and finally total losses for toileting, continence, eating, and transferring. Functional trajectories were sex-specific, with a benefit of high education that persisted until death in men but was only transient in women. An in-depth understanding of this sequence provides an early warning of functional decline for better adaptation of medical and social care in the elderly. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. To the History of Financial and Economic Activity of the Volga River Transport During the NEP and the First Five-Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomanenko Olesya Aleksandrovna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Volga transport for 10 years (1923-1934 was influenced by all those changes which happened in the national economy of the country during the periods of the New Economic Policy and its transition to the forced industrialization. Since 1923 attempts of its delivery to concession in connection with the project of creation of the Volga-Don-Azov Sea hydraulic engineering constructions by means of the Western firms and banks took place. In 1929 those attempts ended without any results. Most likely, threat of outflow from the USSR of scarce currency in the form of profits of concessionaires was the main cause. That threat moved promises of foreign firms to significantly modernize and expand the Volga transport with all its coastal infrastructure, and also to promote creation of “new freights” in a zone of operations of the Volga fleet. Up to its reorganization in 1934 the Volga fleet constantly experienced the financial and technical difficulties caused by wear of watercrafts, low tariffs for a cargo transportation, etc. However, these low tariffs allowed the large new enterprises and constructions of the first five-year plans period to reduce their transport expenses. It favorably affected the process of industrialization of the Volga region and other ones. Losses on freight transportation were offset by the Volga water transport due to passenger traffic by increasing the high efficiency of passenger capacity of ships, an intensification of a passenger traffic and increase of a passenger tariff.

  19. A history of Guy's, King's and St. Thomas' hospitals from 1649 to 2009: 360 years of innovation in science and surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Riaz; Agha, Maliha

    2011-01-01

    Much has been achieved in the scientific and surgical fields over the last 360 years. Some institutions have contributed disproportionately to these advances. The medical schools and hospitals of Guy's (est. 1721), King's (est. 1840) and St. Thomas' (est. 1173) seem to provide a focus and a catalyst for much innovation and creativity dating back to 1608. This review sets to provide an overview of the major contributors to surgical advances at these institutions over the last 360 years and what factors affected unique to these institutions contributed to the climate of discovery. It is based on a lecture given to the Osler Club of London (est. 1928) at the Royal College of Physicians in London on 4 November 2010. It is the author's premise that the people and the discoveries they made within these institutions within three square miles of London changed the practice and understanding of science and healthcare as we know it today. Copyright © 2011 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Unlocking the EUR53 billion savings from smart meters in the EU. How increasing the adoption of dynamic tariffs could make or break the EU's smart grid investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruqui, Ahmad; Hledik, Ryan; Harris, Dan

    2010-01-01

    We estimate the cost of installing smart meters in the EU to be EUR51 billion, and that operational savings will be worth between EUR26 and 41 billion, leaving a gap of EUR10-25 billion between benefits and costs. Smart meters can fill this gap because they enable the provision of dynamic pricing, which reduces peak demand and lowers the need for building and running expensive peaking power plants. The present value of savings in peaking infrastructure could be as high as EUR67 billion for the EU if policy-makers can overcome barriers to consumers adopting dynamic tariffs, but only EUR14 billion otherwise. We outline a number of ways to increase the adoption of dynamic tariffs. (author)