WorldWideScience

Sample records for billion tons total

  1. The updated billion-ton resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony Turhollow; Robert Perlack; Laurence Eaton; Matthew Langholtz; Craig Brandt; Mark Downing; Lynn Wright; Kenneth Skog; Chad Hellwinckel; Bryce Stokes; Patricia Lebow

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an update to a resource assessment, published in 2005, commonly referred to as the Billion-Ton Study (BTS). The updated results are consistent with the 2005 BTS in terms of overall magnitude. The 2005 BTS projected between 860 and 1240 Tg of biomass available in the 2050 timeframe, while the Billion-Ton Update (BT2), for a price of...

  2. Sneak Peek to the 2016 Billion-Ton Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    The 2005 Billion-Ton Study became a landmark resource for bioenergy stakeholders, detailing for the first time the potential to produce at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually in a sustainable manner from U.S. agriculture and forest resources. The 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update expanded and updated the analysis, and in 2016, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office plans to release the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy.

  3. Summary and Comparison of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report with the 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    In terms of the magnitude of the resource potential, the results of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report (BT16) are consistent with the original 2005 Billion-Ton Study (BTS) and the 2011 report, U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry (BT2. An effort was made to reevaluate the potential forestland, agricultural, and waste resources at the roadside, then extend the analysis by adding transportation costs to a biorefinery under specified logistics assumptions to major resource fractions.

  4. Regional Feedstock Partnership Summary Report: Enabling the Billion-Ton Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Vance N. [South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States). North Central Sun Grant Center; Karlen, Douglas L. [Dept. of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Ames, IA (United States). National Lab. for Agriculture and the Environment; Lacey, Jeffrey A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Process Science and Technology Division

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Sun Grant Initiative established the Regional Feedstock Partnership (referred to as the Partnership) to address information gaps associated with enabling the vision of a sustainable, reliable, billion-ton U.S. bioenergy industry by the year 2030 (i.e., the Billion-Ton Vision). Over the past 7 years (2008–2014), the Partnership has been successful at advancing the biomass feedstock production industry in the United States, with notable accomplishments. The Billion-Ton Study identifies the technical potential to expand domestic biomass production to offset up to 30% of U.S. petroleum consumption, while continuing to meet demands for food, feed, fiber, and export. This study verifies for the biofuels and chemical industries that a real and substantial resource base could justify the significant investment needed to develop robust conversion technologies and commercial-scale facilities. DOE and the Sun Grant Initiative established the Partnership to demonstrate and validate the underlying assumptions underpinning the Billion-Ton Vision to supply a sustainable and reliable source of lignocellulosic feedstock to a large-scale bioenergy industry. This report discusses the accomplishments of the Partnership, with references to accompanying scientific publications. These accomplishments include advances in sustainable feedstock production, feedstock yield, yield stability and stand persistence, energy crop commercialization readiness, information transfer, assessment of the economic impacts of achieving the Billion-Ton Vision, and the impact of feedstock species and environment conditions on feedstock quality characteristics.

  5. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-07-06

    This product builds on previous efforts, namely the 2005 Billion-Ton Study (BTS) and the 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update (BT2).With each report, greater perspective is gained on the potential of biomass resources to contribute to a national energy strategy. Similarly, each successive report introduces new questions regarding commercialization challenges. BTS quantified the broad biophysical potential of biomass nationally, and BT2 elucidated the potential economic availability of these resources. These reports clearly established the potential availability of up to one billion tons of biomass resources nationally. However, many questions remain, including but not limited to crop yields, climate change impacts, logistical operations, and systems integration across production, harvest, and conversion. The present report aims to address many of these questions through empirically modeled energy crop yields, scenario analysis of resources delivered to biorefineries, and the addition of new feedstocks. Volume 2 of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report is expected to be released by the end of 2016. It seeks to evaluate environmental sustainability indicators of select scenarios from volume 1 and potential climate change impacts on future supplies.

  6. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from Volume 1 (Volume 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langholtz, M. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, K. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stokes, B. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-13

    On behalf of all the authors and contributors, it is a great privilege to present the 2016 Billion-Ton Report (BT16), volume 2: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from volume 1. This report represents the culmination of several years of collaborative effort among national laboratories, government agencies, academic institutions, and industry. BT16 was developed to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s efforts towards national goals of energy security and associated quality of life.

  7. 2016 Billion-ton report: Advancing domestic resources for a thriving bioeconomy, Volume 1: Economic availability of feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.H. Langholtz; B.J. Stokes; L.M. Eaton

    2016-01-01

    This product builds on previous efforts, namely the 2005 Billion-Ton Study (BTS) and the 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update (BT2).With each report, greater perspective is gained on the potential of biomass resources to contribute to a national energy strategy. Similarly, each successive report introduces new questions regarding commercialization challenges. BTS quantified...

  8. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Stokes, Bryce [Navarro Research & Engineering; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL

    2011-08-01

    The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small

  9. FY97 nuclear-related budgets total 493 billion yen (4.4 billion dollars)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    On September 13, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan announced the estimated nuclear-related budget requests for FY1997 (April, 1997 - Mach, 1998), giving the breakdowns for eight ministries and agencies. The total amount requested by the government bodies was 493.3 billion yen, 0.8% increase as compared with FY96. this figure includes the budget requests of the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Transport, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the Okinawa Development Agency, and the Ministry of Home Affairs, but excludes the budget request made by the Ministry of Education. The budget requests of STA and MITI are 360 billion yen and 126 billion yen, respectively. On August 29, STA released its estimated FY97 budget request. The nuclear-related 360.4 billion yen is 0.9% more than that in year before. Of this sum, 199.9 billion yen is in the general account, and 160.6 billion yen is in the special account for power source development. The details of the nuclear-related amounts are explained. On August 26, MITI released its estimated budget request for FY97, and of the nuclear-related 125.7 billion yen (0.1% increase from FY96), 200 million yen is in the general account, and 98.9 billion yen and 26.6 billion yen are in the special accounts for power resource development and power source diversification, respectively. (K.I.)

  10. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasability of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.

    2005-12-15

    whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country's present petroleum consumption--the goal set by the Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  11. Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jiang; Zhou Nan; Levine, Mark; Fridley, David

    2008-01-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20% from 2005 to 2010 [National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), 2006. Overview of the 11th Five Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development. NDRC, Beijing]. This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20% energy-intensity target also translates into an annual reduction of over 1.5 billion tons of CO 2 by 2010, making the Chinese effort one of the most significant carbon mitigation efforts in the world today. While it is still too early to tell whether China will achieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend in energy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options toward meeting the 20% target using a detailed end-use energy model

  12. Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Fridley, David

    2007-07-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20% from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20% energy intensity target also translates into an annual reduction of over 1.5 billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making the Chinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in the world today. While it is still too early to tell whether China will achieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend in energy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options toward meeting the 20% target using a detailed end-use energy model.

  13. Land-Use Change and the Billion Ton 2016 Resource Assessment: Understanding the Effects of Land Management on Environmental Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, K. L.; Eaton, L. M.; Efroymson, R.; Davis, M. R.; Dunn, J.; Langholtz, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    The federal government, led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), quantified potential U.S. biomass resources for expanded production of renewable energy and bioproducts in the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy (BT16) (DOE 2016). Volume 1 of the report provides analysis of projected supplies from 2015 to2040. Volume 2 (forthcoming) evaluates changes in environmental indicators for water quality and quantity, carbon, air quality, and biodiversity associated with production scenarios in BT16 volume 1. This presentation will review land-use allocations under the projected biomass production scenarios and the changes in land management that are implied, including drivers of direct and indirect LUC. National and global concerns such as deforestation and displacement of food production are addressed. The choice of reference scenario, input parameters and constraints (e.g., regarding land classes, availability, and productivity) drive LUC results in any model simulation and are reviewed to put BT16 impacts into context. The principal LUC implied in BT16 supply scenarios involves the transition of 25-to-47 million acres (net) from annual crops in 2015 baseline to perennial cover by 2040 under the base case and 3% yield growth case, respectively. We conclude that clear definitions of land parameters and effects are essential to assess LUC. A lack of consistency in parameters and outcomes of historic LUC analysis in the U.S. underscores the need for science-based approaches.

  14. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply, April 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country’s present petroleum consumption – the goal set by the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  15. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy, Volume 2: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langholtz, Matthew H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-11

    With the goal of understanding environmental effects of a growing bioeconomy, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), national laboratories, and U.S. Forest Service research laboratories, together with academic and industry collaborators, undertook a study to estimate environmental effects of potential biomass production scenarios in the United States, with an emphasis on agricultural and forest biomass. Potential effects investigated include changes in soil organic carbon (SOC), greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water quality and quantity, air emissions, and biodiversity. Effects of altered land-management regimes were analyzed based on select county-level biomass-production scenarios for 2017 and 2040 taken from the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy (BT16), volume 1, which assumes that the land bases for agricultural and forestry would not change over time. The scenarios reflect constraints on biomass supply (e.g., excluded areas; implementation of management practices; and consideration of food, feed, forage, and fiber demands and exports) that intend to address sustainability concerns. Nonetheless, both beneficial and adverse environmental effects might be expected. To characterize these potential effects, this research sought to estimate where and under what modeled scenarios or conditions positive and negative environmental effects could occur nationwide. The report also includes a discussion of land-use change (LUC) (i.e., land management change) assumptions associated with the scenario transitions (but not including analysis of indirect LUC [ILUC]), analyses of climate sensitivity of feedstock productivity under a set of potential scenarios, and a qualitative environmental effects analysis of algae production under carbon dioxide (CO2) co-location scenarios. Because BT16 biomass supplies are simulated independent of a defined end use, most analyses do not include benefits from displacing fossil fuels or other

  16. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy, Volume 2: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langholtz, Matthew H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Kristen [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Stokes, Bryce [Allegheny Science & Technology, LLC, Bridgeport, WV (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davis, Maggie R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hellwinckel, Chad [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Kline, Keith L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eaton, Laurence M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dunn, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Canter, Christina E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qin, Zhangcai [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Scott, D. Andrew [USDA Forest Service, Normal, AL (United States); Jager, Henrietta I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ha, Miae [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Baskaran, Latha Malar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kreig, Jasmine A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rau, Benjamin [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Muwamba, Augustine [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Trettin, Carl [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Panda, Sudhanshu [Univ. of North Georgia, Oakwood, GA (United States); Amatya, Devendra M. [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Tollner, Ernest W. [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Sun, Ge [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Zhang, Liangxia [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Duan, Kai [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Inman, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eberle, Annika [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hettinger, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Gangsheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sutton, Nathan J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Busch, Ingrid Karin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Donner, Deahn M. [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Wigley, T. Bently [National Council for Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Miller, Darren A. [Weyerhaeuser Company, Federal Way, WA (United States); Coleman, Andre [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wigmosta, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pattullo, Molly [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Mayes, Melanie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Daly, Christopher [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Halbleib, Mike [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Negri, Cristina [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Turhollow, Anthony F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bonner, Ian [Monsanto Company, Twin Falls, ID (United States); Dale, Virginia H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    With the goal of understanding environmental effects of a growing bioeconomy, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), national laboratories, and U.S. Forest Service research laboratories, together with academic and industry collaborators, undertook a study to estimate environmental effects of potential biomass production scenarios in the United States, with an emphasis on agricultural and forest biomass. Potential effects investigated include changes in soil organic carbon (SOC), greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water quality and quantity, air emissions, and biodiversity. Effects of altered land-management regimes were analyzed based on select county-level biomass-production scenarios for 2017 and 2040 taken from the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy (BT16), volume 1, which assumes that the land bases for agricultural and forestry would not change over time. The scenarios reflect constraints on biomass supply (e.g., excluded areas; implementation of management practices; and consideration of food, feed, forage, and fiber demands and exports) that intend to address sustainability concerns. Nonetheless, both beneficial and adverse environmental effects might be expected. To characterize these potential effects, this research sought to estimate where and under what modeled scenarios or conditions positive and negative environmental effects could occur nationwide. The report also includes a discussion of land-use change (LUC) (i.e., land management change) assumptions associated with the scenario transitions (but not including analysis of indirect LUC [ILUC]), analyses of climate sensitivity of feedstock productivity under a set of potential scenarios, and a qualitative environmental effects analysis of algae production under carbon dioxide (CO2) co-location scenarios. Because BT16 biomass supplies are simulated independent of a defined end use, most analyses do not include benefits from displacing fossil fuels or

  17. Government's nuclear draft budget for fiscal 1995 totals 480 billion yen, up 5.2%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Japanese government's nuclear draft budget for fiscal 1995 totals 480,756 million yen (excluding the nuclear-related budget for universities under the auspices of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science), 5.2% increase from the last year. The figure can be broken down into 194,793 million yen general account mainly assigned to research and development projects, and 295,963 million yen special account for power resource development. The total nuclear-related draft budget can be broken down into 344,201 million yen (6.2% increase) for the Science and Technology Agency which governs the various projects on the research and utilization of nuclear energy, and 133,430 million yen (4.6% increase) for the Ministry of International Trade and Industry which controls the development of and the regulation concerning commercial nuclear power plants. As for other ministries, 3,909 million yen for the contribution to IAEA and 283 million yen for OECD/NEA are allocated to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The nuclear draft budget of other ministries and agencies than STA and MITI totals 5,443 million yen (3.8% increase over fiscal 1994). The details of the nuclear-related draft budget of STA and MITI are listed. (K.I.)

  18. Draft budget for N-energy in 1986 totals 357 billion yen, 5.4 % up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The 1986 draft budget totaling 54 trillion yen together with the financial loan and investment program amounting to 21.7 trillion yen were approved by the cabinet on December 28, 1985. Of the total, 357,329 million yen (5.4 % up) was appropriated for nuclear energy, that is, 185,922 million yen (2.1 % up) in the general account and 171,407 million yen (9.3 % up) in the special account for power resource development. The rate of increase for nuclear energy was relatively high as compared with other items in spite of tight government finances. Of the total nuclear energy budget, the Science and Technology Agency, responsible for large scale projects the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, will receive 275,171 million yen (3.3 % up). The Ministry of international Trade and Industry which promotes the location of commercial nuclear power plants and supports the improvement and development of LWRs will have the increase of 14.1 % to 78,395 million yen. The detailed breakdown for respective institutes is explained. (Kako, I.)

  19. Missing billions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conly, S

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses funding of population programs that support the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development's Plan of Action. The Plan of Action calls for a quadrupling of annual financial commitments for population programs to $17 billion by the year 2000 and $22 billion by 2015. The increased expenditures would cover the increased demand for services from unmet need and population growth. Donor countries are expected to increase their share from the current 25% to about 33%, or $5.7 billion by the year 2000. The estimates are in 1993 constant dollars. $17 billion is less than the $40 billion that is spent worldwide on playing golf. During 1993-94, general donor support increased to $1.2 billion. Denmark, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States increased their support. The United States doubled its support for population programs during 1992-95 to $583 million. During 1996-97 the US Congress cut funding back to the 1995 level. France, Italy, Spain, Belgium, and Austria have lagged in support for population programs in the present and the past. Equal burden sharing would require the US to increase funding to $1.9 billion. Developed country assistance declined to the lowest share of combined gross national product since 1970. This shifts the burden to multilateral sources. The European Union is committed to increasing its funding, and the World Bank increased funding for population and reproductive health to about $600 million in 1996 from $424 million in 1994. Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa, and Turkey spent 85% of all government expenditures on family planning in developing countries. External donors in Africa are the main support of family planning. Private consumers in Latin America pay most of the costs of family planning. External assistance will be needed for some time.

  20. Feeding six billion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L R

    1989-01-01

    Between 1986-88 drought damage to crops caused the grain supply to decrease and the price of grain worldwide increased 50%. However, in 1989 higher prices and better weather did not result in a rebuilding of reserves lost in previous years. According to the US Agriculture Department, the 1989 harvest will be 13 million tons short of the projected 1684 million tons of consumption. If grain stock cannot be replenished this year, then when will they be replenished? There are a variety of problems causing this situation. Lack of crop land and irrigation water prevent expansion. Diminishing returns from fertilizer inputs, deforestation, soil erosion, and pollution are all decreasing yields. Growth in food production worldwide has stabilized. Between 1950-84 world grain harvest increased 2.6 times or 3%/year. But between 1985-90 that same growth was only 0.2%/year. While this is too short a time to establish a trend, it does suggest a slowdown in worldwide food production. Every year 24 billion tons of topsoil are lost to water and wind erosion, and the world population grows by 88 million annually. Together, these 2 trends indicate a pending disaster. There is no reason to believe that food production is going to continue to grow as fast as the population, thus, population growth must be drastically curtailed. The UN has changes its projected level of population stabilization from 10 billion to 14 billion based on the fact that worldwide population growth has dropped only to 1.7%. Family planning programs have not been as successful as was hoped, partly because the US has withdrawn a large amount of funding due to political pressure from conservatives. The outlook is not good, as the per capita food share shrinks, malnutrition and starvation will continue to grow. Food prices will rise sharply and many more people will be unable to afford food. In many developing countries, people spend 70% of their income on food. This is already occurring as measured by a worldwide

  1. Stowing of radioactive materials package during road transport on vehicles of a total weight under 38 tons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilles, P.; Chevalier, G.; Pouard, M.

    1985-01-01

    Results of testing allow the formulation of recommendations for stowing radioactive material packaging for severe accidental conditions during land transport. For frontal impact kinetic energy acquired by deceleration should be totally absorbed by the packaging, as this energy is proportional to its mass it will stay on the vehicle. For side impact, the packaging should yield because kinetic energy to absorb, if fasteners are not deformed before rupture, can be largely over the packaging mass and damage could be very severe

  2. Six billion and counting

    OpenAIRE

    Leisinger, Klaus M.; Schmitt, Karin M.; Pandya-Lorch, Rajul

    2002-01-01

    In 1999 global population surpassed 6 billion people, and this number rises by about 70-80 million people each year. "Six Billion and Counting" examines the consequences of continuing population growth for the world's resource systems and for national and global food security. Leisinger, Schmitt, and Pandya-Lorch offer here a sober analysis of a complex and alarming situation. They assess the progress the world has made in controlling population growth and point to the areas where future diff...

  3. Ton That Tung's livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helling, Thomas S; Azoulay, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Born in the early 20th century, the Vietnamese surgeon Ton That Tung received his medical education in French colonial Indochina at the fledgling l'Ecole de Médecine de Hanoi, the first indigenous medical school in Southeast Asia. The benefactor of a postgraduate position at the medical school, Ton That Tung subsequently obtained his surgical training at the Phù Doãn Hospital in Hanoi and concurrently developed a passion for the study of liver anatomy, pathology, and surgery. His contributions to an understanding of liver anatomy based on meticulous dissection of autopsy specimens antedated and rivaled later work by the famous Western anatomists Couinaud, Healey, Schroy, and others. Ton That Tung's contributions, however, were overshadowed by the intense national struggles of the Vietnamese to establish independent rule and self-governance from the French and by eventual alignment with eastern bloc Communist countries, thus isolating much of his work behind the "Iron Curtain" until well after the end of the Cold War. Nevertheless, Ton That Tung remains a pioneer in liver anatomy and liver surgery. His commitment to surgical science and, more importantly, to the Vietnamese people stands as a tribute to the tireless pursuit of his ideals.

  4. 75 FR 1362 - Medical Area Total Energy Plant, Inc., New MATEP Inc.; Notice of Application for Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... large industrial chillers. Annual consumption by MATEP's commercial and institutional customers totals over 1.7 billion pounds of steam, 91 ton-hours of refrigeration and 316 million kilowatt-hours of...

  5. Connecting the last billion

    OpenAIRE

    Ben David, Yahel

    2015-01-01

    The last billion people to join the online world, are likely to face at least one of two obstacles:Part I: Rural Internet AccessRural, sparsely populated, areas make conventional infrastructure investments unfeasible: Bigcorporations attempt to address this challenge via the launch of Low-Earth-Orbiting (LEO) satelliteconstellations, fleets of high-altitude balloons, and giant solar-powered drones; although thesegrandiose initiatives hold potential, they are costly and risky. At the same time...

  6. 12 billion DM for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The German atomic industry has achieved the break-through to the world market: Brazil orders eight nuclear electricity generating plants from Siemens-AEG daughter Kraftwerk-Union. US concerns attacked the twelve billion DM deal, the biggest export order in the history of German industry. Without avail - the contract is to be signed in Bonn this week. (orig./LH) [de

  7. Multi-Ton Argon and Xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Ricardo; Balascuta, Septimiu; Alton, Drew; Aprile, Elena; Giboni, Karl-Ludwig; Haruyama, Tom; Lang, Rafael; Melgarejo, Antonio Jesus; Ni, Kaixuan; Plante, Guillaume; Choi, Bin [et al.

    2009-01-01

    There is a wide range of astronomical evidence that the visible stars and gas in all galaxies, including our own, are immersed in a much larger cloud of non-luminous matter, typically an order of magnitude greater in total mass. The existence of this ''dark matter'' is consistent with evidence from large-scale galaxy surveys and microwave background measurements, indicating that the majority of matter in the universe is non-baryonic. The nature of this non-baryonic component is still totally unknown, and the resolution of the ''dark matter puzzle'' is of fundamental importance to cosmology, astrophysics, and elementary particle physics. A leading explanation, motivated by supersymmetry theory, is the existence of as yet undiscovered Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), formed in the early universe and subsequently clustered in association with normal matter. WIMPs could, in principle, be detected in terrestrial experiments by their collisions with ordinary nuclei, giving observable low energy (< 100 keV) nuclear recoils. The predicted low collision rates require ultra-low background detectors with large (0.1-10 ton) target masses, located in deep underground sites to eliminate neutron background from cosmic ray muons. The establishment of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory for large-scale experiments of this type would strengthen the current leadership of US researchers in this and other particle astrophysics areas. We propose to detect nuclear recoils by scintillation and ionization in ton-scale liquid noble gas targets, using techniques already proven in experiments at the 0.01-0.1 ton level. The experimental challenge is to identify these events in the presence of background events from gammas, neutrons, and alphas.

  8. Countdown to Six Billion Teaching Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This teaching kit features six activities focused on helping students understand the significance of the world population reaching six billion for our society and our environment. Featured activities include: (1) History of the World: Part Six Billion; (2) A Woman's Place; (3) Baby-O-Matic; (4) Earth: The Apple of Our Eye; (5) Needs vs. Wants; and…

  9. Biomass as feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: The technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, Robert D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wright, Lynn L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Turhollow, Anthony F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Graham, Robin L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stokes, Bryce J. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (United States); Erbach, Donald C. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30% or more of the country's present petroleum consumption.

  10. Document de travail 5: Beyond Collier's Bottom Billion | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    16 déc. 2010 ... L'ouvrage de Paul Collier, The Bottom Billion, suscite un grand intérêt dans le domaine du développement. Il repose sur la thèse selon laquelle un groupe de près de 60 pays, dont la population totale avoisine un milliard de personnes, sont pris dans quatre pièges principaux.

  11. 10 billion years of massive Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, Edward Nairne Cunningham

    2009-01-01

    The most massive galaxies in the local universe are not forming new stars -- but we don’t know why. As a step towards figuring out why big galaxies stop forming stars, we set out to measure when they stop forming stars. By looking at the colors of massive galaxies have changed over 10 billion

  12. ICARUS 600 ton: A status report

    CERN Document Server

    Vignoli, C; Badertscher, A; Barbieri, E; Benetti, P; Borio di Tigliole, A; Brunetti, R; Bueno, A; Calligarich, E; Campanelli, Mario; Carli, F; Carpanese, C; Cavalli, D; Cavanna, F; Cennini, P; Centro, S; Cesana, A; Chen, C; Chen, Y; Cinquini, C; Cline, D; De Mitri, I; Dolfini, R; Favaretto, D; Ferrari, A; Gigli Berzolari, A; Goudsmit, P; He, K; Huang, X; Li, Z; Lu, F; Ma, J; Mannocchi, G; Mauri, F; Mazza, D; Mazzone, L; Montanari, C; Nurzia, G P; Otwinowski, S; Palamara, O; Pascoli, D; Pepato, A; Periale, L; Petrera, S; Piano Mortari, Giovanni; Piazzoli, A; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F; Rancati, T; Rappoldi, A; Raselli, G L; Rebuzzi, D; Revol, J P; Rico, J; Rossella, M; Rossi, C; Rubbia, C; Rubbia, A; Sala, P; Scannicchio, D; Sergiampietri, F; Suzuki, S; Terrani, M; Ventura, S; Verdecchia, M; Wang, H; Woo, J; Xu, G; Xu, Z; Zhang, C; Zhang, Q; Zheng, S

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the ICARUS Project is the installation of a multi-kiloton LAr TPC in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory. The programme foresees the realization of the detector in a modular way. The first step is the construction of a 600 ton module which is now at an advanced phase. It will be mounted and tested in Pavia in one year and then it will be moved to Gran Sasso for the final operation. The major cryogenic and purification systems and the mechanical components of the detector have been constructed and tested in a 10 m3 prototype. The results of these tests are here summarized.

  13. ICARUS 600 ton: A status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoli, C.; Arneodo, F.; Badertscher, A.; Barbieri, E.; Benetti, P.; di Tigliole, A. Borio; Brunetti, R.; Bueno, A.; Calligarich, E.; Campanelli, M.; Carli, F.; Carpanese, C.; Cavalli, D.; Cavanna, F.; Cennini, P.; Centro, S.; Cesana, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, Y.; Cinquini, C.; Cline, D.; De Mitri, I.; Dolfini, R.; Favaretto, D.; Ferrari, A.; Berzolari, A. Gigli; Goudsmit, P.; He, K.; Huang, X.; Li, Z.; Lu, F.; Ma, J.; Mannocchi, G.; Mauri, F.; Mazza, D.; Mazzone, L.; Montanari, C.; Nurzia, G. P.; Otwinowski, S.; Palamara, O.; Pascoli, D.; Pepato, A.; Periale, L.; Petrera, S.; Piano-Mortari, G.; Piazzoli, A.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Rancati, T.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G. L.; Rebuzzi, D.; Revol, J. P.; Rico, J.; Rossella, M.; Rossi, C.; Rubbia, A.; Rubbia, C.; Sala, P.; Scannicchio, D.; Sergiampietri, F.; Suzuki, S.; Terrani, M.; Ventura, S.; Verdecchia, M.; Wang, H.; Woo, J.; Xu, G.; Xu, Z.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Q.; Zheng, S.

    2000-05-01

    The goal of the ICARUS Project is the installation of a multi-kiloton LAr TPC in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory. The programme foresees the realization of the detector in a modular way. The first step is the construction of a 600 ton module which is now at an advanced phase. It will be mounted and tested in Pavia in one year and then it will be moved to Gran Sasso for the final operation. The major cryogenic and purification systems and the mechanical components of the detector have been constructed and tested in a 10 m 3 prototype. The results of these tests are here summarized.

  14. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2016-02-01

    Freshwater scarcity is increasingly perceived as a global systemic risk. Previous global water scarcity assessments, measuring water scarcity annually, have underestimated experienced water scarcity by failing to capture the seasonal fluctuations in water consumption and availability. We assess blue water scarcity globally at a high spatial resolution on a monthly basis. We find that two-thirds of the global population (4.0 billion people) live under conditions of severe water scarcity at least 1 month of the year. Nearly half of those people live in India and China. Half a billion people in the world face severe water scarcity all year round. Putting caps to water consumption by river basin, increasing water-use efficiencies, and better sharing of the limited freshwater resources will be key in reducing the threat posed by water scarcity on biodiversity and human welfare.

  15. Nuclear budget for FY1991 up 3.6% to 409.7 billion yen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A total of yen409.7 billion was approved for the Governmental nuclear energy draft budget for fiscal 1991 on December 28, as the Cabinet gave its approval. The total, the highest ever, was divided into yen182.6 billion for the general account and yen227.1 billion for the special account for power resources development, representing a 3.6% increase over the ongoing fiscal year's level of yen395.5 billion. The draft budget will be examined for approval of the Diet session by the end of March. The nuclear energy budget devoted to research and development projects governed by the Science and Technology Agency amounts yen306.4 billion, up 3.5% exceeding yen300 billion for the first time. The nuclear budget for the Ministry of International Trade and Industry is yen98.1 billion, up 3.5%. For the other ministries, including the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, yen5.1 billion was allotted to nuclear energy-related projects. The Government had decided to raise the unit cost of the power plant siting promotion subsidies in the special account for power resources development by 25% --- from yen600/kw to yen750/kw --- in order to support the siting of plants. Consequently, the power resources siting account of the special accounts for both STA and MITI showed high levels of growth rates: 6.3% and 7.5%, respectively. (N.K.)

  16. Endemic Cardiovascular Diseases of the Poorest Billion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Gene F; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mocumbi, Ana O; Miranda, J Jaime; Ezzati, Majid; Jain, Yogesh; Robles, Gisela; Benjamin, Emelia J; Subramanian, S V; Bukhman, Gene

    2016-06-14

    The poorest billion people are distributed throughout the world, though most are concentrated in rural sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) data can be sparse in low- and middle-income countries beyond urban centers. Despite this urban bias, CVD registries from the poorest countries have long revealed a predominance of nonatherosclerotic stroke, hypertensive heart disease, nonischemic and Chagas cardiomyopathies, rheumatic heart disease, and congenital heart anomalies, among others. Ischemic heart disease has been relatively uncommon. Here, we summarize what is known about the epidemiology of CVDs among the world's poorest people and evaluate the relevance of global targets for CVD control in this population. We assessed both primary data sources, and the 2013 Global Burden of Disease Study modeled estimates in the world's 16 poorest countries where 62% of the population are among the poorest billion. We found that ischemic heart disease accounted for only 12% of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in the poorest countries, compared with 51% of DALYs in high-income countries. We found that as little as 53% of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly burden (1629/3049 DALYs per 100 000) was attributed to behavioral or metabolic risk factors in the poorest countries (eg, in Niger, 82% of the population among the poorest billion) compared with 85% of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly burden (4439/5199 DALYs) in high-income countries. Further, of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly burden, 34% was accrued in people under age 30 years in the poorest countries, while only 3% is accrued under age 30 years in high-income countries. We conclude although the current global targets for noncommunicable disease and CVD control will help diminish premature CVD death in the poorest populations, they are not sufficient. Specifically, the current framework (1) excludes deaths of

  17. Les tons du langage tambouriné et les tons du langage parlé. Texte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.J. Smet présente, en traduction française, un texte inédit de Placide Tempels concernant la relation entre les tons du langage tambouriné et ceux du langage parlé. Ce texte est à l'origine de la correspondance entre Tempels et Hulstaert. Cette correspondance a eu une influence certaine sur la rédaction de la ...

  18. Oxygen - A Four Billion Year History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    The air we breathe is twenty-one percent oxygen, an amount higher than on any other known world. While we may take our air for granted, Earth was not always an oxygenated planet. How did it become this way? Oxygen is the most current account of the history of atmospheric oxygen on Earth. Donald...... of fields, including geology, paleontology, geochemistry, biochemistry, animal physiology, and microbiology, to explain why our oxygenated Earth became the ideal place for life. Describing which processes, both biological and geological, act to control oxygen levels in the atmosphere, Canfield traces...... the records of oxygen concentrations through time. Readers learn about the great oxidation event, the tipping point 2.3 billion years ago when the oxygen content of the Earth increased dramatically, and Canfield examines how oxygenation created a favorable environment for the evolution of large animals. He...

  19. Origins fourteen billion years of cosmic evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Neil deGrasse

    2004-01-01

    Origins explores cosmic science's stunning new insights into the formation and evolution of our universe--of the cosmos, of galaxies and galaxy clusters, of stars within galaxies, of planets that orbit those stars, and of different forms of life that take us back to the first three seconds and forward through three billion years of life on Earth to today's search for life on other planets. Drawing on the current cross-pollination of geology, biology and astrophysics, Origins explains the thrilling daily breakthroughs in our knowledge of the universe from dark energy to life on Mars to the mysteries of space and time. Distilling complex science in clear and lively prose, co-authors Neil deGrasse Tyson and Donald Goldsmith conduct a galvanising tour of the cosmos revealing what the universe has been up to while turning part of itself into us.

  20. Oxygen - A Four Billion Year History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    The air we breathe is twenty-one percent oxygen, an amount higher than on any other known world. While we may take our air for granted, Earth was not always an oxygenated planet. How did it become this way? Oxygen is the most current account of the history of atmospheric oxygen on Earth. Donald...... Canfield--one of the world's leading authorities on geochemistry, earth history, and the early oceans--covers this vast history, emphasizing its relationship to the evolution of life and the evolving chemistry of the Earth. With an accessible and colorful first-person narrative, he draws from a variety...... the records of oxygen concentrations through time. Readers learn about the great oxidation event, the tipping point 2.3 billion years ago when the oxygen content of the Earth increased dramatically, and Canfield examines how oxygenation created a favorable environment for the evolution of large animals. He...

  1. Death of the TonB Shuttle Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresock, Michael G; Savenkova, Marina I; Larsen, Ray A; Ollis, Anne A; Postle, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    A complex of ExbB, ExbD, and TonB couples cytoplasmic membrane (CM) proton motive force (pmf) to the active transport of large, scarce, or important nutrients across the outer membrane (OM). TonB interacts with OM transporters to enable ligand transport. Several mechanical models and a shuttle model explain how TonB might work. In the mechanical models, TonB remains attached to the CM during energy transduction, while in the shuttle model the TonB N terminus leaves the CM to deliver conformationally stored potential energy to OM transporters. Previous studies suggested that TonB did not shuttle based on the activity of a GFP-TonB fusion that was anchored in the CM by the GFP moiety. When we recreated the GFP-TonB fusion to extend those studies, in our hands it was proteolytically unstable, giving rise to potentially shuttleable degradation products. Recently, we discovered that a fusion of the Vibrio cholerae ToxR cytoplasmic domain to the N terminus of TonB was proteolytically stable. ToxR-TonB was able to be completely converted into a proteinase K-resistant conformation in response to loss of pmf in spheroplasts and exhibited an ability to form a pmf-dependent formaldehyde crosslink to ExbD, both indicators of its location in the CM. Most importantly, ToxR-TonB had the same relative specific activity as wild-type TonB. Taken together, these results provide conclusive evidence that TonB does not shuttle during energy transduction. We had previously concluded that TonB shuttles based on the use of an Oregon Green(®) 488 maleimide probe to assess periplasmic accessibility of N-terminal TonB. Here we show that the probe was permeant to the CM, thus permitting the labeling of the TonB N-terminus. These former results are reinterpreted in the context that TonB does not shuttle, and suggest the existence of a signal transduction pathway from OM to cytoplasm.

  2. Agroecohydrology: Key to Feeding 9 Billion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, J.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural production necessary to feed 9 billion people in 2050 depends on increased production on existing croplands, and expanding onto 'marginal' lands. A high proportion of these lands are marginal because they are too steep or too dry to reliably support crop production. These same characteristics increase their susceptibility to accelerated erosion, leading (for most soil profiles) to further reductions in plant available water as infiltration and soil profile water holding capacity decline. Sustaining production on these marginal lands will require careful land use planning. In this paper, we present a land use planning framework that integrates 4 elements: (1) potential production (based on soil profile characteristics), (2) edaphic, topographic and climatic limitations to production, (3) soil resistance to degradation, and (4) resilience. This framework expands existing land capability classification systems through the integration of biophysical feedbacks and thresholds. State and transition models, similar to those currently applied to rangelands in the United States and other countries, are used to organize and communicate knowledge about the sustainability of different land use changes and management actions at field to regional scales. This framework emphasizes hydrologic characteristics of soil profiles and landscapes over fertility because fertility declines are more easily addressed through increased inputs. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of how research in ecohydrology can be more effectively focused to support sustainable food production in the context of increasingly rapid social and economic changes throughout the world.

  3. Uranium in Canada: Billion-dollar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whillans, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    In 1988, Canada maintained its position as the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium; five primary uranium producers reported concentrate output containing 12,400 MT of uranium, or about one-third of Western production. Uranium shipments made by these producers in 1988 exceeded 13,200 MT, worth Canadian $1.1 billion. Because domestic requirements represent only 15% of current Canadian output, most of Canada's uranium production is available for export. Despite continued market uncertainty in 1988, Canada's uranium producers signed new sales contracts for some 14,000 MT, twice the 1987 level. About 90% of this new volume is with the US, now Canada's major uranium customer. The recent implementation of the Canada/US Free Trade agreement brings benefits to both countries; the uranium industries in each can now develop in an orderly, free market. Canada's uranium industry was restructured and consolidated in 1988 through merger and acquisition; three new uranium projects advanced significantly. Canada's new policy on nonresident ownership in the uranium mining sector, designed to encourage both Canadian and foreign investment, should greatly improve efforts to finance the development of recent Canadian uranium discoveries

  4. Death of the TonB shuttle hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael George Gresock

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A complex of ExbB, ExbD, and TonB transduces cytoplasmic membrane (CM proton motive force (pmf to outer membrane (OM transporters so that large, scarce, and important nutrients can be released into the periplasmic space for subsequent transport across the CM. TonB is the component that interacts with the OM transporters and enables ligand transport, and several mechanical models and a shuttle model explain how TonB might work. In the mechanical models, TonB remains attached to the CM during energy transduction, while in the shuttle model the TonB N terminus leaves the CM to deliver conformationally stored potential energy to OM transporters. Previous efforts to test the shuttle model by anchoring TonB to the CM by fusion to a large globular cytoplasmic protein have been hampered by the proteolytic susceptibility of the fusion constructs. Here we confirm that GFP-TonB, tested in a previous study by another laboratory, again gave rise to full-length TonB and slightly larger potentially shuttleable fragments that prevented unambiguous interpretation of the data. Recently, we discovered that a fusion of the Vibrio cholerae ToxR cytoplasmic domain to the N terminus of TonB was proteolytically stable. ToxR-TonB was able to be completely converted into a proteinase K-resistant conformation in response to loss of pmf in spheroplasts and exhibited an ability to form a pmf-dependent formaldehyde crosslink to ExbD, both indicators of its location in the CM. Most importantly, ToxR-TonB had the same relative specific activity as wild-type TonB. Taken together, these results provide the first conclusive evidence that TonB does not shuttle during energy transduction. The interpretations of our previous study, which concluded that TonB shuttled in vivo, were complicated by the fact that the probe used in those studies, Oregon Green® 488 maleimide, was permeant to the CM and could label proteins, including a TonB ∆TMD derivative, confined exclusively to the

  5. La carbonatation du béton armé

    CERN Document Server

    Girard, C

    1998-01-01

    Ce document présente les divers aspects de la carbonatation du béton armé: Description des diverses réactions chimiques qui conduisent à la carbonatation des bétons. Comment le pH du béton se modifie laissant les armatures dans un milieu acide, donc corrosif. Description des conséquences sur les bétons et les armatures. Formation de cloques de surface, éclatement et perte de résistance. Méthodes d'investigation des dégâts d'ouvrages en béton armé visuelle, électrique, et par carottage. Prophylaxie passive et active: disposition des armatures lors de la réalisation, utilisation d'armatures ydables ou de fers enrobés de peinture epoxydique, protection des aciers lors de travaux d'assainissement. Principes d'assainissement du béton armé sur ouvrages anciens. Purge des bétons, passivation et protection des armatures et reconstitution au mortier de résine, ou passivation par infiltration du béton. Impact sur les ouvrages du CERN et conséquences financières prévisibles.

  6. Response Surface Model (RSM)-based Benefit Per Ton Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tables below are updated versions of the tables appearing in The influence of location, source, and emission type in estimates of the human health benefits of reducing a ton of air pollution (Fann, Fulcher and Hubbell 2009).

  7. Antifungal effect of TONS504-photodynamic therapy on Malassezia furfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Nakajima, Susumu; Sakata, Isao; Iizuka, Hajime

    2014-10-01

    Numerous reports indicate therapeutic efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) against skin tumors, acne and for skin rejuvenation. However, few reports exist regarding its efficacy for fungal skin diseases. In order to determine the antifungal effect, PDT was applied on Malassezia furfur. M. furfur was cultured in the presence of a novel cationic photosensitizer, TONS504, and was irradiated with a 670-nm diode laser. TONS504-PDT showed a significant antifungal effect against M. furfur. The effect was irradiation dose- and TONS504 concentration-dependent and the maximal effect was observed at 100 J/cm2 and 1 μg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, TONS504-PDT showed antifungal effect against M. furfur in vitro, and may be a new therapeutic modality for M. furfur-related skin disorders. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  8. Proton collider breaks the six-billion-dollar barrier

    CERN Document Server

    Vaughan, C

    1990-01-01

    The SSC will cost at least 1 billion more than its estimated final price of 5.9 billion dollars. Critics in congress believe the final bill could be double that figure. The director of the SSC blames most of the increase in cost on technical problems with developing the superconducting magnets for the SSC (1/2 page).

  9. The reproductive revolution among China's billion people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, C H

    1983-08-01

    The government of China is waging the world's most comprehensive battle to control population growth. The current attitude contrasts sharply with that of the pronatalist days of the 1950s. The urgency of the issue is the result of pressures from population growth during the last 330 years, which has resulted in a 20-fold increase in the country's population. Extensive studies of the impact of population size on resources, environment, and development over the next 100 years have shown that China should aim at a total of no more than 700 million people. These studies show that unless immediate and drastic action is taken to cut fertility there is no likelihood of raising China's nutritional intake to a level comparable to that of developed countries. In response to the potential crisis of overpopulation, the government has adopted population policies based on a novel "U shaped" transition curve. The theory behind it is that fertility should be brought down to below replacement level, kept there for a number of years, and then raised to realize replacement level fertility at the ideal population size. The pursuit of this goal has resulted in the single child policy. The family planning program has been impressive. A national survey conducted in 1982 demonstrated that the average number of births per woman had been cut by at least half from 1972-81. The attainment of almost universal consensus favoring birth control can be attributed to an ingenious pyramidal social structure that links the central administration in Beijing with individuals in the village. Socioeconomic adjustments and reorientation of traditional values have not had time to catch up with government policy throughout China. Urban areas seem to have accepted the 1 child policy, but the vast number of villages are reluctant to forego their preference for large families. As long as villages remain underdeveloped and their residents lack a comprehensive social security system for old age protection, there

  10. God particle disappears down 6 billion pound drain

    CERN Multimedia

    Henderson, M

    2001-01-01

    An estimated 6 billion pounds has been spent looking for the Higgs particle over the last three decades. Recent results from LEP though, are now causing some scientists to doubt that it exists at all (1 page).

  11. Areva excellent business volume: backlog as of december 31, 2008: + 21.1% to 48.2 billion euros. 2008 revenue: + 10.4% to 13.2 billion euros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    AREVA's backlog stood at 48.2 billion euros as of December 31, 2008, for 21.1% growth year-on-year, including 21.8% growth in Nuclear and 16.5% growth in Transmission and Distribution. The Nuclear backlog came to 42.5 billion euros at December 31, 2008. The Transmission and Distribution backlog came to 5.7 billion euros at year-end. The group recognized revenue of 13.2 billion euros in 2008, for year-on-year growth of 10.4% (+9.8% like-for-like). Revenue outside France was up 10.5% to 9.5 billion euros, representing 72% of total revenue. Revenue was up 6.5% in the Nuclear businesses (up 6.3% LFL), with strong performance in the Reactors and Services division (+10.9% LFL) and the Front End division (+7.2% LFL). The Transmission and Distribution division recorded growth of 17% (+15.8% LFL). Revenue for the fourth quarter of 2008 rose to 4.1 billion euros, up 5.2% (+1.6% LFL) from that of the fourth quarter of 2007. Revenue for the Front End division rose to 3.363 billion euros in 2008, up 7.1% over 2007 (+7.2% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 53 million euros. Revenue for the Reactors and Services division rose to 3.037 billion euros, up 11.8% over 2007 (+10.9% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 47 million euros. Revenue for the Back End division came to 1.692 billion euros, a drop of 2.7% (-2.5% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 3.5 million euros. Revenue for the Transmission and Distribution division rose to 5.065 billion euros in 2008, up 17.0% (+15.8% LFL)

  12. Factory Acceptance Test Procedure Westinghouse 100 ton Hydraulic Trailer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aftanas, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    This Factory Acceptance Test Procedure (FAT) is for the Westinghouse 100 Ton Hydraulic Trailer. The trailer will be used for the removal of the 101-SY pump. This procedure includes: safety check and safety procedures; pre-operation check out; startup; leveling trailer; functional/proofload test; proofload testing; and rolling load test

  13. Cosmic rays and the biosphere over 4 billion years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Variations in the flux of cosmic rays (CR) at Earth during the last 4.6 billion years are constructed from information about the star formation rate in the Milky Way and the evolution of the solar activity. The constructed CR signal is compared with variations in the Earths biological productivit...... as recorded in the isotope delta C-13, which spans more than 3 billion years. CR and fluctuations in biological productivity show a remarkable correlation and indicate that the evolution of climate and the biosphere on the Earth is closely linked to the evolution of the Milky Way....

  14. TonB-dependent transporters and their occurrence in cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Haeseler Arndt

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different iron transport systems evolved in Gram-negative bacteria during evolution. Most of the transport systems depend on outer membrane localized TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs, a periplasma-facing TonB protein and a plasma membrane localized machinery (ExbBD. So far, iron chelators (siderophores, oligosaccharides and polypeptides have been identified as substrates of TBDTs. For iron transport, three uptake systems are defined: the lactoferrin/transferrin binding proteins, the porphyrin-dependent transporters and the siderophore-dependent transporters. However, for cyanobacteria almost nothing is known about possible TonB-dependent uptake systems for iron or other substrates. Results We have screened all publicly available eubacterial genomes for sequences representing (putative TBDTs. Based on sequence similarity, we identified 195 clusters, where elements of one cluster may possibly recognize similar substrates. For Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 we identified 22 genes as putative TBDTs covering almost all known TBDT subclasses. This is a high number of TBDTs compared to other cyanobacteria. The expression of the 22 putative TBDTs individually depends on the presence of iron, copper or nitrogen. Conclusion We exemplified on TBDTs the power of CLANS-based classification, which demonstrates its importance for future application in systems biology. In addition, the tentative substrate assignment based on characterized proteins will stimulate the research of TBDTs in different species. For cyanobacteria, the atypical dependence of TBDT gene expression on different nutrition points to a yet unknown regulatory mechanism. In addition, we were able to clarify a hypothesis of the absence of TonB in cyanobacteria by the identification of according sequences.

  15. Estudo de Estranheza em Colisões próton-próton no LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David

    In this work, we study the production of strange hadrons in proton-proton (pp) collisions at energies of $\\sqrt{s}=7~TeV$ measured by the ALICE experiment at the LHC. We present the first measurements of particle yields at central rapidities for the $K^{0}_{S}$ meson as well as for the $\\Lambda$, $\\Xi^{-}$ and $\\Omega^{-}$ baryons and their antiparticles. Total particle production rates exceed predictions by models that use Perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (pQCD). In particular, we compare our measurements to predictions by the PYTHIA event generator and find that predictions agree with data only at transverse momenta (pt) higher than $6-7~GeV/c$. This result indicates that the leading order processes implemented in PYTHIA are well adjusted, but the implementation of a calculation that describes the data at low $p_{t}$ is still an open issue. The results presented here should contribute to improve our understanding of particle production mechanisms at low $p_{t}$. Proton-proton collisions are also used as ...

  16. Working Paper 5: Beyond Collier's Bottom Billion | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-16

    Dec 16, 2010 ... The heart of the narrative presented in the book is that a group of almost 60 countries, with a population of about a billion people, are caught in four main traps. Their prospects for escaping the traps are poor, and they need a set of actions from the international community to achieve the rapid rates of growth ...

  17. Congress OKs $2 Billion Boost for the NIH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    President Donald Trump last week signed a $1.1 trillion spending bill for fiscal year 2017, including a welcome $2 billion boost for the NIH that will support former Vice President Joe Biden's Cancer Moonshot initiative, among other priorities. However, researchers who rely heavily on NIH grant funding remain concerned about proposed cuts for 2018. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Acceptance test report for the Westinghouse 100 ton hydraulic trailer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The SY-101 Equipment Removal System 100 Ton Hydraulic Trailer was designed and built by KAMP Systems, Inc. Performance of the Acceptance Test Procedure at KAMP's facility in Ontario, California (termed Phase 1 in this report) was interrupted by discrepancies noted with the main hydraulic cylinder. The main cylinder was removed and sent to REMCO for repair while the trailer was sent to Lampson's facility in Pasco, Washington. The Acceptance Test Procedure was modified and performance resumed at Lampson (termed Phase 2 in this report) after receipt of the repaired cylinder. At the successful conclusion of Phase 2 testing the trailer was accepted as meeting all the performance criteria specified

  19. Responsible for 45 000 tons CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedrelid, Ola N.

    2006-01-01

    Waste combustion has much better tax conditions in Sweden compared to Norway. Today waste is being transported from Norway to Sweden, resulting in a 45 000 ton emission of CO 2 every year, when the waste could have remained in Norway, utilized as regained energy in district heating. The tax regime, however, does not provide the conditions for a profitable use of the waste in Norway. The district heating association is disappointed with the new government's proposed fiscal budget, which only worsens the competitive situation for Norway handling its own waste (ml)

  20. Gaia: Science with 1 billion objects in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusti, Timo

    2018-02-01

    Gaia is an operational satellite in the ESA science programme. It is gathering data for more than a billion objects. Gaia measures positions and motions of stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, but captures many asteroids and extragalactic sources as well. The first data release has already been made and exploitation by the world-wide scientific community is underway. Further data releases will be made with further increasing accuracy. Gaia is well underway to provide its promised set of fundamental astronomical data.

  1. Ubiquitous Supercritical Wing Design Cuts Billions in Fuel Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A Langley Research Center engineer’s work in the 1960s and ’70s to develop a wing with better performance near the speed of sound resulted in a significant increase in subsonic efficiency. The design was shared with industry. Today, Renton, Washington-based Boeing Commercial Airplanes, as well as most other plane manufacturers, apply it to all their aircraft, saving the airline industry billions of dollars in fuel every year.

  2. Cost of solving mysteries of universe: $6.7 billion

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    "An international consortium of physicists on Thursday released the first detailed design of what they believe will be the next big thing in physics. The machine, 20 miles long, will slam together electrons and their opposites, positrons, to produce fireballs of energy re-creating conditions when the universe was only a trillionth of a second old. It would cost about $6.7 billion." (1 page)

  3. Dilution Refrigeration of Multi-Ton Cold Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Wikus, P; CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Dilution refrigeration is the only means to provide continuous cooling at temperatures below 250 mK. Future experiments featuring multi-ton cold masses require a new generation of dilution refrigeration systems, capable of providing a heat sink below 10 mK at cooling powers which exceed the performance of present systems considerably. This thesis presents some advances towards dilution refrigeration of multi-ton masses in this temperature range. A new method using numerical simulation to predict the cooling power of a dilution refrigerator of a given design has been developed in the framework of this thesis project. This method does not only allow to take into account the differences between an actual and an ideal continuous heat exchanger, but also to quantify the impact of an additional heat load on an intermediate section of the dilute stream. In addition, transient behavior can be simulated. The numerical model has been experimentally verified with a dilution refrigeration system which has been designed, ...

  4. Taking out one billion tones of carbon: the magic of China's 11thFive-Year Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark D.; Fridley, David

    2007-05-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious targetfor energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country sgross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20 percent from 2005 to2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and bindingtarget has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift inChina's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energydevelopment. The 20 percent energy intensity target also translates intoan annual reduction of over one billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making theChinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in theworld today. While it is still too early to tell whether China willachieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend inenergy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options towardmeeting the 20 percent target using a detailed endues energymodel.

  5. Areva - First quarter 2009 revenue climbs 8.5% to 3.003 billion euros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    First quarter 2009 revenue was up 8.5% compared with the same period last year, to 3.003 billion euros. At constant exchange rates and consolidation scope, growth came to 3.9%. Currency translation had a positive impact of 57 million euros over the quarter. Changes in the consolidation scope had an impact of 66 million euros, primarily due to the consolidation of acquisitions made in 2008 in Transmission and Distribution and in Renewable Energies. The growth engines for first quarter revenue were the Reactors and Services division and the Transmission and Distribution division, with growth of 9.2% and 16.1% respectively. Outside France, revenue rose to 2.032 billion euros, compared with 1.857 billion euros in the first quarter of 2008, and represents 68% of total revenue. Orders were steady in the first quarter, particularly in the Front End, which posted several significant contracts with US and Asian utilities, and in Transmission and Distribution, with orders up sharply in Asia and South America. As of March 31, 2009, the group's backlog reached 49.5 billion euros, for 28.3% growth year-on-year, including 31.3% growth in Nuclear and 10.2% in Transmission and Distribution. For the year as a whole, the group confirms its outlook for backlog and revenue growth as well as rising operating income It should be noted that revenue may vary significantly from one quarter to the next in nuclear operations. Accordingly, quarterly data cannot be viewed as a reliable indicator of annual trends

  6. Ants at Ton Nga Chang Wildlife Sanctuary, Songkhla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanasit, S.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate diversity of ant at Ton Nga Chang Wildlife Sanctuary, Hat Yai, Songkhla. Three line transects (100 m each were randomly set up in 2 types of forest area, disturbed and undisturbed. Hand collecting (HC and leaf litter sampling (LL were applied for ant collection within a time limit of 30 minutes for each method. This study was carried out every month during Febuary 2002- Febuary 2003. The results showed that 206 species were placed under 8 subfamilies: Aenictinae, Cerapachyinae, Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Leptanillinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae and Pseudomyrmecinae. Study sites and collection methods could divide ant species into 2 groups, whereas seasonal change could not distinguish the groups by DCA of multivariate analysis.

  7. Developing economic environment: energy for a billion people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethna, H.N.; Chandramouli, R.; Manaktala, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    The ongoing reforms in the Indian economy provide an interesting canvas for optimal development of the energy sector serving the needs for a billion people. It will be necessary in the global interest, to avoid the pitfalls of developing an energy intensive society as in the west and remain within the realms of sustainable development. It also deals with the strategies to be adopted for energy conservation, rehabilitation of existing plants and optimal utilisation of hydro thermal capacities by integrated grid operation on a commercial basis and setting up of pumped storage plants. 9 tabs

  8. A two-billion-year history for the lunar dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoo, Sonia M; Weiss, Benjamin P; Shuster, David L; Suavet, Clément; Wang, Huapei; Grove, Timothy L

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic studies of lunar rocks indicate that the Moon generated a core dynamo with surface field intensities of ~20 to 110 μT between at least 4.25 and 3.56 billion years ago (Ga). The field subsequently declined to <~4 μT by 3.19 Ga, but it has been unclear whether the dynamo had terminated by this time or just greatly weakened in intensity. We present analyses that demonstrate that the melt glass matrix of a young regolith breccia was magnetized in a ~5 ± 2 μT dynamo field at ~1 to ~2.5 Ga. These data extend the known lifetime of the lunar dynamo by at least 1 billion years. Such a protracted history requires an extraordinarily long-lived power source like core crystallization or precession. No single dynamo mechanism proposed thus far can explain the strong fields inferred for the period before 3.56 Ga while also allowing the dynamo to persist in such a weakened state beyond ~2.5 Ga. Therefore, our results suggest that the dynamo was powered by at least two distinct mechanisms operating during early and late lunar history.

  9. The Boring Billion, a slingshot for Complex Life on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Indrani; Large, Ross R; Corkrey, Ross; Danyushevsky, Leonid V

    2018-03-13

    The period 1800 to 800 Ma ("Boring Billion") is believed to mark a delay in the evolution of complex life, primarily due to low levels of oxygen in the atmosphere. Earlier studies highlight the remarkably flat C, Cr isotopes and low trace element trends during the so-called stasis, caused by prolonged nutrient, climatic, atmospheric and tectonic stability. In contrast, we suggest a first-order variability of bio-essential trace element availability in the oceans by combining systematic sampling of the Proterozoic rock record with sensitive geochemical analyses of marine pyrite by LA-ICP-MS technique. We also recall that several critical biological evolutionary events, such as the appearance of eukaryotes, origin of multicellularity & sexual reproduction, and the first major diversification of eukaryotes (crown group) occurred during this period. Therefore, it appears possible that the period of low nutrient trace elements (1800-1400 Ma) caused evolutionary pressures which became an essential trigger for promoting biological innovations in the eukaryotic domain. Later periods of stress-free conditions, with relatively high nutrient trace element concentration, facilitated diversification. We propose that the "Boring Billion" was a period of sequential stepwise evolution and diversification of complex eukaryotes, triggering evolutionary pathways that made possible the later rise of micro-metazoans and their macroscopic counterparts.

  10. Empowering billions with food safety and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, Suresh D.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: There are virtually millions of people -who die needlessly every year due to contaminated water and food. There are virtually many millions more who are starving due to an inadequate supply of food. Billions of pounds of food are unnecessarily wasted due to insect and other damage. Deaths and illness due to contaminated food or inadequate food are at catastrophic levels in many regions of the world. A majority of the food and water borne illnesses and deaths are preventable. It can be prevented by improved food production methods, improved food processing technologies, improved food distribution systems and improved personal hygiene. Food irradiation technology is over 100 years old. Yet, this technology is poorly understood by governments and corporate decision makers all around the world. Many consumers also are unfortunately misinformed of this technology. There is an urgent need for nations and people around the world to empower themselves with the knowledge and the expertise to harness this powerful technology. Widespread and sensible adoption of this technology can empower billions around the world with clean and abundant food supplies. It is unconscionable in the 21st century for governments to allow people to die or go hungry when the technology to prevent them is readily available

  11. AREVA - First quarter 2011 revenue: 2.7% growth like for like to 1.979 billion euros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The group reported consolidated revenue of 1.979 billion euros in the 1. quarter of 2011, for 2.2% growth compared with the 1. quarter of 2010 (+ 2.7% like for like). The increase was driven by the Mining / Front End Business Group (+ 20.8% LFL). Revenue from outside France rose 12.0% to 1.22 billion euros and represented 62% of total revenue. The impacts of foreign exchange and changes in consolidation scope were negligible during the period. The March 11 events in Japan had no significant impact on the group's performance in the 1. quarter of 2011. The group's backlog of 43.5 billion euros at March 31, 2011 was stable in relation to March 31, 2010. The growth in the backlog of the Mining / Front End and Renewable Energies Business Groups offset the partial depletion of the backlog in the Reactors and Services and Back End Business Groups as contracts were completed

  12. Transportation system benefits of early deployment of a 75-ton multipurpose canister system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wankerl, M.W.; Schmid, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    In 1993 the US Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) began developing two multipurpose canister (MPC) systems to provide a standardized method for interim storage and transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at commercial nuclear power plants. One is a 75-ton concept with an estimated payload of about 6 metric tons (t) of SNF, and the other is a 125-ton concept with an estimated payload of nearly 11 t of SNF. These payloads are two to three times the payloads of the largest currently certified US rail transport casks, the IF-300. Although is it recognized that a fully developed 125-ton MPC system is likely to provide a greater cost benefit, and radiation exposure benefit than the lower-capacity 75-ton MPC, the authors of this paper suggest that development and deployment of the 75-ton MPC prior to developing and deploying a 125-ton MPC is a desirable strategy. Reasons that support this are discussed in this paper

  13. WFIRST: Extragalactic Science over Twelve Billion Years of Cosmic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Mark; Robertson, Brant; Ferguson, Henry C.; Furlanetto, Steve; Greene, Jenny; Madau, Piero; Marrone, Dan; Shapley, Alice; Stark, Daniel P.; Wechsler, Risa; Woosley, Stan; WFIRST-EXPO Science Investigation Team

    2018-01-01

    WFIRST’s infrared multiband imaging and spectroscopy from space over thousands of square degrees will revolutionize our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. When combined with unique guest observer programs that provide ultradeep IR imaging and spectroscopy over areas >100x larger than achieved by Hubble Space Telescope, WFIRST will provide the first complete picture of star formation and stellar mass build-up in galaxies over twelve billion years of cosmic history. The WFIRST Extragalactic Potential Observations (WFIRST-EXPO) Science Investigation Team has identified a host of guest observer and archival programs where WFIRST can transform our views of the connections between the star formation, environment, morphology, stellar mass, and dark matter halo properties of galaxies, and determined how WFIRST can singularly probe the connection between early galaxies and the process of cosmic reionization. We present these WFIRST capabilities, and discuss how the science from WFIRST relates to other major forthcoming space- and ground-based facilities.

  14. Characterization of Arsenic Contamination on Rust from Ton Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary S. Groenewold; Recep Avci; Robert V. Fox; Muhammedin Deliorman; Jayson Suo; Laura Kellerman

    2013-01-01

    The speciation and spatial distribution of arsenic on rusted steel surfaces affects both measurement and removal approaches. The chemistry of arsenic residing in the rust of ton containers that held the chemical warfare agents bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (sulfur mustard) and 2-chlorovinyldichloroarsine (Lewisite) is of particular interest, because while the agents have been decontaminated, residual arsenic could pose a health or environmental risk. The chemistry and distribution of arsenic in rust samples was probed using imaging secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). Arsenic in the +3 and or +5 oxidation state is homogeneously distributed at the very top-most layer of the rust samples, and is intimately associated with iron. Sputter depth profiling followed by SIMS and XPS shows As at a depth of several nm, in some cases in a reduced form. The SEM/EDX experiments show that As is present at a depth of several microns, but is inhomogeneously distributed; most locations contained oxidized As at concentrations of a few percent, however several locations showed very high As in a metallic form. These results indicate that the rust material must be removed if the steel containers are to be cleared of arsenic.

  15. Consumption data for 100,000 tons/annum auto gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochstetter, H.

    1944-06-28

    This report is a table accompanied by a prefatory note of explanation. The table gives consumption figures for the production of 100,000 tons of auto gasoline per year from brown coal, bituminous coal, petroleum, and brown coal tar, based on data from German plants. Under material consumption, the table lists dry raw material, power, steam, water, fuel, hygas credit, hydrogen, coke, and excess watergas credit. Under personnel requirements, the table lists operators and millwrights. Under iron requirements the table lists operators and millwrights. Under iron requirements, the table lists iron for equipment, for building, and for repairs. The note explains that the personnel count does not include support personnel, a tabulation of which would add forty percent to the total count. 1 table.

  16. The Role of TonB Gene in Edwardsiella ictaluri Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Abdelhamed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Edwardsiella ictaluri is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that causes enteric septicemia in catfish (ESC. Stress factors including poor water quality, poor diet, rough handling, overcrowding, and water temperature fluctuations increase fish susceptibility to ESC. The TonB energy transducing system (TonB-ExbB-ExbD and TonB-dependent transporters of Gram-negative bacteria support active transport of scarce resources including iron, an essential micronutrient for bacterial virulence. Deletion of the tonB gene attenuates virulence in several pathogenic bacteria. In the current study, the role of TonB (NT01EI_RS07425 in iron acquisition and E. ictaluri virulence were investigated. To accomplish this, the E. ictaluri tonB gene was in-frame deleted. Growth kinetics, iron utilization, and virulence of the EiΔtonB mutant were determined. Loss of TonB caused a significant reduction in bacterial growth in iron-depleted medium (p > 0.05. The EiΔtonB mutant grew similarly to wild-type E. ictaluri when ferric iron was added to the iron-depleted medium. The EiΔtonB mutant was significantly attenuated in catfish compared with the parent strain (21.69 vs. 46.91% mortality. Catfish surviving infection with EiΔtonB had significant protection against ESC compared with naïve fish (100 vs. 40.47% survival. These findings indicate that TonB participates in pathogenesis of ESC and is an important E. ictaluri virulence factor.

  17. 77 FR 16224 - Billion Auto, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION [File No. 112 3209] Billion Auto, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent... ``Billion Auto, File No. 112 3209'' on your comment, and file your comment online at https://ftcpublic... April 16, 2012. Write ``Billion Auto, File No. 112 3209'' on your comment. Your comment--including your...

  18. Criticality safety review of 2 1/2-, 10-, and 14-ton UF6 cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, B.L.

    1991-10-01

    Currently, UF 6 cylinders designed to contain 2 1/2 tons of UF 6 are classified as Fissile Class 2 packages with a transport index (TI) of 5 for the purpose of transportation. The 10-ton UF 6 cylinders are classified as Fissile Class 1 with no TI assigned for transportation. The 14-ton cylinders, although not certified for transport with enrichments greater than 1 wt % because they have no approved overpack, can be used in on-site operations for enrichments greater than 1 wt %. The maximum 235 U enrichments for these cylinders are 5.0 wt % for the 2 1/2-ton cylinder and 4.5 wt % for the 10- and 14-ton cylinders. This work reviews the suitability for reclassification of the 2 1/2-ton UF 6 packages as Fissile Class 1 with a maximum 235 U enrichment of 5 wt %. Additionally, the 10- and 14-ton cylinders are reviewed to address a change in maximum 235 U enrichment from 4.5 to 5 wt %. Based on this evaluation, the 2 1/2-ton UF 6 cylinders meet the 10 CFR.71 criteria for Fissile Class 1 packages, and no TI is needed for criticality safety purposes; however, a TI may be required based on radiation from the packages. Similarly, the 10- and 14-ton UF 6 packages appear acceptable for a maximum enrichment rating change to 5 wt % 235 U. 11 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Orbital forcing of climate 1.4 billion years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Hammarlund, Emma U; Wang, Huajian; Costa, M Mafalda; Bjerrum, Christian J; Connelly, James N; Zhang, Baomin; Bian, Lizeng; Canfield, Donald E

    2015-03-24

    Fluctuating climate is a hallmark of Earth. As one transcends deep into Earth time, however, both the evidence for and the causes of climate change become difficult to establish. We report geochemical and sedimentological evidence for repeated, short-term climate fluctuations from the exceptionally well-preserved ∼1.4-billion-year-old Xiamaling Formation of the North China Craton. We observe two patterns of climate fluctuations: On long time scales, over what amounts to tens of millions of years, sediments of the Xiamaling Formation record changes in geochemistry consistent with long-term changes in the location of the Xiamaling relative to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. On shorter time scales, and within a precisely calibrated stratigraphic framework, cyclicity in sediment geochemical dynamics is consistent with orbital control. In particular, sediment geochemical fluctuations reflect what appear to be orbitally forced changes in wind patterns and ocean circulation as they influenced rates of organic carbon flux, trace metal accumulation, and the source of detrital particles to the sediment.

  20. Backlog at December 31, 2007: euro 39,8 billion, up by 55% from year-end 2006. 2007 sales revenue: euro 11.9 billion, up by 9.8% (+10.4% like-for-like)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The AREVA group's backlog reached a record level of euro 39.834 billion as of December 31, 2007, up by 55% from that of year-end 2006. In Nuclear, the backlog was euro 34.927 billion at year-end 2007 (+58%), due in particular to the signature of a contract in a record amount with the Chinese utility CGNPC. The series of agreements concluded provide among other things for the construction of two new-generation EPR nuclear islands and the supply of all of the materials and services needed for their operation through 2027. CGNPC also bought 35% of the production of UraMin, the mining company acquired by AREVA in August 2007. Industrial cooperation in the Back End of the cycle was launched with the signature of an agreement between China and France. In addition, the group signed several long-term contracts in significant amounts, particularly with KHNP of South Korea, EDF and Japanese utilities. The Transmission and Distribution division won several major contracts in Libya and Qatar at the end of the year approaching a total of euro 750 million. For the entire year, new orders grew by 34% to euro 5.816 billion. The backlog, meanwhile, grew by 40% to euro 4.906 billion at year-end. The group cleared sales revenue of euro 11.923 billion in 2007, up by 9.8% (+10.4% like-for-like) in relation to 2006 sales of euro 10.863 billion. Sales revenue for the 4. quarter of 2007 rose to euro 3.858 billion, for growth of 16.7% (+18.8% like-for-like) over one year. Sales revenue for the year was marked by: - Growth of 7.6% (+10.6% like-for-like) in Front End sales revenue, which rose to euro 3.140 billion. The division's Enrichment operations posted strong growth. - Sales were up by 17.5% (+15.2% like-for-like) to euro 2.717 billion in the Reactors and Services division. Sales revenue was driven in particular by the growth of Services operations, after weak demand in 2006, by progress on OL3 construction, and by the start of Flamanville 3, the second EPR. For the Back End division

  1. Vizualization Challenges of a Subduction Simulation Using One Billion Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, M. L.; Gerya, T. V.; Yuen, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    Recent advances in supercomputing technology have permitted us to study the multiscale, multicomponent fluid dynamics of subduction zones at unprecedented resolutions down to about the length of a football field. We have performed numerical simulations using one billion tracers over a grid of about 80 thousand points in two dimensions. These runs have been performed using a thermal-chemical simulation that accounts for hydration and partial melting in the thermal, mechanical, petrological, and rheological domains. From these runs, we have observed several geophysically interesting phenomena including the development of plumes with unmixed mantle composition as well as plumes with mixed mantle/crust components. Unmixed plumes form at depths greater than 100km (5-10 km above the upper interface of subducting slab) and consist of partially molten wet peridotite. Mixed plumes form at lesser depth directly from the subducting slab and contain partially molten hydrated oceanic crust and sediments. These high resolution simulations have also spurred the development of new visualization methods. We have created a new web-based interface to data from our subduction simulation and other high-resolution 2D data that uses an hierarchical data format to achieve response times of less than one second when accessing data files on the order of 3GB. This interface, WEB-IS4, uses a Javascript and HTML frontend coupled with a C and PHP backend and allows the user to perform region of interest zooming, real-time colormap selection, and can return relevant statistics relating to the data in the region of interest.

  2. Oral diseases affect some 3.9 billion people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Medline, Embase, Lilacs. Published and unpublished observational population-based studies presenting information on the prevalence, incidence, case fatality and cause-specific mortality related to untreated caries, severe periodontitis and severe tooth loss between January 1980 and December 2010. There were no language restrictions. Study quality was assessed using the STROBE checklist (http://www.strobe-statement.org/). Prevalence estimates were calculated on the database for all age-gender-country-year groups using a specifically developed Bayesian meta-regression tool. Disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs) metrics were used to quantify the disease burden. Disability weights were calculated based on population-based surveys in five countries (USA, Peru, Tanzania, Bangladesh and Indonesia) and an open Internet survey. Uncertainties in estimates were examined using Monte Carlo simulation techniques with uncertainty levels presented as the 2.5th and 97.5th centiles, which can be interpreted as a 95% UI. Oral diseases remain highly prevalent in 2010 affecting 3.9 billion people. Untreated caries in permanent teeth was the most prevalent condition evaluated for the entire GBD (Global Burden of Disease) 2010 Study with a global prevalence of 35% for all ages combined. Severe periodontitis and untreated caries in deciduous teeth were the 6th and 10th most prevalent conditions, affecting, respectively, 11% and 9% of the global population. Oral conditions combined accounted for 15 million DALYs globally (1.9% of all YLDs and 0.6% of all DALYs), implying an average health loss of 224 years per 100,000 people. DALYs due to oral conditions increased 20.8% between 1990 and 2010, mainly due to population growth and aging. While DALYs due to severe periodontitis and untreated caries increased, those due to severe tooth loss decreased. The findings highlight the challenge in responding to the diversity of urgent oral health needs world

  3. TonEBP modulates the protective effect of taurine in ischemia-induced cytotoxicity in cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y J; Han, Y Y; Chen, K; Zhang, Y; Liu, X; Li, S; Wang, K Q; Ge, J B; Liu, W; Zuo, J

    2015-12-17

    Taurine, which is found at high concentration in the heart, exerts several protective actions on myocardium. Physically, the high level of taurine in heart is maintained by a taurine transporter (TauT), the expression of which is suppressed under ischemic insult. Although taurine supplementation upregulates TauT expression, elevates the intracellular taurine content and ameliorates the ischemic injury of cardiomyocytes (CMs), little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of taurine governing TauT expression under ischemia. In this study, we describe the TonE (tonicity-responsive element)/TonEBP (TonE-binding protein) pathway involved in the taurine-regulated TauT expression in ischemic CMs. Taurine inhibited the ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of TonEBP, promoted the translocation of TonEBP into the nucleus, enhanced TauT promoter activity and finally upregulated TauT expression in CMs. In addition, we observed that TonEBP had an anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative role in CMs under ischemia. Moreover, the protective effects of taurine on myocardial ischemia were TonEBP dependent. Collectively, our findings suggest that TonEBP is a core molecule in the protective mechanism of taurine in CMs under ischemic insult.

  4. TonEBP modulates the protective effect of taurine in ischemia-induced cytotoxicity in cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y J; Han, Y Y; Chen, K; Zhang, Y; Liu, X; Li, S; Wang, K Q; Ge, J B; Liu, W; Zuo, J

    2015-01-01

    Taurine, which is found at high concentration in the heart, exerts several protective actions on myocardium. Physically, the high level of taurine in heart is maintained by a taurine transporter (TauT), the expression of which is suppressed under ischemic insult. Although taurine supplementation upregulates TauT expression, elevates the intracellular taurine content and ameliorates the ischemic injury of cardiomyocytes (CMs), little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of taurine governing TauT expression under ischemia. In this study, we describe the TonE (tonicity-responsive element)/TonEBP (TonE-binding protein) pathway involved in the taurine-regulated TauT expression in ischemic CMs. Taurine inhibited the ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of TonEBP, promoted the translocation of TonEBP into the nucleus, enhanced TauT promoter activity and finally upregulated TauT expression in CMs. In addition, we observed that TonEBP had an anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative role in CMs under ischemia. Moreover, the protective effects of taurine on myocardial ischemia were TonEBP dependent. Collectively, our findings suggest that TonEBP is a core molecule in the protective mechanism of taurine in CMs under ischemic insult. PMID:26673669

  5. 46 CFR 130.110 - Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross... Internal communications on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. Each vessel of less than 100 gross tons... have a fixed means of communication between the pilothouse and the place where the auxiliary means of...

  6. Formulation des bétons autoplaçants : Optimisation du squelette ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulation des bétons autoplaçants : Optimisation du squelette granulaire par la méthode graphique de Dreux - Gorisse. ... De multiples approches se sont développées á travers le monde pour la formulation d'un béton autoplaçant. ... Keywords: SCC - Formulation - Optimization -Aggregate -Additions - Characterization ...

  7. Eight Tons of Material Footprint—Suggestion for a Resource Cap for Household Consumption in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lettenmeier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper suggests a sustainable material footprint of eight tons, per person, in a year as a resource cap target for household consumption in Finland. This means an 80% (factor 5 reduction from the present Finnish average. The material footprint is used as a synonym to the Total Material Requirement (TMR calculated for products and activities. The paper suggests how to allocate the sustainable material footprint to different consumption components on the basis of earlier household studies, as well as other studies, on the material intensity of products, services, and infrastructures. It analyzes requirements, opportunities, and challenges for future developments in technology and lifestyle, also taking into account that future lifestyles are supposed to show a high degree of diversity. The targets and approaches are discussed for the consumption components of nutrition, housing, household goods, mobility, leisure activities, and other purposes. The paper states that a sustainable level of natural resource use by households is achievable and it can be roughly allocated to different consumption components in order to illustrate the need for a change in lifestyles. While the absolute material footprint of all the consumption components will have to decrease, the relative share of nutrition, the most basic human need, in the total material footprint is expected to rise, whereas much smaller shares than at present are proposed for housing and especially mobility. For reducing material resource use to the sustainable level suggested, both social innovations, and technological developments are required.

  8. Missing billions. How the Australian government's climate policy is penalising farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riguet, T.

    2006-10-01

    The Climate Institute analysis suggests ratifying the Kyoto Protocol and implementing a national emissions trading scheme today could provide Australian farmers with an income of $1.8 billion over the period 2008-2012, due to the emissions saved by limiting land clearing. Separately, a report to the National Farmers Federation by the Allen Consulting Group earlier this year concluded that a carbon emission trading system which recognised Kyoto Protocol rules could create an additional income stream of $0.7-0.9 billion over a five year period from revenue to farmers from forestry sinks. These two studies suggest that ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and the introduction of a national emissions trading scheme could provide farmers an income stream in the order of $2.5 billion. A central tenet of the Federal Government's greenhouse policy for over a decade has been to not ratify Kyoto, but to meet its Kyoto target - a national emissions increase of 8% from 1990 levels, in the period 2008-2012. Australia's National Greenhouse Gas Accounts show that farmers, by reducing land clearing rates since 1990, have offset substantial increases in greenhouse gas emissions from other sectors, mainly energy. Official Federal Government projections show that without land clearing reductions, Australia's greenhouse emissions would be 30% above 1990 levels by 2010. Australia's farmers have been responsible for virtually the entire share of the nation's greenhouse gas emissions reductions, but their efforts, worth around $2 billion, have not been recognised or financially rewarded by the Government. By reducing land clearing, farmers have already reduced greenhouse gas emissions by about 75 million tonnes since 1990. By 2010, the savings are projected to be about 83 million tonnes. This level of emissions reductions is equivalent to eliminating the total annual emissions of New Zealand or Ireland. Over that same period, emissions from energy and transport have and continue to sky

  9. Diabetes mellitus typ 2 bland barn och tonåringar : en kvalitativ litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Sandra; Östman, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att genom enkvalitativ litteraturstudie ta reda på de förebyggande åtgärderna mot diabetes mellitus typ 2 bland barn och tonåringar. För att förtydliga och skapa förståelse för de förebyggande åtgärderna för typ 2 diabetes bland barn och tonåringar har respondenterna valt att ta reda på orsaker och riskfaktorer till typ 2 diabetes bland barn och tonåringar. Litteraturstudien görs för att lyfta fram kunskap om typ 2 diabetes bland barn och tonåringar. För att...

  10. Materials Discarded in the U.S. Municipal Waste Stream, 1960 to 2009 (in tons)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has collected and reported data on the generation and disposal of waste in the United States for more than 30 years. We use this information to measure the success of waste reduction and recycling programs across the country. Our trash, or municipal solid waste (MSW), is made up of the things we commonly use and then throw away. These materials include items such as packaging, food scraps, grass clippings, sofas, computers, tires, and refrigerators. MSW does not include industrial, hazardous, or construction waste. The data on Materials Discarded in the Municipal Waste Stream, 1960 to 2009, provides estimated data in thousands of tons discarded after recycling and compost recovery for the years 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2007, 2008, and 2009. In this data set, discards include combustion with energy recovery. This data table does not include construction & demolition debris, industrial process wastes, or certain other wastes. The Other category includes electrolytes in batteries and fluff pulp, feces, and urine in disposable diapers. Details may not add to totals due to rounding.

  11. 19 CFR 4.100 - Licensing of vessels of less than 30 net tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Licensing of vessels of less than 30 net tons. 4.100 Section 4.100 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES General § 4.100 Licensing of vessels of less than 30 net tons. (a) The application...

  12. Interactive (statistical) visualisation and exploration of a billion objects with vaex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breddels, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    With new catalogues arriving such as the Gaia DR1, containing more than a billion objects, new methods of handling and visualizing these data volumes are needed. We show that by calculating statistics on a regular (N-dimensional) grid, visualizations of a billion objects can be done within a second

  13. Community access networks: how to connect the next billion to the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community access networks: how to connect the next billion to the Internet. Despite recent progress with mobile technology diffusion, more than four billion people worldwide are unconnected and have limited access to global communication infrastructure. The cost of implementing connectivity infrastructure in underserved ...

  14. Diamond's 2-billion-year growth charts tectonic shift in early Earth's carbon cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, G.R.; Gress, M.U.

    2017-01-01

    A study of tiny mineral 'inclusions' within diamonds from Botswana has shown that diamond crystals can take billions of years to grow. One diamond was found to contain silicate material that formed 2.3 billion years ago in its interior and a 250 million-year-old garnet crystal towards its outer rim,

  15. Semiportable load-cell-based weighing system prototype of 18.14-metric-ton (20-ton) capacity for UF6 cylinder weight verifications: description and testing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAuley, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    The 18.14-metric-ton-capacity (20-ton) Load-Cell-Based Weighing System (LCBWS) prototype tested at the Oak Ridge (Tennessee) Gaseous Diffusion Plant March 20-30, 1984, is semiportable and has the potential for being highly accurate. Designed by Brookhaven National Laboratory, it can be moved to cylinders for weighing as opposed to the widely used operating philosophy of most enrichment facilities of moving cylinders to stationary accountability scales. Composed mainly of commercially available, off-the-shelf hardware, the system's principal elements are two load cells that sense the weight (i.e., force) of a uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) cylinder suspended from the LCBWS while the cylinder is in the process of being weighed. Portability is achieved by its attachment to a double-hook, overhead-bridge crane. The LCBWS prototype is designed to weigh 9.07- and 12.70-metric ton (10- and 14-ton) UF 6 cylinders. A detailed description of the LCBWS is given, design information and criteria are supplied, a testing procedure is outlined, and initial test results are reported. A major objective of the testing is to determine the reliability and accuracy of the system. Other testing objectives include the identification of (1) potential areas for system improvements and (2) procedural modifications that will reflect an improved and more efficient system. The testing procedure described includes, but is not limited to, methods that account for temperature sensitivity of the instrumentation, the local variation in the acceleration due to gravity, and buoyance effects. Operational and safety considerations are noted. A preliminary evaluation of the March test data indicates that the LCBWS prototype has the potential to have an accuracy in the vicinity of 1 kg

  16. Comportement en flexion des bétons fibrés sous chargement cyclique

    OpenAIRE

    Boulekbache Bensaid; Hamrat Mostefa; Chemrouk Mohamed; Amziane Sofiane

    2014-01-01

    Ce papier présente les résultats d’une étude expérimentale sur le comportement en flexion des bétons de fibres métalliques. On étudie l’effet de la rhéologie du béton sur l’orientation des fibres et l’influence de l’orientation sur les propriétés mécaniques. La rigidité de l’ancrage des fibres étudiée par les essais cycliques est liée aux caractéristiques rhéologiques et mécaniques de la matrice. Les résultats montrent que la fluidité des bétons est un paramètre essentiel de l’orientation des...

  17. 76 FR 35072 - Proposed Guidance on Stress Testing for Banking Organizations With More Than $10 Billion in Total...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... an ongoing risk management practice that supports a banking organization's forward- looking... risk exposures.\\2\\ The 2007-2009 financial crisis further underscored the need for banking organizations to incorporate stress testing into their risk management, as banking organizations unprepared for...

  18. 77 FR 3075 - Resolution Plans Required for Insured Depository Institutions With $50 Billion or More in Total...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... the amount of any loss to be realized by the institution's creditors. The Rule is intended to address the continuing exposure of the banking industry to the risks of insolvency of large and complex..., business practices, financial responsibilities and risk exposures. The Rule requires these institutions to...

  19. 76 FR 58379 - Resolution Plans Required for Insured Depository Institutions With $50 Billion or More in Total...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... institution's creditors. The FDIC finds that there is good cause and it is in the public interest to adopt the... industry to the risks of insolvency of large and complex insured depository institutions, an exposure that... practices, financial responsibilities and risk exposures. The Rule requires these institutions to develop...

  20. A method to press powder at 6000 ton using small amount of explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmi, Ahmad Humaizi; Azmi, Nor Azmaliana; Ismail, Ariffin

    2017-12-01

    Large die hydraulic press forces are one of the key instruments in making jumbo planes. The machine can produce aircraft components such as wing spars, landing gear supports and armor plates. Superpower nations such as USA, Russia, Germany, Japan, Korea and China have large die hydraulic press which can press 50,000 tons. In Malaysia, heavy-duty press is available from companies such as Proton that builds chassis for cars. However, that heavy-duty press is not able to produce better bulkhead for engines, fuselage, and wings of an aircraft. This paper presents the design of an apparatus that uses 50 grams of commercial grade explosives to produce 6000 tons of compaction. This is a first step towards producing larger scale apparatus that can produce 50,000-ton press. The design was done using AUTODYN blast simulation software. According to the results, the maximum load the apparatus can withstand was 6000 tons which was contributed by 50 grams of commercial explosive(Emulex). Explosive size larger than 50 grams will lead to catastrophic failure. Fabrication of the apparatus was completed. However, testing of the apparatus is not presented in this article.

  1. Safety analysis report on the ''Paducah Tiger'' protective overpack for 10-ton cylinders of uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stitt, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    The ''Paducah Tiger'' is a protective overpack used in shipment of 10-ton cylinders of enriched UF 6 . The calculations and tests are described which made and which indicate that the overpack is in compliance with the type B packaging requirements of ERDA Manual Chapter 0529 and Title 10 Code Federal Regulations Part 71. (U.S.)

  2. 10'000 ton ALICE gets her UK-built "Brain"

    CERN Multimedia

    Maddock, Julia

    2007-01-01

    For one of the four LEP experiments, called ALICE, the process got a step closer last week when a crucial part of the 10'000-ton detector, the British-built Central Trigger Processor (CTP), was installed in the ALICE cavern, some 150 feet underground. (plus background information about ALICE) (2,5 pages)

  3. Areva excellent business volume: backlog as of december 31, 2008: + 21.1% to 48.2 billion euros. 2008 revenue: + 10.4% to 13.2 billion euros; Areva excellent niveau d'activite: carnet de commandes au 31/12/2008: + 21,1% a 48,2 Mds d'euros. Chiffre d'affaires de l'exercice 2008: + 10,4% a 13,2 Mds d'euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    AREVA's backlog stood at 48.2 billion euros as of December 31, 2008, for 21.1% growth year-on-year, including 21.8% growth in Nuclear and 16.5% growth in Transmission and Distribution. The Nuclear backlog came to 42.5 billion euros at December 31, 2008. The Transmission and Distribution backlog came to 5.7 billion euros at year-end. The group recognized revenue of 13.2 billion euros in 2008, for year-on-year growth of 10.4% (+9.8% like-for-like). Revenue outside France was up 10.5% to 9.5 billion euros, representing 72% of total revenue. Revenue was up 6.5% in the Nuclear businesses (up 6.3% LFL), with strong performance in the Reactors and Services division (+10.9% LFL) and the Front End division (+7.2% LFL). The Transmission and Distribution division recorded growth of 17% (+15.8% LFL). Revenue for the fourth quarter of 2008 rose to 4.1 billion euros, up 5.2% (+1.6% LFL) from that of the fourth quarter of 2007. Revenue for the Front End division rose to 3.363 billion euros in 2008, up 7.1% over 2007 (+7.2% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 53 million euros. Revenue for the Reactors and Services division rose to 3.037 billion euros, up 11.8% over 2007 (+10.9% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 47 million euros. Revenue for the Back End division came to 1.692 billion euros, a drop of 2.7% (-2.5% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 3.5 million euros. Revenue for the Transmission and Distribution division rose to 5.065 billion euros in 2008, up 17.0% (+15.8% LFL)

  4. Confined Mobility of TonB and FepA in Escherichia coli Membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoriko Lill

    Full Text Available The important process of nutrient uptake in Escherichia coli, in many cases, involves transit of the nutrient through a class of beta-barrel proteins in the outer membrane known as TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs and requires interaction with the inner membrane protein TonB. Here we have imaged the mobility of the ferric enterobactin transporter FepA and TonB by tracking them in the membranes of live E. coli with single-molecule resolution at time-scales ranging from milliseconds to seconds. We employed simple simulations to model/analyze the lateral diffusion in the membranes of E.coli, to take into account both the highly curved geometry of the cell and artifactual effects expected due to finite exposure time imaging. We find that both molecules perform confined lateral diffusion in their respective membranes in the absence of ligand with FepA confined to a region [Formula: see text] μm in radius in the outer membrane and TonB confined to a region [Formula: see text] μm in radius in the inner membrane. The diffusion coefficient of these molecules on millisecond time-scales was estimated to be [Formula: see text] μm2/s and [Formula: see text] μm2/s for FepA and TonB, respectively, implying that each molecule is free to diffuse within its domain. Disruption of the inner membrane potential, deletion of ExbB/D from the inner membrane, presence of ligand or antibody to FepA and disruption of the MreB cytoskeleton was all found to further restrict the mobility of both molecules. Results are analyzed in terms of changes in confinement size and interactions between the two proteins.

  5. A ton is not always a ton: A road-test of landfill, manure, and afforestation/reforestation offset protocols in the U.S. carbon market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Carrie M.; Lazarus, Michael; Smith, Gordon R.; Todd, Kimberly; Weitz, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Protocols are the foundation of an offset program. • Using sample projects, we “road test” landfill, manure and afforestation protocols from 5 programs. • For a given project, we find large variation in the volume of offsets generated. • Harmonization of protocols can increase the likelihood that “a ton is a ton”. • Harmonization can enhance prospects for linking emission trading systems. -- Abstract: The outcome of recent international climate negotiations suggests we are headed toward a more fragmented carbon market, with multiple emission trading and offset programs operating in parallel. To effectively harmonize and link across programs, it will be important to ensure that across offset programs and protocols that a “ton is a ton”. In this article, we consider how sample offsets projects in the U.S. carbon market are treated across protocols from five programs: the Clean Development Mechanism, Climate Action Reserve, Chicago Climate Exchange, Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, and the U.S. EPA's former program, Climate Leaders. We find that differences among protocols for landfill methane, manure management, and afforestation/reforestation project types in accounting boundary definitions, baseline setting methods, measurement rules, emission factors, and discounts lead to differences in offsets credited that are often significant (e.g. greater than 50%). We suggest opportunities for modification and harmonization of protocols that can improve offset quality and credibility and enhance prospects for future linking of trading units and systems

  6. In vivo evidence of TonB shuttling between the cytoplasmic and outer membrane in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ray A; Letain, Tracy E; Postle, Kathleen

    2003-07-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are able to convert potential energy inherent in the proton gradient of the cytoplasmic membrane into active nutrient transport across the outer membrane. The transduction of energy is mediated by TonB protein. Previous studies suggest a model in which TonB makes sequential and cyclic contact with proteins in each membrane, a process called shuttling. A key feature of shuttling is that the amino-terminal signal anchor must quit its association with the cytoplasmic membrane, and TonB becomes associated solely with the outer membrane. However, the initial studies did not exclude the possibility that TonB was artifactually pulled from the cytoplasmic membrane by the fractionation process. To resolve this ambiguity, we devised a method to test whether the extreme TonB amino-terminus, located in the cytoplasm, ever became accessible to the cys-specific, cytoplasmic membrane-impermeant molecule, Oregon Green(R) 488 maleimide (OGM) in vivo. A full-length TonB and a truncated TonB were modified to carry a sole cysteine at position 3. Both full-length TonB and truncated TonB (consisting of the amino-terminal two-thirds) achieved identical conformations in the cytoplasmic membrane, as determined by their abilities to cross-link to the cytoplasmic membrane protein ExbB and their abilities to respond conformationally to the presence or absence of proton motive force. Full-length TonB could be amino-terminally labelled in vivo, suggesting that it was periplasmically exposed. In contrast, truncated TonB, which did not associate with the outer membrane, was not specifically labelled in vivo. The truncated TonB also acted as a control for leakage of OGM across the cytoplasmic membrane. Further, the extent of labelling for full-length TonB correlated roughly with the proportion of TonB found at the outer membrane. These findings suggest that TonB does indeed disengage from the cytoplasmic membrane during energy transduction and shuttle to the outer membrane.

  7. Design and analysis of a 1-ton prototype of the Jinping Neutrino Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongyi; Wang, Yuanqing; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Shaomin; Du, Xinxi; Zhang, Tianxiong; Guo, Ziyi; Yuan, Huanxin

    2017-05-01

    The Jinping Neutrino Experiment will perform an in-depth research on solar neutrinos and geo-neutrinos. Two structural options (i.e., cylindrical and spherical schemes) are proposed for the Jinping detector based on other successful underground neutrino detectors. Several key factors in the design are also discussed in detail. A 1-ton prototype of the Jinping experiment is proposed based on physics requirements. Subsequently, the structural design, installation procedure, and mechanical analysis of the neutrino detector prototype are discussed. The results show that the maximum Mises stresses on the acrylic vessel, stainless steel truss, and the tank are all lower than the design values of the strengths. The stability requirement of the stainless steel truss in the detector prototype is satisfied. Consequently, the structural scheme for the 1-ton prototype is safe and reliable.

  8. Diabetes\tand\tdepression:\tA\treview\twith\tspecial\tfocus\ton\tIndia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha\tThakur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes,\ta\tpsychologically\tchallenging\tcondition for the\tpatients\tand their care givers, has been found to be a significant risk factor for depression. Depression\tmay\tbe\ta\tcritical\tbarrier\tto\teffective\tdiabetes\tmanagement.\tThe accompanying\tfatigue\tremarkably\tlowers\tthe\tmotivation\tfor\tself-care,\toften leading to lowered physical and emotion well-being, poor markers of diabetes control, poor adherence to medication, and increased mortality among individuals with diabetes. A very small proportion of the diabetes patients\twith\tdepression\tget\tdiagnosed,\tand\tfurthermore,\tonly\ta\thandful\tof the ones diagnosed get treated for depression. Despite the fact that 80 percent\tof\tthe\tpeople\twith\ttype\t2\tdiabetes\treside\tin\tlow\tand\tmiddle\tincome\tcountries,\tmost\tof\tthe\tevidence\ton diabetes\tand\tdepression\tcomes\tfrom\thigh\tincome\tcountries.\tThis\treview\toffers\ta\tsummary\tof\texisting\tevidence and\tthe\tpotential\tgaps\tthat\tneed\tto\tbe\taddressed.

  9. Design and analysis of a 1-ton prototype of the Jinping Neutrino Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zongyi; Wang, Yuanqing; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Shaomin; Du, Xinxi; Zhang, Tianxiong; Guo, Ziyi; Yuan, Huanxin

    2017-01-01

    The Jinping Neutrino Experiment will perform an in-depth research on solar neutrinos and geo-neutrinos. Two structural options (i.e., cylindrical and spherical schemes) are proposed for the Jinping detector based on other successful underground neutrino detectors. Several key factors in the design are also discussed in detail. A 1-ton prototype of the Jinping experiment is proposed based on physics requirements. Subsequently, the structural design, installation procedure, and mechanical analysis of the neutrino detector prototype are discussed. The results show that the maximum Mises stresses on the acrylic vessel, stainless steel truss, and the tank are all lower than the design values of the strengths. The stability requirement of the stainless steel truss in the detector prototype is satisfied. Consequently, the structural scheme for the 1-ton prototype is safe and reliable.

  10. Design and analysis of a 1-ton prototype of the Jinping Neutrino Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zongyi, E-mail: wangzongyi1990@outlook.com [School of Civil Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wang, Yuanqing [Key Laboratory of Civil Engineering Safety and Durability of Education Ministry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Zhe; Chen, Shaomin [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Du, Xinxi [School of Civil Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhang, Tianxiong [School of Civil Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Guo, Ziyi [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yuan, Huanxin [School of Civil Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2017-05-21

    The Jinping Neutrino Experiment will perform an in-depth research on solar neutrinos and geo-neutrinos. Two structural options (i.e., cylindrical and spherical schemes) are proposed for the Jinping detector based on other successful underground neutrino detectors. Several key factors in the design are also discussed in detail. A 1-ton prototype of the Jinping experiment is proposed based on physics requirements. Subsequently, the structural design, installation procedure, and mechanical analysis of the neutrino detector prototype are discussed. The results show that the maximum Mises stresses on the acrylic vessel, stainless steel truss, and the tank are all lower than the design values of the strengths. The stability requirement of the stainless steel truss in the detector prototype is satisfied. Consequently, the structural scheme for the 1-ton prototype is safe and reliable.

  11. Mine design for producing 100,000 tons per day of uranium-bearing Chattanooga Shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoe, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Chattanooga Shale, underlying some 40,000 square miles in the southeastern United States, is considered to be a potentially large, low-grade source of uranium. The area in and near Dekalb County, Tennessee, appears to be the most likely site for commercial development. This paper deals with the mine design, mining procedures, equipment requirements, and operating maintenance costs for an underground mining complex capable of producing 100,000 tons of Chattanooga Shale per day for delivery to a beneficiation process

  12. AGILE detection of gamma-ray emission from the FSRQ Ton 0599

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgarelli, A.; Parmiggiani, N.; Lucarelli, F.; Verrecchia, F.; Pittori, C.; Tavani, M.; Vercellone, S.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cardillo, M.; Piano, G.; Ursi, A.; Fioretti, V.; Pilia, M.; Donnarumma, I.; Gianotti, F.; Trifoglio, M.; Giuliani, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Caraveo, P.; Perotti, F.; Chen, A.; Argan, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lapshov, I.; Pacciani, L.; Soffitta, P.; Sabatini, S.; Vittorini, V.; Pucella, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Di Cocco, G.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Pellizzoni, A.; Trois, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Vallazza, E.; Longo, F.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Prest, M.; Lipari, P.; Zanello, D.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Rappoldi, A.; Ferrari, A.; Paoletti, F.; Antonelli, A.; Giommi, P.; Salotti, L.; Valentini, G.; D'Amico, F.

    2017-12-01

    AGILE is detecting increasing gamma-ray emission above 100 MeV from a source positionally consistent with the FSRQ Ton 0599. Integrating from 2017-12-16 05:45 to 2017-12-18 05:45 UT, a preliminary maximum likelihood analysis yields a detection above 5 sigma and a flux F(E > 100 MeV)=(2.0 +/- 0.6) x 10^-6 ph cm^-2 s^-1.

  13. Comportement d'un béton à hautes performances à base de laitier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'utilisation de béton à hautes performances (BHP) intégrant des ajouts cimentaires comme les cendres volantes, les fumées de silice ou le laitier hydraulique ... armatures qui sont, à leur tour attaquées. Il est possible de modifier la ... refroidissement brutal par l'eau sous pression, c'est un sable de granulométrie 0/5 mm.

  14. Comportement d'un béton à hautes performances à base de laitier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'utilisation de béton à hautes performances (BHP) intégrant des ajouts cimentaires comme les cendres volantes, les fumées de silice ou le laitier hydraulique cimentaire a augmenté considérablement au cours des deux dernières décennies. Les ouvrages en BHP durent plus longtemps et entraînent des frais d'entretien ...

  15. Overall view of the AA hall dominated by the 50 ton crane (Donges).

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    A 50 ton, 32 metre span overhead travelling cranre was mounted in one of the bays of Hall 193 (AA). An identical crane was mounted on the other bay. See also photo 8004261. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  16. Nuclear criticality safety study for increased enrichment limit in 2 1/2-ton (30B) UF6 cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayloe, R.W. Jr.; Davis, T.C.; Lindenschmidt, D.J.; Fentiman, A.W.

    1992-10-01

    The current U 235 enrichment limit for 30B 2 1/2-ton UF 6 cylinders is 5.0 percent. This feasibility study examined the nuclear criticality safety issues associated with increasing the U 235 enrichment limit in 2 1/2-ton cylinders to 10.0 percent. Operations affected include cylinder cleaning, filling, storage, sampling, and transfer

  17. 46 CFR 25.25-17 - Survival craft requirements for uninspected passenger vessels of at least 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft requirements for uninspected passenger... Survival craft requirements for uninspected passenger vessels of at least 100 gross tons. (a) Each uninspected passenger vessel of at least 100 gross tons must have adequate survival craft with enough capacity...

  18. TonB-Dependent Utilization of Dihydroxamate Xenosiderophores in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babykin, Michael M; Obando, Tobias S A; Zinchenko, Vladislav V

    2018-02-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, transport of ferric siderophores through outer membrane is a complex process that requires specific outer membrane transporters and energy-transducing TonB-ExbB-ExbD system in the cytoplasmic membrane. The genome of the non-siderophore-producing cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 encodes all putative components of the siderophore-mediated iron uptake system. So far, there has been no experimental evidence for the existence of such a pathway in this organism. On the contrary, its reductive iron uptake pathway has been studied in detail. We demonstrate that Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is capable of using dihydroxamate xenosiderophores, either ferric schizokinen (FeSK) or a siderophore of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 (SAV), as the sole source of iron. Inactivation of the tonB gene or the exbB1-exbD1 gene cluster resulted in an inability to utilize these siderophores. At the same time, the inactivation of the feoB gene encoding FeoB plasma membrane ferrous iron transporter, or one of the futB or futC genes encoding permease and ATPase subunit of FutABC ferric iron transporter, did not impair the ability of cells to utilize FeSK or SAV as the sole source of iron for growth. Our data suggest that cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is capable of acquiring iron-siderophore complexes in a TonB-dependent manner without iron reduction in the periplasm.

  19. Readability of the web: a study on 1 billion web pages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heus, Marije; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    We have performed a readability study on more than 1 billion web pages. The Automated Readability Index was used to determine the average grade level required to easily comprehend a website. Some of the results are that a 16-year-old can easily understand 50% of the web and an 18-year old can easily

  20. Price of next big thing in physics: $6.7 billion

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The price of exploring inner space went up Thursday. The machine discusses in a news conference in Beijing, will be 20 miles long and would cost about $6.7 billion and 13'000 person-years of labor to be built. (1,5 page)

  1. U of M seeking $1.1 billion in projects for Soudan Mine lab.

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The University of Minnesota is hoping that groundbreaking research underway at its labs at the Soudan Underground Mine near Tower will help secure up to $1.1 billion in the next 5 to 20 years to expand its work into particle physics (1 page).

  2. Measurement of trace impurities in ultra pure hydrogen and deuterium at the parts-per-billion level using gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzha, V.; Ivshin, K.; Kammel, P.; Kravchenko, P.; Kravtsov, P.; Petitjean, C.; Trofimov, V.; Vasilyev, A.; Vorobyov, A.; Vznuzdaev, M.; Wauters, F.

    2018-02-01

    A series of muon experiments at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland deploy ultra-pure hydrogen active targets. A new gas impurity analysis technique was developed, based on conventional gas chromatography, with the capability to measure part-per-billion (ppb) traces of nitrogen and oxygen in hydrogen and deuterium. Key ingredients are a cryogenic admixture accumulation, a directly connected sampling system and a dedicated calibration setup. The dependence of the measured concentration on the sample volume was investigated, confirming that all impurities from the sample gas are collected in the accumulation column and measured with the gas chromatograph. The system was calibrated utilizing dynamic dilution of admixtures into the gas flow down to sub-ppb level concentrations. The total amount of impurities accumulated in the purification system during a three month long experimental run was measured and agreed well with the calculated amount based on the measured concentrations in the flow.

  3. Strongly baryon-dominated disk galaxies at the peak of galaxy formation ten billion years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzel, R; Schreiber, N M Förster; Übler, H; Lang, P; Naab, T; Bender, R; Tacconi, L J; Wisnioski, E; Wuyts, S; Alexander, T; Beifiori, A; Belli, S; Brammer, G; Burkert, A; Carollo, C M; Chan, J; Davies, R; Fossati, M; Galametz, A; Genel, S; Gerhard, O; Lutz, D; Mendel, J T; Momcheva, I; Nelson, E J; Renzini, A; Saglia, R; Sternberg, A; Tacchella, S; Tadaki, K; Wilman, D

    2017-03-15

    In the cold dark matter cosmology, the baryonic components of galaxies-stars and gas-are thought to be mixed with and embedded in non-baryonic and non-relativistic dark matter, which dominates the total mass of the galaxy and its dark-matter halo. In the local (low-redshift) Universe, the mass of dark matter within a galactic disk increases with disk radius, becoming appreciable and then dominant in the outer, baryonic regions of the disks of star-forming galaxies. This results in rotation velocities of the visible matter within the disk that are constant or increasing with disk radius-a hallmark of the dark-matter model. Comparisons between the dynamical mass, inferred from these velocities in rotational equilibrium, and the sum of the stellar and cold-gas mass at the peak epoch of galaxy formation ten billion years ago, inferred from ancillary data, suggest high baryon fractions in the inner, star-forming regions of the disks. Although this implied baryon fraction may be larger than in the local Universe, the systematic uncertainties (owing to the chosen stellar initial-mass function and the calibration of gas masses) render such comparisons inconclusive in terms of the mass of dark matter. Here we report rotation curves (showing rotation velocity as a function of disk radius) for the outer disks of six massive star-forming galaxies, and find that the rotation velocities are not constant, but decrease with radius. We propose that this trend arises because of a combination of two main factors: first, a large fraction of the massive high-redshift galaxy population was strongly baryon-dominated, with dark matter playing a smaller part than in the local Universe; and second, the large velocity dispersion in high-redshift disks introduces a substantial pressure term that leads to a decrease in rotation velocity with increasing radius. The effect of both factors appears to increase with redshift. Qualitatively, the observations suggest that baryons in the early (high

  4. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  5. Les tons dans les dictionnaires de langues gabonaises: situation et perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Afane Otsaga

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Résumé: La plupart des dictionnaires des langues gabonaises, parus jusqu'à ce jour, n'ont pasvraiment tenu compte de la tonalité dans la rédaction des articles. Or, à présent, il est unanimementreconnu que le ton joue un rôle important dans le fonctionnement des langues bantoues en généralet des langues gabonaises en particulier. Les dictionnaires, outils d'apprentissage, de standardisation,de préservation et de l'emploi correct d'une langue, ne pourront plus négliger cet aspect dansleur traitement lexicographique. Malgré le grand nombre de tons qui existent dans les languesgabonaises et la difficulté de les noter tous dans la présentation des articles, il est néanmoins nécessairede trouver des moyens de mettre en valeur chaque ton, sans néanmoins rendre trop compliquél'emploi du dictionnaire. L'objectif de notre exposé est de formuler, pour ces dictionnaires,certaines directives qui permettront de prendre en considération la tonalité des langues gabonaises,tout en gardant accessible l'emploi du dictionnaire. Avant de formuler ces directives, notre exposétente tout d'abord de clarifier le problème par l'analyse et l'énumération des différents tons identifiésjusqu'à ce jour dans les langues gabonaises. En outre, nous prenons en considération certainspoints de vue qui, dans les dictionnaires, ont voulu identifier les tons, en donnant des exemples dutraitement de la tonalité dans certains dictionnaires des langues tonales autres que les languesgabonaises.

    Mots-clés: DICTIONNAIRES, LANGUES GABONAISES, TONS, TONALITÉ, RÉDACTIONDES ARTICLES, PERSPECTIVES, LANGUES BANTOUES, TRAITEMENT LEXICOGRAPHIQUE,OUVRAGES DE RÉFÉRENCE LEXICOGRAPHIQUE, COURBE MÉLODIQUE, SIGNES DIACRITIQUES,ORTHOGRAPHE, PRONONCIATION

    Abstract: Tones in Dictionaries of the Gabonese Languages: State and Perspectives. Until now most dictionaries that have appeared in the Gabonese languages have not really taken tonality into account in

  6. Production of 415-ton ingots for backup rolls in the conditions of PJSC "Energomashspetsstal"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Victorovich Efimov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the results of work on melting, pouring, forging and heat treatment of 415-ton 45H3M1F steel ingots as semiproducts for manufacturing large backup rolls at the request of  «Severstal» Company. For the production of rollers, a new grade of steel based on 0.45%С and 3%Cr, additionally alloyed by Mo and V, was developed in PJSC «Energomashspetsstal» and applied in industry. Steel of bainite class provides the best combination of strength and plasticity properties. Metal was prepared by melting 7 heats in arc steel-melting furnaces with the capacity of 100 and 50 tons with subsequent out-of-furnace treatment on ladle – furnace and ladle – degassing units. The pouring of steel was carried out from four steel-pouring ladles into a vertical mould under vacuum through a tundish ladle with the protection of stream by argon. The forging of ingots was conducted on the automated 150MN forging system. The obtained billets were exposed to primary heat treatment which consisted of heating for recrystallization, isothermal soaking, in order to provide the removal of residual stresses, additional dehydrogenization to give the material lower hardness and controlled cooling for the prevention of snowflake formation. Heating of ingots for forging and preliminary heat treatment was carried out in heat treatment furnaces with the carrying capacity of up to 500 tons. For the heat treatment of the backup roll, a horizontal sprayer unit was applied. The tooling of the backup roll was executed on a lathe with one pace-plate and the final mechanical treatment was conducted on the machine-tool of Hercules NWD 1500×18000 CNC. Finished products with 225-ton mass of the following dimensions: a barrel with a diameter and a length of 2,360 mm and 4,800 mm, respectively, at a general length of 10,650 mm were obtained.  

  7. 3CR249.1 and Ton202-luminous QSOs in interacting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, A.; MacKenty, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The morphologies of the extended emission-line regions around the QSOs 3CR249.1 and Ton202 indicate that they have, in both cases, resulted from interactions between two galaxies of roughly equal mass and that the galaxies involved possessed extensive rotating gaseous disks before their encounters. These two examples provide support for the position that luminous QSOs are frequently activated by violent interactions. More generally, the distribution of gas around luminous QSOs promises to be a sensitive and useful indicator of the recent history of their physical environment. (author)

  8. Interactive (statistical) visualisation and exploration of a billion objects with vaex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breddels, M. A.

    2017-06-01

    With new catalogues arriving such as the Gaia DR1, containing more than a billion objects, new methods of handling and visualizing these data volumes are needed. We show that by calculating statistics on a regular (N-dimensional) grid, visualizations of a billion objects can be done within a second on a modern desktop computer. This is achieved using memory mapping of hdf5 files together with a simple binning algorithm, which are part of a Python library called vaex. This enables efficient exploration or large datasets interactively, making science exploration of large catalogues feasible. Vaex is a Python library and an application, which allows for interactive exploration and visualization. The motivation for developing vaex is the catalogue of the Gaia satellite, however, vaex can also be used on SPH or N-body simulations, any other (future) catalogues such as SDSS, Pan-STARRS, LSST, etc. or other tabular data. The homepage for vaex is http://vaex.astro.rug.nl.

  9. Accomplishing rural electrification for over a billion people: Approaches towards sustainable solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mizanur Md.

    2014-01-01

    Access to electricity appears to be a prerequisite to materialize social, economic, and human development in the underprivileged rural areas. However, 1.1 billion rural people in the world, almost all of them living in developing countries, still do not have access to electricity. Although the rural electrification process poses more challenges than urban electrification, rural areas are blessed with abundant and relatively evenly distributed renewable energy resources. To facilitate electric...

  10. How to Bring Solar Energy to Seven Billion People (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadia, Cyrus

    2009-04-06

    By exploiting the powers of nanotechnology and taking advantage of non-toxic, Earth-abundant materials, Berkeley Lab's Cyrus Wadia has fabricated new solar cell devices that have the potential to be several orders of magnitude less expensive than conventional solar cells. And by mastering the chemistry of these materials-and the economics of solar energy-he envisions bringing electricity to the 1.2 billion people now living without it.

  11. National mandatory motorcycle helmet laws may save $2.2 billion annually: An inpatient and value of statistical life analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Anahita; Wei, Shuyan; Safarik, Justin; Furlough, Courtney; Desai, Sapan S

    2015-06-01

    While statistics exist regarding the overall rate of fatalities in motorcyclists with and without helmets, a combined inpatient and value of statistical life (VSL) analysis has not previously been reported. Statistical data of motorcycle collisions were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control, National Highway Transportation Safety Board, and Governors Highway Safety Association. The VSL estimate was obtained from the 2002 Department of Transportation calculation. Statistics on helmeted versus nonhelmeted motorcyclists, death at the scene, and inpatient death were obtained using the 2010 National Trauma Data Bank. Inpatient costs were obtained from the 2010 National Inpatient Sample. Population estimates were generated using weighted samples, and all costs are reported using 2010 US dollars using the Consumer Price Index. A total of 3,951 fatal motorcycle collisions were reported in 2010, of which 77% of patients died at the scene, 10% in the emergency department, and 13% as inpatients. Thirty-seven percent of all riders did not wear a helmet but accounted for 69% of all deaths. Of those motorcyclists who survived to the hospital, the odds ratio of surviving with a helmet was 1.51 compared with those without a helmet (p helmeted motorcyclists (p helmeted riders ($203,248 vs. $175,006) but led to more than 50% greater VSL generated (absolute benefit, $602,519 per helmeted survivor). A cost analysis of inpatient care and indirect costs of motorcycle riders who do not wear helmets leads to nearly $2.2 billion in losses per year, with almost 1.9 times as many deaths compared with helmeted motorcyclists. The per capita cost per fatality is more than $800,000. Institution of a mandatory helmet law could lead to an annual cost savings of almost $2.2 billion. Economic analysis, level III.

  12. A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jens; Ma, Chung-Pei; McConnell, Nicholas J; Greene, Jenny E; Blakeslee, John P; Janish, Ryan

    2016-04-21

    Quasars are associated with and powered by the accretion of material onto massive black holes; the detection of highly luminous quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 suggests that black holes of up to ten billion solar masses already existed 13 billion years ago. Two possible present-day 'dormant' descendants of this population of 'active' black holes have been found in the galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 at the centres of the Leo and Coma galaxy clusters, which together form the central region of the Great Wall--the largest local structure of galaxies. The most luminous quasars, however, are not confined to such high-density regions of the early Universe; yet dormant black holes of this high mass have not yet been found outside of modern-day rich clusters. Here we report observations of the stellar velocity distribution in the galaxy NGC 1600--a relatively isolated elliptical galaxy near the centre of a galaxy group at a distance of 64 megaparsecs from Earth. We use orbit superposition models to determine that the black hole at the centre of NGC 1600 has a mass of 17 billion solar masses. The spatial distribution of stars near the centre of NGC 1600 is rather diffuse. We find that the region of depleted stellar density in the cores of massive elliptical galaxies extends over the same radius as the gravitational sphere of influence of the central black holes, and interpret this as the dynamical imprint of the black holes.

  13. Two ten-billion-solar-mass black holes at the centres of giant elliptical galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Nicholas J; Ma, Chung-Pei; Gebhardt, Karl; Wright, Shelley A; Murphy, Jeremy D; Lauer, Tod R; Graham, James R; Richstone, Douglas O

    2011-12-08

    Observational work conducted over the past few decades indicates that all massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres. Although the luminosities and brightness fluctuations of quasars in the early Universe suggest that some were powered by black holes with masses greater than 10 billion solar masses, the remnants of these objects have not been found in the nearby Universe. The giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 hosts the hitherto most massive known black hole, which has a mass of 6.3 billion solar masses. Here we report that NGC 3842, the brightest galaxy in a cluster at a distance from Earth of 98 megaparsecs, has a central black hole with a mass of 9.7 billion solar masses, and that a black hole of comparable or greater mass is present in NGC 4889, the brightest galaxy in the Coma cluster (at a distance of 103 megaparsecs). These two black holes are significantly more massive than predicted by linearly extrapolating the widely used correlations between black-hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion or bulge luminosity of the host galaxy. Although these correlations remain useful for predicting black-hole masses in less massive elliptical galaxies, our measurements suggest that different evolutionary processes influence the growth of the largest galaxies and their black holes.

  14. BUILDING A BILLION SPATIO-TEMPORAL OBJECT SEARCH AND VISUALIZATION PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kakkar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With funding from the Sloan Foundation and Harvard Dataverse, the Harvard Center for Geographic Analysis (CGA has developed a prototype spatio-temporal visualization platform called the Billion Object Platform or BOP. The goal of the project is to lower barriers for scholars who wish to access large, streaming, spatio-temporal datasets. The BOP is now loaded with the latest billion geo-tweets, and is fed a real-time stream of about 1 million tweets per day. The geo-tweets are enriched with sentiment and census/admin boundary codes when they enter the system. The system is open source and is currently hosted on Massachusetts Open Cloud (MOC, an OpenStack environment with all components deployed in Docker orchestrated by Kontena. This paper will provide an overview of the BOP architecture, which is built on an open source stack consisting of Apache Lucene, Solr, Kafka, Zookeeper, Swagger, scikit-learn, OpenLayers, and AngularJS. The paper will further discuss the approach used for harvesting, enriching, streaming, storing, indexing, visualizing and querying a billion streaming geo-tweets.

  15. Building a Billion Spatio-Temporal Object Search and Visualization Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, D.; Lewis, B.

    2017-10-01

    With funding from the Sloan Foundation and Harvard Dataverse, the Harvard Center for Geographic Analysis (CGA) has developed a prototype spatio-temporal visualization platform called the Billion Object Platform or BOP. The goal of the project is to lower barriers for scholars who wish to access large, streaming, spatio-temporal datasets. The BOP is now loaded with the latest billion geo-tweets, and is fed a real-time stream of about 1 million tweets per day. The geo-tweets are enriched with sentiment and census/admin boundary codes when they enter the system. The system is open source and is currently hosted on Massachusetts Open Cloud (MOC), an OpenStack environment with all components deployed in Docker orchestrated by Kontena. This paper will provide an overview of the BOP architecture, which is built on an open source stack consisting of Apache Lucene, Solr, Kafka, Zookeeper, Swagger, scikit-learn, OpenLayers, and AngularJS. The paper will further discuss the approach used for harvesting, enriching, streaming, storing, indexing, visualizing and querying a billion streaming geo-tweets.

  16. Techniques et systèmes de renfort des structures en béton

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda-Vizuete, J

    2000-01-01

    Bien qu'appelé « pierre artificielle », le béton est un matériau vivant qui se modifie tout au long de sa vie utile. Il change car la structure dont il fait partie subit elle-même des changements. Ces changements proviennent soit de modifications ou de rénovations, soit d'une altération de sa capacité de support par un accroissement des charges. Dans la plupart des cas, ils nécessitent un renfort. Le renforcement d'une structure en béton consiste à améliorer les caractéristiques mécaniques des éléments qui la composent, de manière à ce qu'elle offre une meilleure solidité aussi bien en état de service qu'en état de résistances ultimes. Ce document présente les méthodes les plus utilisées dans le domaine de renfort des structures dont l'incorporation des profiles métalliques, l'augmentation de section structurelle et celle plus récente du renforcement à base d'adjonction de matériaux composites extérieurs.

  17. Clinical comparison of the ProTon and Tono-Pen tonometers with the Goldmann applanation tonometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midelfart, A; Wigers, A

    1994-12-01

    A clinical evaluation of a new electron ProTon tonometer was performed comparing the values of intraocular pressure (IOP) measured using this instrument with those determined by a similar instrument, Tono-Pen XL, and by Goldmann applanation tonometry. The mean IOP measured in 106 eyes with the ProTon tonometer was not significantly different from that determined with Goldmann applanation, while the IOP values measured with Tono-Pen XL were significantly lower. The 95% limits of agreement between applanation tonometry and ProTon tonometry were between -4 mm Hg and 5 mm Hg and between applanation tonometry and Tono-Pen XL tonometry between -3 mm Hg and 8 mm Hg. The ProTon tonometer appears to have a higher level of accuracy than the Tono-Pen XL tonometer in clinical practice.

  18. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  19. Building a 70 billion word corpus of English from ClueWeb

    OpenAIRE

    Pomikálek Jan; Rychlý Pavel; Jakubíček Miloš

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the process of creation of a 70 billion word text corpus of English. We used an existing language resource, namely the ClueWeb09 dataset, as source for the corpus data. Processing such a vast amount of data presented several challenges, mainly associated with pre-processing (boilerplate cleaning, text de-duplication) and post-processing (indexing for efficient corpus querying using the CQL – Corpus Query Language) steps. In this paper we explain how we tackled them: we des...

  20. A field like today's? The strength of the geomagnetic field 1.1 billion years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprain, Courtney J.; Swanson-Hysell, Nicholas L.; Fairchild, Luke M.; Gaastra, Kevin

    2018-02-01

    Paleomagnetic data from ancient rocks are one of the few types of observational data that can be brought to be bear on the long-term evolution of Earth's core. A recent compilation of paleointensity estimates from throughout Earth history has been interpreted to indicate that Earth's magnetic field strength increased in the Mesoproterozoic (between 1.5 and 1.0 billion years ago), with this increase taken to mark the onset of inner core nucleation. However, much of the data within the Precambrian paleointensity database are from Thellier-style experiments with non-ideal behavior that manifests in results such as double-slope Arai plots. Choices made when interpreting these data may significantly change conclusions about long-term trends in the intensity of Earth's geomagnetic field. In this study, we present new paleointensity results from volcanics of the ˜1.1 billion-year-old North American Midcontinent Rift. While most of the results exhibit non-ideal double-slope or sagging behavior in Arai plots, some flows have more ideal single-slope behavior leading to paleointensity estimates that may be some of the best constraints on the strength of Earth's field for this time. Taken together, new and previously published paleointensity data from the Midcontinent Rift yield a median field strength estimate of 56.0 ZAm2—very similar to the median for the past 300 million years. These field strength estimates are distinctly higher than those for the preceding billion years after excluding ca. 1.3 Ga data that may be biased by non-ideal behavior—consistent with an increase in field strength in the late Mesoproterozoic. However, given that ˜90 per cent of paleointensity estimates from 1.1 to 0.5 Ga come from the Midcontinent Rift, it is difficult to evaluate whether these high values relative to those estimated for the preceding billion years are the result of a stepwise, sustained increase in dipole moment. Regardless, paleointensity estimates from the Midcontinent

  1. Development and Manufacturing Technology of Prototype Monoblock Low Pressure Rotor Shaft by 650ton Large Ingot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Duk-Yong; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Jungyeup; Lee, Jongwook; Ko, Seokhee [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Changwon(Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In order to establish the manufacturing technology for monoblock LP rotor shaft, DHI has produced the prototype monoblock LP rotor shaft with a maximum diameter of φ 2,800 mm using 650 ton ingot and investigated the mechanical properties and the internal quality of the ingot. As a result, the quality and mechanical properties required the large rotor shaft for nuclear power plant met a target. These results indicate that DHI can be contributed to increasing demands with high efficiency and capacity at the nuclear power plant. Additionally, some tests such as high cycle fatigue (HCF), low cycle fatigue (LCF), fracture toughness (K1C/J1C) and dynamic crack propagation velocity (da/dN) are in progress.

  2. Development of NUPAC 140B 100 ton rail/barge cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The NuPac 140-B 100 Ton Rail/Barge Shipping Cask Preliminary Design Report (PDR) presents a general introduction to, and description of, the NuPac 140-B Cask and its fuel payload. The NuPac 140-B Cask, Model: NuPac 140-B, is being designed by Nuclear Packaging, Inc., to meet or exceed all NRC and Department of Transportation regulations governing the shipment of radioactive material. Specifically the Cask is being developed as a safe means of transporting spent light-water-reactor (LWR) fuels from existing and proposed reactor facilities to a repository and/or a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. The primary transportation mode is by railroad, although the shipping package is designed to be transported by barge and by truck shipment on a special overweight basis for short distances. This feature allows the servicing of reactor sites and other facilities which lack direct railroad access

  3. Cracked lifting lug welds on ten-ton UF{sub 6} cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorning, R.E. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Ten-ton, Type 48X, UF{sub 6} cylinders are used at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant to withdraw enriched uranium hexafluoride from the cascade, transfer enriched uranium hexafluoride to customer cylinders, and feed enriched product to the cascade. To accomplish these activities, the cylinders are lifted by cranes and straddle carriers which engage the cylinder lifting lugs. In August of 1988, weld cracks on two lifting lugs were discovered during preparation to lift a cylinder. The cylinder was rejected and tagged out, and an investigating committee formed to determine the cause of cracking and recommend remedial actions. Further investigation revealed the problem may be general to this class of cylinder in this use cycle. This paper discusses the actions taken at the Portsmouth site to deal with the cracked lifting lug weld problem. The actions include inspection activities, interim corrective actions, metallurgical evaluation of cracked welds, weld repairs, and current monitoring/inspection program.

  4. Light Readout for a 1 ton Liquid Argon Dark Matter Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Boccone, Vittorio; Baudis, Laura; Otyugova, Polina; Regenfus, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for dark matter (DM) has been reported using astronomical observations in systems such as the Bullet cluster. Weakly interactive massive particles (WIMPs), in particular the lightest neutralino, are the most popular DM candidates within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). Many groups in the world are focussing their attention on the direct detection of DM in the laboratory. The detectors should have large target masses and excellent noise rejection capabilities because of the small cross section between DM and ordinary matter (σWIMP−nucleon < 4 · 10−8 pb). Noble liquids are today considered to be one of the best options for large-size DM experiments, as they have a relatively low ionization energy, good scintillation properties and long electron lifetime. Moreover noble liquid detectors are easily scalable to large masses. This thesis deals with the development of a large (1 ton) LAr WIMP detector (ArDM) which could measure simultaneously light and charge from the scintilla...

  5. Modified Cooling System for Low Temperature Experiments in a 3000 Ton Multi-Anvil Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secco, R.; Yong, W.

    2017-12-01

    A new modified cooling system for a 3000-ton multi-anvil press has been developed to reach temperatures below room temperature at high pressures. The new system is much simpler in design, easier to make and use, and has the same cooling capability as the previous design (Secco and Yong, RSI, 2016). The key component of the new system is a steel ring surrounding the module wedges that contains liquid nitrogen (LN2) which flows freely through an entrance port to flood the interior of the pressure module. Upper and lower O-rings on the ring seal in the liquid while permitting modest compression and an thermally insulating layer of foam is attached to the outside of the ring. The same temperature of 220 K reached with two different cooling systems suggests that thermal equilibrium is reached between the removal of heat by LN2 and the influx of heat through the massive steel components of this press.

  6. Analysis of the Effects of Sea Disposal on a One-Ton Container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Wde C.; Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Kelley, John

    2007-01-01

    Excess and obsolete stocks of chemical warfare material (CWM) were sea disposed by the United States between 1919 and 1970. One-ton containers were used for bulk storage of CWM and were the largest containers sea disposed. Disposal depths ranged from 300 to 17,000 feet. Based on a Type D container assembly drawing, three independent analyses (one corrosion and two structural) were performed on the containers to address the corrosion resistance from prolonged exposure to sea water and the structural response during the descent. Corrosion predictions were made using information about corrosion rates and the disposal environment. The structural analyses employed two different finite element codes and were used to predict the buckling and material response of the container during sea disposal. The results of these investigations are summarized below. Detailed reports on each study are contained in the appendices.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of Al-TON zeolite using a dialkylimizadolium as structure-directing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Christian Wittee; Pergher, Sibele Berenice Castella, E-mail: chriswittee@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Villarroel-Rocha, Jhonny [Laboratorio de Solidos Porosos, Instituto de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco, San Luis (Argentina); Silva, Bernardo Araldi Da; Mignoni, Marcelo Luis [Universidade Regional Integrada, Erechim, RS (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    In this work, the synthesis of zeolites using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [C{sub 4}MI]Cl as a structure-directing agent was investigated. The organic cation shows effectiveness and selectivity for the syntheses of TON zeolites under different reaction conditions compared to the traditional structure directing agent, 1,8-diaminooctane. The 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation lead to highly crystalline materials and its role as OSDA in our synthesis conditions has been confirmed by characterization techniques. ICP-OES confirms the presence of Al in the samples and {sup 27}Al MAS NMR analysis indicated that aluminum atoms were incorporated in tetrahedral coordination. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that changing the crystallization condition (static or stirring), zeolites with different crystal size were obtained, which consequently affects the textural properties of the zeolites. Moreover, varying some synthesis parameters MFI zeolite can also be obtained. (author)

  8. BASIC DESIGN KAPAL PENGANGKUT BATUBARA 200 TON SEBAGAI JALUR ALTERNATIF RUTE SUNGAI LEMATANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budianto Budianto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sebagai jalur alternatif jalan khusus,  melalui transportasi sungai Lematang dengan perancangan kapal pengangkut hasil tambang dalam  distribusi batubara merupakan salah satu solusi untuk jalur darat provinsi tetap terjaga dengan baik dan tidak terjadi kemacetan akibat konvoi dump truk pengangkut batubara. Bentuk geografis, perpindahan aliran sungai, dan pendangkalan sungai Lematang berpengaruh terhadap sulitnya membuat kapal angkut batubara melalui sistem tranportasi sungai tersebut. Jika menggunakan kapal angkut batubara jenis Tug and Barge, maka akan menyebabkan kesulitan dalam proses manouvering kapal bahkan sering terjadi kapal kandas karena pendangkalan sungai, serta bisa juga kapal tersangkut bagian barge karena sudut olah belok kapal terlalu melebar. Disamping itu juga, perlu diperhatikan bentuk aliran sungai Lematang yang melengkung dan berkelok, adanya masalah sosial, serta hambatan lain seperti adanya kabel slink, jembatan, kedalaman sungai, sampah kayu d.l.l. Salah satu teknologi yang bisa digunakan adalah kapal SPB (Self Propeller Barge. Dimana kapal SPB pengangkut batubara memiliki kelebihan dapat manouvering yang baik ketika melintasi wilayah sungai. Kapal SPB pengangkut batubara memiliki geladak angkut yang terletak dibelakang akomodasi, hal ini akan mempermudah jarak pandang dan proses manouvering kapal, akan tetapi terbatas dengan kapasitas yang diangkut karena terbatas dengan kedalaman draft kapal yang dimiliki. Dalam perancangan harus diperhatikan faktor geografis, kedalaman sungai, faktor sosial dan faktor ekonomis kapal. Sehingga akan memberikan hasil teknologi kapal SPB pengangkut batubara dengan kondisi sellow draft yang efektif dan efisien. Dimana kapal SPB yang dirancang dengan kaasitas 200 ton setara dengan 20 dump truk, kapal  yang difungsikan untuk mengangkut batubara dengan memiliki kecepatan sebesar 12 knot (dengan mesin 2x250HP dan konsumsi bahan bakar sebesar 1.77 ton dengan mngunakan SFOC sebesar 160 gram

  9. Community Extreme Tonnage User Service (CETUS): A 5000 Ton Open Research Facility in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, L. R.; Righter, K.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.; Rowland, R. L., II; Draper, D. S.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Large sample volume 5000 ton multi-anvil presses have contributed to the exploration of deep Earth and planetary interiors, synthesis of ultra-hard and other novel materials, and serve as a sample complement to pressure and temperature regimes already attainable by diamond anvil cell experiments. However, no such facility exists in the Western Hemisphere. We are establishing an open user facility for the entire research community, with the unique capability of a 5000 ton multi-anvil and deformation press, HERA (High pressure Experimental Research Apparatus), supported by a host of extant co-located experimental and analytical laboratories and research staff. We offer wide range of complementary and/or preparatory experimental options. Any required synthesis of materials or follow up experiments can be carried out controlled atmosphere furnaces, piston cylinders, multi-anvil, or experimental impact apparatus. Additionally, our division houses two machine shops that would facilitate any modification or custom work necessary for development of CETUS, one for general fabrication and one located specifically within our experimental facilities. We also have a general sample preparation laboratory, specifically for experimental samples, that allows users to quickly and easily prepare samples for ebeam analyses and more. Our focus as contract staff is on serving the scientific needs of our users and collaborators. We are seeking community expert input on multiple aspects of this facility, such as experimental assembly design, module modifications, immediate projects, and future innovation initiatives. We've built a cooperative network of 12 (and growing) collaborating institutions, including COMPRES. CETUS is a coordinated effort leveraging HERA with our extant experimental, analytical, and planetary process modelling instrumentation and expertise in order to create a comprehensive model of the origin and evolution of our solar system and beyond. We are looking to engage

  10. Reconstruction and Analysis for the DUNE 35-ton Liquid Argon Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallbank, Michael James [Sheffield U.

    2018-01-01

    Neutrino physics is approaching the precision era, with current and future experiments aiming to perform highly accurate measurements of the parameters which govern the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations. The ultimate ambition with these results is to search for evidence of CP-violation in the lepton sector, currently hinted at in the world-leading analyses from present experiments, which may explain the dominance of matter over antimatter in the Universe. The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a future long-baseline experiment based at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), with a far detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) and a baseline of 1300 km. In order to make the required precision measurements, the far detector will consist of 40 kton liquid argon and an embedded time projection chamber. This promising technology is still in development and, since each detector module is around a factor 15 larger than any previous experiment employing this design, prototyping the detector and design choices is critical to the success of the experiment. The 35-ton experiment was constructed for this purpose and will be described in detail in this thesis. The outcomes of the 35-ton prototype are already influencing DUNE and, following the successes and lessons learned from the experiment, confidence can be taken forward to the next stage of the DUNE programme. The main oscillation signal at DUNE will be electron neutrino appearance from the muon neutrino beam. High-precision studies of these νe interactions requires advanced processing and event reconstruction techniques, particularly in the handling of showering particles such as electrons and photons. Novel methods developed for the purposes of shower reconstruction in liquid argon are presented with an aim to successfully develop a selection to use in a νe charged-current analysis, and a first-generation selection using the new techniques is presented.

  11. Methods and results for stress analyses on 14-ton, thin-wall depleted UF6 cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Chung, C.K.; Frazier, J.L.; Kelley, D.K.

    1996-10-01

    Uranium enrichment operations at the three US gaseous diffusion plants produce depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) as a residential product. At the present time, the inventory of DUF 6 in this country is more than half a million tons. The inventory of DUF 6 is contained in metal storage cylinders, most of which are located at the gaseous diffusion plants. The principal objective of the project is to ensure the integrity of the cylinders to prevent causing an environmental hazard by releasing the contents of the cylinders into the atmosphere. Another objective is to maintain the cylinders in such a manner that the DUF 6 may eventually be converted to a less hazardous material for final disposition. An important task in the DUF 6 cylinders management project is determining how much corrosion of the walls can be tolerated before the cylinders are in danger of being damaged during routine handling and shipping operations. Another task is determining how to handle cylinders that have already been damaged in a manner that will minimize the chance that a breach will occur or that the size of an existing breach will be significantly increased. A number of finite element stress analysis (FESA) calculations have been done to analyze the stresses for three conditions: (1) while the cylinder is being lifted, (2) when a cylinder is resting on two cylinders under it in the customary two-tier stacking array, and (3) when a cylinder is resting on tis chocks on the ground. Various documents describe some of the results and discuss some of the methods whereby they have been obtained. The objective of the present report is to document as many of the FESA cases done at Oak Ridge for 14-ton thin-wall cylinders as possible, giving results and a description of the calculations in some detail

  12. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  13. Institutionalisation of Mediation for Dispute Resolution in the Field of Social Bankruptcy of Citizens in Russia or how to prevent losses of 300 billions rubles of Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdyev Marat Aleksandrovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The important problem of modern Russia is poverty of about 22,1 billions citizens. because of illegal action or practice of lending money at unreasonably high rates of interest. About 4,2 billions citizens of Russian are social bankrupts. There are many obstacles for human right in court. Total budget for legal expenses may estimates over than 1,5-2 average annual income of household. Therefore author considers mediation as alternative procedure for dispute resolution between creditors and debtors. Some amendment of law desirable for institutionalization of mediation practice in this types conflicts such as mandatory mediation and so on.

  14. Parametrization and Classification of 20 Billion LSST Objects: Lessons from SDSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivezic, Z.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Axelrod, T.; /Large Binocular Telescope, Tucson; Becker, A.C.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Becla, J.; /SLAC; Borne, K.; /George Mason U.; Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Claver, C.F.; /NOAO, Tucson; Cook, K.H.; /LLNL, Livermore; Connolly, A.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Gilmore, D.K.; /SLAC; Jones, R.L.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Juric, M.; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study; Kahn, Steven M.; /SLAC; Lim, K-T.; /SLAC; Lupton, R.H.; /Princeton U.; Monet, D.G.; /Naval Observ., Flagstaff; Pinto, P.A.; /Arizona U.; Sesar, B.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Stubbs, Christopher W.; /Harvard U.; Tyson, J.Anthony; /UC, Davis

    2011-11-10

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain, starting in 2015, multiple images of the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg{sup 2} region about 1000 times during the anticipated 10 years of operations (distributed over six bands, ugrizy). Each 30-second long visit will deliver 5{sigma} depth for point sources of r {approx} 24.5 on average. The co-added map will be about 3 magnitudes deeper, and will include 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars. We discuss various measurements that will be automatically performed for these 20 billion sources, and how they can be used for classification and determination of source physical and other properties. We provide a few classification examples based on SDSS data, such as color classification of stars, color-spatial proximity search for wide-angle binary stars, orbital-color classification of asteroid families, and the recognition of main Galaxy components based on the distribution of stars in the position-metallicity-kinematics space. Guided by these examples, we anticipate that two grand classification challenges for LSST will be (1) rapid and robust classification of sources detected in difference images, and (2) simultaneous treatment of diverse astrometric and photometric time series measurements for an unprecedentedly large number of objects.

  15. A parts-per-billion measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment

    CERN Document Server

    Smorra, C; Borchert, M J; Harrington, J A; Higuchi, T; Nagahama, H; Tanaka, T; Mooser, A; Schneider, G; Blaum, K; Matsuda, Y; Ospelkaus, C; Quint, W; Walz, J; Yamazaki, Y; Ulmer, S

    2016-01-01

    Precise comparisons of the fundamental properties of matter–antimatter conjugates provide sensitive tests of charge–parity–time (CPT) invariance1, which is an important symmetry that rests on basic assumptions of the standard model of particle physics. Experiments on mesons2, leptons3, 4 and baryons5, 6 have compared different properties of matter–antimatter conjugates with fractional uncertainties at the parts-per-billion level or better. One specific quantity, however, has so far only been known to a fractional uncertainty at the parts-per-million level7, 8: the magnetic moment of the antiproton, . The extraordinary difficulty in measuring with high precision is caused by its intrinsic smallness; for example, it is 660 times smaller than the magnetic moment of the positron3. Here we report a high-precision measurement of in units of the nuclear magneton μN with a fractional precision of 1.5 parts per billion (68% confidence level). We use a two-particle spectroscopy method in an advanced cryogenic ...

  16. Energy tax price tag for CPI: $1.2 billion, jobs, and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begley, R.

    1993-01-01

    If President Clinton's proposed energy tax had been fully in place last year, it would have cost the US chemical industry an additional $1.2 billion and 9,900 jobs, according to Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA; Washington) estimates. It also would have driven output down 3% and prices up 5%, CMA says. Allen Lenz, CMA director/trade and economics, says the increase in production costs that would accompany the tax will not be shared by foreign competitors, cannot be neutralized with higher border taxes because of existing trade agreements, and provides another reason to move production offshore. Worse, the US chemical industry's generally impressive trade surplus declined by $2.5 billion last year, and a further drop is projected for this year. The margin of error gets thinner all the time as competition increases, Lenz says. We're not concerned only with the chemical industry, but the rest of US-based manufacturing because they taken half our output, he adds. One problem is the energy intensiveness of the chemical process industries-a CMA report says that 55% of the cost of producing ethylene glycol is energy related. And double taxation of such things as coproducts returned for credit to oil refineries could add up to $115 million/year, the report says

  17. Stability of equidimensional pseudo-single-domain magnetite over billion-year timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Lesleis; Williams, Wyn; Muxworthy, Adrian R; Fabian, Karl; Almeida, Trevor P; Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó; Shcherbakov, Valera P

    2017-09-26

    Interpretations of paleomagnetic observations assume that naturally occurring magnetic particles can retain their primary magnetic recording over billions of years. The ability to retain a magnetic recording is inferred from laboratory measurements, where heating causes demagnetization on the order of seconds. The theoretical basis for this inference comes from previous models that assume only the existence of small, uniformly magnetized particles, whereas the carriers of paleomagnetic signals in rocks are usually larger, nonuniformly magnetized particles, for which there is no empirically complete, thermally activated model. This study has developed a thermally activated numerical micromagnetic model that can quantitatively determine the energy barriers between stable states in nonuniform magnetic particles on geological timescales. We examine in detail the thermal stability characteristics of equidimensional cuboctahedral magnetite and find that, contrary to previously published theories, such nonuniformly magnetized particles provide greater magnetic stability than their uniformly magnetized counterparts. Hence, nonuniformly magnetized grains, which are commonly the main remanence carrier in meteorites and rocks, can record and retain high-fidelity magnetic recordings over billions of years.

  18. Plate tectonic influences on Earth's baseline climate: a 2 billion-year record

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, R.; Evans, D. A.; Eglington, B. M.; Planavsky, N.

    2017-12-01

    Plate tectonic processes present strong influences on the long-term carbon cycle, and thus global climate. Here we utilize multiple aspects of the geologic record to assess the role plate tectonics has played in driving major icehouse­-greenhouse transitions for the past 2 billion years. Refined paleogeographic reconstructions allow us to quantitatively assess the area of continents in various latitudinal belts throughout this interval. From these data we are able to test the hypothesis that concentrating continental masses in low-latitudes will drive cooler climates due to increased silicate weathering. We further superimpose records of events that are believed to increase the `weatherability' of the crust, such as large igneous province emplacement, island-arc accretion, and continental collisional belts. Climatic records are then compared with global detrital zircon U-Pb age data as a proxy for continental magmatism. Our results show a consistent relationship between zircon-generating magmatism and icehouse-greenhouse transitions for > 2 billion years, whereas paleogeographic records show no clear consistent relationship between continental configurations and prominent climate transitions. Volcanic outgassing appears to exert a first-order control on major baseline climatic shifts; however, paleogeography likely plays an important role in the magnitude of this change. Notably, climatic extremes, such as the Cryogenian icehouse, occur during a combination of reduce volcanism and end-member concentrations of low-latitudinal continents.

  19. A strategic zone for Total's future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legros, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    In 1997, the Total company investments in the Middle East reached 1.2 billions of French Francs. This region is considered as a major growth zone by the French group. This paper summarizes the Total's participations in oil and gas activities and partnerships of Middle East countries (Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Oman, Qatar, Yemen): exploration, production, development, contracts, permits, technical assistance etc.. (J.S.)

  20. ALMA Shows that Gas Reservoirs of Star-forming Disks over the Past 3 Billion Years Are Not Predominantly Molecular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortese, Luca; Catinella, Barbara; Janowiecki, Steven, E-mail: luca.cortese@uwa.edu.au [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2017-10-10

    Cold hydrogen gas is the raw fuel for star formation in galaxies, and its partition into atomic and molecular phases is a key quantity for galaxy evolution. In this Letter, we combine Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and Arecibo single-dish observations to estimate the molecular-to-atomic hydrogen mass ratio for massive star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 0.2 extracted from the HIGHz survey, i.e., some of the most massive gas-rich systems currently known. We show that the balance between atomic and molecular hydrogen in these galaxies is similar to that of local main-sequence disks, implying that atomic hydrogen has been dominating the cold gas mass budget of star-forming galaxies for at least the past three billion years. In addition, despite harboring gas reservoirs that are more typical of objects at the cosmic noon, HIGHz galaxies host regular rotating disks with low gas velocity dispersions suggesting that high total gas fractions do not necessarily drive high turbulence in the interstellar medium.

  1. Mars’ First Billion Years: Key Findings, Key Unsolved Paradoxes, and Future Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlmann, Bethany

    2017-10-01

    In the evolution of terrestrial planets, the first billion years are the period most shrouded in mystery: How vigorous is early atmospheric loss? How do planetary climates respond to a brightening sun? When and how are plate tectonic recycling processes initiated? How do voluminous volcanism and heavy impact bombardment influence the composition of the atmosphere? Under what conditions might life arise? Looking outward to terrestrial planets around other stars, the record from Venus, Earth and Mars in this solar system is crucial for developing models of physical can chemical processes. Of these three worlds, Mars provides the longest record of planetary evolution from the first billion years, comprising >50% of exposed geologic units, which are only lightly overprinted by later processes.Orbital observations of the last decade have revealed abundant evidence for surface waters in the form of lakes, valley networks, and evidence of chemically open-system near-surface weathering. Groundwaters at temperatures ranging from just above freezing to hydrothermal have also left a rich record of process in the mineralogical record. A rsuite of environments - similar in diversity to Earth’s - has been discovered on Mars with water pH, temperature, redox, and chemistries varying in space and time.Here, I will focus on the consequences of the aqueous alteration of the Martian crust on the composition of the atmosphere based on recent work studying aspects of the volatile budget (Usui et al., 2015; Edwards & Ehlmann, 2015; Hu et al., 2015; Jakosky et al., 2017, Wordsworth et al., 2017, and Ehlmann, in prep.). The solid crust and mantle of Mars act as volatile reservoirs and volatile sources through volcanism, mineral precipitation, and release of gases. We examine the extent to which the budget is understood or ill-understood for hydrogen and carbon, and associated phases H2O, CO2, and CH4. Additionally, I identify some key stratigraphies where a combination of focused in

  2. Constructing experimental devices for half-ton synthesis of gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillator and its performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Seo; Jang, Yeong Min; Joo, Kyung Kwang

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes in brief features of various experimental devices constructed for half-ton synthesis of gadolinium(Gd)-loaded liquid scintillator (GdLS) and also includes the performances and detailed chemical and physical results of a 0.5% high-concentration GdLS. Various feasibility studies on useful apparatus used for loading Gd into solvents have been carried out. The transmittance, Gd concentration, density, light yield, and moisture content were measured for quality control. We show that with the help of adequate automated experimental devices and tools, it is possible to perform ton scale synthesis of GdLS at moderate laboratory scale without difficulty. The synthesized GdLS was satisfactory to meet chemical, optical, and physical properties and various safety requirements. These synthesizing devices can be expanded into massive scale next-generation neutrino experiments of several hundred tons.

  3. Study of light detection and sensitivity for a ton-scale liquid xenon dark matter detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y; Lin, Q; Xiao, X; Ni, K

    2013-01-01

    Ton-scale liquid xenon detectors operated in two-phase mode are proposed and being constructed recently to explore the favored parameter space for the Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) dark matter. To achieve a better light collection efficiency while limiting the number of electronics channels compared to the previous generation detectors, large-size photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs) such as the 3-inch-diameter R11410 from Hamamatsu are suggested to replace the 1-inch-square R8520 PMTs. In a two-phase xenon dark matter detector, two PMT arrays on the top and bottom are usually used. In this study, we compare the performance of two different ton-scale liquid xenon detector configurations with the same number of either R11410 (config.1) or R8520 (config.2) for the top PMT array, while both using R11410 PMTs for the bottom array. The self-shielding of liquid xenon suppresses the background from the PMTs and the dominant background is from the pp solar neutrinos in the central fiducial volume. The light collection efficiency for the primary scintillation light is largely affected by the xenon purity and the reflectivity of the reflectors. In the optimistic situation with a 10 m light absorption length and a 95% reflectivity, the light collection efficiency is 43%(34%) for config.1(config.2). In the conservative situation with a 2.5 m light absorption length and a 85% reflectivity, the value is only 18%(13%) for config.1(config.2). The difference between the two configurations is due to the larger PMT coverage on the top for config.1. The slightly different position resolutions for the two configurations have a negligible effect on the sensitivity. Based on the above considerations, we estimate the sensitivity reach of the two detector configurations. Both configurations can reach a sensitivity of 2 ∼ 3 × 10 −47 cm 2 for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section for 100 GeV/c 2 WIMPs after two live-years of operation. The one with R8520 PMTs for the top

  4. SWRO-PRO System in “Mega-ton Water System” for Energy Reduction and Low Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Kurihara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse osmosis (RO membranes have been widely applied in seawater desalination (SWRO and wastewater reclamation as the main desalination technology since 2000. SWRO plants face challenges to reduce energy consumption and brine disposal to lessen marine pollution. To tackle these challenges, a SWRO-PRO (Pressure Retarded Osmosis System was proposed in the “Mega-ton Water System” project under the Japanese national project of the “Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology” (FIRST Program. To reduce the energy consumption of the main SWRO plant, an innovative low-pressure SWRO membrane and a next generation energy recovery device (ERD were developed by the “Mega-ton Water System” project. In addition to this research and development, a new membrane process has been proposed and confirmed as a low-pressure multi-stage SWRO (LMS. A brine conversion two-stage SWRO system was invented 20 years ago, and has been in operation for over 15 years. Application of the SWRO membrane process to actual commercial plants was an important research theme. The low-pressure multi-stage SWRO System (LMS was an innovative method of introducing a low-pressure membrane and the membrane element in the pressure vessel was designed to avoid heavy fouling of lead elements. As a result of these developments at mega-ton scale SWRO plants, a 20% energy reduction was possible in the SWRO system of the “Mega-ton Water System”. In the development of the PRO process, a PRO hollow fiber membrane module with a maximum 13.3 w/m2 of membrane power density using a 10-inch module was established at a prototype PRO plant. Thus, a 30% energy reduction was possible using the SWRO-PRO System in the “Mega-ton Water System” at mega-ton scale SWRO plants. The brine disposal problem was also solved by this system.

  5. Saving billions of dollars--and physicians' time--by streamlining billing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchfield, Bonnie B; Heffernan, James L; Osgood, Bradford; Sheehan, Rosemary R; Meyer, Gregg S

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. system of billing third parties for health care services is complex, expensive, and inefficient. Physicians end up using nearly 12 percent of their net patient service revenue to cover the costs of excessive administrative complexity. A single transparent set of payment rules for multiple payers, a single claim form, and standard rules of submission, among other innovations, would reduce the burden on the billing offices of physician organizations. On a national scale, our hypothetical modeling of these changes would translate into $7 billion of savings annually for physician and clinical services. Four hours of professional time per physician and five hours of practice support staff time could be saved each week.

  6. Titanium isotopic evidence for felsic crust and plate tectonics 3.5 billion years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greber, Nicolas D; Dauphas, Nicolas; Bekker, Andrey; Ptáček, Matouš P; Bindeman, Ilya N; Hofmann, Axel

    2017-09-22

    Earth exhibits a dichotomy in elevation and chemical composition between the continents and ocean floor. Reconstructing when this dichotomy arose is important for understanding when plate tectonics started and how the supply of nutrients to the oceans changed through time. We measured the titanium isotopic composition of shales to constrain the chemical composition of the continental crust exposed to weathering and found that shales of all ages have a uniform isotopic composition. This can only be explained if the emerged crust was predominantly felsic (silica-rich) since 3.5 billion years ago, requiring an early initiation of plate tectonics. We also observed a change in the abundance of biologically important nutrients phosphorus and nickel across the Archean-Proterozoic boundary, which might have helped trigger the rise in atmospheric oxygen. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  7. Ici, la priorité est aux piétons / Pedestrians have the right of way at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Au CERN, nous sommes tous piétons, très souvent automobilistes et parfois cyclistes. Mais peu importe notre moyen de locomotion si l'on reste vigilant et si l'on se rappelle que le piéton est un usager de la route à part entière, mais plus vulnérable. / At CERN, we are all pedestrians, often drivers, and occasionally cyclists. But our means of locomotion do no matter so long as we exercise caution and remember that a pedestrian has equal rights as a roa user, except than that he runs greater risks.

  8. A parts-per-billion measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorra, C.; Sellner, S.; Borchert, M. J.; Harrington, J. A.; Higuchi, T.; Nagahama, H.; Tanaka, T.; Mooser, A.; Schneider, G.; Bohman, M.; Blaum, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Ospelkaus, C.; Quint, W.; Walz, J.; Yamazaki, Y.; Ulmer, S.

    2017-10-01

    Precise comparisons of the fundamental properties of matter–antimatter conjugates provide sensitive tests of charge–parity–time (CPT) invariance, which is an important symmetry that rests on basic assumptions of the standard model of particle physics. Experiments on mesons, leptons and baryons have compared different properties of matter–antimatter conjugates with fractional uncertainties at the parts-per-billion level or better. One specific quantity, however, has so far only been known to a fractional uncertainty at the parts-per-million level: the magnetic moment of the antiproton, . The extraordinary difficulty in measuring with high precision is caused by its intrinsic smallness; for example, it is 660 times smaller than the magnetic moment of the positron. Here we report a high-precision measurement of in units of the nuclear magneton μN with a fractional precision of 1.5 parts per billion (68% confidence level). We use a two-particle spectroscopy method in an advanced cryogenic multi-Penning trap system. Our result  = ‑2.7928473441(42)μN (where the number in parentheses represents the 68% confidence interval on the last digits of the value) improves the precision of the previous best measurement by a factor of approximately 350. The measured value is consistent with the proton magnetic moment, μp = 2.792847350(9)μN, and is in agreement with CPT invariance. Consequently, this measurement constrains the magnitude of certain CPT-violating effects to below 1.8 × 10‑24 gigaelectronvolts, and a possible splitting of the proton–antiproton magnetic moments by CPT-odd dimension-five interactions to below 6 × 10‑12 Bohr magnetons.

  9. China. Country profile. [China's billion consumers are a rapidly changing market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, K

    1984-10-01

    This article provides a summary of demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the People's Republic of China. Chinese leaders project that achievement of the 4 modernizations (agriculture, industry, science, and technology) will double the per capita income level to $800/year by 2000. Although industrial and agricultural growth have outpaced population growth, stringent population control is considered necessary for continued economic development. China's 1982 population was 1.008 billion, with a birth rate of 20.91, a death rate of 6.36, and a 14.55 rate of natural increase. The growth rate declined from 1.3% in 1982 to 1.15% in 1983. To achieve its goal of preventing the population from exceeding 1.2 billion by the year 2000, the government urges couples to have only 1 child. This policy has been successful in the cities but faces opposition in the rural areas. The sex ratio is 106 males to every 100 females, and there is concern about female infanticide. In 1982 the average household size ranged from a high of 5.2 persons in Qinghai and Yunnan to a low of 3.6 persons in Shanghai. 39% of the population lives in nuclear families without relatives. The literacy rate stood at 77% of those over 12 years of age in 1982, but males outnumber females at higher levels of education. China's campaign to improve health has focused on preventive measures, and there are an estimated 3-5 million health care workers. The 1982 labor force participation rate for those 15-64 years of age was 87.7%, with 44% of workers employed in agricculture. 76.6% of women work, primarily in labor-intensive, low-wage occupations.

  10. ICI bites demerger bullet, Zeneca guns for Brit-pounds 1.3-billion rights issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.; Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-01

    Any lingering doubts as to ICI's (London) intentions to follow through its demerger proposals were dispelled last week. The company will hive off its bioscience business into Zeneca Group plc, which will make a Brit-pounds 1.3-billion ($1.9 billion) rights issue in June 1993. Shareholders, whose approval for the historic move will be sought in late May, will receive one fully paid Zeneca share for each ICI share. Proceeds from the rights issue will be used to reduce Zeneca's indebtedness to ICI by about 70%. Acknowledging that ICI had 'spread the jam too thinly' during its expansion in the 1980s, chief executive Ronnie Hampel says the new ICI will be a cost-conscious, no-frills' organization and that businesses that failed to perform would be restructured or closed. He is 'not expecting any help from the economy' in 1993. Of ICI's remaining petrochemicals and plastics businesses, Hampel says that despite 'stringent measures to reduce the cost base hor-ellipsis it is clear they will not reach a return on capital that will justify reinvestment by ICI.' He does not see them as closure candidates but as 'businesses that will require further restructuring.' Hampel notes 'a dozen clearly identified areas for expansion,' including paints, catalysts, titanium dioxide, and chlorofluorocarbon replacements. Losses in materials, where substantial rationalization has failed to halt the slide, will be reduced on completion of the DuPont deal - expected by midyear. 'Further measures' would be necessary for the 'residual bit of advanced materials in the US,' he says

  11. Searching for Organics Preserved in 4.5 Billion Year Old Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Fries, M.; Steele, A.; Bodnar, R.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of early solar system fluids took a dramatic turn a decade ago with the discovery of fluid inclusion-bearing halite (NaCl) crystals in the matrix of two freshly fallen brecciated H chondrite falls, Monahans and Zag. Both meteorites are regolith breccias, and contain xenolithic halite (and minor admixed sylvite -- KCl, crystals in their regolith lithologies. The halites are purple to dark blue, due to the presence of color centers (electrons in anion vacancies) which slowly accumulated as 40K (in sylvite) decayed over billions of years. The halites were dated by K-Ar, Rb-Sr and I-Xe systematics to be 4.5 billion years old. The "blue" halites were a fantastic discovery for the following reasons: (1) Halite+sylvite can be dated (K is in sylvite and will substitute for Na in halite, Rb substitutes in halite for Na, and I substitutes for Cl). (2) The blue color is lost if the halite dissolves on Earth and reprecipitates (because the newly-formed halite has no color centers), so the color serves as a "freshness" or pristinity indicator. (3) Halite frequently contains aqueous fluid inclusions. (4) Halite contains no structural oxygen, carbon or hydrogen, making them ideal materials to measure these isotopic systems in any fluid inclusions. (5) It is possible to directly measure fluid inclusion formation temperatures, and thus directly measure the temperature of the mineralizing aqueous fluid. In addition to these two ordinary chondrites halite grains have been reliably reported in several ureilites, an additional ordinary chondrite (Jilin), and in the carbonaceous chondrite (Murchison), although these reports were unfortunately not taken seriously. We have lately found additional fluid inclusions in carbonates in several additional carbonaceous chondrites. Meteoritic aqueous fluid inclusions are apparently relatively widespread in meteorites, though very small and thus difficult to analyze.

  12. A parts-per-billion measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorra, C; Sellner, S; Borchert, M J; Harrington, J A; Higuchi, T; Nagahama, H; Tanaka, T; Mooser, A; Schneider, G; Bohman, M; Blaum, K; Matsuda, Y; Ospelkaus, C; Quint, W; Walz, J; Yamazaki, Y; Ulmer, S

    2017-10-18

    Precise comparisons of the fundamental properties of matter-antimatter conjugates provide sensitive tests of charge-parity-time (CPT) invariance, which is an important symmetry that rests on basic assumptions of the standard model of particle physics. Experiments on mesons, leptons and baryons have compared different properties of matter-antimatter conjugates with fractional uncertainties at the parts-per-billion level or better. One specific quantity, however, has so far only been known to a fractional uncertainty at the parts-per-million level: the magnetic moment of the antiproton, . The extraordinary difficulty in measuring with high precision is caused by its intrinsic smallness; for example, it is 660 times smaller than the magnetic moment of the positron. Here we report a high-precision measurement of in units of the nuclear magneton μ N with a fractional precision of 1.5 parts per billion (68% confidence level). We use a two-particle spectroscopy method in an advanced cryogenic multi-Penning trap system. Our result  = -2.7928473441(42)μ N (where the number in parentheses represents the 68% confidence interval on the last digits of the value) improves the precision of the previous best measurement by a factor of approximately 350. The measured value is consistent with the proton magnetic moment, μ p  = 2.792847350(9)μ N , and is in agreement with CPT invariance. Consequently, this measurement constrains the magnitude of certain CPT-violating effects to below 1.8 × 10 -24 gigaelectronvolts, and a possible splitting of the proton-antiproton magnetic moments by CPT-odd dimension-five interactions to below 6 × 10 -12 Bohr magnetons.

  13. Statistical downscaling of temperature using three techniques in the Tons River basin in Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhan, Darshana; Pandey, Ashish

    2015-08-01

    In this study, downscaling models were developed for the projections of monthly maximum and minimum air temperature for three stations, namely, Allahabad, Satna, and Rewa in Tons River basin, which is a sub-basin of the Ganges River in Central India. The three downscaling techniques, namely, multiple linear regression (MLR), artificial neural network (ANN), and least square support vector machine (LS-SVM), were used for the development of models, and best identified model was used for simulations of future predictand (temperature) using third-generation Canadian Coupled Global Climate Model (CGCM3) simulation of A2 emission scenario for the period 2001-2100. The performance of the models was evaluated based on four statistical performance indicators. To reduce the bias in monthly projected temperature series, bias correction technique was employed. The results show that all the models are able to simulate temperature; however, LS-SVM models perform slightly better than ANN and MLR. The best identified LS-SVM models are then employed to project future temperature. The results of future projections show the increasing trends in maximum and minimum temperature for A2 scenario. Further, it is observed that minimum temperature will increase at greater rate than maximum temperature.

  14. VALIDACIÓN RESISTIVA ESTRUCTURAL DE UN VARADERO PARA EMBARCACIONES DE 600 ton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Novo Soto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se valida la capacidad de carga portante de la estructura de un varadero a partirde las condiciones a resistencia y rigidez. El varadero consta de 2 carros trapezoidales, sobre los cualesse desplazan transversalmente 6 boggies, que permiten trasladar la embarcación varada hacia losapartaderos, así mismo dispone de 3 motores con sus respectivos sistemas de reducción y tamboras,uno de ellos permite sacar la embarcación que se encuentra soportada sobre los boggies y los 2 carroscunas, otro se emplea para retornar dicha embarcación al mar y el último se utiliza para desplazar laembarcación sobre los boggies, transversalmente a los carros cunas, hacia los apartaderos.Dada la complejidad estructural del sistema se desarrolla un modelo físico matemático, el que mediantela aplicación del Método de los Elementos Finitos, permite obtener los esfuerzos equivalente máximos deMises y los desplazamientos máximos con lo que finalmente se valida, a través del Análisis porElementos Finitos, la capacidad portante de la estructura para varar una embarcación de 600 ton.

  15. 1000–ton testing machine for cyclic fatigue tests of materials at liquid nitrogen temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khitruk, A. A.; Klimchenko, Yu. A.; Kovalchuk, O. A.; Marushin, E. L.; Mednikov, A. A.; Nasluzov, S. N.; Privalova, E. K.; Rodin, I. Yu.; Stepanov, D. B.; Sukhanova, M. V.

    2014-01-01

    One of the main tasks of superconductive magnets R and D is to determine the mechanical and fatigue properties of structural materials and the critical design elements in the cryogenic temperature range. This paper describes a new facility built based on the industrial 1000-ton (10 MN) testing machine Schenk PC10.0S. Special equipment was developed to provide the mechanical and cyclic tensile fatigue tests of large-scale samples at the liquid nitrogen temperature and in a given load range. The main feature of the developed testing machine is the cryostat, in which the device converting a standard compression force of the testing machine to the tensile force affected at the test object is placed. The control system provides the remote control of the test and obtaining, processing and presentation of test data. As an example of the testing machine operation the test program and test results of the cyclic tensile fatigue tests of fullscale helium inlet sample of the PF1 coil ITER are presented

  16. High temperature experiments on a 4 tons UF6 container TENERIFE program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casselman, C.; Duret, B.; Seiler, J.M.; Ringot, C.; Warniez, P.

    1991-12-31

    The paper presents an experimental program (called TENERIFE) whose aim is to investigate the behaviour of a cylinder containing UF{sub 6} when exposed to a high temperature fire for model validation. Taking into account the experiments performed in the past, the modelization needs further information in order to be able to predict the behaviour of a real size cylinder when engulfed in a 800{degrees}C fire, as specified in the regulation. The main unknowns are related to (1) the UF{sub 6} behaviour beyond the critical point, (2) the relationship between temperature field and internal pressure and (3) the equivalent conductivity of the solid UF{sub 6}. In order to investigate these phenomena in a representative way it is foreseen to perform experiments with a cylinder of real diameter, but reduced length, containing 4 tons of UF{sub 6}. This cylinder will be placed in an electrically heated furnace. A confinement vessel prevents any dispersion of UF{sub 6}. The heat flux delivered by the furnace will be calibrated by specific tests. The cylinder will be changed for each test.

  17. Performance and Results of the LBNE 35 Ton Membrane Cryostat Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, David; Adamowski, Mark; Hahn, Alan; Norris, Barry; Reichenbacher, Juergen; Rucinski, Russell; Stewart, Jim; Tope, Terry

    We report on the performance and commissioning of the first membrane cryostat to be used for scientific application. The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) has designed and fabricated a membrane cryostat prototype in collaboration with Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI). LBNE has designed and fabricated the supporting cryogenic system infrastructure and successfully commissioned and operated the first membrane cryostat. Original goals of the prototype are: to demonstrate the membrane cryostat technology in terms of thermal performance, feasibility for liquid argon and leak tightness; to demonstrate that we can remove all the impurities from the vessel and achieve the purity requirements in a membrane cryostat without evacuation; to demonstrate that we can achieve and maintain the purity requirements of the liquid argon using mol sieve and copper filters. The purity requirements of a large liquid argon detector such as LBNE are contaminants below 200 parts per trillion (ppt) oxygen equivalent. LBNE is planning the design and construction of a large liquid argon detector. This presentation will present requirements, design and construction of the LBNE 35 ton membrane cryostat prototype, and detail the commissioning and performance. The experience and results of this prototype are extremely important for the development of the LBNE detector.

  18. The economic value of one ton CO2: what system of reference for public action?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    Given the convergence of scientific analyses of global warming and its consequences for the planet - evaluated for years by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - it is no longer possible to postpone the efforts required to reduce our emissions of greenhouse gases substantially. However, the choice of actions to take and the calendar of priorities are proving complex to define: the social and economic consequences are great, and neither France (which represents 2% of global emissions) nor Europe (15%) are up to treating the problem independently of the rest of the world. Faced with this challenge, and with budgetary constraints imposing a rationalisation of expenditure, public action must have measuring instruments at its disposal: the value of one ton of carbon is one such instrument. This Strategic Newswatch has a twofold objective: to recall the usefulness of this reference value which, though it cannot guarantee the validity of different public policies, may contribute to ensuring their consistency; and to present the different approaches and difficulties that producing such a reference system introduces. (author)

  19. Etude comparative de la cinétique de la réaction d’hydratation des bétons autoplaçants et des bétons vibrés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gargouri

    2014-04-01

    En effet, la nature exothermique de la réaction chimique du ciment peut induire des déformations de dilatation et de contraction. Par ailleurs, la dépression capillaire crée par la consommation d’eau due à l’hydratation du ciment entraine un retrait de dessiccation. Ces déformations peuvent entrainer des micros fissurations pouvant affecter la durabilité de l’ouvrage à long terme surtout pour les ouvrages épais. D’où l’importance d’étudier la cinétique d’hydratation de ses bétons non conventionnels et de les comparer à celle des bétons vibrés traditionnels. L’évolution de la température adiabatique ainsi que la variation en fonction du temps du degré d’hydratation sont déterminées pour le béton autoplaçant et le béton vibré. L’analyse des résultats expérimentaux obtenus montre que le changement de composition modifie considérablement la cinétique de la réaction d’hydratation.

  20. Criterion 6, indicator 28 : total and per capita consumption of wood and wood products in round wood equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Howard; Rebecca Westby; Kenneth E. Skog

    2010-01-01

    Total consumption of wood and paper products and fuelwood, in roundwood equivalents, increased between 1965 and 1988 from 13.2 to 18.9 billion cubic feet. Since 1988, it has been about 20 billion cubic feet per year. Total per capita consumption increased between 1965 and 1987, from 68 to 83 ft3 per year. Since 1987 through 2006, per capita...

  1. 78 FR 59791 - Annual Company-Run Stress Tests at Banking Organizations With Total Consolidated Assets of More...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... bank on its Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9C) or Consolidated... companies with $50 billion or more in total consolidated assets and any non-bank financial companies... with total consolidated assets of $50 billion or more and nonbank financial companies supervised by the...

  2. 'Plug and play' vochtsensor biedt eenvoud (interview met o.a. Ton Baltissen, Pieter van Dalfsen en Jos Balendonck)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagers, F.; Baltissen, A.H.M.C.; Dalfsen, van P.; Balendonck, J.

    2013-01-01

    Uit recent onderzoek van PPO-Wageningen UR Boomkwekerij blijkt dat er bij boomkwekerijen met planten in potten of containers tot 40% op de water- en meststoffengift kan worden bespaard als er efficiënter wordt water gegeven. Interview met o.a. Ton Baltissen, Pieter van Dalfsen en Jos Balendonck.

  3. Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli ΔtonB mutants are safe and protective live-attenuated vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Karen M; Browning, Glenn F; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Markham, Philip; Marenda, Marc S

    2014-10-10

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) cause colibacillosis, a serious respiratory disease in poultry. Most APEC strains possess TonB-dependent outer membrane transporters for the siderophores salmochelin and aerobactin, which both contribute to their capacity to cause disease. To assess the potential of iron transport deficient mutants as vaccine candidates, the tonB gene was deleted in the APEC wild type strain E956 and a Δfur (ferric uptake repressor) mutant of E956. The growth of the ΔtonB and ΔtonB/Δfur mutants was impaired in iron-restricted conditions, but not in iron-replete media. Day old chicks were exposed to aerosols of the mutants to assess their efficacy as live attenuated vaccines. At day 18, the birds were challenged with aerosols of the virulent parent strain E956. Both mutants conferred protection against colibacillosis; weight gains and lesion scores were significantly different between the vaccinated groups and an unvaccinated challenged control group. Thus mutation of iron uptake systems can be used as a platform technology to generate protective live attenuated vaccines against extraintestinal E. coli infections, and potentially a range of Gram negative pathogens of importance in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. The structure of TON1937 from archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 reveals a eukaryotic HEAT-like architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae-Hee; Kim, Yi-Seul; Rojviriya, Catleya; Cha, Hyung Jin; Ha, Sung-Chul; Kim, Yeon-Gil

    2013-10-01

    The members of the ARM/HEAT repeat-containing protein superfamily in eukaryotes have been known to mediate protein-protein interactions by using their concave surface. However, little is known about the ARM/HEAT repeat proteins in prokaryotes. Here we report the crystal structure of TON1937, a hypothetical protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus NA1. The structure reveals a crescent-shaped molecule composed of a double layer of α-helices with seven anti-parallel α-helical repeats. A structure-based sequence alignment of the α-helical repeats identified a conserved pattern of hydrophobic or aliphatic residues reminiscent of the consensus sequence of eukaryotic HEAT repeats. The individual repeats of TON1937 also share high structural similarity with the canonical eukaryotic HEAT repeats. In addition, the concave surface of TON1937 is proposed to be its potential binding interface based on this structural comparison and its surface properties. These observations lead us to speculate that the archaeal HEAT-like repeats of TON1937 have evolved to engage in protein-protein interactions in the same manner as eukaryotic HEAT repeats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 46 CFR 171.124 - Watertight integrity above the margin line in a vessel less than 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watertight integrity above the margin line in a vessel less than 100 gross tons. 171.124 Section 171.124 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Integrity Above the Margin Line § 171.124 Watertight integrity above the margin line in a vessel less than...

  6. 46 CFR 171.122 - Watertight integrity above the margin line in a vessel of 100 gross tons or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watertight integrity above the margin line in a vessel of 100 gross tons or more. 171.122 Section 171.122 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Watertight Integrity Above the Margin Line § 171.122 Watertight integrity above the margin line in a vessel...

  7. 33 CFR 157.43 - Discharges of clean and segregated ballast: Seagoing tank vessels of 150 gross tons or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... discharge point for segregated ballast. (c) All discharges of clean ballast and segregated ballast must be... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharges of clean and... Discharges of clean and segregated ballast: Seagoing tank vessels of 150 gross tons or more. (a) Clean...

  8. Active Seismic Monitoring Using High-Power Moveable 40-TONS Vibration Sources in Altay-Sayn Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, V. M.; Seleznev, V. S.; Emanov, A. F.; Kashun, V. N.; Elagin, S. A.; Romanenko, I.; Shenmayer, A. E.; Serezhnikov, N.

    2013-05-01

    The paper presents data of operating vibroseismic observations using high-power stationary 100-tons and moveable 40-tons vibration sources, which have been carried out in Russia for 30 years. It is shown that investigations using high-power vibration sources open new possibilities for study stressedly-deformed condition of the Earth`s crust and the upper mantle and tectonic process in them. Special attention is given to developing operating seismic translucences of the Earth`s crust and the upper mantle using high-power 40-tons vibration sources. As a result of experimental researches there was proved high stability and repeatability of vibration effects. There were carried out long period experiments of many days with vibration source sessions of every two hours with the purpose of monitoring accuracy estimation. It was determined, that repeatability of vibroseismic effects (there was researched time difference of repeated sessions of P- and S-waves from crystal rocks surface) could be estimated as 10-3 - 10-4 sec. It is ten times less than revealed here annual variations of kinematic parameters according to regime vibroseismic observations. It is shown, that on hard high-speed grounds radiation spectrum becomes narrowband and is dislocated to high frequency; at the same time quantity of multiple high-frequency harmonic is growing. At radiation on soft sedimentary grounds (sand, clay) spectrum of vibration source in near zone is more broadband, correlograms are more compact. there Correspondence of wave fields from 40-tons vibration sources and explosions by reference waves from boundaries in he Earth`s crust and the upper mantle at record distance of 400 km was proved by many experiments in various regions of Russia; there was carried out the technique of high-power vibration sources grouping for increase of effectiveness of emanation and increase of record distance. According to results of long-term vibroseismic monitoring near Novosibirsk (1997-2012) there are

  9. Community Extreme Tonnage User Service (CETUS): A 5000 Ton Open Research Facility in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; McCubbin, F.

    2016-01-01

    Large sample volume 5000 ton multi-anvil presses have contributed to the exploration of deep Earth and planetary interiors, synthesis of ultra-hard and other novel materials, and serve as a sample complement to pressure and temperature regimes already attainable by diamond anvil cell experiments. However, no such facility exists on the North American continent. We propose the establishment of an open user facility for COMPRES members and the entire research community, with the unique capability of a 5000 ton (or more) press, supported by a host of extant co-located experimental and analytical laboratories and research staff. We offer wide range of complementary and/or preparatory experimental options. Any required synthesis of materials or follow up experiments can be carried out controlled atmosphere furnaces, piston cylinders, multi-anvil, or experimental impact apparatus. Additionally, our division houses two machine shops that would facilitate any modification or custom work necessary for development of CETUS, one for general fabrication and one located specifically within our experimental facilities. We also have a general sample preparation laboratory, specifically for experimental samples, that allows users to quickly and easily prepare samples for ebeam analyses and more. A service we can offer to COMPRES community members in general, and CETUS visiting users specifically, is a multitude of analytical instrumentation literally steps away from the experimental laboratories. This year we will be pursuing site funding of our laboratories through NASA's Planetary Science Directorate, which should result in substantial cost savings to all visiting users, and supports our mission of interagency cooperation for the enhancement of science for all (see companion PSAMS abstract). The PI is in a unique position as an employee of Jacobs Technology to draw funding from multiple sources, including those from industry and commerce. We submitted a Planetary Major Equipment

  10. Cryo-Compression System in a 3000 Ton Multi-Anvil Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secco, R. A.; Yong, W.

    2016-12-01

    Most large volume high pressure devices are capable of high temperature experiments that are typically achieved by using localized resistive heating of a metal foil, graphite or ceramic sleeve inside a thermally insulated sample volume in a high pressure cell. Low temperatures at high pressures are needed for physical property studies of materials that comprise planetary bodies in the outer solar system. However, low temperatures are more difficult to achieve mainly because the massive steel components of the press, which are in good thermal contact with each other under high load, act as large heat reservoirs and pathways that encumber the removal of heat from the pressure cell. We describe a new custom-designed system under development for a 3000 ton multi-anvil press to reach temperatures below 295K at high pressures. The system was designed to remove heat selectively and conductively from the sample volume through six of the eight WC cubes in direct contact with the octahedral pressure cell. Cooling fins made of Cu are sandwiched between, and in thermal contact with, neighboring anvil faces and are each connected to a dedicated Cu heat exchanger chamber through which liquid nitrogen flows. The chamber internal geometry consists of either square pillars that double the internal surface area of the rectangular parallelepiped enclosed volume or continuous walls separated by valleys. Gas from each chamber is vented to the lab through an exhaust pipe. High pressure results will be presented of several temperature monitoring points in the center of the pressure cell and on the surfaces of the WC cubes and steel wedges which recorded the time-dependent cooling progress. Temperature stability tests will also be presented.

  11. Analysis of internal crack in a six-ton P91 ingot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-an Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available P91 is a new kind of heat-resistant and high-tensile steel. It can be extruded after ingot casting and can be widely used for different pipes in power plants. However, due to its mushy freezing characteristics, a lack of feeding in the ingot center often generates many defects, such as porosity and crack. A six-ton P91 ingot was cast and sliced, and a representative part of the longitudinal section was inspected in more detail. The morphology of crack-like defects was examined by X-ray high energy industrial CT and reconstructed by 3D software. There are five main portions of defects larger than 200 mm3, four of which are interconnected. These initiated from continuous liquid film, and then were torn apart by excessive tensile stress within the brittle temperature range (BTR. The 3D FEM analysis of thermo-mechanical simulation was carried out to analyze the formation of porosity and internal crack defects. The results of shrinkage porosity and Niyama values revealed that the center of the ingot suffers from inadequate feeding. Several criteria based on thermal and mechanical models were used to evaluate the susceptibility of hot crack formation. The Clyne and Davies’ criterion and Katgerman’s criterion successfully predicted the high hot crack susceptibility in the ingot center. Six typical locations in the longitudinal section had been chosen for analysis of the stresses and strains evolution during the BTR. Locations in the defects region showed the highest tensile stresses and relative high strain values, while other locations showed either low tensile stresses or low strain values. In conclusion, hot crack develops only when stress and strain exceed a threshold value at the same time during the BTR.

  12. Development and operation of a 30 ton/ day gasification and melting plant for municipal solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hae Young; Seo, Yong-Chil; Cho, Sung-Jin; Lee, Jang-Su; Lee, Ki-Bae; Jeong, Dae-Woon; Kim, Woo-Hyun; Roh, Seon-Ah; Min, Tai-Jin

    2010-01-01

    As one of the efforts to increase recycling rate of end of life vehicles enforcing by the governmental regulation, automobile shredder residue (ASR) was considered to treat by a thermal method with converting waste to energy. Gasification and melting experimental processes of lab (1 kg/ hour) and pilot (5 ton. day) scale were installed. ASR collected from a domestic shredding company was experimented at a lab-scale and pilot-scale gasification and melting process which is similar to the shaft type gasification melting furnace. The characteristics of syngas, tar and residue (slag) generated from a conversion process (gasification and melting) were analyzed to provide the information to further utilize them as fuel and recyclable materials in scaled up plants. A series of experiments have been conducted with various air equivalent ratios (ERs), and syngas compositions, carbon conversion efficiency, heating value of syngas, yield and characteristics of slag were analyzed. Finally, slags generated from the process were recycled with various alternative technologies. In summary, energy conversion technology of ASR with the least production of residue by gasification and slag utilization has been developed. The main components in product gas were H 2 , CO, CH 4 and CO 2 ; and concentrations of C 2 H 4 and C 2 H 6 were less. This can be used as clean fuel gas whose heating value ranged from 2.5 to 14.0 MJ/ m 3 . Most of slag generated from the process can further be fabricated to valuable and usable products. Such combined technology would result in achieving almost zero waste release from ELVs. (author)

  13. TENERIFE program: high temperature experiments on A 4 tons UF6 container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.; Duret, B.; Seiler, J.M.; Ringot, C.; Warniez, P.; Wataru, M.; Shiomi, S.; Ozaki, S.; Yamakawa, H.

    1993-01-01

    To know the input of the future thermo-mechanical code, we have to get a better understanding of the thermo-physical evolution of the UF 6 which pressurizes the container. This evolution is function of: a) the heat transfer rate from the fire to the container b) the UF 6 behaviour in the container. These tests are essentially analytical at simulated fire temperatures of between 800 and 1000degC. They use a representative mass of UF 6 (around 4 tons). The tests will not seek to rupture the test container which has a diameter equal to the 48Y container, but shorter length. These tests carried out in realistic conditions (typical thermal gradient at the wall, characteristic period for UF 6 internal mass transfer) should make possible to improve knowledge of two fundamental phenomena: 1) vaporization of UF 6 on contact with the heated wall (around 400degC), a phenomenon which controls the container internal pressurization kinetic, 2) the equivalent conductivity of solid UF 6 , a phenomenon which is linked to the heat transfer by UF 6 vaporization-condensation through the solid's porosities and which depends on the diameter of the container. In addition, they will allow the influence of other parameters to be studied, such as UF 6 container filling mode or the mechanical characteristics of the container material. A UF 6 container fitted with instruments (wall temperature, UF 6 temperature, pressure) is heated by a rapid heat transient in a radiating furnace where the temperature and thermal power supplied can be measured. The test continues until pre-established thresholds have been reached: 1) strain threshold measured on the container surface (strain gauges positioned on the outside), 2) maximum temperature threshold of UF 6 , 3) container internal pressure threshold. (J.P.N.)

  14. Nordic energy co-operation can save the equivalent of 4 - 10 billion USD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2000-01-01

    Better co-ordination of the energy- and environment policies among the Nordic countries can be very profitable from the socio-economic point of view and facilitate the fulfilment of the Kyoto agreement. A Swedish calculation shows that up to 10 billion USD can be saved by building a trans-nordic gasline and at the same time preparing for a common implementation of the Kyoto agreement, combined with increased electricity trade, improving the efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy sources. The consumption of natural gas must then increase threefold the next 25 years. There is no alternative to natural gas of the same potential if coal and oil are to be replaced to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide. The importance of natural gas is further increased by the phase-out of nuclear energy in Sweden. After 2025 the use of natural gas will be reduced and in 2040 biomass energy, wind energy and solar energy will contribute as much as the natural gas, that is, 250 TWh. Throughout the entire period more than half of the electricity production will be hydropower. It is presupposed that the cogeneration sector and the district heating network are substantially expanded, even in South Norway. The Nordic energy system is quite flexible with respect to fulfilling future CO 2 targets. Although the different Nordic countries have different commitments with respect to the Kyoto agreement, they will profit economically from acting jointly within the sum of their individual emission quotas

  15. Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, Ashok J.; Derby, Elisabeth A.

    2003-06-01

    Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015, the global community will need to provide an additional one billion urban residents and 600 million rural residents with safe water within the next twelve years. This paper examines current water treatment measures and implementation methods for delivery of safe drinking water, and offers suggestions for making progress towards the goal of providing a timely and equitable solution for safe water provision. For water treatment, based on the serious limitations of boiling water and chlorination, we suggest an approach based on filtration coupled with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, combined with public education. Additionally, owing to the capacity limitations for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to take on this task primarily on their own, we suggest a strategy based on financially sustainable models that include the private sector as well as NGOs.

  16. A Massive Galaxy in Its Core Formation Phase Three Billion Years After the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erica; van Dokkum, Pieter; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Schreiber, Natascha M. Forster; da Cunha, Elisabete; Tacconi, Linda; Bezanson, Rachel; Kirkpatrick, Allison; hide

    2014-01-01

    Most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores at early cosmic epochs. However, cores in their formation phase have not yet been observed. Previous studies have found galaxies with high gas velocity dispersions or small apparent sizes but so far no objects have been identified with both the stellar structure and the gas dynamics of a forming core. Here we present a candidate core in formation 11 billion years ago, at z = 2.3. GOODS-N-774 has a stellar mass of 1.0 × 10 (exp 11) solar mass, a half-light radius of 1.0 kpc, and a star formation rate of 90 (sup +45 / sub -20) solar mass/yr. The star forming gas has a velocity dispersion 317 plus or minus 30 km/s, amongst the highest ever measured. It is similar to the stellar velocity dispersions of the putative descendants of GOODS-N-774, compact quiescent galaxies at z is approximately equal to 2 (exp 8-11) and giant elliptical galaxies in the nearby Universe. Galaxies such as GOODS-N-774 appear to be rare; however, from the star formation rate and size of the galaxy we infer that many star forming cores may be heavily obscured, and could be missed in optical and near-infrared surveys.

  17. A large neutral fraction of cosmic hydrogen a billion years after the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyithe, J Stuart B; Loeb, Abraham

    2004-02-26

    The fraction of ionized hydrogen left over from the Big Bang provides evidence for the time of formation of the first stars and quasar black holes in the early Universe; such objects provide the high-energy photons necessary to ionize hydrogen. Spectra of the two most distant known quasars show nearly complete absorption of photons with wavelengths shorter than the Lyman alpha transition of neutral hydrogen, indicating that hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) had not been completely ionized at a redshift of z approximately 6.3, about one billion years after the Big Bang. Here we show that the IGM surrounding these quasars had a neutral hydrogen fraction of tens of per cent before the quasar activity started, much higher than the previous lower limits of approximately 0.1 per cent. Our results, when combined with the recent inference of a large cumulative optical depth to electron scattering after cosmological recombination therefore suggest the presence of a second peak in the mean ionization history of the Universe.

  18. Development of multicomponent parts-per-billion-level gas standards of volatile toxic organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoderick, G.C.; Zielinski, W.L. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the demand for stable, low-concentration multicomponent standards of volatile toxic organic compounds for quantifying national and state measurement of ambient air quality and hazardous waste incineration emissions has markedly increased in recent years. In response to this demand, a microgravimetric technique was developed and validated for preparing such standards; these standards ranged in concentration from several parts per million (ppm) down to one part per billion (ppb) and in complexity from one organic up to 17. Studies using the gravimetric procedure to prepare mixtures of different groups of organics. including multi-components mixtures in the 5 to 20 ppb range, revealed a very low imprecision. This procedure is based on the separate gravimetric introduction of individual organics into an evacuated gas cylinder, followed by the pressurized addition of a precalculated amount of pure nitrogen. Additional studies confirmed the long-term stability of these mixtures. The uncertainty of the concentrations of the individual organics at the 95% confidence level ranged from less than 1% relative at 1 ppm to less than 10% relative at 1 ppb. Over 100 primary gravimetric standards have been developed, validated, and used for certifying the concentrations of a variety of mixtures for monitoring studies

  19. Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Elizabeth A; Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T Mark; Mao, Wendy L

    2015-11-24

    Evidence of life on Earth is manifestly preserved in the rock record. However, the microfossil record only extends to ∼ 3.5 billion years (Ga), the chemofossil record arguably to ∼ 3.8 Ga, and the rock record to 4.0 Ga. Detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia range in age up to nearly 4.4 Ga. From a population of over 10,000 Jack Hills zircons, we identified one >3.8-Ga zircon that contains primary graphite inclusions. Here, we report carbon isotopic measurements on these inclusions in a concordant, 4.10 ± 0.01-Ga zircon. We interpret these inclusions as primary due to their enclosure in a crack-free host as shown by transmission X-ray microscopy and their crystal habit. Their δ(13)CPDB of -24 ± 5‰ is consistent with a biogenic origin and may be evidence that a terrestrial biosphere had emerged by 4.1 Ga, or ∼ 300 My earlier than has been previously proposed.

  20. The controversial "Cambrian" fossils of the Vindhyan are real but more than a billion years older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Stefan; Belivanova, Veneta; Rasmussen, Birger; Whitehouse, Martin

    2009-05-12

    The age of the Vindhyan sedimentary basin in central India is controversial, because geochronology indicating early Proterozoic ages clashes with reports of Cambrian fossils. We present here an integrated paleontologic-geochronologic investigation to resolve this conundrum. New sampling of Lower Vindhyan phosphoritic stromatolitic dolomites from the northern flank of the Vindhyans confirms the presence of fossils most closely resembling those found elsewhere in Cambrian deposits: annulated tubes, embryo-like globules with polygonal surface pattern, and filamentous and coccoidal microbial fabrics similar to Girvanella and Renalcis. None of the fossils, however, can be ascribed to uniquely Cambrian or Ediacaran taxa. Indeed, the embryo-like globules are not interpreted as fossils at all but as former gas bubbles trapped in mucus-rich cyanobacterial mats. Direct dating of the same fossiliferous phosphorite yielded a Pb-Pb isochron of 1,650 +/- 89 (2sigma) million years ago, confirming the Paleoproterozoic age of the fossils. New U-Pb geochronology of zircons from tuffaceous mudrocks in the Lower Vindhyan Porcellanite Formation on the southern flank of the Vindhyans give comparable ages. The Vindhyan phosphorites provide a window of 3-dimensionally preserved Paleoproterozoic fossils resembling filamentous and coccoidal cyanobacteria and filamentous eukaryotic algae, as well as problematic forms. Like Neoproterozoic phosphorites a billion years later, the Vindhyan deposits offer important new insights into the nature and diversity of life, and in particular, the early evolution of multicellular eukaryotes.

  1. Enhanced cellular preservation by clay minerals in 1 billion-year-old lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacey, David; Saunders, Martin; Roberts, Malcolm; Menon, Sarath; Green, Leonard; Kong, Charlie; Culwick, Timothy; Strother, Paul; Brasier, Martin D

    2014-07-28

    Organic-walled microfossils provide the best insights into the composition and evolution of the biosphere through the first 80 percent of Earth history. The mechanism of microfossil preservation affects the quality of biological information retained and informs understanding of early Earth palaeo-environments. We here show that 1 billion-year-old microfossils from the non-marine Torridon Group are remarkably preserved by a combination of clay minerals and phosphate, with clay minerals providing the highest fidelity of preservation. Fe-rich clay mostly occurs in narrow zones in contact with cellular material and is interpreted as an early microbially-mediated phase enclosing and replacing the most labile biological material. K-rich clay occurs within and exterior to cell envelopes, forming where the supply of Fe had been exhausted. Clay minerals inter-finger with calcium phosphate that co-precipitated with the clays in the sub-oxic zone of the lake sediments. This type of preservation was favoured in sulfate-poor environments where Fe-silicate precipitation could outcompete Fe-sulfide formation. This work shows that clay minerals can provide an exceptionally high fidelity of microfossil preservation and extends the known geological range of this fossilization style by almost 500 Ma. It also suggests that the best-preserved microfossils of this time may be found in low-sulfate environments.

  2. The DECam Plane Survey: Optical Photometry of Two Billion Objects in the Southern Galactic Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlafly, E. F.; Green, G. M.; Lang, D.; Daylan, T.; Finkbeiner, D. P.; Lee, A.; Meisner, A. M.; Schlegel, D.; Valdes, F.

    2018-02-01

    The DECam Plane Survey is a five-band optical and near-infrared survey of the southern Galactic plane with the Dark Energy Camera at Cerro Tololo. The survey is designed to reach past the main-sequence turn-off of old populations at the distance of the Galactic center through a reddening E(B-V) of 1.5 mag. Typical single-exposure depths are 23.7, 22.8, 22.3, 21.9, and 21.0 mag (AB) in the grizY bands, with seeing around 1\\prime\\prime . The footprint covers the Galactic plane with | b| ≲ 4^\\circ , 5^\\circ > l> -120^\\circ . The survey pipeline simultaneously solves for the positions and fluxes of tens of thousands of sources in each image, delivering positions and fluxes of roughly two billion stars with better than 10 mmag precision. Most of these objects are highly reddened and deep in the Galactic disk, probing the structure and properties of the Milky Way and its interstellar medium. The fully-processed images and derived catalogs are publicly available.

  3. Rapid oxygenation of Earth’s atmosphere 2.33 billion years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Genming; Ono, Shuhei; Beukes, Nicolas J.; Wang, David T.; Xie, Shucheng; Summons, Roger E.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular oxygen (O2) is, and has been, a primary driver of biological evolution and shapes the contemporary landscape of Earth’s biogeochemical cycles. Although “whiffs” of oxygen have been documented in the Archean atmosphere, substantial O2 did not accumulate irreversibly until the Early Paleoproterozoic, during what has been termed the Great Oxygenation Event (GOE). The timing of the GOE and the rate at which this oxygenation took place have been poorly constrained until now. We report the transition (that is, from being mass-independent to becoming mass-dependent) in multiple sulfur isotope signals of diagenetic pyrite in a continuous sedimentary sequence in three coeval drill cores in the Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa. These data precisely constrain the GOE to 2.33 billion years ago. The new data suggest that the oxygenation occurred rapidly—within 1 to 10 million years—and was followed by a slower rise in the ocean sulfate inventory. Our data indicate that a climate perturbation predated the GOE, whereas the relationships among GOE, “Snowball Earth” glaciation, and biogeochemical cycling will require further stratigraphic correlation supported with precise chronologies and paleolatitude reconstructions. PMID:27386544

  4. Sharing global CO2 emission reductions among one billion high emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Shoibal; Chikkatur, Ananth; de Coninck, Heleen; Pacala, Stephen; Socolow, Robert; Tavoni, Massimo

    2009-07-21

    We present a framework for allocating a global carbon reduction target among nations, in which the concept of "common but differentiated responsibilities" refers to the emissions of individuals instead of nations. We use the income distribution of a country to estimate how its fossil fuel CO(2) emissions are distributed among its citizens, from which we build up a global CO(2) distribution. We then propose a simple rule to derive a universal cap on global individual emissions and find corresponding limits on national aggregate emissions from this cap. All of the world's high CO(2)-emitting individuals are treated the same, regardless of where they live. Any future global emission goal (target and time frame) can be converted into national reduction targets, which are determined by "Business as Usual" projections of national carbon emissions and in-country income distributions. For example, reducing projected global emissions in 2030 by 13 GtCO(2) would require the engagement of 1.13 billion high emitters, roughly equally distributed in 4 regions: the U.S., the OECD minus the U.S., China, and the non-OECD minus China. We also modify our methodology to place a floor on emissions of the world's lowest CO(2) emitters and demonstrate that climate mitigation and alleviation of extreme poverty are largely decoupled.

  5. Large data analysis: automatic visual personal identification in a demography of 1.2 billion persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugman, John

    2014-05-01

    The largest biometric deployment in history is now underway in India, where the Government is enrolling the iris patterns (among other data) of all 1.2 billion citizens. The purpose of the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) is to ensure fair access to welfare benefits and entitlements, to reduce fraud, and enhance social inclusion. Only a minority of Indian citizens have bank accounts; only 4 percent possess passports; and less than half of all aid money reaches its intended recipients. A person who lacks any means of establishing their identity is excluded from entitlements and does not officially exist; thus the slogan of UIDAI is: To give the poor an identity." This ambitious program enrolls a million people every day, across 36,000 stations run by 83 agencies, with a 3-year completion target for the entire national population. The halfway point was recently passed with more than 600 million persons now enrolled. In order to detect and prevent duplicate identities, every iris pattern that is enrolled is first compared against all others enrolled so far; thus the daily workflow now requires 600 trillion (or 600 million-million) iris cross-comparisons. Avoiding identity collisions (False Matches) requires high biometric entropy, and achieving the tremendous match speed requires phase bit coding. Both of these requirements are being delivered operationally by wavelet methods developed by the author for encoding and comparing iris patterns, which will be the focus of this Large Data Award" presentation.

  6. Galaxy evolution. Evidence for mature bulges and an inside-out quenching phase 3 billion years after the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacchella, S; Carollo, C M; Renzini, A; Förster Schreiber, N M; Lang, P; Wuyts, S; Cresci, G; Dekel, A; Genzel, R; Lilly, S J; Mancini, C; Newman, S; Onodera, M; Shapley, A; Tacconi, L; Woo, J; Zamorani, G

    2015-04-17

    Most present-day galaxies with stellar masses ≥10(11) solar masses show no ongoing star formation and are dense spheroids. Ten billion years ago, similarly massive galaxies were typically forming stars at rates of hundreds solar masses per year. It is debated how star formation ceased, on which time scales, and how this "quenching" relates to the emergence of dense spheroids. We measured stellar mass and star-formation rate surface density distributions in star-forming galaxies at redshift 2.2 with ~1-kiloparsec resolution. We find that, in the most massive galaxies, star formation is quenched from the inside out, on time scales less than 1 billion years in the inner regions, up to a few billion years in the outer disks. These galaxies sustain high star-formation activity at large radii, while hosting fully grown and already quenched bulges in their cores. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  8. Failure analysis of clutch disc in a two-ton truck; Análisis de falla del disco de embrague de un camión de 2 ton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Leon Perea Salcedo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the failure analysis of a clutch disc in a two-ton truck. The failure part was made of high-carbon steel for springs. Although the failure surface was very thin and difficult to interpret, the fracture surface examination revealed chevron marks and the presence of faint beach marks. The failure parts were made of hardened 1070 carbon steel. The cushioning plate experienced shear and bending alternating stress. The end failure is caused by shock load.

  9. Failure analysis of clutch disc in a two-ton truck; Análisis de falla del disco de embrague de un camión de 2 ton

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Leon Perea Salcedo

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the failure analysis of a clutch disc in a two-ton truck. The failure part was made of high-carbon steel for springs. Although the failure surface was very thin and difficult to interpret, the fracture surface examination revealed chevron marks and the presence of faint beach marks. The failure parts were made of hardened 1070 carbon steel. The cushioning plate experienced shear and bending alternating stress. The end failure is caused by shock load.

  10. U.S. Air Force Spent Billions on F117 Engine Sustainment Without Knowing What a Fair Price Was

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-11

    reasonable. It states that “the fact that a price is included in a catalog does not, in and of itself, make it fair and reasonable” and further refers ...No. DODIG-2016-059 M A R C H 1 1 , 2 0 1 6 U.S. Air Force Spent Billions on F117 Engine Sustainment Without Knowing What a Fair Price Was FOR...i Results in Brief U.S. Air Force Spent Billions on F117 Engine Sustainment Without Knowing What a Fair Price Was Visit us at www.dodig.mil

  11. Layout finishing of a 28nm, 3 billions transistors, multi-core processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey-Chaisemartin, Philippe; Beisser, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Designing a fully new 256 cores processor is a great challenge for a fabless startup. In addition to all architecture, functionalities and timing issues, the layout by itself is a bottleneck due to all the process constraints of a 28nm technology. As developers of advanced layout finishing solutions, we were involved in the design flow of this huge chip with its 3 billions transistors. We had to face the issue of dummy patterns instantiation with respect to design constraints. All the design rules to generate the "dummies" are clearly defined in the Design Rule Manual, and some automatic procedures are provided by the foundry itself, but these routines don't take care of the designer requests. Such a chip, embeds both digital parts and analog modules for clock and power management. These two different type of designs have each their own set of constraints. In both cases, the insertion of dummies should not introduce unexpected variations leading to malfunctions. For example, on digital parts were signal race conditions are critical on long wires or bus, introduction of uncontrolled parasitic along these nets are highly critical. For analog devices such as high frequency and high sensitivity comparators, the exact symmetry of the two parts of a current mirror generator should be guaranteed. Thanks to the easily customizable features of our dummies insertion tool, we were able to configure it in order to meet all the designer requirements as well as the process constraints. This paper will present all these advanced key features as well as the layout tricks used to fulfill all requirements.

  12. No Photon Left Behind: How Billions of Spectral Lines are Transforming Planetary Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Geronimo L.

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of realistic potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment surface (DMS) descriptions, theoretically computed linelists can now synthesize accurate spectral parameters for billions of spectral lines sampling the untamed high-energy molecular domain. Being the initial driver for these databases the characterization of stellar spectra, these theoretical databases, in combination with decades of precise experimental studies (nicely compiled in community databases such as HITRAN and GEISA), are leading to unprecedented precisions in the characterization of planetary atmospheres. Cometary sciences are among the most affected by this spectroscopic revolution. Even though comets are relatively cold bodies (T˜100 K), their infrared molecular emission is mainly defined by non-LTE solar fluorescence induced by a high-energy source (Sun, T˜5600 K). In order to interpret high-resolution spectra of comets acquired with extremely powerful telescopes (e.g., Keck, VLT, NASA-IRTF), we have developed advanced non-LTE fluorescence models that integrate the high-energy dynamic range of ab-initio databases (e.g., BT2, VTT, HPT2, BYTe, TROVE) and the precision of laboratory and semi-empirical compilations (e.g., HITRAN, GEISA, CDMS, WKMC, SELP, IUPAC). These new models allow us to calculate realistic non-LTE pumps, cascades, branching-ratios, and emission rates for a broad range of excitation regimes for H2O, HDO, HCN, HNC and NH3. We have implemented elements of these compilations to the study of Mars spectra, and we are now exploring its application to modeling non-LTE emission in exoplanets. In this presentation, we present application of these advanced models to interpret highresolution spectra of comets, Mars and exoplanets.

  13. Measured performance of a 3 ton LiBr absorption water chiller and its effect on cooling system operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A three ton lithium bromide absorption water chiller was tested for a number of conditions involving hot water input, chilled water, and the cooling water. The primary influences on chiller capacity were the hot water inlet temperature and the cooling water inlet temperature. One combination of these two parameters extended the output to as much as 125% of design capacity, but no combination could lower the capacity to below 60% of design. A cooling system was conceptually designed so that it could provide several modes of operation. Such flexibility is needed for any solar cooling system to be able to accommodate the varying solar energy collection and the varying building demand. It was concluded that a three-ton absorption water chiller with the kind of performance that was measured can be incorporated into a cooling system such as that proposed, to provide efficient cooling over the specified ranges of operating conditions.

  14. Measured performance of a 3-ton LiBr absorption water chiller and its effect on cooling system operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 3-ton lithium bromide absorption water chiller was tested for a number of conditions involving hot-water input, chilled water, and the cooling water. The primary influences on chiller capacity were the hot water inlet temperature and the cooling water inlet temperature. One combination of these two parameters extended the output to as much as 125% of design capacity, but no combination could lower the capacity to below 60% of design. A cooling system was conceptually designed so that it could provide several modes of operation. Such flexibility is needed for any solar cooling system to be able to accommodate the varying solar energy collection and the varying building demand. It is concluded that a 3-ton absorption water chiller with the kind of performance that was measured can be incorporated into a cooling system such as that proposed, to provide efficient cooling over the specified ranges of operating conditions.

  15. Caractérisation d'un béton autoplaçant avec addition de laitier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DK

    Le renforcement du béton par les fibres métalliques, synthétiques ou un système hybride, est une démarche classique. .... traction traduisant plutôt un comportement fragile ; la loi de comportement est linéaire. Tableau 3. Caractéristiques des fibres. Type de fibre. Polypropylène. Diss ..... nulé et de la poudre de verre.

  16. 50 CFR Table 1a to Part 660... - 2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 1a Table 1a to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Subpart C—2009, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) ER01OC10...

  17. 50 CFR Table 2a to Part 660... - 2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., by Management Area (weights in metric tons) 2a Table 2a to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Subpart C—2010, Specifications of ABCs, OYs, and HGs, by Management Area (weights in metric tons) ER01OC10...

  18. Assessment of Reusing 14-Ton, Thin-Wall, Depleted UF6 Cylinders as LLW Disposal Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, D.G.; Poole, A.B.; Shelton, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    of 48 inches and nominally contain 14 tons (12.7 MT) of DUF 6 , were originally designed and fabricated for temporary storage of DUF 6 . They were fabricated from pressure-vessel-grade steels according to the provisions of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Cylinders are stored in open yards at the three sites and, due to historical storage techniques, were subject to corrosion. Roughly 10,000 of the 14TTW cylinders are considered substandard due to corrosion and other structural anomalies caused by mishandling. This means that approximately 40,000 14TTW cylinders could be made available as containers for LLW disposal In order to demonstrate the use of 14TTW cylinders as LLW disposal containers, several qualifying tasks need to be performed. Two demonstrations are being considered using 14TTW cylinders--one demonstration using contaminated soil and one demonstration using U 3 O 8 . The objective of this report are to determine how much information is known that could be used to support the demonstrations, and how much additional work will need to be done in order to conduct the demonstrations. Information associated with the following four qualifying tasks are evaluated in this report

  19. 77 FR 15052 - Dataset Workshop-U.S. Billion Dollar Disasters Dataset (1980-2011): Assessing Dataset Strengths...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    .... Pathways to overcome accuracy and bias issues will be an important focus. Participants will consider: Historical development and current state of the U.S. Billion Dollar Disasters Report; What additional data... dataset; Examination of unique uncertainties related to the cost of each of the major types of weather and...

  20. Constraint on a Varying Proton-Electron Mass Ratio 1.5 Billion Years after the Big Bang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagdonaite, J.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Murphy, M.T.; Withmore, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    A molecular hydrogen absorber at a lookback time of 12.4 billion years, corresponding to 10% of the age of the Universe today, is analyzed to put a constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio, μ. A high resolution spectrum of the J1443+2724 quasar, which was observed with the Very Large

  1. Growth of consumer-directed health plans to one-half of all employer-sponsored insurance could save $57 billion annually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, Amelia M; Marquis, M Susan; McDevitt, Roland D; Sood, Neeraj

    2012-05-01

    Enrollment is increasing in consumer-directed health insurance plans, which feature high deductibles and a personal health care savings account. We project that an increase in market share of these plans--from the current level of 13 percent of employer-sponsored insurance to 50 percent--could reduce annual health care spending by about $57 billion. That decrease would be the equivalent of a 4 percent decline in total health care spending for the nonelderly. However, such growth in consumer-directed plan enrollment also has the potential to reduce the use of recommended health care services, as well as to increase premiums for traditional health insurance plans, as healthier individuals drop traditional coverage and enroll in consumer-directed plans. In this article we explore options that policy makers and employers facing these challenges should consider, including more refined plan designs and decision support systems to promote recommended services.

  2. Subsampled open-reference clustering creates consistent, comprehensive OTU definitions and scales to billions of sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Ram Rideout

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a performance-optimized algorithm, subsampled open-reference OTU picking, for assigning marker gene (e.g., 16S rRNA sequences generated on next-generation sequencing platforms to operational taxonomic units (OTUs for microbial community analysis. This algorithm provides benefits over de novo OTU picking (clustering can be performed largely in parallel, reducing runtime and closed-reference OTU picking (all reads are clustered, not only those that match a reference database sequence with high similarity. Because more of our algorithm can be run in parallel relative to “classic” open-reference OTU picking, it makes open-reference OTU picking tractable on massive amplicon sequence data sets (though on smaller data sets, “classic” open-reference OTU clustering is often faster. We illustrate that here by applying it to the first 15,000 samples sequenced for the Earth Microbiome Project (1.3 billion V4 16S rRNA amplicons. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest OTU picking run ever performed, and we estimate that our new algorithm runs in less than 1/5 the time than would be required of “classic” open reference OTU picking. We show that subsampled open-reference OTU picking yields results that are highly correlated with those generated by “classic” open-reference OTU picking through comparisons on three well-studied datasets. An implementation of this algorithm is provided in the popular QIIME software package, which uses uclust for read clustering. All analyses were performed using QIIME’s uclust wrappers, though we provide details (aided by the open-source code in our GitHub repository that will allow implementation of subsampled open-reference OTU picking independently of QIIME (e.g., in a compiled programming language, where runtimes should be further reduced. Our analyses should generalize to other implementations of these OTU picking algorithms. Finally, we present a comparison of parameter settings in

  3. The Other Inconvenient Truth: Feeding 9 Billion While Sustaining the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    As the international community focuses on climate change as the great challenge of our era, we have been largely ignoring another looming problem — the global crisis in agriculture, food security and the environment. Our use of land, particularly for agriculture, is absolutely essential to the success of the human race: we depend on agriculture to supply us with food, feed, fiber, and, increasingly, biofuels. Without a highly efficient, productive, and resilient agricultural system, our society would collapse almost overnight. But we are demanding more and more from our global agricultural systems, pushing them to their very limits. Continued population growth (adding more than 70 million people to the world every year), changing dietary preferences (including more meat and dairy consumption), rising energy prices, and increasing needs for bioenergy sources are putting tremendous pressure on the world’s resources. And, if we want any hope of keeping up with these demands, we’ll need to double the agricultural production of the planet in the next 30 to 40 years. Meeting these huge new agricultural demands will be one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. At present, it is completely unclear how (and if) we can do it. If this wasn’t enough, we must also address the massive environmental impacts of our current agricultural practices, which new evidence indicates rival the impacts of climate change. Simply put, providing for the basic needs of 9 billion-plus people, without ruining the biosphere in the process, will be one of the greatest challenges our species has ever faced. In this presentation, I will present a new framework for evaluating and assessing global patterns of agriculture, food / fiber / fuel production, and their relationship to the earth system, particularly in terms of changing stocks and flows of water, nutrients and carbon in our planetary environment. This framework aims to help us manage the challenges of increasing global food

  4. Four billion years of ophiolites reveal secular trends in oceanic crust formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Furnes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We combine a geological, geochemical and tectonic dataset from 118 ophiolite complexes of the major global Phanerozoic orogenic belts with similar datasets of ophiolites from 111 Precambrian greenstone belts to construct an overview of oceanic crust generation over 4 billion years. Geochemical discrimination systematics built on immobile trace elements reveal that the basaltic units of the Phanerozoic ophiolites are dominantly subduction-related (75%, linked to backarc processes and characterized by a strong MORB component, similar to ophiolites in Precambrian greenstone sequences (85%. The remaining 25% Phanerozoic subduction-unrelated ophiolites are mainly (74% of Mid-Ocean-Ridge type (MORB type, in contrast to the equal proportion of Rift/Continental Margin, Plume, and MORB type ophiolites in the Precambrian greenstone belts. Throughout the Phanerozoic there are large geochemical variations in major and trace elements, but for average element values calculated in 5 bins of 100 million year intervals there are no obvious secular trends. By contrast, basaltic units in the ophiolites of the Precambrian greenstones (calculated in 12 bins of 250 million years intervals, starting in late Paleo- to early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 2.0–1.8 Ga, exhibit an apparent decrease in the average values of incompatible elements such as Ti, P, Zr, Y and Nb, and an increase in the compatible elements Ni and Cr with deeper time to the end of the Archean and into the Hadean. These changes can be attributed to decreasing degrees of partial melting of the upper mantle from Hadean/Archean to Present. The onset of geochemical changes coincide with the timing of detectible changes in the structural architecture of the ophiolites such as greater volumes of gabbro and more common sheeted dyke complexes, and lesser occurrences of ocelli (varioles in the pillow lavas in ophiolites younger than 2 Ga. The global data from the Precambrian ophiolites, representative of nearly 50

  5. High accuracy for China's 1990 Census: refuting a rumour about China's population topping 1.4 billion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    In response to newspaper reports that China's population had topped 1.4 billion, a spokesman from the Office of Population Census under the State Council issued a statement refuting the claim, pointing out that the highly accurate 1990 census estimates the population to be 1.13 billion. US newspapers, including the Boston Globe, and the Shijie ribao, a international daily in Chinese, recently cited reports from a Japanese newspaper claiming that China's population had exceeded 1.4 billion. But as the official explained, China has carefully monitored its population size. Every year since 1982, the country has carried out a sample survey on population change, and in 1988, it conducted a national 1% population sample survey on fertility and birth control. In 1982, a national census placed China's population at 1.0817 billion. So considering that the sample surveys over the past 8 years have indicated an annual net increase in population of about 17 million, it is impossible for China's population to have topped 1.4 billion. Furthermore, the 1990 census enumerated all the unplanned births not previously registered, and carefully monitored for possible underreporting for the floating population. 2 general checks for people without fixed living quarters took place on June 28 and 29. And on July 8 and 9, officials conducted a national make-up registration. Enumerators visited and registered floating persons who did have fixed living quarters. Furthermore, officials conducted a follow-up sample survey on the quality of the registration. This showed that the rate of underregistration in the 1990 census was 0.6/1000 population--a figure of 680,000 nationally.

  6. Tonometer calibration in Brasília, Brazil Calibragem de tonômetros em Brasília, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pires da Silva Abrão

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine calibration errors of Goldmann applanation tonometers in ophthalmic clinics of Brasília, Brazil, and correlate the findings with variables related to tonometers model and utilization. METHODS: Tonometers from ophthalmic clinics in Brasília, Brazil, were checked for calibration errors. A standard Goldmann applanation tonometer checking tool was used to asses the calibration error. Only one trained individual made all verifications, with a masked reading of the results. Data on the model, age, daily use, frequency of calibration checking and the nature of the ophthalmic department - private or public - were collected and correlated with the observed errors. RESULTS: One hundred tonometers were checked for calibration. Forty seven percent (47/100 were out of 1 mmHg range at least at one point checking. Tonometers mounted to slit lamp, with less than 5 years, used in less than 20 patients daily, that had a calibration check on a yearly basis, and those from private office exhibit a lower rate of inaccuracy, but only the first variable was statistically significant. Sixty one percent of tonometers on public hospitals were out of calibration. CONCLUSION: Calibration of tonometers in the capital of Brazil is poor; those from general hospitals are worst, and this fact can lead to inaccurate detection and assessment of glaucoma patients, overall in the population under government assistance.OBJETIVOS: Determinar os erros de calibração dos tonômetros de aplanação de Goldmann em clínicas oftalmológicas de Brasília, Brasil, e correlacioná-los a variáveis relativas ao modelo e à utilização dos aparelhos. MÉTODOS: Tonômetros de clínicas oftalmológicas de Brasília tiveram a calibragem aferida usando um cilindro padrão fornecido pelo fabricante dos aparelhos. Todas as aferições foram realizadas por um só examinador previamente treinado e a leitura das medidas foi mascarada por um observador independente. As medidas

  7. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 -- a fee levied on electricity generated in commercial nuclear power plants -- is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans contained in the DOE's Draft 1988 Mission Plan Amendment. The total-system cost for the system with a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $24 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $31 to $33 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel to be disposed of. The $7 billion cost savings for the single-repository system in comparison with the two-repository system is due to the elimination of $3 billion for second-repository development and $7 billion for the second-repository facility. These savings are offset by $2 billion in additional costs at the first repository and $1 billion in combined higher costs for the MRS facility and transportation. 55 refs., 2 figs., 24 tabs

  8. Areva revenue growth in the first quarter of 2010: 8.4% like-for-like, i.e. 1.936 billion euros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The group's first quarter 2010 consolidated revenue rose 6.5% to 1.936 billion euros (+8.4% LFL) compared with the first quarter of 2009. Growth was driven by the Reactors and Services Business Group (+18.0% LFL). Revenue from exports was up 16.6% to 1.089 billion euros, representing 56.2% of total revenue. Foreign exchange had a negative impact of 26 million euros. Changes in consolidation scope were negligible during the period. The group's backlog of 43.6 billion euros at March 31, 2010 was stable in relation to December 31, 2009. Growth in the backlog of the Reactors and Services Business Group helped offset the drawdown of the backlog in the Back End Business Group as contracts were completed. For the full year of 2010, the group confirms its outlook for significant backlog and revenue growth, rising operating income, and a strong increase in net income attributable to owners of the parent. Mining/Front End Business Group: The Mining/Front End BG reported first quarter 2010 revenue of 674 million euros, which was stable on a reported basis and up 3.5% LFL1. Foreign exchange had a negative impact of 16 million euros. - In Mining, quarterly revenue was driven by volume growth due to a favorable delivery schedule. - In Enrichment and Fuel, volumes were down compared with the first quarter of 2009, particularly due to time-lag in customer deliveries. Reactors and Services Business Group: Revenue for the Reactors and Services BG was up 16.4% in the first quarter of 2010 (up 18.0% LFL1), to 775 million euros. Foreign exchange had a negative impact of 10 million euros. - The New Builds Business reported strong growth due to significant progress on major reactor construction projects, particularly Taishan in China. - Installed Base Business was also up due to buoyant engineering operations, particularly in Germany, and to the more favorable seasonality of unit outage campaigns than in the first quarter of 2009. Back End Business Group: First quarter 2010 revenue for

  9. The 2011-2015 physical and monetary balance for electricity: spending of over euro 50 billion in 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggemos, Fabien; Meilhac, Christophe; Riedinger, Nicolas; Martial, Elodie; Mombel, David; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Lavail, Jennyfer

    2017-09-01

    Electricity consumers (excluding the electricity sector itself) spent euro 52 billion in 2015 to consume 446 TWh. Taxes accounted for 27% of that expenditure (of which around one-half contributed to financing renewable sources of electricity and to geographical price adjustments), the cost of transmission 27%, and that of supply (including production and sales) 46%. Trade with other countries showed a positive balance of euro 2.3 billion. The residential sector was the main consuming sector, accounting for 35% of physical deliveries. Given the transmission and sales costs, higher on average for households than for businesses, the residential sector accounted for a greater proportion of the spending (48%). Conversely, industry accounted for 24% of physical consumption but only 15% of spending. The share of the services sector was around one-third, in both physical-unit and monetary terms

  10. Caractérisation d'un béton autoplaçant avec addition de laitier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En effet, les fibres végétales se caractérisent par un pouvoir d'absorption d'eau important et leur contour n'est pas lisse comme celui des fibres de polypropylène, il présente généralement des aspérités et une rugosité. Cet état de surface a des effets contradictoires : il entraîne une légère diminution de la fluidité du béton ...

  11. 1.8 Billion Years of Detrital Zircon Recycling Calibrates a Refractory Part of Earth?s Sedimentary Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Hadlari, Thomas; Swindles, Graeme T.; Galloway, Jennifer M.; Bell, Kimberley M.; Sulphur, Kyle C.; Heaman, Larry M.; Beranek, Luke P.; Fallas, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    Detrital zircon studies are providing new insights on the evolution of sedimentary basins but the role of sedimentary recycling remains largely undefined. In a broad region of northwestern North America, this contribution traces the pathway of detrital zircon sand grains from Proterozoic sandstones through Phanerozoic strata and argues for multi-stage sedimentary recycling over more than a billion years. As a test of our hypothesis, integrated palynology and detrital zircon provenance provide...

  12. THE SOUTHERN FRAGMENT OF THE SIBERIAN CRATON: “LANDSCAPE” HISTORY OVER TWO BILLION YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkady M. Stanevich

    2010-01-01

    background of sub-continental sedimentation. In the Late Paleozoic, the geologic development was marked by major transformation of the pattern of tectonic structures, that was most likely related to inside-plate extension and thinning of the continental crust. In the Mid and Late Carbon (Fig. 4A, the integrated Tungusskiy sedimentation basin was formed as a result of continuous and uniform bending. In the Early Permian (see Fig. 4Б, positive tectonic movements led to significant dewatering of the Paleozoic basins, so that they turned into a washed-out area. Overall raising of the Siberian Platform preconditioned climate changes, such as aridization and climate cooling. In the Mesozoic, landscapes were presented by a combination of flat uplands, wide river valleys with swampy plains and lakes wherein carbonous sediments were accumulated. Basic volcanism with shield eruptions and sub-volcanic rocks was typical then. In the Jurassic (see Fig. 4B, elements observed in the recent topography of the Siberian Platform were formed. In that period, major structural transformation occurred in association with the largest diastrophic cycles in the territory of the Eastern Asia, including formation of the Baikal rift and its branches.From the analyses of the available data which are briefly presented above, it is obvious that the period of two billion years in the Earth history includes numerous epochs of diastrophic processes of tremendous destructive capacity. Unconformities of formations differing in ages by millions and even hundreds of million years, as those dating back to the Pre-Cambrian, suggest quite realistic yet astounding visions. At the background of scenarios of floods, rock up-thrusts, volcanic explosions and earthquakes evidenced from the very remote past, the current geological and climatic phenomena may seem quite trivial.

  13. Fiscal 1987 nuclear budget request amounts to 366 billion yen; increased 2.7 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The 1987 budget request was submitted to the Ministry of Finance by the end of August, 1986. Of the total, the nuclear budget request made by eight ministries and agencies totaled 366,896 million yen, 2.7 % increase over the previous year, which consists of 184,715 million yen in the general account, 0.6 % down, and 182,180 million yen in the special account for power resource development, 6.3 % up. The increase rate was kept at a low level in consideration of the tight government financial condition. The request was approved on September 9 by the Atomic Energy Commission, which is responsible for securing the budget for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The government draft budget is expected to be finalized by the end of 1986 on the basis of the draft of the Ministry of Finance. The Science and Technology Agency request is 277,934 million yen, 1.0 % increase, and the project costs for Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. account for its 88.3 %. The 1987 nuclear budget request by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry is mostly on the special account for power resource siting and power resource diversification, totaling 88,400 million yen. (Kako, I.)

  14. Transportability Testing of the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) 10-Ton Dump Truck, TP-94-01, Rev. 2, June 2004, "Transportability Testing Procedures"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barickman, Philip W

    2007-01-01

    ... (FMTV) 10-ton dump truck manufactured by Stewart and Stevenson Systems, Inc., Sealy, Texas. The testing was conducted in accordance with TP-94-01, Revision 2, June 2004 "Transportability Testing Procedures...

  15. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Marcus; Lebreton, Laurent C M; Carson, Henry S; Thiel, Martin; Moore, Charles J; Borerro, Jose C; Galgani, Francois; Ryan, Peter G; Reisser, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007-2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891). Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove plastic particles from the ocean surface.

  16. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Eriksen

    Full Text Available Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007-2013 across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680 and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891. Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove <4.75 mm plastic particles from the ocean surface.

  17. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Marcus; Lebreton, Laurent C. M.; Carson, Henry S.; Thiel, Martin; Moore, Charles J.; Borerro, Jose C.; Galgani, Francois; Ryan, Peter G.; Reisser, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007–2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891). Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove plastic particles from the ocean surface. PMID:25494041

  18. Un nouveau béton auto-cicatrisant grâce à l’incorporation de bactéries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiktor, V.; Jonkers, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    La formation d’un réseau continu de fissures contribue à l’augmentation de la perméabilité du béton, réduisant ainsi de manière importante sa résistance à l’attaque d’agents agressifs dissous dans l’eau. Afin d’augmenter la capacité de cicatrisation autogène du béton, certains agents cicatrisants

  19. LLNL's Big Science Capabilities Help Spur Over $796 Billion in U.S. Economic Activity Sequencing the Human Genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Jeffrey S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-28

    LLNL’s successful history of taking on big science projects spans beyond national security and has helped create billions of dollars per year in new economic activity. One example is LLNL’s role in helping sequence the human genome. Over $796 billion in new economic activity in over half a dozen fields has been documented since LLNL successfully completed this Grand Challenge.

  20. Hypertonic-induced lamin A/C synthesis and distribution to nucleoplasmic speckles is mediated by TonEBP/NFAT5 transcriptional activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favale, Nicolas O.; Sterin Speziale, Norma B.; Fernandez Tome, Maria C.

    2007-01-01

    Lamin A/C is the most studied nucleoskeletal constituent. Lamin A/C expression indicates cell differentiation and is also a structural component of nuclear speckles, which are involved in gene expression regulation. Hypertonicity has been reported to induce renal epithelial cell differentiation and expression of TonEBP (NFAT5), a transcriptional activator of hypertonicity-induced gene transcription. In this paper, we investigate the effect of hypertonicity on lamin A/C expression in MDCK cells and the involvement of TonEBP. Hypertonicity increased lamin A/C expression and its distribution to nucleoplasm with speckled pattern. Microscopy showed codistribution of TonEBP and lamin A/C in nucleoplasmic speckles, and immunoprecipitation demonstrated their interaction. TonEBP silencing caused lamin A/C redistribution from nucleoplasmic speckles to the nuclear rim, followed by lamin decrease, thus showing that hypertonicity induces lamin A/C speckles through a TonEBP-dependent mechanism. We suggest that lamin A/C speckles could serve TonEBP as scaffold thus favoring its role in hypertonicity

  1. Dark Matter Results from 54-Ton-Day Exposure of PandaX-II Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiangyi; Abdukerim, Abdusalam; Chen, Wei; Chen, Xun; Chen, Yunhua; Dong, Binbin; Fang, Deqing; Fu, Changbo; Giboni, Karl; Giuliani, Franco; Gu, Linhui; Gu, Yikun; Guo, Xuyuan; Guo, Zhifan; Han, Ke; He, Changda; Huang, Di; He, Shengming; Huang, Xingtao; Huang, Zhou; Ji, Xiangdong; Ju, Yonglin; Li, Shaoli; Li, Yao; Lin, Heng; Liu, Huaxuan; Liu, Jianglai; Ma, Yugang; Mao, Yajun; Ni, Kaixiang; Ning, Jinhua; Ren, Xiangxiang; Shi, Fang; Tan, Andi; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Meng; Wang, Qiuhong; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Xiuli; Wang, Xuming; Wu, Qinyu; Wu, Shiyong; Xiao, Mengjiao; Xie, Pengwei; Yan, Binbin; Yang, Yong; Yue, Jianfeng; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Hongguang; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Tianqi; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Jifang; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Xiaopeng

    2017-11-03

    We report a new search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) using the combined low background data sets acquired in 2016 and 2017 from the PandaX-II experiment in China. The latest data set contains a new exposure of 77.1 live days, with the background reduced to a level of 0.8×10^{-3}  evt/kg/day, improved by a factor of 2.5 in comparison to the previous run in 2016. No excess events are found above the expected background. With a total exposure of 5.4×10^{4}  kg day, the most stringent upper limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section is set for a WIMP with mass larger than 100  GeV/c^{2}, with the lowest 90% C.L. exclusion at 8.6×10^{-47}  cm^{2} at 40  GeV/c^{2}.

  2. Unlocking the EUR53 billion savings from smart meters in the EU. How increasing the adoption of dynamic tariffs could make or break the EU's smart grid investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruqui, Ahmad; Hledik, Ryan; Harris, Dan

    2010-01-01

    We estimate the cost of installing smart meters in the EU to be EUR51 billion, and that operational savings will be worth between EUR26 and 41 billion, leaving a gap of EUR10-25 billion between benefits and costs. Smart meters can fill this gap because they enable the provision of dynamic pricing, which reduces peak demand and lowers the need for building and running expensive peaking power plants. The present value of savings in peaking infrastructure could be as high as EUR67 billion for the EU if policy-makers can overcome barriers to consumers adopting dynamic tariffs, but only EUR14 billion otherwise. We outline a number of ways to increase the adoption of dynamic tariffs. (author)

  3. Molecular dynamics beyonds the limits: Massive scaling on 72 racks of a BlueGene/P and supercooled glass dynamics of a 1 billion particles system

    KAUST Repository

    Allsopp, Nicholas

    2012-04-01

    We report scaling results on the world\\'s largest supercomputer of our recently developed Billions-Body Molecular Dynamics (BBMD) package, which was especially designed for massively parallel simulations of the short-range atomic dynamics in structural glasses and amorphous materials. The code was able to scale up to 72 racks of an IBM BlueGene/P, with a measured 89% efficiency for a system with 100 billion particles. The code speed, with 0.13. s per iteration in the case of 1 billion particles, paves the way to the study of billion-body structural glasses with a resolution increase of two orders of magnitude with respect to the largest simulation ever reported. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our code by studying the liquid-glass transition of an exceptionally large system made by a binary mixture of 1 billion particles. © 2012.

  4. Areva - First quarter 2009 revenue climbs 8.5% to 3.003 billion euros; Areva - Progression du chiffre d'affaires du 1. trimestre 2009: + 8,5% a 3003 millions d'euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    First quarter 2009 revenue was up 8.5% compared with the same period last year, to 3.003 billion euros. At constant exchange rates and consolidation scope, growth came to 3.9%. Currency translation had a positive impact of 57 million euros over the quarter. Changes in the consolidation scope had an impact of 66 million euros, primarily due to the consolidation of acquisitions made in 2008 in Transmission and Distribution and in Renewable Energies. The growth engines for first quarter revenue were the Reactors and Services division and the Transmission and Distribution division, with growth of 9.2% and 16.1% respectively. Outside France, revenue rose to 2.032 billion euros, compared with 1.857 billion euros in the first quarter of 2008, and represents 68% of total revenue. Orders were steady in the first quarter, particularly in the Front End, which posted several significant contracts with US and Asian utilities, and in Transmission and Distribution, with orders up sharply in Asia and South America. As of March 31, 2009, the group's backlog reached 49.5 billion euros, for 28.3% growth year-on-year, including 31.3% growth in Nuclear and 10.2% in Transmission and Distribution. For the year as a whole, the group confirms its outlook for backlog and revenue growth as well as rising operating income It should be noted that revenue may vary significantly from one quarter to the next in nuclear operations. Accordingly, quarterly data cannot be viewed as a reliable indicator of annual trends.

  5. Strong backlog growth of 22.3% compared to September 30, 2008. Strong third quarter revenue growth of 7.8%, bringing sales for the first nine months of 2009 to 9.7 billion, or +6.4%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    AREVA generated consolidated revenue of 9.686 billion euros over the first nine months of 2009 for growth of 6.4% (+4.0% like-for-like) compared with the same period in 2008. Revenue outside France was up 8.4% to 6.999 billion euros, representing 72% of total revenue. The main revenue growth engines were the Front End division and the Transmission and Distribution division, with growth of 7.6% and 12.4% respectively. Foreign exchange had a positive impact of 91 million euros. Changes in the consolidation scope had an impact of 117 million euros, corresponding to the consolidation of acquisitions made by AREVA TA and the Transmission and Distribution division in 2008 and 2009. Third quarter 2009 revenue rose 7.8% to 3.164 billion euros (+6.7% like-for-like) compared with the third quarter of 2008. Changes in the consolidation scope had a positive impact of 31 million euros. The foreign exchange impact was minimal for the period. Quarterly growth was fueled mostly by the Front End division (+13.7%), the Back End division (+7.1%) and the Transmission and Distribution division (+8.4%). The group's backlog stood at 47.5 billion euros as of September 30, 2009 for 22.3% growth year-on-year. The backlog is up 27.4% in Nuclear and down 5.6% in Transmission and Distribution. For 2009 as a whole, the group confirms its outlook, based on the consolidation scope as of June 30, 2009, for a strong growth in backlog and in revenue and operating income close to that of the financial year 2008

  6. Operational Efficiencies and Simulated Performance of Big Data Analytics Platform over Billions of Patient Records of a Hospital System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillon Chrimes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Big Data Analytics (BDA is important to utilize data from hospital systems to reduce healthcare costs. BDA enable queries of large volumes of patient data in an interactively dynamic way for healthcare. The study objective was high performance establishment of interactive BDA platform of hospital system. A Hadoop/MapReduce framework was established at University of Victoria (UVic with Compute Canada/Westgrid to form a Healthcare BDA (HBDA platform with HBase (NoSQL database using hospital-specific metadata and file ingestion. Patient data profiles and clinical workflow derived from Vancouver Island Health Authority (VIHA, Victoria, BC, Canada. The proof-of-concept implementation tested patient data representative of the entire Provincial hospital systems. We cross-referenced all data profiles and metadata with real patient data used in clinical reporting. Query performance tested Apache tools in Hadoop’s ecosystem. At optimized iteration, Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS ingestion required three seconds but HBase required four to twelve hours to complete the Reducer of MapReduce. HBase bulkloads took a week for one billion (10TB and over two months for three billion (30TB. Simple and complex query results showed about two seconds for one and three billion, respectively. Apache Drill outperformed Apache Spark. However, it was restricted to running more simplified queries with poor usability for healthcare. Jupyter on Spark offered high performance and customization to run all queries simultaneously with high usability. BDA platform of HBase distributed over Hadoop successfully; however, some inconsistencies of MapReduce limited operational efficiencies. Importance of Hadoop/MapReduce on representation of platform performance discussed.

  7. 'Energy death' - is it to be the fate of half a billion men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, M.

    1984-07-06

    The 46 developing countries which rely mainly on imported petrolium (at least 80% of the commercial primary energy consumption) are analyzed. The analysis shows a) that petroleum consumption is decreasing in these countries to an extent that threatens their further development and b) that this decrease cannot be made up for by increased consumption of alternative energy sources, at least not until the end of the century. The following consequences must be expected. Destabilisation until these states cease to exist; rapid deforestation followed by erosion and desertification, and food shortage beyond imagination. By the end of the century, half a billion men will be forced to leave their homes.

  8. 1.8 Billion Years of Detrital Zircon Recycling Calibrates a Refractory Part of Earth's Sedimentary Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlari, Thomas; Swindles, Graeme T; Galloway, Jennifer M; Bell, Kimberley M; Sulphur, Kyle C; Heaman, Larry M; Beranek, Luke P; Fallas, Karen M

    2015-01-01

    Detrital zircon studies are providing new insights on the evolution of sedimentary basins but the role of sedimentary recycling remains largely undefined. In a broad region of northwestern North America, this contribution traces the pathway of detrital zircon sand grains from Proterozoic sandstones through Phanerozoic strata and argues for multi-stage sedimentary recycling over more than a billion years. As a test of our hypothesis, integrated palynology and detrital zircon provenance provides clear evidence for erosion of Carboniferous strata in the northern Cordillera as a sediment source for Upper Cretaceous strata. Our results help to calibrate Earth's sedimentary cycle by showing that recycling dominates sedimentary provenance for the refractory mineral zircon.

  9. Three-Dimensional Simulation of Macrosegregation in a 36-Ton Steel Ingot Using a Multicomponent Multiphase Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wutao; Duan, Zhenhu; Shen, Bingzhen; Shen, Houfa; Liu, Baicheng

    2016-12-01

    A multicomponent multiphase solidification model has been developed to predict macrosegregation of steel ingots in three dimensions. The interpenetrating continua of liquid melt and solid grains is coupled with air for the mass, momentum, concentration, and heat transfer. Interfacial solute constraint relationships are derived to close the model by solving the solidification paths of multicomponent alloy. The upward unidirectional solidification case of a ternary Al-6.0 wt.%Cu-1.0 wt.%Si alloy is taken as a basic validation. Predictions have well captured the inverse segregation profiles induced by shrinkage during solidification. Then, the model is applied to a 36-ton steel ingot, which was experimentally investigated by temperature recording and concentration analysis. Predictions have reproduced the macrosegregation patterns in the measurements. Confidence levels of current predictions compared to the concentration measurements have been presented. General good agreements are exhibited in quantitative comparisons between measurements and predictions of carbon and sulfur variations along selected positions.

  10. arXiv Photon detector system performance in the DUNE 35-ton prototype liquid argon time projection chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D.L.; Anderson, J.T.; Bagby, L.; Baird, M.; Barr, G.; Barros, N.; Biery, K.; Blake, A.; Blaufuss, E.; Boone, T.; Booth, A.; Brailsford, D.; Buchanan, N.; Chatterjee, A.; Convery, M.; Davies, J.; Dealtry, T.; DeLurgio, P.; Deuerling, G.; Dharmapalan, R.; Djurcic, Z.; Drake, G.; Eberly, B.; Freeman, J.; Glavin, S.; Gomes, R.A.; Goodman, M.C.; Graham, M.; Hahn, A.; Haigh, J.T.; Hartnell, J.; Higuera, A.; Himmel, A.; Insler, J.; Jacobsen, J.; Junk, T.; Kirby, B.; Klein, J.; Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Kutter, T.; Li, Y.; Li, X.; Lin, S.; Martin-Albo, J.; McConkey, N.; Moura, C.A.; Mufson, S.; Nicholls, T.C.; Nowak, J.; Oberling, M.; Paley, J.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J.L.; Rivera, D.; Santucci, G.; Sinev, G.; Spooner, N.J. C.; Stancari, M.; Stancu, I.; Stefan, D.; Stewart, J.; Stock, J.; Strauss, T.; Sulej, R.; Sun, Y.; Thiesse, M.; Thompson, L.F.; Tsai, Y.T.; Wallbank, M.; Warburton, T.K.; Warner, D.; Whittington, D.; Wilson, R.J.; Worcester, M.; Worcester, E.; Yang, T.; Zhang, C.

    The 35-ton prototype for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment far detector was a single-phase liquid argon time projection chamber with an integrated photon detector system, all situated inside a membrane cryostat. The detector took cosmic-ray data for six weeks during the period of February 1, 2016 to March 12, 2016. The performance of the photon detection system was checked with these data. An installed photon detector was demonstrated to measure the arrival times of cosmic-ray muons with a resolution better than 32 ns, limited by the timing of the trigger system. A measurement of the timing resolution using closely-spaced calibration pulses yielded a resolution of 15 ns for pulses at a level of 6 photo-electrons. Scintillation light from cosmic-ray muons was observed to be attenuated with increasing distance with a characteristic length of $155 \\pm 28$ cm.

  11. An ultraluminous quasar with a twelve-billion-solar-mass black hole at redshift 6.30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Wang, Feige; Fan, Xiaohui; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Thompson, David; Beletsky, Yuri

    2015-02-26

    So far, roughly 40 quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 have been discovered. Each quasar contains a black hole with a mass of about one billion solar masses (10(9) M Sun symbol). The existence of such black holes when the Universe was less than one billion years old presents substantial challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the coevolution of black holes and galaxies. Here we report the discovery of an ultraluminous quasar, SDSS J010013.02+280225.8, at redshift z = 6.30. It has an optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z > 6 quasars. On the basis of the deep absorption trough on the blue side of the Lyman-α emission line in the spectrum, we estimate the proper size of the ionized proximity zone associated with the quasar to be about 26 million light years, larger than found with other z > 6.1 quasars with lower luminosities. We estimate (on the basis of a near-infrared spectrum) that the black hole has a mass of ∼1.2 × 10(10) M Sun symbol, which is consistent with the 1.3 × 10(10) M Sun symbol derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion rate.

  12. Earth's air pressure 2.7 billion years ago constrained to less than half of modern levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Sanjoy M.; Buick, Roger; Hagadorn, James W.; Blake, Tim S.; Perreault, John M.; Harnmeijer, Jelte P.; Catling, David C.

    2016-06-01

    How the Earth stayed warm several billion years ago when the Sun was considerably fainter is the long-standing problem of the `faint young Sun paradox'. Because of negligible O2 and only moderate CO2 levels in the Archaean atmosphere, methane has been invoked as an auxiliary greenhouse gas. Alternatively, pressure broadening in a thicker atmosphere with a N2 partial pressure around 1.6-2.4 bar could have enhanced the greenhouse effect. But fossilized raindrop imprints indicate that air pressure 2.7 billion years ago (Gyr) was below twice modern levels and probably below 1.1 bar, precluding such pressure enhancement. This result is supported by nitrogen and argon isotope studies of fluid inclusions in 3.0-3.5 Gyr rocks. Here, we calculate absolute Archaean barometric pressure using the size distribution of gas bubbles in basaltic lava flows that solidified at sea level ~2.7 Gyr in the Pilbara Craton, Australia. Our data indicate a surprisingly low surface atmospheric pressure of Patm = 0.23 +/- 0.23 (2σ) bar, and combined with previous studies suggests ~0.5 bar as an upper limit to late Archaean Patm. The result implies that the thin atmosphere was rich in auxiliary greenhouse gases and that Patm fluctuated over geologic time to a previously unrecognized extent.

  13. An age difference of two billion years between a metal-rich and a metal-poor globular cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, B M S; Kalirai, J S; Anderson, J; Dotter, A; Richer, H B; Rich, R M; Shara, M M; Fahlman, G G; Hurley, J R; King, I R; Reitzel, D; Stetson, P B

    2013-08-01

    Globular clusters trace the formation history of the spheroidal components of our Galaxy and other galaxies, which represent the bulk of star formation over the history of the Universe. The clusters exhibit a range of metallicities (abundances of elements heavier than helium), with metal-poor clusters dominating the stellar halo of the Galaxy, and higher-metallicity clusters found within the inner Galaxy, associated with the stellar bulge, or the thick disk. Age differences between these clusters can indicate the sequence in which the components of the Galaxy formed, and in particular which clusters were formed outside the Galaxy and were later engulfed along with their original host galaxies, and which were formed within it. Here we report an absolute age of 9.9 ± 0.7 billion years (at 95 per cent confidence) for the metal-rich globular cluster 47 Tucanae, determined by modelling the properties of the cluster's white-dwarf cooling sequence. This is about two billion years younger than has been inferred for the metal-poor cluster NGC 6397 from the same models, and provides quantitative evidence that metal-rich clusters like 47 Tucanae formed later than metal-poor halo clusters like NGC 6397.

  14. Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis of sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis (CSCIA and CSHIA) has been increasingly used to study the source, transport, and bioremediation of organic contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons. In natural aquatic systems, dissolved contaminants represent the bioavailable fraction that generally is of the greatest toxicological significance. However, determining the isotopic ratios of waterborne hydrophobic contaminants in natural waters is very challenging because of their extremely low concentrations (often at sub-parts ber billion, or even lower). To acquire sufficient quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with 10 ng/L concentration for CSHIA, more than 1000 L of water must be extracted. Conventional liquid/liquid or solid-phase extraction is not suitable for such large volume extractions. We have developed a new approach that is capable of efficiently sampling sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons for CSIA. We use semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to accumulate hydrophobic contaminants from polluted waters and then recover the compounds in the laboratory for CSIA. In this study, we demonstrate, under a variety of experimental conditions (different concentrations, temperatures, and turbulence levels), that SPMD-associated processes do not induce C and H isotopic fractionations. The applicability of SPMD-CSIA technology to natural systems is further demonstrated by determining the ??13C and ??D values of petroleum hydrocarbons present in the Pawtuxet River, RI. Our results show that the combined SPMD-CSIA is an effective tool to investigate the source and fate of hydrophobic contaminants in the aquatic environments.

  15. A spin-down clock for cool stars from observations of a 2.5-billion-year-old cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meibom, Søren; Barnes, Sydney A; Platais, Imants; Gilliland, Ronald L; Latham, David W; Mathieu, Robert D

    2015-01-29

    The ages of the most common stars--low-mass (cool) stars like the Sun, and smaller--are difficult to derive because traditional dating methods use stellar properties that either change little as the stars age or are hard to measure. The rotation rates of all cool stars decrease substantially with time as the stars steadily lose their angular momenta. If properly calibrated, rotation therefore can act as a reliable determinant of their ages based on the method of gyrochronology. To calibrate gyrochronology, the relationship between rotation period and age must be determined for cool stars of different masses, which is best accomplished with rotation period measurements for stars in clusters with well-known ages. Hitherto, such measurements have been possible only in clusters with ages of less than about one billion years, and gyrochronology ages for older stars have been inferred from model predictions. Here we report rotation period measurements for 30 cool stars in the 2.5-billion-year-old cluster NGC 6819. The periods reveal a well-defined relationship between rotation period and stellar mass at the cluster age, suggesting that ages with a precision of order 10 per cent can be derived for large numbers of cool Galactic field stars.

  16. Safely Managed Sanitation for All Means Fecal Sludge Management for At Least 1.8 Billion People in Low and Middle Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendes, David M; Sumner, Trent A; Brown, Joe M

    2017-03-07

    Although global access to sanitation is increasing, safe management of fecal waste is a rapidly growing challenge in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The goal of this study was to evaluate the current need for fecal sludge management (FSM) in LMICs by region, urban/rural status, and wealth. Recent Demographic and Health Survey data from 58 countries (847 685 surveys) were used to classify households by sanitation facility (facilities needing FSM, sewered facilities, ecological sanitation/other, or no facilities). Onsite piped water infrastructure was quantified to approximate need for wastewater management and downstream treatment. Over all surveyed nations, 63% of households used facilities requiring FSM, totaling approximately 1.8 billion people. Rural areas had similar proportions of toilets requiring FSM as urban areas. FSM needs scaled inversely with wealth: in the poorest quintile, households' sanitation facilities were almost 170 times more likely to require FSM (vs sewerage) than in the richest quintile. About one out of five households needing FSM had onsite piped water infrastructure, indicating domestic or reticulated wastewater infrastructure may be required if lacking for safe management of aqueous waste streams. FSM strategies must be included in future sanitation investment to achieve safe management of fecal wastes and protect public health.

  17. Does the intracellular ionic concentration or the cell water content (cell volume) determine the activity of TonEBP in NIH3T3 cells?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødgaard, Tina; Schou, Kenneth; Friis, Martin Barfred

    2008-01-01

    of the present investigation was to investigate whether cell shrinkage or high intracellular ionic concentration induced the activation of TonEBP. We designed a model system for isotonically shrinking cells over a prolonged period of time. Cells swelled in hypotonic medium and performed a regulatory volume......Cl(-) co-transporter, and Gadolinium inhibited shrinkage-activated Na(+) channels. Cells remained shrunken for at least 4 hours (isotonically shrunken cells). The activity of TonEBP was investigated with a Luciferase assay after isotonic shrinkage and after shrinkage in a high NaCl hypertonic medium....... We found that TonEBP was strongly activated after 4 and 16 hours in cells in high NaCl hypertonic medium but not after 4 or 16 hours in isotonically shrunken cells. Cells treated with high NaCl hypertonic medium for 4 hours had significantly higher intracellular concentrations of both K(+) and Na...

  18. Double-trap measurement of the proton magnetic moment at 0.3 parts per billion precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Georg; Mooser, Andreas; Bohman, Matthew; Schön, Natalie; Harrington, James; Higuchi, Takashi; Nagahama, Hiroki; Sellner, Stefan; Smorra, Christian; Blaum, Klaus; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Quint, Wolfgang; Walz, Jochen; Ulmer, Stefan

    2017-11-24

    Precise knowledge of the fundamental properties of the proton is essential for our understanding of atomic structure as well as for precise tests of fundamental symmetries. We report on a direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment μ p of the proton in units of the nuclear magneton μ N The result, μ p = 2.79284734462 (±0.00000000082) μ N , has a fractional precision of 0.3 parts per billion, improves the previous best measurement by a factor of 11, and is consistent with the currently accepted value. This was achieved with the use of an optimized double-Penning trap technique. Provided a similar measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment can be performed, this result will enable a test of the fundamental symmetry between matter and antimatter in the baryonic sector at the 10 -10 level. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio 1.5 billion years after the big bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdonaite, J; Ubachs, W; Murphy, M T; Whitmore, J B

    2015-02-20

    A molecular hydrogen absorber at a lookback time of 12.4 billion years, corresponding to 10% of the age of the Universe today, is analyzed to put a constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio, μ. A high resolution spectrum of the J1443+2724 quasar, which was observed with the Very Large Telescope, is used to create an accurate model of 89 Lyman and Werner band transitions whose relative frequencies are sensitive to μ, yielding a limit on the relative deviation from the current laboratory value of Δμ/μ=(-9.5 ± 5.4(stat)± 5.3(syst))×10(-6).

  20. 1.8 Billion Years of Detrital Zircon Recycling Calibrates a Refractory Part of Earth’s Sedimentary Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlari, Thomas; Swindles, Graeme T.; Galloway, Jennifer M.; Bell, Kimberley M.; Sulphur, Kyle C.; Heaman, Larry M.; Beranek, Luke P.; Fallas, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    Detrital zircon studies are providing new insights on the evolution of sedimentary basins but the role of sedimentary recycling remains largely undefined. In a broad region of northwestern North America, this contribution traces the pathway of detrital zircon sand grains from Proterozoic sandstones through Phanerozoic strata and argues for multi-stage sedimentary recycling over more than a billion years. As a test of our hypothesis, integrated palynology and detrital zircon provenance provides clear evidence for erosion of Carboniferous strata in the northern Cordillera as a sediment source for Upper Cretaceous strata. Our results help to calibrate Earth's sedimentary cycle by showing that recycling dominates sedimentary provenance for the refractory mineral zircon. PMID:26658165

  1. 1.8 Billion Years of Detrital Zircon Recycling Calibrates a Refractory Part of Earth's Sedimentary Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hadlari

    Full Text Available Detrital zircon studies are providing new insights on the evolution of sedimentary basins but the role of sedimentary recycling remains largely undefined. In a broad region of northwestern North America, this contribution traces the pathway of detrital zircon sand grains from Proterozoic sandstones through Phanerozoic strata and argues for multi-stage sedimentary recycling over more than a billion years. As a test of our hypothesis, integrated palynology and detrital zircon provenance provides clear evidence for erosion of Carboniferous strata in the northern Cordillera as a sediment source for Upper Cretaceous strata. Our results help to calibrate Earth's sedimentary cycle by showing that recycling dominates sedimentary provenance for the refractory mineral zircon.

  2. Museums are biobanks: unlocking the genetic potential of the three billion specimens in the world's biological collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, David K; Zwick, Andreas; Mikheyev, Alexander S

    2016-12-01

    Museums and herbaria represent vast repositories of biological material. Until recently, working with these collections has been difficult, due to the poor condition of historical DNA. However, recent advances in next-generation sequencing technology, and subsequent development of techniques for preparing and sequencing historical DNA, have recently made working with collection specimens an attractive option. Here we describe the unique technical challenges of working with collection specimens, and innovative molecular methods developed to tackle them. We also highlight possible applications of collection specimens, for taxonomy, ecology and evolution. The application of next-generation sequencing methods to museum and herbaria collections is still in its infancy. However, by giving researchers access to billions of specimens across time and space, it holds considerable promise for generating future discoveries across many fields. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Beyond Collier's Bottom Billion

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC's Working Papers on Globalization, Growth and Poverty are published and distributed primarily .... Most of this work focused on economic policy, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), and other technologies. Other experiences have included energy policy and university economics teaching in Canada ...

  4. Caracterização dosimétrica de feixes de fótons com detector de diamante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Sabino

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de caracterizar o detector de diamante, bem como observar seu comportamento. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: As características dosimétricas de feixes de fótons de 6 MV de energia foram medidas utilizando o sistema automático de varredura MP3 da PTW com um detector de diamante e foram comparadas com medidas usando uma câmara de ionização 31010 da PTW. RESULTADOS: As características dosimétricas do detector de diamante foram observadas por meio de medidas de linearidade com a dose, dependência com a taxa de dose e distribuições de dose em profundidade, bem como perfis. CONCLUSÃO: Algumas medidas com diamante e câmara de ionização foram validadas com resultados publicados na literatura, o que demonstrou um bom comportamento do detector de diamante na comparação com a câmara de ionização, muito utilizada para dosimetria em radioterapia, evidenciando que o diamante é uma boa escolha de detector para dosimetria de campos pequenos.

  5. Comportement du béton à l'eau de mer. Synthèse bibliographique Concrete Behavior in Marine Environment. a Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesage J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Depuis quelques années, dans l'élaboration de structures destinées à l'exploration et à l'exploitation des hydrocarbures en mer, le choix se porte parfois sur les structures en béton plutôt que sur les structures en acier, en particulier dans les zones difficiles de la mer du Nord. C'est pourquoi il nous a semblé intéressant de faire le point des connaissances actuelles sur le comportement du béton à l'eau de mer. Les problèmes les plus importants se situent au niveau de la zone de marnage, c'est-à-dire la zone où le béton est alternativement immergé. Ils sont de tous ordres : contraintes mécaniques avec érosion et cavitation, action capillaire de l'eau avec alternance d'humidification et de séchage, action du gel et du dégel. Les moyens de lutte ne manquent pas : constructions massives, voire surdimensionnées, résistant au choc, choix des formes, mise en aeuvre soignée d'un béton de qualité riche en ciment, correctement dosé en agrégats, dur, dense, compact, imperméable; introduction dans le béton d'un entraineur d'air pour diminuer les effets du gel. L'utilisation d'un ciment prise mer et le choix d'un rapport eau/ciment voisin de 0,45 sont hautement recommandés. Quant à la corrosion, elle concerne les structures en béton à tous les niveaux, aussi bien dans la zone immergée en continu que dans la zone alternativement immergée. L'attaque du béton par les sulfates contenus dans l'eau de mer conduit à la formation de sels de Candlot qui provoquent une dégradation du béton. Le remède consiste à limiter la teneur en aluminate tricalcique du ciment. L'attaque des aciers de renfort par les chlorures a fait l'objet de nombreuses études: la solution consiste surtout à protéger les aciers par galvanisation ou protection cathodique. D'une manière générale, le béton placé dans ce milieu agressif que constitue l'eau de mer subit des contraintes mécaniques et physicochimiques importantes, mais on sait en g

  6. Backlog at December 31, 2007: euro 39,8 billion, up by 55% from year-end 2006. 2007 sales revenue: euro 11.9 billion, up by 9.8% (+10.4% like-for-like); Carnet de commandes au 31 decembre 2007: 39,8 milliards d'euros, en progression de 55% par rapport a fin 2006. Chiffre d'affaires de l'exercice 2007: 11,9 milliards d'euros, en progression de 9,8% (+10,4% en donnees comparables)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The AREVA group's backlog reached a record level of euro 39.834 billion as of December 31, 2007, up by 55% from that of year-end 2006. In Nuclear, the backlog was euro 34.927 billion at year-end 2007 (+58%), due in particular to the signature of a contract in a record amount with the Chinese utility CGNPC. The series of agreements concluded provide among other things for the construction of two new-generation EPR nuclear islands and the supply of all of the materials and services needed for their operation through 2027. CGNPC also bought 35% of the production of UraMin, the mining company acquired by AREVA in August 2007. Industrial cooperation in the Back End of the cycle was launched with the signature of an agreement between China and France. In addition, the group signed several long-term contracts in significant amounts, particularly with KHNP of South Korea, EDF and Japanese utilities. The Transmission and Distribution division won several major contracts in Libya and Qatar at the end of the year approaching a total of euro 750 million. For the entire year, new orders grew by 34% to euro 5.816 billion. The backlog, meanwhile, grew by 40% to euro 4.906 billion at year-end. The group cleared sales revenue of euro 11.923 billion in 2007, up by 9.8% (+10.4% like-for-like) in relation to 2006 sales of euro 10.863 billion. Sales revenue for the 4. quarter of 2007 rose to euro 3.858 billion, for growth of 16.7% (+18.8% like-for-like) over one year. Sales revenue for the year was marked by: - Growth of 7.6% (+10.6% like-for-like) in Front End sales revenue, which rose to euro 3.140 billion. The division's Enrichment operations posted strong growth. - Sales were up by 17.5% (+15.2% like-for-like) to euro 2.717 billion in the Reactors and Services division. Sales revenue was driven in particular by the growth of Services operations, after weak demand in 2006, by progress on OL3 construction, and by the start of Flamanville 3, the second EPR. For the Back End

  7. Collaboration LCPC/LNEC sur la corrosion des aciers dans le béton : capteurs de corrosion et aciers inoxydables

    OpenAIRE

    CHAUSSADENT, Thierry; SALTA, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    Présentation de la collaboration entre le LCPC et le LNEC dans le domaine de la corrosion des armatures du béton armé avec deux thèmes principaux que sont les capteurs de corrosion et les aciers inoxydables.

  8. 33 CFR 155.440 - Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on new oceangoing ships of 4,000 gross tons and above, other than oil tankers, and on new... PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.440 Segregation of fuel oil and ballast water on...

  9. Etude des caractéristiques physico-mécaniques des bétons de sable à base de fumée de silice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadri Karima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Les bétons de sable font partie des matériaux de construction permettant de valoriser des ressources naturelles en sable. Afin de les exploiter dans différents domaines de construction on doit améliorer leurs caractéristiques mécaniques et physiques (avoir un retrait modéré. Les bétons de sable posent le problème du retrait important par rapport aux bétons ordinaires ainsi que de résistances à la compression modérées. Vu leur effet positif sur la résistance à la compression à jeune âge, on a pensé à utiliser la fumée de silice comme ajout dans la formulation des bétons de sable afin d’améliorer leurs caractéristiques mécaniques (compression, traction, flexion et voir l’effet de cette dernière sur les variations dimensionnelles (retrait. Dans ce travail on va présenter une formulation du béton de sable basée sur l’optimisation de la compacité du squelette granulaire. D’un choix fixe d’une teneur en ciment portland artificiel de type (CPJ-CEMII/42,5A, 03 séries de béton à base de sable d’oued ont été préparées en variant le dosage de filler (avec et sans superplastifiant. Le filler est de type calcaire, on substitue une quantité de calcaire par de la fumée de silice selon les pourcentages (0%, 5%, et 8%. On a pu avoir des résistances à la compression élevées en les comparants au béton ordinaire avec un optimum de compacité à un dosage de 180 Kg/m3 de filler (calcaire + F.S. On a pu enregistrer une amélioration significative des caractéristiques mécaniques ainsi la diminution du retrait, aussi avec 5% de fumée de silice on a pu avoir un BS avec une structure plus fermée, dense qui peut être résistante à la pénétration d’agents agressifs.

  10. Green, Eco, Innovative Design, and Manufacturing Technology of a 1-Ton per Batch Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerdsuwan Somrat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal treatment of waste by incineration is considered an ultimate solution in order to get rid of waste properly by using the combustible properties of waste and transforming them into inert form and gaseous emission, with the main advantage of a huge reduction in mass and volume of treated waste, destruction of the dangerous components in waste, and obtaining green and clean energy from the exothermal reaction from the completed combustion process. In order to achieve the main goal of incineration, a good design, construction, supervision, and intensive operation and maintenance must be taken into account, especially for the small-scale incinerator. This research will deal with the green, innovative, and eco design and manufacturing technology of a 1-ton per batch municipal solid waste (MSW incinerator. The concept design of the incinerator will focus on the design of the feeding process where only one batch of waste will be discharged into the combustion chamber at one time instead of the semi-feed process, as found in the conventional incinerator. This will ease the operation of the operator and reduce the operating cost. Moreover, the innovative design includes the redesign of combustion air injection into either the primary or secondary combustion chamber in order to achieve the 3Ts of combustion (time, temperature. and turbulence. This design can eliminate the use of an auxiliary burner in the primary combustion chamber. Rethinking the innovative design of using recirculation hot flue gas for preheating of wet garbage in order to pre-dry the waste before combustion is also taken into account. The manufacturing process of the wall composition as well as other parts of the incinerator are also examined.

  11. Plates-formes en béton pour la mer du Nord Concrete Plarforms for the North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparks C. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Durant ces dernières années, plusieurs compagnies ont étudié des avant-projets de plates-formes en béton pour l'exploitation des gisements d'huile et de gaz en mer du Nord. Ces travaux ont abouti à la conception de douze plates-formes en construction actuellement et à plusieurs autres, qui n'ont pas encore fait l'objet de commandes. L'analyse de ces avant-projets montre que les problèmes principaux concernent : la mécanique des sols (fonds de la mer, les phénomènes d'affouillement, la stabilité (sur le fond, la résistance offerte par la structure à la force des vagues, la construction, la stabilité (pendant l'immersion. Ces points sont discutés en détail dans cet article avec plusieurs références aux études de Doris, Condeep, Sea Tank Co. et Andoc, sociétés ayant actuellement des plates-formes en construction. In recent years several companies have studied concrete platform designs for the ail and gas fields in the North Sea. This has resulted in the designs of the twelve platforms under construction and several others which have yetto receive orders. An analysis of these designs shows that the principal problems are associated with soil mechanics (seabed, seabed erosion, stability (on seabed, resistance of the structure (to wave forces, etc., construction, stability during immersion. These points are discussed in detail in this article, with particular reference to the designs by Doris, Condeep, Sea Tank Co. and Andoc; all of which have platforms under construction.

  12. Probabilistic consequence study of residual radiological effects from a hypothetical ten-ton inadvertent nuclear yield. Weapons Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, T.; Peters, L.; Serduke, F.; Edwards, L.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we study the potential radiological consequences of a strategic bomber accident, in which one of the assumed on-board nuclear weapons explodes with an arbitrarily chosen 10-ton nuclear yield. The frequency of such an occurrence is infinitesimal. The safety design features in today s nuclear weapons' systems essentially forbid its occurrence. We have a chosen a military base which has the feature of being a representative combination of urban and rural populations. The assumed ''crash site'' is near the northwest comer of the military base, close to civilian housing located just across the street from the base. A worst case wind would be from the ESE (east south east). This would cause fission debris to be dispersed toward the largest population centers and, thus, would lead to the largest Pu ''collective'' doses (i.e., a dose integrated over time and summed over individuals). Also, if an ESE wind were blowing at accident time, some people in nearby housing could receive lethal gamma-ray doses from fallout before evacuation could occur. It is assumed only one weapon undergoes nuclear yield; the other on-board weapons would HE detonate and the Pu would be aerosolized and lofted. We assume an activity-size distribution and lofting similar to those used to predict fallout measured at NTS. The main thrust of our study is to provide estimates of probabilistic radiological risks to the population local to a strategic bomber crash site. The studied radiological consequences are: cloud-passage doses from Pu inhalation; doses from groundshine due to gamma-producing radionuclides; and areal contamination from Pu and the long-lived fission products Cs-137 and Sr-90

  13. Uji kesetimbangan kalor proses sterilisasi kumbung jamur merang kapasitas 1.2 ton media tanam menggunakan tungku gasifikasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Maulana K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pada setiap budidaya jamur merang memerlukan proses sterilisasi dengan menggunakan uap panas yang dihasilkan dari boiler sederhana dengan tungku tradisional berbahan bakar kayu bakar. Penggunaan tungku tradisional pada aplikasi proses sterilisasi tersebut dinilai kurang efisien karena efisiensi pembakaran yang masih sangat rendah dan emisi gas buang yang mengganggu. Tungku gasifikasi memiliki kinerja yang lebih baik dari pada tungku tradisional karena memiliki efisiensi yang relatif lebih tinggi dan bebas dari asap pembakaran yang mengganggu. Untuk menggantikan tungku tradisional tersebut dengan tunggku gasifikasi, harus dilakukan uji kesetimbangan kalor terlebih dahulu agar dapat diketahui kebutuhan energi yang diperlukan pada proses sterilisasi tersebut. Dengan uji kesetimbangan kalor dapat diketahui perbandingan energi input pada sisi bahan bakar dengan energi yang termanfaatkan (energi output dan energi yang terbuang (heat losses selama proses sterilisasi tersebut berlangsung. Pengujian dilakukan dengan menggunakan kumbung jamur ukuran sebenarnya yang ada di lapangan dengan jumlah media tanam jamur merang sekitar 1.2 ton limbah kapas menggunakan tungku gasifikasi yang dibuat dari drum bekas oli. Pengujian dilakukan dengan dua variasi bahan bakar pada reactor gasifikasinya yaitu bahan bakar limbah kapas dan bahan bakar limbah sekam padi. Dari hasil uji yang didapat, limbah kapas memiliki jumlah energi output yang lebih besar daripada limbah sekam padi (energi output pada limbah kapas sebesar 8.4% dari energi inputnya dan limbah sekam padi memiliki 7.9% energi output. Namun jika dilihat dari efisiensi pembakarannya, limbah sekam padi memiliki efisiensi yang lebih tinggi daripada limbah kapas (28.0% untuk limbah sekam padi dan 27.2% untuk limbah kapas.

  14. Stowing of packages containing radioactive materials during their road transportation with trucks for loads up to 38 tons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilles, P.; Chevalier, G.; Pouard, M.; Draulans, J.; Lafontaine, I.

    1986-01-01

    A compilation and a coordination of available standards, regulatory prescriptions and directives on stowing are first presented. Then generated forces resulting from road vehicle deceleration in accidental conditions are searched. The investigation shows that higher dangerous materials transportation probabilities essentially concern front end impacts (51.4 %) and side on impacts (19 %). These accidents occur with a speed of about 80 km/h before the impact and 50 km/h during the crash. During the latter, deceleration values ranging from 20 to 100g could be reached, the mean value could be about 30g. A mathematical model is developed. Experiments are realized with the aims on the one hand, to verify the results obtained from a mathematical model of accident and on the other hand to collect experimental values allowing to work out a code of good practice for the stowing of radioactive materials packages having a maximum weight of about 20 tons. A number of 8 tests has been performed with two types of packagings: lower and higher centre of gravity in front end and side on impacts. In case of a front end impact, the stowing system must be able to absorb entirely the kinetic energy generated by the package deceleration. This means that a tie-down system according to the 2g - 1g - 1g standard is convenient provided that the package is chocked in the direction of the traffic. The damage is proportional to the weight of the vehicle responsible for such side on impact. This weight could be much higher than the package weight. Deceleration values up to 120g have been recorded. As a result, the tie down system similar to the 2g - 1g - 1g standard is convenient, but chocks acting perpendicularly to the direction of the traffic are to be prohibited

  15. Influence de la nature des granulats sur le comportement rhéologique du béton à hautes temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El abidine Rahmouni Zine

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Le béton est largement utilisé comme matériau de structure dans les ouvrages de génie civil tels que les tunnels. La prise en compte du comportement du béton soumis à des températures élevées est apparue dernièrement comme un problème majeur. Cette problématique concerne aussi bien des situations de service dans le cas des structures de stockage de déchets radioactifs que des situations d’accident, mises en exergue par les cas récents d’incendie dans des tunnels. Ce travail de recherche basé sur une approche expérimentale, analyse l’influence de la nature des granulats sur le comportement thermo-mécanique du béton soumis à une température élevée. Des bétons formulés avec deux granulats (calcaire concassé et silico-calcaire subissent des cycles de chauffage/refroidissement à une vitesse de 10°C/min à 200 °C, 400 °C et 900 °C. Nous étudions l’évolution de la fissuration, des propriétés thermiques, physiques et mécaniques des bétons en fonction des températures appliquées. Pour la nature de granulat siliceux, le silex présente une instabilité thermique se traduisant par un éclatement à partir de 300°C alors que le granulat calcaire présente aussi une instabilité à cause des phénomènes de décarbonatation/hydratation mais seulement pour le cycle de chauffage/refroidissement à 750°C.

  16. 16 Years, 16 Cruises, 1.6 Billion Soundings: a Compilation of High-Resolution Multibeam Bathymetry of the Active Plate Boundary Along the Chilean Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrebe, W.; Flueh, E. R.; Hasert, M.; Behrmann, J. H.; Voelker, D.; Geersen, J.; Ranero, C. R.; Diaz-Naveas, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Chile, a country stranding the active plate boundary between the South-American and the Nazca Plate is afflicted by recurrent earthquakes and hazardous volcanic eruptions. The strongest earthquake ever recorded occurred here, and volcanic hazards are frequent. Consequently, this area has been studied by geoscientists for many years to improve the understanding of subduction zone processes. Swath bathymetry mapping of the ocean floor has proven to bear a large potential for the interpretation of subduction-related processes, such as tectonic deformation of the marine forearc, release and migration of fluids as well as earthquake-triggered mass wasting. Multibeam bathymetry data of 16 major cruises of German, British, and Chilean research vessels recorded between 1995 and December 2010, in total more than 10,000 data files comprising about 1.6 billion soundings, have now been carefully reprocessed, compiled and merged into a unifying set of high-resolution bathymetric maps of the Chilean continental margin from latitude 40°S to 20°S. The imprint of subsurface processes on the surface morphology is well displayed in the case of the Chilean continental margin. The 3,500 km long Chilean convergent margin is not uniform, as various segments with different tectonic characteristics can be distinguished. Major factors that control margin morphology and thus the style of subduction are (1) relief and structure of the incoming oceanic plate, (2) supply of trench sediment, (3) turbidite transport within the trench, and (4) the input of terrigeneous sediments down the continental slope. A major segment boundary occurs at latitude 32°-33° S where the hotspot-related volcanic chain of Juan Fernandez is presently subducting. South of the area of ridge subduction the trench is filled with turbidites, and accretionary ridges develop across the base of the slope along most of the segment, whereas north of this boundary the turbiditic infill is reduced and subduction erosion is

  17. Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal microbial metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontognali, Tomaso R R; Sessions, Alex L; Allwood, Abigail C; Fischer, Woodward W; Grotzinger, John P; Summons, Roger E; Eiler, John M

    2012-09-18

    The 3.45-billion-year-old Strelley Pool Formation of Western Australia preserves stromatolites that are considered among the oldest evidence for life on Earth. In places of exceptional preservation, these stromatolites contain laminae rich in organic carbon, interpreted as the fossil remains of ancient microbial mats. To better understand the biogeochemistry of these rocks, we performed microscale in situ sulfur isotope measurements of the preserved organic sulfur, including both Δ(33)S and . This approach allows us to tie physiological inference from isotope ratios directly to fossil biomass, providing a means to understand sulfur metabolism that is complimentary to, and independent from, inorganic proxies (e.g., pyrite). Δ(33)S values of the kerogen reveal mass-anomalous fractionations expected of the Archean sulfur cycle, whereas values show large fractionations at very small spatial scales, including values below -15‰. We interpret these isotopic patterns as recording the process of sulfurization of organic matter by H(2)S in heterogeneous mat pore-waters influenced by respiratory S metabolism. Positive Δ(33)S anomalies suggest that disproportionation of elemental sulfur would have been a prominent microbial process in these communities.

  18. The controversial “Cambrian” fossils of the Vindhyan are real but more than a billion years older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Stefan; Belivanova, Veneta; Rasmussen, Birger; Whitehouse, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The age of the Vindhyan sedimentary basin in central India is controversial, because geochronology indicating early Proterozoic ages clashes with reports of Cambrian fossils. We present here an integrated paleontologic–geochronologic investigation to resolve this conundrum. New sampling of Lower Vindhyan phosphoritic stromatolitic dolomites from the northern flank of the Vindhyans confirms the presence of fossils most closely resembling those found elsewhere in Cambrian deposits: annulated tubes, embryo-like globules with polygonal surface pattern, and filamentous and coccoidal microbial fabrics similar to Girvanella and Renalcis. None of the fossils, however, can be ascribed to uniquely Cambrian or Ediacaran taxa. Indeed, the embryo-like globules are not interpreted as fossils at all but as former gas bubbles trapped in mucus-rich cyanobacterial mats. Direct dating of the same fossiliferous phosphorite yielded a Pb–Pb isochron of 1,650 ± 89 (2σ) million years ago, confirming the Paleoproterozoic age of the fossils. New U–Pb geochronology of zircons from tuffaceous mudrocks in the Lower Vindhyan Porcellanite Formation on the southern flank of the Vindhyans give comparable ages. The Vindhyan phosphorites provide a window of 3-dimensionally preserved Paleoproterozoic fossils resembling filamentous and coccoidal cyanobacteria and filamentous eukaryotic algae, as well as problematic forms. Like Neoproterozoic phosphorites a billion years later, the Vindhyan deposits offer important new insights into the nature and diversity of life, and in particular, the early evolution of multicellular eukaryotes. PMID:19416859

  19. What's a billion cubic meters among friends: The impacts of quantile mapping bias correction on climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsugli, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    Consider two views of climate change, the percent change in precipitation from the GCMs and the percent change from the same GCMs as bias-corrected using quantile mapping. There is emerging evidence that quantile mapping, a commonly used bias correction method, can alter the projections of future precipitation in a way that leads to a systematicaly wetter future for the Colorado River than is indicated by the percent-changes in the GCMs. The difference, about 3% in precipitation, when put through hydrology models, amounts to roughly a 6% shift in the average flows at Lees Ferry, or a little over a billion cubic meters (a million acre feet). On the one hand, the quantile mapping does not add any new physics to the GCM water budget, so the shifts in the mean from could be viewed as an unintended statistical artifact. On the other, what is sacrosanct about the percent change in the (biased) GCM water budget as an indicator of the future climate? We investigate the reasons that this shift arises by taking a closer look at quantile mapping in theory and for idealized (Gamma and Weibull) probability distributions. Heuristics are developed to understand when the shift is likely to arise for more realistic distributions, and to connect the idealized statistical examples to hypothetical water budgets.

  20. Simulations and Data analysis for the 35 ton Liquid Argon detector as a prototype for the DUNE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warburton, Thomas Karl [Sheffield U.

    2017-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a next-generation neutrino experiment which will be built at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), and will receive a wide-band neutrino beam from Fermilab, 1300~km away. At this baseline DUNE will be able to study many of the properties of neutrino mixing, including the neutrino mass hierarchy and the value of the CP-violating complex phase ($\\delta_{CP}$). DUNE will utilise Liquid Argon (LAr) Time Projection Chamber (TPC) (LArTPC) technology, and the Far Detector (FD) will consist of four modules, each containing 17.1~kt of LAr with a fiducial mass of around 10~kt. Each of these FD modules represents around an order of magnitude increase in size, when compared to existing LArTPC experiments. \\\\ The 35 ton detector is the first DUNE prototype for the single (LAr) phase design of the FD. There were two running periods, one from November 2013 to February 2014, and a second from November 2015 to March 2016. During t he second running period, a system of TPCs was installed, and cosmic-ray data were collected. A method of particle identification was developed using simulations, though this was not applied to the data due to the higher than expected noise level. A new method of determining the interaction time of a track, using the effects of longitudinal diffusion, was developed using the cosmic-ray data. A camera system was also installed in the detector for monitoring purposes, and to look for high voltage breakdowns. \\\\ Simulations concerning the muon-induced background rate to nucleon decay are performed, following the incorporation of the MUon Simulations UNderground (MUSUN) generator into the DUNE software framework. A series of cuts which are based on Monte Carlo truth information is developed, designed to reject simulated background events, whilst preserving simulated signal events in the $n \\rightarrow K^{+} + e^{-}$ decay channel. No background events are seen to survive the app lication of

  1. Secondhand smoke exposure at home among one billion children in 21 countries: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbulo, Lazarous; Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Andes, Linda; Morton, Jeremy; Bashir, Rizwan; Fouad, Heba; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Caixeta, Roberta; Dias, Rula Cavaco; Wijnhoven, Trudy M A; Kashiwabara, Mina; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Tursan d'Espaignet, Edouard

    2016-12-01

    Children are vulnerable to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure because of limited control over their indoor environment. Homes remain the major place where children may be exposed to SHS. Our study examines the magnitude, patterns and determinants of SHS exposure in the home among children in 21 countries (19 low-income and middle-income countries and 2 high-income countries). Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data, a household survey of people 15 years of age or older. Data collected during 2009-2013 were analysed to estimate the proportion of children exposed to SHS in the home. GATS estimates and 2012 United Nations population projections for 2015 were also used to estimate the number of children exposed to SHS in the home. The proportion of children younger than 15 years of age exposed to SHS in the home ranged from 4.5% (Panama) to 79.0% (Indonesia). Of the approximately one billion children younger than 15 years of age living in the 21 countries under study, an estimated 507.74 million were exposed to SHS in the home. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and the Philippines accounted for almost 84.6% of the children exposed to SHS. The prevalence of SHS exposure was higher in countries with higher adult smoking rates and was also higher in rural areas than in urban areas, in most countries. A large number of children were exposed to SHS in the home. Encouraging of voluntary smoke-free rules in homes and cessation in adults has the potential to reduce SHS exposure among children and prevent SHS-related diseases and deaths. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass: feasibility study of methanol production via catalytic gasification of 200 tons of wood per day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    This report is a result of an additional study made of the economic feasibility of producing fuel grade methanol from wood via catalytic gasification with steam. The report has as its basis the original 2000 tons of wood per day study generated from process development unit testing performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The goal of this additional work was to determine the feasibility of a smaller scale plant one tenth the size of the original or 200 tons of dry wood feed per day. Plant production based on this wood feed is 100 tons per day of methanol with a HHV of 9784 Btu per pound. All process and support facilities necessary to convert wood to methanol are included in this study. The plant location is Newport, Oregon. The capital cost for the plant is $34,830,000 - September 1980 basis. Methanol production costs which allow for return on capital have been calculated for various wood prices for both utility and private investor financing. These wood costs include delivery to the plant. For utility financing, the methanol production costs are, respectively, $1.20, $1.23, $1.30, and $1.44 per gallon for wood costs of $5, $10, $20, and $40 per dry ton. For private investor financing, the corresponding product costs are $1.60, $1.63, $1.70, and $1.84 per gallon for the corresponding wood costs. The costs calculated by the utility financing method include a return on equity of 15% and an interest rate of 10% on the debt. The private investor financing method, which is 100% equity financing, incorporates a discounted cash flow (DCF) return on equity of 12%. The thermal efficiency of the plant is 52.0%.

  3. Catecholamine-Stimulated Growth of Aeromonas hydrophila Requires the TonB2 Energy Transduction System but Is Independent of the Amonabactin Siderophore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuhao; Liu, Jin; Pang, Maoda; Du, Hechao; Wang, Nannan; Awan, Furqan; Lu, Chengping; Liu, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    The growth-stimulating effects of catecholamine stress hormones have been demonstrated in many pathogens. However, catecholamine-induced growth and its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood in Aeromonas hydrophila. The present study sought to demonstrate that norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (Epi), dopamine (Dopa), and L-dopa stimulate the growth of A. hydrophila in iron-restricted media containing serum. NE exhibited the strongest growth stimulation, which could be blocked by adrenergic antagonists. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that NE could sequester iron from transferrin, thereby providing a more accessible iron source for utilization by A. hydrophila. The deletion of the amoA gene associated with amonabactin synthesis revealed that the amonabactin siderophore is not required for NE-stimulated growth. However, the deletion of the TonB2 energy transduction system resulted in the loss of growth promotion by NE, indicating that a specific TonB-dependent outer membrane receptor might be involved in the transport of iron from transferrin. Collectively, our data show that catecholamine sensing promotes the growth of A. hydrophila in a manner that is dependent on the TonB2 energy transduction system. PMID:28018865

  4. New Schools, Overcrowding Relief, and Achievement Gains in Los Angeles--Strong Returns from a $19.5 Billion Investment. Policy Brief 12-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, William; Coghlan, Erin; Fuller, Bruce; Dauter, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to relieve overcrowded schools operating on multiple tracks, the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) has invested more than $19 billion to build 130 new facilities over the past decade. District leaders asked researchers at Berkeley to estimate the achievement effects of this massive initiative--benefits that may stem from entering…

  5. The journey begins at 8am. Destination: unknown Time machine launches quest of discovery: how existence began 13.7 billion years ago.

    CERN Multimedia

    Henderson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A story that began 13.7 billion years ago will start a new chapter this morning. Since the big bang threw space and time into being, no living creature of which we know has been able to discern just what happened in the moments at which existence began. (2 pages)

  6. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  7. Technique of total thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is essential to define the various surgical procedures that are carried out for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. They are thyroid gland, subtotal lobectomy, total thyroidectomy and near total thyroidectomy

  8. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  9. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  10. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  11. Reemplazo total de cadera

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Vergel, Alfredo; Fundación Valle de Lili

    2002-01-01

    Definición/Tipos de prótesis/ ¿Qué pacientes se podrían beneficiar de un reemplazo total de cadera?/Artrosis de cadera/Tipos de artrosis de cadera/Alternativas al reemplazo total de cadera/Preguntas frecuentes sobre el reemplazo total de cadera.

  12. Open-Source Python Tools for Deploying Interactive GIS Dashboards for a Billion Datapoints on a Laptop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, P. D.; Bednar, J. A.; Rudiger, P.; Stevens, J. L. R.; Ball, C. E.; Christensen, S. D.; Pothina, D.

    2017-12-01

    The rich variety of software libraries available in the Python scientific ecosystem provides a flexible and powerful alternative to traditional integrated GIS (geographic information system) programs. Each such library focuses on doing a certain set of general-purpose tasks well, and Python makes it relatively simple to glue the libraries together to solve a wide range of complex, open-ended problems in Earth science. However, choosing an appropriate set of libraries can be challenging, and it is difficult to predict how much "glue code" will be needed for any particular combination of libraries and tasks. Here we present a set of libraries that have been designed to work well together to build interactive analyses and visualizations of large geographic datasets, in standard web browsers. The resulting workflows run on ordinary laptops even for billions of data points, and easily scale up to larger compute clusters when available. The declarative top-level interface used in these libraries means that even complex, fully interactive applications can be built and deployed as web services using only a few dozen lines of code, making it simple to create and share custom interactive applications even for datasets too large for most traditional GIS systems. The libraries we will cover include GeoViews (HoloViews extended for geographic applications) for declaring visualizable/plottable objects, Bokeh for building visual web applications from GeoViews objects, Datashader for rendering arbitrarily large datasets faithfully as fixed-size images, Param for specifying user-modifiable parameters that model your domain, Xarray for computing with n-dimensional array data, Dask for flexibly dispatching computational tasks across processors, and Numba for compiling array-based Python code down to fast machine code. We will show how to use the resulting workflow with static datasets and with simulators such as GSSHA or AdH, allowing you to deploy flexible, high-performance web

  13. The First Billion Years project: constraining the dust attenuation law of star-forming galaxies at z ≃ 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, F.; McLure, R. J.; Khochfar, S.; Dunlop, J. S.; Dalla Vecchia, C.

    2017-09-01

    We present the results of a study investigating the dust attenuation law at z ≃ 5, based on synthetic spectral energy distributions (SEDs) calculated for a sample of N = 498 galaxies drawn from the First Billion Years (FiBY) simulation project. The simulated galaxies at z ≃ 5, which have M1500 ≤ -18.0 and 7.5 ≤ log(M/M}_{⊙}) ≤ 10.2, display a mass-dependent α-enhancement, with a median value of [α /{Fe}]_{z=5} ˜eq 4 × [α /{Fe}]_{Z_{⊙}}. The median Fe/H ratio of the simulated galaxies is 0.14 ± 0.05 which produces steep intrinsic ultraviolet (UV) continuum slopes; 〈βI〉 = -2.4 ± 0.05. Using a set of simple dust attenuation models, in which the wavelength-dependent attenuation is assumed to be of the form A(λ) ∝ λn, we explore the parameter values which best reproduce the observed z = 5 luminosity function (LF) and colour-magnitude relation (CMR). We find that a simple model in which the absolute UV attenuation is a linearly increasing function of log stellar mass (A1500 = 0.5 × log(M/M⊙) - 3.3), and the dust attenuation slope (n) is within the range -0.7 ≤ n ≤ -0.3, can successfully reproduce the LF and CMR over a wide range of stellar population synthesis model assumptions, including the effects of massive binaries. This range of attenuation curves is consistent with a power-law fit to the Calzetti attenuation law in the UV (n = -0.55). In contrast, curves as steep as the Small Magellanic Cloud extinction curve (n = -1.24) are formally ruled out. Finally, we show that our models are consistent with recent 1.3 mm Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, and predict the form of the z ≃ 5 infrared excess (IRX)-β relation.

  14. Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX) process is an exchange between SSA and its foreign country partners to identify deaths of beneficiaries residing abroad. The...

  15. Experimental study of columns partially filled with concrete under compressive axial loads Etude expérimentale des colonnes partiellement remplis par le béton sous charge axiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achoura D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans cette étude, on présente les résultats expérimentaux obtenus sur des poteaux mixtes béton-acier mince réalisés par soudures. Un total de 24 profilés en acier, et en forme de I a été testé sous charge de compression uni-axiale à l’âge de 28 jours. les spécimens ont été réparties comme suit: 4 à vides, 4 partiellement remplies avec un béton ordinaire sans l’addition des connecteurs, 4 renforcés par des connecteurs de cisaillements de type cornière en U, 4 autres l’ont été avec des connecteurs de cisaillements type goujons et 8 restants ont été renforcés avec des liens transversaux d’espacement 100mm, 50mm, soudés aux bouts des ailes opposées. Les principaux paramètres étudiés sont: l’élancement du profilé, le type de connecteur de renforcement. A partir des résultats d’essais obtenus, il est confirmé que les parois minces sont plus sensibles de l’apparition au voilement et la longueur des profilés a un effet considérable sur la capacité portante et le mode de rupture. L’addition des connecteurs de renforcement a confirmé l’augmentation de la charge ultime par rapport aux profilés sans connecteurs. In the present work, results of tests conducted on thin welded steel-concrete stubs are presented. A total of 24 stubs an I steel section were tested under axial compression at 28 days after the date of casting, 4 were empty, 4 filled with normal concrete, 8 columns had shear connecters welded along the centreline of the web, and 8 columns had steel rods welded between the tips of opposing flanges on both sides of the spacing of the transverse link 100 mm and 50 mm. The main parameters studied were: the heel height, and type of connector strengthening. From the test results, it is confirmed that the thin walls are more sensitive to the appearance local buckling and the length of the profiles has a significant effect on the bearing capacity and failure mode. The bearing capacity was increased

  16. Total Synthesis of Avrainvilleol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Aaron; Miller, Kenneth A

    2017-11-03

    The first total synthesis of the marine natural product avrainvilleol is reported. The total synthesis features the first application of the transition-metal-free coupling of a tosyl hydrazone and a boronic acid to the preparation of a complex natural product, and the first example of this coupling with a hindered diortho substituted hydrazone substrate.

  17. Future fuels: Canada's coast-to-coast network of refineries is emerging from a $3-billion-plus spending binge to take the lead in producing low sulphur gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunan, D.

    2004-01-01

    A series of investments to convert Canada's 22 operating refineries to produce low-sulphur gasoline are discussed. The investment involves more than $3-billion that will transform Canada's portfolio of aging refineries into one of the most efficient in the western world, and in the process reduce sulphur content in Canadian gasoline to 30 ppm. In some cases the refitting will be completed years ahead of the required 2005 deadline. Total refining capacity in Canada is about 2.5 million barrels per day of crude oil, which includes 580,000 barrels per day of capacity that is dedicated to upgrading bitumen into synthetic crude oil. The initiative to update the refineries was led by Irving Oil, which launched a one billion dollar refit of its 250,000 barrels per day Saint John refinery in the year 2000. Irving Oil's efforts were driven by the company's marketing program in the United States where regional fuel quality standards are higher than national standards either in Canada or the United States. Shell Canada and Imperial Oil are also on track to meet the 30 ppm sulphur level ahead of schedule. For example, Shell Canada is cooperating with Suncor Energy Products in the construction of a hydrotreater at Suncor's Sarnia refinery which will be used to reduce sulphur content of diesel from both the Shell and Suncor refineries, while Imperial Oil is investing over $520 million to refit its refineries in Alberta, Ontario and Nova Scotia. Petro-Canada too, has embarked on a $450 million capital program late in 2003 to introduce low sulphur gasoline; this was in addition to the $1.2 billion program to integrate its bitumen production, upgrading and refining operations. Ultramar launched its $300 million desulphurization program in late 2002; the project is now nearing completion. Refit of Ultramar's Jean Gaulin refinery on Quebec's South Shore will also include a 30,000 barrels per day continuous regeneration platformer to provide a second hydrogen source for the

  18. A nuclear criticality safety assessment of the loss of moderation control in 2 1/2 and 10-ton cylinders containing enriched UF{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newvahner, R.L. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States); Pryor, W.A. [PAI Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Moderation control for maintaining nuclear criticality safety in 2 {1/2}-ton, 10-ton, and 14-ton cylinders containing enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) has been used safely within the nuclear industry for over thirty years, and is dependent on cylinder integrity and containment. This assessment evaluates the loss of moderation control by the breaching of containment and entry of water into the cylinders. The first objective of this study was to estimate the required amounts of water entering these large UF{sub 6} cylinders to react with, and to moderate the uranium compounds sufficiently to cause criticality. Hypothetical accident situations were modeled as a uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) slab above a UF{sub 6} hemicylinder, and a UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} sphere centered within a UF{sub 6} hemicylinder. These situations were investigated by computational analyses utilizing the KENO V.a Monte Carlo Computer Code. The results were used to estimate both the masses of water required for criticality, and the limiting masses of water that could be considered safe. The second objective of the assessment was to calculate the time available for emergency control actions before a criticality would occur, i.e., a {open_quotes}safetime{close_quotes}, for various sources of water and different size openings in a breached cylinder. In the situations considered, except the case for a fire hose, the safetime appears adequate for emergency control actions. The assessment shows that current practices for handling moderation controlled cylinders of low enriched UF{sub 6}, along with the continuation of established personnel training programs, ensure nuclear criticality safety for routine and emergency operations.

  19. Méthode simplifiée de formulation d’un béton à haute performance avec et sans fibre métallique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadj Sadok Ahmed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Le présent travail, propose une méthodologie simplifiée, s’appuyant sur des méthodes de formulation de béton connues dans la littérature et sur des essais d’optimisations au laboratoire, permettant la détermination d’une composition d’un béton à haute performance « BHP » et de béton de fibre à haute performance « BFHP ». Pour ce faire, une large caractérisation (physique et mécanique des matériaux utilisés a été conduite. Suivie d’une étude préliminaire, ayant pour objectif d’optimiser le dosage en Superplastifiant (0,65-1% et du ciment (500-700 kg/m3 en se basant sur des essais de résistance à la compression (3, 7, 28 jours et des mesures d’ouvrabilité. Les caractéristiques mécaniques ainsi que la porosité du BHP optimale ont été mesurées. Ainsi, l’effet d’une nouvelle génération de superplastifiant, qui a permis la réduction du rapport E/C à 0,29, a pu être examiné. Ce dernier a permis l’obtention d’un BHP de bonne performance mécanique et de faible porosité. La méthodologie proposée a permis, à ce stade de l’étude, de formuler des bons BHP et reste à ajuster et à compléter pour la formulation des BFHP.

  20. Proposed method for assigning metric tons of heavy metal values to defense high-level waste forms to be disposed of in a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    A proposed method is described for assigning an equivalent metric ton heavy metal (eMTHM) value to defense high-level waste forms to be disposed of in a geologic repository. This method for establishing a curie equivalency between defense high-level waste and irradiated commercial fuel is based on the ratio of defense fuel exposure to the typical commercial fuel exposure, MWd/MTHM. application of this technique to defense high-level wastes is described. Additionally, this proposed technique is compared to several alternate calculations for eMTHM. 15 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  1. Authorized Limits for the Release of a 25 Ton Locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeremy Gwin and Douglas Frenette

    2010-04-08

    This document contains process knowledge and radiological data and analysis to support approval for release of the 25-ton locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility, located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 25-ton locomotive is a small, one-of-a-kind locomotive used to move railcars in support of the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application project. This locomotive was identified as having significant historical value by the Nevada State Railroad Museum in Boulder City, Nevada, where it will be used as a display piece. A substantial effort to characterize the radiological conditions of the locomotive was undertaken by the NTS Management and Operations Contractor, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). During this characterization process, seven small areas on the locomotive had contamination levels that exceeded the NTS release criteria (limits consistent with U.S. Department of Energy [DOE] Order DOE O 5400.5, “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment”). The decision was made to perform radiological decontamination of these known accessible impacted areas to further the release process. On February 9, 2010, NSTec personnel completed decontamination of these seven areas to within the NTS release criteria. Although all accessible areas of the locomotive had been successfully decontaminated to within NTS release criteria, it was plausible that inaccessible areas of the locomotive (i.e., those areas on the locomotive where it was not possible to perform radiological surveys) could potentially have contamination above unrestricted release limits. To access the majority of these inaccessible areas, the locomotive would have to be disassembled. A complete disassembly for a full radiological survey could have permanently destroyed parts and would have ruined the historical value of the locomotive. Complete disassembly would also add an unreasonable financial burden for the

  2. Dégradations des poutres en béton armé atteint de l'Alcali Agrégat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    variables (CaO, Al2O3, Fe2O3, SiO2, MgO, Na2O, K2O, SO3) et 58 individus distribués au tableau 4 qui sont : ciment livré, granulat à l'état pur, granulats en zones a-b-c dans les bétons (A et B) « (zone a) de la surface de moulage sur 9 axes, (zone b) du cœur sur 7 axes et (zone c) à coté des aciers internes sur 9 axes », et ...

  3. Too little or just right? Bush lays his healthcare budget on the table, but Democrats--and some Republicans--say $190 billion falls short.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovern, Ed; Gardner, Jonathan

    2002-02-04

    In his State of the Union address last week, President Bush barely mentioned healthcare. But he tried to make up for it when he released his healthcare budget for 2003, which calls for $190 billion over 10 years to reform Medicare. The plan got a lukewarm reception from those in the industry, along with most Democrats and even some Republicans, who were hoping for a stronger stand.

  4. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien–Dindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n = 1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450–540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266 mL (range 100–400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8–24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  5. Counternarcotics Assistance: U.S. Agencies Have Allotted Billions in Andean Countries, but DOD Should Improve Its Reporting of Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Ecuador is a major transit route for cocaine produced primarily in neighboring Colombia and Peru. Since it uses the U.S. dollar as its currency , Ecuador ...recommendation. What GAO Found No single U.S. counternarcotics strategy exists for the Andean region. In each country—Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador , Peru...Years 2006-2010 30 Figure 11: Total Estimated Allotments for U.S. Counternarcotics Assistance in Ecuador , Fiscal Years 2006-2011 31 Figure 12: Kilos

  6. Total synthesis of ciguatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Akinari; Isobe, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Something fishy: Ciguatoxin (see structure) is one of the principal toxins involved in ciguatera poisoning and the target of a total synthesis involving the coupling of three segments. The key transformations in this synthesis feature acetylene-dicobalthexacarbonyl complexation.

  7. Total 2004 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  8. Total 2004 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  9. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty....

  10. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Feb-23...

  11. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  12. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  13. Plus 10 million tons plan. Feasible increased Danish production of sustainable biomass for bio-refineries; + 10 mio. tons planen - muligheder for en oeget dansk produktion af baeredygtig biomasse til bioraffinaderier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gylling, M.; Scott Bentsen, N.; Felby, C.; Kvist Johannsen, V. (Koebenhavns Univ., Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Joergensen, Uffe; Kristensen, Inge T.; Dalgaard, T. (Aarhus Univ., Aarhus (Denmark))

    2012-07-01

    The desire to create sustainable solutions in the energy sector has led researchers at the University of Copenhagen, Aarhus University and research and development staff from DONG Energy to enter into a cooperation agreement that will start concrete initiatives in research and education in green energy. An important part of the collaboration is a study of how we can produce more biomass compared to today without compromising food production, feed production or the environment. The present study shows that it can be done through a total commitment to sustainable technology and biology. The report also describes the effects of the establishment of a Danish supplied bio-refinery sector. In order to achieve this required additional research and development is required, particularly in agriculture and forestry but also in biological and chemical conversion of biomass. The initiative supports the BioRefining Alliance, which brings together Danish companies, public partners and organizations with world-class knowledge and technologies for bio-refinery. (LN)

  14. Quelques considérations sur l’évolution des normes de calcul des poteaux avec la section mixte acier-béton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Chira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Depuis près d’un siècle, le système de construction basé sur des portiques en acier ou mixtes acier béton est devenu l’un des types les plus utilisés dans le domaine du génie civil. Plusieurs générations d’ingénieurs se sont préoccupées du développement des méthodes de calcul et des technologies de fabrication relatives à ces structures. En vue d’un dimensionnement optimal des structures, les ingénieurs sont tenus de trouver un compromis entre les exigences structurales de résistance, rigidité et ductilité d’une part, et les objectifs d’utilisation et de fonction relevant d’exigences architecturales d’autre part. Cette article fait une comparaison entre différents méthodes de dimensionnement des poteaux mixtes acier béton, en tenant compte des plusieurs paramètres.

  15. Efficacité du renforcement des poutres en béton armé par des matériaux composites Efficiency of strengthening concrete beams using FRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chemrouk M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pour réduire le coût et assurer un comportement relativement plus ductile pour des éléments en béton armés renforcés, l’addition des fibres de verre pourrait être considérée comme solution de rechange, puisqu’elles sont relativement plus déformables et meilleur marché que la fibre de carbone. Dans ce sens, le travail actuel vise à évaluer l’efficacité du renfort externe sur les poutres renforcées par le tissu de FRP (verre-carbone. Un total de sept poutres en béton armé a été renforcé en flexion et en cisaillement, et testé sous un chargement quatre points cyclique statique. Les champs des contraintes et de déformation ont été contrôlés par un système de caméra numérique “Gom-Aramis”. Les résultats ont été analysés en termes de résistance, rigidité, ductilité et mode de rupture. To reduce the cost and to ensure a behavior relatively more ductile for concrete strengthening elements, the addition of glass fibers could be regarded as solution of replacement, since they are relatively more deformable and cheaper than carbon fiber. In this sense, current work aims at evaluating the effectiveness of the external reinforcement on the beams strengthened by fabric of FRP (glass – carbon. Seven concrete beams reinforced were strengthening in bending and shearing, and were testing under four point cyclic static. The fields of the stresses and deformation were controlled by a numerical system of camera “Gom-Aramis”. The results were analyzing in term of resistance, rigidity, ductility and mode of failure

  16. Tree biomass in the North Central Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard K. Raile; Pamela J. Jakes

    1982-01-01

    Methods for calculating tree biomass are outlined, and the biomass on commercial forest land is estimated for 11 north-central states. Tree biomass in the North Central Region totals 3.6 billion tons, or 50 tons per commercial forest acre. For all species, total tree biomass is concentrated in growing-stock boles.

  17. Capteurs physico-chimiques pour la détection d'agents agressifs vis-à-vis de la corrosion des aciers dans le béton

    OpenAIRE

    PELEGRY, Delphine; LABORATOIRE CENTRAL DES PONTS ET CHAUSSEES - LCPC

    2007-01-01

    Réaliser une étude bibliographique à large spectre sur les différents types de béton, les différents types et les mécanismes de corrosion des aciers, les agents agressifs, les dégradations dues à ces agents agressifs. Il apparaît notamment que les facteurs externes les plus agressifs pour le béton sont les chlorures et le gaz carbonique.

  18. Totally Nonnegative Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Fallat, Shaun M

    2011-01-01

    Totally nonnegative matrices arise in a remarkable variety of mathematical applications. This book is a comprehensive and self-contained study of the essential theory of totally nonnegative matrices, defined by the nonnegativity of all subdeterminants. It explores methodological background, historical highlights of key ideas, and specialized topics.The book uses classical and ad hoc tools, but a unifying theme is the elementary bidiagonal factorization, which has emerged as the single most important tool for this particular class of matrices. Recent work has shown that bidiagonal factorization

  19. Qualità totale e mobilità totale Total Quality and Total Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the cities of referring, in which for the first time, all together, individuals and private and public institutions can make a donation to fund initiatives for the removal of architectural barriers within its own territory for a real and effective total accessibility. Last February the fund was launched in Rome with the aim of achieving a Capital without barriers and a Town European model of accessibility and usability. Urban mobility is a prerequisite to access to goods and services, and to organize activities related to daily life. FIABA promotes the concept of sustainable mobility for all, supported by the European Commission’s White Paper. We need a cultural change in management and organization of public means, which might focus on

  20. Total Water Management - Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  1. Total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik M.; Petersen, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful treatment of the osteoarthritic knee, which has increased dramatically over the last 30 years. The indication is a painful osteoarthritic knee with relevant radiographic findings and failure of conservative measures like painkillers and exercise...

  2. Total versus subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Anna Birthe

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy for benign indications, with regard to urinary incontinence, postoperative complications, quality of life (SF-36), constipation, prolapse, satisfaction with sexual life, and pelvic pain at 1-year postoperative. Eighty...

  3. Total Quality Management Seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) meaning of total quality management (TQM); (2) the customer; (3) the organization's culture; (4) comparison of management…

  4. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  5. Total synthesis of aquatolide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saya, J.M.; Vos, K.; Klein Nijenhuis, R.A.; van Maarseveen, J.H.; Ingemann, S.; Hiemstra, H.

    2015-01-01

    A total synthesis of the sesquiterpene lactone aquatolide has been accomplished. The central step is an intramolecular [2 + 2]-photocycloaddition of an allene onto an alpha,beta-unsaturated delta-lactone. Other key steps are an intramolecular Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction to close the lactone and

  6. CSF total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  7. Total 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  8. Total Cost of Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Total Cost of Ownership (TCO), som giver et bud på, hvordan virksomheder kan opnå en bedre indsigt i, hvilke leverandører der forårsager hvilke omkostninger og dermed danne et forbedret beslutningsgrundlag for besparelser i leverandørleddet. I artiklen argumenteres først og fremmest for, hvorfor TCO er...

  9. Formation of a Quasar Host Galaxy through a Wet Merger 1.4 Billion Years after the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Walter, Fabian; Carilli, Christopher L.; Bertoldi, Frank; Momjian, Emmanuel

    2008-10-01

    We present high-resolution Very Large Array imaging of the molecular gas in the host galaxy of the high-redshift quasar BRI 1335-0417 (z = 4.41). Our CO(J = 2→ 1) observations have a linear resolution of 0.15' ' (1.0 kpc) and resolve the molecular gas emission both spatially and in velocity. The molecular gas in BRI 1335-0417 is extended on scales of 5 kpc, and shows a complex structure. At least three distinct components encompassing about two-thirds of the total molecular mass of 9.2 × 1010 M⊙ are identified in velocity space, which are embedded in a structure that harbors about one-third of the total molecular mass in the system. The brightest CO(J = 2→ 1) line emission region has a peak brightness temperature of 61 ± 9 K within 1 kpc diameter, which is comparable to the kinetic gas temperature as predicted from the CO line excitation. This is also comparable to the gas temperatures found in the central regions of nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxies, which are however much more compact than 1 kpc. The spatial and velocity structure of the molecular reservoir in BRI 1335-0417 is inconsistent with a simple gravitationally bound disk, but resembles a merging system. Our observations are consistent with a major, gas-rich ("wet") merger that both feeds an accreting supermassive black hole (causing the bright quasar activity), and fuels a massive starburst that builds up the stellar bulge in this galaxy. Our study of this z > 4 quasar host galaxy may thus be the most direct observational evidence that wet mergers at high redshift are related to AGN activity.

  10. Influence du type d’addition minérale sur les propriétés de transfert des Bétons AutoPlaçants Influence of the type of mineral admixtures on the transport properties of self compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khelafi H.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La formulation des bétons autoplaçants (BAP présente certaines spécificités dont un volume élevé de pâte et une quantité importante d’ajouts minéraux. Ces deux paramètres influencent sensiblement les propriétés de transfert de ces bétons. Dans ce travail, nous avons étudié l’influence de la nature et du pourcentage de plusieurs additions minérales sur certaines propriétés de transfert (la diffusion des ions chlore et la perméabilité au gaz des BAP. Trois différentes additions minérales ont été testées : des fillers calcaires, de la pouzzolane naturelle et des cendres volantes. Ensuite, nous avons cherché une probable relation analytique entre ces propriétés et la résistance à la compression de ces bétons. Au total, douze formulations ont été étudiées, elles couvrent trois différentes classes de résistances (30 MPa, 50 MPa et 70 MPa et quatre types de bétons: un béton ordinaire vibré, un BAP à base de pouzzolanes naturelles, un BAP à base de fillers calcaires et un BAP à base de cendres volantes. Les résultats montrent que la nature de l’addition minérale dans les BAP influe considérablement sur les propriétés de transferts de ces bétons. Après 28, 90 et 360 jours de cure, les BAP contenant de la pouzzolane naturelle représentent des performances très comparables à celles obtenues sur des BAP à base de cendres volantes et bien meilleures que celles obtenues sur des BAP formulés avec du filler calcaire. Indépendamment du type d’addition minérale, les résultats confirment l’existence d’une forte corrélation entre le développement de la résistance à la compression et les propriétés de transferts des BAP. Formulation of self compacting concrete (SCC has some specific characteristics including a high volume of paste and a large amount of mineral admixtures. These two parameters influence significantly the transport properties of SCC. In this work, we studied the influence of

  11. Total design of participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of design as an art made not only for the people, but also by the people is an old dream going back at least to William Morris. It is, however, reappearing vigoriously in many kinds of design activism and grows out of the visions of a Total Design of society. The ideas of participation b...... for? To which degree should everyone be educated in ’design literacy’ to participate? Total design of participation is an artistic intervention in society and must be discussed in this utopian tradition....... by Tim Brown can be compared to considerations by László Moholy-Nagy and Walter Gropuis on the training and education of active and capable citizens. This opens, though, some dilemmas to discuss: To what extend is the capability of creativity then a (pre)condition to be a citizen of the society wished...

  12. TOTAL PERFORMANCE SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca ȘERBAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of the Balanced Scorecard from a measurement instrument to a strategic performance management tool and to highlight the advantages of implementing the Total Performance Scorecard, especially for Human Resource Management. The study has been accomplished using the methodology of bibliographic study and various secondary sources. Implementing the classical Balanced Scorecard indicated over the years, repeatedly failure. It can be indicated that the crucial level is determined by the learning and growth perspective. It has been developed from a human perspective, which focused on staff satisfaction, innovation perspective with focus on future developments. Integrating the Total Performance Scorecard in an overall framework assures the company’s success, by keeping track of the individual goals, the company’s objectives and strategic directions. Like this, individual identity can be linked to corporate brand, individual aspirations to business goals and individual learning objectives to needed organizational capabilities.

  13. Total 2003 Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the 2003 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, 4. quarter 2003 results, full year 2003 results, upstream (key figures, proved reserves), downstream key figures, chemicals key figures, parent company accounts and proposed dividends, 2004 sensitivities, summary and outlook, operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2003: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refinery throughput by region, refined product sales by region, chemicals), impact of allocating contribution of Cepsa to net operating income by business segment: equity in income (loss) and affiliates and other items, Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  14. Outpatient Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Jack M; Hooper, Jessica; Moen, Sam

    2017-12-01

    Outpatient total joint arthroplasty (OTJA) allows for a safe, cost effective pathway for appropriately selected patients. With current pressures on arthroplasty surgeons and their associated institutions to reduce costs per episode of care, it is important to define the steps and challenges associated with establishing an outpatient arthroplasty program. Several studies have outlined techniques of selecting patients suitable for this type of postoperative pathway. With emerging concerns about patients who undergo outpatient arthroplasty being at increased risk of medical complications, which may lessen projected cost savings, it is important to identify value-based strategies to optimize patient recovery after OTJA. This article reviews digital techniques for patient selection and data collection, operating room efficiency systems, and provides a summary of methods to build and maintain value in outpatient total joint replacement within the framework of bundled payment reimbursement.

  15. Totally parallel multilevel algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Paul O.

    1988-01-01

    Four totally parallel algorithms for the solution of a sparse linear system have common characteristics which become quite apparent when they are implemented on a highly parallel hypercube such as the CM2. These four algorithms are Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid (PSMG) of Frederickson and McBryan, Robust Multigrid (RMG) of Hackbusch, the FFT based Spectral Algorithm, and Parallel Cyclic Reduction. In fact, all four can be formulated as particular cases of the same totally parallel multilevel algorithm, which are referred to as TPMA. In certain cases the spectral radius of TPMA is zero, and it is recognized to be a direct algorithm. In many other cases the spectral radius, although not zero, is small enough that a single iteration per timestep keeps the local error within the required tolerance.

  16. Total quality accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Andrijašević Maja

    2008-01-01

    The focus of competitive "battle" shifted from the price towards non-price instruments, above all, towards quality that became the key variable for profitability increase and achievement of better comparative position of a company. Under such conditions, management of a company, which, according to the established and certified system of total quality, strives towards achieving of a better market position, faces the problem of quality cost measurement and determination. Management, above all,...

  17. Total - annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual report presents the activities and results of TOTAL S.A., french society on oil and gas. It deals with statistics, the managers, key information on financial data and risk factors, information on the Company, unresolved Staff Comments, employees, major Shareholders, consolidated statements, markets, security, financial risks, defaults dividend arrearages and delinquencies, controls and procedures, code of ethics and financial statements. (A.L.B.)

  18. Total aerosol effect

    OpenAIRE

    Lohmann, Ulrike; Rotstayn, Leon; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andrew; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica M. L.; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto A.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainties in aerosol radiative forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of precipitation formation. In former assessments of aerosol radiative forcings, these effects have not been quantified. Also, with global aerosol-climate models simulating interactively aerosols and cloud microphysical prope...

  19. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc...

  20. Total space in resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonacina, I.; Galesi, N.; Thapen, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2016), s. 1894-1909 ISSN 0097-5397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : total space * resolution random CNFs * proof complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.433, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/15M1023269

  1. Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of determining the distribution of beta decay strength (B(GT)) as a function of excitation energy in the daughter nucleus is discussed. Total Absorption Spectroscopy is shown to provide a way of determining the B(GT) precisely. A brief history of such measurements and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, is followed by examples of two recent studies using the technique. (authors)

  2. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  3. Tsuruga: 1 ton, some 10 mCi of rad-liquid leaks out to the sea, no environmental and human costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    In the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station of Japan Atomic Power Co., the leakage of radioactivity from the site into the sea occurred, as follows. Due to a valve being left open on March 8, 1981, the overflow of liquid waste from the filter sludge storage tank into the laundry waste filtering room took place. A part of it leaked through the floor into the general underground waterway. The amount was estimated to be one ton with some 10 mCi. The incident is reviewed with the following topics: nobody expected rad-material in the waterway with the leakage from a filter sludge tank; construction, human and management mistakes were revealed in the survey; no environmental impact, with the defect peculiar to Tsuruga; JAPCO executives assume the responsibility; JAPCO and regulatory authorities need review. (Mori, K.)

  4. Glaucoma maligno durante realização de curva tensional diária com tonômetro de contorno dinâmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Ferraz Rego

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O glaucoma maligno é uma doença caracterizada por pressão intraocular elevada com câmara anterior rasa na presença de iridectomia periférica patente. Na sua forma clássica, o glaucoma maligno é raro, e representa uma das mais sérias complicações da cirurgia fistulizante em pacientes com ângulo estreito ou glaucoma de ângulo fechado. O presente trabalho relata um caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino que desenvolveu crise de glaucoma por bloqueio ciliar (maligno precipitada pela realização de curva tensional diária de pressão intraocular com tonômetro de contorno dinâmico.

  5. Scale-up of mild gasification to be a process development unit mildgas 24 ton/day PDU design report. Final report, November 1991--July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    From November 1991 to April 1996, Kerr McGee Coal Corporation (K-M Coal) led a project to develop the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) Mild Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program were to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scale-up; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The project team for the PDU development program consisted of: K-M Coal, IGT, Bechtel Corporation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC), General Motors (GM), Pellet Technology Corporation (PTC), LTV Steel, Armco Steel, Reilly Industries, and Auto Research.

  6. Gov'tal FY 1987 draft budget for N-energy set at 360 billion yen, up 0.8 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The governmental draft budget for nuclear energy was approved on December 30. The total provided is 360,222 million yen, an increase of 0.8 % over the previous year. This is made up of general account, 183,308 million yen (1.4 % down) and special account for power resources development (related only to nuclear power) 175,914 million yen (up 3.2 %). The amount from the general account is reduced for the first time in three years. This decrease is due mainly to completion of the energy break-even plasma testing device for nuclear fusion research. The special account primarily represents the tax for promoting power source development, a kind of special purpose tax from the electric power companies, based on generated electricity, and from this, subsidies are paid to local municipalities for promotion of siting for power sources and for the cost of survey and research on the development of oil alternative power sources. The special account for power resources development consists of the power sources siting account, 68,114 million yen (up 4.5 %) and the power sources diversification account, 108,800 million yen (up 2.4 %). Nuclear energy budgets sought by the Science and Technology Agency, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and other government agencies are shown in Table. STA and MITI have both requested slightly less than in the preceding year from the general accout, but both asked for higher amounts from the special account than in the preceding year. The high rise in the amount sougt by other agencies is attributed to the increase in the cost of eradication of melon flies. (Nogami, K.)

  7. Investigations on catalyzed steam gasification of biomass. Appendix A. Feasibility study of methane production via catalytic gasification of 2000 tons of wood per day

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, L.K.; Weber, S.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Robertus, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been made of the economic feasibility of producing substitute natural gas (SNG) from wood via catalytic gasification with steam. The plant design in this study was developed from information on gasifier operation supplied by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The plant is designed to process 2000 tons per day of dry wood to SNG. Plant production is 21.6 MM scfd of SNG with a HHV of 956 Btu per scf. All process and support facilities necessary to convert wood to SNG are included. The plant location is Newport, Oregon. The capital cost for the plant is $95,115,000 - September, 1980 basis. Gas production costs which allow for return on capital have been calculated for various wood prices for both utility and private investor financing. For utility financing, the gas production costs are respectively $5.09, $5.56, $6.50, and $8.34 per MM Btu for wood costs of $5, $10, $20, and $40 per dry ton delivered to the plant at a moisture content of 49.50 wt %. For private investor financing, the corresponding product costs are $6.62, $7.11, $8.10, and $10.06 per MM Btu. The cost calculated by the utility financing method includes a return on equity of 15% and an interest rate of 10% on the debt. The private investor financing method, which is 100% equity financing, incorporates a discounted cash flow (DCF) return on equity of 12%. The thermal efficiency without taking an energy credit for by-product char is 58.3%.

  8. The COSMOS2015 galaxy stellar mass function . Thirteen billion years of stellar mass assembly in ten snapshots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidzon, I.; Ilbert, O.; Laigle, C.; Coupon, J.; McCracken, H. J.; Delvecchio, I.; Masters, D.; Capak, P.; Hsieh, B. C.; Le Fèvre, O.; Tresse, L.; Bethermin, M.; Chang, Y.-Y.; Faisst, A. L.; Le Floc'h, E.; Steinhardt, C.; Toft, S.; Aussel, H.; Dubois, C.; Hasinger, G.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Scoville, N.; Silverman, J. D.

    2017-09-01

    We measure the stellar mass function (SMF) and stellar mass density of galaxies in the COSMOS field up to z 6. We select them in the near-IR bands of the COSMOS2015 catalogue, which includes ultra-deep photometry from UltraVISTA-DR2, SPLASH, and Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam. At z> 2.5 we use new precise photometric redshifts with error σz = 0.03(1 + z) and an outlier fraction of 12%, estimated by means of the unique spectroscopic sample of COSMOS ( 100 000 spectroscopic measurements in total, more than one thousand having robust zspec> 2.5). The increased exposure time in the DR2, along with our panchromatic detection strategy, allow us to improve the completeness at high z with respect to previous UltraVISTA catalogues (e.g. our sample is >75% complete at 1010 ℳ⊙ and z = 5). We also identify passive galaxies through a robust colour-colour selection, extending their SMF estimate up to z = 4. Our work provides a comprehensive view of galaxy-stellar-mass assembly between z = 0.1 and 6, for the first time using consistent estimates across the entire redshift range. We fit these measurements with a Schechter function, correcting for Eddington bias. We compare the SMF fit with the halo mass function predicted from ΛCDM simulations, finding that at z> 3 both functions decline with a similar slope in thehigh-mass end. This feature could be explained assuming that mechanisms quenching star formation in massive haloes become less effective at high redshifts; however further work needs to be done to confirm this scenario. Concerning the SMF low-mass end, it shows a progressive steepening as it moves towards higher redshifts, with α decreasing from -1.47+0.02-0.02 at z ≃ 0.1 to -2.11+0.30-0.13 at z ≃ 5. This slope depends on the characterisation of the observational uncertainties, which is crucial to properly remove the Eddington bias. We show that there is currently no consensus on the method to quantify such errors: different error models result in different best

  9. TOTAL annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 2003 annual report of the Group Total provides economical results and information of the society on the following topics: keys data, the corporate governance (Directors charter, board of directors, audit committee, nomination and remuneration committee, internal control procedures, compensation of directors and executive officers), the corporate social responsibility (environmental stewardship, the future of energy management, the safety enhancement, the human resources, ethics and local development), the investor relations, the management report, the upstream exploration and production, the downstream refining, marketing, trading and shipping, the chemicals and financial and legal information. (A.L.B.)

  10. Total Synthesis of Strychnine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geun Seok; Namkoong, Gil; Park, Jisook; Chen, David Y-K

    2017-11-16

    The total synthesis of the flagship Strychnos indole alkaloid, strychnine, has been accomplished. The developed synthetic sequence features a novel vinylogous 1,4-addition, a challenging iodinium salt mediated silyl enol ether arylation, a palladium-catalyzed Heck reaction, and a streamlined late-stage conversion to strychnine. Furthermore, an application of asymmetric counterion-directed catalysis (ACDC) in the context of target-oriented organic synthesis has been rendered access to an optically active material. The synthetic sequence described herein represents the most concise entry to optically active strychnine to date. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Total Synthesis of Hyperforin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chi P; Maimone, Thomas J

    2015-08-26

    A 10-step total synthesis of the polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol (PPAP) natural product hyperforin from 2-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one is reported. This route was enabled by a diketene annulation reaction and an oxidative ring expansion strategy designed to complement the presumed biosynthesis of this complex meroterpene. The described work enables the preparation of a highly substituted bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-1,3,5-trione motif in only six steps and thus serves as a platform for the construction of easily synthesized, highly diverse PPAPs modifiable at every position.

  12. Total quality accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijašević Maja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of competitive "battle" shifted from the price towards non-price instruments, above all, towards quality that became the key variable for profitability increase and achievement of better comparative position of a company. Under such conditions, management of a company, which, according to the established and certified system of total quality, strives towards achieving of a better market position, faces the problem of quality cost measurement and determination. Management, above all, cost accounting can help in solving of this problem, but the question is how much of its potential is being used for that purpose.

  13. Total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik M.; Petersen, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful treatment of the osteoarthritic knee, which has increased dramatically over the last 30 years. The indication is a painful osteoarthritic knee with relevant radiographic findings and failure of conservative measures like painkillers and exercise...... surgeon seems to positively influence the rate of surgical complications and implant survival. The painful TKA knee should be thoroughly evaluated, but not revised except if a relevant indication can be established. The most frequent indications for revision are: aseptic loosening, instability, infection...

  14. Supravaginal eller total hysterektomi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, L; Madsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    is examined. It is concluded that the risk of developing carcinoma of the cervical stump is low, and no longer a weighty indication for the total in preference to the supravaginal hysterectomy as long as subsequent screening of the cervix is performed. At the same time it is important to inform the women...... carefully after the supravaginal operation in order to secure that subsequent screening actually is taking place. One must have a normal smear and offer a colposcopic examination before the operation. In general the rate of complications after both kind of hysterectomies is low. However, a few new studies...

  15. Total 2004 fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2004. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  16. Total Factbook 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2003. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  17. Total quality is people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Confronted by changing market conditions and increased global competition, in 1983 the Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division (CNFD) of Westinghouse Electric embarked on an ambitious plan to make total quality the centerpiece of its long-term business strategy. Five years later, the division's efforts in making continuous quality improvement a way of life among its more than 2,000 employees gained national recognition when it was named a charter recipient of the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award. What CNFD achieved during the 1980s was a cultural transformation, characterized by an empowered work force committed to a common vision. The company's quality program development strategy is described

  18. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  19. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Total process surveillance: (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, J.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    A Total Process Surveillance system is under development which can provide, in real-time, additional process information from a limited number of raw measurement signals. This is achieved by using a robust model based observer to generate estimates of the process' internal states. The observer utilises the analytical reduncancy among a diverse range of transducers and can thus accommodate off-normal conditions which lead to transducer loss or damage. The modular hierarchical structure of the system enables the maximum amount of information to be assimilated from the available instrument signals no matter how diverse. This structure also constitutes a data reduction path thus reducing operator cognitive overload from a large number of varying, and possibly contradictory, raw plant signals. (orig.)

  1. On total disc replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Svante

    2011-02-01

    Low back pain consumes a large part of the community's resources dedicated to health care and sick leave. Back disorders also negatively affect the individual leading to pain suffering, decreased quality-of-life and disability. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) due to degenerative disc disease (DDD) is today often treated with fusion when conservative treatment has failed and symptoms are severe. This treatment is as successful as arthroplasty is for hip arthritis in restoring the patient's quality of life and reducing disability. Even so, there are some problems with this treatment, one of these being recurrent CLBP from an adjacent segment (ASD) after primarily successful surgery. This has led to the development of alternative surgical treatments and devices that maintain or restore mobility, in order to reduce the risk for ASD. Of these new devices, the most frequently used are the disc prostheses used in Total Disc Replacement (TDR). This thesis is based on four studies comparing total disc replacement with posterior fusion. The studies are all based on a material of 152 patients with DDD in one or two segments, aged 20-55 years that were randomly treated with either posterior fusion or TDR. The first study concerned clinical outcome and complications. Follow-up was 100% at both one and two years. It revealed that both treatment groups had a clear benefit from treatment and that patients with TDR were better in almost all outcome scores at one-year follow-up. Fusion patients continued to improve during the second year. At two-year follow-up there was a remaining difference in favour of TDR for back pain. 73% in the TDR group and 63% in the fusion group were much better or totally pain-free (n.s.), while twice as many patients in the TDR group were totally pain free (30%) compared to the fusion group (15%). Time of surgery and total time in hospital were shorter in the TDR group. There was no difference in complications and reoperations, except that seventeen of the

  2. Primary total elbow arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary total elbow arthroplasty (TEA is a challenging procedure for orthopedic surgeons. It is not performed as frequently as compared to hip or knee arthroplasty. The elbow is a nonweight-bearing joint; however, static loading can create forces up to three times the body weight and dynamic loading up to six times. For elderly patients with deformity and ankylosis of the elbow due to posttraumatic arthritis or rheumatoid arthritis or comminuted fracture distal humerus, arthroplasty is one of the option. The aim of this study is to analyze the role of primary total elbow arthroplasty in cases of crippling deformity of elbow. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 11 cases of TEA, between December 2002 and September 2012. There were 8 females and 3 males. The average age was 40 years (range 30-69 years. The indications for TEA were rheumatoid arthritis, comminuted fracture distal humerus with intraarticular extension, and posttraumatic bony ankylosis of elbow joint. The Baksi sloppy (semi constrained hinge elbow prosthesis was used. Clinico-radiological followup was done at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and then yearly basis. Results: In the present study, average supination was 70° (range 60-80° and average pronation was 70° (range 60-80°. Average flexion was 135° (range 130-135°. However, in 5 cases, there was loss of 15 to 35° (average 25° of extension (45° out of 11 cases. The mean Mayo elbow performance score was 95.4 points (range 70-100. Arm length discrepancy was only in four patients which was 36% out of 11 cases. Clinico-radiologically all the elbows were stable except in one case and no immediate postoperative complication was noted. Radiolucency or loosening of ulnar stem was seen in 2 cases (18% out of 11 cases, in 1 case it was noted after 5 years and in another after 10 years. In second case, revision arthroplasty was done, in which only ulnar hinge section, hinge screw and lock screw with hexagonal head

  3. Waste Not, Want Not: Managing Livestock Waste for Income and the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Christoe, Jock

    2003-01-01

    The world-wide intensification of livestock industries poses major challenges for waste disposal. For example, the total solids wastes discharged from livestock farms in China exceeded 1.7 billion tons in 1997, with a further 20 billion tons of waste water being discharged to the environment — only 10% of these wastes were treated! A key element of sustainable development is Cleaner Production. Cleaner Production is an approach in which wastes are handled in such a way that environmental poll...

  4. Total disc replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Total equipment parts configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrare, J.

    1989-01-01

    Florida Power ampersand Lights's (FP ampersand L's) Turkey Point units were built prior to the establishment of American Society of Mechanical Engineers' Sec. III requirements. Since that time, FP ampersand L has voluntarily committed to procuring some spare and replacement parts in compliance with the ordering requirements of ASME Sec. III. New subsystems were designed according to ASME Sec. III requirements. In 1978, 10CFR21 of the Code of Federal Regulations was federally mandated. Environmental qualification concerns and the Three Mile Island incident further complicated the stocking and ordering of spare and replacement parts. Turkey Point assembled a team of quality assurance, quality control, and engineering people and obtained permission to directly access the store department computer so that catalog descriptions could be quickly made available for use by the plant. The total equipment parts configuration (TEPC) system was designed and developed under the direction of the procurement document review team at the Turkey Point nuclear plant. The system is a network of related computer data bases that identifies the equipment at the plant. The equipment (or components that make up a piece of equipment) is identified by a tag/component code system. Each component is further broken down by the manufacturer's parts list or bill of material. A description of the data available to the user, the ways these data can be accessed and displayed, and a description of the data bases and their relation to each other are summarized in this paper

  6. La perméabilité relative aux gaz : Une propriété de transport importante contrôlant la durabilité du béton partiellement saturé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Abidine Kameche Zine

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Les propriétés de transport du béton, principalement la perméabilité, jouent un rôle clé dans l’évaluation et la prévision de la durabilité des structures en béton armé. En effet, la perméabilité aux gaz est un indicateur majeur pour évaluer la capacité du matériau à résister à la pénétration d’espèces chimiques agressives. Toutefois, l’aptitude du béton à se faire pénétrer par ces agents agressifs, ne peut pas toujours suivre une loi Darcienne puisque ce matériau n’est que très rarement saturé dans la réalité. En effet, la perméabilité du béton ordinaire, de nature poreuse, dépend du taux d’humidité qui fluctue dans ses interstices en fonction du temps en relation avec son milieu environnant. L’objectif de nos travaux est ainsi d’étudier la perméabilité du béton ordinaire partiellement saturé, confectionné à l’aide de deux types de ciment (CEM II/A 42,5 et CEM II/A 32,5, en soulignant l’attention particulière à l’influence de la taille du corps d’éprevue sur la mesure de la perméabilité (effet d’échelle. Dans ce but, le béton est caractérisé en premier lieu par sa perméabilité intrinsèque, évaluée par l’application de la méthode de Klinkenberg, et la variation de ce paramètre est étudiée en variant le taux de saturation dans des éprouvettes cylindriques de tailles différentes et en s’intéressant également à l’influence des deux ciments différents sur l’évolution de la perméabilité aux gaz du béton. L’analyse des résultats obtenus met en évidence l’évolution sensible de la perméabilité relative aux gaz du béton ordinaire en fonction du degré de saturation des différents corps d’épreuves testés. Ces résultats expérimentaux obtenus sont susceptibles d’être introduits dans des modèles de prévision des transferts dans le béton et de la prédiction de la durabilité des ouvrages en béton. Dans ce cadre, la validité de la

  7. Methods for preparation of mixtures of gases in air at the parts-per-billion to parts-per-million concentration range for calibration of monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpas, Z.; Melloul, S.; Pollevoy, Y.; Matmor, A.

    1992-05-01

    Static and dynamic methods for generating mixture of gases and vapors in air at the parts-per-billion (ppb) to parts-per-million (ppm) concentration range were surveyed. The dynamic methods include: a dynamic flow and mixing system; injection of samples into large volumes of air; exponential dilution; permeation and diffusion tubes; and generation of the target gas by chemical reaction or electrolysis. The static methods include preparation of mixtures by weighing the components, by volumetric mixing and by partial pressure method. The principles governing the utilization of these methods for the appropriate applications were discussed, and examples in which they were used to calibrate an ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) were given. (authors)

  8. Generating Billion-Edge Scale-Free Networks in Seconds: Performance Study of a Novel GPU-based Preferential Attachment Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perumalla, Kalyan S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Alam, Maksudul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-01

    A novel parallel algorithm is presented for generating random scale-free networks using the preferential-attachment model. The algorithm, named cuPPA, is custom-designed for single instruction multiple data (SIMD) style of parallel processing supported by modern processors such as graphical processing units (GPUs). To the best of our knowledge, our algorithm is the first to exploit GPUs, and also the fastest implementation available today, to generate scale free networks using the preferential attachment model. A detailed performance study is presented to understand the scalability and runtime characteristics of the cuPPA algorithm. In one of the best cases, when executed on an NVidia GeForce 1080 GPU, cuPPA generates a scale free network of a billion edges in less than 2 seconds.

  9. Millions and Billions of Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Darren; Horowitz, Paul

    The history of the Harvard SETI group is inextricably linked with the history of Paul Horowitz. Horowitz became enamored with SETI as a student at Harvard, reading Ed Purcell's paper "Radio Astronomy and Communication Through Space" (Purcell, 1960), discussing with his roommates a class that Carl Sagan was teaching there using a draft of Shklovskii and Sagan's "Intelligent Life in the Universe" (Shklovskii and Sagan, 1966) as a text, and finally attending a Loeb Lecture series at Harvard by Frank Drake (Drake, 1969). The series was officially about pulsars but Drake did manage to slip in one inspiring talk about SETI. Horowitz says that "It was this lecture that launched me into this field; it was a revelation that you could go beyond idle speculation - you could actually calculate stuff."

  10. The Four Billion Dollar Lunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, R. Craig

    1978-01-01

    Discusses problems with the National School Lunch Program, including the high proportion of food thrown away by students, problems with food preparation, nutritional standards, and competition from junk foods. Suggestions for nutrition education are offered and organizations and books for further reference are listed. (JMB)

  11. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the TonB-dependent haem outer membrane transporter ShuA from Shigella dysenteriae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillet, Karl; Meksem, Ahmed; Thompson, Andrew; Cobessi, David

    2009-01-01

    ShuA from S. dysenteriae was crystallized in several crystallization conditions containing detergents. Adding heavy atoms during crystallization strongly improved the crystal quality and the resolution limits. Diffraction data were collected at an energy remote from the Pb M absorption edges. As part of efforts towards understanding the crystallization of membrane proteins and membrane transport across the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, the TonB-dependent haem outer membrane transporter ShuA of Shigella dysenteriae bound to heavy atoms was crystallized in several crystallization conditions using detergents. The insertion of a His 6 tag into an extracellular loop of ShuA, instead of downstream of the Escherichia coli peptide signal, allowed efficient targeting to the outer membrane and the rapid preparation of crystallizable protein. Crystals diffracting X-rays beyond 3.5 Å resolution were obtained by co-crystallizing ShuA with useful heavy atoms for phasing (Eu, Tb, Pb) by the MAD method at the synchrotron, and the SAD or SIRAS method at the Cu wavelength. The authors collected X-ray diffraction data at 2.3 Å resolution using one crystal of ShuA-Pb, and at 3.2 Å resolution at an energy remote from the Pb M absorption edges for phasing on PROXIMA-1 at SOLEIL

  12. Study of the muon spectrum at a depth 570 m.w.e. underground by means of the 100-ton scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enikeev, R.I.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Korol'kova, E.V.; Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Mal'gin, A.S.; Ryazhskaya, O.G.; Khal'chukov, F.F.

    1988-01-01

    The experiment was carried out using the 100-ton apparatus at the Artemovsk Scientific Station of the Institute of Nuclear Research, USSR Academy of Sciences, located in a salt mine at a depth 570 m.w.e. underground. The spectrum of the energy release in the electromagnetic cascades which are generated by muons underground was measured. The electromagnetic and nuclear cascades were separated on the basis of the number of neutrons in these cascades. The spectrum of the energy release obtained is consistent with a spectrum of π and K mesons with γ/sub π//sub ,//sub K/ = 1.75 +- 0.08 for muon energies at sea level E 0 /sub μ/ >0.7 TeV. The experimental data recalculated to the vertical spectrum of muons at sea level agree with the results of other studies. Up to energies of about 100 TeV neither the spectrum of the primary cosmic rays nor the characteristics of the pA interaction undergo changes which could lead to an increase of γ/sub π//sub ,//sub K/ to a value exceeding 1.85

  13. Study of radiation exposure due to radon, thoron and progeny in the indoor environment of Yamuna and Tons valleys of Garhwal Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Mukesh; Rawat, Mukesh; Dangwal, Anoop; Ramola, R.C.; Prasad, Ganesh; Mishra, Rosaline

    2016-01-01

    Long-term measurements of indoor radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations have been carried out in dwellings of Yamuna and Tons Valleys of Uttarkashi, Garhwal Himalaya to investigate the health risk associated with inhalation of radon, thoron and progeny. The experimentally determined values of radon, thoron and progeny concentrations were used to estimate the annual inhalation doses and annual effective doses. The annual inhalation dose has been found to vary from 0.8 to 3.9 mSv y -1 with an average of 1.8 mSv y -1 . The annual effective dose from the exposure to radon and its progeny in the study area has been found to vary from 0.1 to 2.4 mSv with an average of 1.2±0.6 mSv. Similarly, the annual effective dose due to thoron and its progeny has been found to vary from 0.2 to 1.5 mSv with an average of 0.6±0.4. The measurement techniques and results obtained are discussed in detail. (authors)

  14. STUDY OF RADIATION EXPOSURE DUE TO RADON, THORON AND PROGENY IN THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT OF YAMUNA AND TONS VALLEYS OF GARHWAL HIMALAYA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Mukesh; Rawat, Mukesh; Dangwal, Anoop; Prasad, Ganesh; Mishra, Rosaline; Ramola, R C

    2016-10-01

    Long-term measurements of indoor radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations have been carried out in dwellings of Yamuna and Tons Valleys of Uttarkashi, Garhwal Himalaya to investigate the health risk associated with inhalation of radon, thoron and progeny. The experimentally determined values of radon, thoron and progeny concentrations were used to estimate the annual inhalation doses and annual effective doses. The annual inhalation dose has been found to vary from 0.8 to 3.9 mSv y -1 with an average of 1.8 mSv y -1 The annual effective dose from the exposure to radon and its progeny in the study area has been found to vary from 0.1 to 2.4 mSv with an average of 1.2±0.6 mSv. Similarly, the annual effective dose due to thoron and its progeny has been found to vary from 0.2 to 1.5 mSv with an average of 0.6±0.4. The measurement techniques and results obtained are discussed in detail. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Compartment syndrome of thigh and lower leg with disruption of the popliteal vascular bundle after being run over by a 25-ton truck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burghardt Rolf D

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Compartment syndrome of the thigh is a rare condition, potentially resulting in devastating functional outcome. Increasing intracompartmental pressure which suppresses microcirculation and capillary perfusion may lead to cellular anoxia and muscle ischemia. The muscle compartments in the thigh have a more compliant fascia and blend anatomically into the open compartments of the pelvis, thus compensating higher volumes than the compartments in the lower leg. We present a previously unreported case in which the limb of a 36-year-old man was run over by a 25-ton truck. He presented with a sensomotor deficit in his left lower leg with full paralysis of the shank muscles and absence of all foot pulses. CT scan showed a huge haematoma in the thigh with active bleeding out of the popliteal artery into the haematoma which has already expanded into the muscle compartments of the lower leg. The limb had a disastrous compartment syndrome of the thigh and lower leg with disruption of the popliteal neurovascular bundle; however, no bones in the limb were fractured. A complete fasciotomy of all the lower limb muscle compartments was immediately performed. The artery was reconstructed with interposition of the smaller saphenous vein, which was already interrupted through the initial trauma. Key words: Compartment syndromes; Thigh; Hemorrhage; Popliteal artery; Peroneal nerve

  16. Incapacidad laboral total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Díaz Tabares

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal, descriptivo y retrospectivo con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de la incapacidad permanente para el trabajo en el municipio "San Cristóbal" durante el decenio 1982-1991, y se aplicó el método de encuesta por el que se recogieron datos que fueron extraídos del modelo oficial de peritaje médico laboral y de la entrevista con el peritado. Los resultados fueron plasmados en tablas de contingencias donde se relacionan las variables por cada año estudiado, y se aplicó la prueba estadística de chi cuadrado. El número de individuos dictaminados con incapacidad laboral total fue de 693; predominó en reportes el año 1988 con 114 casos y muy discretamente el sexo femenino sobre el masculino, el grupo etáreo de 45 a 54 años con 360 casos y la artrosis como entidad valorada por ortopedia, con análisis estadísticos significativos. No resultó estadísticamente significativo, el predominio de la hipertensión arterial sistémica entre las entidades valoradas por la especialidad de medicina interna como causas de incapacidad laboral. Fue muy significativa la variación del número de dictaminados por la comisión en cada uno de los años estudiados y que el porcentaje de ellos que se encontraban realizando trabajos que demandan esfuerzo físico de moderado a intenso al momento de aplicar la encuesta, ascendió al 64,9.A longitudinal, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in order to know the behavior of permanent labor disability at the municipality of San Cristóbal during 1982-1991. A survey was done to collect data taken from the official model of medical inspections and from the interview with the disabled worker. The results were shown in contingency tables where the variables are related by every year studied. The chi square statistical test was applied. The number of individuals with labor disability was 693. As for reports, the year 1988 predominated with 114. There was a discreet

  17. Algas do perifíton de distintos ambientes na planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná = Periphytic algae in distinct environments of the upper Paraná river floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Majewski Algarte

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisou a estrutura e dinâmica da comunidade de algas do perifíton em três ambientes da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná (lagoa do Guaraná, lagoa Fechada e rio Baía, em dois períodos hidrológicos (águas altas - AA e águas baixas - AB do ano de 2003. O substrato utilizado foi Eichhornia azurea Kunth. Foram encontradosno total 284 táxons, sendo 193 em águas altas e 172 em águas baixas. A lagoa do Guaraná apresentou maior riqueza em ambos os períodos hidrológicos. No período de águas altas foi constatado um aumento de cianobactérias para os três ambientes. Durante as águas baixas houve maior ocorrência de diatomáceas. As características limnológicas (principalmente oxigênio dissolvido, ortofosfato e as formas de nitrogênio foram influenciadas pelo nível hidrológico e características hidrodinâmicas, que interferiram na presença, abundância e distribuição das algas em cada ambiente.This paper analyses the structure and dynamic of the periphytic algaecommunity in three systems in the Paraná river floodplain (Guaraná lagoon, Fechada lagoon and Baía river, in two hydrologic periods (high waters and low waters in 2003. Utilized substratum was Eichhornia azurea Kunth. There were found a total of 284, 193 inhigh waters and 172 in low waters periods. The Guaraná lagoon presented the largest richness in both hydrologic periods. The high waters period (March had larger density of cyanobacteria. The low waters period (September had larger occurrence of diatoms. Thelimnological characteristics (mainly dissolved oxygen, orthophosphate and nitrogen forms were influenced by hydrologic level and hydrodynamics characteristics, which interfered in presence, abundance, and distribution of the algae in the system.

  18. An Estimate of the Total DNA in the Biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landenmark, Hanna K E; Forgan, Duncan H; Cockell, Charles S

    2015-06-01

    Modern whole-organism genome analysis, in combination with biomass estimates, allows us to estimate a lower bound on the total information content in the biosphere: 5.3 × 1031 (±3.6 × 1031) megabases (Mb) of DNA. Given conservative estimates regarding DNA transcription rates, this information content suggests biosphere processing speeds exceeding yottaNOPS values (1024 Nucleotide Operations Per Second). Although prokaryotes evolved at least 3 billion years before plants and animals, we find that the information content of prokaryotes is similar to plants and animals at the present day. This information-based approach offers a new way to quantify anthropogenic and natural processes in the biosphere and its information diversity over time.

  19. A novel protein, TtpC, is a required component of the TonB2 complex for specific iron transport in the pathogens Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio cholerae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stork, M.; Otto, B.R.; Crosa, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    Active transport across the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria requires the energy that is generated by the proton motive force in the inner membrane. This energy is transduced to the outer membrane by the TonB protein in complex with the proteins ExbB and ExbB. In the pathogen Vibrio

  20. Aplicativo para dosimetria interna usando a distribuição biocinética de fótons baseada em imagens de medicina nuclear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viriato Leal Neto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Este artigo apresenta uma forma de se obterem estimativas de dose em pacientes submetidos a tratamentos radioterápicos a partir da análise das regiões de interesse em imagens de medicina nuclear. Materiais e Métodos: Foi desenvolvido o software denominado DoRadIo (Dosimetria das Radiações Ionizantes, que recebe as informações sobre os órgãos fontes e o órgão alvo e retorna resultados gráficos e numéricos. As imagens de medicina nuclear utilizadas foram obtidas de catálogos disponibilizados por físicos médicos. Nas simulações utilizaram-se modelos computacionais de exposição constituídos por fantomas de voxels acoplados ao código Monte Carlo EGSnrc. O software foi desenvolvido no Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 com o modelo de projeto Windows Presentation Foundation e a linguagem de programação C#. Resultados: Da aplicação das ferramentas foram obtidos: o arquivo para otimização das simulações Monte Carlo utilizando o EGSnrc, a organização e compactação dos resultados dosimétricos com todas as fontes, a seleção das regiões de interesse, a contagem da intensidade dos tons de cinza nas regiões de interesse, o arquivo das fontes ponderadas e, finalmente, todos os resultados gráficos e numéricos. Conclusão: A interface de usuários pode ser adaptada para uso em clínicas de medicina nuclear como ferramenta computacional auxiliar na estimativa da atividade administrada.

  1. Hubble Space Telescope observations of BALQSO Ton 34 reveal a connection between the broad-line region and the BAL outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krongold, Y.; Binette, L.; Bohlin, R.; Bianchi, L.; Longinotti, A. L.; Mathur, S.; Nicastro, F.; Gupta, A.; Negrete, C. A.; Hernandez-Ibarra, F.

    2017-07-01

    Ton 34 recently transitioned from non-absorbing quasar into a broad absorption line quasi-stellar object. Here, we report new HST-STIS observations of this quasar. Along with C IV absorption, we also detect absorption by NV+Lyα and possibly O VI+Lyβ. We follow the evolution of the C IV BAL, and find that, for the slower outflowing material, the absorption trough varies little (if at all) on a rest-frame time-scale of ˜2 yr. However, we detect a strong deepening of the absorption in the gas moving at larger velocities (-20 000 to -23 000 km s-1). The data is consistent with a multistreaming flow crossing our line of sight to the source. The transverse velocity of the flow should be ˜ few thousand km s-1, similar to the rotation velocity of the BLR gas (≈2 600 km s-1). By simply assuming Keplerian motion, these two components must have similar locations, pointing to a common outflow forming the BLR and the BAL. We speculate that BALs, mini-BALs and NALs are part of a common, ubiquitous, accretion-disc outflow in AGN, but become observable depending on the viewing angle towards the flow. The absorption troughs suggest a wind covering only ˜20 per cent of the emitting source, implying a maximum size of 10-3 pc for the clouds forming the BAL/BLR medium. This is consistent with constraints of the BLR clouds from X-ray occultations. Finally, we suggest that the low excitation broad emission lines detected in the spectra of this source lie beyond the wind, and this gas is probably excited by the shock of the BAL wind with the surrounding medium.

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the Escherichia coli outer membrane cobalamin transporter BtuB in complex with the carboxy-terminal domain of TonB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shultis, David D.; Purdy, Michael D. [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 (United States); Banchs, Christian N. [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Biophysics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 (United States); Wiener, Michael C., E-mail: mwiener@virginia.edu [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 (United States); Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Biophysics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Crystals of a complex of the E. coli proteins BtuB (outer membrane cobalamin transporter) and TonB (carboxy-terminal domain) diffracting to 2.1 Å resolution have been obtained. The energy-dependent uptake of organometallic compounds and other micronutrients across the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria is carried out by outer membrane active-transport proteins that utilize the proton-motive force of the inner membrane via coupling to the TonB protein. The Escherichia coli outer membrane cobalamin transporter BtuB and a carboxy-terminal domain of the TonB protein, residues 147–239 of the wild-type protein, were expressed and purified individually. A complex of BtuB and TonB{sup 147–239} was formed in the presence of the substrate cyanocobalamin (CN-Cbl; vitamin B{sub 12}) and calcium and was crystallized. BtuB was purified in the detergent LDAO (n-dodecyl-N,N-dimethylamine-N-oxide) and the complex was formed in a detergent mixture of LDAO and C{sub 8}E{sub 4} (tetraethylene glycol monooctylether). Crystals were obtained by sitting-drop vapor diffusion, with the reservoir containing 30%(v/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG 300) and 100 mM sodium acetate pH 5.2. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} (unit-cell parameters a = 74.3, b = 82.4, c = 122.6 Å). The asymmetric unit consists of a single BtuB–TonB complex. Data sets have been collected to 2.1 Å resolution at a synchrotron beamline (APS SER-CAT 22-ID)

  3. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program: executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Progrram is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report is an input into the third evaluation of the adequacy of the fee. The total-system cost for the reference waste-management program in this analysis is estimated to be 24 to 30 billion (1984) dollars. For the sensitivity cases studied in this report, the costs could be as high as 35 billion dollars and as low as 21 billion dollars. Because factors like repository location, the quantity of waste generated, transportation-cask technology, and repository startup dates exert substantial impacts on total-system costs, there are several tradeoffs between these factors, and these tradeoffs can greatly influence the total cost of the program. The total-system cost for the reference program described in this report is higher by 3 to 5 billion dollars, or 15 to 20%, than the cost for the reference program of the TSLCC analysis of April 1984. More than two-thirds of this increase is in the cost of repository construction and operation. These repository costs have increased because of changing design concepts, different assumptions about the effort required to perform the necessary activities, and a change in the source data on which the earlier analysis was based. Development and evaluation costs have similarly increased because of a net addition to the work content. Transportation costs have increased because of different assumptions about repository locations and several characteristics of the transportation system. It is expected that the estimates of total-system costs will continue to change in response to both an evolving program strategy and better definition of the work required to achieve the program objectives

  4. Fractionation and determination of total antioxidant capacity, total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a strong relationship (R2 = 0.77) between total antioxidant activity and total flavonoid contents and (R2 = 0.6517) for total phenolic content of the fractions. The present study demonstrated that V. doniana leaves extracts contain high amounts of flavonoids and phenolic compounds so that these compounds are ...

  5. DNA-based mutation assay GPMA (genome profiling-based mutation assay): reproducibility, parts-per-billion scale sensitivity, and introduction of a mammalian-cell-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Parmila; Gautam, Sunita Ghimire; Baba, Misato; Tsukiashi, Motoki; Matsuoka, Koji; Yasukawa, Kiyoshi; Nishigaki, Koichi

    2017-12-01

    Genome profiling-based mutation assay (GPMA) is, to date, the only DNA sequence-based mutation assay that directly measures DNA alterations induced by mutagens. Here, the all-important congruence of mutagen assignment between DNA-based GPMA and the phenotype-based Ames test (the gold standard of mutagen assays) was confirmed qualitatively and semi-quantitatively by means of 94 chemical species (including previously examined 64). The high sensitivity (on the order of 10 ppb) and reproducibility of GPMA were also corroborated by the match between virtually independent experiments conducted in the distant past (10 years ago) and recently. Meanwhile, a standard experimental framework was established: the conditions of 100 parts per billion (ppb) concentration of a chemical and 15-generation culture of Escherichia coli. Moreover, a mammalian cell line (NIH 3T3) was shown to be suitable as a tester organism for the GPMA approach. Preliminary experimental results suggested that this approach can provide a qualitatively equivalent and quantitatively different mutagen assay results relative to the bacteria-based GPMA (renamed as bGPMA). This finding confirmed the effectiveness of the GPMA approach and indicates that mGPMA is a promising way to detect mammalian-cell mutagens. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  6. From the Cover: Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal microbial metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Sessions, Alex L.; Allwood, Abigail C.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Grotzinger, John P.; Summons, Roger E.; Eiler, John M.

    2012-09-01

    The 3.45-billion-year-old Strelley Pool Formation of Western Australia preserves stromatolites that are considered among the oldest evidence for life on Earth. In places of exceptional preservation, these stromatolites contain laminae rich in organic carbon, interpreted as the fossil remains of ancient microbial mats. To better understand the biogeochemistry of these rocks, we performed microscale in situ sulfur isotope measurements of the preserved organic sulfur, including both Δ33S and . This approach allows us to tie physiological inference from isotope ratios directly to fossil biomass, providing a means to understand sulfur metabolism that is complimentary to, and independent from, inorganic proxies (e.g., pyrite). Δ33S values of the kerogen reveal mass-anomalous fractionations expected of the Archean sulfur cycle, whereas values show large fractionations at very small spatial scales, including values below -15‰. We interpret these isotopic patterns as recording the process of sulfurization of organic matter by H2S in heterogeneous mat pore-waters influenced by respiratory S metabolism. Positive Δ33S anomalies suggest that disproportionation of elemental sulfur would have been a prominent microbial process in these communities.

  7. A 1.4-Billion Pixel Map of the Seafloor: BOEM's Mission to Visualize Dynamic Geology and Identify Natural Seep Sites in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, K.; Shedd, W. W.

    2017-12-01

    In May, 2017, the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) published a high-resolution seafloor map of the northern Gulf of Mexico region. The new map, derived from 3-D seismic surveys, provides the scientific community with enhanced resolution and reveals previously undiscovered and poorly resolved geologic features of the continental slope, salt minibasin province, abyssal plain, Mississippi Fan, and the Florida Shelf and Escarpment. It becomes an even more powerful scientific tool when paired with BOEM's public database of 35,000 seafloor features, identifying natural hydrocarbon seeps, hard grounds, mud volcanoes, sediment flows, pockmarks, slumps, and many others. BOEM has mapped the Gulf of Mexico seafloor since 1998 in a regulatory mission to identify natural oil and gas seeps and protect the coral and chemosynthetic communities growing at those sites. The nineteen-year mapping effort, still ongoing, resulted in the creation of the 1.4-billion pixel map and the seafloor features database. With these tools and continual collaboration with academia, professional scientific institutions, and the offshore energy industry, BOEM will continue to incorporate new data to update and expand these two resources on a regular basis. They can be downloaded for free from BOEM's website at https://www.boem.gov/Gulf-of-Mexico-Deepwater-Bathymetry/ and https://www.boem.gov/Seismic-Water-Bottom-Anomalies-Map-Gallery/.

  8. Areva at March 31, 2012: 2.4% revenue growth to 2026 million euros (+1.3% on a comparable basis); Backlog growth of 12 months to 45.1 billion euros (+3.7%), down slightly over 3 months (-1.0%)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, Patricia; Briand, Pauline; Michaut, Maxime; Rosso, Jerome; Scorbiac, Marie de; Repaire, Philippine du

    2012-01-01

    AREVA generated consolidated revenue of 2.026 billion euros in the first quarter of 2012, up 2.4% (+1.3% like for like) compared with the same period in 2011. The increase in revenue in the Mining Business Group (+11.9% reported, +6.5% like for like), the Reactors and Services Business Group (+5.8% reported, +6.0% like for like) and the Renewable Energies Business Group (+198.2% reported, +199.8% like for like) offsets the expected decrease in revenue in the Front End Business Group (-17.2% reported, -18.3% like for like). Foreign exchange had a positive impact of 29 million euros over the period, while changes in consolidation scope had a negative impact of 8 million euros. The Group had 45.1 billion euros in backlog at March 31, 2012, up 3.7% in relation to March 31, 2011 and down slightly (-1.0%) from December 31, 2011. Backlog growth in the Front End, Reactors and Services and Back End Business Groups offsets the decrease in backlog in the Mining and Renewable Energies Business Groups. Order cancellations as a result of the Fukushima accident totaled 612 million euros at March 31, 2012, compared with 464 million euros at December 31, 2011

  9. Espessura central da córnea e a medida da pressão intra-ocular com diferentes tonômetros Could the central cornea thickness change the intraocular pressure results obtained by different tonometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Yumi Kitice

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a possível variação da pressão intra-ocular, obtida por diferentes tonômetros, com a espessura central da córnea. MÉTODOS: Após a medida da pressão intra-ocular com o ICare, instilou-se uma gota de colírio anestésico e fez-se a medida da espessura da córnea e, também, a medida da pressão intra-ocular com o tonômetro de contorno dinâmico de Pascal. Em seguida, instilou-se uma gota de colírio de fluoresceína e mediu-se a pressão intra-ocular o tonômetro de aplanação de Goldmann. RESULTADOS: 138 olhos de 71 pacientes foram examinados e divididos em 3 grupos de acordo com a espessura central da córnea. A análise da pressão intra-ocular mostrou valores concordantes quando se utilizou o ICare e o tonômetro de contorno dinâmico de Pascal, com média de diferença de -0,2. A pressão intra-ocular medida com o tonômetro de contorno dinâmico de Pascal apresentou valores maiores que os obtidos com o tonômetro de aplanação de Goldmann, com média de diferença de -3,1. Uma diferença estatisticamente significante foi obtida nas medidas com o ICare e tonômetro de aplanação de Goldmann. CONCLUSÃO: Existe uma diferença estatisticamente significante entre os valores da PIO obtidos com ICare, tonômetro de contorno dinâmico de Pascal e tonômetro de aplanação de Goldmann, quando relacionados com a espessura central da córnea.PURPOSE: Could the central corneal thickness (CCT change the intraocular pressure (IOP measured by ICARE (IC GOLDMANN APPLANATION TONOMETER (GAT and PASCAL DYNAMIC COUNTOUR TONOMETER (PDCT. METHODS: Before using the anesthesia we have measured the IOP with IC tonometer. After that we have used topical anesthesia to obtain the CCT using an ultrasound pachymeter (Mentor Co. and the IOP measured by PCDT followed by a drop of fluorescein to measured IOP with GAT. RESULTS: 138 eyes of 71 patients were analyzed. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to CCT. Best correlation was

  10. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. Volume 1. The analysis and its results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the fourth evaluation of the adequacy of the fee. The total-system cost for the reference authorized-system program is estimated to be 24 to 32 billion (1985) dollars. The total-system cost for the reference improved-performance system is estimated to be 26 to 34 billion dollars. A number of sensitivity cases were analyzed. For the authorized system, the costs for the sensitivity cases studied range from 21 to 39 billion dollars. For the improved-performance system, which includes a facility for monitored retrievable storage, the total-system cost in the sensitivity cases is estimated to be as high as 41 billion dollars. The factors that affect costs more than any other single factor for both the authorized and the improved-performance systems are delays in repository startup. A preliminary analysis of the impact of extending the burnup of nuclear fuel in the reactor was also performed; its results indicate that the impact is insignificant: the total-system cost is essentially unchanged from the comparable constant-burnup cases. The current estimate of the the total-system cost for the reference authorized system is zero to 3 billion dollars (9%) higher than the estimate for the reference system in the January 1985 TSLCC analysis

  11. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.

    1992-01-01

    The United States produced 257 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1992. This was the second highest quarterly production level ever recorded. US coal exports in January through March of 1992 were 25 million short tons, the highest first quarter since 1982. The leading destinations for US coal exports were Japan, Italy, France, and the Netherlands, together receiving 46 percent of the total. Coal exports for the first quarter of 1992 were valued at $1 billion, based on an average price of $42.28 per short ton. Steam coal exports totaled 10 million short tons, an increase of 34 percent over the level a year earlier. Metallurgical coal exports amounted to 15 million short tons, about the same as a year earlier. US coal consumption for January through March 1992 was 221 million short tons, 2 million short tons more than a year earlier (Table 45). All sectors but the residential and commercial sector reported increased coal consumption

  12. Theoretical innovation and technical progress will usher in a production period of gas fields with an annual capacity of ten billion cubic meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwei Gan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Challenged by the increasing complexity of targets and the tense situation of turning losses into profits during the 12th Five-Year Plan, by virtue of technological innovation, Sinopec Southwest Oil & Gas Company proposed the theories of gas exploration in continental clastic rock and marine carbonate rock, and developed the development technologies for reef, channel sandstone and tight sandstone reservoirs. Moreover, it innovatively formed a series of engineering technologies, including intelligent sliding sleeve staged fracturing, blasting–packing–fracturing stimulation, impulse fracturing, and drilling, completion and production technologies for ultra-deep horizontal wells with high sulfur contents. With these innovated theories and improved technologies, great discoveries have been made in the continental clastic rocks and marine carbonate rocks in West Sichuan Basin, the marine shale in South Sichuan Basin, and the marine carbonate rocks in Yuanba area of NE Sichuan Basin, and three 100 billion-m3 class commercial gas reserves zones were discovered. Moreover, two medium- and large-sized gas fields were proved, and three medium- and large-sized gas fields were completely constructed. Both reserves and production reached a new record in history. During the 13th Five-Year Plan, Sinopec Southwest Oil & Gas Company will focus on the exploration and development of deep marine carbonate reservoirs, commercial development of deep shale gas, safe development of gas fields with high sulfur, and enhancement of recovery in mature gas fields. By the end of the 13th Five-Year Plan, it is expected that the annual gas production of (10–12 × 109 m3 will be achieved.

  13. 2002 results: TotalFinaElf makes a ''much better performance'' than the overall international oil groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, E.

    2003-01-01

    T. Desmarest, head of TotalFinaElf oil and gas company, has presented the 2002 results of his company in the particular context of a moving international oil situation (the Iraq crisis and the situation in Venezuela) with important consequences on markets. At the same time, the company decided to change its name into 'Total' and to adopt a new logo. The results show a 17% drop with respect to 2001 but a 10% increase of the production. The high rate of exploration successes has led to the discovery of about 1 billion of bpe with a 0.8 US$ cost per bpe, which represents the best performance of the 5 world oil majors. The rate of reserves renewal reached 151% (11.2 billions of bpe at the end of 2002). The downstream activities (refining/distribution and basic chemistry) encountered much more problems for various reasons: low economic growth, climate warmth, international instability etc.. (J.S.)

  14. Comparison of Serum Concentrations of Total Cholesterol and Total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most dangerous tropical diseases that complicates HIV infection in Nigeria to date. Over two million Nigerians are known to be infected with TB and many more are at risk of the infection. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol and total lipid of 117 female TB patients attending chest clinic at ...

  15. Changes in total and differential white cell counts, total lymphocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Published reports on the possible changes in the various immune cell populations, especially the total lymphocyte and CD4 cell counts, during the menstrual cycle in Nigerian female subjects are relatively scarce. Aim: To determine possible changes in the total and differential white blood cell [WBC] counts, ...

  16. Investigation Of Total Phenolic, Total Flavonoid, Antioxidantand Allyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study was carried out to investigate the total polyphenol (TP), total flavonoid (TF), antioxidative effect and allyl isothyocyanate (ITC) content in different organs of wasabi plant grown in an organic system. Materials and Methods: Invitro study of methanol and boiled water extracts of wasabi were conducted ...

  17. Structure of the hypothetical protein Ton1535 from Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 reveals unique structural properties by a left-handed helical turn in normal α-solenoid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae-Hee; Kim, Yi-Seul; Rojvirija, Catleya; Cha, Hyung Jin; Kim, Yeon-Gil; Ha, Sung Chul

    2014-06-01

    The crystal structure of Ton1535, a hypothetical protein from Thermococcus onnurineus NA1, was determined at 2.3 Å resolution. With two antiparallel α-helices in a helix-turn-helix motif as a repeating unit, Ton1535 consists of right-handed coiled N- and C-terminal regions that are stacked together using helix bundles containing a left-handed helical turn. One left-handed helical turn in the right-handed coiled structure produces two unique structural properties. One is the presence of separated concave grooves rather than one continuous concave groove, and the other is the contribution of α-helices on the convex surfaces of the N-terminal region to the extended surface of the concave groove of the C-terminal region and vice versa. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Annual Total Binge Drinks Consumed by U.S. Adults, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanny, Dafna; Naimi, Timothy S; Liu, Yong; Lu, Hua; Brewer, Robert D

    2018-04-01

    Binge drinking (four or more drinks for women, five or more drinks for men on an occasion) accounts for more than half of the 88,000 U.S. deaths resulting from excessive drinking annually. Adult binge drinkers do so frequently and at high intensity; however, there are known disparities in binge drinking that are not well characterized by any single binge-drinking measure. A new measure of total annual binge drinks was used to assess these disparities at the state and national levels. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2015 data (analyzed in 2016) were used to estimate the prevalence, frequency, intensity, and total binge drinks among U.S. adults. Total annual binge drinks was calculated by multiplying annual binge-drinking episodes by binge-drinking intensity. In 2015, a total of 17.1% of U.S. adults (37.4 million) reported an annual average of 53.1 binge-drinking episodes per binge drinker, at an average intensity of 7.0 drinks per binge episode, resulting in 17.5 billion total binge drinks, or 467.0 binge drinks per binge drinker. Although binge drinking was more common among young adults (aged 18-34 years), half of the total binge drinks were consumed by adults aged ≥35 years. Total binge drinks per binge drinker were substantially higher among those with lower educational levels and household incomes than among those with higher educational levels and household incomes. U.S. adult binge drinkers consume about 17.5 billion total binge drinks annually, or about 470 binge drinks/binge drinker. Monitoring total binge drinks can help characterize disparities in binge drinking and help plan and evaluate effective prevention strategies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Follow the money: how the billions of dollars that flow from smokers in poor nations to companies in rich nations greatly exceed funding for global tobacco control and what might be done about it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callard, Cynthia

    2010-08-01

    The business of selling cigarettes is increasingly concentrated in the hands of five tobacco companies that collectively control almost 90% of the world's cigarette market, four of which are publicly traded corporations. The economic activities of these cigarette manufacturers can be monitored through their reports to shareholders and other public documents. Reports for 2008 show that the revenues of these five companies exceeded $300 billion, of which more than $160 billion was provided to governments as taxes, and that corporate earnings of the four publicly traded companies were over $25 billion, of which $14 billion was retained after corporate income taxes were paid. By contrast, funding for domestic and international tobacco control is not reliably reported. Estimated funding for global tobacco control in 2008, at $240 million, is significantly lower than resources provided to address other highmortality global health challenges. Tobacco control has not yet benefited from the innovative finance mechanisms that are in place for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. The Framework Convention On Tobacco Control (FCTC) process could be used to redirect some of the earnings from transnational tobacco sales to fund FCTC implementation or other global health efforts.

  20. Total body irradiation: current indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.; Danhier, S.; Dubray, B.; Cosset, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The choice of dose and fractionation for total body irradiation is made difficult by the large number of considerations to be taken into account. The outcome of bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation can be understood in terms of tumor cell killing, engraftment, and normal tissue damage, each of these endpoints being influenced by irradiation-, disease-, transplant-, and patient- related factors. Interpretation of clinical data is further hampered by the overwhelming influence of logistic constraints, the small numbers of randomized studies, and the concomitant variations in total dose and fraction size or dose rate. So far, three cautious conclusions can be drawn in order to tentatively adapt the total body irradiation schedule to clinically-relevant situations. Firstly, the organs at risk for normal tissue damage (lung, liver, lens, kidney) are protected by delivering small doses per fraction at low dose rate. This suggests that, when toxicity is at stake (e.g. in children), fractionated irradiation should be preferred, provided that inter-fraction intervals are long enough. Secondly, fractionated irradiation should be avoided in case of T-cell depleted transplant, given the high risk of graft rejection in this setting. An alternative would be to increase total (or fractional) dose of fractionated total body irradiation, but this approach is likely to induce more normal tissue toxicity. Thirdly, clinical data have shown higher relapse rates in chronic myeloid leukemia after fractionated or low dose rate total body irradiation, suggesting that fractionated irradiation should not be recommended, unless total (or fractional) dose is increased. Total body irradiation-containing regimens, primarily cyclophosphamide / total body irradiation, are either equivalent to or better than the chemotherapy-only regimens, primarily busulfan / cyclophosphamide. Busulfan / cyclophosphamide certainly represents a reasonable alternative, especially in patients who

  1. Stereoselective total synthesis of sphingolipids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 11. Stereoselective total synthesis of sphingolipids. PARAMESH JANGILI PERLA ... Keywords. 1,2-Diacetyl D-erythro-sphinganine; 1,2-diacetyl L-threo-sphinganine; D-erythro-sphinganine triacetate; sphingolipids; total synthesis; Garner aldehyde.

  2. Total hip arthroplasty in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Alma Becic; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Overgaard, Søren

    2005-01-01

    The annual number of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has increased in Denmark over the past 15 years. There is, however, limited detailed data available on the incidence of THAs.......The annual number of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has increased in Denmark over the past 15 years. There is, however, limited detailed data available on the incidence of THAs....

  3. Aspectos da composição química e aceitação sensorial da aguardente de cana-de-açúcar envelhecida em tonéis de diferentes madeiras Aspects of the chemical composition and sensorial acceptance of sugar cane spirit aged in casks of different types of woods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ricardo Alcarde

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho determinou aspectos da composição química e aceitação sensorial da aguardente de cana-de-açúcar envelhecida por 3 anos em tonéis de diferentes madeiras (amendoim, araruva, cabreúva, carvalho, cerejeira, grápia, ipê-roxo, jequitibá e pereira. O destilado alcoólico simples que originou a aguardente foi produzido na Destilaria Piloto da ESALQ/USP. Após envelhecimento, as aguardentes foram avaliadas quanto ao grau alcoólico, acidez volátil, furfural, aldeídos, ésteres, álcoois superiores, álcool metílico, cobre, compostos fenólicos totais, cor e aceitação sensorial. Independentemente da madeira com que o tonel foi construído, a aguardente envelhecida apresentou coloração mais escura e maior concentração de acidez volátil, de furfural, de ésteres, de álcoois superiores, de congêneres e de compostos fenólicos totais que o destilado alcoólico simples. Por outro lado, a aguardente envelhecida apresentou menor concentração de aldeídos, de metanol e de cobre que o destilado alcoólico simples. A análise estatística geral, considerando a composição físico-química global das aguardentes envelhecidas nos tonéis das diferentes madeiras indicou similaridades entre as aguardentes envelhecidas nos tonéis de amendoim, araruva e jequitibá; entre as aguardentes envelhecidas nos tonéis de cabreúva e pereira; e entre as aguardentes envelhecidas nos tonéis de carvalho, cerejeira, grápia e ipê-roxo. A aguardente envelhecida nos tonéis das diferentes madeiras manteve-se dentro de todos os padrões de qualidade estabelecidos pela legislação nacional em vigor. A aguardente envelhecida na madeira carvalho foi a que apresentou a melhor aceitação sensorial. Dentre as madeiras nacionais, ipê-roxo, amendoim, cabreúva, cerejeira e pereira foram aquelas que propiciaram as melhores qualidades sensoriais à aguardente.This study evaluated some aspects of the chemical composition and sensorial acceptance of

  4. Stable Isotope Geochemistry of Extremely Well-Preserved 2.45-Billion-Year-Old Hydrothermal Systems in the Vetreny Belt, Baltic Shield: Insights into Paleohydrosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, D. O.; Bindeman, I. N.

    2015-12-01

    The early Paleoproterozoic was an eventful period in the Earth's history. The first portions of free oxygen emerged in the atmosphere, Snowball Earth glaciations happened several times and the first supercontinent broke up due to extensive rifting. These events should have affected the stable isotopic composition of the hydrosphere. In this study, we use rocks that were altered in underwater hydrothermal systems to investigate the stable isotopic composition of the hydrosphere 2.39-2.45 billion years ago (hereinafter, Ga). Extremely low-δ18O (down to -27.5‰ SMOW) rocks from 2.39 Ga metamorphosed subglacial hydrothermal systems of the Belomorian belt, Baltic Shield formed at near-equatorial latitudes suggesting a Snowball (or Slushball) Earth glaciation. These results motivated us to look at temporally and geographically close hydrothermal systems from the unmetamorhposed 2.45 Ga Vetreny Belt rift. The length of the rift is 250 km and it is composed of high-Mg basalts, mafic-ultramafic intrusions and sedimentary successions. We examined several localities of high-Mg basalt flows that include astonishingly fresh pillow lavas, often with preserved volcanic glass, eruptive breccias, and hydrothermal alteration zones. Collected samples serve a great textural evidence of water-rock interaction that occurred in situ while basalts were cooling. The preliminary results from coexisting quartz and epidote (T, D18O=311°C), and from coexisting calcite and quartz (T, D18O=190°C) yield values of δ18O of involved water between -1.6 and -0.9 ‰. The values of δ13C in calcites vary between -4.0 and -2.3 ‰. It is likely that hydrothermal fluids operated in the Vetreny Belt rift were derived from seawater that is no different from modern oceanic water in terms of δ18O. Apparently, the rift was a Paleoproterozoic analog of the modern Red Sea, filled with oceanic water. The result is important because the Vetreny Belt rift predates the onset of Snowball Earth glaciation at 2

  5. Fluid-chemical evidence for one billion years of fluid flow through Mesoproterozoic deep-water carbonate mounds (Nanisivik zinc district, Nunavut)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, K. E.; Turner, E. C.; Kontak, D. J.; Fayek, M.

    2018-02-01

    -filling mineral phases spans over 1 billion years, and was decipherable only because of the in situ protocol used. The multiple-method in situ analytical protocol employed in this study substantially augments the knowledge of an area's geological history, parts of which cannot be discerned by means other than meticulous study of diagenetic phases, and should become routine in similar studies.

  6. Molecular Gas in a Submillimeter Galaxy at z = 4.5: Evidence for a Major Merger at 1 Billion Years after the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinnerer, E.; Carilli, C. L.; Capak, P.; Martinez-Sansigre, A.; Scoville, N. Z.; Smolčić, V.; Taniguchi, Y.; Yun, M. S.; Bertoldi, F.; Le Fevre, O.; de Ravel, L.

    2008-12-01

    We report the detection of CO molecular line emission in the z = 4.5 millimeter-detected galaxy COSMOS J100054+023436 (hereafter J1000+0234) using the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI) and NRAO's Very Large Array (VLA). The 12CO(4-3) line as observed with PdBI has a full line width of ~1000 km s-1, an integrated line flux of 0.66 Jy km s-1, and a CO luminosity of 3.2 × 1010 L⊙. Comparison to the 3.3 σ detection of the CO(2-1) line emission with the VLA suggests that the molecular gas is likely thermalized to the J = 4-3 transition level. The corresponding molecular gas mass is 2.6 × 1010 M⊙ assuming an ULIRG-like conversion factor. From the spatial offset of the red- and blueshifted line peaks and the line width a dynamical mass of 1.1 × 1011 M⊙ is estimated assuming a merging scenario. The molecular gas distribution coincides with the rest-frame optical and radio position of the object while being offset by 0.5'' from the previously detected Lyα emission. J1000+0234 exhibits very typical properties for lower redshift (z ~ 2) submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) and thus is very likely one of the long sought after high-redshift (z > 4) objects of this population. The large CO(4-3) line width taken together with its highly disturbed rest-frame UV geometry suggest an ongoing major merger about a billion years after the big bang. Given its large star formation rate (SFR) of >1000 M⊙ yr-1 and molecular gas content this object could be the precursor of a "red and dead" elliptical observed at a redshift of z = 2. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).

  7. Fractionation and determination of total antioxidant capacity, total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEYAKS PLC

    2014-01-29

    ) and total flavonoids content (TFC) of aqueous, ethanol, n-. Hexane extract as well as ethanol extract fractions of Vitex doniana leaves were determined. Ethanol extract showed the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl ...

  8. Totality eclipses of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Littmann, Mark; Willcox, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. - ;A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is the best guide and reference book on solar eclipses ever written. It explains: how to observe them; how to photograph and videotape them; why they occur; their history and mythology; and future eclipses - when and where to see them. Totality also tells the remarkable story of how eclipses shocked scientists, revealed the workings of the Sun, and made Einstein famous. And the book shares the experiences and advice of many veteran eclipse observers. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is profusely ill...

  9. Amélioration des propriétés des bétons pour les structures pétrolières en mer Improving Properties of Concrete for Offshore Petroleum Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesage J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'intérêt de l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP pour le béton trouve sa source dans le développement relativement récent de structures en béton devant être mises en contact avec des produits pétroliers, telles que les réservoirs en mer, enterrés ou semi-enterrés. Bien que les ouvrages en mer aient généralement une bonne durabilité, il apparait intéressant de rechercher à améliorer les performances des bétons en vue de leurs applications dans les structures pétrolières marines. Les voies de recherche ont porté essentiellement, d'une part sur la réduction du rapport eau/ciment (E/C auquel sont liées beaucoup de propriétés des bétons, en particulier l'étanchéité, et d'autre part sur l'allègement. La recherche de la réduction du rapport E/C a conduit à la mise au point des bétons étanches IFP. Il s'agit de bétons hydrauliques caractérisés par une fluidité exceptionnelle, une grande facilité de mise en place, une bonne imperméabilité aux hydrocarbures, à l'eau et aux gaz, une bonne résistance à l'abrasion et une excellente résistance aux agents agressifs. Bien que les premières applications industrielles soient terrestres, il s'agit d'un matériau bien adapté à la réalisation de structures pétrolières en mer. La deuxième voie de recherche concerne l'étude de bétons légers améliorés. L'allègement des structures pouvant être l'un des critères les plus recherchés pour l'utilisation de béton en mer, il était tout naturel d'essayer d'adapter au béton léger les formulations mises au point pour les bétons de densité normale. Les premiers résultats sont prometteurs et laissent entrevoir la possibilité de formuler des bétons légers de structure, étanches et résistants mécaniquement. Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP is interested in concrete because of the relatively recent development of concrete structures for use in contact with petroleum products, e. g. storage tanks, offshore

  10. [Total hip arthroplasty : history and perspective of an iconic surgerical intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulischer, S; Jennart, H; Zorman, D

    2017-01-01

    With nearly 2 million implants placed annually, total hip arthroplasty is one of the most frequently performed surgerical procedure. A historical review of this intervention reminds us of the times when surgery was done by barber, before the first attempts of interposition arthroplasty. It is only in 1970 that Sir John Charnley lay the foundations of modern arthroplasty. The pharmaceutical industry, by sharing this lucrative market of $ 5 billion annual revenue, is now playing a major role in the development of the next generation of implants.

  11. Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC) database integrates premarket and postmarket data about medical devices. It includes information pulled from CDRH databases...

  12. Leadership and Total Quality Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-15

    leadership and management skills yields increased productivity. This paper will focus on the skills required of senior level leaders (leaders at the...publication until it has been cleared by the appropriate mii..-, service or government agency. Leadership and Total Quality Management An Individual Study...llty Codes fAvti1 and/or DltISpecial Abstract AUTHOR: Harry D. Gatanas, LTC, USA TITLE: Leadership and Total Quality Management FORMAT- Individual

  13. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.

  14. Total 2004 annual report; TOTAL 2004 rapport annuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  15. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation

  16. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserves in the Montana Powder River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacke, Jon E.; Scott, David C.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.; Pierce, Paul E.; Gunderson, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize geology, coal resources, and coal reserves in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area in southeastern Montana. This report represents the fourth assessment area within the Powder River Basin to be evaluated in the continuing U.S. Geological Survey regional coal assessment program. There are four active coal mines in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area: the Spring Creek and Decker Mines, both near Decker; the Rosebud Mine, near Colstrip; and the Absaloka Mine, west of Colstrip. During 2011, coal production from these four mines totaled approximately 36 million short tons. A fifth mine, the Big Sky, had significant production from 1969-2003; however, it is no longer in production and has since been reclaimed. Total coal production from all five mines in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area from 1968 to 2011 was approximately 1.4 billion short tons. The Rosebud/Knobloch coal bed near Colstrip and the Anderson, Dietz 2, and Dietz 3 coal beds near Decker contain the largest deposits of surface minable, low-sulfur, subbituminous coal currently being mined in the assessment area. A total of 26 coal beds were identified during this assessment, 18 of which were modeled and evaluated to determine in-place coal resources. The total original coal resource in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area for the 18 coal beds assessed was calculated to be 215 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original coal resource remaining after subtracting restrictions and areas of burned coal, are about 162 billion short tons. Restrictions included railroads, Federal interstate highways, urban areas, alluvial valley floors, state parks, national forests, and mined-out areas. It was determined that 10 of the 18 coal beds had sufficient areal extent and thickness to be evaluated for recoverable surface resources ([Roland (Baker), Smith, Anderson, Dietz 2, Dietz 3, Canyon, Werner

  17. Total Ozone Prediction: Stratospheric Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Kawa, S. Ramdy; Douglass, Anne R.

    2003-01-01

    The correct prediction of total ozone as a function of latitude and season is extremely important for global models. This exercise tests the ability of a particular model to simulate ozone. The ozone production (P) and loss (L) will be specified from a well- established global model and will be used in all GCMs for subsequent prediction of ozone. This is the "B-3 Constrained Run" from M&MII. The exercise mostly tests a model stratospheric dynamics in the prediction of total ozone. The GCM predictions will be compared and contrasted with TOMS measurements.

  18. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada Superior total overdenture on implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.This is the case of a total maxilla edentulous patient seen in consultation of the "Pedro Ortíz" Clinic Implant of Habana del Este municipality in 2009 and con rehabilitation by prosthesis over osteointegration implants added to stomatology practice in Cuba as an alternative to conventional treatment in patients totally edentulous. We follow a protocol including a surgery or surgical phase, technique without or with flap creation and early or immediate load. This is a male patient aged 56 came to our multidisciplinary consultation worried because he had three prostheses in last two years and any fulfilled the requirements of retention to feel safe and comfortable with prostheses. The final result was the total satisfaction of rehabilitated patient improving its aesthetic and functional quality.

  19. Total dissolved atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the anoxic Cariaco basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasse, R.; Pérez, T.; Giuliante, A.; Donoso, L.

    2018-04-01

    Atmospheric deposition of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) is an important source of nitrogen for ocean primary productivity that has increased since the industrial revolution. Thus, understanding its role in the ocean nitrogen cycle will help assess recent changes in ocean biogeochemistry. In the anoxic Cariaco basin, the place of the CARIACO Ocean Time-Series Program, the influence of atmospherically-deposited TDN on marine biogeochemistry is unknown. In this study, we measured atmospheric TDN concentrations as dissolved organic (DON) and inorganic (DIN) nitrogen (TDN = DIN + DON) in atmospheric suspended particles and wet deposition samples at the northeast of the basin during periods of the wet (August-September 2008) and dry (March-April 2009) seasons. We evaluated the potential anthropogenic N influences by measuring wind velocity and direction, size-fractionated suspended particles, chemical traces and by performing back trajectories. We found DIN and DON concentration values that ranged between 0.11 and 0.58 μg-N m-3 and 0.11-0.56 μg-N m-3 in total suspended particles samples and between 0.08 and 0.54 mg-N l-1 and 0.02-1.3 mg-N l-1 in wet deposition samples, respectively. Continental air masses increased DON and DIN concentrations in atmospheric suspended particles during the wet season. We estimate an annual TDN atmospheric deposition (wet + particles) of 3.6 × 103 ton-N year-1 and concluded that: 1) Atmospheric supply of TDN plays a key role in the C and N budget of the basin because replaces a fraction of the C (20% by induced primary production) and N (40%) removed by sediment burial, 2) present anthropogenic N could contribute to 30% of TDN atmospheric deposition in the basin, and 3) reduced DON (gas + particles) should be a significant component of bulk N deposition.

  20. [Risk factors of hypoparathyroidism following total or near total thyroidectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T X; Yu, W B; Ma, X; Song, Y T; Zhang, N S

    2016-03-01

    To study the risk factors for postoperative hypoparathyroidism or hypocalcemia. Totally 414 patients with thyroid diseases who underwent total or near total thyroidectomy at Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute from June 2007 to June 2014 were studied retrospectively. There were 119 male and 295 female patients with a median age of 47 years. The clinical and pathological features that related to post-operative hypoparathyroidism were studied by χ(2) test and multivariate Logistic regression analysis. Of the 414 patients, 36.2% developed transient hypocalcemia, 36.5% developed transient hypoparathyroidism, 2.2% developed permanent hypoparathyroidism. In regression analysis, unilateral or bilateral center lymph node dissection were associated with mild transient hypocalcemia after surgery (OR=2.366, P=0.022; OR=5.216, P=0.000); unilateral or bilateral center lymph node dissection as well as surgical options were significant risk factors for severe transient hypocalcemia (OR=4.029, P=0.001; OR=8.384, P=0.000; OR=2.073, P=0.017) and hypoparathyroidism (OR=1.755, P=0.040; OR=4.144, P=0.000; OR=2.287, P=0.000). The parathyroid hormone concentration on postoperative day 1 was an independent risk factor for permanent hypoparathyroidism (OR=2.011, P=0.014). The concentration of parathyroid hormone threshold hypoparathyroidism with accuracy of 95.0%. Bilateral center lymph node dissection is a risk factor of permanent hypoparathyroidism in patients received total thyroidectomy should be taken thoughtfully. The parathyroid hormone concentration on postoperative day 1 provides better prediction for persistent hypoparathyroidism.

  1. Subtotal versus total abdominal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Ottesen, Bent; Alling Møller, Lars Mikael

    2015-01-01

    , randomized clinical trial without blinding. Eleven gynecological departments in Denmark contributed participants to the trial. Women referred for benign uterine diseases who did not have contraindications to subtotal abdominal hysterectomy were randomized to subtotal (n = 161) vs total (n = 158) abdominal...

  2. Endoscopic Transaxillary Near Total Thyroidectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejeh, Ijeoma Acholonu; Speights, Fredne; Rashid, Qammar N.; Ideis, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    Background: Since first reported in 1996, endoscopic minimally invasive surgery of the cervical region has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of benign thyroid and parathyroid disease. The endoscopic transaxillary technique uses a remote lateral approach to the thyroid gland. Because of the perceived difficulty in accessing the contralateral anatomy of the thyroid gland, this technique has typically been reserved for patients with unilateral disease. Objectives: The present study examines the safety and feasibility of the transaxillary technique in dissecting and assessment of both thyroid lobes in performing near total thyroidectomy. Methods: Prior to this study we successfully performed endoscopic transaxillary thyroid lobectomy in 32 patients between August 2003 and August 2005. Technical feasibility in performing total thyroidectomy using this approach was accomplished first utilizing a porcine model followed by three human cadaver models prior to proceeding to human surgery. After IRB approval three female patients with histories of enlarging multinodular goiter were selected to undergo endoscopic near total thyroidectomy. Results: The average operative time for all models was 142 minutes (range 57–327 min). The three patients in this study had clinically enlarging multinodular goiters with an average size of 4 cm. The contralateral recurrent laryngeal nerve and parathyroid glands were identified in all cases. There was no post-operative bleeding, hoarseness or subcutaneous emphysema. Conclusion: Endoscopic transaxillary near total thyroidectomy is feasible and can be performed safely in human patients with bilateral thyroid disease. PMID:16882421

  3. Total Synthesis of a Gene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 12. Total Synthesis of a Gene. H G Khorana. Classics Volume 17 Issue 12 December 2012 pp 1174-1197 ... Author Affiliations. H G Khorana1. Professor of Biology and Chemestry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139.

  4. What is Total Quality Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, William A.

    1996-01-01

    Provides a general overview of Total Quality Management (TQM) and explains why there is pressure for change in higher education institutions. Defines TQM and the various themes, tools, and beliefs that make it different from other management approaches. Presents 14 principles and how they might be applied to student affairs. (RJM)

  5. The Total Synthesis of Chlorophyll

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 7. The Total Synthesis of Chlorophyll. Setty Mallikarjuna Babu Subramania Ranganathan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 7 July 2014 pp 645-648. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. First total synthesis of Boehmenan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The first total synthesis of dilignan Boehmenan has been achieved. A biomimetic oxidative coupling of the ferulic acid methyl ester in the presence of silver oxide is the crucial step in the synthesis sequence, generating the dihydrobenzofuran skeleton. Hydroxyl group was protected with DHP and reducted with LiAlH4 to ...

  7. Total Quality Management for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Malcolm S.; Gaunt, Helen J.

    Education in the United Kingdom has been shaped by the advent of local school management and the rapid growth of grant-maintained schools. Total Quality Management (TQM) offers a new way of looking at management principles and structures by identifying the needs of both internal and external customers. This book applies principles of TQM…

  8. Total synthesis of proposed auranthine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshirsagar, Umesh A; Puranik, Vedavati G; Argade, Narshinha P

    2010-04-16

    Starting from CBz-protected glutamic anhydride and Boc-protected o-aminobenzyl amine, the first total synthesis of proposed structure of auranthine has been reported. An intramolecular aza-Wittig reaction involving a lactam carbonyl group that delivered the diazepine core unit was the key step in the synthesis.

  9. First total synthesis of Boehmenan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 3 ... The first total synthesis of dilignan Boehmenan has been achieved. A biomimetic oxidative coupling of the ferulic acid methyl ester in the presence of silver oxide is the crucial step in the synthesis sequence, generating the dihydrobenzofuran skeleton.

  10. The Total Synthesis of Strychnine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The Total Synthesis of Strychnine. Edited by Setty Mallikarjuna Babu and Subramania Ranganathan. Keywords. Strychnine. N. N. O. H. H. H. H. O. H. Strychnine! No other molecule has captured the popular imagina- tion as strychnine, perhaps because thousands of writers of fiction have used it to dispatch the recipient and ...

  11. Diseño de un transportador de banda para conducir 100 ton/hora de material petreo, dentro del proceso de elaboración de asfalto de la Compañia Hidalgo & Hidalgo

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar Valverde, Víctor Orlando; Morales Villarroel, Darwin Oswaldo

    2004-01-01

    Lpresente tesis: “diseño de un transportador de banda para conducir 100 TON / HORA de material pétreo”, es parte del proceso en la elaboración de asfalto de la compañía Hidalgo & Hidalgo dedicada a la construcción de carreteras en el país. En el diseño original de la planta el material pétreo que descarga las tolvas de dosificación se transporta a la tolva de tambor secador rotatorio mediante un transportador de banda horizontal de tres metros de longitud. Pero por condic...

  12. MODIFIED TECHNIQUE OF TOTAL LARYNGECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Spirić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical technique of total laryngectomy is well presented in many surgical textbooks. Essentially, it has remained the same since Gluck an Soerensen in 1922 described all its details. Generally, it stresses the U shape skin incision with releasing laryngeal structures and removing larynx from up to down. Further, pharyngeal reconstruction is performed with different kinds of sutures in two or more layers and is finished with skin suture and suction drainage. One of worst complications following this surgery is pharyngocutaneous fistula (PF. Modifications proposed in this this article suggests vertical skin incision with larynx removal from below upwards. In pharyngeal reconstruction we used the running locked suture in submucosal plan with „tobacco sac“ at the end on the tongue base instead of traditional T shaped suture. Suction drains were not used.The aim of study was to present the modified surgical technique of total laryingectomy and its impact on hospital stay duration and pharyngocutanous fistula formation. In this randomized study we analyzed 49 patients operated with modified surgical technique compared to 49 patient operated with traditional surgical technique of total laryngectomy. The modified technique of total laryngectomy was presented. Using modified technique we managed to decrease the PF percentage from previous 20,41% to acceptable 8,16% (p=0,0334. Also, the average hospital stay was shortened from 14,96 to 10,63 days (t =-2.9850; p=0.0358.The modified technique of total laryngectomy is safe, short and efficient surgical intervention which decreases the number of pharyngocutaneos fistulas and shortens the hospital stay.

  13. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...... two endvertices. We define χ (G) to be the smallest integer k for which G has an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This parameter has natural upper and lower bounds in terms of the maximum degree Δ of G : ⌈ (Δ + 1) / 2 ⌉ ≤ χ (G) ≤ Δ + 1. We improve the upper bound by 1 for every graph and prove χ (G...

  14. CYPRINIDS TOTAL BLOOD PROTEINS DETERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANŢI PATRICHE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In aquaculture to get a high production is conditioned by awareness and keeping of an unaltered health condition of the biological material. To be aware of the health condition of the biological material in a fish farm allows us to establish the preventive measures required to prevent spreading of a disease and the treatment to be applied in case that a mass disease occurs. The level of the total protein in serum is, first of all, a synthetically indicator of the nutritional condition of the organism, presenting, at the same time, ample qualitative and quantitative variations depending on species, age, sex, stage of sexual maturity, water temperature and especially in correlation with the health condition of fish. Modification in value of the total protein point out some metabolic perturbations in fish body.

  15. TOTAL annual report 2003; TOTAL rapport annuel 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This 2003 annual report of the Group Total provides economical results and information of the society on the following topics: keys data, the corporate governance (Directors charter, board of directors, audit committee, nomination and remuneration committee, internal control procedures, compensation of directors and executive officers), the corporate social responsibility (environmental stewardship, the future of energy management, the safety enhancement, the human resources, ethics and local development), the investor relations, the management report, the upstream exploration and production, the downstream refining, marketing, trading and shipping, the chemicals and financial and legal information. (A.L.B.)

  16. Intrathoracic Hernia after Total Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Tashiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic hernias after total gastrectomy are rare. We report the case of a 78-year-old man who underwent total gastrectomy with antecolic Roux-Y reconstruction for residual gastric cancer. He had alcoholic liver cirrhosis and received radical laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy for gastric cancer 3 years ago. Early gastric cancer in the remnant stomach was found by routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. We initially performed endoscopic submucosal dissection, but the vertical margin was positive in a pathological result. We performed total gastrectomy with antecolic Roux-Y reconstruction by laparotomy. For adhesion of the esophageal hiatus, the left chest was connected with the abdominal cavity. A pleural defect was not repaired. Two days after the operation, the patient was suspected of having intrathoracic hernia by chest X-rays. Computed tomography showed that the transverse colon and Roux limb were incarcerated in the left thoracic cavity. He was diagnosed with intrathoracic hernia, and emergency reduction and repair were performed. Operative findings showed that the Roux limb and transverse colon were incarcerated in the thoracic cavity. After reduction, the orifice of the hernia was closed by suturing the crus of the diaphragm with the ligament of the jejunum and omentum. After the second operation, he experienced anastomotic leakage and left pyothorax. Anastomotic leakage was improved with conservative therapy and he was discharged 76 days after the second operation.

  17. Dynamics of N-NH4 +, N-NO3 -, and total soil nitrogen in paddy field with azolla and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, W. S.; Wahyuningsih, G. I.; Syamsiyah, J.; Mujiyo

    2018-03-01

    Nitrogen (N) is one of macronutrients which is dynamic in the soil and becomes constraint factor for rice crops. The addition of nitrogen fertilizers and its absorption in paddy field causes the dynamics of nitrogen, thus declines of N absorption efficiency. The aim of this research is to know influence Azolla, biochar and different varieties application on N-NH4 +, N-NO3 -, and total soil N in paddy field. This research was conducted in a screen house located in Jumantono Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sebelas Maret (UNS) with altitude 170 m asl from April to June 2016. Treatment factors that were examined consisted of azolla (0 and 10 tons/ha), biochar (0 and 2 tons/ha), and rice varieties (Cisadane, Memberamo, Ciherang, IR64). The results of this research showed that there was no interaction between azolla, biochar and varieties. Nevertheless, azolla treatment with dose of 10 tons/ha increased soil NH4 + content (41 days after planting, DAP) by 13.4% but tend to decrease at 70 and 90 DAP. Biochar treatment with dose of 2 ton/ha increases NO3 - soil content (70 DAP) by 1.7% but decreases total N soil by 5.8% (41 DAP) and 4.7% (90 DAP). Different rice varieties generated different soil NH4 + content (41 DAP) and rice root volume. Cisadane variety can increase soil NH4 + content (41 DAP) by 52.08% and root volume by 51.80% (90 DAP) compared with Ciherang variety. Organic rice field management with azolla and biochar affects the availability of N in the soil and increase N absorption efficiency through its role in increasing rice root volume.

  18. Análise da distribuição espacial de dose absorvida em próton terapia ocular Spatial distribution analysis of absorbed dose in ocular proton radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Tavares Christóvão

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Propõe-se avaliar os perfis de dose em profundidade e as distribuições espaciais de dose para protocolos de radioterapia ocular por prótons, a partir de simulações computacionais em código nuclear e modelo de olho discretizado em voxels. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: As ferramentas computacionais empregadas foram o código Geant4 (GEometry ANd Tracking Toolkit e o SISCODES (Sistema Computacional para Dosimetria em Radioterapia. O Geant4 é um pacote de software livre, utilizado para simular a passagem de partículas nucleares com carga elétrica através da matéria, pelo método de Monte Carlo. Foram executadas simulações computacionais reprodutivas de radioterapia por próton baseada em instalações pré-existentes. RESULTADOS: Os dados das simulações foram integrados ao modelo de olho através do código SISCODES, para geração das distribuições espaciais de doses. Perfis de dose em profundidade reproduzindo o pico de Bragg puro e modulado são apresentados. Importantes aspectos do planejamento radioterápico com prótons são abordados, como material absorvedor, modulação, dimensões do colimador, energia incidente do próton e produção de isodoses. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que a terapia por prótons, quando adequadamente modulada e direcionada, pode reproduzir condições ideais de deposição de dose em neoplasias oculares.OBJECTIVE: The present study proposes the evaluation of the depth-dose profiles and the spatial distribution of radiation dose for ocular proton beam radiotherapy protocols, based on computer simulations in nuclear codes and an eye model discretized into voxels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The employed computational tools were Geant4 (GEometry ANd Tracking Toolkit and SISCODES (Sistema Computacional para Dosimetria em Radioterapia - Computer System for Dosimetry in Radiotherapy. Geant4 is a toolkit for simulating the passage of particles through the matter, based on Monte Carlo method. Computer simulations

  19. Total filmless digital radiology service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, S.K.; Goeringer, F.; Benson, H.; Horii, S.C.

    1989-01-01

    The completion of a comprehensive picture archiving and communication system (PACS) at Georgetown University Hospital has allowed us to identify a number of technical, administrative, personnel, and operational issues that will affect a total digital radiology service. With a hospital-wide digital imaging network system, computer simulation of communications and storage options, and economic modeling, we have developed a feasibility study and implementation strategy for the smooth transition to a nearly filmless radiology service over the next several years. This paper describes the technical and operational requirements for various database operations, workstations (used in diagnosis, review, and education), and communications. Site and installation planning, personnel training, and transition operations are discussed

  20. Diverticulosis in total colonic aganglionosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivancev, K.; Fork, T.; Haegerstrand, I.; Ivarsson, S.; Kullendorff, C.M.; Lund Univ.; Lund Univ.; Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus; Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus

    1985-01-01

    Two infants with total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) extending into the distal part of the ileum are described. Considerable diagnostic delay occurred with the correct diagnosis established first at 3 and 8 months, respectively. Radiologic findings compatible with TCA such as prolonged barium retention, reflux into ileum following barium enema, and foreshortening of colon were not clearly evident initially. Both patients demonstrated multiple acquired colon diverticula which increased both in number and size during the period of observation. These diverticula are probably a late manifestation of the spastic state of the anganglionic colon. Thus demonstration of diverticula supplies a strong evidence of TCA in infants with intestinal obstruction. (orig.)

  1. Diverticulosis in total colonic aganglionosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivancev, K.; Fork, T.; Haegerstrand, I.; Ivarsson, S.; Kullendorff, C.M.

    Two infants with total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) extending into the distal part of the ileum are described. Considerable diagnostic delay occurred with the correct diagnosis established first at 3 and 8 months, respectively. Radiologic findings compatible with TCA such as prolonged barium retention, reflux into ileum following barium enema, and foreshortening of colon were not clearly evident initially. Both patients demonstrated multiple acquired colon diverticula which increased both in number and size during the period of observation. These diverticula are probably a late manifestation of the spastic state of the anganglionic colon. Thus demonstration of diverticula supplies a strong evidence of TCA in infants with intestinal obstruction. (orig.).

  2. Total eclipses of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Zirker, Jack B

    2014-01-01

    Eclipses have captured attention and sparked curiosity about the cosmos since the first appearance of humankind. Having been blamed for everything from natural disasters to the fall of kings, they are now invaluable tools for understanding many celestial as well as terrestrial phenomena. This clear, easy-to-understand guide explains what causes total eclipses and how they can be used in experiments to examine everything from the dust between the planets to general relativity. A new chapter has been added on the eclipse of July 11, 1991 (the great Hawaiian eclipse). Originally published in 19

  3. Total Synthesis of Calophyline A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Xie, Xiaoni; Zu, Liansuo

    2016-08-22

    Reported herein is the total synthesis of calophyline A, an indoline natural product possessing distinct ring connectivity which has not been synthesized previously. The synthetic route features several key transformations, including an aza-pinacol rearrangement to construct the nitrogen-containing bridged [3.2.2] bicycle, a Heck cyclization to assemble the fused 6/5/6/5 ring system, and a challenging late-stage aldol reaction to generate both a neopentyl quaternary stereogenic center and an oxygen-containing bridged [3.2.1] bicycle. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-05

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies.

  5. Testing EDM of Total Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirbus Ján

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to testing electrooptical distance measuring devices (EDM built in total stations, than can be used for various tasks in the contemporary geodetic works. A rich market offer and availability of these universal measuring systems with satisfying distance range, excellent accuracy and other parameters, make total stations as dominant terrestrial geodetic instruments.For succesfully applying these instruments, above all for relliable distance measurements, the stability of the modulation frequency is the most important pre-condition. In the article, therefore, there are given some methods to verify the modulation frequency stability. In addition, some ways for determining the EDM distance constant and periodical corrections of the phase measuring unit are introduced for 4 types of EDM : LEICA 1700L, TOPCON GTS6A, TOPCON GTS2, C.ZEISS ELTA50. It were also investigated their possibilities for precise distance survey. Values of the determined constants and periodical corrections are presented in Tab. 2.Based on the investigation results of the 4 EDM types and using the values m obtained for different distances S, equations of the a posteriori standard deviations in form : m = (a+b.S were derived too.

  6. Qualidade total: Um novo paradigma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana da Rosa Tolfo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, o movimento para a implantação da Gestão da Qualidade Total vem crescendo ao redor do mundo. Em razão disso, há uma diversidade de ações realizadas com o nome de "Qualidade Total'. Uma revisão da teoria é complexa, porque existem muitos autores que tratam da questão. Eles escolhem diferentes perspectivas de análises (teóricas e empíricas e há dificuldades em se identificar um corpo conceitual. Há uma ampla difusão de modelos, ferramentas, técnicas, mercado e consultores. Essa popularidade, muitas vezes, faz com que determinadas organizações adotem essa forma de gestão do trabalho sem o conhecimento necessário das implicações que um modelo dessa ordem representa; especialmente no caso brasileiro, suscetível a proposições importadas. O presente artigo propõe um exame daquilo que os fundadores têm articulado sobre TQM, as principais críticas nesta direção e a avaliação de como vem sendo aplicadono nosso país.

  7. Jogging after total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hirohito; Sakai, Takashi; Nishii, Takashi; Takao, Masaki; Nakamura, Nobuo; Sugano, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Jogging has been classified as a high-impact sport, and jogging after total hip arthroplasty (THA) has not been well documented. To investigate the participation rate for postoperative jogging as well as jogging parameters and the influence of jogging on implant stability and bearing wear. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Included in this study were 804 hips in 608 patients (85 men, 523 women) who underwent THA between 2005 and 2011 with follow-up longer than 1 year. The mean patient age was 62 years (range, 26-98 years), and mean follow-up duration was 4.8 years (range, 2.3-7.8 years). Hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) was performed in 81 patients and conventional THA in 527 patients. During routine postsurgical visits, patients were given a questionnaire concerning preoperative and postoperative jogging routines. For joggers, frequency, distance, duration, and velocity of jogging were recorded. Patients who did not jog postoperatively were asked to provide reasons for not jogging. Radiographs concerning implant migration and polyethylene wear were evaluated with specialized software, and serum cobalt and chromium ion concentrations were investigated for patients with metal-on-metal articulation. A total of 33 patients (5.4%) performed jogging preoperatively, and 23 patients (3.8%) performed jogging postoperatively. Of the 23 who jogged postoperatively, conventional THA was performed in 13 patients and HRA in 10 patients. Postoperatively, joggers trained a mean of 4 times (range, 1-7 times) per week, covering a mean distance of 3.6 km (range, 0.5-15 km) in a mean time of 29 minutes (range, 5-90 minutes) per session and at a mean speed of 7.7 km/h (range, 3-18 km/h). No patient complained of pain or showed serum cobalt and chromium ion elevation greater than 7 ppb. No hip showed loosening, abnormal component migration, or excessive wear at a mean 5-year follow-up. There were 74 postoperative non-joggers with an interest in jogging. The reasons given for

  8. Total employment effect of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stridsberg, S.

    1998-08-01

    The study examined the total employment effect of both direct production of biofuel and energy conversion to heat and electricity, as well as the indirect employment effect arising from investments and other activities in conjunction with the production organization. A secondary effect depending on the increased capital flow is also included in the final result. The scenarios are based on two periods, 1993-2005 and 2005-2020. In the present study, the different fuels and the different applications have been analyzed individually with regard to direct and indirect employment within each separate sector. The greatest employment effect in the production chain is shown for logging residues with 290 full-time jobs/TWh, whereas other biofuels range between 80 and 280 full-time jobs/TWh. In the processing chain, the corresponding range is 200-300 full-time jobs per each additional TWh. Additionally and finally, there are secondary effects that give a total of 650 full-time jobs/TWh. Together with the predicted increase, this suggests that unprocessed fuel will provide an additional 16 000 annual full-time jobs, and that fuel processing will contribute with a further 5 000 full-time jobs. The energy production from the fuels will provide an additional 13 000 full-time jobs. The total figure of 34 000 annual full-time jobs must then be reduced by about 4000 on account of lost jobs, mainly in the oil sector and to some extent in imports of biofuel. In addition, the anticipated increase in capital turnover that occurs within the biofuel sector, will increase full-time jobs up to year 2020. Finally, a discussion is given of the accomplishment of the programmes anticipated by the scenario, where it is noted that processing of biofuel to wafers, pellets or powder places major demands on access to raw material of good quality and that agrarian fuels must be given priority if they are to enter the system sufficiently fast. Straw is already a resource but is still not accepted by

  9. Total petroleum systems of the Illizi Province, Algeria and Libya; Tanezzuft-Illizi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources were assessed within a total petroleum system of the Illizi Province (2056) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000. The Illizi Province is in eastern Algeria and a small portion of western Libya. The province and its total petroleum system coincide with the Illizi Basin. Although several total petroleum systems may exist within the Illizi Province, only one “composite” total petroleum system is identified. This total petroleum system comprises a single assessment unit. The main source rocks are the Silurian Tanezzuft Formation (or lateral equivalents) and Middle to Upper Devonian mudstone. The total petroleum system was named after the oldest major source rock and the basin in which it resides. The estimated means of the undiscovered conventional petroleum volumes in the Tanezzuft-Illizi Total Petroleum System are 2,814 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 27,785 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG), and 873 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL).

  10. Conversion total hip arthroplasty: Primary or revision total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, Ran; Baghoolizadeh, Mahta

    2015-11-18

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is an increasingly common procedure among elderly individuals. Although conversion THA is currently bundled in a diagnosis related group (DRG) with primary THA, there is a lack of literature supporting this classification and it has yet to be identified whether conversion THA better resembles primary or revision THA. This editorial analyzed the intraoperative and postoperative factors and functional outcomes following conversion THA, primary THA, and revision THA to understand whether the characteristics of conversion THA resemble one procedure or the other, or are possibly somewhere in between. The analysis revealed that conversion THA requires more resources both intraoperatively and postoperatively than primary THA. Furthermore, patients undergoing conversion THA present with poorer functional outcomes in the long run. Patients undergoing conversion THA better resemble revision THA patients than primary THA patients. As such, patients undergoing conversion THA should not be likened to patients undergoing primary THA when determining risk stratification and reimbursement rates. Conversion THA procedures should be planned accordingly with proper anticipation of the greater needs both in the operating room, and for in-patient and follow-up care. We suggest that conversion THA be reclassified in the same DRG with revision THA as opposed to primary THA as a step towards better allocation of healthcare resources for conversion hip arthroplasties.

  11. Total quality management implementation guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    These Guidelines were designed by the Energy Quality Council to help managers and supervisors in the Department of Energy Complex bring Total Quality Management to their organizations. Because the Department is composed of a rich mixture of diverse organizations, each with its own distinctive culture and quality history, these Guidelines are intended to be adapted by users to meet the particular needs of their organizations. For example, for organizations that are well along on their quality journeys and may already have achieved quality results, these Guidelines will provide a consistent methodology and terminology reference to foster their alignment with the overall Energy quality initiative. For organizations that are just beginning their quality journeys, these Guidelines will serve as a startup manual on quality principles applied in the Energy context.

  12. Total synthesis of mycalamide A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jeong-Hun; Waizumi, Nobuaki; Zhong, H Marlon; Rawal, Viresh H

    2005-05-25

    This communication describes a concise and efficient total synthesis of mycalamide A by the convergent coupling of pederic acid unit with the mycalamine unit. The left-half, (+)-7-benzoylpederic acid, was synthesized from (2R,3R)-3-methylpent-4-en-2-ol in seven steps and 34.6% overall yield through a route that features a one-step Pd(II)-catalyzed tandem Wacker/Heck cyclization reaction to prepare the tetrahydropyran ring system. The right-half, the mycalamine unit, was synthesized in 21 steps and 10.5% overall yield from diethyl d-tartrate. Effective, stereoselective methods were developed for the assembly of the two parts to yield either mycalamide A or C(10)-epi-mycalamide A.

  13. A total safety management model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obadia, I.J.; Vidal, M.C.R.; Melo, P.F.F.F.

    2002-01-01

    In nuclear organizations, quality and safety are inextricably linked. Therefore, the search for excellence means reaching excellence in nuclear safety. The International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, developed, after the Chernobyl accident, the organizational approach for improving nuclear safety based on the safety culture, which requires a framework necessary to provide modifications in personnel attitudes and behaviors in situations related to safety. This work presents a Total Safety Management Model, based on the Model of Excellence of the Brazilian Quality Award and on the safety culture approach, which represents an alternative to this framework. The Model is currently under validation at the Nuclear Engineering Institute, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the results of its initial safety culture self assessment are also presented and discussed. (author)

  14. Total quality management program planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, P.T.; Spence, K.

    1994-05-01

    As government funding grows scarce, competition between the national laboratories is increasing dramatically. In this era of tougher competition, there is no for resistance to change. There must instead be a uniform commitment to improving the overall quality of our products (research and technology) and an increased focus on our customers` needs. There has been an ongoing effort to bring the principles of total quality management (TQM) to all Energy Systems employees to help them better prepare for future changes while responding to the pressures on federal budgets. The need exists for instituting a vigorous program of education and training to an understanding of the techniques needed to improve and initiate a change in organizational culture. The TQM facilitator is responsible for educating the work force on the benefits of self-managed work teams, designing a program of instruction for implementation, and thus getting TQM off the ground at the worker and first-line supervisory levels so that the benefits can flow back up. This program plan presents a conceptual model for TQM in the form of a hot air balloon. In this model, there are numerous factors which can individually and collectively impede the progress of TQM within the division and the Laboratory. When these factors are addressed and corrected, the benefits of TQM become more visible. As this occurs, it is hoped that workers and management alike will grasp the ``total quality`` concept as an acceptable agent for change and continual improvement. TQM can then rise to the occasion and take its rightful place as an integral and valid step in the Laboratory`s formula for survival.

  15. Evaluation de la vulnérabilité sismique des constructions en béton armé en vue de leur réhabilitation Evaluating seismic vulnerability of reinforced concrete buildings in view of their rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almansa F. Lopez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans ce travail, une méthodologie simplifiée a été proposée afin d’évaluer la vulnérabilité sismique des bâtiments en béton armé. La démarche s’appuie sur une surface de réponse obtenue à partir de calculs pushover du bâtiment. L’analyse pushover a été effectuée sous le logiciel ZeusNL. Une étude de cas a été réalisée sur un bâtiment type en utilisant un plan d’expérience factoriel complet construit sur les trois paramètres de conception comprenant la résistance caractéristique du béton, la section moyenne de béton des poteaux et poutres et leurs armatures longitudinales. L’analyse de variance effectuée sur les résultats obtenus a permis de déterminer l’effet de chaque paramètre sur la performance sismique du bâtiment. Les résultats ont montré que la section moyenne des coffrages et leurs ferraillages contrôlent de manière prépondérante la capacité sismique du bâtiment vis-à-vis des états limites considérés. L’optimisation de la réhabilitation sismique a été alors proposée. In this work, a simplified methodology was proposed in order to evaluate seismic vulnerability of reinforced concrete buildings. The approach is founded on response surface obtained through pushover calculations of the building. Pushover analysis was performed under ZeusNL software. A case study was carried out on a typical building by using full factorial design of experiment table constructed on the three design parameters that include concrete resistance, the average concrete section of beams and columns and their longitudinal reinforcements. Analysis of variance performed on the obtained results enabled determining the effect of each parameter on seismic performance of the building. It was shown that concrete average section and reinforcements control preponderantly seismic capacity of the building with regards to the considered limit states. Optimisation of seismic rehabilitation was then proposed.

  16. Perfil físico-químico de aguardente durante envelhecimento em tonéis de carvalho Chemical profile of aguardente - Brazilian sugar cane alcoholic drink - aged in oak casks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Branco de Miranda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se por um período de 390 dias o perfil da composição química da aguardente sob envelhecimento em tonéis de carvalho de 20 L. O envelhecimento da aguardente em tonéis de madeira melhora a qualidade sensorial do destilado. As aguardentes envelhecidas foram analisadas aos 0, 76, 147, 228, 314 e 390 dias de armazenamento quanto às concentrações de etanol, acidez volátil, ésteres, aldeídos, furfural, álcoois superiores (n-propílico, isobutílico e isoamílicos, metanol, cobre, extrato seco, taninos e cor. Após os 390 dias de armazenamento, a aguardente apresentou maiores concentrações de acidez volátil, ésteres, aldeídos, furfural, álcoois superiores, congêneres, extrato seco e tanino. Sua coloração tornou-se amarelada. As concentrações de etanol e de metanol não se alteraram, e o teor de cobre apresentou ligeiro declínio. O envelhecimento da aguardente por 390 dias em tonéis de carvalho alterou a sua composição química, porém ela se manteve dentro de todos os padrões de qualidade estabelecidos pela legislação nacional em vigor.The chemical composition of aguardente - Brazilian sugar cane alcoholic drink - under aging during in 20 L oak casks was evaluated for 390 days. Aging sugar cane aguardente in wood casks improves the sensorial quality of the distillate. The concentrations of ethanol, volatile acidity, esters, aldehydes, furfural, higher alcohols (n-propylic, isobutylic and isoamylics, methanol, copper, dry extract, tannins, and color of the aged sugar cane aguardente were analysed at 0, 76, 147, 228, 314, and 390 days of storage. After 390 days of aging the sugar cane aguardente presented higher concentrations of volatile acidity, esters, aldehydes, furfural, higher alcohols, congeners, dry extract, and tannin. Its color became golden. The concentrations of ethanol and methanol did not change and the copper content decreased slightly. The aging of the sugar cane aguardente in oak casks for 390 days

  17. Involvement of bacterial TonB-dependent signaling in the generation of an oligogalacturonide damage-associated molecular pattern from plant cell walls exposed to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris pectate lyases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Efficient perception of attacking pathogens is essential for plants. Plant defense is evoked by molecules termed elicitors. Endogenous elicitors or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) originate from plant materials upon injury or pathogen activity. While there are comparably well-characterized examples for DAMPs, often oligogalacturonides (OGAs), generated by the activity of fungal pathogens, endogenous elicitors evoked by bacterial pathogens have been rarely described. In particular, the signal perception and transduction processes involved in DAMP generation are poorly characterized. Results A mutant strain of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris deficient in exbD2, which encodes a component of its unusual elaborate TonB system, had impaired pectate lyase activity and caused no visible symptoms for defense on the non-host plant pepper (Capsicum annuum). A co-incubation of X. campestris pv. campestris with isolated cell wall material from C. annuum led to the release of compounds which induced an oxidative burst in cell suspension cultures of the non-host plant. Lipopolysaccharides and proteins were ruled out as elicitors by polymyxin B and heat treatment, respectively. After hydrolysis with trifluoroacetic acid and subsequent HPAE chromatography, the elicitor preparation contained galacturonic acid, the monosaccharide constituent of pectate. OGAs were isolated from this crude elicitor preparation by HPAEC and tested for their biological activity. While small OGAs were unable to induce an oxidative burst, the elicitor activity in cell suspension cultures of the non-host plants tobacco and pepper increased with the degree of polymerization (DP). Maximal elicitor activity was observed for DPs exceeding 8. In contrast to the X. campestris pv. campestris wild type B100, the exbD2 mutant was unable to generate elicitor activity from plant cell wall material or from pectin. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the

  18. The Exosome Total Isolation Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Vermesh, Ophir; Mani, Vigneshwaran; Ge, Tianjia J; Madsen, Steven J; Sabour, Andrew; Hsu, En-Chi; Gowrishankar, Gayatri; Kanada, Masamitsu; Jokerst, Jesse V; Sierra, Raymond G; Chang, Edwin; Lau, Kenneth; Sridhar, Kaushik; Bermudez, Abel; Pitteri, Sharon J; Stoyanova, Tanya; Sinclair, Robert; Nair, Viswam S; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Demirci, Utkan

    2017-11-28

    Circulating tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as a promising source for identifying cancer biomarkers for early cancer detection. However, the clinical utility of EVs has thus far been limited by the fact that most EV isolation methods are tedious, nonstandardized, and require bulky instrumentation such as ultracentrifugation (UC). Here, we report a size-based EV isolation tool called ExoTIC (exosome total isolation chip), which is simple, easy-to-use, modular, and facilitates high-yield and high-purity EV isolation from biofluids. ExoTIC achieves an EV yield ∼4-1000-fold higher than that with UC, and EV-derived protein and microRNA levels are well-correlated between the two methods. Moreover, we demonstrate that ExoTIC is a modular platform that can sort a heterogeneous population of cancer cell line EVs based on size. Further, we utilize ExoTIC to isolate EVs from cancer patient clinical samples, including plasma, urine, and lavage, demonstrating the device's broad applicability to cancers and other diseases. Finally, the ability of ExoTIC to efficiently isolate EVs from small sample volumes opens up avenues for preclinical studies in small animal tumor models and for point-of-care EV-based clinical testing from fingerprick quantities (10-100 μL) of blood.

  19. Modélisation du couplage chimico-mécanique dans un béton atteint de réaction sulfatique interne (mécanique des solides, des matériaux et des structures)

    OpenAIRE

    DUONG, Van Anh

    2005-01-01

    Les recherches réalisées montrent que sous l'action de la réaction sulfatique interne (RSI), les structures en béton sont endommagées. En fonction de l'histoire thermique et hydrique du matériau, la RSI peut se développer et se traduire par l'apparition de déformations importantes. Celles-ci entraînent des désordres dans les ouvrages (gonflements, contraintes, fissurations,...). La prévention, la modélisation et la réparation des ouvrages atteints de RSI font l'objet d'une opération de recher...

  20. Geoquímica e Geocronologia do Plutonismo Granítico Mesoproterozóico do SW do Estado de Mato Grosso (SW do Cráton Amazônico)

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Cesar Geraldes

    2000-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é o estudo geocronológico e da composição química dos granitóides da porção SW do estado do Mato Grosso. A abordagem deste projeto tem relevância para o entendimento da evolução geológica através da identificação, na área de estudo, de eventos de acresção crustal durante o Paleo e Mesoproterozóico que vieram a compor significativa fração do SW Cráton Amazônico. Na região do Terreno Jauru, tonalitos, vulcânicas ácidas e gnaisses analisados pelo método U/Pb em zircões ...

  1. Prédiction de la compacité des bétons compactés au rouleau à l'aide d'un modèle d'empilement granulaire

    OpenAIRE

    POULIOT, N; SEDRAN, T; DE LARRARD, F; MARCHAND, J

    2001-01-01

    Le béton compacté au rouleau (BCR) est régulièrement utilisé pour la construction de barrages, de chaussées routières et d'aires d'entreposage (en particulier, au Canada). La rapidité de mise en place, les faibles teneurs en ciment et l'utilisation d'ajouts minéraux (cendres volantes, fillers calcaires, résidus miniers, etc.) en font un matériau économiquement très intéressant pour l'industrie de la construction. Le BCR possède cependant une structure interne particulière de par sa forte prop...

  2. Coal production, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    Coal production in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal production that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal production in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine production occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of production was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground production was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons)

  3. Total joint replacement preadmission programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, B

    1998-01-01

    Patients begin to formulate their expectations of the postoperative hospitalization during the preadmission program. The challenge is to better understand the factors patients consider when formulating judgments about the quality of preadmission education. For example, it may be that perceptions of the preadmission program are influenced by what patients believe about their postoperative pain and functional abilities. Specific attention needs to be given both preoperatively and postoperatively to instructing patients on realistic expectations for recovery. One other method of measuring patient outcomes is with the Health Status Profile (SF-36) (Response Healthcare Information Management, 1995). The SF-36 approach emphasizes the outcome of medical care as the patient sees it, in addition to a clinical evaluation of successful health care. This form is currently initiated in the physician's office and returned for scanning at the preadmission class. The patient then completes another SF-36 at 6 months and every year thereafter to compare measurable outcomes. Patients intending to have elective total joint replacements experience anxiety and require much support and education. An effective preadmission program is a major investment in a patient's recovery, as well as a unique marketing tool to customers. Preadmission programs can be viewed as an opportunity to enhance customer satisfaction. Preadmission clinics are an excellent means for nurses to improve the quality of patient care through patient education. the overall goal of preadmission testing programs is to ensure patient preparedness while increasing quality health care and overall customer satisfaction. To enhance program effectiveness, health care providers must lead collaborative efforts to improve the efficiency of systems.

  4. Reverse hybrid total hip arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangen, Helge; Havelin, Leif I; Fenstad, Anne M; Hallan, Geir; Furnes, Ove; Pedersen, Alma B; Overgaard, Søren; Kärrholm, Johan; Garellick, Göran; Mäkelä, Keijo; Eskelinen, Antti; Nordsletten, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose The use of a cemented cup together with an uncemented stem in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has become popular in Norway and Sweden during the last decade. The results of this prosthetic concept, reverse hybrid THA, have been sparsely described. The Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA) has already published 2 papers describing results of reverse hybrid THAs in different age groups. Based on data collected over 2 additional years, we wanted to perform in depth analyses of not only the reverse hybrid concept but also of the different cup/stem combinations used. Patients and methods From the NARA, we extracted data on reverse hybrid THAs from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2013. 38,415 such hips were studied and compared with cemented THAs. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the prosthesis survival and the relative risk of revision. The main endpoint was revision for any reason. We also performed specific analyses regarding the different reasons for revision and analyses regarding the cup/stem combinations used in more than 500 cases. Results We found a higher rate of revision for reverse hybrids than for cemented THAs, with an adjusted relative risk of revision (RR) of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3–1.5). At 10 years, the survival rate was 94% (CI: 94–95) for cemented THAs and 92% (95% CI: 92–93) for reverse hybrids. The results for the reverse hybrid THAs were inferior to those for cemented THAs in patients aged 55 years or more (RR =1.1, CI: 1.0–1.3; p revision due to periprosthetic femoral fracture for reverse hybrids than for cemented THAs in patients aged 55 years or more (RR =3.1, CI: 2.2–4.5; p revision than cemented THAs in patients aged 55 or more. The difference in survival was mainly caused by a higher incidence of early revision due to periprosthetic femoral fracture in the reversed hybrid THAs. PMID:28095724

  5. Total phenolic contents and free-radical scavenging activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and grape products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra

    2013-03-01

    Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops, with an approximate annual production of 58 million metric tons, and it is well known that the grape skins, seeds and stems, waste products generated during wine and grape juice processing, are rich sources of polyphenols. It contains flavonoids, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In this study, we tried to determine antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of grape and grape products (fresh fruit, seed, dried fruit, molasses, pestil, vinegar) of ethanol and water extracts. Antioxidant properties of extracts were investigated by DPPH(√), ABTS(√+), superoxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating activity and determination of total phenolic contents. The seed extracts revealed highest ABTS(√+), DPPH(√), H(2)O(2) scavenging and reducing power activities. Furthermore, these extracts showed higher total phenolic contents than other grape product extracts.

  6. Waste site story: Tons of uncertainty backstage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The results of an informal survey of 39 US nuclear utilities regarding nuclear waste storage are presented. Survey topics included short-term needs for dry or extended wet storage through 2002, re-racking, multi-purpose canisters, factors influencing the purchase of dry storage/transport systems, vendor performance, plant life extension, licensing, and privatization of waste storage. Selected utility comments are presented. Utility responses are noted by percentages only; specific utilities are not identified

  7. Milestone, Weighing 1430 Tons, Reached at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    More on the subject of the Large Hadron Collider (see my last post, pointing to the very good Scientific American package). CERN announced today that the final piece of one of the main LHC particle detectors was at last safely lowered underground early this morning.

  8. Quand la musique donne le ton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Le lycée Sainte-Anne de Copenhague est un établissement réputé pour les résultats de ses élèves et pour être le foyer d’une intense tradition chorale et musicologique. L’article interroge les parcours de 32 élèves d’une même classe, tous reçus au baccalauréat 2014 avec une option musique et...

  9. Biomass energy in Jordan, and its potential contribution towards the total energy mix of the Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dabbas, Moh'd A. F.

    1994-04-01

    An evaluation of Jordan's bio-energy status was carried out. Available sources and the viability of exploitation were studied in order to identify the size of contribution that bio-energy could provide to the total energy mix of the Kingdom. The advantages of biogas technology were discussed, and a general description of Jordan's experience in this field was presented. Data on Jordan' animal, municipal, and agricultural wastes that are available as a potential source of bio-energy was tabulated. The report ascertained the economic feasibility of biogas utilization in Jordan, and concluded that the annual energy production potential from biogas, with only animal wastes being utilized, would amount to 80,000 ton oil equivalent. This amount of energy is equivalent to 2% of Jordan's total energy consumption in 1992. The utilization of biogas from municipal wastes would produce an additional 2.5% of the total energy consumption of Jordan. The annual value of utilizing animal and municipal wastes would reach 23 million Jordanian Dinars (JD). This value would increase to 61.5 million JD with the utilization of human wastes. The investment required for the utilization of bio-energy sources in Amman and its suburbs on the scale of family unit fermenters was estimated to be in the order of a million JD. The size of investment for industrial scale utilization for power generation with an electricity feed to the national grid, would range from 3 to 4 million JD. (A.M.H.). 8 refs., 4 tabs

  10. Estimated total costs from non-fatal and fatal bicycle crashes in the USA: 1997-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Thomas W; Sanford, Thomas A; Awad, Mohannad A; Osterberg, E Charles; Murphy, Gregory P; Lawrence, Bruce A; Miller, Ted R; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2018-04-01

    Emergency department visits and hospital admissions resulting from adult bicycle trauma have increased dramatically. Annual medical costs and work losses of these incidents last were estimated for 2005 and quality-of-life losses for 2000. We estimated costs associated with adult bicycle injuries in the USA using 1997-2013 non-fatal incidence data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System with cost estimates from the Consumer Product Safety Commission's Injury Cost Model, and 1999-2013 fatal incidence data from the National Vital Statistics System costed by similar methods. Approximately 3.8 million non-fatal adult bicycle injuries were reported during the study period and 9839 deaths. In 2010 dollars, estimated adult bicycle injury costs totalled $24.4 billion in 2013. Estimated injury costs per mile bicycled fell from $2.85 in 2001 to $2.35 in 2009. From 1999 to 2013, total estimated costs were $209 billion due to non-fatal bicycle injuries and $28 billion due to fatal injuries. Inflation-free annual costs in the study period increased by 137% for non-fatal injuries and 23% for fatal injuries. The share of non-fatal costs associated with injuries to riders age 45 and older increased by 1.6% (95% CI 1.4% to 1.9%) annually. The proportion of costs due to incidents that occurred on a street or highway steadily increased by 0.8% (95% CI 0.4% to 1.3%) annually. Inflation-free costs per case associated with non-fatal bicycle injuries are increasing. The growth in costs is especially associated with rising ridership, riders 45 and older, and street/highway crashes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Impurities determination in uranium eluates by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Cristina; Bellavigna, Horacio J.; Eppis, Maria R.; Ramella, Jose L.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical control of impurities in nuclear materials is indispensable in order to assure an efficient operation of the reactors. The maximum concentration admitted depends of the elements and in most cases are in the parts per billion range. Conventional analytical methods require a pre-concentration treatment of the sample and a previous separation of the matrix (uranium). This paper investigates the use of the total reflection X-ray fluorescence as an alternative methodology for the determination of impurities in nuclear materials, namely K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and As. The detection limits obtained were in the range of 0.1 to 20 ng/ml for a 1000 seconds counting time. (author)

  12. Proton MR spectroscopy of the foramen of Monro region in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex Espectroscopia de prótons por RM da região do forame de Monro em pacientes com complexo esclerose tuberosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnolfo de Carvalho-Neto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate with 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS the metabolites rations of the foramen of Monro's region in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC. METHOD: Twelve patients with TSC and an age and gender-matched control group underwent MR imaging at a 1.5T scanner, and 1H-MRS at the foramen of Monro level with a multivoxel acquisition. Similar volumes of interest were selected in each side of the foramen of Monro and in the basal ganglia (lentiform nuclei. The obtained N-acetylaspartate (NAA, creatine (Cr and choline (Cho peak amplitude values and ratios were studied. The statistical analysis was performed and p0.05. CONCLUSION: The NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios near to the foramen of Monro and basal ganglia of TSC patients are similar to the rations obtained in the control group.OBJETIVO: Avaliar através de espectroscopia de prótons as relações dos metabólitos da região do forame de Monro em pacientes com complexo esclerose tuberosa (CET. MÉTODO: Doze pacientes com CET e um grupo controle pareado por sexo e idade realizaram RM em aparelho de 1,5T, e a espectroscopia de prótons foi obtida ao nível do forame de Monro com aquisição multi-voxel. Volumes de interesse similares foram posicionados em cada lado do forame de Monro e nos gânglios da base (núcleos lentiformes. Os valores das relações e amplitudes de pico do N-acetilaspartato (NAA, creatina (Cr e colina (Cho foram estudados. A análise estatística foi realizada e valores de p0,05. CONCLUSÃO: As relações NAA/Cr e Cho/Cr na região do forame de Monro e nos gânglios da base de pacientes com CET são semelhantes àquelas obtidas no grupo controle.

  13. Uso da tonometria de ar em pesquisas populacionais - comparação com o tonômetro de Goldmann em indivíduos com suspeita de hipertensão ocular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Tolomei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a utilidade do tonômetro de ar (TA em estudos populacionais em indivíduos suspeitos de hipertensão ocular, comparando os valores com os fornecidos pelo tonômetro de aplanação de Goldmann (TG. Métodos: Estudo transversal, de amostra probabilística, composta por 11.452 indivíduos e"20 anos, compondo-se uma subamostra dos que apresentaram valores de pressão intraocular (PIO obtidos com o TA e"20mmHg, nos quais a PIO foi repetida com o TG. Os resultados dos dois tonmetros foram comparados considerando sexo, cor da pele referida, lateralidade, relação escavação/disco (Â0,6; entre e"0,6 e <0,8; e"0,8 e diagnóstico. Foram consideradas três situações: não-portadores de glaucoma (NG, suspeitos (SG e portadores de glaucoma (CG. Para comparação entre as medidas foi utilizado o teste t de Student para amostras pareadas e o teste de correlação de Pearson para avaliar a associação entre PIO, idade e tonometria. Resultados: Foram detectados 198 indivíduos (339 olhos com PIOe"20mmHg com o TA, que tiveram a medida repetida com o TG. Foram considerados 233 olhos como NG, 47 olhos como SG e 19 olhos como CG. Em olhos com escavação e"0,8, a medida com TA e TG foram semelhantes. Nos NG e SG, o TA superestimou os valores. Houve associação entre aumento da PIO e aumento da idade com os dois tonmetros. Conclusão: Valores de PIO são superiores com TA comparados ao TG, principalmente quando a PIO é normal. Há concordância entre os métodos quando a PIO é alta e a escavação do nervo óptico é aumentada, o que valida a aplicação do TA em campanhas populacionais.

  14. Experiment finds one in a billion

    CERN Multimedia

    Peach, Kenneth J

    1997-01-01

    The E787 collaboration has witnessed the rarest decay of a particle ever observed. Using the AGS at Brookhaven, USA, the team detected a single event caused by the decay of a positive K-meson to a possible pi-meson, a neutrino and an antineutrino (1/2 page).

  15. Government promises billions for highways / Steven Paulikas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paulikas, Steven

    2004-01-01

    Läti transpordiministeerium avaldas riigi teedevõrgu arengukava järgmiseks 25 aastaks, mille kohaselt investeeritakse maanteede ja raudteede ehitusse kuni 18 miljardit litti. Leedu transpordiettevõtjate hinnangul ei ole uued suuremahulised projektid majandusarengu seisukohalt vajalikud

  16. Seven Billion Microcosms: Evolution within Human Microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Tami D

    2018-01-01

    Rational microbiome-based therapies may one day treat a wide range of diseases and promote wellness. Yet, we are still limited in our abilities to employ such therapies and to predict which bacterial strains have the potential to stably colonize a person. The Lieberman laboratory is working to close this knowledge gap and to develop an understanding of how individual species and strains behave in the human microbiome, including with regard to their niche ranges, survival strategies, and the degree to which they adapt to individual people. We employ system-level approaches, with a particular emphasis on using de novo mutations and evolutionary inference to reconstruct the history of bacterial lineages within individuals.

  17. Hydroelectric dams need billions for rehab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, F.H.; Soast, A.

    1993-01-01

    Many of the Corps of Engineers older hydroelectric dams will require major rehabilitation over the next ten years. Preventive maintenance, repair work, and major rehabilitation of the Corp's hydro dams in inadequate because the revenue generated by sales of electricity, by law, is returned to the Treasury. Most multimillion dollar rehabilitation projects require specific approval for funding by Congress and securing it is a long and difficult process. It is hoped the funding problem will soon be addressed by the Clinton administration. Already, nearly one-sixth of the 2,154 Mw of hydro is unavailable because with hydro units are either out of service or operating at less than full capacity

  18. Oklo 2 Billion Years Before Fermi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.

    2005-02-01

    The author aims to present the little-known story of the Oklo natural reactors. He recalls the historical aspects of the Oklo reactors discovery by the CEA in 1972, he explains the scientific phenomenon and the interest, notably as a ''natural analogue'' for the geological disposal of high level radioactive wastes. (A.L.B.)

  19. Mining survival in parts per billion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the economic situation in the coal industry of Utah. Coal prices are down for the tenth year in a row, Utah is isolated from major markets and freight rates are high, and the state legislature has not dropped the issue of a coal severance tax. The author believes the only potential for increased use of Utah coal is the Pacific Rim countries. Environmental issues are also discussed

  20. Effets d’une compression cochléaire et d’une sélectivité en fréquence réduites sur la discrimination de la hauteur de tons complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Bianchi, Federica; Fereczkowski, Michal

    2016-01-01

    mécanismes de codage de l’enveloppe, cette étude examine si des changements dans le traitement de l’enveloppe chez des sujets avec PANS ont des conséquences sur la discrimination de la hauteur. Des seuils de discrimination de fréquence fondamentale (SDF0) sont tout d’abord obtenus chez 14 sujets à audition...... normale et 10 sujets avec PANS pour des tons complexes dont les harmoniques sont ajoutées soit en phase sinusoïdale (PS) soit en phase aléatoire (PA). Pour des harmoniques non résolues, une PANS entraîne des SDF0 plus élevés que chez les personnes à audition normale dans la condition PA, mais similaires...... dans la condition PS. La compression cochléaire et la bande passante des filtres auditifs sont ensuite estimés chez les mêmes sujets. Les résultats démontrent une corrélation significative entre la réduction de la compression cochléaire et le rapport entre les SDF0 pour les conditions PA et PS. Les...

  1. Global Drought Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Drought Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global drought total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross Domestic...

  2. Chinese National Strategy of Total War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Good, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    ... concept of total warfare. This research seeks to determine if China is currently engaged in a total war with the United States across nontraditional forms of conflict including economic, political, information, financial...

  3. Global Drought Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Drought Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 by 2.5 minute grid of global drought total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross...

  4. Global Earthquake Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global earthquake total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross...

  5. Global Landslide Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global landslide total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross...

  6. Global Multihazard Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Multihazard Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global multihazard total economic loss risks. First, for each of the considered hazards...

  7. Global Volcano Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Volcano Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global volcano total economic loss risks. First, subnational distributions of Gross Domestic...

  8. Global Flood Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Flood Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global flood total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross Domestic...

  9. Global Cyclone Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Cyclone Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global cyclone total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross Domestic...

  10. Using particle packing technology for sustainable concrete mixture design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, S.A.A.M.; Walraven, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    The annual production of Portland cement, estimated at 3.4 billion tons in 2011, is responsible for about 7% of the total worldwide CO2-emission. To reduce this environmental impact it is important to use innovative technologies for the design of concrete structures and mixtures. In this paper, it

  11. Truck Transport of Hazardous Chemicals : Acetone

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The transport of hazardous materials by all modes is a major concern of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Estimates place the total amount of hazardous materials transported in the U.S. in excess of 1.5 billion tons per year. Highway, water, and...

  12. A research update for the Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculture (fish farming) has played an ever-increasing role in providing people with fish, shrimp, and shellfish. Aquaculture is currently the fastest growing sector of global food production and in 2016 totaled 90 million tons valued at $180 billion. The production of food-fish from aquaculture...

  13. Algas do perifíton de distintos ambientes na planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i3.216 Periphytic algae in distinct environments of the upper Paraná river floodplain - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i3.216

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rodrigues

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisou a estrutura e dinâmica da comunidade de algas do perifíton em três ambientes da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná (lagoa do Guaraná, lagoa Fechada e rio Baía, em dois períodos hidrológicos (águas altas - AA e águas baixas - AB do ano de 2003. O substrato utilizado foi Eichhornia azurea Kunth. Foram encontrados no total 284 táxons, sendo 193 em águas altas e 172 em águas baixas. A lagoa do Guaraná apresentou maior riqueza em ambos os períodos hidrológicos. No período de águas altas foi constatado um aumento de cianobactérias para os três ambientes. Durante as águas baixas houve maior ocorrência de diatomáceas. As características limnológicas (principalmente oxigênio dissolvido, ortofosfato e as formas de nitrogênio foram influenciadas pelo nível hidrológico e características hidrodinâmicas, que interferiram na presença, abundância e distribuição das algas em cada ambiente.This paper analyses the structure and dynamic of the periphytic algae community in three systems in the Paraná river floodplain (Guaraná lagoon, Fechada lagoon and Baía river, in two hydrologic periods (high waters and low waters in 2003. Utilized substratum was Eichhornia azurea Kunth. There were found a total of 284, 193 in high waters and 172 in low waters periods. The Guaraná lagoon presented the largest richness in both hydrologic periods. The high waters period (March had larger density of cyanobacteria. The low waters period (September had larger occurrence of diatoms. The limnological characteristics (mainly dissolved oxygen, orthophosphate and nitrogen forms were influenced by hydrologic level and hydrodynamics characteristics, which interfered in presence, abundance, and distribution of the algae in the system.

  14. Defense meteorological satellite measurements of total ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovill, J.E.; Ellis, J.S.; Luther, F.M.; Sullivan, R.J.; Weichel, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    A multichannel filter radiometer (MFR) on Defense Meteorological Satellites (DMS) that measured total ozone on a global-scale from March 1977 - February 1980 is described. The total ozone data measured by the MFR were compared with total ozone data taken by surfaced-based Dobson spectrophotometers. When comparisons were made for five months, the Dobson spectrophotometer measured 2-5% more total ozone than the MFR. Comparisons between the Dobson spectrophotometer and the MFR showed a reduced RMS difference as the comparisons were made at closer proximity. A Northern Hemisphere total ozone distribution obtained from MFR data is presented

  15. VERTEX ANTIMAGIC TOTAL LABELING PADA GRAPHMULTICYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominikus Arif Budi Prasetyo pythagors

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pelabelan graf merupakan bagian dari graf yang berkembang saat ini. Jenis pelabelan pada graf bergantungpada domainnya, yakni pelabelan sisi ajaib, pelabelan titik ajaib, dan pelabelan total ajaib. Pelabelan totalajaib pada graf dibedakan lagi berdasarkan komponen graf yang dievaluasi, yakni pelabelan total sisi ajaibdan pelabelan total titik ajaib. Pada pelabelan ajaib, bobot dari komponen graf yang dievaluasi adalah sama,jika bobotnya tidak sama maka dinamakan pelabelan tak-ajaib (antimagic. Misalkan G adalah graf denganbanyak titik p dan sisi q. Suatu pemetaan bijektif dari komponen-komponen graf ke bilangan bulat positif {1,2, …, (p+q} disebut called (a, d vertex antimagic total labelling (pelabelan total titik ajaib dari graf G jikabobot setiap titik (vertex merupakan barisan aritmetika naik. Pada artikel ini membahas bahwa grafmulticycle mCp memenuhi (a, d vertex antimagic total labelling dan beberapa bentuk pelabelannya.Kata kunci : graph multicycle, vertex antimagic total labeling

  16. [Total pancreatectomy: renaissance of a surgical procedure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, T; Hopt, U T

    2008-12-01

    Permanent reduction of morbidity and death in centers for pancreatic surgery has led to a change in the indication for total pancreatectomy from rescue pancreatectomy for complications of pancreatic surgery increasingly to elective surgery, especially in the management of advanced intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms. We discuss the indication for oncologic total pancreatectomy, rescue pancreatectomy, and removal of the whole pancreas for chronic pancreatitis. Furthermore we describe technical and metabolic aspects following total pancreatectomy.

  17. Total pollution effect of urban surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongbing; Luo, Lin; Huang, Gu; Liu, Ping; Li, Jingxian; Hu, Sheng; Wang, Fuxiang; Xu, Rui; Huang, Xiaoxue

    2009-01-01

    For pollution research with regard to urban surface runoff, most sampling strategies to date have focused on differences in land usage. With single land-use sampling, total surface runoff pollution effect cannot be evaluated unless every land usage spot is monitored. Through a new sampling strategy known as mixed stormwater sampling for a street community at discharge outlet adjacent to river, this study assessed the total urban surface runoff pollution effect caused by a variety of land uses and the pollutants washed off from the rain pipe system in the Futian River watershed in Shenzhen City of China. The water quality monitoring indices were COD (chemical oxygen demand), TSS (total suspend solid), TP (total phosphorus), TN (total nitrogen) and BOD (biochemical oxygen demand). The sums of total pollution loads discharged into the river for the four indices of COD, TSS, TN, and TP over all seven rainfall events were very different. The mathematical model for simulating total pollution loads was established from discharge outlet mixed stormwater sampling of total pollution loads on the basis of four parameters: rainfall intensity, total land area, impervious land area, and pervious land area. In order to treat surface runoff pollution, the values of MFF30 (mass first flush ratio) and FF30 (first 30% of runoff volume) can be considered as split-flow control criteria to obtain more effective and economical design of structural BMPs (best management practices) facilities.

  18. A note on totally normal spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zougdani, H.K.

    1990-10-01

    In this note we give the necessary and sufficient condition for a topological space X such that the product space X x Y is totally normal for any (non discrete) metric space Y, and we show that a totally normal p-space need not be a perfectly normal in general, which makes Theorem 2 doubtful. (author). 6 refs

  19. Total internal reflection effect on gyrotropic interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushchenko, Alexander G.; Glushchenko, Eugene P.; Zhukov, Sergey V.

    2018-02-01

    This article considers the physical features of total internal reflection at gyrotropic and isotropic interfaces for two cases: electrical gyrotropy (plasma) and magnetic gyrotropy (ferrite). It is shown that the plasma magnetization may lead to the formation of the total internal reflection effect, which does not occur in isotropic plasma. The threshold values of the magnetic field, which are necessary for the total internal reflection effect, are determined. The total internal reflection effect on a ferrite-dielectric interface for waves emanating from different angles is observed in various frequency ranges and magnetization fields. The study points out the possibility of changing the total internal reflection angle value in large limits due to a change in the external magnetic field magnitude. The calculation results of the total internal reflection angle dependence on the external magnetic field magnitude are presented. The formulas are elaborated for calculating the total internal reflection angles of different interfaces for gyrotropic and isotropic media. The generalized formulas are defined for calculating the Doppler effect in the gyrotropic media. The study demonstrates how the velocity of the media interface affects the limiting angle of total internal refection.

  20. Custom total occlusal convergence angle sticker fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seok-Hwan; Nagy, William W

    2015-09-01

    This article describes a method of fabricating a custom total occlusal convergence angle sticker with photo editing software and label stickers. The custom total occlusal convergence angle sticker can help clinicians achieve an accurate degree of taper during axial wall reduction of tooth preparation. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.