WorldWideScience

Sample records for billion people living

  1. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2016-02-01

    Freshwater scarcity is increasingly perceived as a global systemic risk. Previous global water scarcity assessments, measuring water scarcity annually, have underestimated experienced water scarcity by failing to capture the seasonal fluctuations in water consumption and availability. We assess blue water scarcity globally at a high spatial resolution on a monthly basis. We find that two-thirds of the global population (4.0 billion people) live under conditions of severe water scarcity at least 1 month of the year. Nearly half of those people live in India and China. Half a billion people in the world face severe water scarcity all year round. Putting caps to water consumption by river basin, increasing water-use efficiencies, and better sharing of the limited freshwater resources will be key in reducing the threat posed by water scarcity on biodiversity and human welfare.

  2. The reproductive revolution among China's billion people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, C H

    1983-08-01

    The government of China is waging the world's most comprehensive battle to control population growth. The current attitude contrasts sharply with that of the pronatalist days of the 1950s. The urgency of the issue is the result of pressures from population growth during the last 330 years, which has resulted in a 20-fold increase in the country's population. Extensive studies of the impact of population size on resources, environment, and development over the next 100 years have shown that China should aim at a total of no more than 700 million people. These studies show that unless immediate and drastic action is taken to cut fertility there is no likelihood of raising China's nutritional intake to a level comparable to that of developed countries. In response to the potential crisis of overpopulation, the government has adopted population policies based on a novel "U shaped" transition curve. The theory behind it is that fertility should be brought down to below replacement level, kept there for a number of years, and then raised to realize replacement level fertility at the ideal population size. The pursuit of this goal has resulted in the single child policy. The family planning program has been impressive. A national survey conducted in 1982 demonstrated that the average number of births per woman had been cut by at least half from 1972-81. The attainment of almost universal consensus favoring birth control can be attributed to an ingenious pyramidal social structure that links the central administration in Beijing with individuals in the village. Socioeconomic adjustments and reorientation of traditional values have not had time to catch up with government policy throughout China. Urban areas seem to have accepted the 1 child policy, but the vast number of villages are reluctant to forego their preference for large families. As long as villages remain underdeveloped and their residents lack a comprehensive social security system for old age protection, there

  3. Oral diseases affect some 3.9 billion people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Medline, Embase, Lilacs. Published and unpublished observational population-based studies presenting information on the prevalence, incidence, case fatality and cause-specific mortality related to untreated caries, severe periodontitis and severe tooth loss between January 1980 and December 2010. There were no language restrictions. Study quality was assessed using the STROBE checklist (http://www.strobe-statement.org/). Prevalence estimates were calculated on the database for all age-gender-country-year groups using a specifically developed Bayesian meta-regression tool. Disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs) metrics were used to quantify the disease burden. Disability weights were calculated based on population-based surveys in five countries (USA, Peru, Tanzania, Bangladesh and Indonesia) and an open Internet survey. Uncertainties in estimates were examined using Monte Carlo simulation techniques with uncertainty levels presented as the 2.5th and 97.5th centiles, which can be interpreted as a 95% UI. Oral diseases remain highly prevalent in 2010 affecting 3.9 billion people. Untreated caries in permanent teeth was the most prevalent condition evaluated for the entire GBD (Global Burden of Disease) 2010 Study with a global prevalence of 35% for all ages combined. Severe periodontitis and untreated caries in deciduous teeth were the 6th and 10th most prevalent conditions, affecting, respectively, 11% and 9% of the global population. Oral conditions combined accounted for 15 million DALYs globally (1.9% of all YLDs and 0.6% of all DALYs), implying an average health loss of 224 years per 100,000 people. DALYs due to oral conditions increased 20.8% between 1990 and 2010, mainly due to population growth and aging. While DALYs due to severe periodontitis and untreated caries increased, those due to severe tooth loss decreased. The findings highlight the challenge in responding to the diversity of urgent oral health needs world

  4. Developing economic environment: energy for a billion people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethna, H.N.; Chandramouli, R.; Manaktala, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    The ongoing reforms in the Indian economy provide an interesting canvas for optimal development of the energy sector serving the needs for a billion people. It will be necessary in the global interest, to avoid the pitfalls of developing an energy intensive society as in the west and remain within the realms of sustainable development. It also deals with the strategies to be adopted for energy conservation, rehabilitation of existing plants and optimal utilisation of hydro thermal capacities by integrated grid operation on a commercial basis and setting up of pumped storage plants. 9 tabs

  5. Accomplishing rural electrification for over a billion people: Approaches towards sustainable solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mizanur Md.

    2014-01-01

    Access to electricity appears to be a prerequisite to materialize social, economic, and human development in the underprivileged rural areas. However, 1.1 billion rural people in the world, almost all of them living in developing countries, still do not have access to electricity. Although the rural electrification process poses more challenges than urban electrification, rural areas are blessed with abundant and relatively evenly distributed renewable energy resources. To facilitate electric...

  6. How to Bring Solar Energy to Seven Billion People (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadia, Cyrus

    2009-04-06

    By exploiting the powers of nanotechnology and taking advantage of non-toxic, Earth-abundant materials, Berkeley Lab's Cyrus Wadia has fabricated new solar cell devices that have the potential to be several orders of magnitude less expensive than conventional solar cells. And by mastering the chemistry of these materials-and the economics of solar energy-he envisions bringing electricity to the 1.2 billion people now living without it.

  7. Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, Ashok J.; Derby, Elisabeth A.

    2003-06-01

    Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015, the global community will need to provide an additional one billion urban residents and 600 million rural residents with safe water within the next twelve years. This paper examines current water treatment measures and implementation methods for delivery of safe drinking water, and offers suggestions for making progress towards the goal of providing a timely and equitable solution for safe water provision. For water treatment, based on the serious limitations of boiling water and chlorination, we suggest an approach based on filtration coupled with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, combined with public education. Additionally, owing to the capacity limitations for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to take on this task primarily on their own, we suggest a strategy based on financially sustainable models that include the private sector as well as NGOs.

  8. People who live for quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This book introduces the case of model of quality management. There are a lot of titles and people's example such as with dogged perseverance by Kang, Beom Sik in SK industry, come back to company which he submitted his resignation by Kim, Byeong Hui in Hyundai Heavy industries, I want to be the world best by Yeon, Sang Jin in Geum Ho industry, a good beginning is half the battle by Kwon, Bok Sik in KIA company, employee satisfaction is quality management by Hong, Sun Gyeom, in Dong Yang piston, and praying for all by Kim, Youn Ja in Lotte department store.

  9. Older peoples' lived experiences after hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    to the fracture; and for planning the data-analysis through 5-steps of meaning condensation. Conclusion Older people´s lived experiences of being active after HF are being explored and results are transferred to professionals aiming at evidence utilization to develop interventions that empathically...... by the philosophies of Heidegger and Gadamer to explore older people´s lived experiences through repeated interviews; and applying an existential framework of wellbeing where meaning and health can be understood as a balancing of mobility and dwelling. Results The systematic review reveals older peoples´ worries when...... striving for wellbeing in an active daily life after HF; steering-group meetings clarify clinical questions regarding functional ability after HF. This knowledge is the basis for developing the interview guide used when interviewing 13 at-home-living older people with limited functional ability prior...

  10. Missing billions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conly, S

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses funding of population programs that support the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development's Plan of Action. The Plan of Action calls for a quadrupling of annual financial commitments for population programs to $17 billion by the year 2000 and $22 billion by 2015. The increased expenditures would cover the increased demand for services from unmet need and population growth. Donor countries are expected to increase their share from the current 25% to about 33%, or $5.7 billion by the year 2000. The estimates are in 1993 constant dollars. $17 billion is less than the $40 billion that is spent worldwide on playing golf. During 1993-94, general donor support increased to $1.2 billion. Denmark, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States increased their support. The United States doubled its support for population programs during 1992-95 to $583 million. During 1996-97 the US Congress cut funding back to the 1995 level. France, Italy, Spain, Belgium, and Austria have lagged in support for population programs in the present and the past. Equal burden sharing would require the US to increase funding to $1.9 billion. Developed country assistance declined to the lowest share of combined gross national product since 1970. This shifts the burden to multilateral sources. The European Union is committed to increasing its funding, and the World Bank increased funding for population and reproductive health to about $600 million in 1996 from $424 million in 1994. Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa, and Turkey spent 85% of all government expenditures on family planning in developing countries. External donors in Africa are the main support of family planning. Private consumers in Latin America pay most of the costs of family planning. External assistance will be needed for some time.

  11. Six billion and counting

    OpenAIRE

    Leisinger, Klaus M.; Schmitt, Karin M.; Pandya-Lorch, Rajul

    2002-01-01

    In 1999 global population surpassed 6 billion people, and this number rises by about 70-80 million people each year. "Six Billion and Counting" examines the consequences of continuing population growth for the world's resource systems and for national and global food security. Leisinger, Schmitt, and Pandya-Lorch offer here a sober analysis of a complex and alarming situation. They assess the progress the world has made in controlling population growth and point to the areas where future diff...

  12. Experiences of people living with HIV and people living close to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heleen French

    2014-07-14

    Jul 14, 2014 ... To cite this article: Heleen French, Minrie Greeff & Martha J. Watson (2014) Experiences of people living with. HIV and people living close to them of a comprehensive HIV stigma reduction community intervention in an urban and a rural ..... school-aged children in the care and support of PLWH. The find-.

  13. TB Testing for People Living with HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, explains why it is important for people living with HIV to be tested for TB.  Created: 7/23/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  14. Hypertension in people living with HIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoest, Rosan A.; van den Born, Bert-Jan H.; Reiss, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review This review describes what is known concerning the burden of hypertension among people living with HIV (PLHIV), and also addresses relevant topics with respect to its risk factors and clinical management. Recent findings Hypertension is highly prevalent in HIV-positive populations,

  15. How do people live in the Anthropocene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Libby

    2016-04-01

    While geologists have focused their efforts on which changes in the strata might constitute a functional shift out of the present epoch, environmental humanities scholars, museums and creative artists have taken up the Anthropocene as a concept raising new moral and practical dilemmas. A central concern is with how people adapt and live creatively in a world that is functioning beyond the physical planetary boundaries defined by the Holocene. This paper will provide an overview of the lively scholarly and popular debates on the question of what it means, ethically, to be human in an Age of Humans. Major questions include the question of who are 'we' in the Anthropocene, and how the conditions of the putative new epoch will affect 'more-than-human-others'. Creative and justice activist responses to the Anthropocene typically distinguish among humans, focusing not on the causes, but rather on concerns of the people on the receiving end of global change (for example, the Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) group of 39+8). Some are concerned about the collateral effects of technological 'fixes' for energy transformations and climate, and others about economic shifts and market-based incentives. As a historian of ideas, I explore the multiple paths by which people have come to the Anthropocene concept, and the uses to which it has already been put, even before a final decision is made on its formal status. The Anthropocene already arouses anxiety about 'the future'. One big idea that is shared across activists and scholars (and not just those in the humanities) is the question of enabling hopeful responses. A diversity of creative projects for living in the Anthropocene, which can contribute to coping with the stress of accelerating global change, is essential to this.

  16. Connecting the last billion

    OpenAIRE

    Ben David, Yahel

    2015-01-01

    The last billion people to join the online world, are likely to face at least one of two obstacles:Part I: Rural Internet AccessRural, sparsely populated, areas make conventional infrastructure investments unfeasible: Bigcorporations attempt to address this challenge via the launch of Low-Earth-Orbiting (LEO) satelliteconstellations, fleets of high-altitude balloons, and giant solar-powered drones; although thesegrandiose initiatives hold potential, they are costly and risky. At the same time...

  17. Can the World's Farmers Feed a World of 10 Billion People In Spite of Climate Change? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterling, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    The rapid rise in agricultural productivity due to technological innovation and science-based methods was one of the great human achievements of the 20th century. We now face the prospect of needing to double agricultural output by the latter third of the current century to match the growth of demand for food and fiber—albeit the pace of growth in demand shows signs of slowing in the future. How farmers and the agricultural industry deal with climate change will, in large measure, determine success or failure. The Earth is committed to about the same amount of warming in the future as has been experienced over the past hundred years regardless of future greenhouse gas emissions trajectories; such will require adaptive responses by plants, animals, producers and consumers if society’s goals for global food security are to be met. In this paper, I summarize the state-of-the science of how climate change may affect our global agricultural production system. I review the latest thinking on the combined effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate changes on crop productivity across the globe. Prospects for adaptation in agriculturally important regions are examined. While it appears that global food production will be adequate to meet global food demand in spite of advancing climate change, it is clear that many parts of the tropics and dry sub-tropics will see yield decreases and possible loss of comparative advantage. In those regions, continued large population growth and deleterious climate changes will contribute to declining per capita agricultural production. Increasing numbers of people at risk of hunger are probable there.

  18. Effects of an exercise programme with people living with HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of an exercise programme with people living with HIV: research in a disadvantaged setting. Clemens Ley, Lloyd Leach, María Rato Barrio, Susan Bassett. Abstract. This study aimed to analyse the physical health effects of a community based 10-week physical activity programme with people living with HIV.

  19. Aspirations of young people living in disadvantaged areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frørup, Anna Kathrine; Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2017-01-01

    how young people's (living in a socially disadvantaged area) possibilities, aspirations and demands are raised, strengthened, transformed or put aside and in what way they feel participating within different local programmes....

  20. My Story: Real Stories of People Living with Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Compartir Real Stories from People living with Thalassemia On this Page Rahul’s Story Aaron’s Story Rahul’s ... is Rahul Kapoor, and I was born with thalassemia, a blood disorder which requires transfusions every other ...

  1. The daily lives of people with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Vivian Valcarenghi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To understand the daily lives of people with Parkinson's disease. Method: Qualitative research, using as methodological and theoretical referential the Grounded Theory and Symbolic Interactionism, respectively. The in-depth interview was conducted with 30 people with Parkinson's disease. Results: From data analysis, three themes were selected: Living with the disease - living with the treatment and changes in lifestyle; Modifying of one's job performance - revealing incapacity for work and the need to anticipate retirement and; Living with the stigma - the feeling of prejudice against the disease and the perceived limitations of the health services. Final considerations: Living with a chronic and non-transferable disease encompasses social, physical and cultural effects, along with the personal experiences of each unique individual. This study assists the improvement of care to people with the disease, because the care practice emerges from the interactions between the subjects.

  2. Physical Activity among Older People Living Alone in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; While, Alison E; Hicks, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate physical activity among older people living alone in Shanghai, People's Republic of China, and key factors contributing to their physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered in nine communities in Shanghai, using a stratified random cluster sample: 521 community-dwelling older people…

  3. Are people living with HIV less productive at work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Verbooy (Kaya); M.N. Wagener (Marlies); M. Kaddouri (Meriam); P.D.D.M. Roelofs (Pepijn); H.S. Miedema (Harald); E.C.M. van Gorp (Eric); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner); N.J.A. van Exel (Job)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractHealth problems may cause decreased productivity among working people. It is unclear if this also applies for people living with HIV (PLWH). This cross-sectional study compares data of PLWH of one of the main HIV treatment centres in the Netherlands (n = 298) to data of the general

  4. Older people living with HIV in Uganda: understanding their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-prevention, treatment and care programmes should seek to meet the special needs of older people through focused and innovative approaches. Further research with larger samples is needed to explore the impact of these healthcare needs on the quality of life of older people living with HIV. Keywords: ageing ...

  5. Transfrontier Conservation Areas: people living on the edge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, J.A.; Garine-Wichatitsky, de M.; Cumming, D.H.M.; Dzingirai, V.; Giller, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses on the forgotten people displaced by, or living on the edge of, protected wildlife areas. It moves beyond the grand 'enchanting promise' of conservation and development across frontiers, and unfounded notions of TFCAs as integrated social-ecological systems. Peoples' dependency on

  6. Safely Managed Sanitation for All Means Fecal Sludge Management for At Least 1.8 Billion People in Low and Middle Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendes, David M; Sumner, Trent A; Brown, Joe M

    2017-03-07

    Although global access to sanitation is increasing, safe management of fecal waste is a rapidly growing challenge in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The goal of this study was to evaluate the current need for fecal sludge management (FSM) in LMICs by region, urban/rural status, and wealth. Recent Demographic and Health Survey data from 58 countries (847 685 surveys) were used to classify households by sanitation facility (facilities needing FSM, sewered facilities, ecological sanitation/other, or no facilities). Onsite piped water infrastructure was quantified to approximate need for wastewater management and downstream treatment. Over all surveyed nations, 63% of households used facilities requiring FSM, totaling approximately 1.8 billion people. Rural areas had similar proportions of toilets requiring FSM as urban areas. FSM needs scaled inversely with wealth: in the poorest quintile, households' sanitation facilities were almost 170 times more likely to require FSM (vs sewerage) than in the richest quintile. About one out of five households needing FSM had onsite piped water infrastructure, indicating domestic or reticulated wastewater infrastructure may be required if lacking for safe management of aqueous waste streams. FSM strategies must be included in future sanitation investment to achieve safe management of fecal wastes and protect public health.

  7. Feeding six billion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L R

    1989-01-01

    Between 1986-88 drought damage to crops caused the grain supply to decrease and the price of grain worldwide increased 50%. However, in 1989 higher prices and better weather did not result in a rebuilding of reserves lost in previous years. According to the US Agriculture Department, the 1989 harvest will be 13 million tons short of the projected 1684 million tons of consumption. If grain stock cannot be replenished this year, then when will they be replenished? There are a variety of problems causing this situation. Lack of crop land and irrigation water prevent expansion. Diminishing returns from fertilizer inputs, deforestation, soil erosion, and pollution are all decreasing yields. Growth in food production worldwide has stabilized. Between 1950-84 world grain harvest increased 2.6 times or 3%/year. But between 1985-90 that same growth was only 0.2%/year. While this is too short a time to establish a trend, it does suggest a slowdown in worldwide food production. Every year 24 billion tons of topsoil are lost to water and wind erosion, and the world population grows by 88 million annually. Together, these 2 trends indicate a pending disaster. There is no reason to believe that food production is going to continue to grow as fast as the population, thus, population growth must be drastically curtailed. The UN has changes its projected level of population stabilization from 10 billion to 14 billion based on the fact that worldwide population growth has dropped only to 1.7%. Family planning programs have not been as successful as was hoped, partly because the US has withdrawn a large amount of funding due to political pressure from conservatives. The outlook is not good, as the per capita food share shrinks, malnutrition and starvation will continue to grow. Food prices will rise sharply and many more people will be unable to afford food. In many developing countries, people spend 70% of their income on food. This is already occurring as measured by a worldwide

  8. Fatigue Symptom Management in People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Joseph D; Webel, Allison R; Voss, Joachim G; Prince-Paul, Maryjo

    2017-04-01

    Fatigue is a subjective, unpleasant, potentially disabling symptom rooted in physiological, psychological, and behavioral causes. People living with HIV are a population highly affected by fatigue due to risk factors associated with HIV-infection, treatment, and psychosocial disease burden. People with HIV are living longer, and are facing the challenge of a longer disease trajectory. Palliative nurses with expertise in symptom management can play a crucial role in helping people with HIV to engage in health behaviors that prevent or mitigate fatigue. In this paper we present a definition and overview of fatigue, describe the problem of fatigue in people living with HIV, and present a case study that illustrates the role of the palliative nurse in helping a person with HIV to cope with fatigue.

  9. Considering people living with dementia when designing interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ancient, Claire; Good, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Dementia is an escalating problem which is estimated to affect 35.6 million people worldwide. In an environment which is becoming increasingly dependent on technology, the interaction needs of people living with dementia is being ignored by interface designers. This paper aims to highlight the factors which should be considered when designing interfaces to be "dementia-friendly". The article draws on the limited previous research to suggest that interfaces need to consider two main factors: p...

  10. Stigma, identity and resistance among people living with HIV in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS-related stigma can cause delays in testing, poor treatment adherence, and greater numbers of new infections. Existing studies from low- and middle-income countries focus on the negative experiences of stigma, and few document resistance strategies. In this article we document the diverse journeys of people living ...

  11. Condom use among antiretroviral therapy naive people living with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The consistent use of male latex condom significantly reduces the risk of HIV infection among men and women. Objective: This study was designed to assess the prevalence and pattern of male and female condom use among antiretroviral therapy naïve people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Lagos, Nigeria.

  12. Challenges facing people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is based on a study carried out between October 2006 and April 2007 with People Living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) who are currently in support groups based in the Gaborone, Gabane and Gaphatshwa areas of Botswana. The research project was conducted by the University of Botswana research team as ...

  13. Social support and the psychological wellbeing of people living with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The current study sought to investigate the association between age, gender, social support and the psychological wellbeing of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLHA) in Ghana. Method: Cross-sectional data containing information on demographics, social support and psychological well-being (stress, ...

  14. Attitudes Of Nurses And Midwives Toward People Living With Hiv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims at measuring the attitudes of Nurses and Midwives toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Minna Municipal and the extent to which academic qualification and years of experience influence their attitudes. With the aid of a structured 55 item – questionnaire, information was elicited from 195 randomly ...

  15. The physical activity levels among people living with human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.M. Frantz

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to or arising out of the use of the Content. This article .... ticularly greater longevity of people living with HIV/AIDS. (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention 2003). Research has, however, shown that the use of HAART is significantly associated ...

  16. Food insecurity and coping strategies among people living with HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-04

    Oct 4, 2011 ... 1Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O. 65015, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 2Clinton ... This study was carried out to assess food security, and coping strategies among people living with ... direction food insecurity increases the risk of HIV infection as well as fast progression to AIDS. (Oxfam ...

  17. [Quality of life of older people living in Antofagasta, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa, Alfonso; Bravo, Miguel; Ogalde, Mario; Vargas, Carolina

    2011-08-01

    As basic needs of older people are covered, the concern about the determinants of their quality of life becomes preeminent. To evaluate the relationship between self-reported quality of life and related variables. The Quality of Life Survey for older people developed by the World Health Organization (WHOQOL-Old), the reduced scale of Ryff Psychological Well Being, the Functional Social Support Questionnaire, the SF-12 and GHQ12 general health surveys were applied to 406 older adults aged 71 ± 7 years (83% women), that were members of older people organizations and lived in Antofagasta, Chile. Older people that perceived themselves as sick had significantly lower quality of life scores. Self-acceptance, social support, autonomy and having a purpose in life also influenced the perception of quality of life. Health issues and the sense of self efficacy are determinants of the quality of life of these older subjects.

  18. Personal health records for people living with HIV: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kea; Klaman, Stacey L; Shea, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    Personal health records have the potential to improve patient outcomes, but the state of the literature on personal health record usage by people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is unclear. The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of personal health records on HIV-related health beliefs and behaviors. We used the Health Belief Model to guide a review of studies examining the impact of electronic personal health records on the health beliefs and behaviors among people living with HIV. The search yielded 434 results. Following abstract review, 19 papers were selected for full-text review, and 12 were included in the review. A limited number of studies in this review found a positive impact of personal health records on HIV-related beliefs and behaviors. Additional research is needed to identify which personal health record features are most influential in changing health behaviors and why adoption rates remain low, particularly for groups at greatest risk for poor HIV outcomes. Theory-informed interventions are needed to identify which patients are likely to benefit from using personal health records and how to reduce barriers to personal health record adoption for people living with HIV.

  19. Better housing and living conditions for older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    There is an increasing emphasis on strategies designed to combat the exclusion of older people from society. The development of social policies oriented towards community care and community living has important consequences for housing policies and urban planning policies. How can the general hou...... are necessary between social service and housing agencies? This report contains examples of good practice from six European cities: Birmingham, Vicenza, Copenhagen, Berlin, Amsterdam, and Niorth. The research study was supported by the European Commission....... housing stock and local neighbourhood facilites be made more responsive to the demands of older people? How can housing and planning measures contribute to the integration of older people in local communities? How can urban renewal be implemented in elderly-friendly forms? What forms of coordination...

  20. Internalized stigma in people living with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Olivia C; Byrne, Donald G; Nicholas, Michael K

    2014-05-01

    Although persistent pain occurs in a sociocultural context, the influence of personal devaluation and invalidation is often neglected. As such, the present study sought to consider whether individuals' experience, perception, or anticipation of negative social reactions to their pain may become internalized and affect the self. To examine this issue, 92 adults with chronic pain responded to a questionnaire exploring the presence of internalized stigma and its association with a range of psychological consequences. As predicted, a large percentage of people with chronic pain (38%) endorsed the experience of internalized stigma. The results showed that internalized stigma has a negative relationship with self-esteem and pain self-efficacy, after controlling for depression. Internalized stigma was also associated with cognitive functioning in relation to pain, in terms of a greater tendency to catastrophize about pain and a reduced sense of personal control over pain. Overall, this study presents a new finding regarding the application of internalized stigma to a chronic pain population. It offers a means of extending our understanding of chronic pain's psychosocial domain. Implications are discussed in terms of the potential to inform clinical treatment and resiliency into the future. This article presents a novel finding regarding the presence of internalized stigma among people living with chronic pain. Internalized stigma is strongly associated with indicators of patient outcome. It presents an area for future work with the aim to improve our understanding and treatment of people living with pain. Copyright © 2014 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nostalgia and Sentimentality Among Minority Elderly People (Bulgarian Roma People and Hungarians Living in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Stoyanova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nostalgia and sentimentality are very typical for the old age. There are some characteristics that are perceived as typical for the elderly people in the different cultures, such as being dependent, and needing long-term care. There are also some similarities between the population tendencies in Bulgaria and Romania. The simultaneously acceptance in European Union of both countries also suggests the existence of some similar attitudes towards the past among elderly minority people in both countries. The hypothesis of the study was that together with some similarities, the elderly people from both ethnic minorities in the two countries would differ cross-culturally in their sentimentality and nostalgia related to the past. Sentimentality and nostalgia in elderly minority people (26 Roma people in Bulgaria and 21 Hungarians in Romania were measured by means of a questionnaire created by Gergov & Stoyanova (2013. The results indicated that the Hungarian minority in Romania was more sentimental and nostalgic than the Roma minority in Bulgaria. More thoughts about the past reported the minority young elders than the minority oldest old. The females from the minority groups were more sentimental than the males from the minority groups. Higher sentimentality and nostalgia among elderly Hungarians could be explained by their higher conservatism and more satisfaction with the hystorical past than Roma people. Roma people living in institutions felt a sense of stability in their present and they shared some positive expectations for the future.

  2. Older people living alone at home with terminal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, S; Deas, K; Skett, K

    2016-05-01

    This study describes the lived experiences of older people coping with terminal cancer and living alone, focusing on how they face challenges of the biographical life changes from their disease progression. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted in two phases with palliative care clients of a community-based service in Western Australia (2009-2011): Brief interviews with 43 cancer patients who live alone and then in-depth interviews with 8 of them. Using biographical disruption as the analytical framework for interpreting the qualitative data, four main themes emerged: Biographical disruption: adjusting to change; Biographical continuity: preserving normality; Biographical reconstruction: redefining normality; and Biographical closure: facing the end. Biographical disruption was a suitable framework for analysis, permitting identification of the biographical disruptions of the individual's world and the reframing that is undertaken by the individual to maintain autonomy and independence while acknowledging and accepting their closeness to death. Understanding the factors associated with the individual's need to maintain their own identity will enable nurses working with this population to tailor support plans that meet the individuals' needs while maintaining or restoring the person's sense of self. Interventions that directly address end-of-life suffering and bolster sense of dignity and personhood need to be considered. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Identifying Symptom Patterns in People Living With HIV Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Natalie L; Azuero, Andres; Vance, David E; Richman, Joshua S; Moneyham, Linda D; Raper, James L; Heath, Sonya L; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette

    2016-01-01

    Symptoms guide disease management, and patients frequently report HIV-related symptoms, but HIV symptom patterns reported by patients have not been described in the era of improved antiretroviral treatment. The objectives of our study were to investigate the prevalence and burden of symptoms in people living with HIV and attending an outpatient clinic. The prevalence, burden, and bothersomeness of symptoms reported by patients in routine clinic visits during 2011 were assessed using the 20-item HIV Symptom Index. Principal component analysis was used to identify symptom clusters and relationships between groups using appropriate statistic techniques. Two main clusters were identified. The most prevalent and bothersome symptoms were muscle aches/joint pain, fatigue, and poor sleep. A third of patients had seven or more symptoms, including the most burdensome symptoms. Even with improved antiretroviral drug side-effect profiles, symptom prevalence and burden, independent of HIV viral load and CD4+ T cell count, are high. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Shame among people living with HIV: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David S; Traub, Kerry; Mace, Lauren; Juarascio, Adrienne; O'Hayer, C Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Shame is consistently associated with poor adjustment (e.g., depressive symptoms) among community samples but, surprisingly, has rarely been directly examined among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH). This limited research on shame is likely due, in part, to shame's having been subsumed within measures of internalized stigma, an imprecise construct with varied definitions in the HIV literature. The current review summarizes research directly examining the correlates of shame among PLWH. Findings indicate that shame is associated with greater depressive symptoms, less healthcare utilization, and poorer physical health among PLWH. Directions for future research examining shame among PLWH are highlighted, including the need for more prospective research examining shame as a predictor of future adjustment.

  5. A comparison of the factors influencing life satisfaction between Korean older people living with family and living alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S H; Sok, S R

    2012-06-01

    As the global population of older people continuously increases, many countries are beginning to experience health problems associated with older age. These countries may be interested in knowing and understanding the health problems experienced by the older Korean population, which is projected to age the most rapidly. This study aimed to compare and examine the factors that influence the life satisfaction between older people living with their family and those living alone. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. The participants comprised a total 300 older Koreans (150 living with their family, 150 living alone) aged 65 years or over who met the eligibility criteria. All measures were self-administered. Data were analysed using the SAS statistical software program version 6.12 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The older people living with their family were better than the older people living alone in perceived health status, self-esteem, depression and life satisfaction. Perceived health status, self-esteem, depression, age and monthly allowance were found to be the factors related to the life satisfaction of older people living with their family and those living alone. The factors that were found to have the greatest influence on the life satisfaction of older people living with their family and those living alone were depression and perceived health, respectively. This study may help healthcare providers to understand the factors that can influence the life satisfaction among older people living with their family and living alone in Korea. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  6. Self-Regulation and Experience of Loneliness of Elderly People Who Live in Social Care Residences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abitov, Ildar R.; Gorodetskaya, Inna M.

    2016-01-01

    The research addresses the peculiarities of self-regulation of loneliness experience of elderly people living in care homes. The population of the study consisted of 60 elderly people (65-80 years old). 30 of them live in families with spouses and children and 30 persons live in the State residential social service institution. It was found that…

  7. Sources of Social Capital for Malawi People Living With HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally H. Rankin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With one of the highest rates of poverty and HIV in the world, Malawi faith-based organizations (FBOs, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, and community-based organizations (CBOs are expected to provide tangible and emotional support to people living with HIV (PLWH. Using Lin’s social capital theoretical approach, we examine the perspective of PLWH regarding the adequacy of support responses. Forty-six rural Malawi HIV+ adults provided interviews that were recorded digitally, translated, and transcribed by Malawi research assistants. Atlas.ti was used to organize the data and to aid in the analytic process. Participants expressed disappointment in the lack of resources that could be accessed through the FBOs although their expectations may have been unrealistic. Outcomes from accessing and mobilizing the FBO network were negative in terms of stigmatization by FBO leaders and members, whereas outcomes related to CBOs and NGOs were generally positive in terms of empowerment through HIV information and attendance at support groups.

  8. Existential challenges in young people living with a cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odh, Ida; Löfving, Martina; Klaeson, Kicki

    2016-10-01

    In Sweden, approximately 500 people between the ages of 15 and 39 are diagnosed with cancer each year. When someone is diagnosed with a life-threatening disease, existential issues are easily triggered. Young adults are in a developmental phase of life and are exposed to an extra amount of pressure. The Internet and social media are a daily part of the life of young adults and the use of blogs is common. The aim of this study was to elucidate the theoretical framework of Yalom and his four 'givens' expressed in blogs written by young adults living with various cancer diagnoses in Sweden. This study used a qualitative method in which written stories from six public blogs were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The findings offer valuable in-depth knowledge about the existential issues in this population. The results can be described as a journey with several existential challenges and with death as an impending threat. The bloggers' awareness of their mortality was described as creating a sense of loss and existential loneliness. This study shows that young adults are empowered by the writing of blogs and that blogs can play an important part in increasing wellbeing and a sense of coherence within this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tuberculosis control in people living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnabosco, Gabriela Tavares; Lopes, Lívia Maria; Andrade, Rubia Laine de Paula; Brunello, Maria Eugênia Firmino; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena

    2016-09-09

    to analyze the offering of health actions and services for the control of tuberculosis for people living with HIV/AIDS being followed up in the Specialized Care Services for HIV/AIDS in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. quantitative, exploratory survey study. Participated 253 people living with HIV/AIDS followed up by this service, considering as inclusion criteria: individuals older than 18 years living in the city and not inmates. Data collection was conducted from January 2012 to May 2013 through interviews with the support of a specific instrument. Data were analyzed using indicators and a composite index. the offering of services for the control of tuberculosis in people living with HIV/AIDS by municipal services was considered as intermediate, reinforcing the need for better planning for comprehensive assistance, coordination of professionals in teams and among the services network, in addition to professional training and continuing education. it is necessary to implement strategies that promote shared actions between TB and HIV / AIDS programs and between different services in order to strengthen the local care network, aimed at producing an individualized care, comprehensive and responsive. analisar a oferta das ações e serviços de saúde para o controle da tuberculose nas pessoas vivendo com HIV/aids em seguimento pelos Serviços de Atenção Especializada ao HIV/aids de Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. estudo quantitativo, exploratório, do tipo inquérito. Participaram 253 pessoas vivendo com HIV/aids em seguimento nos serviços, considerando os critérios de inclusão: indivíduos maiores de 18 anos, residentes no município e não pertencentes ao sistema prisional. A coleta de dados foi realizada no período de janeiro/2012 a maio/2013, por meio de entrevistas com apoio de um instrumento específico. Os dados foram analisados mediante indicadores e índice composto. a oferta de ações e serviços para o controle da tuberculose nas pessoas vivendo com HIV

  10. Depression And Loneliness Levels Among the Older People, a Comparison Between Living Alone, Living with Family or Living at Nursing Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ege Agirman

    2017-09-01

    CONCLUSION: In the study, we found out that, rate of depression in older people is higher than the level in entire society, the same is true for the sense of loneliness, loneliness becomes more fierce, as depression becomes stronger, The older people living alone are more exposed to depression compared to the ones living with family or being nursed, and loneliness becomes a more important problem for these people, [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(3.000: 234-240

  11. risk factors of active tuberculosis in people living with hiv/aids in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    2011-07-02

    Jul 2, 2011 ... METHODS: A case-control study was conducted from January to March, 2009 in South West. Ethiopia. The study population consisted of 162 cases and 647 controls. Cases were adult people living with HIV/AIDS who developed active pulmonary tuberculosis and controls were people living with. HIV/AIDS ...

  12. Risk Factors of Active Tuberculosis in People Living with HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Determinants of active tuberculosis among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) are not well elucidated in countries with limited resources. The objective of this study was to assess distal and proximate determinants of active tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS in southwest. Ethiopia.

  13. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitudes towards people living with HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV have been widely documented, and have extended their impact into the workplace. Stigmatising attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the workplace significantly hinder HIV prevention efforts and indirectly affect national development.

  14. Experiences of people living with epilepsy presenting for treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epilepsy is one of the world's most common neurological disorders. It is a condition that affects individuals in most countries worldwide. There is stigma attached to epilepsy, and the condition is often misunderstood. However, there are people who understand the condition and the care that people with epilepsy need.

  15. Chernobyl catastrophe: Information for people living in the contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisevich, Nikolaj

    2001-01-01

    medical examinations; acknowledgement dissonance connected with information about the radiation situation and the possible negative consequences as well; complex character of the effect of different factors. Besides, the economic crisis in the republic has put the radioactively contaminated areas into especially complicated socio-economic conditions. The common features of the crisis are especially acute there: drop of production, population outflow from these regions, the undeveloped state of the consumer's sector, the low level of social and medical services of the population. All residents of the contaminated territories belong to the group of increased risk taking into account the scale of the accident together with a complex of unfavourable factors of non-radiation nature. After the Chernobyl disaster it became evident that adequate perception of radiation risk should be fostered through teaching radiation safety basics to a wide range of people who influence the process of formation of peoples opinion (e.g. teachers, doctors, agronomists, etc.) as well as through public awareness raising. It is of significant importance to provide population with objective and available information on radioecological situation, radiation safety and protective measures when solving social and economical problems. At the first stage the population had a distrust of the information related to the consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident. This distrust was originally caused by concealment of many facts due to their secrecy and also by contradictory information had to be analysed first of all by specialists and only then discussed in public. Therefore, population affected by 'information distress' needs in true information about possibilities to decrease radiation risks and to become aware of conditions to provide safe living on contaminated territories. The vast stock of scientific and practical material in the field of radiobiology, radioecology, radiation medicine has been collected

  16. Living with companion animals after stroke: experiences of older people in community and primary care nursing.

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Maria; Ahlström, Gerd; Jönsson, Ann-Cathrin

    2014-01-01

    Older people often have companion animals, and the significance of animals in human lives should be considered by nurses-particularly in relation to older people's health, which can be affected by diseases. The incidence of stroke increases with age and disabilities as a result of stroke are common. This study aimed to explore older people's experiences of living with companion animals after stroke, and their life situation with the animals in relation to the physical, psychological a...

  17. Lived experiences of ageing and later life in older people with intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kåhlin, Ida; Kjellberg, Anette; Nord, Catharina; Hagberg, Jan-Erik

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how older people with intellectual disability (ID), who live in group accommodation, describe their lived experience in relation to ageing and later life. The study adopted a phenomenological approach, based on the concept of life-world. Individual, qualitative interviews were conducted with twelve people with ID (five men, seven women), between the ages of 48 and 71 (m=64), who lived in four different group accommodation units in southern Sweden. A descr...

  18. Quality of Life of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: With the advent of free treatment with highly active anti-retroviral therapy across Nigeria, people living with HIV I AIDS (PLWHA) now live longer. However, the burden of the disease still remains high. Aside from quantity of life lived, quality oflife(QOL) as a second key component of the burden of the disease has ...

  19. Preterm delivery among people living around Portland cement plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.-Y.; Chang, C.-C.; Tsai, S.-S.; Huang, H.-Y.; Ho, C.-K.; Wu, T.-N.; Sung, F.-C.

    2003-01-01

    The Portland cement industry is the main source of particulate air pollution in Kaohsiung city. Data in this study concern outdoor air pollution and the health of individuals living in communities in close proximity to Portland cement plants. The prevalence of delivery of preterm birth infants as significantly higher in mothers living within 0-2 km of a Portland cement plant than in mothers living within 2-4 km. After controlling for several possible confounders (including maternal age, season, marital status, maternal education, and infant sex), the adjusted odds ratio was 1.30 (95% I=1.09-1.54) for the delivery of preterm infants for mothers living close to he Portland cement plants, chosen at the start to be from 0 to 2 km. These data provide further support for the hypothesis that air pollution can affect he outcome of pregnancy

  20. Embedding a Recovery Orientation into Neuroscience Research: Involving People with a Lived Experience in Research Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Anthony; Brophy, Lisa; Castle, David; Harvey, Carol; Robertson, Joanne; Corlett, Philip; Davidson, Larry; Everall, Ian

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the importance and value of involving people with a lived experience of mental ill health and recovery in neuroscience research activity. In this era of recovery oriented service delivery, involving people with the lived experience of mental illness in neuroscience research extends beyond their participation as "subjects". The recovery paradigm reconceptualises people with the lived experience of mental ill health as experts by experience. To support this contribution, local policies and procedures, recovery-oriented training for neuroscience researchers, and dialogue about the practical applications of neuroscience research, are required.

  1. Provision of psychosocial support for young people living with HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most organisations use a multi-disciplinary team of individuals to meet these needs, with particular emphasis on individual and group therapy, educational support, and skills-building programmes. The review stresses the importance of youth-centered and youth-led approaches that engage young people in the planning, ...

  2. HOME BASED CARE FOR PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Dar-es-salaam Medical Students' Journal - DMSJ October 2011. 23. Executive summary. Background: For many AIDS patients in low income countries such as African ... members who are taking care of their relatives living with HIV/AIDS and further studies should be conducted in order to explore reasons as to.

  3. Counseling People Living in Poverty: The CARE Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Louisa L.; Generali, Margaret M.; Kress, Victoria E.

    2011-01-01

    Counselors frequently counsel clients who live in poverty. The authors describe the new CARE model that addresses the influence of multiple systems on poor clients' experiences. A social justice, humanistic intervention, the CARE model emphasizes cultivating a positive counseling relationship with poor clients, empathizing with their unique…

  4. The Economic Lives of People with Disabilities in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Palmer

    Full Text Available Through a series of focus group discussions conducted in northern and central Vietnam, this study gives voice to the lived economic experience of families with disabilities and how they manage the economic challenges associated with disability. The dynamic of low and unstable income combined with on-going health care and other disability-related costs gives rise to a range of coping mechanisms (borrowing, reducing and foregoing expenditures, drawing upon savings and substituting labour that helps to maintain living standards in the short-run yet threatens the longer-term welfare of both the individual with disability and their household. Current social protection programs were reported as not accessible to all and while addressing some immediate economic costs of disability, do not successfully meet current needs nor accommodate wider barriers to availing benefits.

  5. Differences between family caregivers and people with dementia in recognizing the difficulties encountered in the lives of people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamura, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Dementia brings new difficulties in the lives of people with this disorder. It is important that family caregivers accurately recognize these difficulties to help their family members live fulfilling lives. Based on information gathered from people with dementia, family caregivers, and nurses providing medical care to this population, this study compared the differences in perspectives related to the difficulties associated with dementia between the family member with dementia and the family caregiver.Methods The primary participants in this investigation were 106 people with dementia and their family caregivers. Participants with dementia were 65 years and older who were receiving home care in Tokyo. Participants were interviewed about their difficulties while family caregivers completed a questionnaire with basic information regarding people with dementia. Additionally, the nurse providing medical care to the person with dementia completed a questionnaire about the medical care. In this study, difficulties in the lives of people with dementia was defined as impediments in life due to dementia. Difficulties were classified according to 12 symptoms based on responses that appeared frequently in the interviews. The 12 symptoms were pain, hallucinations/delusions, aggressive behavior, memory loss, disorientation, communication impairment, anxiety/confusion, toileting problems, gait disturbance, dietary deficiency, sleep disorder, and social withdrawal. Additional information was gathered and analyzed that included diagnosis and severity of dementia, need for long-term care, core symptoms of dementia, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), and delirium.Results The family caregiver's perspective about the difficulties encountered in the life of their family member with dementia was often different from the perspective of the associated family member. No family caregivers recognized that pain was a difficulty, and there were only a

  6. Exploring the lived experiences of people with learning disabilities who are dying of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Bernal, Jane; Hubert, Jane; Butler, Gary; Hollins, Sheila

    Growing numbers of people with learning disabilities are living longer and dying of age related illnesses such as cancer. To explore the experiences of people with learning disabilities who have cancer. The study used participant observation with 13 people with learning disabilities. All had a cancer diagnosis and 10 were terminally ill. Participants were visited regularly at home and in other settings, including hospitals. The main themes were: dependent lives; deprived lives; truth telling and understanding; the importance of families; inexperienced carers and unprepared services; and resilience. To understand the experiences of people with learning disabilities who are dying of cancer, it is important to understand their previous life experiences and key relationships. Healthcare professionals who treat people with respect, dignity and openness can make a positive difference to their care.

  7. Therapeutic use of dolls for people living with dementia: A critical review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, G.; McCormack, Brendan; McCance, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are a number of therapies currently available to assist healthcare professionals and carers with non-pharmacological treatment for people living with dementia. One such therapy that has been growing in clinical practice is doll therapy. Providing dolls to some people living with dementia has the potential to enhance personal well-being through increased levels of communication and engagement with others. Despite its potential for benefits, the practice is currently under-dev...

  8. Transition from self-supported to living: Older people's experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrun Hvalvik

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available To become dependent on professional support to accomplish the daily activities of life can be considered a turning point, involving a range of challenging changes in life. The purpose of the study was to describe the experiences of older home-dwelling individuals in transition from self-supported to supported living from a lifeworld perspective. Five women and five men were interviewed, and a descriptive phenomenological design was used. The findings showed that an attitude of acceptance was an essential characteristic for this group. An attitude of acceptance comprised: flexibility and tolerance, recognition and hopes, and valuation of self and situation. Finding themselves in a situation they had to submit to, they took an attitude of acceptance. An attitude of acceptance implied acknowledgement of the situation as well as positivity and desires to manage. This attitude may represent a significant potential for improvement. Awareness of this is crucial to support older individuals in a healthy way through the transition process. An attitude of acceptance, however, also implied an acceptance of discontinuity in their lives, renunciations, and denigration of own needs. But this aspect of the acceptance was trivialized by the participants and not equally obvious. Insight into this complexity is vital to avoid ignorance of older individuals’ vulnerability in the transition process.

  9. A HIV stigma reduction intervention for people living with HIV and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The diagnosis of HIV is life-changing that requires people not only to deal with the disease but also to cope with the stigma attached to HIV. People living with HIV (PLWH) as well as their close family members (CFM) are stigmatised; however, CFM also stigmatise PLWH. This interaction affects the relationship ...

  10. Disability and service use among homeless people living with psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Helen; Evert, Helen; Harvey, Carol; Gureje, Oye; Pinzone, Tony; Gordon, Ian

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of psychosis and needs for care among homeless people were studied in inner Melbourne. This was a two-stage nested study within the Australian National Survey of People Living with Psychotic Illness. A screen for psychosis was administered to a representative sample of men and women living in marginal housing in a mental health service catchment area. A selected subsample of 82 screen-positive respondents was interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview for Psychosis (DIP), a semistructured, standardized interview with three modules: (i) demography, functioning and quality of life; (ii) diagnosis; and (iii) service use. An unexpectedly high prevalence of people living with psychotic disorders (estimated lifetime prevalence 42%, 95% CI=37-47%) may reflect a concentration of vulnerable people in the shrinking marginal housing supply in the inner city areas. Disability in everyday, occupational and social functioning is greater for this subgroup than for other people living with psychosis in Australia. Most people were single and unemployed, and many reported social isolation and feeling unsafe. Substance use disorders were common. Most people were using health services, including specialist mental health services, but few were receiving rehabilitation, vocational or housing support. Despite high levels of contact with a well-organized, sectorized mental health service in an affluent country, this pocket of several hundred people had high levels of persisting disability and needs. The literature and local experience suggest that changing this situation is likely to require co-ordinated policy and practice between the health, welfare and housing sectors.

  11. Theorising the Relationship between Older People and Their Immediate Social Living Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffel, Tine; Verte, Dominique; De Donder, Liesbeth; De Witte, Nico; Dury, Sarah; Vanwing, Tom; Bolsenbroek, Anouk

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical framework for exploring the dynamics between older people and their immediate social living environment. After introducing a gerontological perspective that goes beyond "microfication," a literature review presents findings from studies that have explored the role of place and locality for older people. Next,…

  12. Met and unmet palliative care needs of people living with HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rising number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) worldwide has made health care professionals and policy makers search for accessible health care that will meet the needs of people who are suffering from the disease and enhance their quality of life (QoL).This study investigated met and unmet palliative care ...

  13. Alcohol use and psychiatric morbidity in people living with HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Concerns have been raised about the increasing use of alcohol among the people living with HIV/AID in Nigeria. A better understanding of the source and prevention of alcohol use in these people may serve as a useful strategy for reducing the burden associated with HIV/AIDS. Aims: This study assesses the ...

  14. Sustainable Living in Long-Term Care: For People with Dementia/Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Nonhome-based long-term care sustainable living arrangements for elderly people with Alzheimer's is presented. Characteristics contributing to sustainability are discussed. The ultimate goal in sustainable design for older adult communities is a people-centered model of care in environments that improve their quality of life. Without sustainable…

  15. Quality of Life of Poor People Living in Remote Areas in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hung

    2011-01-01

    Based on three surveys carried out for studying living conditions of youth, women and elderly living in six remote areas (Tuen Mun, Yuen Long, Tin Shui Wai, Sheung Shui, Fan Ling and Tai Po) in the New Territories of Hong Kong, this paper reports the poverty and social exclusion of these three groups of people. The quality of life of youth, women…

  16. Depression in people, that live with HIV in Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninoshka Fasce Cayo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the depression in a group 55 adults (14 women and 41 men who live with VJH, between 18 and 58 years, oflow and medium low socioeconomic leve! which attend public health centers, NGO and mutual support groups (MSG of Lima. The Beck Depression Inventory was used to study the level of depression, as well as the five factors found in this population.The descriptive results were correlated with the following demographic variables: age,sex, time of diagnosis, the presence or absence of symptoms associated to VIH, the participationor not in a MSG, sexual orientation and sex. Results indicated that depression varies depending on whether the person belongs or not to a MSG, sex and sexual orientation.

  17. Self-medication among people living with hypertension: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Riana; Bajorek, Beata V

    2017-04-01

    Self-medication is commonly practised by patients, underpinned by health beliefs that affect their adherence to medication regimens, and impacting on treatment outcomes. This review explores the scope of self-medication practices among people with hypertension, in terms of the scale of use, types of medication and influencing factors. A comprehensive search of English language, peer-reviewed literature published between 2000 and 2014 was performed. Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria; 22 of these focused on complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs). Anti-hypertensive medications are listed among the 11% of products that patients reportedly obtain over-the-counter (OTC) for self-medication. On average, 25% of patients use CAMs, mostly herbs, to lower blood pressure. Recommendations by family, friends and neighbours are the most influential factors for self-medication with CAMs. Faith in treatment with CAMs, dissatisfaction with conventional medicine and the desire to reduce medication costs are also cited. Most (70%) patients with hypertension take OTC medicines to treat minor illnesses. The concurrent use of anti-hypertensive medications with analgesics and herbal medicines is commonly practised. The sociodemographic profile of patients engaging in self-medication differs markedly in the articles reviewed; self-medication practices cannot be attributed to a particular profile. Low disclosure of self-medication is consistently reported. This review highlights a high proportion of people with hypertension practise self-medication. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of self-medication with OTC and anti-hypertensive medications on hypertension treatment. Health professionals involved in hypertension management should be mindful of any types of self-medication practices. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Living Independently: Exploring the Experiences of Visually Impaired People Living in Age-Related and Lifetime Housing Through Qualitative Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Clíona; Hadjri, Karim; Faith, Verity; Rooney, Máirin; McAllister, Keith; Craig, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the experiences of visually impaired older people living independently at home. As populations are aging globally, there is now an increase in the prevalence of visual impairment. That means for ongoing and future aging-in-place strategies that seek to enable older people to remain independent for longer, more attention needs to be given to the needs of those with visual impairment. As people develop visual impairment, they use adaptive strategies including modifying long-term homes or relocating to more suitable accommodation. In the United Kingdom, aging-in-place strategies include employing statutory lifetime home standards (LTHS) in the home or relocating to sheltered housing to live independently with support available if required. To get a better understanding of the needs of the visually impaired in the home, 12 interviews with six visually impaired occupants of LTHS homes and six from sheltered accommodation were analyzed separately using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Secondly, qualitative synthesis was used to further analyze themes generated from both samples before interview results were conceptualized in two superordinate concepts, namely, "negotiating priorities" and "understanding visual impairment." Participants from both groups had similar needs and were willing to compromise by living with some negative features. Those who coped well with moving utilized various resources. These findings will shed more understanding on providing good quality housing for those with visual impairment wanting to live either independently or within healthcare home environments.

  19. Endemic Cardiovascular Diseases of the Poorest Billion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Gene F; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mocumbi, Ana O; Miranda, J Jaime; Ezzati, Majid; Jain, Yogesh; Robles, Gisela; Benjamin, Emelia J; Subramanian, S V; Bukhman, Gene

    2016-06-14

    The poorest billion people are distributed throughout the world, though most are concentrated in rural sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) data can be sparse in low- and middle-income countries beyond urban centers. Despite this urban bias, CVD registries from the poorest countries have long revealed a predominance of nonatherosclerotic stroke, hypertensive heart disease, nonischemic and Chagas cardiomyopathies, rheumatic heart disease, and congenital heart anomalies, among others. Ischemic heart disease has been relatively uncommon. Here, we summarize what is known about the epidemiology of CVDs among the world's poorest people and evaluate the relevance of global targets for CVD control in this population. We assessed both primary data sources, and the 2013 Global Burden of Disease Study modeled estimates in the world's 16 poorest countries where 62% of the population are among the poorest billion. We found that ischemic heart disease accounted for only 12% of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in the poorest countries, compared with 51% of DALYs in high-income countries. We found that as little as 53% of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly burden (1629/3049 DALYs per 100 000) was attributed to behavioral or metabolic risk factors in the poorest countries (eg, in Niger, 82% of the population among the poorest billion) compared with 85% of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly burden (4439/5199 DALYs) in high-income countries. Further, of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly burden, 34% was accrued in people under age 30 years in the poorest countries, while only 3% is accrued under age 30 years in high-income countries. We conclude although the current global targets for noncommunicable disease and CVD control will help diminish premature CVD death in the poorest populations, they are not sufficient. Specifically, the current framework (1) excludes deaths of

  20. [Dance therapeutic workshop for elderly people living in a home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, M

    2010-01-01

    Elderly persons are often depressive; thus they are in loss of desire and motivation. They don't take care anymore of themselves and seem disembodied. It is exactly on this loss of desire that arts therapies have an impact. This involvement of the body facilitates the awareness of one's often unexploited capacities but also allows the emergence of pleasure and finally desire. Arts therapies are based on the conscience of here and now, with the perspective to become a creative being. It is the matter of helping people to recognize their own creativity that was underestimated by themselves up to here. These sessions allow the patients to go out of their room while bringing them a sensation of relaxation and well-being. They are proud to produce something by themselves and recover thus a certain self-esteem. And, through this activity, they are able to express what they feel. The statistical computations are made with the data of 10 elderly persons aged 77 to 95 years. We analyze the rating scales for self-expression through movement during 10 sessions. The subjects also filled in the Campbell's Index of Well-being in T1 and T2. Arts therapies improve in a significant way the cognitive functioning and the psychological well-being of elderly persons, as well as their quality of life.

  1. Assisted Living Systems for Elderly and Disabled People: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Iliev

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The number of elderly people living alone in their homes is permanently growing in the whole western world. Because of the deteriorating capabilities to sense and interact with the environment, such as memory, eye sight, hearing and mobility, the ageing populations often live with significantly degraded life quality. Many also suffer from chronic diseases that require medical treatment and periodical examinations. Different Assisted Living Systems have been proposed to cope with the problems. The goal is to enable the elderly people to live longer in their preferred environment, to enhance the quality of their live and to reduce the expenses of the public health care. The Assisted Living Systems are based on a lot of sensors, actuators and multimedia equipment, providing for the autonomy of people and assisting them in carrying out their daily activities together with available interaction with remote relatives and friends. The applied approaches and implementations are specific that limit the dissemination of the results between the object oriented groups. Besides, most of the projects require considerable funding for implementation. For the time being and especially for some countries with lower Gross Domestic Product, the efforts may be directed to creation of low-cost assistive systems performing some basic tasks, related to the need and health status of the living alone adults or disabled people, e.g. automatic fall detection and signalization, as well as instantaneous monitoring the photo-pletismographic signals together with permanently available communication interface between the caregiver and the user.

  2. 12 billion DM for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The German atomic industry has achieved the break-through to the world market: Brazil orders eight nuclear electricity generating plants from Siemens-AEG daughter Kraftwerk-Union. US concerns attacked the twelve billion DM deal, the biggest export order in the history of German industry. Without avail - the contract is to be signed in Bonn this week. (orig./LH) [de

  3. A Concept Map of What Helps People with HD Live with their Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steve; D'Cruz, Gibson; Gray, Richard; Flaherty, Helen; Ivanecka, Ada; Deane, Katherine H O

    2015-01-01

    The complex effects of Huntington's disease (HD) negatively impact on every area of independent living. The perspectives of people impacted by HD on how to best manage the disease are not clearly understood. To identify what is most helpful for living with HD from the perspectives of people with HD, family caregivers and health professionals. A cross-sectional, mixed methods concept mapping methodology was used. Participants generated statements during brainstorming in response to the question 'what helps people with HD live with their condition'. Participants then prioritised statements for importance and they grouped together statements that were related into clusters. Concept mapping software ('Ariadne' ®) used multi-dimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis to produce a conceptual framework of participants views about what is helpful for people living with HD. Thirty nine people at various stages of HD disease progression, 48 family caregivers and 39 health professionals with experience of HD care (n = 126) participated. The most helpful factors for living with HD were identified as access to expert assessment and treatment for co-morbid mental health problems, integrated specialist multi-disciplinary HD expertise, and the provision of flexible care. HD requires specialist, expert, multidisciplinary care teams to manage it well. Specialists need to focus on the mental health aspects, and the provision must be flexible and responsive to current needs. Patients may have impaired insight into their abilities (e.g. driving) or the need for interventions, so carers' opinions should also be respected.

  4. A day to be lived. Elderly peoples' possessions for everyday life in assisted living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Catharina

    2013-04-01

    This study is a qualitative interview study about the household possessions that elderly women and men brought with them when moving into assisted living. The move implied a substantial reduction of their possessions since, in all cases, they had left a larger dwelling than the one they moved to. The study gives a glimpse into the everyday life of the oldest old in assisted living. The things the elderly participants brought were of three types; cherished objects, representations of who they were, and mundane objects. The most important objects indicated by the elderly often belonged to the third type, and were preferred for the significance they had for the everyday life of the individual. These objects revealed a circumscribed but dignified life in their private bed-sitting room, often in solitude, where the elderly individuals pursued various interests and small-scale activities. However, this life was organized and preferred by the individuals themselves, in accordance with the principles of resident autonomy and individual choice that are promoted in assisted living. The author suggests that these self-engaged pursuits can contribute to bridging the gap between disengagement and activity theories. The study results also contribute to making visible the private life of the oldest old in assisted living. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The lived neighborhood: understanding how people with dementia engage with their local environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Richard; Clark, Andrew; Campbell, Sarah; Graham, Barbara; Kullberg, Agneta; Manji, Kainde; Rummery, Kirstein; Keady, John

    2017-05-02

    In this paper, we report progress on "Neighborhoods: our people, our places" an international study about how people living with dementia interact with their neighborhoods. The ideas of social health and citizenship are drawn upon to contextualize the data and make a case for recognizing and understanding the strengths and agency of people with dementia. In particular, we address the lived experience of the environment as a route to better understanding the capabilities, capacities, and competencies of people living with dementia. In doing this, our aim is to demonstrate the contribution of social engagement and environmental support to social health. The study aims to "map" local spaces and networks across three field sites (Manchester, Central Scotland and Linkoping, Sweden). It employs a mix of qualitative and participatory approaches that include mobile and visual methods intended to create knowledge that will inform the design and piloting of a neighborhood-based intervention. Our research shows that the neighborhood plays an active role in the lives of people with dementia, setting limits, and constraints but also offering significant opportunities, encompassing forms of help and support as yet rarely discussed in the field of dementia studies. The paper presents new and distinctive insights into the relationship between neighborhoods and everyday life for people with dementia that have important implications for the debate on social health and policy concerning dementia friendly communities. We end by reflecting on the messages for policy and practice that are beginning to emerge from this on-going study.

  6. Enabling healthy living: Experiences of people with severe mental illness in psychiatric outpatient services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Marjut; Sandgren, Anna; Carlsson, Ing-Marie; Jormfeldt, Henrika

    2018-02-01

    It is well known that people with severe mental illness have a reduced life expectancy and a greater risk of being affected by preventable physical illnesses such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. There are still, however, only a few published studies focusing on what enables healthy living for this group. This study thus aimed to describe what enables healthy living among people with severe mental illness in psychiatric outpatient services. The data were collected in qualitative interviews (n = 16) and content analysis was used to analyze the data. The interviews resulted in an overall theme "Being regarded as a whole human being by self and others", which showed the multidimensional nature of health and the issues that enable healthy living among people with severe mental illness. Three categories emerged: (i) everyday structure (ii), motivating life events and (iii) support from significant others. The results indicate that a person with severe mental illness needs to be encountered as a whole person if healthy living is to be enabled. Attaining healthy living requires collaboration between the providers of care, help and support. Health care organizations need to work together to develop and provide interventions to enable healthy living and to reduce poor physical health among people with severe mental illness. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  7. Mortality in relation to the type of household among elderly people living in a community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, N; Nakura, I; Nagano, K; Yoneda, H; Takatorige, T; Shinsho, F; Tatara, K

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether there is an association of mortality with the type of household in elderly people. A cohort of 1,352 elderly people aged 65 years and over at baseline in October 1992 was followed for 42 months. Follow-up was completed for 1,266 (93.6%) (172 deceased and 1,094 alive). From the analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test, male sex, older age group (75 years and over), no satisfaction with present dwelling, disability, no use of health checks, no practices of daily preventive health promotion, no participation in social activities, and no finding life worth living (no Ikigai) were univariately statistically significantly related to mortality. Furthermore, elderly people living with their spouse only or living alone had higher survival rates than those living with their spouse and children or living with their children, and the curves among the four subclasses of household were significantly different. From the Cox proportional hazards model, living with a spouse only remained as an independent predictor for survival, and living alone was not an increased risk factor for mortality, controlling for sex, age, housing conditions, disability, use of health management, and psychosocial conditions.

  8. The effects of music relaxation on sleep quality and emotional measures in people living with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Boaz; Reshef, Alon; Vadas, Limor; Haliba, Yamit; Ziv, Naomi; Kremer, Ilana; Haimov, Iris

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of music relaxation on insomnia and emotional measures in people living with schizophrenia. Twenty-four people living with schizophrenia participated in the study. The study involved a 7-day running-in no-treatment period, followed by a 7-day experimental period. Treatment consisted of music relaxation played at bedtime. During each of these periods, participants' sleep was continuously monitored with a wrist actigraph, and participants completed a wide spectrum of questionnaires. Results showed an improvement in sleep latency and sleep efficiency after the music relaxation was played. Likewise, music relaxation was shown to improve participants' total psychopathology score (PANSS) as well as their level of depression. Moreover, a significant correlation was found between reduction in level of situational anxiety and improvement in sleep efficiency. The findings suggest the beneficial effect of music relaxation as a treatment both for insomnia and for emotional measures in people living with schizophrenia.

  9. Belonging and quality of life as perceived by people with advanced cancer who live at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peoples, Hanne; Nissen, Nina; Brandt, Åse

    Purpose: In previous research (Peoples, Nissen, Brandt, & la Cour, 2017), we explored how people with advanced cancer who live at home perceive quality of life. Findings from our previous study indicate that dimensions of belonging in various ways may be connected to quality of life when living...... with an impending death. These findings prompted our curiosity to further explore, how perceived quality of life may be linked to belonging when living with advanced cancer. By drawing on our findings and the theoretical concept of belonging within occupational science, the purpose of this study was to gain...... a deeper understanding of the ways in which quality of life may be related to belonging as perceived by people with advanced cancer. Method: The study employed a qualitative approach using a combination of qualitative interviews and photo-elicitation. A thematic approach was used to analyse the data. Ten...

  10. Oral manifestations among people living with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabian, F M; Kahabuka, F K; Petersen, P E

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of various oral and peri-oral manifestations in people living with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania. METHODS: A cross sectional study. A total of 187 persons with HIV infection were recruited from non-governmental organisations serving people living...... with HIV/AIDS, 16.6% were males and females 83.4%. Information on weight and height, as well as extra oral and intra oral examinations for different manifestations were gathered. Treatment and referral for special care were offered. RESULTS: At least one oral lesion was present in 45% of the participants...... associated with low body mass index (BMI). CONCLUSION: This community survey carried out in an African sub-Saharan country showed that oral lesions are frequent among people living with HIV/AIDS. As emphasised by the World Health Organization Global Oral Health Programme, national HIV/AIDS programmes should...

  11. The meaning of living with uncertainty for people with motor neurone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Denise Andrea; Jack, Kirsten; Wibberley, Christopher

    2018-03-08

    The aim of this study was to explore the meaning of living with uncertainty for people diagnosed with motor neurone disease (MND). MND is a progressive neurodegenerative condition resulting in multiple needs, arising from the complex nature of the disease trajectory. People with MND are often required to make decisions for symptom management and end-of-life care. Research into the lived experience of MND has previously highlighted: the shock of receiving such a diagnosis and prognosis; subsequent concerns relating to the future and loss; and the existential suffering for a person with MND. The lived experiences of MND accentuate the devastating nature of the disease and this can impact upon how people respond to care. Hermeneutic (interpretive) phenomenology: suitable for studying lifeworld experiences. Life story interviews were conducted with four participants and subjected to interpretive analysis. Three phases of the MND illness trajectory emerged: 'body failing prematurely and searching for answers', 'body deterioration and responses to care', and 'body nearing its end and needing to talk'. These phases highlight the phenomenon under study, all relating to uncertainty for people living with MND. This study showed that people with MND are living with uncertainty and other concerns throughout their illness trajectory. People are having to turn to palliative care professionals who are more able to meet their concerns than those caring for other aspects of their disease. MND is a complex disease and it is important that professionals continue to provide holistic care throughout the illness trajectory. The identification of three distinct phases of the MND illness trajectory will help nurses and other professionals to better understand the meaning of uncertainty and other concerns for people with MND. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Therapeutic effects of an indoor gardening programme for older people living in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Mimi Mun Yee

    2010-04-01

    To explore the activities of daily living and psychological well-being of older people living in nursing homes and also to examine the effectiveness of a gardening programme in enhancing socilaisation and life satisfaction, reducing loneliness and promoting activities of daily living for older people living in nursing homes. Life in nursing homes can mean very limited physical and social activity, leading to further decline in function for many older people. This was a quasi-experimental pre and posttest control group design. Older people from nursing homes were invited to join the eight week indoor gardening programme (experimental group), while older people in other nursing homes were treated as the control group; they received regular care without the eight week indoor gardening programme. There were 26 older people (25 female and one male; mean age 85 years) in the experimental group and 27 (20 female and seven male; mean age 82 years) in the control group. Demographic data including age, gender, educational level and financial situation were collected, in addition to information regarding life satisfaction, loneliness, physical activity and social network situation, before and after the eight week indoor gardening programme for both the experimental and control groups. Also, details of experimental group subjects' experience of the indoor gardening programme were elicited using open-ended questions. There were significant improvements in life satisfaction and social network and a significant decrease in perception of loneliness for older people in the experimental group after the eight week indoor gardening programme, while the activities of daily living were unchanged for both groups after the programme. Given the positive effects of gardening activities, it is suggested that they be promoted more widely among nursing home residents.

  13. Novel Active Learning Experiences for Students to Identify Barriers to Independent Living for People with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Polly; Burch, Lillian; Moore, Katherine; Hodges, Mary Sue

    2016-07-01

    This article describes interactive learning about independent living for people with disabilities and features the partnership of the College of Nursing and a Center for Independent Living (CIL). Using qualitative descriptive approach, students' written reflections were analyzed. Through "Xtreme Challenge," 82 undergraduate nursing students participated in aspects of independent living as well as identifying barriers. Students were engaged and learned to consider the person before the disability. Moreover, students valued the activity leaders' openness, which facilitated understanding the point of view of a person with disability. The value of partnership was evident as it allowed students to participate in active learning, which led to growth in the affective domain. Students became aware of potential education resources through the CIL. This article will guide educators in designing experiences that teach nursing care at the individual, family, and community level for people living with disabilities. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  14. Analysis of trace elements in scalp hair for long-lived people, hypertensives and healthy students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaofeng; Zhang Yurong; Zhang Longxing; Zhang Agen

    1989-01-01

    The XRF method was used to analyse nine kinds of trace elements in hair samples for three groups of people. While the information on long-lived people is used to explore the secret of long life, the work on hypertensives helps understand the effect of some trace elements on the disease. The normal values of trace elements for university students have been also set up

  15. Why do elderly people choose to live in a community home? A study among French population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rioux, L.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fact that most of the elderly people wish to rest in their home for as long as possible, we have asked ourselves why some choose to move in a retirement hostel at their free will. To answer this question, 32 semi-structured interviews were recorded among elderly people living in the region Centre, France. The cluster analysis of the obtained answers reveals four types of profiles corresponding to people for whom entering such an institution seems to be a stage in life for which one has to prepare and be able to keep control of.

  16. Quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and on highly active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and on highly active antiretroviral therapy in Ethiopia. ... Likewise, those with a CD4 cell count >200 cells/mm3 had better mean scores for all scales except 'social functioning' and 'mental health' than those with counts ≤200. Participants adhering to treatment (in the last 15 days, ...

  17. Beyond thresholds : The everyday lived experience of the house by older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, E.; Haan, H. de; Vaandrager, L.; Koelen, M.

    2015-01-01

    To support decision making regarding modifications to the current housing stock, this article explores older people's everyday lived experience of the house in the Netherlands. Twelve in-depth interviews were carried out, using diaries and a topic list. The study found physical, personal and social

  18. A Reporting System to Protect the Human Rights of People Living with HIV and Key Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, R Taylor; Fiscian, Vivian; Olson, Ryan Ubuntu; Poku, Fred Nana; Whittal, Joseph

    2017-12-01

    People living with HIV and key populations face human rights violations that affect their access to health services, relationships in their communities, housing options, and employment. To address these violations, government and civil society organizations in Ghana developed a discrimination reporting system managed by the Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice that links people living with HIV and key populations to legal services. This article presents findings on how Ghanaian stakeholders built this reporting system and discusses preliminary data on its impact. To organize our analysis, we used a conceptual framework that outlines the legal frameworks that protect human rights, the institutions that promote access to justice, and the mechanisms that link people living with HIV and key populations to legal services. Using in-depth interviews, we show that targeted technical assistance increased stakeholders' knowledge of issues that affect people living with HIV and key populations, strengthened these stakeholders' commitment to address discrimination, streamlined case management systems, and improved relationships between civil society and the government. Through case review, we find that most discrimination happens when accessing government services, inside communities and families, and in the workplace. Finally, we describe implications for other human rights commissions that are considering using a reporting system to protect human rights, including using legal frameworks, developing case management systems, and working with civil society.

  19. Thai people living with tuberculosis and how they adhere to treatment: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choowong, Jiraporn; Tillgren, Per; Söderbäck, Maja

    2017-12-01

    To develop a conceptual framework of adherence to treatment among Thai people living with tuberculosis, a grounded theory approach was used. A purposive sample of 20 Thai people living with tuberculosis, aged from 23 to 85 years, was interviewed. From the participants' perspective, a core category of social belonging was highlighted, with three categories of conditions connected: personal barriers, personal resilience, and social facilitation. Personal barriers encompassed fear of stigma, concealing the illness, and lack of knowledge and motivation to complete the treatment regime. Personal resilience encompassed positive thinking and self-awareness. Social facilitation encompassed the ease of access to health services, continuity in the health service's ability to choose a directly-observed therapy observer, and social support. This study contributes a deeper understanding of the perspective of Thai people living with tuberculosis with regards to adherence to tuberculosis treatment. It might improve how local healthcare workers provide tuberculosis care, and inspire them to tailor care to people living with tuberculosis in a local community to increase personal resilience and reduce stigma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Quality Of Life Of People Living With Hiv/Aids In Kogi State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: With the appreciable rise in longevity of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), the need for supporting their quality of life (QoL) has become increasingly important. However, limited studies have been conducted using the World Health Organization quality of life HIV (WHOQOL-HIV) bref in our environment.

  1. Felt stigma among people living with HIV/AIDS in rural and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Individuals suffer from felt stigma when they internalize negative perceptions regarding themselves. People living with HIV (PLWH) employ diverse coping mechanisms when their self worth and networks are disrupted by stigma. The social network perspective suggests response to stigma is shaped by social ...

  2. Status Disclosure among People Living With HIV/AIDS in Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HIV/AIDS is a disease that is characterised by discrimination and stigmatisation particularly in Africa. Objective: To determine rate of disclosure of HIV status among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Ilorin, Nigeria. Methods: A semi-structured, interviewer administered questionnaire containing 40 items ...

  3. Process and Outcome Evaluation of an Art Therapy Program for People Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Matthew B.; Betts, Donna J.; Blausey, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Program evaluation offers an opportunity for improving the implementation and impact of art therapy. This article describes a process and outcomes evaluation of an art therapy program within the mental health services unit of a community-based organization for people living with HIV/AIDS. The aims were to assess utilization patterns and program…

  4. Psychosocial well-being of people living with HIV and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of languishing, moderate mental health and flourishing before and after the intervention were determined. Although the focus of the HIV stigma-reduction community “hub” intervention that was followed in this study was on the involvement of PLWH and people living close to them (PLC) to share their knowledge as ...

  5. Perceived impact of environmental barriers on participation among people living with spinal cord injury in Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhardt, Jan D; Ballert, Carolina; Brinkhof, Martin W G; Post, Marcel W M

    Objective: To describe the impact of environmental barriers perceived by people living with spinal cord injury in the Swiss community and to compare this across subpopulations. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A total of 1,549 participants in the community survey of the Swiss spinal cord

  6. Preferences for food and nutritional supplements among adult people living with HIV in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodas Moya, Carlos; Kodish, Stephen; Manary, Mark; Grede, Nils; Pee, de Saskia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the factors influencing food intake and preferences for potential nutritional supplements to treat mild and moderate malnutrition among adult people living with HIV (PLHIV). Design: Qualitative research using in-depth interviews with a triangulation of participants and an

  7. Factors associated with increasing functional decline in multimorbid independently living older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, W.; Bleijenberg, N.; Drubbel, I.; Numans, M.E.; De Wit, N.J.; Schuurmans, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives With increasing age the levels of activities of daily living (ADL) deteriorate. In this study we aimed to investigate which demographic characteristics and disorders are associated with ADL disabilities in multi-morbid older people. Study design We performed a cross-sectional study with

  8. Is green space in the living environment associated with people's feelings of social safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Winsum-Westra, M. van; Verheij, R.A.; Vries, S. de; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. The authors investigate whether the percentage of green space in people's living environ- ment affects their feelings of social safety positively or negatively. More specifically they investigate the extent to which this relationship varies between urban and rural areas, between groups in

  9. The risk of developing malnutrition in people living with HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were 1) to determine the proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) at risk of developing malnutrition, 2) to determine the prevalence of malnutrition (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2), and 3) to describe the dietary intake and other nutrition parameters of PLWHA with membership in support ...

  10. Airflow limitation in people living with HIV and matched uninfected controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Lundgren, Jens; Afzal, Shoaib

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Whether HIV influences pulmonary function remains controversial. We assessed dynamic pulmonary function in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) and uninfected controls. METHODS: A total of 1098 PLWHIV from the Copenhagen Co-morbidity in HIV infection study and 12 161 age-matched and sex-...

  11. The Meaning of Learning Piano Keyboard in the Lives of Older Chinese People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sicong; Southcott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Across the globe populations are ageing and living longer. Older people seek meaningful ways of occupying and enjoying their later years. Frequently, this takes the form of learning a new skill, in this case playing the piano keyboard. From the initial act of commitment to learning comes a raft of related aspects that influence the learner, their…

  12. 6. Disability and Quality Of Life among People Living With HIV AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    AIDS has led to increased life expectancy for the afflicted individuals. Hence, the focus of management for. People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) has shifted to issues relating to function and Quality of. Life (QoL). Information is scarce on ...

  13. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Stephanie K Y; Boyle, E.; Cairney, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence...

  14. Quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS in Cross River, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) now enjoy appreciable longevity and there is need to enhance their quality of life. Unfortunately, limited studies in Nigeria have used the World Health Organization Quality Of Life BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) to determine the quality of life of PLWHA. Aim: This study was to ...

  15. Socio-Demographic profile of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWAs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to evaluate the socio-economic profile of People Living with HIVIAIDS (PLWAs) in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Methods: Structured questionnaires were used to collect socio-economic characteristics of demographic information from recruited participants who were attendees of HIV adult ...

  16. The implementation of the functional task exercise programme for elderly people living at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleuren, M.A.H.; Vrijkotte, S.; Jans, M.P.; Pin, R.; Hespen, A. van; Meeteren, N.L.U. van; Siemonsma, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Functional Task Exercise programme is an evidence-based exercise programme for elderly people living at home. It enhances physical capacity with sustainable effects. FTE is provided by physiotherapists and remedial therapists. Although the intervention was found to be effective in a

  17. Caries status and opinions of people living with HIV/AIDS on oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the dental caries status and opinions of the People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) on how they should be handled by oral health care providers. Design: A cross sectional study. Study subjects and Methods The study was carried out among PLHA in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

  18. 6. Disability and Quality Of Life among People Living With HIV AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    and each of age, sex and employment status. Disability was however, significantly associated with level of education, alcohol use, CD4 count, history of tuberculosis and QoL (p <0.01). Conclusion: Disability was relatively high among people living with HIV/AIDS in Ibadan, Nigeria. Although mostly rated mild, disability was.

  19. Exercise and mental health of people living with HIV: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrat, Sanaz; Whitworth, James W; Ciccolo, Joseph T

    2017-12-01

    Objective Mental illness is highly prevalent among people living with HIV. Poor mental health is linked to HIV disease progression, making the treatment of mental illness alongside HIV essential. While the benefits of exercise on the physical health of people living with HIV are well established, the effect of exercise on mental health in this population is less examined. Therefore, this study aimed to conduct a systematic literature review of the effects of exercise on mental health in people living with HIV. Methods A search of electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO) through 30 November 2016 was completed. The methodological framework for scoping studies was used to conduct the review process. RISMA guidelines were used to report the results. Results The search resulted in 2273 articles and 52 were determined to be relevant. After review of the full text of potentially relevant studies, 24 studies were included for the analysis. Discussion Both aerobic and resistance exercise have independent and combined positive effects on various indicators of mental health in people living with HIV. Major limitations include high attrition rate, small sample size, and poor study designs. Higher quality studies with more diverse populations such as women, older adults, and transgender individuals are required.

  20. HIV Futures 8: Protocol for a Repeated Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Survey of People Living with HIV in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Jennifer; Brown, Graham; Lyons, Anthony; Thorpe, Rachel; Dowsett, Gary W.; Lucke, Jayne

    2017-01-01

    Introduction More than 27,000 Australians currently live with HIV. Most of these people have access to quality clinical care and antiretroviral treatment (ART) and can expect good general health. However, HIV-related stigma is a problem and many people living with HIV experience poorer than average mental health. Issues of aging are also of increasing concern. This paper describes the methods and sample for the HIV Futures 8 study, a national survey of people living with HIV in Australia that...

  1. Exploring Sources of Emotional Distress among People Living with Scleroderma: A Focus Group Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie T Gumuchian

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis, or scleroderma, is a chronic and rare connective tissue disease with negative physical and psychological implications. Sources of emotional distress and the impact they have on the lives of people with scleroderma are not well understood.To gain an in-depth understanding of the emotional experiences and sources of emotional distress for women and men living with scleroderma through focus group discussions.Three semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted (two in English, one in French with a total of 22 people with scleroderma recruited through the Scleroderma Society of Ontario in Hamilton, Ontario and a scleroderma clinic in Montreal, Canada. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded for emerging themes using thematic inductive analysis.Core themes representing sources of emotional distress were identified, including: (a facing a new reality; (b the daily struggle of living with scleroderma; (c handling work, employment and general financial burden; (d changing family roles; (e social interactions; and (f navigating the health care system. Collectively, these themes refer to the stressful journey of living with scleroderma including the obstacles faced and the emotional experiences beginning prior to receiving a diagnosis and continuing throughout the participants' lives.Scleroderma was portrayed as being an unpredictable and overwhelming disease, resulting in many individuals experiencing multiple sources of emotional distress. Interventions and supportive resources need to be developed to help individuals with scleroderma and people close to them manage and cope with the emotional aspects of the disease.

  2. The roles of adult siblings in the lives of people with severe intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah A; Rossetti, Zach

    2018-05-01

    Siblings of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) often assume key roles to support their brothers and sisters. For people with more significant support needs, siblings may undertake additional roles and responsibilities throughout their lives. The purpose of the present study was to identify and describe the roles of adult siblings who have a brother or sister with severe IDD. Seventy-nine adult siblings from 19 to 72 years of age completed an online survey with open-ended questions about the roles they play in their relationships with their brother or sister. Thematic analysis resulted in identification of several roles including caregiver, friend (social partner), advocate, legal representative, sibling (teacher/role model), leisure planner and informal service coordinator. Siblings assume key roles in the lives of people with IDD and need support from family and professionals to perform these roles. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Managing occupations in everyday life for people with advanced cancer living at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peoples, Hanne; Brandt, Åse; Wæhrens, Eva Elisabet Ejlersen

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with advanced cancer are able to live for extended periods of time. Advanced cancer can cause functional limitations influencing the ability to manage occupations. Although studies have shown that people with advanced cancer experience occupational difficulties, there is only...... limited research that specifically explores how these occupational difficulties are managed. Objective: To describe and explore how people with advanced cancer manage occupations when living at home. Material and methods: A sub-sample of 73 participants from a larger occupational therapy project took part...... in the study. The participants were consecutively recruited from a Danish university hospital. Qualitative interviews were performed at the homes of the participants. Content analysis was applied to the data. Results: Managing occupations were manifested in two main categories; 1) Conditions influencing...

  4. Communicating with people living with dementia who are nonverbal: The creation of Adaptive Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Ellis

    Full Text Available Loss of verbal language production makes people with dementia appear unreachable. We previously presented a case study applying nonverbal communication techniques with a lady with dementia who could no longer speak, which we termed Adaptive Interaction. The current small-n study examines the applicability of Adaptive Interaction as a general tool for uncovering the communication repertoires of non-verbal individuals living with dementia. Communicative responses of 30 interaction sessions were coded and analysed in two conditions: Standard (Baseline and Adaptive Interaction (Intervention. All participants retained the ability to interact plus a unique communication repertoire comprising a variety of nonverbal components, spanning eye gaze, emotion expression, and movement. In comparison to Baseline sessions, Intervention sessions were characterised by more smiling, looking at ME and imitation behaviour from the people with dementia. These findings allude to the potential of Adaptive Interaction as the basis for interacting with people living with dementia who can no longer speak.

  5. Activating people to address their health care needs: learning from people with lived experience of chronic illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Victoria; Henwood, Benjamin F

    2014-08-01

    One of the primary goals of health care reform is improving the quality and reducing the costs of care for people with co-morbid mental health and physical health conditions. One strategy is to integrate primary and behavioral health care through care coordination and patient activation. This qualitative study using community based participatory research methods informs the development of integrated care by presenting the perspectives of those with lived experience of chronic illnesses and homelessness. Themes presented include the internal and external barriers to addressing health needs and the key role of peer support in overcoming these barriers.

  6. Homosexuality among People with a Mild Intellectual Disability: An Explorative Study on the Lived Experiences of Homosexual People in the Netherlands with a Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffelen, J.; Kok, G.; Hospers, H.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Empirical research on homosexuality among people with an intellectual disability (ID) is limited and, to date, very little is known regarding the personal experiences of gay and lesbian people with an ID. This study set out to answer the question: "What are the lived experiences of a specific cohort of homosexual people with an…

  7. Living with severe allergy: an Anaphylaxis Campaign national survey of young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Allison; Regent, Lynne; Levy, Mark; Ledford, Carey; East, Mandy; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-01-22

    The transition to adulthood can be particularly challenging for young people with severe allergies, who must learn to balance personal safety with independent living. Information and support for young people and their families are crucial to successfully managing this transition. We sought to: gather insights into the impact of severe allergies on the lives of young people; explore where young people go for information about anaphylaxis and what information they want and need; identify areas where further support is needed. An online questionnaire survey of young people aged 15-25 years with severe allergies in the United Kingdom (UK) was conducted on behalf of the Anaphylaxis Campaign, the main patient support organisation. Participants were recruited mainly from the Anaphylaxis Campaign membership database and also via allergy clinics and social media. The study was funded by the Anaphylaxis Campaign's In Memoriam Fund. A total of 520 young people responded to the survey. The majority had lived with severe allergies since they were young children; 59% reported having attended Accident and Emergency units as a consequence of their allergies. Only 66% of respondents reported always carrying their epinephrine auto-injectors; only 23% had ever used these. Few were currently receiving specialist allergy care; younger respondents were more likely to be under specialist care (34%) than those 18 years and above (23%). Respondents wanted more information about eating out (56%), travelling (54%) and food labelling (43%). Almost a quarter of respondents (23%) reported needing more information on managing their allergies independently without parental help. Managing allergies in the context of social relationships was a concern for 22% of respondents. This survey has identified the information and support needs and gaps in service provision for young people with severe allergies. Healthcare professionals and patient support organisations, with the support of the food

  8. The incidence of oral dryness in people over 65 years living in Lublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamińska-Pikiewicz Katarzyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Saliva plays an important part in naturally maintaining oral homeostasis. Dry mouth or 'xerostomia', is a serious problem connected with decreased saliva secretion which considerably limits the quality of life in elderly people. The aim of the study was the assessment of the subjective oral dryness in the oral mucosa in people over 65 living in Lublin, Poland. The study was conducted among 240 people aged 65 to 96. The patients were placed into two groups: I - 117 residents of nursing homes, II - 123 people living with their families. Assessment of the subjective oral dryness taking into account the place of residence, sex and drug administration was performed based on a questionnaire survey. In the group of nursing homes residents, 32.48% of the surveyed experienced subjective oral dryness, while among the seniors living with their families, 33.33% reported this kind of discomfort. The conducted analysis revealed that oral dryness was more common amongst women than men, and it can be very often a side-effect of administered medicine drugs.

  9. The lived body and the perioperative period in replacement surgery: older people's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Birgitta Akesdotter; Ponzer, Sari; Heikkilä, Kristiina; Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa

    2007-10-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore older people's experiences of their lived bodies during the perioperative period for a hip or knee replacement. Replacement surgery of a major joint for older people suffering from osteoarthritis is an established treatment in developed countries. Scientific knowledge is available on replacement surgery from several perspectives, but not about older people's experiences of the entire perioperative period of a replacement procedure. A qualitative longitudinal study was conducted between 2002 and 2004. Audiotaped interviews were carried out with 12 older people, on five different occasions during the perioperative period. The data were analysed using latent qualitative content analysis. The perioperative period of a hip or knee replacement can be regarded as a process of transition which includes six critical phases. The transition was supported with the dream of becoming as able-bodied as previously in life, by having surgery. In addition, our findings revealed that the care recipients lacked knowledge about the surgical intervention as a whole. The meaning of having joint replacement surgery was to overcome the confinement of living with a painful and unreliable body. Furthermore, care recipients struggled to regain a body in charge and control of their lives, yet from a new starting point. The care recipients were not prepared for the transitional changes through the perioperative period. Further research is needed to develop an appropriate programme for patient care during the perioperative period, in order to facilitate the process of transition.

  10. Positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, Jacki; Stoner, Charlotte R; Wenborn, Jennifer; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Moniz-Cook, Esme; Orrell, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Family caregivers of people living with dementia can have both positive and negative experiences of caregiving. Despite this, existing outcome measures predominately focus on negative aspects of caregiving such as burden and depression. This review aimed to evaluate the development and psychometric properties of existing positive psychology measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia to determine their potential utility in research and practice. A systematic review of positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people with dementia was conducted. The databases searched were as follows: PsychINFO, CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed. Scale development papers were subject to a quality assessment to appraise psychometric properties. Twelve positive outcome measures and six validation papers of these scales were identified. The emerging constructs of self-efficacy, spirituality, resilience, rewards, gain, and meaning are in line with positive psychology theory. There are some robust positive measures in existence for family caregivers of people living with dementia. However, lack of reporting of the psychometric properties hindered the quality assessment of some outcome measures identified in this review. Future research should aim to include positive outcome measures in interventional research to facilitate a greater understanding of the positive aspects of caregiving and how these contribute to well-being.

  11. Nurses' job satisfaction and attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamama, L; Tartakovsky, E; Eroshina, K; Patrakov, E; Golubkova, A; Bogushevich, J; Shardina, L

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies internationally have highlighted that working with people living with HIV/AIDS may lead to nurses' stress and burnout. However, this topic has not been well explored in Russia, a country with an exponential growth in HIV/AIDS. This study focused on nurses' job satisfaction and their attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS in centres where nurses regularly treat such patients, and in a general hospital where nurses rarely treat such patients. We distributed three self-report questionnaires: demographics, job satisfaction and attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS to nurses working in six HIV/AIDS centres and the largest general hospital in Ekaterinburg, Russia. Sixty-nine nurses from the HIV/AIDS centres and 66 from the general hospital (about 90% of those approached) completed these. Nurses who regularly treated people with HIV/AIDS were significantly younger and a greater number held master degrees than those who rarely treated such patients. No significant differences between the two settings emerged for job satisfaction but what did emerge were differences in nurses' attitudes: nurses in HIV/AIDS centres reported less avoidance than nurses in the general hospital. Regarding empathetic attitudes, no significant differences emerged, but empathetic attitudes contributed to the explained variance of job satisfaction. Although our sample was small, the associations found between avoidant attitudes and job satisfaction highlight the need for stigma-reduction strategies and increased disease knowledge. Healthcare managers should consider attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS as an important factor in ensuring adequate care for them and initiate education programmes for nurses, especially programmes dealing with HIV/AIDS in general hospitals. Support and supervision can be used as a strategy, for empowering nurses to meet the challenges of working with HIV/AIDS patients. © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  12. The nutritional care of people living with dementia at home: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, Louise; Kent, Bridie; Abbott, Rebecca; Wood, Chloë; Hickson, Mary

    2018-01-24

    There are an increasing number of people with dementia living in their own home for longer, often supported by a family member. The symptoms of dementia can affect an individual's nutritional status, which can lead to a reduced quality of life for the person with dementia and their family members. A scoping review was conducted from July 2016 until September 2016, using a recognised framework, to explore what is currently known, and identify any gaps in the research regarding the nutritional care of people living with dementia at home. This included any interventions that may have been trialled or implemented, and the views of those living with dementia, carers and clinicians. Six electronic databases were searched from inception to July 2016. A review team was involved in screening and data extraction for selected articles. Published qualitative and quantitative studies were included that explored the nutritional care of people living with dementia at home. Methods included data extraction and conventional content analysis. Stakeholders were involved in the development of final categories. Following screening, 61 studies reported in 63 articles were included. Most studies were cross-sectional (n = 24), cohort (n = 15) or qualitative (n = 9). Only three were randomised controlled trials. Three overarching categories represented the results: Timely identification of nutritional risk and subsequent regular monitoring of nutritional status, multi-component tailored interventions and the influence of the care-giving dyad on nutritional status. Many studies identify people living at home with dementia as a vulnerable group prone to malnutrition; however, a lack of interventions exists to address the increased risk. There is a lack of research exploring the role of home care providers and healthcare professionals in the provision of nutritional care. Further research is required to explore how the emotional aspect of the care-giving dyad influences nutritional care

  13. Self-harm amongst people of Chinese origin versus White people living in England: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Steeg, Sarah; Kapur, Navneet; Webb, Roger T; Yip, Paul S F; Cooper, Jayne

    2015-04-14

    There has been little previous research on self-harm among people of Chinese origin living in the UK, although this population has grown substantially in recent years and China is now the largest source of international students at UK universities. We conducted a prospective cohort study using self-harm presentation data (1997-2011) collected from three hospitals in the City of Manchester, which has the largest Chinese population across all UK Local Authorities. Rate ratios between the Chinese and White groups were calculated using Poisson regression models. Chi-square tests (or Fisher's exact tests), logistic regression, and log-binomial regression were used to examine differences in characteristics and clinical management between groups. Ethnicity was known in the study cohort for 23,297 (87%) amongst 26,894 individuals aged 15 years and above. A total number of 97/23,297 (0.4%) people of Chinese ethnic origin presented with self-harm over the study period and 20,419 (88%) were White people. Incidence of self-harm in the Chinese group (aged 16-64 years) was less than one fifth of that found in White people (0.6 versus 3.2 per 1000 person-years; rate ratio 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.24), and was particularly low amongst men of Chinese origin. Individuals of Chinese origin who presented with self-harm were younger, more likely to be female and students, and more likely to self-injure and describe relationship problems as a precipitant than White people. They were less likely to have clinical risk factors such as drug/alcohol misuse and receiving psychiatric treatment, and were rated to have lower risk of self-harm repetition by treating clinicians. Future research needs to investigate whether the low incidence of self-harm presenting to hospitals amongst people of Chinese origin truly reflects a lower frequency of self-harm, or alternatively is due to markedly different post-episode help-seeking behaviours or student overrepresentation in this ethnic

  14. Origins fourteen billion years of cosmic evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Neil deGrasse

    2004-01-01

    Origins explores cosmic science's stunning new insights into the formation and evolution of our universe--of the cosmos, of galaxies and galaxy clusters, of stars within galaxies, of planets that orbit those stars, and of different forms of life that take us back to the first three seconds and forward through three billion years of life on Earth to today's search for life on other planets. Drawing on the current cross-pollination of geology, biology and astrophysics, Origins explains the thrilling daily breakthroughs in our knowledge of the universe from dark energy to life on Mars to the mysteries of space and time. Distilling complex science in clear and lively prose, co-authors Neil deGrasse Tyson and Donald Goldsmith conduct a galvanising tour of the cosmos revealing what the universe has been up to while turning part of itself into us.

  15. Significant Improvement in Sleep in People with Intellectual Disabilities Living in Residential Settings by Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylkema, T.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although about 15 to 50 percent of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) living in residential settings suffer from sleep problems, scant attention is paid to these problems. Most available studies focus on pharmaceutical solutions. In this study we focus on improving sleep in people with intellectual disabilities living in…

  16. Perceived stigma, mental health and unsafe sexual behaviors of people living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Gong, Huanyu; Yang, Guoli; Yan, Jin

    2014-07-01

    To determine the relationship among perceived stigma, mental health and unsafe sexual behaviors of people living with HIV/AIDS. Cross-sectional research was used to interview people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) from April 2012 to March 2013 in Changsha, China. The questionnaires included General Questionnaire, Sexual Behavior Questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9), General Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and Psychometric Assessment of the HIV Stigma Scale. The results were statistically analyzed with SPSS18.0. The total score of perceived stigma and its 4 dimensions were positively correlated with anxiety and depression. The total score of perceived stigma and its dimensions were associated with disclosure, but no significantly correlated with other sexual behaviors. Hierarchical regression showed perceived stigma had an effect on anxiety. The stigma perceived by PLWHA is above the average level. Perceived stigma has an effect on mental health, especially anxiety, but no effect on unsafe sexual behaviors.

  17. Experience of people living with the Berardinelli-Seip Syndrome in the Brazilian Northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Éverson de Brito; Figueiredo, Jakson Gomes de; França, Jean Marcel Bezerra; Veras, Júlio Cesar Duarte; Borges, Raul Elton Araújo; Melo, Lucas Pereira de

    2018-02-01

    This paper analyzes the experience of people living with the Berardinelli-Seip Syndrome in the Brazilian Northeast. This qualitative study was developed with eleven informants, namely, nine people living with the syndrome and two mothers. Information was gathered using participant observation, social characterization and semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed by means of a thematic coding technique. Two categories emerged: (1) 'the secret is to shut your mouth': food management in daily life; and (2) 'Ah, is it a transvestite?' body, gender, and masculinization. We concluded that, in the experience of the informants, their negotiations and creativity translated into strategies for food management that integrated tastes, values, habits, biomedical prescriptions and pleasures involved in commensality situations. Regarding corporeality, it has been shown that representations and experiences with the body show gender inequalities, insofar as women become privileged targets of stigmas, prejudices and discrimination in adult life.

  18. Constructions, reconstructions and deconstructions of 'family' amongst people who live apart together (LATs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilova, Mariya; Roseneil, Sasha; Carter, Julia; Duncan, Simon; Phillips, Miranda

    2017-03-01

    This article explores how people who live apart from their partners in Britain describe and understand 'family'. It investigates whether, and how far, non-cohabiting partners, friends, 'blood' and legal ties are seen as 'family', and how practices of care and support, and feelings of closeness are related to these constructions. It suggests that people in LAT relationships creatively draw and re-draw the boundaries of family belonging in ways that involve emotionally subjective understandings of family life, and that also refer to normative constructions of what 'family' ought to be, as well as to practical recognitions of lived family 'realities'. This often involves handling uncertainties about what constitutes 'family'. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  19. The Legal Needs of People Living with HIV: Evaluating Access to Justice in Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Miyashita, Ayako; Hasenbush, Amira; Wilson, Bianca DM; Meyer, Ilan; Nezhad, Sheila; Sears, Brad

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes findings of the Legal Assessment of Needs Study (“LeAN Study”) – an online survey with 387 respondents who identified as people living with HIV/AIDS (“PLWH”). We describe respondents’ legal needs, respondents’ experiences getting assistance for identified legal needs from both legal and non-legal sources, and barriers respondents faced in accessing assistance from both legal and non-legal sources. We describe differences and similarities among subpopulations that are tr...

  20. Condom Use Determinants and Practices Among People Living with HIV in Kisii County, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel, Wamalwa; Edward, Neyole; Moses, Poipoi; William, Ringera; Geoffrey, Otomu; Monicah, Bitok; Rosemary, Mbaluka

    2015-01-01

    The male condom remains the single, most efficient and available technology to reduce sexual transmission of HIV as well as sexually transmitted infections. This study sought to establish condom use determinants and practices among people living with HIV (PLHIVs) in Kisii County, Kenya. We interviewed 340 PLHIVs and 6 health workers. Although most PLHIVs had correct knowledge and approved condoms as effective for HIV prevention, consistent use and condom use at last sex were notably low espec...

  1. A Web-Based Study of Dog Ownership and Depression Among People Living With HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Muldoon, Abigail L; Kuhns, Lisa M; Supple, Julie; Jacobson, Kristen C; Garofalo, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background People living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) are approximately twice as likely to be depressed compared with HIV-negative individuals. Depression is consistently associated with low antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, an important step within the HIV care continuum related to HIV disease progression and overall health. One factor that may have positive psychosocial benefits and promote ART adherence is dog ownership. Research indicates that dog ownership is associate...

  2. Community Group Membership and Stigmatising Attitudes Towards People Living with HIV in Eastern Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Nhamo-Murire, Mercy; Campbell, Catherine; Gregson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Stigmatising attitudes towards people living with HIV and AIDS (PLHIV) are hampering attempts to control HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan African countries. This study measures the effect of social capital, in the form of local community groups, in reducing stigma and tests a new explanatory framework for the association between community group membership and less stigmatising attitudes. Prospective data on membership of a wide range of different community groups and stigmatising attitudes (being...

  3. Stigma, Activism, and Well-Being among People Living with HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Rosenthal, Lisa; Lang, Shawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence demonstrates that HIV stigma undermines the psychological and physical health of people living with HIV (PLWH). Yet, PLWH describe engaging in HIV activism to challenge stigma, and research suggests that individuals may benefit from activism. We examine associations between experiences of HIV stigma and HIV activism, and test whether HIV activists benefit from greater well-being than non-activists. Participants include 93 PLWH recruited from drop-in centers, housing programs, and oth...

  4. The treatment experiences of people living with ileostomies: an interpretative phenomenological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Spiers, Johanna; Smith, Jonathan A.; Simpson, P.; Nicholls, A.

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To explore treatment and healthcare experiences of people living with ileostomies, so nurses can build on best practice whilst caring for these patients. \\ud Background Ileostomies, in which the small intestine is re-directed out of a stoma in the abdominal wall so waste is collected using a bag, are used to treat conditions including Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Existing research suggests that although life with a stoma can be challenging, ileostomy patients are largely supported by mul...

  5. Perspectives of People Living with HIV on Access to Health Care: Protocol for a Scoping Review

    OpenAIRE

    Asghari, Shabnam; Maybank, Allison; Hurley, Oliver; Modir, Hilary; Farrell, Alison; Marshall, Zack; Kendall, Claire; Johnston, Sharon; Hogel, Matthew; Rourke, Sean B; Liddy, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Background Strategies to improve access to health care for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) have demonstrated limited success. Whereas previous approaches have been informed by the views of health providers and decision-makers, it is believed that incorporating patient perspectives into the design and evaluations of health care programs will lead to improved access to health care services. Objective We aim to map the literature on the perspectives of PLHIV concerning ac...

  6. Using Design Fiction To Reflect on Autonomy in Smart Technology For People Living With Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, B. F.

    2016-01-01

    The field of HCI is changing, which brings with it new responsibilities. Ubiquitous computing touches on many aspects of modern life and its consequences are not yet fully understood. In the context of dementia ubiquitous technologies are currently developed to augment care and thereby enhancing quality of life for people living with dementia as well as reducing the financial pressures on the health care system. Within this paper a design fiction is presented as a method to explore the issues...

  7. Impact of prescription charges on people living in poverty: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Pauline; Tordoff, June; McIntosh, Brendon; Laxman, Kunal; Chang, Shih Yen; Te Karu, Leanne

    Prescription charges or copayments have been shown to reduce consumption of medicines. For people living in poverty, prescription charges can prevent them from getting the medicines they need, and this can result in poorer health status. Prescription charges are low in New Zealand compared to many other countries, but those living in poverty are not exempt from fees. The aim of this study was to explore the lived experience of people who struggle to pay prescription charges and to propose a model for how being unable to afford prescription charges might affect health. Participants were recruited through organizations that provide services entirely or predominantly to low income persons. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 29 people who had been identified as having problems paying for prescriptions. Approximately half of the sample population was Māori (indigenous New Zealanders). Ethical approval was obtained from the University of Otago. Participants reported having to make difficult decisions when picking up their prescription medicines. These included choosing some medicines and leaving others, such as choosing medicines for mental health rather than physical health; cutting food consumption or eating less healthy food so as to pay for medicines; or picking up medicines for children while leaving those for adults. Participants also reported strategies like reducing doses to make prescriptions last longer; and delaying picking up medicines. These led to sub-optimal dosing or interrupted treatment. Even low financial barriers can have a significant impact on low income people's access to medicines and reduce the effectiveness of treatment. Not being able to afford prescription medicines may impact negatively on people's health directly by preventing access to medicines, through reducing expenditure on other items need for health, and by potentiating stigma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatments for people living with schizophrenia in Sub-Saharan Africa: an adapted realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidarikire, S; Cross, M; Skinner, I; Cleary, M

    2018-03-01

    To identify the treatments and interventions available and their impact on people living with schizophrenia in Sub-Saharan Africa. Help-seeking behaviour and the choice of treatment are largely influenced by socio-cultural factors and beliefs about the causes of mental illness. This review addresses the gap in knowledge regarding the treatment options available to people living with schizophrenia in Sub-Saharan Africa. Adapted realist literature review. Electronic databases searched in June 2016 included PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ProQuest and CINAHL. The adapted realist review approach used to synthesize the published research involved identifying the review aim, searching and selecting relevant studies, extracting, iteratively analysing and synthesizing relevant data and reporting results. Forty studies from eight countries were reviewed. Most people were treated by both faith/traditional healers and modern psychiatry. Common treatments included antipsychotics, electroconvulsive therapy and psychosocial interventions. Few treatment options were available outside major centres, there was poor adherence to medication and families reported a high level of burden associated with caring for a relative. Major limitations of this review were the lack of studies, variable quality and low level of evidence available from most countries from Sub-Saharan Africa and lack of generalizability. People living with schizophrenia in Sub-Saharan Africa were treated by faith, traditional healers and modern psychiatry, if at all. Further research is needed to better understand the local situation and the implications for caring for people from this region. Mental health services in Sub-Saharan Africa are limited by fiscal shortages, lack of mental health services and qualified mental health professionals. This review provides evidence to inform nursing and healthcare policy, including recruiting and training mental health professionals and ensuring access to evidence-based, person

  9. The participative arts for people living with a dementia: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Zeilig

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, interest has increased in the role of the participative arts for people who are living with a dementia. The flourishing of this area can be partly understood because of an awareness of the potential for art to deliver health care outcomes. In addition, there is widespread agreement that non-pharmacological interventions are important for people living with a dementia. Therefore, participative arts activities have attracted attention as representing beneficial interventions. This critical review which involved the careful mining of academic and grey literature using replicable search strategies contextualises the participatory arts for people living with a dementia and provides an overview of some of the art orms that are most widely used. The review also highlights some of the extant gaps in the knowledge base. The focus is on the UK context but the role of the participative arts for those with a dementia is equally relevant to practitioners in Europe and the US, and therefore some attention was also given to international literature.

  10. The Mental Health of People Living with HIV in China, 1998-2014: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Niu

    Full Text Available Understanding the mental health burdens faced by people living with HIV in China is instrumental in the development of successful targeted programs for psychological support and care.Using multiple Chinese and English literature databases, we conducted a systematic review of observational research (cross-sectional, case-control, or cohort published between 1998 and 2014 on the mental health of people living with HIV in China.We identified a total of 94 eligible articles. A broad range of instruments were used across studies. Depression was the most widely studied problem; the majority of studies reported prevalence greater than 60% across research settings, with indications of a higher prevalence among women than men. Rates of anxiety tended to be greater than 40%. Findings regarding the rates of suicidality, HIV-related neurocognitive disorders, and substance use were less and varied. Only one study investigated posttraumatic stress disorder and reported a prevalence of 46.2%. Conflicting results about health and treatment related factors of mental health were found across studies.Despite limitations, this review confirmed that people living with HIV are vulnerable to mental health problems, and there is substantial need for mental health services among this population.

  11. Satisfaction with dental case management among people living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Celeste A; Kretsedemas, Myrtise; Graves, John R

    2010-02-01

    We evaluated access to and satisfaction with dental services for people living with HIV/AIDS receiving services from a dental case manager (DCM). People living with HIV/AIDS who had received dental services at two Community Dental Centers on Cape Cod, Massachusetts were eligible to participate in a mailed, anonymous return, Dental Satisfaction Survey (N = 160). Overall, respondents were satisfied with the dental care they had received. Most patients (58%) were new to the practice and were more likely to report that they had not been seen by a dental provider for more than 12 months (OR 3.0, P = 0.044). The majority of respondents reported that they heard about the clinic from local agencies. Of respondents recognizing they had a DCM, almost all answered that their DCM had helped them receive the care they needed. Respondents who agreed that they sometimes avoided going to the dentist due to pain were significantly more likely to report that they had a dental case manager than patients who disagreed (OR 3.42, P = 0.027). When patients were asked how their DCM had helped them, themes identified included: assisting with access to dental care, conducting a needs assessment, and providing comfort. People living with HIV/AIDS often have unmet needs regarding dental care. The addition of the DCM to the dental facility appears to facilitate access to dental care for those connected to medical care through community outreach/partnerships and provides some respondents with an identified dental advocate.

  12. The Mental Health of People Living with HIV in China, 1998-2014: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lu; Luo, Dan; Liu, Ying; Silenzio, Vincent M B; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mental health burdens faced by people living with HIV in China is instrumental in the development of successful targeted programs for psychological support and care. Using multiple Chinese and English literature databases, we conducted a systematic review of observational research (cross-sectional, case-control, or cohort) published between 1998 and 2014 on the mental health of people living with HIV in China. We identified a total of 94 eligible articles. A broad range of instruments were used across studies. Depression was the most widely studied problem; the majority of studies reported prevalence greater than 60% across research settings, with indications of a higher prevalence among women than men. Rates of anxiety tended to be greater than 40%. Findings regarding the rates of suicidality, HIV-related neurocognitive disorders, and substance use were less and varied. Only one study investigated posttraumatic stress disorder and reported a prevalence of 46.2%. Conflicting results about health and treatment related factors of mental health were found across studies. Despite limitations, this review confirmed that people living with HIV are vulnerable to mental health problems, and there is substantial need for mental health services among this population.

  13. How children and young people construct and negotiate living with medical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Susan

    2010-11-01

    Increasing numbers of children need the support of medical technology for their survival and wellbeing, yet little is known about their experiences of living technology-assisted lives. This study aimed to explore how this group of children experience and construct medical technology and its influence on their identity and social relationships. Using a Grounded Theory approach, 28 children/young people aged between 8 and 19 years old and using different types of medical devices were recruited via nursing services in England. Data were collected by in-depth interviews conducted in children's homes. The medical technology occupied an ambivalent position in children's lives being seen as having both an enabling and disabling presence. Children actively engaged in work to incorporate the technology into their lives and bodies by developing strategies to manage their condition, the technology and their identities. This body work appeared to be driven by a desire to 'normalise' their bodies and their lives. Technologies were shaped to integrate them into everyday life and children managed their self-presentation and controlled information about their condition. This work was ongoing, responding to changing social contexts and relationships. For these children the process of 'growing up' involves incorporating disability, illness and technology. This study contributes to knowledge by examining how medical technology is constructed by children whose lives are dependent on it and illuminating the resources and strategies they use to manage their identity and negotiate peer culture interactions and norms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Smart technologies to enhance social connectedness in older people who live at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meg E; Adair, Brooke; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Kurowski, William; Miller, Kimberly J; Pearce, Alan J; Santamaria, Nick; Long, Maureen; Ventura, Cameron; Said, Catherine M

    2014-09-01

    To examine the effectiveness of smart technologies in improving or maintaining the social connectedness of older people living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of research articles published between 2000 and 2013. Article screening, data extraction and quality assessment (using the Downs and Black checklist) were conducted by two independent researchers. Eighteen publications were identified that evaluated the effect of smart technologies on dimensions of social connectedness. Fourteen studies reported positive outcomes in aspects such as social support, isolation and loneliness. There was emerging evidence that some technologies augmented the beneficial effects of more traditional aged-care services. Smart technologies, such as tailored internet programs, may help older people better manage and understand various health conditions, resulting in subsequent improvements in aspects of social connectedness. Further research is required regarding how technological innovations could be promoted, marketed and implemented to benefit older people. © 2014 ACOTA.

  15. Problems faced by complete denture-wearing elderly people living in jammu district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harvinder; Sharma, Sumeet; Singh, Sarbjeet; Wazir, Nikhil; Raina, Rajiv

    2014-12-01

    Poor oral health is increasing dramatically among old people especially those living in rural and remote areas. Various factors such as low education background, low income, poor living conditions, unhealthy lifestyle, inadequate oral hygiene and tobacco use lead to poor oral health among older people which in turn lead to risks to their general health. The older people especially from rural areas are apprehensive about seeing a dentist and do not visit them regularly. This may lead to various problems which may have a detrimental influence on their quality of life. To know the problems faced by complete denture wearers in rural areas in Jammu district. Fifty patients from rural area Bishna, initially treated with a complete denture in the maxilla or mandibles were examined. The data were collected with the help of a questionnaire. The results revealed that majority of respondents were in the age - group of 65-70 y. Majority of respondents complained of "difficulty chewing", "sore spots", "painful and swollen gums". Majority of respondents had difficulty in speech, it was difficult for them to interact and communicate with their dentures on. Most of the respondents had lost confidence and had low self esteem. Clinical observations revealed that the commonest condition associated with denture wearing was Oral Stomatitis/ Burning mouth Syndrome, Superimposed infection and Angular cheilitis. Older people should Communicate and visit dentists, regularly, so that the dentists can adjust the treatment and pace according to their needs. Behavioural therapy techniques can make dental visits relatively anxiety and pain-free.

  16. The Lived Environment Life Quality Model for institutionalized people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; Lampe, Jenna L; Logan, Christina A; Metcalfe, Amy R; Hoesly, Beth E

    2017-02-01

    There is a need for a conceptual practice model that explicates ecological complexities involved in using occupation to optimize the quality of life of institutionalized people with dementia. This study aimed to prepare the Lived Environment Life Quality Model, a dementia-specific conceptual practice model of occupational therapy in institutional facilities, for publication and application to practice. Interviews and focus groups with six expert occupational therapists were subjected to qualitative content analysis to confirm, disconfirm, and further develop the model. The model's lived-environment domain as the focus of assessment and intervention was extensively confirmed, and its quality-of-life domain as the focus of intervention goals and outcomes was both confirmed and further developed. As confirmed in this study, the Lived Environment Life Quality Model is a client-centred, ecologically valid, and occupation-focused guide to optimizing quality of life of institutionalized adults with dementia in present moments and progressively over time.

  17. Do older people with visual impairment and living alone in a rural developing country report greater difficulty in managing stairs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairi, Noran N; Bulgiba, Awang; Peramalah, Devi; Mudla, Izzuna

    2013-01-01

    Managing stairs is a challenging activity of daily living (ADL) for older people. This study aims to examine the association between visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone and those living with others. A population-based cross sectional study was conducted in rural Malaysia from 2007 till 2008. Seven hundred and sixty five older people aged 60 years and over underwent eye examination for visual impairment. Visual acuity criteria were used to define visual impairment. Presenting visual acuity was assessed using a standard metric Snellen Chart of E type. Difficulty in managing stairs was measured according to a question drawn from the Barthel Index which asks "do you need help in climbing stairs". Overall, the prevalence of difficulty in managing stairs among older people in our population was 135 (18.3%, 95% CI 15.7-21.2). After adjusting for important confounders the odds ratio (OR) for visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone was 5.04 (95% CI 2.27, 10.62). Among older people living with others, the adjusted OR for visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs was 3.10 (95% CI 1.52, 6.80). In a sample of older people aged 60 years and over, those living alone with visual impairment had greater difficulty in managing stairs than those living with others. Identification of these groups of older people is useful for targeting interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Narratives reflecting the lived experiences of people with brain disorders: common psychosocial difficulties and determinants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Hartley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with brain disorders - defined as both, mental disorders and neurological disorders experience a wide range of psychosocial difficulties (PSDs (e.g., concentrating, maintaining energy levels, and maintaining relationships. Research evidence is required to show that these PSDs are common across brain disorders. OBJECTIVES: To explore and gain deeper understanding of the experiences of people with seven brain disorders (alcohol dependency, depression, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke. It examines the common PSDs and their influencing factors. METHODS: Seventy seven qualitative studies identified in a systematic literature review and qualitative data derived from six focus groups are used to generate first-person narratives representing seven brain disorders. A theory-driven thematic analysis of these narratives identifies the PSDs and their influencing factors for comparison between the seven disorders. RESULTS: First-person narratives illustrate realities for people with brain disorders facilitating a deeper understanding of their every-day life experiences. Thematic analysis serves to highlight the commonalities, both of PSDs, such as loneliness, anger, uncertainty about the future and problems with work activities, and their determinants, such as work opportunities, trusting relationships and access to self-help groups. CONCLUSIONS: The strength of the methodology and the narratives is that they provide the opportunity for the reader to empathise with people with brain disorders and facilitate deeper levels of understanding of the complexity of the relationship of PSDs, determinants and facilitators. The latter reflect positive aspects of the lives of people with brain disorders. The result that many PSDs and their influencing factors are common to people with different brain disorders opens up the door to the possibility of using cross-cutting interventions involving different sectors

  19. Working Paper 5: Beyond Collier's Bottom Billion | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-16

    Dec 16, 2010 ... The heart of the narrative presented in the book is that a group of almost 60 countries, with a population of about a billion people, are caught in four main traps. Their prospects for escaping the traps are poor, and they need a set of actions from the international community to achieve the rapid rates of growth ...

  20. Food Accessibility and Perceptions of Shopping Difficulty among Elderly People Living Alone in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, M; Yokoyama, T; Nakaya, T; Fukuda, Y; Takemi, Y; Kusama, K; Yoshiike, N; Nozue, M; Yoshiba, K; Murayama, N

    2016-01-01

    This aim of this study was to describe the association between shopping difficulty and food accessibility for elderly people living alone in Japan. A cross-sectoral, multilevel survey was designed to measure shopping difficulty from a food accessibility perspective. The questionnaire was distributed by mail. The sample was drawn from seven towns and cities across Japan. A geographic information system was used to select the sample: it identified the proximity of elderly people living alone to a supermarket. In total, 2,028 elderly people (725 men and 1,303 women) responded to the questionnaire. The binary dependent variables were shopping is easy/shopping is difficult. A logistic regression analysis adjusting for age and area of residence and using stepwise variable analyses was performed. The response rate was 58.6%. Overall, 14.6% of elderly men and 21.7% of elderly women consider shopping difficult. The stepwise logistic analysis showed that the food accessibility factors strongly related to shopping difficulty are infrequent car use (women: OR = 6.97), walking difficulties (men: OR = 2.81, women: OR = 3.48), poor eyesight (men: OR = 2.26, women: OR = 1.75), not cooking lunch by oneself (men: OR = 1.63, women: OR = 1.72), not having anyone to help with food shopping (women: OR = 1.45) and living over 1 km away from a supermarket (men: OR = 2.30, women: OR = 2.97). The study concludes that elderly people's assessment of shopping difficulty is related to their food accessibility. Important food accessibility aspects include car or motorbike ownership, walking continuously for 1 km, poor eyesight, and having cooking skills and having someone to help with shopping. These physical activity restrictions have a greater influence on shopping difficulty than do either income or proximity to a supermarket.

  1. Motivational Determinants of Exergame Participation for Older People in Assisted Living Facilities: Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekes, Wytske; Stanmore, Emma Kate

    2017-07-06

    Exergames (exercise-based videogames) for delivering strength and balance exercise for older people are growing in popularity with the emergence of new Kinect-based technologies; however, little is known about the factors affecting their uptake and usage by older people. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that may influence the motivation of older people to use exergames to improve their physical function and reduce fall risk. Mixed methods were employed in which 14 semistructured interviews were conducted with older people (n=12, aged 59-91 years) from 2 assisted living facilities in the North West of the United Kingdom. The older people participated in a 6-week trial of exergames along with one manager and one physiotherapist; 81 h of observation and Technology Acceptance Model questionnaires were conducted. The findings suggest that the participants were intrinsically motivated to participate in the exergames because of the enjoyment experienced when playing the exergames and perceived improvements in their physical and mental health and social confidence. The social interaction provided in this study was an important extrinsic motivator that increased the intrinsic motivation to adhere to the exergame program. The findings of this study suggest that exergames may be a promising tool for delivering falls prevention exercises and increasing adherence to exercise in older people. Understanding the motivation of older people to use exergames may assist in the process of implementation. ©Wytske Meekes, Emma Kate Stanmore. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 06.07.2017.

  2. Measuring quality of life among people living with HIV: a systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Vanessa; Clatworthy, Jane; Harding, Richard; Whetham, Jennifer

    2017-11-15

    A systematic review of reviews was conducted to identify and appraise brief measures of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) that have been used in peer-reviewed research with people living with HIV. The review was conducted in two stages: 1) search of electronic databases to identify systematic reviews of tools used to measure HRQoL in adults living with HIV, published since the year 2000; 2) selection of HRQol scales from those identified in the reviews. Inclusion criteria included scales that could be self-administered in 10 min or less, covering at least 3 domains of quality of life (physical function, social/role function and mental/emotional function). For generic scales, inclusion criteria included the availability of normative data while for HIV-specific scales, patient input into the development of the scale was required. Ten reviews met the inclusion criteria. Nine generic scales met the inclusion criteria: the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D); Health Utilities Index; McGill Quality of Life questionnaire; Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Short Form (SF)-12; SF-36; World Health Organisation Quality of Life (WHOQOL- BREF), Questions of Life Satisfaction (FLZM) and SF-20. Available psychometric data supported the EQ-5D and SF-36. Seven HIV-specific scales met the inclusion criteria: the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG)-21; HIV-QL-31; MOS-HIV; Multidimensional Quality of Life Questionnaire for Persons with HIV/AIDS (MQOL-HIV), PROQOL-HIV, Symptom Quality of Life Adherence (HIV-SQUAD) and the WHOQOL-HIV BREF. Of the HIV -specific measures, the MOS-HIV was considered to have the most well-established psychometric properties, however limitations identified in the reviews included insufficient input from people living with HIV in the development of the scale, cross-cultural relevance and continued applicability. Two relatively new measures, the WHOQOL-HIV BREF and PROQOL-HIV, were considered to have promising psychometric properties and may have

  3. Lower-limb warming improves sleep quality in elderly people living in nursing homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika Oshima-Saeki

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances are common in older people. This study was conducted to examine the effects of a hot pack, which was used to warm the lower limbs, on the sleep of elderly people living in a nursing home. This is a prospective cohort involving seven elderly women. Subjects aged 74-93 years old were treated by warming the lower limbs for 40 minutes using hot packs every night over 8 weeks. A hot pack made of a dense polymer and warmed in a microwave oven was used as a warming device. In the first and last week, the subjects were required to wear an activity monitor to determine their sleep-awake status. During the second to ninth week, they received limb-warming treatment by a hot pack heated to 42ºC for 40 min every night. Surface skin temperature data were collected by thermographic measurement. As a result, lower-limb warming by a hot pack significantly improved the quality of sleep in the subjects. During warming, the surface temperature of the hands and face rose by approximately 0.5-1.5ºC. This study showed that lower-limb warming with a hot pack reduced sleep latency and wake episodes after sleep onset; thus, improving the quality of sleep in elderly people living in a nursing home.

  4. A Service Delivery Model for Addressing Activity and Social Participation Needs of People Living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Restall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational therapy can contribute to the health and well-being of people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV who are experiencing health consequences of living long term with this disease. However, there are no comprehensive rehabilitation service delivery models to guide this emerging area of practice. The purpose of this study was to obtain critical feedback about a service delivery model to address the activity and social participation needs of people living with HIV. Method: We developed a service delivery model from a synthesis of the literature. Using a qualitative research design, we conducted individual and focus group interviews with 35 informants from diverse backgrounds and involvement in HIV-related research, service provision, and policymaking to provide critical feedback about the model. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using inductive qualitative methods. Results: The informants identified the strengths and limitations of the model and supports and barriers to its implementation. They highlighted the importance of principle-based services, increasing resources for service navigation, building capacity of rehabilitation services to address the needs of people with HIV, and increasing research and program evaluation targeted to achieving activity and social participation outcomes. Conclusions: The model provides a framework for occupational therapists to design and evaluate services for this population.

  5. Living with companion animals after stroke: experiences of older people in community and primary care nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Maria; Ahlström, Gerd; Jönsson, Ann-Cathrin

    2014-12-01

    Older people often have companion animals, and the significance of animals in human lives should be considered by nurses-particularly in relation to older people's health, which can be affected by diseases. The incidence of stroke increases with age and disabilities as a result of stroke are common. This study aimed to explore older people's experiences of living with companion animals after stroke, and their life situation with the animals in relation to the physical, psychological and social aspects of recovery after stroke. The study was performed using individual interviews approximately 2 years after stroke with 17 participants (10 women and 7 men) aged 62-88 years. An overarching theme arising from the content analysis was contribution to a meaningful life. This theme was generated from four categories: motivation for physical and psychosocial recovery after stroke; someone to care for who cares for you; animals as family members; and providers of safety and protection. The main conclusion was that companion animals are experienced as physical and psychosocial contributors to recovery and a meaningful life after stroke.

  6. The Living Astronomy and People of the Mayan World Today: Engaging Hispanic Populations in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, I.; Tapia, F.

    2008-06-01

    From long ago, the Maya civilizations of Mesoamerica have been keenly attuned to the cycles of nature. The Maya have always been careful observers, and more than a thousand years ago, they recorded the motion of the planets, the Sun, and the Moon, and predicted eclipses. These observations were used to create a complex calendar to organize the events of their world. The Maya built great cities containing buildings aligned with the Sun, Moon, and the stars to mark important times of the year. Many astronomical traditions are still practiced today by the Maya of the Yucatán peninsula, Southern states in México, and other areas in Mesoamerica. Traditional farming communities time the cultivation of corn by observing the sky. The living culture of the Mayan people in the Yucatan integrates science and astronomy with every other aspect of their culture. Yucatec Maya, the language spoken by more than 1 million people in the Yucatán today, still carries through oral histories the ancient knowledge of nature. Our hope is that you'll increase your interest and knowledge of the Mayan people and of the enduring wisdom reflected in the daily lives of Mayan families. We present the results of education and public outreach efforts that position astronomy within its cultural context as an effective means of capturing the interest and enabling authentic participation of under-represented populations in science.

  7. Factors related to the perceived stigmatization of people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliari, Juliano de Souza; Teles, Sheila Araujo; Reis, Renata Karina; Gir, Elucir

    2017-10-09

    Analyzing the factors related to perceived stigmatization of people living with HIV. A cross-sectional study conducted from September of 2014 to December 2015 with users from a specialized service in Minas Gerais. Data were collected through individual instrument application, organized in Microsoft Office Excel(r) 2010 spreadsheets and processed on IBM(r) SPSS 23.0. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression method were used for data analysis, adopting statistical significance set at 5.0% (p≤0.05). The study development met research ethics standards. 258 users participated in the study. Most were males between 40 and 49 years of age, single, with low educational level and income. Being between 40 and 49 years of age and having been hospitalized for complications related to HIV were positively associated predictors to increased stigmatization; while not having comorbidities and not being aware of exposure to HIV were predictors associated to reduced stigmatization. Given these results, we highlight that stigmatization can have an impact on the lives of people living with HIV, strengthening their feelings of guilt and shame, which can lead to depression, social isolation and abandoning treatment and clinical follow-up.

  8. Exploring the Healthcare Environment and Associations with Clinical Outcomes of People Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Mary; Coulter, Robert W S; Egan, James E; Friedman, Mackey Reuel; Meanley, Steven; Fisk, Stuart; Watson, Courtney; Kinsky, Suzanne

    2017-12-01

    Despite three decades of dramatic treatment breakthroughs in antiretroviral regimens, clinical outcomes for people living with HIV vary greatly. The HIV treatment cascade models the stages of care that people living with HIV go through toward the goal of viral suppression and demonstrates that <30% of those living with HIV/AIDS in the United States have met this goal. Although some research has focused on the ways that patient characteristics and patient-provider relationships contribute to clinical adherence and treatment success, few studies to date have examined the ways that contextual factors of care and the healthcare environment contribute to patient outcomes. Here, we present qualitative findings from a mixed-methods study to describe contextual and healthcare environment factors in a Ryan White Part C clinic that are associated with patients' abilities to achieve viral suppression. We propose a modification of Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization, and its more recent adaptation developed by Ulett et al., to describe the ways that clinic, system, and provider factors merge to create a system of care in which more than 86% of the patient population is virally suppressed.

  9. Sickle cell anaemia and the experiences of young people living with the condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Nicole; Ellis, Michelle

    2018-04-26

    Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a life-threatening haemoglobin disorder acknowledged for its unpredictability and painful episodes. The aim of this qualitative literature review was to explore the experiences of young people living with SCA and its effect on their lives. The objective was to critically review selected primary research and make recommendations for practice, education and research. After reviewing potential articles using EBSCOhost, inclusion and exclusion criteria were devised and six appropriate studies were found with most participants in the 10-25 years age range. These studies were conducted in the UK and the United States. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme qualitative research checklist was used to evaluate the articles. Thematic analysis identified three themes: acceptance, support and unpredictability, with sub-themes of spirituality and discrimination. It was clear that SCA affected multiple areas of young people's lives. Recommendations are made for practice, education and research. © 2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  10. The effects of live, taped, and no music on people experiencing posttraumatic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, F

    2001-01-01

    This study compared the effects of live, taped, and no music, on agitation and orientation levels of people experiencing posttraumatic amnesia (PTA). Participants (N = 22) were exposed to all 3 conditions, twice over 6 consecutive days. Songs used in the live and taped music conditions were identical and were selected based on participants' own preferred music. Pre and posttesting was conducted for each condition using the Agitated Behavior Scale (Corrigan, 1989) and the Westmead PTA Scale (Shores, Marosszeky, Sandanam, Batchelor, 1986). Participants' memory for the music used was also tested and compared with their memory for pictorial material presented in the Westmead PTA Scale. Results indicate that music significantly reduced agitation (p music was not significant (p =.7). The mean number of pictures in the Westmead PTA scale recalled was 0.84 and the mean number of music selections recalled was 1.22 but this difference was not significant (p =.7). However, the trend suggests that music selections are more easily encoded in memory and then retrieved on request, than that of pictures. Analysis of responses in a follow-up assessment questionnaire showed that 77% of participants recalled the music program while in PTA, indicating that it reached the memory threshold. Sixty-four percent recalled the live music and 55% recalled the taped music condition however this difference was not significant (p =.7). Results suggest that music therapy programs have an important role to play in the management of people in PTA.

  11. Indices of body fat distribution for assessment of lipodysthrophy in people living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segatto Aline Francielle

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic and morphological changes associated with excessive abdominal fat, after the introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV/AIDS(PLWHA. Accurate methods for body composition analysis are expensive and the use of anthropometric indices is an alternative. However the investigations about this subject in PLWHA are rare, making this research very important for clinical purpose and to advance scientific knowledge. The aim of this study is to correlate results of anthropometric indices of evaluation of body fat distribution with the results obtained by Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry(DEXA, in people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods The sample was of 67 PLWHA(39 male and 28 female, aged 43.6+7.9 years. Body mass index, conicity index, waist/hip ratio, waist/height ratio and waist/thigh were calculated. Separated by sex, each index/ratio was plotted in a scatter chart with linear regression fit and their respective Pearson correlation coefficients. Analyses were performed using Prism statistical program and significance was set at 5%. Results The waist/height ratio presented the highest correlation coefficient, for both male (r=0.80, p Conclusion Anthropometric indices, especially waist/height ratio may be a good alternative way to be used for evaluating the distribution of fat in the abdominal region of adults living with HIV/ADIS.

  12. Addressing discriminatory benefit design for people living with HIV: a California case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenamin, Sara B; Shimkhada, Riti; Hiller, Sarah P; Corbett, Garen; Ponce, Ninez

    2017-12-01

    Concern is growing in the United States regarding the potential for health insurance benefit designs to discriminate against persons living with HIV as research demonstrates that such practices are occurring. A recent complaint filed against health insurers in seven states alleges that some health insurance companies have been using benefit designs that discourage enrollment of people living with HIV either by not covering essential HIV medications or by requiring cost-sharing for these prohibitively expensive medications. Legislators across the country have reacted by introducing legislation to address these growing problems. This paper describes Assembly Bill 339, legislation passed in California in 2015 and going into effect on 1 January 2017, which provides protection for people living with HIV by requiring coverage for single-tablet regimens to manage HIV while placing a cap on patient cost-sharing. Given California's size and influence, and the uncertainty of the future of the Affordable Care Act, this legislation has the potential to influence the national policy debate.

  13. The implementation of the functional task exercise programme for elderly people living at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleuren Margot A H

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Functional Task Exercise programme is an evidence-based exercise programme for elderly people living at home. It enhances physical capacity with sustainable effects. FTE is provided by physiotherapists and remedial therapists. Although the intervention was found to be effective in a Randomised Controlled Trial, we may not assume that therapists will automatically supply the programme or that elderly people will automatically join the programme. This study protocol focuses on identifying determinants of implementation, developing implementation strategies and studying the effects of the implementation in daily practice. Methods/Design Phase 1: The systematic identification of determinants of the implementation of FTE among therapists and the elderly. A questionnaire study was conducted in a random sample of 100 therapists, and interviews took place with 23 therapists and 8 elderly people (aged 66 to 80 years. The determinants were broken down into four categories: the characteristics of the environment, the organisation, the therapists, and the training programme. Phase 2: Developing and applying strategies adapted to the determinants identified. Fifteen physiotherapists will be trained to provide FTE and to recruit elderly people living at home. The therapists will then deliver the 12-week programme to two groups of elderly, each consisting of six to twelve people aged 70 years or older. Phase 3: Study of implementation and the impact. To study the actual use of FTE: 1 therapists record information about the selection of participants and how they apply the key features of FTE, 2 the participating elderly will keep an exercise logbook, 3 telephone interviews will take place with the therapists and the elderly and there will be on-site visits. The effects on the elderly people will be studied using: 1 the Patient-Specific Questionnaire, the Timed Up and Go test and a two performance tests. All tests will be performed at

  14. Social marketing strategies for reaching older people with disabilities: findings from a survey of centers for independent living participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moone, Rajean Paul; Lightfoot, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Centers for independent living (CILs) provide critical supports, services, and advocacy for assisting people with disabilities in living independently. As there is a rapidly increasing population of older people with disabilities, many CILs are now considering how to actively engage older adults in their organizations. This study utilized a survey of older people with disabilities to help identify social marketing techniques that community organizations like CILs can use to effectively reach older people with disabilities. Utilizing the components of the social marketing mix in designing outreach efforts, including a critical examination of product, place, price, participants, and partnering, CILs and other community agencies can better reach older adults with disabilities.

  15. People living with AIDS/HIV in Botswana: a needs assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuyderduin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A deficit in information and knowledge regarding people living with AIDS in Botswana, hampering health care planning and satisfactory health care delivery to these people, necessitated the needs assessment reported on in this paper. Not only did self-imposed alienation and societal levels of stigma surrounding HIV and AIDS force many people living with AIDS/HIV (PLWAH into silence and denial of their HIV+ve diagnosis, thereby creating knowledge and information deficits. These same factors also pose challenges for conducting a needs assessment among these persons. Consequently, a 73 item questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 39 male and 77 female PLWAH in Botswana. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs served as a general theoretical point of departure for the needs analysis and the 73 items represented needs at all levels of this hierarchy. Analysis of the data indicates that 65% of the respondents lived in urban areas. The majority of individuals (42% were tested for HIV because they became ill, while 28% did so voluntarily. Other reasons for testing were: child becoming ill, partner becoming ill, being pregnant and having been raped. Only 7% indicated that their HIV status had been disclosed to other persons. With regards to love and belongingness 70% of the respondents indicated that they were not in an intimate relationship, nearly one third experienced multiple deaths within their families due to AIDS, 61% had access to a support group, and 48% had not informed their parents about their HIV+ve status. Stigmatisation weighed down self-esteem. Despite the deficiencies in the fulfilment of safety, belonging

  16. What influences quality of life in older people living with HIV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalan, Jose; Tuffrey, Veronica; Ridge, Damien; Rosenfeld, Dana

    2017-01-01

    People with HIV with access to treatment are growing older and living healthier lives than in the past, and while health improvements and increased survival rates are welcome, the psychological and social consequences and quality of life of ageing are complex for this group. Understanding how ageing, HIV and quality of life intersect is key to developing effective interventions to improve QoL. One hundred people with HIV over the age of 50 (range 50-87, mean 58), were recruited through HIV community organizations, and clinics, and included men who have sex with men (MSM), and Black African and White heterosexual men and women. The WHOQOL-HIV BREF was used, as well as the Every Day Memory Questionnaire, and additional questions on anxiety and depression to supplement the WHOQOL. While most rated their quality of life (QoL) positively, bivariate analysis showed that better QoL (total score and most domains) was strongly associated with being a man; in a relationship; in paid employment; having higher level of income; not on benefits, and to a lesser degree with being MSM, having higher level of education, and diagnosed after the age of 40. Multivariate analysis showed that not being on benefits was the variable most consistently associated with better quality of life, as was being partnered. Concerns about everyday memory difficulties, and anxiety and depression scores were strong predictors of poorer quality of life. While the cross-sectional nature of the investigation could not establish that the associations were causal, the findings indicate that concerns about memory difficulties, anxiety and depression, as well as gender, ethnicity, financial factors, and relationship status, are important contributors to QoL in this group. These findings point towards the need for further research to clarify the mechanisms through which the factors identified here affect QoL, and to identify possible interventions to improve the QoL of older people living with HIV.

  17. Depression, suicidality, and alcohol use disorder among people living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbe, Catherine O; Dakum, Patrick S; Ekong, Ernest; Kohrt, Brandon A; Minto, John G; Ticao, Cynthia J

    2017-06-02

    People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) face various day-to-day and long-term personal, interpersonal, social, physical and psychological challenges as a result of, and in addition to the health conditions they are susceptible to due to their HIV status. There is a dearth of large-scale research to provide robust prevalence estimates of mental health problems among PLHIV, especially in Nigeria. This study aimed to ascertain the prevalence and factors associated with major depressive episodes, suicidality, and alcohol use disorder among people living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. A survey of 1187 participants aged 18 years and above was conducted within three HIV treatment centres in Abuja, Nigeria. Depression, suicidality, and alcohol use disorder modules of the WHO World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview questionnaire were used for this study. A socio-demographic questionnaire was also used to collect other health and demographic data. Descriptive statistics (frequency distribution, percentage, mean, median, mode, and standard deviation) and regression analyses were conducted to explore associations between mental health problems and demographic and other health-related factors. Twelve-month prevalence rates were 28.2% for major depressive episodes, 2.9% for suicidal ideation, 2.3% for suicide attempts, 7.8% for harmful alcohol use, 7.0% for alcohol abuse, and 2.2% for alcohol dependence. Major depressive episodes were significantly associated with having planned suicide and marital status. Suicidal ideation was significantly associated with major depressive episodes, marital status, and religion. Females were less likely to be diagnosed with alcohol disorders. Some people living with HIV/AIDS also tend to suffer from depression, suicidality, and alcohol use disorders. These findings highlight the need for the integration of mental health services into HIV/AIDS care in Nigeria.

  18. Depression, suicidality, and alcohol use disorder among people living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine O. Egbe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV face various day-to-day and long-term personal, interpersonal, social, physical and psychological challenges as a result of, and in addition to the health conditions they are susceptible to due to their HIV status. There is a dearth of large-scale research to provide robust prevalence estimates of mental health problems among PLHIV, especially in Nigeria. This study aimed to ascertain the prevalence and factors associated with major depressive episodes, suicidality, and alcohol use disorder among people living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. Methods A survey of 1187 participants aged 18 years and above was conducted within three HIV treatment centres in Abuja, Nigeria. Depression, suicidality, and alcohol use disorder modules of the WHO World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview questionnaire were used for this study. A socio-demographic questionnaire was also used to collect other health and demographic data. Descriptive statistics (frequency distribution, percentage, mean, median, mode, and standard deviation and regression analyses were conducted to explore associations between mental health problems and demographic and other health-related factors. Results Twelve-month prevalence rates were 28.2% for major depressive episodes, 2.9% for suicidal ideation, 2.3% for suicide attempts, 7.8% for harmful alcohol use, 7.0% for alcohol abuse, and 2.2% for alcohol dependence. Major depressive episodes were significantly associated with having planned suicide and marital status. Suicidal ideation was significantly associated with major depressive episodes, marital status, and religion. Females were less likely to be diagnosed with alcohol disorders. Conclusions Some people living with HIV/AIDS also tend to suffer from depression, suicidality, and alcohol use disorders. These findings highlight the need for the integration of mental health services into HIV/AIDS care in Nigeria.

  19. People who live in a cold climate: thermal adaptation differences based on availability of heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J; Cao, G; Cui, W; Ouyang, Q; Zhu, Y

    2013-08-01

    Are there differences in thermal adaptation to cold indoor environments between people who are used to living in heating and non-heating regions in China? To answer this question, we measured thermal perceptions and physiological responses of young men from Beijing (where there are indoor space heating facilities in winter) and Shanghai (where there are not indoor space heating facilities in winter) during exposures to cold. Subjects were exposed to 12°C, 14°C, 16°C, 18°C, 20°C for 1 h. Subjects from Beijing complained of greater cold discomfort and demonstrated poorer physiological acclimatization to cold indoor environments than those from Shanghai. These findings indicate that people's chronic indoor thermal experience might be an important determinant of thermal adaptation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The meaning of assisted feeding for people living with spinal cord injury: a phenomenological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, B.; Harder, I.; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2008-01-01

    AIM: This paper is a report of a study to explore the meaning of assisted feeding through the experiences of people with high cervical spinal cord injury. Background. Eating difficulties are known to affect a person's self-image and transform social lives. Little is known about the experience...... of assisted feeding as a permanent situation. METHOD: Sixteen people with high cervical spinal cord injury were interviewed twice within a period of 18 months in 2005-2006. The second interview was combined with observation. Transcriptions of interviews and notes from the observations were analysed using...... the phenomenological guidelines by Dahlberg and colleagues. FINDINGS: The essence of the phenomenon assisted feeding was described as a constructed pattern based on coordinated attention between the person with high cervical spinal cord injury and the helper. The constituents of the essence were: paralysis...

  1. A Discourse of "Abnormality": Exploring Discussions of People Living in Australia With Deafness or Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferndale, Danielle; Munro, Louise; Watson, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a social constructionist framework, the authors conducted a synthetic discourse analysis to explore how people living in Australia with deafness construct their experience of deafness. An online forum facilitated access and communication between the lead author and 24 widely dispersed and linguistically diverse forum contributors. The authors discuss the productive and restrictive effects of the emergent discourse of deafness as abnormal and the rhetorical strategies mobilized in people's accounts: fitting in, acceptance as permission to be different, and the need to prove normality. Using these strategies was productive in that the forum respondents were enabled to reposition deafness as a positive, socially valued identity position. However, the need to manage deafness was reproduced as an individual concern, disallowing any exploration of how deafness could be reconstructed as socially valued. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of the deafness as abnormal discourse.

  2. Exploring Treatment Needs and Expectations for People Living with HIV in South Africa: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Bogart, Laura M; Courtney, Ingrid; Zanoni, Holly; Bangsberg, David R; Orrell, Catherine; Goggin, Kathy; Katz, Ingrid T

    2018-04-04

    The UNAIDS 90-90-90 treatment targets aim to dramatically increase the number of people who initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) by 2020. Greater understanding of barriers to ART initiation in high prevalence countries like South Africa is critical. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 participants in Gugulethu Township, South Africa, including 10 healthcare providers and 20 people living with HIV (PLWH) who did not initiate ART. Interviews explored barriers to ART initiation and acceptability of theory-based intervention strategies to optimize ART initiation. An inductive content analytic approach was applied to the data. Consistent with the Theory of Triadic Influence, barriers to ART initiation were identified at the individual, social, and structural levels. Results suggested high acceptability for intervention strategies involving trained HIV-positive peers among South African PLWH and healthcare providers. Research is needed to evaluate their feasibility and efficacy in high HIV prevalence countries.

  3. Vision based assistive technology for people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs): an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    As'ari, M. A.; Sheikh, U. U.

    2012-04-01

    The rapid development of intelligent assistive technology for replacing a human caregiver in assisting people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs) promises in the reduction of care cost especially in training and hiring human caregiver. The main problem however, is the various kinds of sensing agents used in such system and is dependent on the intent (types of ADLs) and environment where the activity is performed. In this paper on overview of the potential of computer vision based sensing agent in assistive system and how it can be generalized and be invariant to various kind of ADLs and environment. We find that there exists a gap from the existing vision based human action recognition method in designing such system due to cognitive and physical impairment of people with dementia.

  4. Self-fulfillment despite barriers: volunteer work of people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, André; Lavigne, René M; MacPherson, Paul

    2009-11-01

    With the decline in the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection, the majority of people living with HIV (PWHIV) experience a higher quality of life and longer life expectancy. Since this diagnosis no longer prevents an active lifestyle, many PWHIV are re-integrating into the workplace or are contemplating this possibility. Despite the multiple advantages associated with a return to work, research has identified barriers related to work and HIV infection. These barriers could prevent an important minority of PWHIV who wish to return to work from re-integrating into this environment. In this context, volunteering could be an alternate way to regain an active lifestyle. This research found that volunteer work allowed participants to enrich their social lives, to regain a sense of psychological well-being, and to apply their abilities to the benefit of others. However, participants are restricted by their preference to volunteer for HIV-related organizations in order to avoid social stigma and rejection.

  5. The Meaning of Everyday Meals in Living Units for Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Karen Marie

    2005-01-01

    , adjacent to which is a shared dining room and kitchen. If the residents choose to, and are capable, they are involved in everyday activities of the unit and eat together with staff. This way of organising meals seems to influence most of the everyday life in the unit by shaping a homely place. It also......Even when frail older people become unable to live on their own and manage everyday activities, they can still experience a variety of meanings within meal-related activities that contribute to quality of life. This article reports research findings that focused on the meal, from preparation...... enables a living community that acts in and enlivens everyday existence. Meals themselves also make it possible to be somebody and be yourself in ordinary life and to make a place for valued occupations, things that give substance to everyday life. In sum, the study found that as an occupation, meals give...

  6. Prevalence of human herpesvirus 8 infection in people living with HIV/AIDS in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Mendes Cahú, Georgea Gertrudes; Morais, Viviane Martha Santos; Lopes, Thaisa Regina Rocha; da Silva, Dayvson Maurício; Tozetto-Mendoza, Tania Regina; Pannuti, Claudio Sergio; Cunha Duarte Coêlho, Maria Rosângela

    2016-11-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence and risk factors for Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection among people living with HIV/AIDS in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. A total of 500 individuals were tested for antibodies against HHV-8 using the whole-virus ELISA. The prevalence of anti-HHV-8 was 28.6% and the frequency among 140 men who have sex with men (MSM) was 38.6%. In the univariate model, there were significant associations with male gender, detectable HIV load, travel abroad, bissexual, and homossexual orientation. The first HHV-8 seroepidemiologic study, in northeast Brazil, documents a highly prevalent HHV-8 infection among MSM living with HIV/AIDS. J. Med. Virol. 88:2016-2020, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. What things make people with a learning disability happy and satisfied with their lives: an inclusive research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Anna; Lee, Darren; Shaw, Carl; Hawthorne, Michelle; Chamberlain, Stephen; Newman, David W; Clarke, Zara; Beail, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    We looked at the research that other people have done about what makes people with a learning disability happy and satisfied with their lives. Researchers call being happy and satisfied with your life 'subjective well-being'. They found out that having things like money and good health does not always mean people are happy. They also found that some people are really happy, even if there are things in their lives they would like to change. None of the people who have done research about 'subjective well-being' have interviewed people with a learning disability about what makes them happy with their lives. We have carried out a study about what makes people with a learning disability happy and satisfied with their lives. This report talks about the research that we did, and what we found out. We interviewed 20 people with a learning disability who said they were very happy and satisfied. We asked them about what things helped them feel like this. The people we spoke to said things like relationships, choice and independence, activities and valuable social roles made them feel satisfied with their lives. They told us about the things that enable them to lead happy lives, and the things that disable them. We also found out about the importance of personal characteristics. These are things like looking on the bright side of life or having ways to manage difficult emotions like sadness or anger. We found out that it is important for people with a learning disability to have good things in their lives, but it is also important to be enabled to access these good things. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Social adaptation following intestinal stoma formation in people living at home: a longitudinal phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Gabrielle; McArthur, Maggie

    2017-11-01

    Intestinal stoma formation profoundly changes the relationship between a person and their social world. The aim of this study was to understand the experience of living with a new stoma; this paper explores the theme "disrupted social world," highlighting how stoma-forming surgery impacts on individuals' abilities to participate and interact socially over time. A longitudinal phenomenological approach. Twelve participants with a new stoma were recruited using purposeful sampling. Data were collected at three, nine and 15 months following surgery through in-depth, unstructured interviews and analysed using a bespoke iterative framework. Three categories were identified: participation in the social environment; interpersonal relationships: changes and challenges; and setting and achieving goals. Stoma-forming surgery changes the ways people relate to their social environment and connect with others, creating self-consciousness and impeding social confidence and autonomy. Understanding the social implications of stoma-forming surgery can help clinicians to provide responsive and appropriate support to facilitate social rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Assisting people with a stoma to develop competent stoma self-care skills will promote social adaptation and self-acceptance. Clinicians should promote access to others with a stoma, an important source of support for many people adjusting to a new stoma. Graded exposure to social participation can engender feelings of control and confidence for people with a stoma. Clinicians can help individuals with a stoma to set realistic goals for their recovery, while encouraging a range of positive coping strategies.

  9. A mixed-methods study into ballet for people living with Parkinson's1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Sara; McGill, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parkinson's is a neurological disease that is physically debilitating and can be socially isolating. Dance is growing in popularity for people with Parkinson's and claims have been made for its benefits. The paper details a mixed-methods study that examined a 12-week dance project for people with Parkinson's, led by English National Ballet. Methods: The effects on balance, stability and posture were measured through the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale and a plumb-line analysis. The value of participation and movement quality were interpreted through ethnographic methods, grounded theory and Effort analysis. Results: Triangulation of results indicates that people were highly motivated, with 100% adherence, and valued the classes as an important part of their lives. Additionally, results indicated an improvement in balance and stability, although not in posture. Conclusions: Dancing may offer benefit to people with Parkinson's through its intellectual, artistic, social and physical aspects. The paper suggests that a range of research methods is fundamental to capture the importance of multifaceted activity, such as dance, to those with Parkinson's. PMID:23805165

  10. A mixed-methods study into ballet for people living with Parkinson's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Sara; McGill, Ashley

    2013-06-01

    Background : Parkinson's is a neurological disease that is physically debilitating and can be socially isolating. Dance is growing in popularity for people with Parkinson's and claims have been made for its benefits. The paper details a mixed-methods study that examined a 12-week dance project for people with Parkinson's, led by English National Ballet. Methods : The effects on balance, stability and posture were measured through the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale and a plumb-line analysis. The value of participation and movement quality were interpreted through ethnographic methods, grounded theory and Effort analysis. Results : Triangulation of results indicates that people were highly motivated, with 100% adherence, and valued the classes as an important part of their lives. Additionally, results indicated an improvement in balance and stability, although not in posture. Conclusions : Dancing may offer benefit to people with Parkinson's through its intellectual, artistic, social and physical aspects. The paper suggests that a range of research methods is fundamental to capture the importance of multifaceted activity, such as dance, to those with Parkinson's.

  11. A survey of habits of people living close to the Sellafield nuclear processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, T.H.; Fulker, M.J.; Jones, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    A survey has been carried out of the habits of people living within 3 km of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant. The survey included estimates of consumption rates of foodstuffs for a range of ages and of time spent indoors, outdoors and away from home. A high proportion of those interviewed were farmers and they provided additional data on time spent in the various farming activities. A comparison is made of the food consumption rates and generalised values recommended for critical groups by the NRPB and MAFF. (author)

  12. Are we successfully managing cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatleberg, Camilla I; Lundgren, Jens D; Ryom, Lene

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to discuss the most recent research in the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) with a focus on screening, primary and secondary prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: The cause of CVD in PLWHIV is complex...... cessation, increased physical activity and optimal diet, and recent reports call for intensified focus on HIV-positive women as a particularly vulnerable subgroup. SUMMARY: There is a need for further studies investigating barriers to optimal CVD risk factor management in PLWHIV and an increased focus...... of CVD prevention in HIV-positive women....

  13. Factors Influencing Quality of Life among People Living with HIV in Coastal South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjun, Banagi Yathiraj; Unnikrishnan, Bhaskaran; Ramapuram, John T; Thapar, Rekha; Mithra, Prasanna; Kumar, Nithin; Madi, Deepak; Kulkarni, Vaman; Holla, Ramesh; Darshan, Bhagawan

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased life expectancy of HIV/AIDS patients, but the quality of life (QOL) still remains the same. In this cross-sectional study, 356 people living with HIV (PLHIV) were interviewed to assess their QOL using WHOQOL-HIV BREF questionnaire. The association between QOL with sociodemographic, clinical and cohabitation status of the participants was tested using ANOVA and Student t-test, and p value self-motivation to take ART, absence of opportunistic infection, and with higher CD 4 count.

  14. The meaning of assisted feeding for people living with spinal cord injury: a phenomenological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, B.; Harder, I.; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2008-01-01

    AIM: This paper is a report of a study to explore the meaning of assisted feeding through the experiences of people with high cervical spinal cord injury. Background. Eating difficulties are known to affect a person's self-image and transform social lives. Little is known about the experience...... to each individual person. Fixed procedures or routines should be avoided and assistive devices used with care. We recommend that continuity in the cooperation between the parties involved in assisted feeding is given priority, and that personal standard and social norms around meals are acknowledged...

  15. Airflow limitation in people living with HIV and matched uninfected controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Lundgren, Jens; Afzal, Shoaib

    2018-01-01

    -matched controls from the Copenhagen General Population Study were included. Lung function was assessed using FEV1 and FVC, while airflow limitation was defined by the lower limit of normal (LLN) of FEV1/FVC and by FEV1/FVClinear regression models were used......INTRODUCTION: Whether HIV influences pulmonary function remains controversial. We assessed dynamic pulmonary function in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) and uninfected controls. METHODS: A total of 1098 PLWHIV from the Copenhagen Co-morbidity in HIV infection study and 12 161 age-matched and sex...

  16. Supreme Court of India approves government commitments on health care for people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symington, Alison

    2008-12-01

    In August 2008, the Government of India issued a list of directives with respect to its national response to HIV/AIDS. A panel of the Supreme Court approved the directives on 1 October 2008 and directed that all state governments comply with them. The panel's order also directed that the National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) submit a progress report on compliance within four months. As a result, a legally binding framework for healthcare and treatment of people living with HIV now exists for all of India.

  17. Executive functions are associated with gait and balance in community-living elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Iersel, Marianne B; Kessels, Roy P C; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Verbeek, André L M; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2008-12-01

    Cognition influences gait and balance in elderly people. Executive functions seem to play a key role in this mechanism. Previous studies used only a single test to probe executive functions, and outcome measures were restricted to gait variables. We extend this prior work by examining the association between two different executive functions and measures of both gait and balance, with and without two different cognitive dual tasks. This is a cross-sectional study with randomly selected community-living elderly people. Executive functions were tested with the Trail Making Test Parts A and B and the Stroop Color Word Test; memory with Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) subtests. Patients walked without and with two dual tasks (subtracting serial sevens and animal naming). Main outcomes focused on gait (velocity, stride length, and stride time variability), measured on an electronic walkway, and balance, measured as trunk movements during walking. Associations were assessed with multiple regression models. One hundred elderly people, with a mean age 80.6 years (range 75-93 years) participated. Both dual tasks decreased gait velocity and increased variability and trunk sway. Executive functions were associated with only stride length variability and mediolateral trunk sway during performance of animal naming as the dual task. Memory was not associated with the gait and balance variables. In community-living elderly people, executive functions are associated with gait and balance impairment during a challenging dual-task condition that also depends on executive integrity. Next steps will be to explore the value of executive functions in defining fall-risk profiles and in fall-prevention interventions for frail patients.

  18. The SUSTAIN Project: A European Study on Improving Integrated Care for Older People Living at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone R. de Bruin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Integrated care programmes are increasingly being put in place to provide care to older people who live at home. Knowledge of how to further develop integrated care and how to transfer successful initiatives to other contexts is still limited. Therefore, a cross-European research project, called Sustainable Tailored Integrated Care for Older People in Europe (SUSTAIN, has been initiated with a twofold objective: 1. to collaborate with local stakeholders to support and monitor improvements to established integrated care initiatives for older people with multiple health and social care needs. Improvements focus on person-centredness, prevention orientation, safety and efficiency; 2. to make these improvements applicable and adaptable to other health and social care systems, and regions in Europe. This paper presents the overall structure and approach of the SUSTAIN project.  Methods: SUSTAIN uses a multiple embedded case study design. In three phases, SUSTAIN partners: (i conduct interviews and workshops with stakeholders from fourteen established integrated care initiatives to understand where they would prefer improvements to existing ways of working; (ii collaborate with local stakeholders to support the design and implementation of improvement plans, evaluate implementation progress and outcomes per initiative, and carry out overarching analyses to compare the different initiatives, and; (iii translate knowledge and experience to an online roadmap.  Discussion: SUSTAIN aims to generate evidence on how to improve integrated care, and apply and transfer the knowledge gained to other health and social care systems, and regions. Lessons learned will be brought together in practical tools to inform and support policy-makers and decision-makers, as well as other stakeholders involved in integrated care, to manage and improve care for older people living at home.

  19. Future of family support: Projected living arrangements and income sources of older people in Hong Kong up to 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kok-Hoe

    2016-06-01

    The study aims to project future trends in living arrangements and access to children's cash contributions and market income sources among older people in Hong Kong. A cell-based model was constructed by combining available population projections, labour force projections, an extrapolation of the historical trend in living arrangements based on national survey datasets and a regression model on income sources. Under certain assumptions, the proportion of older people living with their children may decline from 59 to 48% during 2006-2030. Although access to market income sources may improve slightly, up to 20% of older people may have no access to either children's financial support or market income sources, and will not live with their children by 2030. Family support is expected to contract in the next two decades. Public pensions should be expanded to protect financially vulnerable older people. © 2015 AJA Inc.

  20. YouTube as a source of quit smoking information for people living with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ratika; Lucas, Maya; Ford, Pauline; Meurk, Carla; Gartner, Coral E

    2016-11-01

    YouTube is the most popular video sharing website, and is increasingly used to broadcast health information including smoking cessation advice. This study examines the quality and quantity of YouTube quit smoking videos targeted at people living with mental illness (MI). We systematically searched YouTube using selected relevant search terms. The first 50 videos obtained for each search term were screened for relevance and further videos screened through snowball sampling. Forty unique, English language videos focussing on people with MI were included in the assessment and evaluated for general video characteristics, themes, format, targeted smoking cessation and harm reduction information. Most videos either discussed the problem of high smoking rates among people with MI (n=12) or smoking cessation programmes and policies at an institutional level (n=13). Only nine videos were aimed at providing quit smoking advice to this population. One video recommended higher doses of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for people with MI while six videos referred to possible changes in medication dosage on quitting smoking. Four videos suggested cutting down smoking for harm reduction. Very few YouTube videos specifically focus on the problem of high smoking rates among people with MI and even fewer provide targeted smoking cessation and harm reduction advice for this priority population. There is a need to develop comprehensive, evidence based, quit smoking video resources for smokers with a MI. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Social, Psychological and Health Concerns of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Mysore District, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Siddanna, Sunitha

    2016-03-01

    One of the significant health and social problem the world facing today is Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AiDS). The patients affected with HIV and their family may face various psychosocial problems during diagnosis and treatment due to the stigma associated with this disease. The objective of the study was to identify social, psychological and health concerns of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and its association with the demographic factors in Mysore District, Karnataka, India. A questionnaire based study was conducted among 194 participants in Mysore District, Karnataka state who were receiving care and support services. A 22-item questionnaire provided information regarding social, psychological and health concerns of PLWHA in Mysore district. A general linear regression model was used for assessing the predictors of social, psychological and health concerns. The main social concern was that of "Fear of Losing a loved one" whereas the main psychological concern was "Too much worry", "No cure for AIDS" was the highly rated health concern. Males had more social, psychological and health concerns when compared to females but was not statistically significant. Employed people were having fewer psychological concerns when compared to unemployed people. Unemployed people were having fewer health concerns than employed people. For every unit increase in age there were fewer social and health concerns and both these findings were statistically significant. PLWHA in the present study reported that they were concerned about social, psychological and health issues in spite of the fact they were attending counseling. Health care workers, including those in public health sector should be educated about the importance of these factors that influence the health of the population they are caring for.

  2. Bridging the poverty gap in dental education: how can people living in poverty help us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, Martine C; Dupéré, Sophie; Loignon, Christine; Levine, Alissa; Laurin, Isabelle; Charbonneau, Anne; Bedos, Christophe

    2009-09-01

    Dental education on specific knowledge and intervention approaches for working with people living on welfare is crucial to the therapeutic success of the relationships dental professionals establish with this clientele. Despite growing attention to the importance of cultural competence and communication skills training in dentistry, very few initiatives have been documented in relation to serving low-income populations. Following discussions at a 2006 Montreal-based colloquium on access to dental care, academics, dental association administrators, and public health agency and antipoverty coalition representatives began collaborating to develop innovative pedagogy designed to increase providers' competence in interacting with their underprivileged patients. The group's first round of workshops (November 2006-October 2007) resulted in the creation of an original video-based tool containing testimonies from six individuals living currently or formerly on welfare. The videotaped interview data represent their perceptions and experiences regarding their oral health, dental care service provision, and poverty in general. This article describes the participative methods, the content of the resulting DVD, and the implications of the "Listening to Each Other" program, a collaborative knowledge translation approach for improving interaction between underprivileged people and dental care providers.

  3. Predictive factors for the Nursing Diagnoses in people living with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Richardson Augusto Rosendo; Costa, Romanniny Hévillyn Silva; Nelson, Ana Raquel Cortês; Duarte, Fernando Hiago da Silva; Prado, Nanete Caroline da Costa; Rodrigues, Eduardo Henrique Fagundes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to identify the predictive factors for the nursing diagnoses in people living with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Method: a cross-sectional study, undertaken with 113 people living with AIDS. The data were collected using an interview script and physical examination. Logistic regression was used for the data analysis, considering a level of significance of 10%. Results: the predictive factors identified were: for the nursing diagnosis of knowledge deficit-inadequate following of instructions and verbalization of the problem; for the nursing diagnosis of failure to adhere - years of study, behavior indicative of failure to adhere, participation in the treatment and forgetfulness; for the nursing diagnosis of sexual dysfunction - family income, reduced frequency of sexual practice, perceived deficit in sexual desire, perceived limitations imposed by the disease and altered body function. Conclusion: the predictive factors for these nursing diagnoses involved sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, defining characteristics, and related factors, which must be taken into consideration during the assistance provided by the nurse. PMID:27384466

  4. Palliative care needs in Malawi: Care received by people living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmie Mkwinda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has changed from an acute to a chronic illness in the past decade, because of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART. Malawi’s response to the HIV challenge included provision of ART for people living with HIV or AIDS (PLWHA, which significantly reduced HIV- and AIDS-related mortality. In addition, palliative care for PLWHA was introduced as a strategy that improves the success of ART.Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore the needs of PLWHA concerning care received from primary caregivers and palliative care nurses in Malawi.Methods: A qualitative, explorative design was used and 18 participants were selected purposefully and interviewed individually using a semi-structured interview guide. Data were analysed using NVivo software package version 10.Results: Results revealed that PLWHA needed physical care from the primary caregivers due to severity of illness, integration of healthcare services, and continuity of care and proper care from nurses. They also needed knowledge from nurses in several areas which affected decision-making and needed financial and nutritional support.Conclusion: More could be done in meeting needs of PLWHA to improve their health and survival and assist them to achieve a better quality of life.Keywords: people living with HIV/AIDS, palliative care, palliative care nurse, primary caregiver, support

  5. Identifying marginal housing for people with a mental illness living in rural and regional areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Margaret; Judd, Fiona; Ryan, Lisa; Komiti, Angela

    2004-03-01

    Homelessness among people with a mental illness is a serious issue. The purpose of the present study was to identify the types of housing available for people with a mental illness in the region, to develop an audit tool to assess the housing of patients of the mental health service, and to pilot this audit tool. Key informants were interviewed to obtain information about the type of housing options available in the Loddon Campaspe Southern Mallee Region, Victoria, Australia. This information was used to develop a survey to audit the housing status of existing patients of the area mental health service. A pilot study using the survey was completed by case managers for 81 patients who were being case managed by the area mental health service. There was a wide variety of housing options in the region but housing availability was not evenly distributed. Although most patients lived in owned or rented accommodation, a substantial proportion of patients had difficulties with accessing the required services, the affordability of their housing, uncertainty of tenure or were at risk of violence within their housing. A substantial proportion of patients treated by a rural area mental health service had lived in impoverished housing.

  6. The Digital Competences and Agency of Older People Living in Rural Villages in Finnish Lapland

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    Päivi Rasi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Older people’s digital competencies are a means to minimise their possible risks for being excluded from society. Therefore, the research in this field needs to be strengthened. This paper examines the digital competences and agency of older people who live in remote rural villages in Finnish Lapland. We argue that older people’s agency is the key factor that keeps them included in contemporary society. Hence, our theoretical viewpoint rests on the theory of the modalities of agency. Our data consist of three focus group interviews that were conducted in small, remote villages during the spring of 2015. We analysed our data deductively, and the results showed that elderly villagers interpret their digital competencies through their personal needs and desires. History, the present and the future are intertwined in the villagers’ conceptions. Our respondents’ digital competencies are diverse; older people living in villages are not a homogenous group. Based on our results, we argue that digital competence is very much a distributed competence of elderly dyads, families with three generations and informal networks of villagers and that it should not, therefore, be assessed solely as an individual characteristic.

  7. Understanding Health Literacy for People Living With HIV: Locations of Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Teri G; Reyes, Darcel; Eller, Lucille; Wantland, Dean; Portillo, Carmen; Holzemer, William L; Matshediso, Ellah; Corless, Inge; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Mogobe, K Dintle; Webel, Allison; Nokes, Kathleen; Nicholas, Patrice; Rivero Mendez, Marta; Reid, Paula; Baez, Solymar Solis; Johnson, Mallory O; Cuca, Yvette; Rose, Carol Dawson

    Health literacy, including people's abilities to access, process, and comprehend health-related information, has become an important component in the management of complex and chronic diseases such as HIV infection. Clinical measures of health literacy that focus on patients' abilities to follow plans of care ignore the multidimensionality of health literacy. Our thematic analysis of 28 focus groups from a qualitative, multisite, multinational study exploring information practices of people living with HIV (PLWH) demonstrated the importance of location as a dimension of health literacy. Clinical care and conceptual/virtual locations (media/Internet and research studies) were used by PLWH to learn about HIV and how to live successfully with HIV. Nonclinical spaces where PLWH could safely discuss issues such as disclosure and life problems were noted. Expanding clinical perspectives of health literacy to include location, assessing the what and where of learning, and trusted purveyors of knowledge could help providers improve patient engagement in care. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Palliative and end of life care for people living with dementia in care homes: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gary; Agnelli, Joanne; McGreevy, Jessie; Diamond, Monica; Roble, Herlindina; McShane, Elaine; Strain, Joanne

    2016-06-22

    The terms palliative and end of life care are often used interchangeably and healthcare practitioners may perceive that palliative care is only appropriate during the terminal stages of an illness. This article, the first of two parts, provides healthcare practitioners with an overview of the concept of palliative care. It explains how this can be differentiated from end of life care and how it should be commenced in a timely manner, so that people who are living with dementia can contribute to the planning of their future care and death. The policies and tools used in the provision of palliative and end of life care are discussed, including advance care planning and The Gold Standards Framework. The article is framed in a care home context; there is little research about how to optimise palliative care for people living with dementia in care homes. The second part of this article will discuss end of life care and the best practices for providing end of life care, including nutrition and hydration, oral hygiene, pain management and spiritual care.

  9. [Sleep Quality, Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Esteem in People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiang-Chun; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Wen-Chuan; Yu, Chien-Tai; Feng, Ming-Chu

    2017-12-01

    HIV has become a chronic disease. Therefore, the mental health and sleep quality of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have become increasingly important issues of concern. To explore the sleep quality, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem of PLWHA and the correlation between sleep quality and various related mental-health factors. A cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study was conducted at a medical center in southern Taiwan in 2013-2014. Data on the sleep quality, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem of 146 PLWHA cases were collected using a structural questionnaire (the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Zung's Self-Administered Anxiety Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). Three-fifths (60.3%) of the cases had poor sleep quality, 50% were inclined toward depression, and 36.3% were inclined toward anxiety, indicating that sleep quality, depression, and anxiety levels in these cases were worse than the general population. Moreover, significant correlations were identified between poor sleep quality and the variables of depression (r = .40, p self-esteem. About half of the PLWHA cases in the present study exhibited poor sleep quality and tendencies toward depression and anxiety. Moreover, sleep quality and mental health factors were found to be not correlated with CD4 lymphocyte count, HIV viral load, or receiving antiretroviral therapy. Therefore, early evaluation of the sleep quality and mental health of people living with HIV/AIDS is recommended in order to provide holistic care.

  10. Nurse training in primary care: educational actions with people living with Diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Aparecida Pinheiro Landim Almeida

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Educational actionswith people living with chronic conditions, especially Diabetes mellitus, are a challenge and a necessary strategy in Primary Care, in view of the glycemic balance, the prevention of complications and the improvement of the quality of life. This study aimed to analyze nurse training in educational actions developed in Primary Care with people living with Diabetes mellitus. A qualitative research was conducted with 28 nurses of Primary Care, in Teresina, state of Piauí, Brazil. Data were collected from April to June 2015 through interviews and analyzed by the collective subject discourse technique. The construction of the results was based on four sequential questions made in the interviews, from which emerged 15 central ideas: lectures, group orientation, nursing consultation and home care; theoretical knowledge, practical knowledge, technical knowledge and expertise knowledge; few materials and infrastructure in the basic unit, lack of professional teamwork, reduced workload and little awareness of teachers; and promotion of care and and self-care, family support and prevention of complications. In the analysis of the discourses, it was possible to conclude about the need for Permanent Health Education in Primary Care.

  11. Projected demographic profile of people living with HIV in Australia: planning for an older generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Jansson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advances in HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART has reduced mortality in people living with HIV (PLHIV, resulting in an ageing population of PLHIV. Knowledge of demographic details such as age, geographical location and sex, will aid in the planning of training and resource allocation to effectively care for the future complex health needs of PLHIV. METHODS: An agent-based, stochastic, geographical model was developed to determine the current and future demographic of PLHIV in Australia. Data and parameters were sourced from Australia's National HIV Registry and peer reviewed literature. Processes that were simulated include progression to AIDS, mortality and internal migration. FINDINGS: The model estimates the mean age of PLHIV in Australia is increasing at a rate of 0.49 years each year. The expected proportion of PLHIV in over 55 years is estimated to increase from 25.3% in 2010 to 44.2% in 2020. Median age is lower in inner-city areas of the capital cities than in rural areas. The areas with the highest prevalence of HIV will continue to be capital cities; however, other areas will have greater percentage growth from 2010 to 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The age of the population of people living with HIV is expected to increase considerably in the future. As the population of PLHIV ages, specialist clinical training and resource provision in the aged care sector will also need to be addressed.

  12. Are we successfully managing cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatleberg, Camilla I; Lundgren, Jens D; Ryom, Lene

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to discuss the most recent research in the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) with a focus on screening, primary and secondary prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: The cause of CVD in PLWHIV is complex and multifactor......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to discuss the most recent research in the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) with a focus on screening, primary and secondary prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: The cause of CVD in PLWHIV is complex...... and multifactorial and creates a demand for a multifaceted approach to screening and prevention. Current screening and management of CVD risk factors in PLWHIV is suboptimal, reasons for this are not clear and the data are still scarce both in the primary and secondary preventive setting. There are no optimal...... routine risk screening tools available to accurately detect early and subclinical disease; PLWHIV are undertreated with preventive drugs such as statins and aspirin and antihypertensives; there are still no programmes that have been shown significantly efficient over time with regards to improved smoking...

  13. Religious and spiritual coping in people living with HIV/Aids

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    Clarissa Mourão Pinho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: evaluate the religiosity and the religious/spiritual coping of people living with HIV/Aids. Method: descriptive, cross-sectional study with quantitative approach, conducted in a reference HIV/Aids outpatient clinic in a university hospital of Recife-PE, Brazil, from June to November 2015. At total of 52 people living with HIV/Aids (PLWHA participated in the research, which employed own questionnaire, the Duke University Religion Index (DUREL, and the Religious/Spiritual Coping Scale (RCOPE. Results: the sample presented high indices of organizational religiosity (4.23±1.66, non-organizational religiosity (4.63±1.50, and intrinsic religiosity (13.13±2.84. Positive RCOPE was used in high mean scores (3.66±0.88, and negative RCOPE had low use (2.12 ± 0.74. In total, use of RCOPE was high (3.77±0.74, having predominated the positive RCOPE (NegRCOPE/PosRCOPE ratio=0.65±0.46. Conclusion: it is evident the importance of encouraging religious activity and RCOPE strategies, seen in the past as inappropriate interventions in clinical practice.

  14. An estimate of the number of people in Italy living after a childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisci, Silvia; Guzzinati, Stefano; Dal Maso, Luigino; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Gigli, Anna

    2017-06-01

    Cancers diagnosed in children below the age of 15 years represent 1.2% of all cancer cases, and survival after a childhood cancer has greatly improved over the past 40 years in all high income countries. This study aims to estimate the number of people living in Italy after a childhood cancer for all cancers combined and for a selection of cancer types. We computed 15-year prevalence using data from 15 Italian population-based cancer registries (covering 19% of Italian population) and estimated complete prevalence for Italy by using the CHILDPREV method, implemented in the COMPREV software. A total of 44,135 persons were alive at January 1st, 2010 after a cancer diagnosed during childhood. This number corresponds to a proportion of 73 per 100,000 Italians and to about 2% of all prevalent cases. Among them, 54% were males and 64% had survived after being diagnosed before 1995, the start of the observation period. A quarter of all childhood prevalent cases were diagnosed with brain and central nervous system tumors, a quarter with acute lymphoid leukemia, and 7% with Hodgkin lymphoma. Nearly a quarter of prevalent patients were aged 40 years and older. Information about the number of people living after a childhood cancer in Italy by cancer type and their specific health care needs may be helpful to health-care planners and clinicians in the development of guidelines aimed to reduce the burden of late effect of treatments during childhood. © 2017 UICC.

  15. Agroecohydrology: Key to Feeding 9 Billion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, J.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural production necessary to feed 9 billion people in 2050 depends on increased production on existing croplands, and expanding onto 'marginal' lands. A high proportion of these lands are marginal because they are too steep or too dry to reliably support crop production. These same characteristics increase their susceptibility to accelerated erosion, leading (for most soil profiles) to further reductions in plant available water as infiltration and soil profile water holding capacity decline. Sustaining production on these marginal lands will require careful land use planning. In this paper, we present a land use planning framework that integrates 4 elements: (1) potential production (based on soil profile characteristics), (2) edaphic, topographic and climatic limitations to production, (3) soil resistance to degradation, and (4) resilience. This framework expands existing land capability classification systems through the integration of biophysical feedbacks and thresholds. State and transition models, similar to those currently applied to rangelands in the United States and other countries, are used to organize and communicate knowledge about the sustainability of different land use changes and management actions at field to regional scales. This framework emphasizes hydrologic characteristics of soil profiles and landscapes over fertility because fertility declines are more easily addressed through increased inputs. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of how research in ecohydrology can be more effectively focused to support sustainable food production in the context of increasingly rapid social and economic changes throughout the world.

  16. What determines the preference for future living arrangements of middle-aged and older people in urban China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijuan Meng

    Full Text Available Living arrangements are important to the elderly. However, it is common for elderly parents in urban China to not have a living situation that they consider ideal. An understanding of their preferences assists us in responding to the needs of the elderly as well as in anticipating future long-term care demands. The aim of this study is to provide a clear understanding of preferences for future living arrangements and their associated factors among middle-aged and older people in urban China.Data were extracted from the CHARLS 2011-2012 national baseline survey of middle-aged and elderly people. In the 2011 wave of the CHARLS, a total of 17,708 individual participants (10,069 main respondents and 7,638 spouses were interviewed; 2509 of the main respondents lived in urban areas. In this group, 41 people who were younger than 45 years old and 162 who had missing data in the variable "living arrangement preference" were excluded. Additionally, 42 people were excluded because they chose "other" for the variable "living arrangement preference" (which was a choice with no specific answer. Finally, a total of 2264 participants were included in our study.The most popular preference for future living arrangements was living close to their children in the same community/neighborhoods, followed by living with adult children. The degree of community handicapped access, number of surviving children, age, marital status, access to community-based elderly care centers and number of years lived in the same community were significantly associated with the preferences for future living arrangements among the respondents.There is a trend towards preference for living near adult children in urban China. Additionally, age has a positive effect on preference for living close to their children. Considerations should be made in housing design and urban community development plans to fulfill older adults' expectations. In addition, increasing the accessibility of public

  17. Progress towards predicting 1-year mortality in older people living in residential long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppenstall, Claire Patricia; Broad, Joanna B; Boyd, Michal; Gott, Merryn; Connolly, Martin J

    2015-05-01

    frail older people living in residential long-term care (LTC) have limited life expectancy. Identifying those with poor prognosis may improve management and facilitate transition to a palliative approach to care. to develop methods for predicting mortality in LTC. a population-based cohort study. LTC facilities, Auckland, New Zealand. five hundred randomly selected older people in a census-type survey of those living in LTC in 2008. mortality data were obtained from New Zealand Ministry of Health. Two methods for assessing mortality risk were developed using demographic, functional and health service information: (i) two geriatricians blinded to identifying data and to mortality, independently reviewed survey, medications and pre-survey hospitalisations data, and grouped residents according to perceived risk of death within 12 months; (ii) multivariate logistic regression model used the same survey and medication items as the geriatricians. for the geriatricians' assessment, each quintile of perceived risk was associated with a significant increase in mortality (P night attention, all variables which are easily available from LTC records. AUC for the model was 0.70, but when validated against the entire OPAL cohort, it was 0.65. When either or both geriatrician and the model together predicted high risk of death, 1-year mortality was >50%. two methods with the potential to identify older people with limited prognosis are described. Use of these methods allowed identification of over half of those who died within 12 months. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Disclosure of HIV status to sexual partners by people living with HIV

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    Gloria T. Tshweneagae

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disclosure of one’s HIV status to a sexual partner can have significant health implications. From a health promotion point of view, disclosure is seen as a cornerstone for the prevention of HIV transmission between partners. Despite its importance as a strategy for controlling the spread of HIV, there are challenges that inhibit voluntary disclosure.Objectives: In exploring factors associated with disclosure of HIV status, the study had two complementary objectives related to: (1 investigation of participants’ views about HIV-positive status disclosure to sexual partners; and (2 a broader identification of factors that influence disclosure of HIV-positive status.Method: The study explored factors associated with disclosure of the HIV status of people living with HIV to their sexual partners. Purposive sampling was used to select 13 participants living with HIV who attended a wellness clinic. Primary data were collected via an in-depth interview with each of the participants.Results: The exploration showed that male participants were notably more reluctant to disclose to their sexual partners for fear of rejection; and secrecy was commonly reported around sexual matters. Female participants (who were in the majority were relatively more willing to disclose their HIV status to their sexual partners. Despite the complexity of disclosure, all participants understood the importance of disclosure to their sexual partners.Conclusion: There is a need for HIV prevention strategies to focus on men in particular, so as to strengthen disclosure counselling services provided to people living with HIV and to advocate strongly for partner testing.

  19. Staff views on how to improve mealtimes for elderly people with dementia living at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Linda; Björklund, Anita; Sidenvall, Birgitta; Christensson, Lennart

    2017-10-01

    Dementia commonly leads to difficulties in performing daily activities, which can also often affect the ability to prepare and eat meals. As a result, formal support to maintain good nutritional intake might be needed, but there is a lack of knowledge concerning how to support older persons with dementia living at home. The aim of this study was to explore and describe staff views on how to improve mealtimes for persons with dementia who are still living at home. A qualitative descriptive study was performed and data were collected during 2011-2012 through four focus group interviews with staff working in the homes of persons with dementia. Data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. The participants described several ways to improve mealtimes for persons with dementia and advocated adjustments facilitating the preservation of the persons' independence. Finding suitable actions calls for knowledge about the person and his/her individual situation. Proposed actions were enabling meals at home, taking over, and moving meals outside of the home. In addition, it was found that, the types of meals served to these persons should be as familiar to the individual as possible. The results of this study indicate the importance of using a person-centered approach and meeting the individual needs when supporting people with dementia in regards to their meals when living at home. Individualized care in the home may be expensive, however, it is fair to say that people who become malnourished and admitted to hospitals is even more costly. Furthermore, sharing and reflecting experiences and knowledge can assist staff to identify ways to manage complex situations. Therefore, the use of refection should be a part of staff members' everyday work.

  20. Learning to (Dis)Engage? The Socialising Experiences of Young People Living in Areas of Socio-Economic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Carolynne; Cremin, Hilary; Warwick, Paul; Harrison, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Young people are increasingly required to demonstrate civic engagement in their communities and help deliver the aspirations of localism and Big Society. Using an ecological systems approach this paper explores the experiences of different groups of young people living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage. Using volunteering as an example of…

  1. Coping with pain in the hip or knee in relation to physical disability in community-living elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman-Rock, M.; Kraaimaat, F. W.; Odding, E.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the use of pain coping strategies by community-living older people with pain in the hip or knee and the mediating role of coping with pain in the relationship between the chronicity of pain and physical disability. A group of 157 people with pain "in the last month" was identified.

  2. Utility of Staff Training on Correcting Sleep Problems in People With Intellectual Disabilities Living in Residential Settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hylkema, T.; Petitiaux, W.; Vlaskamp, C.

    While sleep problems in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) living in residential settings are very common, scant attention is paid to them. This study examined how to improve the knowledge and understanding of sleep quality and sleep problems in people with ID among care staff at a

  3. My Body, My Stigma: Body Interpretations in a Sample of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas-Diaz, Nelson; Toro-Alfonso, Jose; Serrano-Garcia, Irma

    2005-01-01

    AIDS related stigma continues to impact the lives of "People Living With HIV/AIDS" (PLWHA) negatively. Although the consequences of stigmatization have been widely documented, certain areas of study need to be further addressed in order to better understand their implications for PLWHA; such is the case of the perceptions of the body's…

  4. Non-verbal communication of the residents living in homes for the older people in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaletel, Marija; Kovacev, Asja Nina; Sustersic, Olga; Kragelj, Lijana Zaletel

    2010-09-01

    Aging of the population is a growing problem in all developed societies. The older people need more health and social services, and their life quality in there is getting more and more important. The study aimed at determining the characteristics of non-verbal communication of the older people living in old people's homes (OPH). The sample consisted of 267 residents of the OPH, aged 65-96 years, and 267 caregivers from randomly selected twenty-seven OPH. Three types of non-verbal communication were observed and analysed using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. In face expressions and head movements about 75% older people looked at the eyes of their caregivers, and about 60% were looking around, while laughing or pressing the lips together was rarely noticed. The differences between genders were not statistically significant while statistically significant differences among different age groups was observed in dropping the eyes (p = 0.004) and smiling (0.008). In hand gestures and trunk movements, majority of older people most often moved forwards and clenched fingers, while most rarely they stroked and caressed their caregivers. The differences between genders were statistically significant in leaning on the table (p = 0.001), and changing the position on the chair (0.013). Statistically significant differences among age groups were registered in leaning forwards (p = 0.006) and pointing to the others (p = 0.036). In different modes of speaking and paralinguistic signs almost 75% older people spoke normally, about 70% kept silent, while they rarely quarrelled. The differences between genders were not statistically significant while statistically significant differences among age groups was observed in persuasive speaking (p = 0.007). The present study showed that older people in OPH in Slovenia communicated significantly less frequently with hand gestures and trunk movements than with face expressions and head movements or different modes of speaking

  5. Meaningful lives: Supporting young people with psychosis in education, training and employment: an international consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Unemployment is the major disability faced by people with psychotic illness. Unemployment rates of 75–95% are found among those with schizophrenia. Unemployment is associated with poorer social and economic inclusion, greater symptomatology, decreased autonomy and generally poorer life functioning. Unemployment also makes up over half of the total costs associated with psychotic illness. A meeting was convened in London in June 2008. Invitees to this meeting included people from the USA, Canada and the UK interested in vocational intervention in early psychosis from either a research, clinical, economic or policy point of view. From this meeting a larger group–the International First Episode Vocational Recovery (iFEVR) group–has developed an international consensus statement about vocational recovery in first episode psychosis. The document is a basic statement of the rights of young people with psychosis to pursue employment, education and training; the evidence which exists to help them do this; and ways in which individuals, organizations and governments can assist the attainment of these ends. It is hoped that the Meaningful Lives consensus statement will increase the focus on the area of functional recovery and lift it to be seen in parallel with symptomatic recovery in the approach to treating early psychosis.

  6. Challenges to conducting research with older people living in nursing homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higginson Irene J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although older people are increasingly cared for in nursing homes towards the end of life, there is a dearth of research exploring the views of residents. There are however, a number of challenges and methodological issues involved in doing this. The aim of this paper is to discuss some of these, along with residents' views on taking part in a study of the perceptions of dignity of older people in care homes and make recommendations for future research in these settings. Methods Qualitative interviews were used to obtain the views on maintaining dignity of 18 people aged 75 years and over, living in two private nursing homes in South East London. Detailed field notes on experiences of recruiting and interviewing participants were kept. Results Challenges included taking informed consent (completing reply slips and having a 'reasonable' understanding of their participation; finding opportunities to conduct interviews; involvement of care home staff and residents' families and trying to maintain privacy during the interviews. Most residents were positive about their participation in the study, however, five had concerns either before or during their interviews. Although 15 residents seemed to feel free to air their views, three seemed reluctant to express their opinions on their care in the home. Conclusion Although we experienced many challenges to conducting this study, they were not insurmountable, and once overcome, allowed this often unheard vulnerable group to express their views, with potential long-term benefits for future delivery of care.

  7. Multitask protocols to evaluate activities of daily living performance in people with COPD: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Thaís; Machado, Felipe Vilaça Cavallari; Cavalheri, Vinícius; Pitta, Fabio; Hernandes, Nidia Aparecida

    2017-07-01

    People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) present symptoms such as dyspnea and fatigue, which hinder their performance in activities of daily living (ADL). A few multitask protocols have been developed to assess ADL performance in this population, although measurement properties of such protocols were not yet systematically reviewed. Areas covered: Studies were included if an assessment of the ability to perform ADL was conducted in people with COPD using a (objective) performance-based protocol. The search was conducted in the following databases: Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PEDro, CINAHL and LILACS. Furthermore, hand searches were conducted. Expert commentary: Up to this moment, only three protocols had measurement properties described: the Glittre ADL Test, the Monitored Functional Task Evaluation and the Londrina ADL Protocol were shown to be valid and reliable whereas only the Glittre ADL Test was shown to be responsive to change after pulmonary rehabilitation. These protocols can be used in laboratory settings and clinical practice to evaluate ADL performance in people with COPD, although there is need for more in-depth information on their validity, reliability and especially responsiveness due to the growing interest in the accurate assessment of ADL performance in this population.

  8. The effect of probiotics on CD4 counts among people living with HIV: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H; Ferris, R; Phelps, B R

    2016-06-01

    Probiotics are defined by the WHO as 'live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host'. Ongoing research has shown probiotics provide benefits to humans, including protection and restoration of the gastrointestinal and other mucosal tracts. As human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activates gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), several studies have investigated the effect of probiotics on CD4 cell count and related outcomes among those living with HIV. These studies are summarised here. Manuscripts were identified using the search terms 'probiotics', 'synbiotics', 'HIV', and 'CD4', and were reviewed for relevance and inclusion of CD4 count as an immunologic endpoint. Bibliographies of relevant manuscripts were also reviewed for additional studies matching inclusion and exclusion criteria. The search yielded 91 results; 13 included relevant outcomes. Seven of these studies produced beneficial CD4 outcomes, while the remaining 6 reported on insignificant beneficial or negative CD4 outcomes. The studies summarised here collectively suggest that daily consumption of probiotics over a prolonged period of time may improve CD4 count in people living with HIV.

  9. Life situation and identity among single older home-living people: A phenomenological–hermeneutic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørg Dale

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Being able to continue living in their own home as long as possible is the general preference for many older people, and this is also in line with the public policy in the Nordic countries. The aim of this study was to elucidate the meaning of self-care and health for perception of life situation and identity among single-living older individuals in rural areas in southern Norway. Eleven older persons with a mean age of 78 years were interviewed and encouraged to narrate their self-care and health experiences. The interviews were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a phenomenological–hermeneutic method inspired by the philosophy of Ricoeur. The findings are presented as a naïve reading, an inductive structural analysis characterized by two main themes; i.e., “being able to do” and “being able to be”, and a comprehensive interpretation. The life situation of the interviewed single-living older individuals in rural areas in southern Norway was interpreted as inevitable, appropriate and meaningful. Their identity was constituted by their freedom and self-chosen actions in their personal contexts. The overall impression was that independence and the ability to control and govern their own life in accordance with needs and preferences were ultimate goals for the study participants.

  10. Food challenges facing people living with HIV/AIDS in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Nobuhle; Maharaj, Pranitha; Mambondiani, Liberty

    2017-09-01

    This study explored the food challenges facing people living with HIV/AIDS in Tsholotsho, Zimbabwe. Tsholotsho is a socio-economically disadvantaged, rural district in Zimbabwe and has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in the country. For this study, face to face in-depth interviews were held with men and women living with HIV/AIDS. The findings of the study indicate that the economic situation in the country coupled with the lack of adequate rainfall has posed challenges to the ability of HIV/AIDS patients to maintain a healthy diet. In addition, there were concerns about the departure of non-government organisations which used to provide them with food parcels. The interviews also reveal that indigenous foods are being replaced by processed foods that are less healthy. Lack of employment opportunities and safety networks were some of the other factors leading them to experience food challenges in their everyday lives particularly in terms of access. As food security and good nutrition are key for maintaining physical and emotional health, the cumulative effects of these factors create a difficult environment to access food.

  11. FAMILY INTERACTION AND SOCIAL STIGMATIZATION OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV AND AIDS IN PUERTO RICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Díaz, Marinilda; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Padilla, Mark; de Los Ángeles Vargas-Cancel, María; Serrano, Neisha

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to describe the manifestation of HIV stigma in the family context and how this could impact the life of people living with HIV (PLWH). The data derive from a larger phenomenological study addressing manifestations of stigma in the lives of PLWH when interacting with the health sector. Nine focus groups were carried out in 2011 with PLWH (N=67). Eight themes emerged from the qualitative analysis. For the purpose of this article, we focus on the categories related to family dynamics: the negotiation of disclosure and non-disclosure, fear of the HIV virus and family dynamics, and life as a couple. Socio demographic information showed that 53% were between 44 to 54 years old, 80% were single, 51% were male, 42% did not complete a high school diploma, 82% were unemployed. Also, 82% described themselves as religious persons and 41% had lived with HIV for 10 years or less. Qualitative results show stigma is still present in the family context. PLWH experience fear of disclosure, discrimination, avoid initiating families or couple relationships, experience physical and verbal abuse from relatives, and even separation from other family members. After more than 30 years of the ongoing HIV epidemic, stigma is still manifested by family members with detrimental social and medical implications for PLWH. Research and educational efforts should continue addressing manifestations of stigma among family members of PLWH.

  12. Life situation and identity among single older home-living people: a phenomenological-hermeneutic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bjørg; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Söderhamn, Olle

    2012-01-01

    Being able to continue living in their own home as long as possible is the general preference for many older people, and this is also in line with the public policy in the Nordic countries. The aim of this study was to elucidate the meaning of self-care and health for perception of life situation and identity among single-living older individuals in rural areas in southern Norway. Eleven older persons with a mean age of 78 years were interviewed and encouraged to narrate their self-care and health experiences. The interviews were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a phenomenological-hermeneutic method inspired by the philosophy of Ricoeur. The findings are presented as a naïve reading, an inductive structural analysis characterized by two main themes; i.e., "being able to do" and "being able to be", and a comprehensive interpretation. The life situation of the interviewed single-living older individuals in rural areas in southern Norway was interpreted as inevitable, appropriate and meaningful. Their identity was constituted by their freedom and self-chosen actions in their personal contexts. The overall impression was that independence and the ability to control and govern their own life in accordance with needs and preferences were ultimate goals for the study participants.

  13. Life situation and identity among single older home-living people: A phenomenological–hermeneutic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderhamn, Ulrika; Söderhamn, Olle

    2012-01-01

    Being able to continue living in their own home as long as possible is the general preference for many older people, and this is also in line with the public policy in the Nordic countries. The aim of this study was to elucidate the meaning of self-care and health for perception of life situation and identity among single-living older individuals in rural areas in southern Norway. Eleven older persons with a mean age of 78 years were interviewed and encouraged to narrate their self-care and health experiences. The interviews were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a phenomenological–hermeneutic method inspired by the philosophy of Ricoeur. The findings are presented as a naïve reading, an inductive structural analysis characterized by two main themes; i.e., “being able to do” and “being able to be”, and a comprehensive interpretation. The life situation of the interviewed single-living older individuals in rural areas in southern Norway was interpreted as inevitable, appropriate and meaningful. Their identity was constituted by their freedom and self-chosen actions in their personal contexts. The overall impression was that independence and the ability to control and govern their own life in accordance with needs and preferences were ultimate goals for the study participants. PMID:22848230

  14. Countdown to Six Billion Teaching Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This teaching kit features six activities focused on helping students understand the significance of the world population reaching six billion for our society and our environment. Featured activities include: (1) History of the World: Part Six Billion; (2) A Woman's Place; (3) Baby-O-Matic; (4) Earth: The Apple of Our Eye; (5) Needs vs. Wants; and…

  15. "People try and label me as someone I'm not": The social ecology of Indigenous people living with HIV, stigma, and discrimination in Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Roberta L; Zurba, Melanie; Tennent, Pauline; Cochrane, Carla; Payne, Mike; Mignone, Javier

    2017-12-01

    Indigenous peoples (First Nations, Inuit, and Métis) are currently overrepresented in the HIV epidemic in Canada and are infected at a younger age than those who are not Indigenous. This article presents our findings on the stigma and discrimination (as well as related themes such as disclosure) experienced by Indigenous people who contracted HIV in their youth and live in urban and non-urban settings in Manitoba, Canada. The findings were derived from a qualitative study that sought to understand the experiences and needs of Indigenous people living with HIV (including AIDS). We situate such experiences within a social ecological framework towards developing a better structural understanding of the impacts of stigma and discrimination on the lives of Indigenous people who are HIV positive. Stigma and discrimination caused barriers for Indigenous people living with HIV through inhibiting their ease of access to supports including family, peers, community, and long- and short-term health services. Creative forms of outreach and education that are culturally appropriate and/or rooted in culture were considered to be possibly impactful ways of reducing stigma and discrimination at the community level. Learning from communities who are successfully managing stigma also showed promise for developing new programming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality of life among people living with hypertension in a rural Vietnam community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ninh Thi; Duy, Hoa Thi; Le, Ninh Hoang; Khanal, Vishnu; Moorin, Rachael

    2014-08-11

    To respond to growing prevalence of hypertension in Vietnam, it is critical to have an in-depth understanding about quality of life (QOL) among people living with hypertension and related factors. This study aimed to measure QOL among hypertensive people in a rural community in Vietnam, and its association with socio-demographic characteristics and factors related to treatment. This study was conducted in a rural community located 60 km from Ho Chi Minh City. Face-to-face interviews were conducted among 275 hypertensive people aged 50 years and above using WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to examine mean scores of quality of life. Cronbach's alpha coefficient and Pearson's correlation coefficient were applied to estimate the internal consistency, and the level of agreement between different domains of WHOQOL-BREF, respectively. Independent T-test and ANOVA test followed by multiple linear regression analyses were used to measure the association between QOL domains and independent variables. Both overall WHOQOL-BREF and each domain had a good internal consistency, ranging from 0.65 to 0.88. The QOL among hypertensive patients was found moderate in all domains, except for psychological domain that was fairly low (mean = 49.4). Backward multiple linear regressions revealed that being men, married, attainment of higher education, having physical activities at moderate level, and adherence to treatment were positively associated with QOL. However, older age and presence of co-morbidity were negatively associated with QOL. WHOQOL-BREF is a reliable instrument to measure QOL among hypertensive patients. The results revealed low QOL in psychological domain and inequality in QOL across socio-demographic characteristics. Given the results, encouraging physical activities and strengthening treatment adherence should be considered to improve QOL of hypertensive people, especially for psychological aspect. Actions to improve QOL among hypertensive

  17. 1B.08: USEFULNESS OF 24-HOUR AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING IN PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuernberg, M; Lang, S; Curjol, A; Haddour, N; Ederhy, S; Asri, C El; Dufour-Soulat, L; Van Der Vynckt, C; Charbonnier, M; Cohen, A; Boccara, F

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the utility of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in a priori normotensive and known hypertensive people living with HIV by quantifying new hypertension (HTN), masked hypertension, uncontrolled BP, and white coat effect. Data analysed was from the Register of cardiovascular Complications among people living with HIV (RECOVIH), including 263 HIV+ individuals with 1 or more CV risk factors who underwent 24-h ABPM in our cardiac centre.Diagnostic criteria:Elevated clinic BP: at or above 140/90 mmHgElevated mean 24-h ABPM: at or above 130/80 mmHg, systolic and/or diastolicNew hypertension: elevated clinic BP and/or elevated mean 24-h ABPMMasked hypertension: normal clinic BP and elevated mean 24-h ABPMUncontrolled BP: elevated clinic BP and/or elevated mean 24 h ABPM, in known HTNWhite coat effect: elevated clinic BP and normal mean 24-h ABPM, in a priori normotensives. The cohort had a mean age of 50.3 ± 7.7 years, was predominantly male (91%), had a long median HIV duration (15.3 years), and included 150 (57%) known HTN.In RECOVIH the prevalence of new HTN was 22% (n = 25), of which 50% masked hypertension diagnosed by 24-h ABPM solely. Uncontrolled HTN prevalence was 45% using clinic BP alone and 32% using 24-h ABPM alone. 24-h ABPM revealed that this masked uncontrolled HTN was frequently due to poor nocturnal BP control. White coat effect prevalence was not significantly different between the 2 groups (6.3% a priori normotensives vs. 9.3% known HTN, p = 0.37).HTN subjects were older, had higher BMI, and more frequently had a history of diabetes, coronary heart disease, and heart failure as compared to normotensives. Masked hypertension prevalence is high in RECOVIH, particularly among a priori normotensives. Suboptimal BP control is frequent among patients with treated and well-controlled clinic BP. Clinic BP monitoring alone is inadequate to diagnose HTN and assess true BP control because elevated

  18. Homosexuality among people with a mild intellectual disability: an explorative study on the lived experiences of homosexual people in the Netherlands with a mild intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffelen, J; Kok, G; Hospers, H; Curfs, L M G

    2013-03-01

    Empirical research on homosexuality among people with an intellectual disability (ID) is limited and, to date, very little is known regarding the personal experiences of gay and lesbian people with an ID. This study set out to answer the question: What are the lived experiences of a specific cohort of homosexual people with an intellectual disability living in the Netherlands? To answer this question, a qualitative study was performed in which 21 people with a mild ID were interviewed via semi-structured interviews. In this study, 19 participants were men and two were women (average age = 40.5 years). Participants reported positive and negative experiences, and talked about their gay or lesbian identity. Almost half of the participants (n = 10) reported that they had experienced sexual abuse including partner violence (n = 6). Additionally, they indicated that there was a lack of support for homosexual people with an ID. Specific problems impact the lives of homosexual people with ID, namely the high prevalence of negative sexual experiences, the lack of support, training and sex education, and their search for a suitable partner. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Patient Perspectives on Improving Oral Health-Care Practices Among People Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabiun, Serena; Fox, Jane E.; McCluskey, Amanda; Guevara, Ernesto; Verdecias, Niko; Jeanty, Yves; DeMayo, Michael; Mofidi, Mahyar

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the impact on oral health-care knowledge, attitudes, and practices among 39 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) participating in a national initiative aimed at increasing access to oral health care. Personal values and childhood dental experiences, beliefs about the importance of oral health in relation to HIV health, and concerns for appearance and self-esteem were found to be determinants of oral health knowledge and practice. Program participation resulted in better hygiene practices, improved self-esteem and appearance, relief of pain, and better physical and emotional health. In-depth exploration of the causes for these changes revealed a desire to continue with dental care due to the dental staff and environmental setting, and a desire to maintain overall HIV health, including oral health. Our findings emphasize the importance of addressing both personal values and contextual factors in providing oral health-care services to PLWHA. PMID:22547879

  20. Patient perspectives on improving oral health-care practices among people living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabiun, Serena; Fox, Jane E; McCluskey, Amanda; Guevara, Ernesto; Verdecias, Niko; Jeanty, Yves; DeMayo, Michael; Mofidi, Mahyar

    2012-05-01

    This qualitative study explored the impact on oral health-care knowledge, attitudes, and practices among 39 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) participating in a national initiative aimed at increasing access to oral health care. Personal values and childhood dental experiences, beliefs about the importance of oral health in relation to HIV health, and concerns for appearance and self-esteem were found to be determinants of oral health knowledge and practice. Program participation resulted in better hygiene practices, improved self-esteem and appearance, relief of pain, and better physical and emotional health. In-depth exploration of the causes for these changes revealed a desire to continue with dental care due to the dental staff and environmental setting, and a desire to maintain overall HIV health, including oral health. Our findings emphasize the importance of addressing both personal values and contextual factors in providing oral health-care services to PLWHA.

  1. Factors impacting the provision of antiretroviral therapy to people living with HIV: the view from Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzier, Vanessa; Farmer, Paul E; Pape, Jean W; Jerome, Jean-Gregory; Van Onacker, Joelle Deas; Morose, Willy; Joseph, Patrice; Leandre, Fernet; Severe, Patrice; Barry, Donna; Deschamps, Marie-Marcelle; Koenig, Serena P

    2014-01-01

    Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and has the highest number of people living with HIV in the Caribbean, the region most impacted by HIV outside of Africa. Despite continuous political, socioeconomic and natural catastrophes, Haiti has mounted a very successful response to the HIV epidemic. Prevention and treatment strategies implemented by the government in collaboration with non-governmental organizations have been instrumental in decreasing the national HIV prevalence from a high of 6.2% in 1993 to 2.2% in 2012. We describe the history and epidemiology of HIV in Haiti and the expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) over the past decade, with the achievement of universal access to ART for patients meeting the 2010 World Health Organization guidelines. We also describe effective models of care, successes and challenges of international funding, and current challenges in the provision of ART. We are optimistic that the goal of providing ART for all in need remains in reach.

  2. Personal values and attitudes toward people living with HIV among health care providers in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Eugene; Hamama, Liat

    2013-01-01

    Our study investigates the relationship between health care providers' personal value preferences and their attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLWH). The study was conducted among nurses (n = 38) and physicians (n = 87) working in HIV Centers in Kazakhstan. Significant relationships were found between the providers' personal value preferences and their attitudes toward PLWH: higher preferences for tradition and power values and lower preferences for benevolence values were associated with more negative attitudes toward PLWH. In addition, more years of experience working with PLWH was associated with more positive attitudes toward this population. Age, gender, family status, religiosity, occupation, and number of years working in health care were not related to the health care providers' attitudes toward PLWH. Theoretical and practical implications of the results obtained are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Incidental lung cancers and positive computed tomography images in people living with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Kristensen, Thomas; Klitbo, Ditte M.

    2017-01-01

    ) was diagnosed in three patients from the high-risk group (2.7%). CD4 + cell count less than 500 cells/μl and CD4 + nadir less than 200 cells/μl were each independently associated with increased odds of a positive image odds ratio 2.32 [95% confidence interval: 1.01-5.13, P==0.04] and odds ratio 2.63 [95......Objective: Lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) of high-risk groups in the general population is recommended by several authorities. This may not be feasible in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) due to higher prevalence of nodules. We therefore assessed the prevalence...... of positive computed tomography (CT) images and lung cancers in PLWHIV. Design: The Copenhagen comorbidity in HIV infection (COCOMO) study is an observational, longitudinal cohort study. Single-round LDCT was performed with subsequent clinical follow-up (NCT02382822). Method: Outcomes included histology...

  4. Depression and Apathy Among People Living with HIV: Implications for Treatment of HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Nicole E.; Burrell, Larry E.; Dotson, Vonetta M.; Cook, Robert L.; Malloy, Paul; Devlin, Kathryn; Cohen, Ronald A.

    2015-01-01

    Depression and apathy are common among people living with HIV (PLWH). However, in PLWH, it is unclear whether depression and apathy are distinct conditions, which contribute to different patterns of disruption to cognitive processing and brain systems. Understanding these conditions may enable the development of prognostic indicators for HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The present study examined substance use behavior and cognitive deficits, associated with depression and apathy, in 120 PLWH, using hierarchical regression analyses. Higher levels of depression were associated with a history of alcohol dependence and greater deficits in processing speed, motor and global cognitive functioning. Higher levels of apathy were associated with a history of cocaine dependence. It is recommended that PLWH get screened appropriately for apathy and depression, in order to receive the appropriate treatment, considering the comorbidities associated with each condition. Future research should examine the neurological correlates of apathy and depression in PLWH. PMID:25533921

  5. Complementary medicine use by people living with HIV in Australia - a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Lesley A; Forrester, Catherine A; Rawlins, Matthew Dm; Levy, Russell W; Penm, Jonathan; Graham, Marissa M; Mackie, Kathryn F; Aran, Sohileh; Bridle, Sylvia; Bailey, Michael J; Duncan, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the use of complementary medicines by people living with HIV in Australia since the advent of more effective combination antiretroviral therapy. We conducted an anonymous survey of 1211 adult patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy from one of eight specialist HIV clinics across Australia, aiming to identify the current patterns of use of ingestible complementary medicines. Data collected included reasons for use, information sources and rates of disclosure of use of complementary medicines to medical practitioners and pharmacists. Ingestible complementary medicine was used by up to 53% of the 1037 patients returning a survey. Complementary medicine was commonly used for general health, to boost immune function and, to a lesser extent, to address co-morbidities. Disclosure of complementary medicines use to doctors was far higher than to pharmacists. Given the potential for interactions, pharmacists should be more aware of patients' complementary medicines use. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Self-compassion and risk behavior among people living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson Rose, Carol; Webel, Allison; Sullivan, Kathleen M; Cuca, Yvette P; Wantland, Dean; Johnson, Mallory O; Brion, John; Portillo, Carmen J; Corless, Inge B; Voss, Joachim; Chen, Wei-Ti; Phillips, J Craig; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Rivero-Méndez, Marta; Nicholas, Patrice K; Nokes, Kathleen; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Iipinge, Scholastika; Kirksey, Kenn; Chaiphibalsarisdi, Puangtip; Davila, Nancy; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Hickey, Dorothy; Maryland, Mary; Reid, Paula; Holzemer, William L

    2014-04-01

    Sexual risk behavior and illicit drug use among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) contribute to poor health and onward transmission of HIV. The aim of this collaborative multi-site nursing research study was to explore the association between self-compassion and risk behaviors in PLWHA. As part of a larger project, nurse researchers in Canada, China, Namibia, Puerto Rico, Thailand and the US enrolled 1211 sexually active PLWHA using convenience sampling. The majority of the sample was male, middle-aged, and from the US. Illicit drug use was strongly associated with sexual risk behavior, but participants with higher self-compassion were less likely to report sexual risk behavior, even in the presence of illicit drug use. Self-compassion may be a novel area for behavioral intervention development for PLWHA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Alternative group foster homes; a new place for young people to live.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J S

    1976-11-01

    After a brief historical survey of child placement practices in the United States, this paper will address itself to an innovative form of placement for adolescents, "alternative group foster homes." The origins of two of these homes in "runaway houses" and their ideological underpinnings in the social and political critique of the counterculture will be discussed. The two homes will then be described and their functioning contrasted. One of them, Frye House, has managed to remain faithful to the radically democratic principles which animated its founding, and the other, Markham House, has not; the emphasis here will be on this difference and on its consequences for the homes as a whole and for the young people who have lived in them.

  8. In memoriam Ladislau Steiner, neurosurgeon: some people from transylvania do live forever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, Eduard B; Ciurea, Alexandru V; Valéry, Charles-Ambroise

    2014-01-01

    We review the extraordinary professional trajectory of Ladislau Steiner, a prolific neurosurgeon and radiosurgeon, who died earlier this year. Dr. Steiner trained and practiced as a neurosurgeon in his native Romania until he was 42, before moving to Stockholm. After 25 years at the Karolinska Institute, when most people consider retirement, he spent the following 25 years of his life as director of the Lars Leksell Center for Gamma Knife Radiosurgery at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia. At 90, nostalgia for Europe made him accept the position of director of the Gamma Knife Center at the International Neuroscience Institute in Hannover, Germany. His life was dedicated to the 15,000 patients whose lives he saved in his lengthy career. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Coping, social support, stigma, and gender difference among people living with HIV in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiwen; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong

    2018-01-01

    The current study examined whether gender, HIV-related stigma, social support, and the interaction between gender and social support are associated with coping responses among people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) in Guangxi, China. A total of 2987 PLWHA in Guangxi participated from October 2012 to August 2013. Multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted with gender and social support as main factors in the model, and stigma and other variables as covariates. After controlling for demographic variables and stigma, there were significant main effects of emotional social support (F = 1.61, p social support (F = 1.67, p social support (F = 3.67, p interaction between gender and informational social support (F = 1.33, p HIV-related stigma and social support differences in the coping strategies among PLWHA in Guangxi, China.

  10. The effect of nutritional supplementation on quality of life in people living with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesfaye Woldeyohannes, Markos; Kæstel, Pernille; Olsen, Mette Frahm

    2016-01-01

    quality of life score between the early and delayed supplementation groups [β=3.0, 95% confidence interval: -0.4: 6.4]. However, the early supplementation group showed higher scores on the social and spirituality domains than the delayed group. CONCLUSIONS: LNS given during the first 4 months of ART......OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) on the quality of life of people living with HIV (PLHIV) during the first 3 months of antiretroviral treatment (ART), and to investigate the effects of timing of supplementation by comparing with supplementation during...... months or the subsequent months of ART. The outcome was measured in terms of total quality of life scores on the adapted version of the WHOQOL-HIV-BREF assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months. RESULTS: Of the 282 participants, 186 (66.0%) were women. The mean age (standard deviation SD) was 32.8 (±9...

  11. High accuracy for China's 1990 Census: refuting a rumour about China's population topping 1.4 billion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    In response to newspaper reports that China's population had topped 1.4 billion, a spokesman from the Office of Population Census under the State Council issued a statement refuting the claim, pointing out that the highly accurate 1990 census estimates the population to be 1.13 billion. US newspapers, including the Boston Globe, and the Shijie ribao, a international daily in Chinese, recently cited reports from a Japanese newspaper claiming that China's population had exceeded 1.4 billion. But as the official explained, China has carefully monitored its population size. Every year since 1982, the country has carried out a sample survey on population change, and in 1988, it conducted a national 1% population sample survey on fertility and birth control. In 1982, a national census placed China's population at 1.0817 billion. So considering that the sample surveys over the past 8 years have indicated an annual net increase in population of about 17 million, it is impossible for China's population to have topped 1.4 billion. Furthermore, the 1990 census enumerated all the unplanned births not previously registered, and carefully monitored for possible underreporting for the floating population. 2 general checks for people without fixed living quarters took place on June 28 and 29. And on July 8 and 9, officials conducted a national make-up registration. Enumerators visited and registered floating persons who did have fixed living quarters. Furthermore, officials conducted a follow-up sample survey on the quality of the registration. This showed that the rate of underregistration in the 1990 census was 0.6/1000 population--a figure of 680,000 nationally.

  12. TRITIUM IN URINE OF PEOPLE LIVING IN THE AREA OF INFLUENCE OF THE BELOYARSKAYA NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ya. Chebotina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the research is to determine relationship between tritium concentration in the body fluid (urine of people living in the area of influence of the Beloyarskaya NPP and tritium concentration in drinking water.Materials and methods. Studed population (men and women. Urine samples were collected in the clinical laboratory of a medical unit in Zarechny town. There were 50 individuals in the studied group. Patients were different on age and weight. Water samples were collected in an arbitrary way, through the all study period, from October to November in 2015 year. Tritium concentrations were determined with the ultra-low level liquid scintillation spectrometer Quantulus-1220 (USA. The facility developed by L.G. Bondareva was used for tritium extraction. The method allowes to separate the template, which significantly effects determination of tritium.Results. The urine samples from people living in the area of influence of the Beloyarskaya NPP in Zarechny town were analyzed in the study. There was positive relationship between tritium concentration in drinking water and tritium concentration in urine. Statistically significant correlation between analyzed parameters was found (correlation coefficient 0.98; significance level 0,007. Individual doses were estimated according to Harrison, Khursheed, Lambert. The Doses vary from 0,32 to 1,12 with an allowance for consumption of drinking water 100 l y–1 (according to the consumption standard for the analyzed region, which amounts 0,032–0,12 % from dose limit for population (1 mSv y–1. It was determined what drinking water is the main source of the radionuclide in human body in this region. The determined values of tritium concentration in drinking water are significantly lower than the intervention level for tritium of 7600 Bq l–1 ( Radiation Safety Standards-99/2009, Appendix 2a.

  13. Community access networks: how to connect the next billion to the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community access networks: how to connect the next billion to the Internet. Despite recent progress with mobile technology diffusion, more than four billion people worldwide are unconnected and have limited access to global communication infrastructure. The cost of implementing connectivity infrastructure in underserved ...

  14. People, Aid and institutions in socio-economic recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, Thea; Weijs, Bart; Haar, van der Gemma

    2017-01-01

    An estimated 2 billion people live in countries affected by fragility, conflict and violence. Extreme poverty is increasingly concentrated in these areas, and governments and international agencies seek avenues to enable socio-economic recovery and to support people as they try to rebuild their

  15. Health care experiences of Indigenous people living with type 2 diabetes in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Kristen M; Henderson, Rita I; Green, Michael E; Walker, Leah M; Calam, Betty; Crowshoe, Lynden J

    2017-01-23

    Indigenous social determinants of health, including the ongoing impacts of colonization, contribute to increased rates of chronic disease and a health equity gap for Indigenous people. We sought to examine the health care experiences of Indigenous people with type 2 diabetes to understand how such determinants are embodied and enacted during clinical encounters. Sequential focus groups and interviews were conducted in 5 Indigenous communities. Focus groups occurred over 5 sessions at 4 sites; 3 participants were interviewed at a 5th site. Participants self-identified as Indigenous, were more than 18 years of age, lived with type 2 diabetes, had received care from the same physician for the previous 12 months and spoke English. We used a phenomenological thematic analysis framework to categorize diabetes experiences. Patient experiences clustered into 4 themes: the colonial legacy of health care; the perpetuation of inequalities; structural barriers to care; and the role of the health care relationship in mitigating harm. There was consistency across the diverse sites concerning the root causes of mistrust of health care systems. Patients' interactions and engagement with diabetes care were influenced by personal and collective historical experiences with health care providers and contemporary exposures to culturally unsafe health care. These experiences led to nondisclosure during health care interactions. Our findings show that health care relationships are central to addressing the ongoing colonial dynamics in Indigenous health care and have a role in mitigating past harms. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  16. Uncertainty, the Overbearing Lived Experience of the Elderly People Undergoing Hemodialysis: A Qualitative Study

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    Robab Sahaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The chronic kidney disease is a major health concern. The number of the elderly people with chronic renal failure has increased across the world. Dialysis is an appropriate therapy for the elderly, but it involves certain challenges. The present paper reports uncertainty as part of the elderly experiences of living with hemodialysis. Methods: This qualitative study applied Max van Manen interpretative phenomenological analysis to explain and explore experiences of the elderly with hemodialysis. Given the study inclusion criteria, data were collected using in-depth unstructured interviews with nine elderly undergoing hemodialysis, and then analyzed according to Van Manen 6-stage methodological approach. Results: One of the most important findings emerging in the main study was “uncertainty”, which can be important and noteworthy, given other aspects of the elderly life (loneliness, despair, comorbidity of diseases, disability, and mental and psychosocial problems. Uncertainty about the future is the most psychological concerns of people undergoing hemodialysis. Conclusion: The results obtained are indicative of the importance of paying attention to a major aspect in the life of the elderly undergoing hemodialysis, uncertainty. A positive outlook can be created in the elderly through education and increased knowledge about the disease, treatment and complications.

  17. Living on the Edge: Social Exclusion and the Receipt of Informal Care in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Lena; McKee, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Older people have been identified as being at risk of social exclusion. However, despite the fact that care is commonly required in later life and the majority of that care is provided by informal carers, a connection between social exclusion and informal care-receipt has rarely been considered. The aim of this study was to examine how informal care-receipt is related to social exclusion. A face-to-face questionnaire survey on social exclusion and informal care-receipt was carried out among older people ( n = 1255) living in Barnsley, United Kingdom. Multivariable analyses examined the association between social exclusion and categories of informal care-receipt: care-receiver; assurance-receiver; nonreceiver with no need; and nonreceiver with need. Compared to being a nonreceiver with no need, participants were more likely to be care-receivers or assurance-receivers if they had higher levels of social exclusion. The highest level of social exclusion, however, was found in nonreceivers with need. Despite a lack of informal care and support, formal practical support and personal care were also low in this latter group. Findings are discussed in relation to the conceptualisation of care-receipt and how contact with medical services could be an opportunity for identification and appropriate referral of nonreceivers with need.

  18. [Living and dying with frailty : Qualitative interviews with elderly people in the domestic environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klindtworth, Katharina; Geiger, Karin; Pleschberger, Sabine; Bleidorn, Jutta; Schneider, Nils; Müller-Mundt, Gabriele

    2017-02-01

    Frail older people are becoming an increasingly more important target group in healthcare provision. Little is known about patients' views on frailty and its various impacts, especially towards the end of life. This study was carried out to analyze the needs of frail elderly people at the end of life. A qualitative, longitudinal case study design was applied and included 31 frail older patients (≥ 70 year) with a Canadian study of health and aging (CSHA) clinical frailty scale (CFS) grade 6/7 from urban and rural areas within the region of Lower Saxony. The analysis was based on guided interviews and followed the principles of grounded theory. From the patients' perspective frailty is perceived as a process of increasing complexity of health problems, increased vulnerability and reduced ability to perform tasks. Frailty is experienced as various deficits including the physical, psychological, social and existential dimensions. Living and dying in a familiar environment and maintaining autonomy was identified as a core category. Key determinants were access to and quality of healthcare services as well as various individual and social resources. A palliative biopsychosocial care approach should be established early in the process of frailty, including advance care planning in order to meet the patients' needs of staying in a familiar environment. General practitioners as well as home care nursing personnel have to collaborate in order to balance issues of autonomy with increased care needs and the support of informal carers as key partners towards the end of life.

  19. Doses from potential inhalation by people living near plutonium contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iranzo Gonzales, E.; Salvador Ruiz, S.

    1983-09-01

    An aviation accident above the town of Palomares, Spain resulted in four thermonuclear bombs carried by one of the planes falling. The nuclear fuel in two of them ignited and formed an aerosol which contaminated a 226-hectare area of underbrush, farmland and an urban center. The magnitude of risk to people living in the area who may have inhaled the plutonium aerosol or dusts during the fifteen-year period since the time the accident is addressed in this report. In addition the internal radiation doses that people may have received during this period and during a fifty-year period commencing with the accident is estimated. In brief summary, the lungs received the greatest dose equivalent (1966 to 1980). Over the fifty year period (to 2015) the bones are projected to receive the greatest dose. For the remaining organs - liver-intestines-kidneys, - the relationships or between the doses that will be accumulated up to the year 2015 and the corresponding annual dose equivalent limits are less than those for the bones and lungs

  20. Lived Experience of Male-to-Female Transsexual People after Sex Reassignment Surgery

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    Nooredin Mohammadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It is almost three decades since the sex reassignment surgery has been allowed in Iran and the number of sex reassignment surgeries has considerably increased since then. This study was conducted to examine the experience of male-to-female transsexual People after sex reassignment surgery in Iran. This qualitative study was conducted with a hermeneutic phenomenological approach on seven male-to-female transsexuals using purposeful sampling method and in-depth semi-structured interviews. Van Manen’s method was also used to guide the study. The collected data were analyzed through holistic, selective, and detailed thematic analysis approach to extracted themes. The participants were 23-37 year-old (mean = 30.4 and mostly single. A mean period of 36 months has passed since their sex reassignment surgery. The main theme, “being satisfied in an insecure world”, was extracted from three sub-themes as follows “the promotion of life”, “living in the restricted world, and “seeking for acceptance”. Although the life of Iranian male-to-female transsexuals can be improved after surgery, they are still living with challenges including social discrimination, lack of family and social acceptance, and unexpected financial hardship.

  1. Social networks and health of older people living in sheltered housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, E M; Walker, M H; Orrell, M W

    2002-11-01

    Eighty-seven residents from three sheltered accommodation schemes for people over 60 years, were interviewed about: their physical and mental health, social networks, social support, decision to move in, and how they found living in sheltered housing. Twenty-four percent had a diagnosis of depression and 8% dementia, but few had ever seen a mental health professional. Over half (55%) had clinically significant levels of activity limitation and 37% had significant somatic symptoms. Despite provision of glasses or aids 31% could not see satisfactorily and 23% could not hear adequately. Locally integrated social networks were most common (41%). Residents with a private network (16%) were more likely than those with a locally integrated network to have significant activity limitation and to report often being lonely. There were no differences between network types in levels of depression or dementia. Poor health of a person or their spouse was the most commonly reported reason for moving to sheltered housing, followed by the possibly related reasons of problems with their old home no longer being suitable e.g. stairs, and because they wanted to have a warden or alarm system available should the need arise. Most residents were happy living in sheltered accommodation. Many made use of 'sheltered' features such as the common room, the communal laundry, the warden and the alarm. A minority of residents were lonely and a few were unhappy with sheltered accommodation.

  2. The experience of caregivers of people living with serious mental disorders: a study from rural Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Ayuurebobi Ae-Ngibise

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Families and friends who give care to people with mental disorders (MDs are affected in a variety of ways and degrees. The interplay of caregiving consequences: poverty, discrimination and stigma, lack of support from others, diminished social relationships, depression, emotional trauma, and poor or interrupted sleep are associated caregiver burden. Objective: The burden of care on caregivers of people living with MDs was assessed in two districts located in the middle part of Ghana. Coping strategies and available support for caregivers of MDs were also assessed. Design: A qualitative study was carried out involving 75 caregivers of participants with MDs registered within the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems. Data were gathered from caregivers about their experiences in providing care for their relations with MDs. Results: Caregivers reported various degrees of burden, which included financial, social exclusion, emotional, depression, and inadequate time for other social responsibilities. Responsibilities around caregiving were mostly shared among close relatives but to a varying and limited extent. Religious prayers and the anticipation of cure were the main coping strategies adopted by caregivers, with expectation of new treatments being discovered. Conclusions: Emotional distress, stigma, financial burden, lack of support networks, social exclusion, health impact, and absence of decentralised mental health services were experienced by family caregivers. These findings highlight the need for interventions to support people with MDs and their caregivers. This might include policy development and implementation that will decentralise mental health care provision including psychosocial support for caregivers. This will ameliorate families’ financial and emotional burden, facilitate early diagnosis and management, reduce travel time to seek care, and improve the quality of life of family caregivers of persons

  3. Therapeutic Argentine tango dancing for people living with Parkinson’s disease: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Blandy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individuals living with Parkinson’s disease (PD can experience a range of movement disorders. Therapeutic dance is enjoyable and thought to improve mobility, balance and well being in some people with PD. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a 4 week Argentine tango dance program for people with PD. Methods: Six community dwelling individuals with mild-moderate PD were recruited from Parkinson’s support groups, movement disorder clinics and the Parkinson’s disease Association in Australia. To minimise falls risk, participants were required to be less than 75 years of age and physically independent (Hoehn and Yahr stages I-III. They were also required to speak English. Participants attended a 1 hour dance class at a dance studio twice per week for 4 weeks. A professional dance instructor led and choreographed the classes. Physiotherapists were present to assist participants during the class and served as dance partners as necessary. The primary outcome was feasibility which was determined by measures of recruitment, adherence, attrition, safety (falls, near misses and adverse events and resource requirements. Secondary measures included the Beck Depression Inventory and the Euroqol-5D, administered at baseline and post intervention. Therapy outcomes pre and post-intervention were analysed descriptively as medians and inter-quartile ranges and using Wilcoxon matched pair signed-rank tests.Results: The Argentine tango dance intervention was shown to be safe, with no adverse events. Adherence to the dance program was 89%. Depression scores improved after intervention (p=0.04. Some challenges were associated with the need to quickly recruitment participants and supplying physiotherapists to act as dance partners. Conclusion: The program was shown to be feasible and safe for people with mild to moderately severe PD.

  4. Physiotherapy intervention as a complementary treatment for people living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pullen SD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sara D Pullen,1 Nnenna Nina Chigbo,2 Emmanuel Chukwudi Nwigwe,2 Chinwe J Chukwuka,3 Christopher Chim Amah,4 Stanley C Idu21Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Division of Physical Therapy, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Department of Physiotherapy, 3Department of Medicine, 4Paediatric Surgery Division, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, NigeriaBackground: The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has dramatically extended the life expectancy of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Despite this increased longevity, HIV disease and its pharmacological treatment can cause long-term and acute health complications, many of which can be treated successfully by physiotherapy. The purpose of this paper is to report the effect of a 12-week rehabilitation program on several health-related markers in a 43-year-old woman living with HIV.Methods: This case study examined the effect of a 12-week exercise and manual therapy intervention on morphology, pain, cardiopulmonary fitness, strength, neurological balance, immune markers (CD4 cell count, and quality of life in a 43-year-old woman living with HIV.Results: The results showed complete elimination of pain and shortness of breath on exertion. There was also a reduction in resting heart rate, waist circumference, exercise duration, muscle strength, and endurance. The patient showed an increase in peak expiratory flow rate, maximal heart rate attained, upper arm, forearm, and thigh circumference, and CD4+ cell count. The patient also showed improvements in the quality of life domains of general health, pain, energy/fatigue, social and physical functioning, and emotional well-being.Conclusion: Physiotherapy interventions consisting of exercise and manual therapy appear beneficial in several areas as an adjunct therapy in HIV management.Keywords: exercise, manual therapy, quality of life

  5. Managing medications: the role of informal caregivers of older adults and people living with dementia. A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Robyn; Mullan, Judy; Harrison, Lindsey

    2014-12-01

    To explore published literature that describes what is known about the role of informal caregivers as they manage medications for older adults and/or people living with dementia residing in the community. The number of informal caregivers of older adults, including people living with dementia, is growing worldwide. Good medication management by informal caregivers contributes to improved health outcomes and reduced institutionalisations for the care recipient; however, little is known about this domain of care. Narrative review. A literature search was conducted to identify relevant research articles written in English between January 2000-April 2013, sourced from online database searches using multiple keywords, reviewing reference lists and citations of key articles and Internet searches. Articles were included if they described informal caregiver medication management for older adults and/or people living with dementia. Ten articles were found that described this role from the perspective of the informal caregiver. The evidence suggests that this role is complex and is often made more difficult because of increasing medication regimen complexities, aspects of the relationship between the caregiver and the care recipient, healthcare system practices and a lack of information and/or training available to the informal caregiver, especially when caring for people living with dementia. Responsibility for managing medications for older adults and/or people living with dementia in the community often falls to informal caregivers. More information resources are required for this role, which requires specific medication management skills and knowledge and is further complicated by the cognitive decline of the care recipient. Informal caregivers are often expected to manage medications in a safe and effective manner for their older care recipient, who may also have cognitive impairment. Nurses, who may be in frequent contact with community-living older adults/people

  6. 'Many people know the law, but also many people violate it': discrimination experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS in Vietnam--results of a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messersmith, Lisa J; Semrau, Katherine; Hammett, Theodore M; Phong, Nguyen Tuan; Tung, Nguyen Duy; Nguyen, Ha; Glandon, Douglas; Huong, Nguyen Mai; Anh, Hoang Tu

    2013-01-01

    In Vietnam, discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) is defined within and prohibited by the 2007 national HIV/AIDS law. Despite the law, PLHIV face discrimination in health care, employment, education and other spheres. This study presents the first national estimates of the levels and types of discrimination that are defined in Vietnamese law and experienced by PLHIV in Vietnam. A nationally representative sample of 1200 PLHIV was surveyed, and 129 PLHIV participated in focus group discussions (FGDs). In the last 12 months, nearly half of the survey population experienced at least one form of discrimination and many experienced up to six different types of discrimination. The most common forms of discrimination included disclosure of HIV status without consent; denial of access to education for children; loss of employment; advice, primarily from health care providers, to abstain from sex; and physical and emotional harm. In logistic regression analysis, the experience of discrimination differed by gender, region of residence and membership status in a PLHIV support group. The logistic regression and FGD results indicate that disclosure of HIV status without consent was associated with experiencing other forms of discrimination. Key programme and policy recommendations are discussed.

  7. Risk factors associated with dehydration in older people living in nursing homes: Scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masot, Olga; Lavedán, Ana; Nuin, Carmen; Escobar-Bravo, Miguel A; Miranda, Jèssica; Botigué, Teresa

    2018-03-27

    Dehydration in the older people is a prevalent problem that is often associated with physiological changes, physical limitations and environmental conditions. The scoping review was carried out to identify risk factors associated with dehydration in older people living in nursing homes. The revised scoping methodology framework of Arksey and O'Malley (2005) was applied. Study selection was carried out in accordance with Davis et al. (2009) and focused on the inclusion criteria (people over 65 years old and living in nursing homes). Risk factors were classified using the geriatric assessment. An electronic database search was performed in PubMed, Scopus and CINAHL. The literature search was carried out between October 2016 and January 2017. Thematic reporting was performed and study findings were validated through interdisciplinary meetings of experts. The quality of the papers consulted was also evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale adapted for cross-sectional, cohort and case-control studies. In all, 16 papers were analysed, all of which were observational studies. The risk of bias ranged from very low (n = 1), to medium (n = 13) and high (n = 2). The risk factors were classified in line with the different components of the geriatric assessment. In the socio-demographic characteristics age and gender were identified. In the clinical component, infections, renal and cardiovascular diseases and end-of-life situations were the most common factors highlighted in the papers analysed. With reference to the functional component, its limitation was associated with dehydration, while for factors of mental origin, it was related to dementia and behavioural disorders. Finally, the factors relating to the social component were institutionalisation, requiring a skilled level of care and it being winter. The most commonly repeated factors highlighted in the review were age, gender, infections, end of life and dementia, with it being important to highlight the

  8. Understanding the impact of visual arts interventions for people living with dementia: a realist review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Gill; Gregory, Samantha; Newman, Andrew; Goulding, Anna; O'Brien, Dave; Parkinson, Clive

    2014-08-15

    Arts-based activities are being increasingly suggested as a valuable activity for people living with dementia in terms of countering the negative aspects of their condition. The potential for such programmes to improve a broad range of psychosocial outcomes is suggested in some studies. However, there is largely an absence of rigorous methodology to demonstrate the benefits, and research results are mixed. Practice variability in terms of the content, contexts and implementation of such interventions raises challenges in terms of identifying an optimal arts programme model that could be adopted by other service providers. Understanding how interventions may have the best chance at broad implementation success and uptake is limited. A realist review will be undertaken. This aims to understand how visual arts interventions influence outcomes in people living with dementia. The review will explore how the context, that is the circumstances which enable or constrain, affect outcomes through the activation of mechanisms. An early scoping search and a stakeholder survey formulated the preliminary programme theory. A systematic literature search across a broad range of disciplines (arts, humanities, social sciences, health) will be undertaken to identify journal articles and grey literature. Data will be extracted in relation to the programme theory, contextual factors, mechanisms and outcomes and their configurations, background information about the study design and participant characteristics, detail about the quantity ('dose') of an intervention, theoretical perspectives proposed by the authors of the paper and further theorising by the reviewer. Thematic connections/patterns will be sought across the extracted data, identifying patterns amongst contextual factors, the mechanisms they trigger and the associated outcomes. Along with stakeholder engagement and validation, this review will help inform the development of an optimal, replicable arts intervention for people

  9. Training programmes for family caregivers of people with dementia living at home: integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Lia; Sequeira, Carlos; Ferré-Grau, Carme; Neves, Pedro; Lleixà-Fortuño, Mar

    2016-10-01

    To establish primary features of training programmes designed to assist family caregivers of people with dementia living at home and to propose a model programme based on literature findings. Due to dementia's distinctive progression, there is a widely felt need to train family members who undertake the responsibility of caring for relatives diagnosed with this condition to provide positive care, particularly during the early and middle stages of the disease. Integrative review. Literature reviews were carried out in the Pubmed, CINAHL, Mediclatina and Medline databases, using the following describers: training programme, family caregivers, dementia and aged. Such searches encompassed publications between 2004-2014, together with eight articles for review due to their positive identification with the inclusion criteria. Relevant results were extracted, the subsequent analysis performed and the presentation carried out in a descriptive manner. The prevailing length of a training programme for a family caregiver of people with dementia is of six sessions over a six-week period, with one weekly session load, and an average duration of 100 minutes each. Methodologies most commonly used include discussion, problem-solving models as well as skills and strategies training. The themes discussed comprehend caring for the individual with dementia, information about the illness and the use of health and community resources. Regarding the assessment of the family caregiver, the most widely used instruments are demographic assessment questionnaires, self-efficiency and caregiver's burnout scales, as well as depression and quality of life measures. Three assessment instances of family caregivers' needs during the training programme are commonly encountered: initial, final and follow-up. This review has identified a set of features transversal to training programmes for family members who undertake the care for individuals with dementia living at home, which will bolster the

  10. The updated billion-ton resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony Turhollow; Robert Perlack; Laurence Eaton; Matthew Langholtz; Craig Brandt; Mark Downing; Lynn Wright; Kenneth Skog; Chad Hellwinckel; Bryce Stokes; Patricia Lebow

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an update to a resource assessment, published in 2005, commonly referred to as the Billion-Ton Study (BTS). The updated results are consistent with the 2005 BTS in terms of overall magnitude. The 2005 BTS projected between 860 and 1240 Tg of biomass available in the 2050 timeframe, while the Billion-Ton Update (BT2), for a price of...

  11. People living with HIV/AIDS in the city of Bangkok: quality of life and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Khair, Basamat Berair Ebella Mohammed; Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham

    2012-06-01

    To assess the quality of life and factors related to quality of life among people living with HIV/AIDS in Bangkok, Thailand. A cross-sectional survey research was conducted among 138 people aged over 18 years living with HIV/AIDS in Bangkok. The sample was selected by purposive sampling from HIV infected persons who attended the HIV clinic at the hospitals in Bangkok. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires from June to July 2010 and analyzed by frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, Chi-square test and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. The finding revealed that of the people living with HIV/AIDS, 67.4% reported a moderate level with respect to quality of life and 32.6% reported a good level concerning the quality of life. Factors related to quality of life were age, education level, monthly income, self-esteem,family relationships and social support (p education to the community were deemed important.

  12. Viewing and engaging in an art therapy exhibit by people living with mental illness: implications for empathy and social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potash, J S; Ho, R T H; Chick, J K Y; Au Yeung, F S W

    2013-08-01

    To determine how healthcare professionals, family members and community members responded to an art exhibit created by people living with mental illness. Phenomenological study with qualitative analysis. Forty-six participants with various relationships with people living with mental illness attended an art therapy exhibit and art making workshop. Surveys, response art, reflective writing and discussion groups were used in this qualitative research study. Responses were categorized into four cluster themes: empathic, self-oriented, other-oriented and world-oriented. Each response category has strengths and weaknesses, indicating implications for increasing awareness and understanding of the artists and mental illness. They also inform educational interventions that can be utilized when using art exhibits for the purpose of confronting bias and stigma towards people living with mental illness. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A multilevel examination of sleep, depression, and quality of life in people living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Brooke G; Lee, Jasper S; Bainter, Sierra A; Bedoya, C Andres; Pinkston, Megan; Safren, Steven A

    2018-03-01

    Sleep problems are prevalent in people living with HIV/AIDS; however, few studies examine how poor sleep affects mental health and quality of life longitudinally. A sample of people living with HIV/AIDS from a randomized trial ( N = 240; mean age = 47.18; standard deviation = 8.3; 71.4% male; 61.2% White) completed measures of depression (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale), health-related quality of life (AIDS Clinical Trial Group Quality of Life Measure), and life satisfaction (Quality of Life Inventory) at baseline and 4, 8, and 12 months. Controlling for time, condition, and relevant interactions, sleep problems significantly predicted worse outcomes over time ( ps importance of identifying and treating sleep problems in people living with HIV/AIDS to improve mental health and quality-of-life outcomes.

  14. People living under threat of volcanic hazard in southern Iceland: vulnerability and risk perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóhannesdóttir, G.; Gísladóttir, G.

    2010-02-01

    Residents in the village of Vík and in the farming community of Álftaver in southern Iceland are living with the threat of volcanic hazards. The highly active subglacial volcano Katla has erupted approximately twice per century since the beginning of settlement around 874 AD. The last major eruption was in 1918 and Katla has recently entered an agitated stage. The purpose of this research was to (1) review residents' responses in relation to vulnerability, (2) examine their risk perception, preparedness and mitigation in relation to an eruption of Katla, and (3) investigate the public and the representative of the local authorities and emergency manager's knowledge of the official evacuation plan. In 2004, we conducted in-depth, face-to-face interviews with local residents using a snowball sample technique. All participants were permanent residents of the two communities, between the ages of 25-95 and most had lived in the area their entire lives. Regardless of the residents' knowledge about past volcanic activity of Katla and the associated future risk, many residents were doubtful about the imminent eruption forecast by scientists and they believed that the volcano is no longer active. In both communities, different social, cultural and economic factors played a central role in how people perceived natural hazards and how they dealt with the fact that their lives and livelihoods could be at risk. The participants had good knowledge about the existing evacuation plan and had participated in evacuation exercises. However, they had not made personal mitigation or preparedness plans in the event of a future eruption. In contrast to the residents of Vík, the inhabitants in Álftaver are concerned about the evacuation process and found it very confusing; they neither found the emergency plan nor the proposed methods for risk communication relevant for their farming community. The perception of the inhabitants, especially in Álftaver, does not correspond to those

  15. Examination of disparity in access to mental health services among people living with HIV and comorbid depression in Ontario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Stephanie; Boyle, Eleanor; Cairney, John

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a common co-morbidity among people living with HIV. However, many HIV+ individuals are not diagnosed or not treated, resulting in poor HIV treatment outcomes and increased health care costs. We aimed to describe barriers and gaps in accessing mental health services among this high...... low income were likely to have 30-50% fewer encounters to specialist care. Careful considerations of the impact of language barriers and cultural differences are important to address in delivering successful mental health care for this high-need population of people living with HIV in Ontario....

  16. People living in poverty and their relationship to local church communities: An exploratory qualitative study in Mechelen, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemie Dillen

    2016-11-01

    This article presents the results of an exploratory qualitative study in Mechelen, a medium-tolarge city in Flanders, Belgium. We present the results of semi-structured interviews with 20 participants – 7 caregivers and 13 people living in poverty. We found both pragmatic difficulties and more religious difficulties for participation in parishes, named by people living in poverty, as well as by (voluntary and professional caregivers. Pragmatic difficulties are, for example, mobility or time (in relation to working hours on Saturday/Sunday. More religious-related difficulties concern the doubts about God in relation to their own suffering, aspects of the moral teachings of the church (e.g. about homosexuality and questions about the Eucharist itself, experienced in a non-satisfactory way. More positive experiences concern the silence or rest people experience in the church or the experience of a community. We discuss findings relating to experiences of ‘inclusion’ of people living in poverty within church communities and more private religious practices, named by people living in poverty. In a next step, we compare these results with other empirical research. Finally, we discuss what it can mean to be a ‘church of the poor’ and what ‘friendship with the poor’ might be and how this concept can be evaluated.

  17. Food Insecurity, Depression and the Modifying Role of Social Support among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Rural Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Alexander C.; Bangsberg, David R.; Frongillo, Edward A.; Hunt, Peter W.; Muzoora, Conrad; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Weiser, Sheri D.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is common among people living with HIV/AIDS and contributes to a wide range of worsened HIV-related outcomes, including AIDS-related mortality. Targeting modifiable causes of depression, either through primary or secondary prevention, may reduce suffering as well as improve HIV-related outcomes. Food insecurity is a pervasive source of uncertainty for those living in resource-limited settings, and cross-sectional studies have increasingly recognized it as a critical determinant of ...

  18. Provider training and experience for people living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M. Rackal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The complexity of HIV/AIDS raises challenges for the effective delivery of care. It is important to ensure that the expertise and experience of care providers is of high quality. Training and experience of HIV/AIDS providers may impact not only individual patient outcomes but increasingly on health care costs as well. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to assess the effects of provider training and experience on people living with HIV/AIDS on the following outcomes: immunological (ie. viral load, CD4 count, medical (ie. mortality, proportion on antiretrovirals, psychosocial (ie. quality of life measures and economic outcomes (ie health care costs. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI, CINAHL, HealthStar, PsycInfo, PsycLit, Social Sciences Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts from January 1, 1980 through May 29, 2009. Electronic searches were performed for abstracts from major international AIDS conferences. Reference lists from pertinent articles, books and review articles were retrieved and reviewed. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs, controlled clinical trials, cohort, case control, cross-sectional studies and controlled before and after designs that examined the qualifications/training and patient volume of HIV/AIDS care of providers caring for persons known to be infected with HIV/AIDS were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for further information as required. Assessment of confounding factors was undertaken independently by two reviewers. MAIN RESULTS: A total of four studies (one randomized controlled trial, three non- randomized studies involving 8488 people living with HIV/AIDS were included. The main findings of this review demonstrated a trend to improved outcomes when treated by a provider with more

  19. AIR POLLUTION AND LUNG CAPACITY OF PEOPLE LIVING AROUND THE CEMENT INDUSTRY, INDONESIA

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    Erwin Azizi Jayadipraja

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: A cement industry is one of anthropogenic sources of air pollution. In polluting the air, the industry creates some dust particles, nitrogen oxide (NO2, sulfur oxide (SO2, and carbon monoxide (CO. Research Purpose: The research aimed at finding out the ambient air quality around a cement industry and relating it with the lung capacity of people living around the area. Methodology: This was a cross sectional studies by measuring the ambient air quality in the morning, noon, and evening in four different settlements within 3 km from the cement industry. The measurement is then correlated with the FEV1 and FVC of lung capacity of people living around the area. Result: Of all four locations, three have ambient air quality (PM2.5 = 109.47 µg/Nm3, TSP = 454.7 µg/Nm3 that surpass the quality standard (PM2.5 = 65 µg/Nm3, TSP = 230 µg/Nm3. Of 241 respondents, the average level of FVC and FEV1 is respectively 1.9352 liter (SD: 0.45578 and 1.7486 liter (SD: 0.43874. Furthermore, the level of PM2.5 in the morning and at noon is respectively p=0.009 and p=0.003; the level of TSP in the morning and at noon is respectively p=0.003 and p=0.01; the level of NO2 in the morning is p=0.006; the level of SO2 in the morning, at noon and in the evening is respectively p=0.000, p=0.022, and p=0.000; and the level of CO in the morning, at noon and in the evening is respectively p=0.003, p=0.015, and p=0.024. Those levels are associated with the level of respondents’ FEV1. Moreover, the level of TSP in the morning is p=0.024; the level of SO2 in the morning and in the evening is p=0.007. These levels relate to the level of respondents’ FVC. Conclusion: The ambient air quality around a cement industry is affected by dispersion of industrial emission and of other sources which can cause some impairment to lung capacity.

  20. Quality of life of elderly people living in a retirement home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canković, Sonja; Nikolić, Erzebet Ac; Jovanović, Vesna Mijatović; Kvrgić, Svetlana; Harhaji, Sanja; Radić, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) identified four broad domains as being universally relevant to the quality of life, namely physical, and psychological health, social relationships, and environment. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and quality of life of old people. The World Health Organization Quality of Life BREF questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) was used to assess quality of life on a random sample of 200 people aged 60 years and over who lived in the Retirement Home in Novi Sad. Items within the questionnaire were organized into four domains: physical, psychological, social relationships and environment. The majority of the participants were women (69.8%). The mean age was 79.2 years (SD = 6.6 years). Most of them were widowed (73.4%). More than two thirds of participants (68.8%) reported that they were ill at that moment and almost half of them (48.8%) had cardiovascular, 18.5% musculoskeletal, 9.6% endocrine and 5.9% neurological disease. In the social relations domain scores were lower in males (t = 2.4; p = 0.017). Scores of other domains did not differ significantly with regard to the age, educational level and the marital status of the participants. Participants who reported the presence of a disease had significantly lower mean scores of physical, psychological and environment domain. The presence of disease is a relevant factor for quality of life, whereas age, education and marital status do not reflect on physical health, psychological and environmental domain of quality of life.

  1. Projected demographic composition of the United States population of people living with diagnosed HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Julia E; Golden, Matthew R; Hughes, James P; Goodreau, Steven M; Siddiqi, Azfar-E-Alam; Buskin, Susan E; Hawes, Stephen E

    2017-12-01

    The transformation of HIV from a fatal disease to lifelong disease has resulted in an HIV-infected population that is growing and aging, placing new and increasing demands on public programs and health services. We used National HIV Surveillance System and US census data to project the demographic composition of the population of people living with diagnosed HIV (PLWDH) in the United States through 2045. The input parameters for the projections include: (1) census projections, (2) number of people with an existing HIV diagnosis in 2013, (3) number of new HIV diagnoses in 2013, and (4) death rate within the PLWDH population in 2013. Sex-, risk group-, and race-specific projections were estimated through an adapted Leslie Matrix Model for age-structured populations. Projections for 2013-2045 suggest that the number of PLWDH in the U.S. will consistently grow, from 917,294 to 1,232,054, though the annual growth rate will slow from 1.8% to 0.8%. The number of PLWDH aged 55 years and older will increase from 232,113 to 470,221. The number of non-Hispanic (NH) African Americans/Blacks and Hispanics is projected to consistently grow, shifting the racial/ethnic composition of the US PLWDH population from 32 to 23% NH-White, 42 to 38% NH-Black, and 20-32% Hispanic between 2013 and 2045. Given current trends, the composition of the PLWDH population is projected to change considerably. Public health practitioners should anticipate large shifts in the age and racial/ethnic structure of the PLWDH population in the United States.

  2. Impact of age on care pathways of people living with HIV followed up in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacomet, Christine; Berland, Pauline; Guiguet, Marguerite; Simon, Anne; Rey, David; Arvieux, Cédric; Pugliese, Pascal; Gerbaud, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    The aging population of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH) is exposed to a widening spectrum of non-AIDS-defining diseases. Thus, our objective was to compare the health care offered to PLWH according to age. We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional study on PLWH who consulted at one of 59 French HIV reference centers from 15th to 19th October 2012. Using our survey questionnaires, PLWH self-reported the medical care they received, whether or not tied to HIV infection monitoring, during the previous year. A total of 650 PLWH participated in the survey (median age 48 years, Interquartile range (IQR) 40-54), of which 95 were aged 60 years or over (14.5%). Compared to younger PLWH, 60-and-over PLWH were more often under complementary health insurance cover and less socially deprived based on the French EPICES (Evaluation of Precarity and Inequalities in Health Examination Centers) score. The elderly PLWH presented more comorbidities and less coinfections with hepatitis viruses. During health care, therapeutic education was less often offered to older PLWH (14% vs. 26%, p = .01), but this difference was mainly explained by sociodemographic factors and clinical status. Over the previous 6 months, 74% of PLWH who were followed up in hospital had also consulted another doctor, with a mean of 3.75 consultations (±4.18) without difference between age groups. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors and comorbidities, PLWH over 60 years were more likely to have consulted medical specialists as outpatients in the last 6 months (odds ratio [OR] = 2.63 [1.11-6.20]). Whatever their age, 13% of PLWH had been refused care on disclosure of their HIV status, and 27% of PLWH still did not disclose their HIV status to some caregivers. Coordinated health care throughout patients' lives is crucial, as health-care pathways evolve toward outpatient care as the patients get older.

  3. Factors associated with the quality of life of people living with HIV in Finland.

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    Nobre, Nuno; Pereira, Marco; Roine, Risto P; Sintonen, Harri; Sutinen, Jussi

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, the concept of quality of life (QoL) has received significant attention in the HIV/AIDS literature. In Finland, however, the factors associated with the QoL of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) still remain unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the sociodemographic and HIV-related factors associated with the different domains of QoL of PLWHA in Finland. The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 453 HIV-infected patients (Mean age = 46.5 years; 76.5% male) followed at the Infectious Disease Clinic of Helsinki University Hospital. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire covering sociodemographic and HIV-related information, and the Finnish version of the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref questionnaire. Participants reported rather high scores in the six QoL domains, which ranged between 68.48 (Social relationships) and 78.05 (Environment) on a 0-100 scale. Multiple regression analyses revealed that male gender, being married or living in a partnered relationship, being employed, having fewer financial concerns, and not having depression and other medical comorbidities were the main factors positively and consistently associated with higher scores in the different domains of the QoL. HIV-related variables were not significantly associated with QoL ratings. Sociodemographic factors were independently associated with the QoL of PLWHA in Finland. Psychosocial support should reflect these factors in order to improve the health status and well-being of PLWHA.

  4. The symptom experience of people living with HIV and AIDS in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    Phaswana-Mafuya Nancy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptom management for persons living with HIV (PLHIV or AIDS is an important part of care management. Limited information about symptom prevalence exists about HIV infected persons in South Africa, in particular in the context of antiretroviral treatment (ART. The aim of this study was to assess HIV symptoms and demographic, social and disease variables of people living with HIV in South Africa. Methods In 2007 607 PLHIV, sampled by all districts in the Eastern Cape Province and recruited through convenience sampling, were interviewed by PLHIV at health facilities, key informants in the community and support groups. Results Two-thirds of the PLHIV (66% classified themselves with being given an AIDS (advanced stage of HIV diagnosis, 48% were currently on ART, 35% were currently on a disability grant for HIV/AIDS and for 13% the disability grant had been stopped. Participants reported that on the day of the interview, they were experiencing an average of 26.1 symptoms out of a possible 64. In a regression model with demographic and social variables, higher HIV symptom levels were associated with lower educational levels, higher age, urban residence and not on a disability grant, lack of enough food and having a health insurance, and in a regression model with demographic, social and disease variables only being on ART, lack of enough food and having a health insurance were associated with HIV symptoms. Conclusion Symptom assessment provides information that may be valuable in evaluating AIDS treatment regimens and defining strategies to improve quality of life. Because of the high levels of symptoms reported, the results imply an urgent need for effective health care, home- and community-based as well as self-care symptom management to help patients and their families manage and control AIDS symptoms.

  5. Repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation for activities of daily living and functional ability in people after stroke.

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    Momosaki, Ryo; Yamada, Naoki; Ota, Erika; Abo, Masahiro

    2017-06-23

    Repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rPMS) is a form of therapy that creates painless stimulation of deep muscle structures to improve motor function in people with physical impairment from brain or nerve disorders. Use of rPMS for people after stroke has been identified as a feasible approach to improve activities of daily living and functional ability. However, no systematic reviews have assessed the findings of available trials. The effect and safety of this intervention for people after stroke currently remain uncertain. To assess the effect of rPMS for improving activities of daily living and functional ability in people after stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (August 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 8) in the Cochrane Library (August 2016), MEDLINE Ovid (November 2016), Embase Ovid (August 2016), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) in Ebsco (August 2016), PsycINFO Ovid (August 2016), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) Ovid (August 2016), Occupational Therapy Systematic Evaluation of Evidence (OTseeker) (August 2016), the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) (October 2016), and ICHUSHI Web (October 2016). We also searched five ongoing trial registries, screened reference lists, and contacted experts in the field. We placed no restrictions on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted to assess the therapeutic effect of rPMS for people after stroke. Comparisons eligible for inclusion were (1) active rPMS only compared with 'sham' rPMS (a very weak form of stimulation or a sound only); (2) active rPMS only compared with no intervention; (3) active rPMS plus rehabilitation compared with sham rPMS plus rehabilitation; and (4) active rPMS plus rehabilitation compared with rehabilitation only. Two review authors independently assessed

  6. Healing of the haemorrhaging woman as a model for checkmating stigma of people living with HIV

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    Ruth O. Oke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases in human history are not just originating as a hit out of space. Some theologians contend that they must have originated with the human race. Apparently, it is inferred that they have come as a result of human disobedience to God in the Garden of Eden, or as a means of expression of his wrath. Other biblical perspectives ascribe disease to the work of the adversary or the Devil (Job 2:7, jealousy from others (Job 5:2 and self-indulgence (1 Sm 15:1�17, 16:14�15; 23, 1 Cor 10:1ff.. Stigmatisation of people with haemorrhaging condition (the issues of blood in the biblical accounts of the old Jewish society compares well with stigmatisation of people living with HIV (PLH in the current dispensation. It is needful to ask whether stigmatisation, discrimination and exclusion of the sick are a recent phenomenon. Landman observes that people with communicable diseases were separated from the rest of the congregation in the Old Testament dispensation. However, in the New Testament, a more charitable standpoint was anticipated because of the revolutionary stance of Jesus Christ in the Gospels. During his ministry, Jesus regarded the outcasts as integral members of the Jewish community. He in fact associated with and touched those who had dreadful diseases like leprosy (Mk 1:40�43, 2:1ff., Jn 8:1�9. Stigmatisation is associated with HIV in Nigeria and all over the world. However, the model of interaction set by Jesus with the Woman with the Issue of Blood in Mark�s narrative in the Gospel proposed a charitable standpoint which if adopted by the Nigerian society will go a long way in stemming the stigma associated with HIV. It is anticipated that these biblical indices will facilitate reduction, if not the eradication of stigma in the society. The text under study will be contextualised.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: In this article, the African reading of the Bible is brought to the fore using a liberating

  7. Help-seeking behaviour among people living with chronic hip or knee pain in the community

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    Adamson Joy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of people living with hip or knee pain do not consult health care professionals. Pain severity is often believed to be the main reason for help seeking in this population; however the evidence for this is contradictory. This study explores the importance of several potential risk factors on help seeking across different practitioner groups, among adults living with chronic hip or knee pain in a large community sample. Methods Health care utilization, defined as having seen a family doctor (GP during the past 12 months; or an allied health professional (AHP or alternative therapist during the past 3 months, was assessed in a community based sample aged 35 or over and reporting pain in hip or knee. Adjusted odds ratios were determined for social deprivation, rurality, pain severity, mobility, anxiety/depression, co-morbidities, and body mass index. Results Of 1119 persons reporting hip or knee pain, 52% had pain in both sites. Twenty-five percent of them had seen a doctor only, 3% an AHP only, and 4% an alternative therapist only. Thirteen percent had seen more than one category of health care professionals, and 55% had not seen any health care professional. In the multivariate model, factors associated with consulting a GP were mobility problems (OR 2.62 (1.64-4.17, urban living (OR 2.40 (1.14-5.04 and pain severity (1.28 (1.13-1.44. There was also some evidence that obesity was associated with increased consultation (OR 1.72 (1.00-2.93. Factors were similar for consultation with a combination of several health care professionals. In contrast, seeing an alternative therapist was negatively associated with pain severity, anxiety and mobility problems (adjusting for age and sex. Conclusion Disability appears to be a more important determinant of help-seeking than pain severity or anxiety and depression, for adults with chronic pain in hip or knee. The determinants of seeking help from alternative practitioners

  8. An exploration of how young people and parents use online support in the context of living with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Susan; Milnes, Linda

    2016-04-01

    There is increasing recognition of the Internet's potential role in providing information and support for people living with long-term conditions. However, how young people and parents use online forms of self-care support in the context of living with childhood chronic illness has been under-researched. To explore how online peer support is used by young people and parents to support self-care in relation to cystic fibrosis (CF). Online forum for young people and parents based on a CF charity website. A total of 279 individuals participated in the forum during the study. An online ethnographical approach, involving observing, downloading and analysing discussion group postings. All postings made over a random 4-month period were included (151 discussion threads). The online setting enabled a physically disconnected group to connect and create a safe space to collectively share experiences and receive support to manage and live with cystic fibrosis. Participants exchanged experientially derived advice and views on how to manage treatments, emotions, relationships, identity and support from services. While parents sought information and support on managing specific therapies/services and ways of maintaining their child's health, the information and support young people desired appeared to be more directed at how to 'fit' CF into their everyday lives. Online support groups appear to supplement professional support in relation to self-management. They enable young people and parents to share experiences, feelings and strategies for living with long-term conditions with peers and develop the expertise to empower them in interactions with health-care professionals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Determinants of high rates of smoking among people with psychosis living in a socially disadvantaged region in South Australia.

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    Hahn, Lisa; Rigby, Ashlee; Galletly, Cherrie

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with the high rates of smoking amongst people with psychosis living in a disadvantaged region in Adelaide, South Australia. Data were collected from 402 people with psychosis, aged 18-64 years, who lived in the northern suburbs of Adelaide. This area is disadvantaged on many measures of socioeconomic well-being and people living in this region have higher rates of smoking compared to the general Australian population. We hypothesised that whilst tobacco use by people with psychosis living in this region was primarily associated with mental illness, factors related to social disadvantage also contributed to the high rates of smoking. Approximately 74% of men and 71% of women with psychotic disorders living in the northern suburbs of Adelaide were current smokers. Factors such as unemployment, lower levels of education and receiving government welfare, factors known to be associated with smoking in the general population, were more prevalent in the northern region. Smokers with psychosis were less likely to participate in recreational programs and physical activity, and more likely to use illicit substances and be a victim of crime. They had poorer health and financial outcomes than non-smokers. There were some gender differences: for men with psychosis, employment and having a post-school qualification decreased the risk of smoking while cannabis use increased the risk; for women with psychosis, a diagnosis of alcohol abuse/dependence, using cannabis and being sedentary were risk factors for smoking, while attending recreational programs reduced this risk. Smoking rates were strikingly high in both men and women, and particularly high in women when compared with previous research. Our study shows that the risk of smoking is increased by factors related to the social disadvantage of living in the northern Adelaide region. Smoking cessation interventions for people with mental illness should take into account the social

  10. Increasing Access to Oral Health Care for People Living with HIV/AIDS in Rural Oregon

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    Jones, Jill; Mofidi, Mahyar; Bednarsh, Helene; Gambrell, Alan; Tobias, Carol R.

    2012-01-01

    Access to oral health care for people living with HIV/AIDS is a severe problem. This article describes the design and impact of an Innovations in Oral Health Care Initiative program, funded through the Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau's Special Projects of National Significance (SPNS) program, that expanded oral health-care services for these individuals in rural Oregon. From April 2007 to August 2010, 473 patients received dental care (exceeding the target goal of 410 patients) and 153 dental hygiene students were trained to deliver oral health care to HIV-positive patients. The proportion of patients receiving oral health care increased from 10% to 65%, while the no-show rate declined from 40% to 10%. Key implementation components were leveraging SPNS funding and services to create an integrated delivery system, collaborations that resulted in improved service delivery systems, using dental hygiene students to deliver oral health care, enhanced care coordination through the services of a dental case manager, and program capacity to adjust to unanticipated needs. PMID:22547878

  11. Knowledge and Attitudes of Doctors Toward People Living With HIV/AIDS in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memish, Ziad A; Filemban, Sana M; Bamgboyel, Afolabi; Al Hakeem, Rafaat F; Elrashied, Sayedgotb M; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A

    2015-05-01

    Reports showed that Saudi Arabia has low prevalence of HIV/AIDS despite increasing influx of foreign nationals from countries with high risk of HIV. Knowledge and stigmatizing attitudes of health care workers contribute to difficulties of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) accessing prevention, care, and treatment services. Nothing is known about stigma and discrimination about PLWHA in Saudi Arabia. We assessed knowledge of Saudi Arabian doctors about HIV and their attitudes toward PLWHA using a cross-sectional study design. In this study, 1483 doctors completed a self-administered questionnaire. Knowledge scores and stigma index were computed from responses to relevant statements in the questionnaire. Stigmatizing attitudes of contact, reproductive rights, blaming, and judgmental were identified. HIV knowledge was a significant predictor of high stigma. Doctors' year of medical practice, status/specialty, and location of practice in Saudi Arabia were major predictors of HIV knowledge. Evidence of poor knowledge of HIV suggests the need for further training of health workers on HIV transmission mode.

  12. Cooking fuel and respiratory symptoms among people living with HIV in rural Uganda

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    Crystal M. North

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Household air pollution (HAP and chronic HIV infection are each associated with significant respiratory morbidity. Little is known about relationships between HAP and respiratory symptoms among people living with HIV. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between cooking fuel type and chronic respiratory symptoms in study participants from the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes Study. Study participants were enrolled at the time of antiretroviral therapy initiation and seen quarterly from 2005 to 2014 for health-focused questionnaires, CD4 count and HIV viral load. We used multivariable logistic regression and generalised estimating equations, with each study visit as a unit of observation, to investigate relationships between cooking fuel type and chronic respiratory symptoms. We observed an association between cooking with firewood (versus charcoal and chronic cough among HIV-infected females in rural Uganda (adjusted OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.00–1.99; p=0.047. We did not observe an association between cooking fuel type and respiratory symptoms among males (adjusted OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.47–1.63; p=0.658. Associations between cooking fuel and chronic cough in this HIV-infected cohort may be influenced by sex-based roles in meal preparation. This study raises important questions about relationships between household air pollution, HIV infection and respiratory morbidity.

  13. Can Geographic Bridging Social Capital Improve the Health of People Who Live in Deprived Urban Neighborhoods?

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    Kim, Chang-O; Cho, Byong-Hee

    2016-10-01

    The growing number of people living in deprived urban neighborhoods, which often have unhealthy environments, is of growing concern to inequality researchers. Social capital could be a resource to help such communities get ahead. In this study, we examined the differential effects of bonding and bridging social capital on self-rated health using two operational definitions, which we call personal and geographic social capital. Bonding and bridging social capital were operationally distinguished as respondents' perceived similarity to other members of a group with respect to personal characteristics (personal social capital) or as structural similarity with respect to geographical location (geographic social capital). The results showed that although both bonding and bridging social capital as defined by person-based criteria were associated with increased odds of self-rated health compared to those who reported zero participation, when defined by place-based criteria, only bridging social capital was associated with increased odds of self-rated health; no clear association was found between health and belonging to groups within the neighborhood, so-called geographic bonding social capital. The present study suggests that geographic bridging social capital can function as linking social capital that enables an upward approach depending on the political and economic contexts of urbanization. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. HIV stigma among substance abusing people living with HIV/AIDS: implications for HIV treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi-Minzi, Maria A; Surratt, Hilary L

    2014-08-01

    HIV-related stigma has a major impact on quality of life and health among people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). This study examines demographic, mental health, behavioral, contextual, and HIV care-related correlates of HIV stigma among 503 substance abusing PLWHA. Stigma was measured with the HIV Internalized Stigma Measure which has four subscales: stereotypes about HIV, self-acceptance, disclosure concerns, and social relationships. Severe substance dependence (55.3%) and depression (54.7%) were associated with higher HIV stigma across all domains. 49.9% of the sample reported antiretroviral (ARV) medication diversion (the unlawful sale and trading of ARV medications); diverters endorsed significantly higher stigma related to disclosure. 54.1% of the sample reported ≥95% ARV adherence; these individuals reported significantly lower stigma for self-acceptance, disclosure, and social relationships. Multivariate linear regression showed that depression and social support demonstrated significant main effects across stigma domains. Findings suggest that interventions to decrease HIV related stigma may be an important component of initiatives to increase engagement in HIV care.

  15. Emotional, physical and financial burdens of stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS in China.

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    Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Yu; Qiao, Shan; Zhang, Liying; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhengzhu

    2016-01-01

    Numerous researches have shown pernicious effects of stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). However, no available studies have reported these negative effects including emotional, physical to financial burdens to PLWHA. In the current study, we aim to explore different types of stigma (e.g., perceived, internalized and enacted) and the relevant consequences among PLWHA in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2012 to 2013 in the Guangxi Autonomous Region in China. The validated Berger HIV Stigma Scale was used to measure various types of stigma. We employed a series of linear, logistic and polytomous regression models to assess the association between stigma and different consequences while accounting for potential confounders for each specific model. Of the total sample, 2987 PLWHA provided valid responses with 63% being male and having an average age of 42.9 years. Perceived, internalized and enacted HIV stigma were prevalent among participants, and resulted in various burdens with different magnitudes in their life contexts. Specially, PLWHA who reported higher perceived and internalized stigma were more likely to be imposed on emotional and physical burdens (p stigma had heavier financial burden compared to their peers (p stigma in China. The prevalent stigmatizing attitudes have pushed PLWHA to the fringes of society and affected them at multiple aspects in their life context. We call for tailored efforts to overcome stigma and discrimination against PLWHA.

  16. Network stigma towards people living with HIV/AIDS and their caregivers: An egocentric network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei; He, Xin; Guida, Jennifer; Xu, Yongfang; Liu, Hongjie

    2015-10-01

    HIV stigma occurs among peers in social networks. However, the features of social networks that drive HIV stigma are not well understood. The objective of this study is to investigate anticipated HIV stigma within the social networks of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) (N = 147) and the social networks of PLWHA's caregivers (N = 148). The egocentric social network data were collected in Guangxi, China. More than half of PLWHA (58%) and their caregivers (53%) anticipated HIV stigma from their network peers. Both PLWHA and their caregivers anticipated that spouses or other family members were less likely to stigmatise them, compared to friend peers or other relationships. Married network peers were believed to stigmatise caregivers more than unmarried peers. The association between frequent contacts and anticipated stigma was negative among caregivers. Being in a close relationship with PLWHA or caregivers (e.g., a spouse or other family member) was associated with less anticipated stigma. Lower network density was associated with higher anticipated stigma among PLWHA's alters, but not among caregivers' alters. Findings may shed light on innovative stigma reduction interventions at the social network level and therefore improve HIV/AIDS treatment utilisation.

  17. Why people living with HIV/AIDS exclude individuals from their chosen families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant JS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Joan S Grant,1 David E Vance,1 Worawan White,2 Norman L Keltner,1 James L Raper3 1School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, 2Department of Nursing, Pensacola State College, Pensacola, Florida, 3School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA Abstract: Health professionals can gain a better understanding of key elements of social support by examining reasons why people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (PLWH exclude individuals from their chosen families (ie, families of choice. Our study identified reasons why PLWH excluded specific individuals from their chosen families. This mixed-method design was drawn from a larger study of 150 PLWH, in which 94 self-reported why they excluded individuals from their chosen families. Physical and emotional distance (n = 64; 68.1%; nonsupport, nonacceptance, and harm (n = 25; 26.6%; conditional caring and trust (n = 22; 23.4%; and no blood/familial relationship (n = 13; 13.8% were the reasons PLWH excluded individuals from their chosen families. Demographic and personal characteristics were unrelated to these themes, supporting the conclusion that reasons for excluding family members are universal and not dependent on particular participant characteristics. For chosen family relationships to develop and exist, these findings emphasize the value of physical and emotional contact between individuals.Keywords: families, stigma, social networks, human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

  18. Stigmatization among people living with HIV in Hong Kong: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Phoenix K H; Ng, Charlson T Y

    2017-10-01

    HIV/AIDS is one of the most stigmatized medical conditions across the world. Self-stigma is prevalent among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and a major obstacle to HIV prevention and care. This study aimed to describe the experiences of stigmatization and explore the possible factors that might be associated with stigmatization among PLHIV in Hong Kong. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted. 15 PLHIV were recruited from two local non-governmental organizations on HIV prevention. Participants were interviewed about their views and feelings towards oneself as a PLHIV and contributing factors, experiences of discriminations, stigmatizing behaviours, issues about disclosure, social relationships and potential impact of HIV. Thematic analyses revealed three levels of factors which might be associated with stigmatization: (i) intrapersonal level (misconceptions about HIV, attribution of self-responsibility, severe state of illness, side-effects of medication), (ii) interpersonal level (discrimination, social rejection) and (iii) social level (mass media, public stereotypes). Findings provide important insights into which interventions to reduce stigmatization of PLHIV could be designed. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Stigma and discrimination experienced by people living with HIV in Togo, in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Bayaki; Tchounga, Boris; Ekouevi, Didier K; Sehonou, Céphas; Sewu, Essèboè; Dokla, Augustin; Maboudou, Angèle; Kassankogno, Yao; Palokinam Pitche, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination experienced by people living with HIV (PLWHA) prevent and delay access to prevention and treatment services. The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of stigma and discrimination experienced by PLWHA in Togo and to identify the associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among PLWHA in Togo in order to collect data on stigma or discrimination experiences. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify associated factors. A total of 891 PLWHA were interviewed, including 848 (95.2%) receiving antiretroviral therapy. External stigma (37.9%) was the major form of stigmatization followed by internalized stigma (35.4%). The main features of external stigma were gossip (36.5%) and issues to access education (36.0%). Internalized stigma mainly consisted of a feeling of guilt (37.6%) and self-devaluation (36.0%). In univariate and multivariate analysis, female gender was significantly associated with stigma (aOR = 1.73, 95% CI [1.08-2.77]). Of the 891 PLWHA, 75 (8.4%) reported a violation of their rights. Finally 27 (4.1%) were discouraged from having children by a health professional because of their HIV status. Stigma affects more than one-third of PLWHA in Togo, more particularly females. It appears necessary to design new interventions and integrate psychosocial care in the management of PLWHA, in addition to antiretroviral therapy.

  20. Dilemmas in the Legal Treatment of the Status of People Living with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laki Ildikó

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The legal treatment of disability affairs carries in itself an inherent contradiction due to the nature of modern society and free-market economy. On the one hand both the historically developed notions of essentialism and on the other the particular-functional definition of manhood drawing its roots from the established democratic order and market economics are present simultaneously. However, within the current order of things there is an unbridgeable divide between them. Nevertheless, with the progression of time there is a slow gradual shift discernible away from the functional definition with the parallel strengthening of the essentialist approach. This shift is further exaggerated by the more widespread acceptance of the rights of self-determination and the provision of opportunities for the disabled, the emergence of social self-determination in case of a population subgroup living under special conditions. For the proper interpretation of the currents in the evolution of legal treatment of disabled people it would be indispensable to institute a proper social-discourse analysis, which, however, exceeds in scope its narrowly defined task.

  1. Learning to address multiple syndemics for people living with HIV through client perspectives on CBT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Nicholas S; Remmert, Jocelyn E; Psaros, Christina; Pinkston, Megan; Safren, Steven A

    2017-10-09

    The mental health burden among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is high and often involves multiple comorbid psychological and substance use-related psychosocial problems. These co-occurring problems, or syndemics, additively impair engagement in HIV disease management. Existing psychotherapies for mental health and HIV health have generally focused on a single psychosocial problem and little research exists to guide future psychotherapies that address multiple mental health issues. To address this gap in understanding, we conducted qualitative interviews with multiply comorbid PLWHA (N = 30) who completed cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for depression and medication adherence. Themes emerged regarding participants' perspectives on how overlapping substance use and mood disorders interacted to reduce the benefit of CBT. Substance use was a dominant theme compared to other syndemics, highlighting the need for integrated mental health and substance use interventions. Interviews also suggested modifications of which psychosocial concerns participants felt should be prioritized in treatment delivery. Finally, participants described content they would want in a psychotherapy intervention, including intimacy and sexual health. Future psychotherapeutic interventions for syndemic problems and HIV self-care will need to comprehensively address complex concerns, including issues salient to the overall well-being of PLWHA. This may improve client engagement and, ultimately, mental, and physical health outcomes.

  2. The dimensions of food insecurity and malnutrition among people living with HIV in Senegal, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzekri, Noelle A; Sambou, Jacques F; Diaw, Binetou; Sall, El Hadji Ibrahima; Sall, Fatima; Niang, Alassane; Ba, Selly; Guèye, Ndèye Fatou Ngom; Diallo, Mouhamadou Baïla; Hawes, Stephen E; Seydi, Moussa; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S

    2017-12-01

    An understanding of the factors contributing to food insecurity and malnutrition among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Senegal is urgently needed in order to develop effective interventions. The goals of this study were to identify differences in the dimensions of food security among PLHIV in Dakar versus Ziguinchor, Senegal, to determine which of these dimensions are most predictive of severe food insecurity, and to identify factors associated with malnutrition. We conducted a cross-sectional study at outpatient clinics in Dakar and Ziguinchor, Senegal. Data were collected using participant interviews, anthropometry, the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, the Individual Dietary Diversity Scale, and chart review. Interviews were conducted with ninety-five food insecure, HIV-infected subjects. Daily household income and daily food expenditure per household member were the strongest predictors of severe food insecurity. The practice of agriculture, livestock ownership, nutritional status, and HIV outcomes were not predictive of severe food insecurity. CD4 count Senegal. We discovered important differences in food access, availability, stability, and utilization in Dakar versus Ziguinchor. We found that economic access was the strongest predictor of severe food insecurity and poorly controlled HIV was the strongest predictor of malnutrition. Our findings suggest that the interventions needed to address food insecurity differ from those necessary to target malnutrition, and that effective interventions may differ in Dakar versus Ziguinchor. Furthermore, this study highlights a need for a greater understanding of the relationship between HIV and malnutrition among individuals receiving ART in resource-limited settings.

  3. Community group membership and stigmatising attitudes towards people living with HIV in Eastern Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhamo-Murire, Mercy; Campbell, Catherine; Gregson, Simon

    2014-02-01

    Stigmatising attitudes towards people living with HIV and AIDS (PLHIV) are hampering attempts to control HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan African countries. This study measures the effect of social capital, in the form of local community groups, in reducing stigma and tests a new explanatory framework for the association between community group membership and less stigmatising attitudes. Prospective data on membership of a wide range of different community groups and stigmatising attitudes (being unwilling to care for a relative with AIDS), collected from a general population cohort of 5,253 men and women aged 15-54 years in eastern Zimbabwe between 2003 and 2008 were analysed using multivariable logistic regression. 36 % of respondents were members of community groups throughout the study period. Individuals in community groups were less likely to express stigmatising attitudes towards PLHIV-3.4 versus 9.5 % (adjusted odds ratio = 0.46, p counselling did not account for the association. Further work is needed to identify the mechanisms through which community participation can reduce stigma. Nevertheless, these findings suggest that promoting well-informed discussions about HIV within pre-existing community groups and involving these groups in stigma reduction programmes could be effective means of reducing stigma at the grassroots level.

  4. Incidence and Persistence of Major Depressive Disorder Among People Living with HIV in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyanda, Eugene; Weiss, Helen A; Levin, Jonathan; Nakasujja, Noeline; Birabwa, Harriet; Nakku, Juliet; Mpango, Richard; Grosskurth, Heiner; Seedat, Soraya; Araya, Ricardo; Patel, Vikram

    2017-06-01

    Data on the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) among people living with HIV (PLWH) are needed to inform refinement of screening and interventions for MDD. This paper describes the incidence and persistence rate of MDD in PLWH in Uganda. 1099 ART-naïve PLWH attending HIV clinics in Uganda were followed up for 12 months. MDD was assessed using the DSM IV based Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview with a prevalence for MDD at baseline of 14.0 % (95 % CI 11.7-16.3 %) reported. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine predictors of incident and persistent MDD. Cumulative incidence of MDD was 6.1 per 100 person-years (95 % CI 4.6-7.8) with significant independent predictors of study site, higher baseline depression scores and increased stress. Persistence of MDD was 24.6 % (95 % CI 17.9-32.5 %) with independent significant predictors of study site, higher baseline depression scores, and increased weight. Risks of incident and persistent MDD observed in this study were high. Potentially modifiable factors of elevated baseline depressive scores and stress (only for incident MDD) were important predictors of incident and persistent MDD.

  5. Stigma, discrimination and the implications for people living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, D; Mfecane, S

    2004-11-01

    Stigma and discrimination play significant roles in the development and maintenance of the HIV epidemic. It is well documented that people living with HIV and AIDS experience stigma and discrimination on an ongoing basis. This impact goes beyond individuals infected with HIV to reach broadly into society, both disrupting the functioning of communities and complicating prevention and treatment of HIV. This paper reviews the available scientific literature on HIV/AIDS and stigma in South Africa, as well as press reports on the same subject over a period of 3 years. Analysis of this material indicates that stigma drives HIV out of the public sight, so reducing the pressure for behaviour change. Stigma also introduces a desire not to know one's own status, thus delaying testing and accessing treatment. At an individual level stigma undermines the person's identity and capacity to cope with the disease. Fear of discrimination limits the possibility of disclosure even to potential important sources of support such as family and friends. Finally, stigma impacts on behaviour change as it limits the possibility of using certain safer sexual practices. Behaviour such as wanting to use condoms could be seen as a marker of HIV, leading to rejection and stigma. All interventions need to address stigma as part of their focus. However, the difficulty of the task should not be underestimated, as has been shown by the persistence of discrimination based on factors such as race, gender and sexual orientation.

  6. Prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related tumors in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Mario; Šterbenc, Anja; Lunar, Maja M

    2017-11-01

    In comparison to their HIV-negative counterparts, people living with HIV (PLWH) have a higher prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in various anatomical sites coupled with increased HPV persistence, higher risk of HPV-related tumors, and faster disease progression. Areas covered: Gender-neutral prevention strategies for HPV-related cancers in PLWH discussed: ABC approach, HPV vaccination, antiretroviral treatment (ART), anal cancer screening, and smoking cessation. Gender specific strategies: cervical cancer screening reduces the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer and circumcision might reduce the risk of HPV infections in men. Expert commentary: HPV-related cancer incidence has not declined (e.g. cervical cancer) and has even increased (e.g. anal cancer) in the ART era, demanding an effective HPV prevention strategy. HPV vaccination should be introduced into national prevention programs worldwide immediately because current prophylactic vaccines are safe, tolerable, and immunogenic in PLWH. HPV vaccine efficacy trials in PLWH are essential to determine the most appropriate immunization schedule. The population most at risk of anal cancer is HIV-positive men who have sex with men, who are not protected by herd immunity if only the female population is vaccinated. Unvaccinated PLWH need enhanced surveillance for early detection of HPV-related cancers and their precursors.

  7. Lipid Profiles, Glycated Hemoglobin, and Diabetes in People Living at High Altitude in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Nirmal; Weatherall, Mark; Bhatta, Yadav Kumar Deo; Mann, Stewart

    2017-09-10

    This study aimed to describe lipid profiles and the distribution of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a sample of a high altitude population of Nepal and to explore associations between these metabolic risk variables and altitude. A cross-sectional survey of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors was conducted among 521 people living at four different altitude levels, all above 2800 m, in the Mustang and Humla districts of Nepal. Urban participants (residents at 2800 m and 3620 m) had higher total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) than rural participants. A high ratio of TC to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) (TC/HDL ≥ 5.0) was found in 23.7% (95% CI 19.6, 28.2) and high TG (≥1.7 mmol/L) in 43.3% (95% CI 38.4, 48.3) of participants overall. Mean HbA1c levels were similar at all altitude levels although urban participants had a higher prevalence of diabetes. Overall, 6.9% (95% CI 4.7, 9.8) of participants had diabetes or were on hypoglycaemic treatment. There was no clear association between lipid profiles or HbA1c and altitude in a multivariate analysis adjusted for possible confounding variables. Residential settings and associated lifestyle practices are more strongly associated with lipid profiles and HbA1c than altitude amongst high altitude residents in Nepal.

  8. Disability and its influence in nutritional assessment tools in elderly people living in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardiés-Sánchez, Beatriz; Sanz-París, Alejandro; Pérez-Nogueras, Javier; Serrano-Oliver, Antonio; Torres-Anoro, María Elena; Ballesteros-Pomar, María Dolores

    2017-10-24

    Poor nutritional status is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, especially in older people. The aim of this study was to assess nutritional status in elderly nursing home residents with different nutritional test, and to determine which parameters used for nutritional assessment can be carried out in this population, which usually have a high prevalence of functionally dependent residents. A cross-sectional study was performed in 383 elderly. The nutritional assessment tools used were the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), the new ESPEN consensus definition of malnutrition, and the tool for Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT). Moreover, the ability to perform basic activities of daily living was assessed with the Barthel index (BI). According to BI, 78.9% had a total dependence and only 20.9% could be weighed and heighed. The prevalence of malnutrition with MNA, ESPEN and CONUT was 21.3%, 17.6% and 20.7%, respectively. The agreement between MNA vs ESPEN criteria was moderate (kappa = 0.483), but with CONUT was low. Nursing homes had a high percentage of totally dependent residents. This high degree of functional dependence made difficult to obtain some anthropometric parameters such as weight and height, which are essential to carry out most nutritional tests. MNA, CONUT and the new ESPEN criteria of malnutrition showed a high prevalence of malnutrition and risk of malnutrition in subjects in which they could be performed.

  9. Screening for latent tuberculous infection in people living with HIV infection in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, N; Briggs, S; Nisbet, M

    2017-09-01

    New Zealand, which has a low incidence of tuberculosis (TB), has historically taken a risk-based approach to screening for latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) in adult people living with the human immunodeficiency virus infection (PLHIV). To evaluate LTBI screening, treatment and outcomes in an adult PLHIV population. This was a retrospective clinical record review of an initial cohort of adult PLHIV attending the Auckland City Hospital HIV clinic in 2011, and a second cohort of adult PLHIV newly attending the clinic in 2014. We analysed high-risk (born in or acquiring HIV in a high TB incidence country) and low-risk patients using descriptive statistical methods. Of the 752 patients from the initial cohort, 416 (55%) had documentation of LTBI screening, which was positive in 74 (10%): 19/461 (4%) low-risk and 55/291 (19%) high-risk patients. LTBI treatment was received in 13 low-risk and 44 high-risk patients. Of 73 patients in the second cohort, 68 (93%) were screened. LTBI screening was incomplete in our clinic, but improved between 2011 and 2014. A significant number of patients with LTBI did not originate from a high TB incidence country.

  10. Psychological status, coping, and social support of people living with HIV/AIDS in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huimin; Zhang, Junjian; Fu, Xuedong

    2007-01-01

    To investigate psychological status, coping, social support, and psychosocial factors associated with people living with HIV/AIDS in a highly HIV-infected area of central China. Cross-sectional descriptive correlation study. Of 200 individuals with HIV/AIDS registered at the "Warm Homestead" health care center (central China), all who met the eligibility criteria (n=103) were recruited; 94 of these completed questionnaires. Four anonymous self-administered questionnaires were used: (a) demographic data questionnaire, (b) Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), (c) Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire, and (d) Perceived Social Support Scale questionnaire. Participants had low education levels and family incomes. The majority (n=87, 92.6%) had become infected due to improper procedures during plasma donations. Participants reported moderately high levels of perceived social support, but their high SCL-90 scores indicated high levels of psychological distress. The most frequently used coping style was confrontation. Both acceptance-resignation and avoidance coping styles were significantly correlated with high distress (high SCL-90 total and subscale scores). Public health personnel and AIDS professionals may consider further interventions to promote psychological health in HIV/AIDS-positive individuals in highly HIV-infected areas of China, as the available social support did not seem to be effective in decreasing psychological pathology or mobilizing their coping strategies.

  11. Three Sides of a Coin in the Life of People Living with HIV (PLWH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakha, Deepika Cecil; Kapoor, Bimla; Manju; Sharma, Singh K

    2015-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a global epidemic, a major challenge as a health care problem of modern times. As the survival of life increases from the time of an HIV-positive diagnosis, growing concern for the quality of the life has been extended. To assess and correlate the coping, social support and quality of life. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic of AIIMS, New Delhi. The sample comprised people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who were seropositive for last six months. The tools used to assess the coping, social support and quality of life were BREF COPE, MOS social support survey and WHO QOL-HIV BREF, respectively. Permission was taken from the authors of the tools. The ethical permission was taken from the center. The coping, social support and quality of life were assessed and their association was observed. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17. The most commonly used coping styles were acceptance and religion. The social support used by most of PLWHA was tangible support and affectionate support, while the least used support was positive social interaction. The lowest quality of life is seen in social relations, followed by physical quality of life. There was positive association seen between coping and quality of life as well as social support and quality of life. There was positive association between coping, social support and quality of life.

  12. Three sides of a coin in the life of people living with HIV (PLWH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Cecil Khakha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS is a global epidemic, a major challenge as a health care problem of modern times. As the survival of life increases from the time of an HIV-positive diagnosis, growing concern for the quality of the life has been extended. Objectives: To assess and correlate the coping, social support and quality of life. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at antiretroviral therapy (ART clinic of AIIMS, New Delhi. The sample comprised people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA who were seropositive for last six months. The tools used to assess the coping, social support and quality of life were BREF COPE, MOS social support survey and WHO QOL-HIV BREF, respectively. Permission was taken from the authors of the tools. The ethical permission was taken from the center. The coping, social support and quality of life were assessed and their association was observed. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17. Results: The most commonly used coping styles were acceptance and religion. The social support used by most of PLWHA was tangible support and affectionate support, while the least used support was positive social interaction. The lowest quality of life is seen in social relations, followed by physical quality of life. There was positive association seen between coping and quality of life as well as social support and quality of life. Conclusion: There was positive association between coping, social support and quality of life.

  13. Perceived discrimination, social support, and perceived stress among people living with HIV/AIDS in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyou; Lau, Joseph T F; Mak, Winnie W S; Chen, Lin; Choi, K C; Song, Junmin; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Guanglu; Feng, Tiejian; Chen, Xi; Liu, Chuliang; Liu, Jun; Liu, De; Cheng, Jinquan

    2013-01-01

    Perceived stress among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) was associated with severe mental health problems and risk behaviors. Discrimination toward PLWH in China is prevalent. Both perceived discrimination and social supports are determinants of the stress level among PLWH. Psychological support services for PLWH in China are scarce. It is unknown whether social support is a buffer between the perceived discrimination and perceived stress. With written consent, this study surveyed 258 PLWH recruited from multiple sources in two cities in China. Instruments were validated in previous or the present study, including the perceived stress scale for PLWH (PSSHIV), the perceived social support scale (PSSS), and the perceived discrimination scale for PLWH (PDSHIV). Pearson correlations and multiple regression models were fit. PDSHIV was associated with the Overall Scale and all subscales of PSSHIV, whilst lower socioeconomic status in general and lower scores of PSSS were associated with various subscales of PSSHIV. The interaction item (PSSS×PSDHIV) was nonsignificant in modeling PSSHIV, hence no significant moderating effect was detected. Whilst perceived discrimination is a major source of stress and social support can reduce stress among PLWH in China, improved social support cannot buffer the stressful consequences due to perceived discrimination. The results highlight the importance to reduce discrimination toward PLWH and the difficulty to alleviate its negative consequences. It is warranted to improve mental health among PLWH in China and it is still important to foster social support among PLWH as it has direct effects on perceived stress.

  14. Prevalence and associated factors of depression among people living with HIV in two cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyou; Lau, Joseph T F; Mak, Winnie W S; Choi, K C; Chen, Lin; Song, Junmin; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Guanglu; Feng, Tiejian; Chen, Xi; Liu, Chuliang; Liu, Jun; Liu, De; Cheng, Jinquan

    2013-07-01

    Depression has significant effects on morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV (PLWH). Current study estimated the rate of depressive disorder and identified the correlates of depressive disorder among PLWH in China. 258 PLWH in China were recruited and interviewed with a structured questionnaire including measurements testing perceived stress, social support, perceived discrimination, and depression. Mediating effect of perceived stress between perceived discrimination and depression and moderating effect of social support on effect of perceived discrimination and perceived stress to depression were tested. Multivariate regression was used to examine the determinants of depression. The prevalence of mild to severe depression is 71.9%. The relationship between the perceived discrimination and depression is fully mediated by perceived stress (perceived discrimination that was statistically significant (β=0.153) to depression became non-significant after adding perceived stress in the regression model). Interaction term between social support and perceived stress has negative effects (β=-0.117) and explained a significant amount of variance (R(2)=0.018) in depression. Lower income, and higher perceived stress predicted more depressive symptoms. Cross-sectional study and self-report bias are major limitations of this study. Depression among PLWH is a severe problem in China. Primary health care workers need to be trained in recognition and treatment in depression. Stress management skills and social support for PLWH are warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Is life getting better? : how long and happy people live in modern society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractHuman society has changed much over the last centuries and this process of 'modernization' has profoundly affected the lives of individuals; currently we live quite different lives from those forefathers lived only five generations ago. There is difference of opinion as to whether we

  16. Preparing research on optimized construction of sustainable human living environment in regions where people of a certain ethnic group live in compact communities in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Junyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the poor transport system, remoteness and few channels to access to information from the outside world in most minority-inhabited areas in China, buildings in these areas are well preserved. In particular, dwellings in these places show low-tech and ecological features. Different types and the natural environment of the plateau where Shangri-La lies provide people with a variety of living resources. As living environments vary in different areas, different inhabitation forms have been formed. Tibetan people adjust measures to local conditions and excel at using local materials and appropriate technologies to build houses. In this paper, a case study is made of traditional dwellings in Tibetan-inhabited areas in Shangri-La, to analyze low-tech and ecological strategies for traditional dwellings in Tibetan-inhabited areas in Shangri-La, from three aspects: regional environment measures, building technologies and the spatial order system.

  17. Adherence to antiretroviral treatment and associated factors in people living with HIV/AIDS in Quindío, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Viviana Cardona-Duque

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Depression and self-report on compliance were associated with adherence to antiretroviral therapy. A comprehensive study on the perception of social support and cognitive variables, such as self-efficacy and risk perception, is highly recommended for people living with HIV/AIDS.

  18. Effects of Nurse-Led Multifactorial Care to Prevent Disability in Community-Living Older People : Cluster Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijker, Jacqueline J.; van Rijn, Marjon; Buurman, Bianca M.; ter Riet, Gerben; van Charante, Eric P. Moll; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effects of nurse-led multifactorial care to prevent disability in community-living older people. Methods In a cluster randomized trail, 11 practices (n = 1,209 participants) were randomized to the intervention group, and 13 practices (n = 1,074 participants) were

  19. Effects of Nurse-Led Multifactorial Care to Prevent Disability in Community-Living Older People: Cluster Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijker, Jacqueline J.; van Rijn, Marjon; Buurman, Bianca M.; ter Riet, Gerben; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of nurse-led multifactorial care to prevent disability in community-living older people. In a cluster randomized trail, 11 practices (n = 1,209 participants) were randomized to the intervention group, and 13 practices (n = 1,074 participants) were randomized to the control

  20. Factors Associated with Perceived Stigma among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Post-Conflict Northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattabi, Barbara; Li, Jianghong; Thompson, Sandra C.; Orach, Christopher G.; Earnest, Jaya

    2011-01-01

    HIV-related stigma continues to persist in several African countries including Uganda. This study quantified the burden of stigma and examined factors associated with stigma among 476 people living with HIV (PLHTV) in Gulu, northern Uganda. Data were collected between February and May 2009 using the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-PLWA. Females more…

  1. Psychosocial factors influencing preferences for food and nutritional supplements among people living with HIV in Bangkok, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodas Moya, Carlos; Pengnonyang, Supabhorn; Kodish, Stephen; Pee, de Saskia; Phanuphak, Praphan

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition and HIV are often coincident and may lead to wasting, a strong predictor of mortality. However; ready to use therapeutic foods (RUTF) are showing promising results in restoring the nutritional status of adult people living with HIV (PLHIV) in resource constrained settings but, its

  2. Who Needs Enemies with Friends like These? The Importance of Place for Young People Living in Known Gang Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralphs, Robert; Medina, Juanjo; Aldridge, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Despite a growing concern about gangs in Britain, academic research that focuses on gangs remains scarce. Drawing on data from the ESRC-funded ethnographic research YOGEC (Youth Gangs in an English City) project, this paper explores the negotiation of space and place by young people living in inner-city areas affected by gangs. Using a combination…

  3. Listening to Bodies and Watching Machines: Developing Health Information Skills, Tools and Services for People Living with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbold, Natalya

    2013-01-01

    When patients need information, they may visit a doctor, ask a nurse, or look online. But these are not the only sources of information used by patients. This paper examines discussion threads in online renal support groups to describe how people living with kidney failure conceive of help, information and support. I use Actor Network Theory to…

  4. An Exploratory Study on the Quality of Life of Older Chinese People Living Alone in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jik Joen

    2005-01-01

    This study successfully interviewed 109 randomly selected Chinese people aged 60 and over living alone in two public housing estates in an urban area of Hong Kong. The results show that mental health status, number of days staying in hospital, life satisfaction, age, and self-esteem are significant factors in predicting the life quality of older…

  5. Antiretroviral therapy adherence and self-efficacy among people living with HIV and a history of drug use in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Lee, Sung-Jae; Tuan, Le Anh; Feng, Nan; Tuan, Nguyen Anh

    2017-10-01

    People living with HIV with a history of drug use face additional psychosocial challenges that could compromise their adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study examined ART treatment adherence and adherence self-efficacy among people living with HIV with a history of drug use in Vietnam. We used cross-sectional baseline data collected between October 2014 and February 2015 from a randomized controlled trial in Vietnam. Of the 900 persons with a history of drug use in the trial, a sample of 109 people living with HIV currently on ART were included in the study. The vast majority (92%) of the participants reported not missing any medications in the past 30 days. Multiple regression results indicated that social support was positively associated with adherence self-efficacy (β = 0.420, P social challenges facing people living with HIV with a history of drug use to promote ART treatment adherence. Clinical management of HIV should identify and address concurrent substance use behaviors to maximize adherence and treatment outcomes.

  6. Assessment of water, sanitation, and hygiene practice and associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS home based care services in Gondar city, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Yallew Walelegn W; Terefe Mamo W; Herchline Thomas E; Sharma Hardeep R; Bitew Bikes D; Kifle Manay W; Tetemke Desalegn M; Tefera Mekuriaw A; Adane Mesafint M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background People living with HIV/AIDS have substantially greater need for water, sanitation, and hygiene. Encouraging hygiene education for People Living with HIV/AIDS in home based care services and additional support for the provision of water, sanitation, and hygiene services is recommended. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried during 2009 to assess water, sanitation status and hygiene practices and associated factors among People Living with HIV/AIDS in home based care se...

  7. HIV Futures 8: Protocol for a Repeated Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Survey of People Living with HIV in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Jennifer; Brown, Graham; Lyons, Anthony; Thorpe, Rachel; Dowsett, Gary W; Lucke, Jayne

    2017-01-01

    More than 27,000 Australians currently live with HIV. Most of these people have access to quality clinical care and antiretroviral treatment (ART) and can expect good general health. However, HIV-related stigma is a problem and many people living with HIV experience poorer than average mental health. Issues of aging are also of increasing concern. This paper describes the methods and sample for the HIV Futures 8 study, a national survey of people living with HIV in Australia that aimed to identify factors that support health and well-being among this population. HIV Futures 8 forms part of a series of cross-sectional surveys (The "HIV Futures" studies) that have been repeated periodically since 1997. In the most recent survey, participants were able to opt into a prospective longitudinal study. HIV Futures 8 was open to people aged over 17 who were living with HIV. Data were collected in 2015/2016 using a self-complete survey that contained approximately 250 items related to physical and mental health, use of ART, HIV exposure and testing, financial security, social connectedness, relationships, life satisfaction, resilience, stigma, use of health and support services, and health literacy. To enable comparison of cross-sectional data over time, questionnaire items were consistent with those used in previous HIV Futures surveys. In HIV Futures 8, participants were invited to volunteer coded information that will allow longitudinal follow-up when participants complete subsequent HIV Futures surveys. The survey was advertised through the networks of HIV organizations, on social media and through HIV clinics and services. HIV Futures 8 was completed by 895 participants. This represents approximately 3.8% of the total number of people living with diagnosed HIV in Australia in 2014. Findings from HIV Futures 8 will contribute important insights into the complexity of factors that support physical and mental well-being among people living with HIV. The findings will also

  8. Mobile Money Empowering People Living at Bottom of Pyramid and Boosting Socio-Economic Development in a Big Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Reena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hardly anyone would disagree that mobile money is an engine of financial inclusion and has the potential to outreach millions of people, living at the bottom of pyramid and those living in remote areas. The current study was taken up to investigate the impact of mobile money access on the people living at the bottom of pyramid. The aim was to: (1 understand the concept of mobile money, (2 explore the relevance of mobile money in economic growth, (3 capture the growth of mobile money worldwide, (4 explore the socio – economic impact of mobile money and (4 discuss vital insights for traditional financial institutions and policy makers. The study revealed that mobile money had positive impact on financial inclusion. It also enhanced the economic opportunities for the large unbanked population living at the bottom of pyramid. The increase in the mobile penetration and use of mobile internet, among the people living at the bottom of pyramid in the developing countries, clearly reflect at the potential of mobile money, in bringing the financially excluded in the economic mainstream and thus help in sustainable socio-economic development.

  9. Psychological interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in people living with HIV in Resource poor settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhey, Ruth; Chibanda, Dixon; Brakarsh, Jonathan; Seedat, Soraya

    2016-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is pervasive in low- and middle-income countries. There is evidence to suggest that post-traumatic stress disorder is more common among people living with HIV than non-infected matched controls. We carried out a systematic review of interventions for adult post-traumatic stress disorder from resource poor settings with a focus on people living with HIV. We included all studies that investigated interventions for adult post-traumatic stress disorder from resource poor settings with a focus on interventions that were either randomised controlled trials or observational cohort studies carried out from 1980 to May 2015. Of the 25 articles that were identified for full review, two independent reviewers identified seven studies that met our study inclusion criteria. All randomised controlled trials (RCT) (n = 6) used cognitive behavioural therapy-based interventions and focused on people living with HIV in resource poor settings. There was only one study focusing on the use of lay counsellors to address post-traumatic stress disorder but core competencies were not described. There were no intervention studies from Africa, only an observational cohort study from Rwanda. Rigorously evaluated interventions for adult post-traumatic stress disorder in people living with HIV are rare. Most were undertaken in resource poor settings located in high-income countries. There is a need for research on the development and implementation of appropriate interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in people living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Services and attitudes to people living with HIV/AIDS among college students in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswanya, Edward S; Brown, Graham; Merriman, Gareth

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate acceptability of voluntary testing, counselling and treatment services and attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS from young people's point of view. Qualitative study (face-to-face interviews in which tapes were used) were carried out in 20 interviewed college students aged between 19-24 years of both sexes based in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Results showed that voluntary counselling and testing services were limited in the study area at the time of study. Participants complained of unfriendly services and unco-operative staff, poor counselling services and shortage of facilities and staff. There was fear of HIV/AIDS related stigma toward people living with HIV and AIDS, thus fostering stigma and isolation against them. Results further demonstrate that HIV/AIDS related stigma is still a very serious problem in Tanzania. Lack of HIV/AIDS related knowledge and the life-threatening character of the disease were seen as the most important determinants of AIDS-related stigma. The main benefit to go for VCT was 'knowing your status before marriage', whereas main barriers for testing were 'fear of being stigmatised' and 'fear of knowing your HIV positive status'. The results suggest that there is need of VCT specific intervention programs for young people in colleges in Tanzania to emphasize of importance of VCT services and HIV/AIDS education program to educate students' understanding of people living with HIV/AIDS, thus reducing stigma towards people living with HIV/AIDS.

  11. An analysis of drug resistance among people living with HIV/AIDS in Shanghai, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengdi Zhang

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms of drug resistance can facilitate better management of antiretroviral therapy, helping to prevent transmission and decrease the morbidity and mortality of people living with HIV/AIDS. However, there is little data about transmitted drug resistance and acquired drug resistance for HIV/AIDS patients in Shanghai.A retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients who visited the Department of Infectious Disease from June 2008 to June 2015 was conducted in Shanghai, China. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze risk factors for drug resistance among HIV-infected people with virological failure. The related collected factors included patient age, gender, marital status, infection route, baseline CD4 count, antiretroviral therapy regimens, time between HIV diagnosis and initiating antiretroviral therapy. Factors with p<0.1 in the univariate logistic regression test were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression test.There were 575 subjects selected for this study and 369 participated in this research. For the antiretroviral therapy drugs, the rates of transmitted drug resistance and acquired drug resistance were significantly different. The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI had the highest drug resistance rate (transmitted drug resistance, 10.9%; acquired drug resistance, 53.3% and protease inhibitors (PIs had the lowest drug resistance rate (transmitted drug resistance, 1.7%; acquired drug resistance, 2.7%. Logistic regression analysis found no factors that were related to drug resistance except marital status (married status for tenofovir: odds ratio = 6.345, 95% confidence interval = 1.553-25.921, P = 0.010 and the time span between HIV diagnosis and initiating antiretroviral therapy (≤6M for stavudine: odds ratio = 0.271, 95% confidence interval = 0.086-0.850, P = 0.025; ≤6M for didanosine: odds ratio = 0.284, 95% confidence interval = 0.096-0.842, P = 0.023; ≤6M for

  12. Sexual orientation and quality of life of people living with HIV/Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Francisco Braz Milanez; Queiroz, Artur Acelino Francisco Luz Nunes; Sousa, Álvaro Francisco Lopes de; Moura, Maria Eliete Batista; Reis, Renata Karina

    2017-01-01

    To analyze whether sexual orientation affects the quality of life of people living with HIV/Aids (PLWHA). A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out with 146 PLWHA in Teresina, capital city of the state of Piauí, in 2013, by means of the WHOQOL-HIV-bref. Descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression were used for data analysis. There was a prevalence of men (63.7%), non-heterosexual (57.0%), aged between 19 and 39 years (89%). Of the total, 75.5% mentioned presence of negative feelings, such as fear and anxiety, and 38% reported have suffered stigma. With regard to the dimensions investigated, the most affected were "environment" and "level of independence". Non-heterosexual orientation was negatively associated with quality of life in almost all dimensions. Living with HIV/Aids and having a non-heterosexual orientation have a negative impact on quality of life. Analisar se a orientação sexual afeta a qualidade de vida de pessoas vivendo com HIV/aids (PVHAs). Estudo analítico, transversal, realizado com 146 PVHAs em Teresina, PI, no ano de 2013, por aplicação da escala WHOQOL HIV-bref. Para análise dos dados, utilizou-se análise descritiva e regressão linear múltipla. Houve predominância de homens (63,7%), não-heterossexuais (57,0%), com idade entre 19 e 39 anos (89%). Do total, 75,5% mencionaram presença de sentimentos negativos como medo e ansiedade e 38% informaram terem sofrido estigma. Com relação aos domínios investigados, os mais comprometidos foram "meio ambiente" e "nível de independência". A orientação não-heterossexual associou-se negativamente à qualidade de vida em, praticamente, todos os domínios. Viver com HIV/aids e ter uma orientação não-heterossexual tem impacto negativo na qualidade de vida.

  13. Do Social Networks Differ? Comparison of the Social Networks of People with Intellectual Disabilities, People with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other People Living in the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt-Goverts, A. E.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Hendriks, A. H. C.; Wegman, K. M.; Teunisse, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the similarities and differences in social network characteristics, satisfaction and wishes with respect to the social network between people with mild or borderline intellectual disabilities (ID), people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a reference group. Data were gathered from 105 young adults…

  14. 10 billion years of massive Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, Edward Nairne Cunningham

    2009-01-01

    The most massive galaxies in the local universe are not forming new stars -- but we don’t know why. As a step towards figuring out why big galaxies stop forming stars, we set out to measure when they stop forming stars. By looking at the colors of massive galaxies have changed over 10 billion

  15. Constipation is casting a shadow over everyday life - a systematic review on older people's experience of living with constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvistholm, Nina; Munch, Lene; Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard

    2017-04-01

    To explore and summarise best evidence of how constipation affects the daily living of older people from their own perspective. Furthermore, to assess how interventions aimed at treating constipation in older people affect patient-reported outcome such as quality of life. Constipation is a common and overlooked problem with an impact on everyday life, especially among older people. Older people seem to have individual preconceptions on constipation which can influence the strategies used to prevent and treat constipation. A systematic review, integrating findings from both qualitative and quantitative studies. Systematic searches were carried out in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO and EMBASE on the 31st of July 2014. A search strategy was constructed with key concepts identified using PICO to identify quantitative studies and PIC(o) to identify qualitative studies. Search terms included constipation, elderly, aged, elderly people, aged people, quality of life, patient experience, patient perspective, meaning, emotion, psychological. Reference lists were searched manually. A total of nine studies were included in the review, five quantitative and four qualitative. Three main themes crystallised from the results of the included studies: bodily experiences, everyday life shadowed by constipation and adverse psychological effects. Constipation among older people was connected to subjective and comprehensive experiences. It had a negative impact on physical and mental well-being as well as the social life of older people. The review also showed that older people had individual and personal strategies, based on their own beliefs. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of the experiences of living with constipation as well as the range of strategies used by patients to prevent and treat constipation. The patient perspective on constipation needs to be integrated in the strategies and actions carried out by healthcare professionals. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Visibility and meanings of partnership in health care for older people who need support to live at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Anna; Mackintosh, Shylie; Kumar, Saravana; Grech, Carol

    2017-11-24

    Problems experienced by older people with complex needs to live at home have been reported in the literature. This qualitative study builds on previous research and investigates enduring issues older people face when interacting with healthcare services. To gain an in-depth understanding of what is involved in providing good quality health care for older people who need support to live at home. We adopted an interpretive descriptive approach and conducted semi-structured interviews with older people (n = 7), carers (n = 8) and key informants (n = 11). Initial and secondary analysis of qualitative data was completed. Major themes emerged about meanings of partnership in health care, and invisibility of the older person as a partner in health care. Partnership in health care was understood to mean being treated as an equal, being involved in decision-making, and making contributions which impact on health care and health systems. The metaphorical concept of 'invisibility' related to the older person not being seen and heard as a partner in health care, as well as being a recipient of care. We concluded that older people who need support to live at home are not highly visible to health providers, policymakers and researchers as a central partner and consumer to be meaningfully engaged in shaping their health care. Opportunities to address persistent issues with quality of health care may in future be achieved through stronger partnerships between older people and health providers, to find new ways to improve the quality of care for older people. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  17. Perceived social support affects disease coping among people living with HIV: a study in Tehran, Iran

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    Elham Faraji

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine potential correlations between perceived social support and disease coping styles among people living with HIV infection at a referral center in Tehran. Methods: In an observational study, 112 patients were recruited between April and July 2012. Along with demographic characteristics, availability of tangible, informational, and emotional support was measured using subscales extracted from the medical outcomes study: social support survey; disease coping styles were investigated in four groups (problem-focused, emotion-focused, engagement-based, and meaning-based. Data were analyzed to examine whether social support subscales predict coping styles. Results: Almost 70% of the patients were male, and 52% reported sexual contact as their perceived route of infection. Use of coping styles was positively correlated with social support scores (rs = 0.53, P < 0.001, and informational support had significant influence on implementation of three out of the four coping styles (emotion-focused, problem-focused, engagement-based. Being married and not reporting the route of infection were associated with higher social support scores; monthly income and level of education had significant associations with the use of various coping styles. Conclusions: Patients who implement strategies to cope with HIV/AIDS have received more informational and emotional support. This study recommends that the delivery of informational support in a comprehensive package can practically target the current demands of our patients; while thorough investigation of potential effects on disease coping, response to treatment, and compliance can aid us in the design of interventions to target stigma at societal level.

  18. The use of complementary and alternative medicine among people living with diabetes in Sydney

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    Manya Kiran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is common in patients with chronic disease such as diabetes mellitus. The primary objective of the study was to determine the overall prevalence and type of CAM use in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM in Western Sydney and to compare the prevalence and factors associated with CAM use with the literature. Methods A multicenter cross-sectional study was undertaken using a self-completed questionnaire distributed to patients with DM attending a public hospital and specialist endocrinology clinics in the region. The type of DM and pattern of CAM utilisation were analyzed. Results Sixty nine people responded to the questionnaire: age range of 18-75 years during a twelve week collection period. Overall, 32 respondents with diabetes were using some form of CAM, resulting in a utilisation rate of 46.3%. Twenty of the 32 CAM users used CAM specifically to treat their diabetes accounting for 28.9% of the respondent sample population. Multivitamins (40%, cinnamon, Co-enzyme q10 and prayer were the most frequently used CAM modalities. There was no significant difference between males and females, age range, income or diabetes complications between CAM and non-CAM users. (p values each > 0.05 The factor most significantly associated with CAM usage was being born overseas (p = 0.044. Conclusions Almost half the respondents (46.3% used CAM: 28% used CAM specifically to treat their diabetes. Individuals born overseas were significantly more likely to use CAM than those born in Australia. Other factors such as age, gender, wealth and duration of living with diabetes were not associated with higher rate of CAM usage.

  19. Daily tritium intakes by people living near a heavy-water research reactor facility: dosimetric significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Cornett, R.J.; Galeriu, D.; Workman, W.; Brown, R.M.

    1997-02-01

    We have estimated the relative daily intakes of tritiated water (HTO) and organically bound tritium (OBT), and have measured HTO-in-urine, in an adult population residing in the town of Deep River, Ontario, near a heavy-water research reactor facility at Chalk River. The daily intake of elevated levels of atmospheric tritium has been estimated from its concentration in environmental and biological samples, and various food items from a local tritium-monitoring program. Where the available data were inadequate, we used estimates generated by an environmental tritium-transfer model. From these data and estimates, we calculated a total daily tritium intake of about 55 Bq. Of this amount, 2.5 Bq is obtained from OBT-in-diet. Inhalation of HTO-in-air (15 Bq d -1 ) and HTO-in-drinking water (15 Bq d -1 ) accounts for more than half of the HTO intake. Skin absorption of HTO from air and bathing or swimming (for 30 min d -1 ) accounts for another 9 Bq d -1 and 0.1 Bq d -1 , respectively. The remaining intake of HTO is from food as tissue-free water tritium. The International Commission on Radiological Protection's recommended two-compartment metabolic model for tritium predicts an equilibrium body burden of about 900 Bq from HTO (818 Bq) and OBT (83 Bq) in the body, which corresponds to an annual tritium dose of 0.41 μSv. The model-predicted urinary excretion of HTO (∼18 Bq L -1 ) agrees well with measured HTO-in-urine (range, 10-32 Bq L -1 ). The OBT dose contribution to the total tritium dose is about 16%. We conclude that for the people living near the Chalk River research reactor facility, the bulk of the tritium dose is due to HTO intake. (author)

  20. Factors associated with self-rated health in older people living in institutions

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    Pastor-Barriuso Roberto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although self-rated health has been extensively studied in community older people, its determinants have seldom been investigated in institutional settings. We carried out a cross-sectional study to describe the physical, mental, and social factors associated with self-rated health in nursing homes and other geriatric facilities. Methods A representative sample of 800 subjects 65 years of age and older living in 19 public and 30 private institutions of Madrid was randomly selected through stratified cluster sampling. Residents, caregivers, physicians, and nurses were interviewed by trained geriatricians using standardized instruments to assess self-rated health, chronic illnesses, functional capacity, cognitive status, depressive symptoms, vision and hearing problems, and social support. Results Of the 669 interviewed residents (response rate 84%, 55% rated their health as good or very good. There was no association with sex or age. Residents in private facilities and those who completed primary education had significantly better health perception. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval for worse health perception was 1.18 (1.07–1.28 for each additional chronic condition, 2.37 (1.38–4.06 when comparing residents with moderate dependency to those functionally independent, and 10.45 (5.84–18.68 when comparing residents with moderate/severe depressive symptoms to those without symptoms. Visual problems were also associated with worse health perception. Similar results were obtained in subgroup analyses, except for inconsistencies in cognitively impaired individuals. Conclusion Chronic conditions, functional status, depressive symptoms and socioeconomic factors were the main determinants of perceived health among Spanish institutionalized elderly persons. Doubts remain about the proper assessment of subjective health in residents with altered cognition.

  1. Prevalence and correlates of psychosocial conditions among people living with HIV in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Brian T; Pradeep, Amrose; Prasad, Lakshmi; Murugesan, Vinothini; Chandrasekaran, Ezhilarasi; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2017-06-01

    Psychosocial conditions such as depression, intimate partner violence (IPV), and history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have been associated with poor HIV-related outcomes. In India, which has the third largest HIV epidemic in the world, little is understood about the impact of psychosocial conditions on people living with HIV (PLHIV). We aimed to understand the prevalence and correlates of psychosocial conditions among PLHIV entering into HIV care at the Y.R. Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education in Chennai, India. Thirteen questions were added to the standard voluntary counseling and testing questionnaire, including the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (a depression scale) and questions assessing for CSA and IPV. We fitted logistic regression models, stratified by gender, with psychosocial condition as the outcome of interest and substance use variables and socio-demographic variables as the correlates of interest. Three hundred and eighty-three persons were enrolled into the study; of these, 253 (66%) tested positive for HIV, including 149 men and 104 women, and were included in the models. More than one-quarter (28%) of the men and 19% of the women reported at least one psychosocial condition (probable depression, CSA, or IPV). In adjusted analysis, current alcohol use was associated with greater than two times higher odds of a psychosocial condition (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 2.24, 95% CI, 1.04-4.85) among men. In conclusion, we estimated the prevalence of probable depression, CSA, and IPV among PLHIV presenting for HIV care in southern India and found that, among male PLHIV, alcohol use was associated with a markedly higher odds of reporting a psychosocial condition. Further study is needed to characterize alcohol use among male PLHIV and the possible deleterious impact of psychosocial conditions and alcohol use on HIV-related outcomes in India.

  2. Awareness of HIV Status, Prevention Knowledge and Condom Use among People Living with HIV in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokubo, E. Kainne; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Young, Peter W.; Neal, Joyce J.; Aberle-Grasse, John; Honwana, Nely; Mbofana, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine factors associated with HIV status unawareness and assess HIV prevention knowledge and condom use among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in Mozambique. Design Cross-sectional household-based nationally representative AIDS Indicator Survey. Methods Analyses focused on HIV-infected adults and were weighted for the complex sampling design. We identified PLHIV who had never been tested for HIV or received their test results prior to this survey. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with HIV status unawareness. Results Of persons with positive HIV test results (N = 1182), 61% (95% confidence interval [CI] 57–65%) were unaware of their serostatus. Men had twice the odds of being unaware of their serostatus compared with women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.05, CI 1.40–2.98]. PLHIV in the poorest wealth quintile were most likely to be unaware of their serostatus (aOR 3.15, CI 1.09–9.12) compared to those in the middle wealth quintile. Most PLHIV (83%, CI 79–87%) reported not using a condom during their last sexual intercourse, and PLHIV who reported not using a condom during their last sexual intercourse were more likely to be unaware of their serostatus (aOR 2.32, CI 1.57–3.43) than those who used a condom. Conclusions Knowledge of HIV-positive status is associated with more frequent condom use in Mozambique. However, most HIV-infected persons are unaware of their serostatus, with men and persons in the poorest wealth quintile being more likely to be unaware. These findings support calls for expanded HIV testing, especially among groups less likely to be aware of their HIV status and key populations at higher risk for infection. PMID:25222010

  3. Stigma, activism, and well-being among people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Rosenthal, Lisa; Lang, Shawn M

    2016-01-01

    Evidence demonstrates that HIV stigma undermines the psychological and physical health of people living with HIV (PLWH). Yet, PLWH describe engaging in HIV activism to challenge stigma, and research suggests that individuals may benefit from activism. We examine associations between experiences of HIV stigma and HIV activism, and test whether HIV activists benefit from greater well-being than non-activists. Participants include 93 PLWH recruited from drop-in centers, housing programs, and other organizations providing services to PLWH in the Northeastern USA between 2012 and 2013 (mean age = 50 years; 56% Black, 20% White, 18% Other; 61% non-Latino(a), 39% Latino(a); 59% male, 38% female, 3% transgender; 82% heterosexual, 15% sexual minority). Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Results of regression analyses suggest that PLWH who experienced greater enacted stigma engaged in greater HIV activism. Anticipated, internalized, and perceived public stigma, however, were unrelated to HIV activism. Moreover, results of a multivariate analysis of variance suggest that HIV activists reported greater social network integration, greater social well-being, greater engagement in active coping with discrimination, and greater meaning in life than non-activists. Yet, HIV activists also reported somewhat greater depressive symptoms than non-activists, suggesting that the association between HIV activism and well-being is complex. By differentiating between HIV stigma mechanisms, the current study provides a more nuanced understanding of which experiences of HIV stigma may be associated with HIV activism. It further suggests that engagement in activism may offer benefits to PLWH, while raising the possibility that activists could experience greater depressive symptoms than non-activists. Given the preliminary nature of this study, future research should continue to examine these complex associations between HIV stigma, activism, and well-being among PLWH

  4. Determinants of Employment in People Living with HIV in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Marlies N; van den Dries, Lennert; Van Exel, Job; Miedema, Harald S; van Gorp, Eric C M; Roelofs, Pepijn D D M

    2018-03-01

    Objectives Since HIV has become a manageable chronic disease, employment is of increasing importance for people living with HIV (PLWH). This study aimed to investigate the level of work participation among PLWH in the Netherlands, and the associated determinants of employment. Methods For this study the baseline measurements of a longitudinal cohort study with a 2-year follow-up, the TREVI project, were used. The TREVI project aims to study cognitive function disorders among PLWH in relation to their employment, productivity, and social functioning. From December 2012 until December 2013, data on cognitive functioning, measured by the HIV Dementia Scale, and medical data derived from patient records were collected. Employment status and possible determinants of employment were assessed by a digital survey. Chi square analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted in order to investigate the level of employment and associated determinants of employment. Results This cross-sectional study revealed significant differences in the level of employment compared with Dutch reference data: i.e. in the age group 40-54 years PLWH had a significantly lower employment rate than the general Dutch population. Multivariate analysis showed that employment was negatively associated with a lower or higher age (reference: 40-54 years), a longer period since diagnosis, problems with physical functioning, and a higher score on the HADS Depression. Having paid work at diagnosis was positively associated with employment. Conclusion PLWH, particularly in the age of 40-54, in the Netherlands have a significant lower level of employment compared to the general population. Counseling should address reduced psychological and physical functioning in order to improve the position of PLWH on the labor market.

  5. Has the employment status of people living with HIV changed since the early 2000s?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annequin, Margot; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2015-07-31

    In a context marked by major changes in the field of HIV and in the general socioeconomic context, this study aimed at investigating changes in the employment situation of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in France since the early 2000s. Repeated cross-sectional survey among two nationally representative samples of PLWHIV followed at hospital in France in 2003 (N = 2932) and 2011 (N = 3022). Differences between 2003 and 2011 in (1) rates of employment, unemployment, and inactivity and (2) rates of work cessation and access to work following HIV diagnosis were measured using two-step multivariate Poisson regression models adjusted for individual sociodemographic determinants of position on the labor market, and then additionally for health status characteristics. Overall, among working-age PLWHIV 60.9% in 2003 and 59.6% in 2011 were employed; 12.6 and 15.8%, respectively, were unemployed; and 26.5 and 24.6%, respectively, were inactive. Adjusting for sociodemographic determinants of position on the labor market, while employment rate was not different in 2011 compared with 2003, inactivity rate significantly decreased (adjusted prevalence rate ratio: 0.83, 95% confidence interval: [0.72-0.96]) and unemployment rate significantly increased (1.28 [1.04-1.57]). After additional adjustment for health status characteristics, the difference was no longer significant for inactivity (0.89 [0.77-1.03]) but remained significant for unemployment (1.55 [1.24-1.93]). Compared with 2003, in 2011 transitions to unemployment following HIV diagnosis tended to be more frequent (1.58 [0.92-2.68]) and access to work was significantly less frequent (0.57 [0.33-0.99]). Improvements in HIV care have not translated into improvements in PLWHIV's situation regarding employment.

  6. Stigmatizing attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS: validation of a measurement scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Marianne; Adrien, Alix; Potvin, Louise; Dassa, Clément

    2014-12-04

    Although stigmatization has long been recognized as a major obstacle to HIV prevention. The lack of a valid and reliable measurement tool for stigmatization is a major gap in the research. This study aimed to: 1) develop a scale of stigmatizing attitudes towards people living with HIV (SAT-PLWHA-S) and 2) demonstrate its reliability and validity. French and English-speaking experts (n = 21) from different professional communities (academics, practitioners) assessed the clarity and relevance of the proposed items. The psychometric properties of the SAT-PLWHA-S were assessed with a random digit dial population based telephone survey (n = 1,500) of respondents in Quebec, Canada. Analyses included exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, correlations, multiple linear regressions, t-tests, hypothesis testing of factorial structure invariance, and Cronbach's alpha. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported a 27-item structure with seven factors: 1) concerns about occasional encounters; 2) avoidance of personal contact; 3) responsibility and blame, 4) liberalism, 5) non-discrimination, 6) confidentiality of seropositive status, and 7) criminalization of HIV transmission. Cronbach's alphas indicate satisfactory internal consistency. An assessment of concurrent validity using Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression shows that homophobia and HIV transmission knowledge are significant determinants of stigmatizing attitudes toward PLHIV. Discriminant validity (t-test) results suggest that the SAT-PLWHA-S can differentiate attitudes between different groups and indicates invariant factor structure across language. The results of this study suggest that the SAT-PLWHA-S is a reliable and valid tool for measuring stigmatizing attitudes toward PLHIV and that it can contribute to a deeper understanding of HIV stigma.

  7. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among People Living with HIV in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Sivaraj; Ponnampalvanar, Sasheela; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a group of components associated with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of MS in the HIV population is increasing in epidemic proportions globally. However, the magnitude and characteristics of MS are not fully elucidated in developing countries. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the prevalence of MS and its components among people living with HIV (PLWH) in developing countries. Searches were carried out in MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, other web sources, and by hand search. Articles were restricted to English language studies reporting on the prevalence of MS among PLWH in developing countries. Eighteen articles were included in the review. The studies were divided into Africa, South America, and Asia regions. The most frequent criterion used in the review was the National Cholesterol Education Program: Adult Treatment Program III 2001 definition. The prevalence of MS among PLWH ranged from 8.4% to 47% across the developing regions and comparable to the overall prevalence across the developed regions (7.8-52.2%). The mean prevalence was 30.5%, 21.5%, and 21.4% in Africa, Asia, and South America, respectively. The most frequent component observed was low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (50.1%). This systematic review provides an essential overview on the distribution of MS in the HIV population across the developing regions. As these prevalences were comparably high in the developed regions, this review highlights the need for more robust research in developing countries.

  8. Knowledge and psychosocial wellbeing of nurses caring for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufuno Makhado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of caring for people living with HIV (PLWH in a low-resource setting has had a negative impact on the nursing profession, resulting in a shortage of skilled nurses. In response to this shortage and perceived negative impact, we conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study to describe the level of knowledge and psychosocial wellbeing of nurses caring for PLWH at a regional hospital in Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 233 nurses, the majority being female, participated and were stratified into professional nurses (n = 108, enrolled nurses (n = 58 and enrolled nursing auxiliaries (n = 66. Data were collected using HIV/AIDS knowledge questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory; AIDS Impact Scale and Beck's Depression Inventory. The total knowledge score obtained by all the participants ranged from 2 to 16, with an average of 12.93 (SD = 1.92 on HIV/AIDS knowledge. Depersonalization (D (83.7% and emotional exhaustion (EE (53.2% were reported among participating nurses caring for PLWH. Burnout was higher among professional nurses as compared to both enrolled nurses and enrolled nursing auxiliaries. There was a moderate negative significant correlation between HIV knowledge with the nurses' emotional exhaustion (r = −0.592, depression (r = −0.584 and stigma and discrimination (r = −0.637. A moderate to high level of burnout was evident among all levels of nurses. These findings lead to the recommendations for support of nurses caring for PLWH that include structured nursing educational support, organisational support with respect to employee wellness programmes that address depression and work burnout, as well as social support. The provision of these support mechanisms has the potential of creating a positive practice environment for nurses in the Vhembe District of the Limpopo Province in particular, and South Africa in general, and in improved care for PLWH.

  9. Creating contexts for effective homebased care of people living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Campbell

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Home-based care (HBC plays a vital role in the care of people living with AIDS. Most carers perform their arduous role in adverse conditions. Yet little is known about how to facilitate contexts that maximise the effectiveness of carers. This paper reviews existing research into home-based care in sub-Saharan Africa to highlight gaps in understanding and to outline new conceptual frameworks for future research. Current research identifies multi-level factors that undermine carers in performing their role. These include e.g. lack of knowledge, skills and support - both at the individual and organisational levels; physical and psychological burnout; the destruction of household economies in the face of the demands of care; community stigma and rejection. Research and policy documents repeatedly advocate ‘partnerships’ or ‘linkages’ between carers/ patients and more powerful groupings (locally, nationally and/or internationally as a solution to these problems. Yet they give no indication as how best to mobilise already over-burdened carers and their terminally ill charges. Furthermore, partnerships between poor communities and more influential groupings and agencies are notoriously difficult to promote and sustain. If partnerships are indeed to play such a key role in supporting carers and their patients, there is an urgent need for systematic research into the effectiveness of various partnership styles and strategies. The concepts of bonding, bridging and linking social capital - within a framework sensitive to the interaction between social capital and poverty - are put forward as a valuable starting point for the development of better understandings of the types of networks and partnerships most likely to support carers and their local communities.

  10. Knowledge and psychosocial wellbeing of nurses caring for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufuno Makhado

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of caring for people living with HIV (PLWH in a low-resource setting has had a negative impact on the nursing profession, resulting in a shortage of skilled nurses. In response to this shortage and perceived negative impact, we conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study to describe the level of knowledge and psychosocial wellbeing of nurses caring for PLWH at a regional hospital in Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 233 nurses, the majority being female, participated and were stratified into professional nurses (n =108, enrolled nurses (n = 58 and enrolled nursing auxiliaries (n = 66. Data were collected using HIV/AIDS knowledge questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory; AIDS Impact Scale and Beck's Depression Inventory. The total knowledge score obtained by all the participants ranged from 2 to 16, with an average of 12.93 (SD = 1.92 on HIV/AIDS knowledge. Depersonalization (D (83.7% and emotional exhaustion (EE (53.2% were reported among participating nurses caring for PLWH. Burnout was higher among professional nurses as compared to both enrolled nurses and enrolled nursing auxiliaries. There was a moderate negative significant correlation between HIV knowledge with the nurses' emotional exhaustion (r = 0.592, depression (r = 0.584 and stigma and discrimination (r = 0.637. A moderate to high level of burnout was evident among all levels of nurses. These findings lead to the recommendations for support of nurses caring for PLWH that include structured nursing educational support, organisational support with respect to employee wellness programmes that address depression and work burnout, as well as social support. The provision of these support mechanisms has the potential of creating a positive practice environment for nurses in the Vhembe District of the Limpopo Province in particular, and South Africa in general, and in improved care for PLWH.

  11. Empowering billions with food safety and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, Suresh D.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: There are virtually millions of people -who die needlessly every year due to contaminated water and food. There are virtually many millions more who are starving due to an inadequate supply of food. Billions of pounds of food are unnecessarily wasted due to insect and other damage. Deaths and illness due to contaminated food or inadequate food are at catastrophic levels in many regions of the world. A majority of the food and water borne illnesses and deaths are preventable. It can be prevented by improved food production methods, improved food processing technologies, improved food distribution systems and improved personal hygiene. Food irradiation technology is over 100 years old. Yet, this technology is poorly understood by governments and corporate decision makers all around the world. Many consumers also are unfortunately misinformed of this technology. There is an urgent need for nations and people around the world to empower themselves with the knowledge and the expertise to harness this powerful technology. Widespread and sensible adoption of this technology can empower billions around the world with clean and abundant food supplies. It is unconscionable in the 21st century for governments to allow people to die or go hungry when the technology to prevent them is readily available

  12. "Heroes" and "Villains" in the Lives of Children and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sally; Smith, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the responses of nearly 1,200 children and young people in Wales who were asked to identify which three famous people they most admired and which three they most disliked. Analysis of these young people's responses reveals a number of sociological and educational issues. Their selections confirm other research which has…

  13. Eating in the City: A Review of the Literature on Food Insecurity and Indigenous People Living in Urban Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Skinner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous people often occupy different overlapping or co-existing food environments that include market-based foods, land and water based foods, and combinations of the two. Studying these food environments is complicated by the cultural and geographic diversity of Indigenous people and the effects of colonialism, land dispossession, relocation and forced settlement on static reserves, and increasing migration to urban areas. We conducted a scoping study of food insecurity and Indigenous peoples living in urban spaces in Canada, the United States, and Australia. The 16 studies reviewed showed that food insecurity among urban Indigenous populations is an issue in all three nations. Findings highlight both the variety of experiences of urban Indigenous peoples within and across the three nations, and the commonalities of these experiences.

  14. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    underneath me; I really wanted to be catapulted into a different culture. Going to teach in Zimbabwe just meant fulfilling an awful lot of things in one go really - teaching science as well as going to live in a completely different place and being the only white person for 60 miles. But I didn't want to teach in a school forever. With something like science communication, and the joy of working on this exhibition at @Bristol for example, I've been able to try to appeal to all ages and kinds of people. And I've also been able to use different media, such as hands-on exhibits or computers, give talks or run events. What do you think the role of the exhibition is? We're much more interested in getting people excited, motivated and inspired by science and natural history rather than just trying to get across facts. We also think it's important to enable people to feel more confident about their own science and feel they can have a view about science issues. Do you have a wide range of visitors from primary school children to adults? Absolutely. I think a lot of people see hands-on science centres as being places for kids and we really wanted to make sure that teenagers, adults and senior citizens would see it as a place that was appropriate for them. So we actually split the exhibition up into four different areas in order to appeal to different age groups in different ways. For instance our area on the brain and body is more appropriate for teenagers, adults and senior citizens; small children will still find fun things to do, but there are other areas that are much more engaging for them. Whereas for adults finding out about themselves, finding out what they react to emotionally, finding out more about sex and reproduction, is something that they have responded to really well. And the great thing has been seeing teenagers coming in, choosing to come to a science centre on a Saturday afternoon. Quite a few teenagers have said that they came here with their families and now

  15. Is a change in functional capacity or dependency in activities of daily living associated with a change in mental health among older people living in residential care facilities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conradsson M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mia Conradsson,1 Håkan Littbrand,1,2 Gustaf Boström,1 Nina Lindelöf,1 Yngve Gustafson,1 Erik Rosendahl1,2 1Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 2Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Aim: Functional capacity and dependency in activities of daily living (ADL could be important mediators for an association between physical exercise and mental health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a change in functional capacity or dependency in ADL is associated with a change in depressive symptoms and psychological well-being among older people living in residential care facilities, and whether dementia can be a moderating factor for this association. Methods: A prospective cohort study was undertaken. Participants were 206 older people, dependent in ADL, living in residential care facilities, 115 (56% of whom had diagnosed dementia. Multivariate linear regression, with comprehensive adjustment for potential confounders, was used to investigate associations between differences over 3 months in Berg Balance Scale (BBS and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15 scores, and in BBS and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS scores. Associations were also investigated between differences in Barthel ADL Index and GDS-15 scores, and in Barthel ADL Index and PGCMS scores. Results: There were no significant associations between changes in scores over 3 months; the unstandardized β for associations between BBS and GDS-15 was 0.026 (P=0.31, BBS and PGCMS 0.045 (P=0.14, Barthel ADL Index and GDS-15 0.123 (P=0.06, and Barthel ADL Index and PGCMS -0.013 (P=0.86. There were no interaction effects for dementia. Conclusion: A change in functional capacity or dependency in ADL does not appear to be associated with a change in depressive symptoms or psychological well-being among older people living in residential care

  16. Subjective Well-Being Is Associated with Food Behavior and Demographic Factors in Chronically Ill Older Japanese People Living Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, M; Yokoyama, T; Hayashi, F; Takemi, Y; Nakaya, T; Fukuda, Y; Kusama, K; Nozue, M; Yoshiike, N; Murayama, N

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationships among subjective well-being, food and health behaviors, socioeconomic factors, and geography in chronically ill older Japanese adults living alone. The design was a cross-sectional, multilevel survey. A questionnaire was distributed by post and self-completed by participants. The sample was drawn from seven towns and cities across Japan. A geographic information system was used to select a representative sample of older people living alone based on their proximity to a supermarket. Study recruitment was conducted with municipal assistance. To assess subjective well-being and food and health behaviors of respondents with disease, a logistic regression analysis was performed using stepwise variable analyses, adjusted for respondent age, socioeconomic status, and proximity to a supermarket. The dependent variable was good or poor subjective well-being. In total, 2,165 older people (744 men, 1,421 women) completed the questionnaire (63.5% response rate). Data from 737 men and 1,414 women were used in this study. Among people with a chronic disease, individuals with good subjective well-being had significantly higher rates than those with poor subjective well-being for satisfaction with meal quality and chewing ability, food diversity, food intake frequency, perception of shopping ease, having someone to help with food shopping, eating home-produced vegetables, preparing breakfast themselves, eating with other people, and high alcohol consumption. A stepwise logistic analysis showed that the factors strongly related to poor subjective well-being were shopping difficulty (men: odds ratio [OR] = 3.19, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.94-5.23; P Subjective well-being of people with chronic diseases is associated with food intake and food behavior. The factors that affect poor subjective well-being in chronically ill older Japanese people living alone include food accessibility and social communication.

  17. FY97 nuclear-related budgets total 493 billion yen (4.4 billion dollars)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    On September 13, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan announced the estimated nuclear-related budget requests for FY1997 (April, 1997 - Mach, 1998), giving the breakdowns for eight ministries and agencies. The total amount requested by the government bodies was 493.3 billion yen, 0.8% increase as compared with FY96. this figure includes the budget requests of the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Transport, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the Okinawa Development Agency, and the Ministry of Home Affairs, but excludes the budget request made by the Ministry of Education. The budget requests of STA and MITI are 360 billion yen and 126 billion yen, respectively. On August 29, STA released its estimated FY97 budget request. The nuclear-related 360.4 billion yen is 0.9% more than that in year before. Of this sum, 199.9 billion yen is in the general account, and 160.6 billion yen is in the special account for power source development. The details of the nuclear-related amounts are explained. On August 26, MITI released its estimated budget request for FY97, and of the nuclear-related 125.7 billion yen (0.1% increase from FY96), 200 million yen is in the general account, and 98.9 billion yen and 26.6 billion yen are in the special accounts for power resource development and power source diversification, respectively. (K.I.)

  18. Self-efficacy in Activities of daily living and symptom management in people with dizziness: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridberg, Helena; Gustavsson, Catharina

    2017-11-24

    Self-efficacy is associated with health status, health behaviour and health behaviour change in various chronic health conditions. To describe self-efficacy in relation to Activities of daily living and symptom management in people with dizziness. Thirteen women and three men, aged 45-82 years, with persistent dizziness (duration 4 months to 30 years) were recruited from an outpatient physiotherapy unit. A qualitative study was conducted using four focus groups and one individual interview and was then analysed with qualitative content analysis. The participants conveyed, in-depth information concerning two predefined main categories. Self-efficacy in Activities of daily living was related to challenging body positions and motions, environments, social activities, work tasks, and complex cognitive behaviours. Self-efficacy in symptom management was related to distress and aggravated symptoms, unfamiliar environment, and unknown people. People with dizziness describe how self-efficacy for specific activities varies according to the perceived difficulty of the task, the context of the activity, and day-to-day variations in general wellbeing. The results underscore the importance of targeting self-efficacy in the rehabilitation of people with dizziness. Our findings can guide the rehabilitation process by providing a deeper understanding of self-efficacy judgements in relation to Activities of daily living and symptom management in people with dizziness. Implication for rehabilitation This study adds important in-depth knowledge to the rehabilitation area on self-efficacy beliefs in relation to Activities of daily living and symptom management in people with dizziness. Self-efficacy for specific activities varies according to the perceived difficulty of the task, the context in which the activity takes place and day-to-day variations in perceived general well-being. The results can be used as a topic list to guide rehabilitation efforts in exploring and

  19. Relation between living environment and daily activities of disabled sport engaged people

    OpenAIRE

    Triščenko, Nikita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of research work: Establish interfaces between living environment and daily acitivity of disabled athletes. Tasks of work: 1. To rate daily activity of disabled athletes. 2. To rate living environment adaptation of disabled athletes. 3. To determine the interfaces between living environment adaptation and daily activity of disabled athletes. Materials and methods: The research was performed from February 2016 to April 2016 at disabled sports and day care club “Friendship“. The study i...

  20. Looking beyond health-related quality of life: predictors of subjective well-being among people living with HIV in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberjé, E.J.M.; Dima, A.L.; van Hulzen, A.G.W.; Prins, J.M.; de Bruin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Health care interventions are increasingly expected to improve subjective well-being (SWB) rather than health-related quality of life (HRQOL) only. However, little is known about how HRQOL and other relevant quality of life (QOL) domains relate to SWB among people living with HIV. People living with

  1. Smoking and renal function in people living with human immunodeficiency virus: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlström MG

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Magnus Glindvad Ahlström,1 Bo Feldt-Rasmussen,2 Rebecca Legarth,1 Gitte Kronborg,3 Court Pedersen,4 Carsten Schade Larsen,5 Jan Gerstoft,1 Niels Obel1 1Department of Infectious Diseases, 2Department of Nephrology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 3Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, 4Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Odense, 5Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Aarhus, Denmark Introduction: Smoking is a main risk factor for morbidity and mortality in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV, but its potential association with renal impairment remains to be established. Methods: We did a nationwide population-based cohort study in Danish PLHIV to evaluate the association between smoking status and 1 overall renal function and risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD, 2 risk of any renal replacement therapy (aRRT, and 3 mortality following aRRT. We calculated estimated creatinine clearance using the Cockcroft–Gault equation (CG-CrCl, and evaluated renal function graphically. We calculated cumulative incidence of CKD (defined as two consecutive CG-CrCls of ≤60 mL/min, ≥3 months apart and aRRT and used Cox regression models to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs for risk of CKD, aRRT, and mortality rate ratios (MRRs following aRRT. Results: From the Danish HIV Cohort Study, we identified 1,475 never smokers, 768 previous smokers, and 2,272 current smokers. During study period, we observed no association of smoking status with overall renal function. Previous and current smoking was not associated with increased risk of CKD (adjusted IRR: 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7–1.7; adjusted IRR: 1.3, 95% CI: 0.9–1.8 or aRRT (adjusted IRR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.4–1.7; adjusted IRR: 0.9, 95% CI: 0.5–1.7. Mortality following aRRT was high in PLHIV and increased in smokers vs never smokers (adjusted MRR: 3

  2. A Web-Based Study of Dog Ownership and Depression Among People Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Abigail L; Kuhns, Lisa M; Supple, Julie; Jacobson, Kristen C; Garofalo, Robert

    2017-11-08

    People living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) are approximately twice as likely to be depressed compared with HIV-negative individuals. Depression is consistently associated with low antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, an important step within the HIV care continuum related to HIV disease progression and overall health. One factor that may have positive psychosocial benefits and promote ART adherence is dog ownership. Research indicates that dog ownership is associated with lower depression, and initial evidence suggests its positive impact on psychosocial outcomes for PLHIV. The aim of our study was to expand the existing research by examining the relationship between current dog ownership and depression for a sample of PLHIV while controlling for demographic characteristics and other potential confounders. Participants aged 18 years or older and who self-reported an HIV diagnosis were recruited via social media into When Dogs Heal, a cross-sectional Web-based survey to collect data among adult PLHIV. The research visit was conducted via a Web-based survey, and there was no in-person interaction with the participant. Primary outcome measures included demographic questions (age, race, ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation), pet ownership (type of pet owned and current dog ownership), depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, 10 items), and resilience (Resilience Research Centre Adult Resilience Measure, 28 items). A total of 252 participants were enrolled into the study in January 2016, with a final analytic sample of 199 participants. Mean age was 49 years, 86.4% (172/199) of participants were male, and 80.4% (160/199) were white. Current dog ownership was prevalent among the sample (68.3%, 136/199). Bivariate analysis indicated that there was no significant relationship between depression and demographic characteristics (age, race, ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation), with P>.05. The multivariate logistic regression

  3. Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV by healthcare providers, Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyissa Garumma T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stigma and discrimination against people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are obstacles in the way of effective responses to HIV. Understanding the extent of stigma / discrimination and the underlying causes is necessary for developing strategies to reduce them. This study was conducted to explore stigma and discrimination against PLHIV amongst healthcare providers in Jimma zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study, employing quantitative and qualitative methods, was conducted in 18 healthcare institutions of Jimma zone, during March 14 to April 14, 2011. A total of 255 healthcare providers responded to questionnaires asking about sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, perceived institutional support and HIV-related stigma and discrimination. Factor analysis was employed to create measurement scales for stigma and factor scores were used in one way analysis of variance (ANOVA, T-tests, Pearson’s correlation and multiple linear regression analyses. Qualitative data collected using key-informant interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs were employed to triangulate with the findings from the quantitative survey. Results Mean stigma scores (as the percentages of maximum scale scores were: 66.4 for the extra precaution scale, 52.3 for the fear of work-related HIV transmission, 49.4 for the lack of feelings of safety, 39.0 for the value-driven stigma, 37.4 for unethical treatment of PLHIV, 34.4 for discomfort around PLHIV and 31.1 for unofficial disclosure. Testing and disclosing test results without consent, designating HIV clients and unnecessary referral to other healthcare institutions and refusal to treat clients were identified. Having in-depth HIV knowledge, the perception of institutional support, attending training on stigma and discrimination, educational level of degree or higher, high HIV case loads, the presence of ART service in the healthcare facility and claiming to be

  4. Rising population cost for treating people living with HIV in the UK, 1997-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundhiya Mandalia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The number of people living with HIV (PLHIV is increasing in the UK. This study estimated the annual population cost of providing HIV services in the UK, 1997-2006 and projected them 2007-2013. METHODS: Annual cost of HIV treatment for PLHIV by stage of HIV infection and type of ART was calculated (UK pounds, 2006 prices. Population costs were derived by multiplying the number of PLHIV by their annual cost for 1997-2006 and projected 2007-2013. RESULTS: Average annual treatment costs across all stages of HIV infection ranged from £17,034 in 1997 to £18,087 in 2006 for PLHIV on mono-therapy and from £27,649 in 1997 to £32,322 in 2006 for those on quadruple-or-more ART. The number of PLHIV using NHS services rose from 16,075 to 52,083 in 2006 and was projected to increase to 78,370 by 2013. Annual population cost rose from £104 million in 1997 to £483 million in 2006, with a projected annual cost between £721 and £758 million by 2013. When including community care costs, costs increased from £164 million in 1997, to £683 million in 2006 and between £1,019 and £1,065 million in 2013. CONCLUSIONS: Increased number of PLHIV using NHS services resulted in rising UK population costs. Population costs are expected to continue to increase, partly due to PLHIV's longer survival on ART and the relative lack of success of HIV preventing programs. Where possible, the cost of HIV treatment and care needs to be reduced without reducing the quality of services, and prevention programs need to become more effective. While high income countries are struggling to meet these increasing costs, middle- and lower-income countries with larger epidemics are likely to find it even more difficult to meet these increasing demands, given that they have fewer resources.

  5. Selenium and aspirin in people living with HIV and AIDS in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durosinmi, M A; Armistead, H; Akinola, N O; Onayemi, O; Adediran, I A; Olasode, O A; Elujoba, A A; Irinoye, O; Ogun, S A; Odusoga, O L; Falola, O L; Muraina, H A

    2008-12-01

    Aspirin and selenium have been shown in vitro and in vivo to inhibit HIV production through inhibition of the transcription factor, the nuclear factor kappa binding (NF-eB). The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy or otherwise of these drugs in people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWAS) in resource limited countries. Consenting HAART-naive PLWAS with mean CD4 count of 256.8 +/- 67.6 cells/ul were recruited into the study. Pretherapy blood count, serum biochemistry, chest x-ray, urinary glucose and protein and microscopy and culture of both urine and stool were checked in all cases. Each patient was treated for six months and CD4 counts were repeated at the end of the study. Thirty two patients (23 (72%) females and nine (28%) males), aged 22-52 (median = 36) years were recruited. Twenty-three (72%) were randomised into selenium and aspirin (SAM) and nine (28%) into selenium (SM); multivitamin was added to each arm. Eighteen (56.2%) patients completed the study. Sixteen (88.9%) patients are already on HAART since the termination of the study; one absconded and one died of disease progression. Fourteen (43.8%) of the initial 32 patients dropped out (11 (78.6%) were lost to follow-up, two (14.3%) died and one (7.1%) opted for HAART before completing the study). The post-treatment CD4 count was 293.0 +/-102.2 cells/ml, compared to the pre-therapy mean of 256.8 +/- 67.6 cells/ul, an average rise of 36.2 cells/ul, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.059). The post-therapy mean weight was significantly higher than the pretherapy weight, 61.6+/-15.2 kg versus 60.0+/-14.3 kg (p = 0.015). The SAM/SM combination regimen improved the quality of life of PLWAS, however, a greater number of patients and a longer period of follow up, are necessary to arrive at a more meaningful conclusion.

  6. The prevalence of malaria in people living with HIV in Yaounde, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Longdoh Njunda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coinfection with malaria and HIV is common in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the advent of a decline in the global incidence of malaria, it is important to generate updated data on the burden of malaria in people living with HIV (PLWHIV. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of malaria in PLWHIV in Yaounde, Cameroon, as well determine the association between CD4 + T cell count and malaria in the study population. Methods In a cross sectional study performed between April 2015 and June 2016, 355 PLWHIV were enrolled and blood samples were collected for analysis. Complete blood count was performed using an automated haematology analyser (Mindray®, BC-2800 and CD4 + T cell count was performed using a flow cytometer (BD FASCount™. Giemsa-stained blood films were examined to detect malaria parasite. The Pearson’s chi-square, student’s T-test, ANOVA, and correlation analysis were all performed as part of the statistical analyses. Results The prevalence of malaria observed in the study was 7.3 % (95 % CI: 4.8–10.6. No significant association was observed between the prevalence of malaria and age or gender. The prevalence of malaria was higher in participants who were not sleeping in insecticide treated bed nets, ITNs (p < 0.001; and in participants who were not on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (p = 0.002. The prevalence of malaria (p < 0.001 and malaria parasite density (p = 0.005 were observed to be progressively higher in participants with CD4 + T cell count below 200cells/μl. Furthermore, the mean CD4 + T cell count was observed to be lower in participants coinfected with malaria compared to non-coinfected participants (323.5 vs 517.7 (p < 0.001. In this study, a negative correlation was observed between malaria parasite density and CD4 + T cell count (p = 0.019. Conclusions A low prevalence of malaria was observed in the study population. Some of the factors accounting for the low prevalence

  7. New living for elderly people. An outline of domotics and sustainability for elderly people; Het nieuwe wonen voor ouderen. Een omgevingsverkenning naar domotica en duurzaamheid voor ouderen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dries, J.; Ellen, G.J.; Den Blanken, M. [TNO Strategie, Technologie en Beleid TNO-STB, Delft (Netherlands); Maas, N. [TNO Bouw, Delft (Netherlands)

    2003-03-01

    A brief overview is given of the possibilities for elderly people to make use of domotics in order to live on one's own. The results of the title study are based on literature and other information sources. [Dutch] Dit rapport geeft een beknopt overzicht van de mogelijkheden om met behulp van domotica ouderen langer zelfstandig en duurzaam te laten wonen. Binnen het begrip duurzaamheid wordt onderscheid gemaakt tussen ecologische duurzaamheid (planet), economische duurzaamheid (profit) en sociale duurzaamheid (people). Hiertoe zijn projecten, literatuur en andere informatiebronnen verzameld op het terrein van domotica, duurzaamheid en ouderen waaruit blijkt dat er, sinds domotica de laatste tien jaar actueel is geworden, al enorm veel geprobeerd en geschreven is. Met name de combinatie 'ouderen en domotica' en 'domotica en duurzaamheid' levert veel materiaal op. Zeldzamer is echter de combinatie van alledrie de elementen.

  8. People living with HIV /AIDS (PLWHA) and HIV/AIDS associated oral lesions; a study in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Saad A; Moorthy, Jayanthy; Omar, Hanan; Hasan, Syed Shahzad

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The continuous increase in number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) represents a serious health and economic burden. HIV positive individuals with oral lesions have significantly lower oral health-related quality of life than HIV positive individuals without oral lesions. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) within a cohort of HIV/AIDS positive patients towards HIV/AIDS associated oral lesions. Methods Two hundred seven...

  9. Motivational determinants of exergame participation for older people in assisted living facilities : Mixed-methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meekes, W.M.A.; Stanmore, E.K.

    2017-01-01

    Exergames (exercise-based videogames) for delivering strength and balance exercise for older people are growing in popularity with the emergence of new Kinect-based technologies; however, little is known about the factors affecting their uptake and usage by older people.The aim of this study was to

  10. Critical Time Intervention for Homeless People Making the Transition to Community Living: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vet, R. de; Beijersbergen, M.D.; Jonker, I.E.; Lako, D.A.M.; Hemert, A.M. van; Herman, D.B.; Wolf, J.R.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    To help create an evidence base in Europe for effective interventions that improve the well-being of homeless people, we tested whether critical time intervention (CTI), a time-limited intervention developed to support vulnerable people during times of transition, is effective outside the United

  11. Affinity Spaces: How Young People Live and Learn on Line and out of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    2018-01-01

    In the digital age, young people's most powerful learning opportunities often occur online, in experiences and environments created by people working outside of the K-12 school system. In a sense, the internet has given new life to an older, less formal approach to education, in which individuals seek out and learn from others who share their…

  12. A place to live: housing needs for people with psychotic disorders identified in the second Australian National Survey of Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Carol; Killackey, Eoin; Groves, Aaron; Herrman, Helen

    2012-09-01

    Access to adequate housing consistent with personal preferences and needs is a human right and supports recovery from psychosis. This study aimed to: (1) describe people with psychosis living in different housing types, and their preferences and needs; (2) explore selected demographic and social inclusion correlates in relation to housing; and (3) compare two subgroups - participants living in supported group accommodation and supported housing - on key demographic, functional, clinical and social inclusion variables. Current housing, preferences, needs and assistance, and housing-related social inclusion variables were assessed in a two-phase prevalence survey conducted within seven catchment areas across five Australian states. Two supported housing models were compared: supported group accommodation and supported housing (rental accommodation with in-reach support). Descriptive statistics were used. Of the total participants (n = 1825), one half were living in public or private rented housing (48.6%) and 22.7% were waiting for public housing. Despite being the preferred form of housing, only 13.1% were living in their own home. One in 20 participants (5.2%) was currently homeless; 12.8% had been homeless in the previous 12 months. Residents of supported group accommodation felt safer in their locality than those in supported housing, but experienced less privacy and choice. Although fewer participants were homeless compared with the first Australian survey of psychosis, the proportion remains high. Housing difficulties are experienced by people with psychoses living in various accommodation and concern housing adequacy and safety as well as autonomy and choice. Access to public housing is restricted compared with the identified need. Since residents of supported group accommodation felt safer in their locality than those in supported housing, but experienced less privacy and choice, each supported housing model may offer different advantages to people with

  13. Association between Food Insecurity and Procurement Methods among People Living with HIV in a High Resource Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, Aranka; Fielden, Sarah J.; Shurgold, Susan; Ding, Erin; Messina, Jennifer; Jones, Jennifer E.; Chittock, Brian; Monteith, Ken; Globerman, Jason; Rourke, Sean B.; Hogg, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective People living with HIV in high-resource settings suffer severe levels of food insecurity; however, limited evidence exists regarding dietary intake and sub-components that characterize food insecurity (i.e. food quantity, quality, safety or procurement) in this population. We examined the prevalence and characteristics of food insecurity among people living with HIV across British Columbia, Canada. Design This cross-sectional analysis was conducted within a national community-based research initiative. Methods Food security was measured using the Health Canada Household Food Security Scale Module. Logistic regression was used to determine key independent predictors of food insecurity, controlling for potential confounders. Results Of 262 participants, 192 (73%) reported food insecurity. Sub-components associated with food insecurity in bivariate analysis included: food in the past six months (p = 0.010); and procurement of food using non-traditional methods (p food insecurity included: procurement of food using non-traditional methods [AOR = 11.11, 95% CI: 4.79–25.68, p = Food insecurity among people living with HIV in British Columbia is characterized by poor dietary quality and food procurement methods. Notably, participants who reported procuring in non-traditional manners were over 10 times more likely to be food insecure. These findings suggest a need for tailored food security and social support interventions in this setting. PMID:27487041

  14. A study on quality of life between elderly people living in old age home and within family setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Panday

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ageing in the new millennium will be greatly influenced by both global and region specific factors, although increasing numbers as well as significant changes in the socio-cultural milieu are responsible for the recent emphasis on studies pertaining to older adults in India. This has resulted in the caregiver issue becoming a growing concern for national policy makers. The family as a single unit is undergoing changes leading to significant adjustments in accommodating and caring for older adults in the family, making them more vulnerable to illness and psychosocial strains in the absence of familial support network. Aim: To assess and compare quality of life (QOL between elderly people living in old age home and within the family setup. Methods and materials: A cross sectional research design was adopted for the study. The study was conducted at two old age homes and two areas of Ranchi - Kantatoli and Kanke. The sample comprised of 80 participants who were further divided into 40 participants from old age homes and 40 participants from family. Tools such as socio-demographic data sheet and QOL scale were administered to obtain the data. Result and conclusion: Findings of this study indicate that QOL was better of those elderly people who were living in old age home in comparison of those elderly people who were living within family setup.

  15. The Lived Experiences of Participating in Physical Activity among Young People with Mental Health Problems. A Recovery-Oriented Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staal Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing understanding that psychiatric treatment is more than psychotherapy and medication, and that people themselves can be active in preventing and handling mental health problems. This brings non-medical solutions into play. Physical activity (in terms of exercise, sport, and fitness becomes an important contribution in this particular context. The perceived mental and physical benefits of physical activity (both preventative and therapeutic for people experiencing mental health problems are well documented. Typically, this kind of research focuses narrowly on “size of effect” or “most successful type of intervention” or “exercise versus other treatment.” Less research has explored the lived experience of physical activity and the meaning and relevance it has for individuals in their everyday lives. This article suggests that sport and exercise can play a valuable role in and contribute to the recovery process for young people with mental health problems. Results from an evaluation study of a developmental project in Denmark shows how physical activity affects a person‟s lived experiences, relationships, and pursuits. The findings is discussed in relation to the concept of recovery, especially focusing on exercise as a form of self-care strategy, as an opportunity to create social relationships, and as a way to become part of a meaningful social activity.

  16. Association between Food Insecurity and Procurement Methods among People Living with HIV in a High Resource Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, Aranka; Fielden, Sarah J; Shurgold, Susan; Ding, Erin; Messina, Jennifer; Jones, Jennifer E; Chittock, Brian; Monteith, Ken; Globerman, Jason; Rourke, Sean B; Hogg, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    People living with HIV in high-resource settings suffer severe levels of food insecurity; however, limited evidence exists regarding dietary intake and sub-components that characterize food insecurity (i.e. food quantity, quality, safety or procurement) in this population. We examined the prevalence and characteristics of food insecurity among people living with HIV across British Columbia, Canada. This cross-sectional analysis was conducted within a national community-based research initiative. Food security was measured using the Health Canada Household Food Security Scale Module. Logistic regression was used to determine key independent predictors of food insecurity, controlling for potential confounders. Of 262 participants, 192 (73%) reported food insecurity. Sub-components associated with food insecurity in bivariate analysis included: insecurity included: procurement of food using non-traditional methods [AOR = 11.11, 95% CI: 4.79-25.68, p = insecurity among people living with HIV in British Columbia is characterized by poor dietary quality and food procurement methods. Notably, participants who reported procuring in non-traditional manners were over 10 times more likely to be food insecure. These findings suggest a need for tailored food security and social support interventions in this setting.

  17. SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF OLD AGE PEOPLE LIVING IN URBAN & URBAN SLUM AREAS IN MAHARASHTRA, KARAD: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Rahul Salunkhe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Aging refers to normal, progressive and irreversible biological changes that occur over an individual’s life span. The advancement of medical science and increased awareness among the people has brought about a sharp decline in mortality and a steady decline in fertility. This has resulted in a worldwide shift in the demographic profile and has led to significant increase in the aged population. About two thirds of all older people are concentrated in the developing world. OBJECTIVES: to study & compare socio - demographic variables of old age people living in Urban & Urban slum areas. MATERIAL & METHODS: all the old age people living in urb a n slum area & rando mly selected one urban area of K arad town were interviewed by using pre structured proforma about socio - demographic variable & compared with each other. OBSERVATIONS: Total 153 from urban & 135 from urban slum were enrolled for the study. Nearly 2/3 rd subjects were above age 65yrs in both areas with more female proportions in slum area than urban area. Significant difference was found with education, occupation & socio - economic status in both areas. CONCLUSION: Ageing is a universal phenomenon, with advanced fertility control, improvement in health and social services life expectancy has increased. Ageing has profound effect on the individual status in the family, the work force, goals and organization of health, social services, policies and practices of the government

  18. Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Among People Living with HIV and Childhood Sexual Abuse: The Role of Shame and Posttraumatic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Tiara C; Overstreet, Nicole M; Peasant, Courtney; Kershaw, Trace; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Hansen, Nathan B

    2016-08-01

    There is a critical need to examine protective and risk factors of anxiety and depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in order to improve quality of life. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the associations between HIV-related shame, sexual abuse-related shame, posttraumatic growth, and anxiety and depressive symptoms among a cohort of 225 heterosexual women and men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Higher sexual abuse-related shame was related to more anxiety and depressive symptoms for heterosexual women. Higher posttraumatic growth predicted less anxiety symptoms for only heterosexual women. Higher posttraumatic growth predicted less depressive symptoms for heterosexual women and MSM, but the magnitude of this effect was stronger for heterosexual women than MSM. Psychosocial interventions may need to be tailored to meet the specific needs of heterosexual women and MSM living with HIV and CSA.

  19. The problem group? Psychological wellbeing of unmarried people living alone in the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Hwa Ho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of unmarried one-person households has increased rapidly among young adults living in the Republic of Korea since 2000. How this rise in solo living is related to psychological wellbeing is of importance to both individuals and society as a whole. Objective: This study examined how living alone is related to psychological wellbeing and how this association differs across attitudes toward marriage among young adults aged 25-39. Methods: We relied on repeated cross-sectional data from the Korea Social Survey (2010 and 2012 to compare unmarried solo residents to both unmarried and married individuals living with family members. Psychological wellbeing was measured in terms of life satisfaction and suicidal ideation over the past twelve months. Results: In general, unmarried solo residents experienced greater life satisfaction than did unmarried family coresidents. Of those with a positive attitude toward marriage, unmarried solo residents had lower life satisfaction than did married family coresidents. For those with a non-positive attitude toward marriage, however, there was no difference in the level of life satisfaction between unmarried solo residents and married family coresidents. Suicidal ideation did not differ by living arrangement. Conclusions: Unmarried solo living does not necessarily relate to lower psychological wellbeing among young adults in Korea. Life stage and attitudes toward marriage should be considered when examining the association between living arrangements and psychological wellbeing.

  20. Lived experiences of student nurses caring for intellectually disabled people in a public psychiatric institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Temane

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caring for intellectually disabled people can be demanding for student nurses who are novices in the nursing profession. To ensure that quality nursing care is provided, student nurses should have an understanding of and a positive attitude towards intellectually disabled people. Nursing intellectually disabled people can be a challenge for the student nurses. Therefore, student nurses need to be able to deal with challenges of caring for intellectually disabled people. Objective: This article aims to explore and describe experiences of student nurses caring for intellectually disabled people in a public psychiatric institution. Design and method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used. Data were collected through individual in-depth phenomenological interviews, naïve sketches and field notes. Thematic analysis was utilised to analyse the collected data. Results were contextualised within the literature and measures to ensure trustworthiness were adhered to. Ethical principals were also applied throughout the research process. Results: Five themes emerged from the data. Student nurses experienced a profoundly unsettling impact on their whole being when caring for intellectually disabled people; they developed a sense of compassion and a new way of looking at life, and experienced a need for certain physical, mental and spiritual needs to be met. Conclusion: From the results, it is evident that student nurses were challenged in caring for intellectually disabled people. However, they developed a sense of awareness that intellectually disabled people have a need to be cared for like any other person. Keywords: experiences, student nurses, caring, intellectually disabled people, public psychiatric institution

  1. A Review of Smart House Analysis Methods for Assisting Older People Living Alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veralia Gabriela Sanchez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Smart Houses are a prominent field of research referring to environments adapted to assist people in their everyday life. Older people and people with disabilities would benefit the most from the use of Smart Houses because they provide the opportunity for them to stay in their home for as long as possible. In this review, the developments achieved in the field of Smart Houses for the last 16 years are described. The concept of Smart Houses, the most used analysis methods, and current challenges in Smart Houses are presented. A brief introduction of the analysis methods is given, and their implementation is also reported.

  2. The Indigenous Red Ribbon Storytelling Study: What does it mean for Indigenous peoples living with HIV and a substance use disorder to access antiretroviral therapy in Saskatchewan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowgesic, Earl; Meili, Ryan; Stack, Sandra; Myers, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous peoples living with HIV are less likely than non-Indigenous peoples living with HIV to access antiretroviral therapy; however, there is not enough contextual information surrounding this issue. The Indigenous Red Ribbon Storytelling Study was conducted in part to examine how Indigenous peoples living with HIV construct and understand their experiences accessing antiretroviral therapy. Our study design was critical Indigenous qualitative research, using the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use and community-based participatory research approaches. The study was conducted in partnership with Indigenous and non-Indigenous organizations. Study participants were adults from two Canadian cities. The study methods included 20 individual and two Indigenous sharing circle interviews, six participant observation sessions, a short survey and thematic analysis. Accessing antiretroviral therapy within the context of living with a substance use disorder was an overarching theme. Indigenous peoples living with HIV felt they had to choose between living with their active substance use disorder and accessing antiretroviral therapy. They felt misunderstood as a person living with a substance use disorder and often felt coerced into using antiretroviral therapy. Despite these challenges, they persevered as Indigenous peoples living with HIV and a substance use disorder. Further research on antiretroviral therapy access among Indigenous peoples living with HIV and a substance use disorder, particularly from the perspective of health service providers, is needed. PMID:27867444

  3. Development of an optimised key worker framework for people with dementia, their family and caring unit living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renehan, Emma; Goeman, Dianne; Koch, Susan

    2017-07-20

    In Australia, dementia is a national health priority. With the rising number of people living with dementia and shortage of formal and informal carers predicted in the near future, developing approaches to coordinating services in quality-focused ways is considered an urgent priority. Key worker support models are one approach that have been used to assist people living with dementia and their caring unit coordinate services and navigate service systems; however, there is limited literature outlining comprehensive frameworks for the implementation of community dementia key worker roles in practice. In this paper an optimised key worker framework for people with dementia, their family and caring unit living in the community is developed and presented. A number of processes were undertaken to inform the development of a co-designed optimised key worker framework: an expert working and reference group; a systematic review of the literature; and a qualitative evaluation of 14 dementia key worker models operating in Australia involving 14 interviews with organisation managers, 19 with key workers and 15 with people living with dementia and/or their caring unit. Data from the systematic review and evaluation of dementia key worker models were analysed by the researchers and the expert working and reference group using a constant comparative approach to define the essential components of the optimised framework. The developed framework consisted of four main components: overarching philosophies; organisational context; role definition; and key worker competencies. A number of more clearly defined sub-themes sat under each component. Reflected in the framework is the complexity of the dementia journey and the difficulty in trying to develop a 'one size fits all' approach. This co-designed study led to the development of an evidence based framework which outlines a comprehensive synthesis of components viewed as being essential to the implementation of a dementia key

  4. Supporting spirituality in the care of older people living with dementia: a hermeneutic phenomenological inquiry into nurses' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivonen, Kristiina; Charalambous, Andreas; Suhonen, Riitta

    2017-09-08

    Spirituality is defined as a search for answers to existential questions about the meaning of life and the individual's relationship with the sacred or transcendent. This relationship may or may not involve affiliation with a specific religion. Studies on spirituality have focused on palliative care, and there are limited studies into the spirituality in the care of older people with dementia. To describe the experiences of nurses supporting spirituality in the care of older people living with dementia. This study, informed by Heideggerian hermeneutic phenomenology, was conducted in 2014/15. Data were collected by interviewing a purposive sample of 17 nurses. Supporting the spirituality of older people with dementia was seen as understanding their spirituality within a framework of person-centeredness and individuality. The participants came to understand the spiritual needs of older people with dementia through both verbal and nonverbal expression and by learning about older people's individual spiritual backgrounds. Meeting spiritual needs meant approaching the person with dementia as a valuable human as well as paying attention, to and supporting, his/her personal philosophy of life within nursing care. Learning and developing an understanding of the spiritual needs of older people with dementia is challenging. The nurses offered person-centred, spiritual care, to people with dementia from a variety of perspectives, which is important in the provision of comprehensive care. There is a need to find usable tools to help nurses to learn and understand the individual spiritual needs of older people with dementia and to explore how these older adults experience having their spirituality supported within their nursing care. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  5. Protecting People and Families from Radon: A Federal Action Plan for Saving Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    This strategy for radon action outlines actions federal agencies can take within existing resources and program capacities to advance the Healthy People 2020 radon objectives and launch a national effort to end all avoidable radon-induced lung cancer death

  6. [Implementation of a continuum of care for people living with HIV/AIDS in Hanoi (Vietnam)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Loenzien, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    Caring for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) encompasses various tasks, from prevention to palliative care. It involves a set of consistent and coordinated actions. This article presents the first free-of-charge management programme including antiretroviral treatment in Vietnam (as opposed to research and evaluation programmes). It was launched in 2004 in Hanoi. Our study was conducted in 2003-2004 as part of a collaborative research programme led by IRD (Research Institute for Development) and the National Economic University in Hanoi and was funded by ESTHER (Together for a Therapeutic Solidarity in Hospital Network) group. Data collection included 68 qualitative interviews with patients, members of their families and members of the hospital staff, observations of outpatient consultations, and analysis of inpatient files. The results show that patients, their families and hospital staff members all perceive a comprehensive care and treatment programme as very important and consider that it should include social and psychological care as well as an integrated set of actions involving various types of participants. Outpatient and inpatient care are closely linked: they take place in the same hospital department, they involve patients with similar social and demographic characteristics marked by multiple risk behaviours and recourse to several kinds of healthcare services. The observation of outpatient consultations showed the limitations of strictly biomedical care to which social and psychological care were added only lately. One of the principal difficulties is patients' difficulties in keeping their outpatient appointments. Overall, patients consider themselves lucky to able to receive care and treatment with antiretroviral drugs. They nevertheless complain about the lack of social and psychological support, which they expect should help them to tolerate and adapt to their biomedical treatment and to include counselling and information about this treatment and

  7. Risk management in providing specialized care for people living with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadebal, Oriana Deyze Correia Paiva; Medeiros, Leidyanny Barbosa de; Morais, Kalline Silva de; Nascimento, João Agnaldo do; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing the provision of actions related to managing clinical risk in managing specialized care for people living with AIDS. A cross-sectional study carried out in a reference outpatient clinic in Paraíba, with a sample of 150 adults with AIDS. Data were collected through primary and secondary sources using a structured questionnaire, analyzed using descriptive statistics, multiple correspondence analysis and logistic regression model to determine the association between "providing care" and "clinical risk." Actions with satisfactory provision express a biological care focus; the dimensions that most contributed to a satisfactory assessment of care provision were "clinical and laboratory evaluations" and "prevention and self-care incentivization"; 45.3% of participants were categorized into high clinical risk, 34% into average clinical risk, and 20.7% into low clinical risk; a positive association between providing care and clinical risk was found. The need to use risk classification technologies to direct the planning of local care provision became evident considering its requirements, and thus qualifying the care provided in these areas. Analisar a oferta de ações relacionadas ao manejo de risco clínico na gestão do cuidado especializado a pessoas vivendo com aids. Estudo transversal realizado em ambulatório de referência na Paraíba, com amostra de 150 adultos com aids. Os dados foram coletados por meio de fontes primárias e secundárias utilizando-se de formulário estruturado, e analisados através de estatística descritiva, análise de correspondência múltipla e modelo de regressão logística para averiguar a associação entre "oferta" e "risco clínico". As ações de oferta satisfatória expressam foco biologicista do cuidado; as dimensões que mais contribuíram para o julgamento satisfatório da oferta foram "avaliação clínica e laboratorial" e "prevenção e estímulo ao autocuidado"; 45,3% dos participantes foram categorizados em risco

  8. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    teachers in Iceland and on Friday to teachers in Ireland. Fred and Frances from Southgate College showed great team spirit in the world's most chaotic quiz, then sang in harmony with Dave from Barnsley and Yoji from Japan amongst others. Kirsten from across the Atlantic shared her research on children and museums on Friday and later I discovered how much I didn't know about global warming from a chemist and a set of unreadable graphs in a computer lab. What a pleasure to see Tom and Seamus from Ireland again. The day closed with a barn dance fling where I managed to boogie on down with some teachers from Turkey. A final 'strip the willow' with Pete and Allison finished me off. Saturday started with breakfast with Ken from Greenwich offering me some part-time work. The exhibitions called and amongst others I hugged Sue from Cardiff, Barry and Leila from London, Pauline from Scotland and an unknown but very friendly lady from Holland. I met a lady from Scotland who lived in Iceland but who taught in Norway and of course Catherine was everywhere. I had tea with Jean from Edinburgh, Janet from London, Gordon from Aberdeen. I laughed with Mick from Sheffield and the same friendly lady from Holland. I ate posh food with Susie from Ayr and applauded big names from America and Australia. I shared a lump in my throat for John and for Wynne and nodded and smiled at countless people whose names I had forgotten but our paths had crossed sometime in the past. There are more than 20 000 members in the ASE and countless thousands of science teachers across the globe. The world is indeed expansive but for three days in Guildford it seemed that the very best speakers and the very cheeriest folk had magically converged on one place. If ever there were confirmation that science and science teaching were alive and well it was there and it was then. If you were there you will know exactly what I mean. If you weren't there then don't miss it next January in Liverpool.www.ase.org.uk

  9. Predicting the role of assistive technologies in the lives of people with dementia using objective care recipient factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnuch, Stephen; Ricciardelli, Rose; Mihailidis, Alex

    2016-07-20

    The population of people with dementia is not homogeneous. People with dementia exhibit a wide range of needs, each characterized by diverse factors including age, sex, ethnicity, and place of residence. These needs and characterizing factors may influence the applicability, and ultimately the acceptance, of assistive technologies developed to support the independence of people with dementia. Accordingly, predicting the needs of users before developing the technologies may increase the applicability and acceptance of assistive technologies. Current methods of prediction rely on the difficult collection of subjective, potentially invasive information. We propose a method of prediction that uses objective, unobtrusive, easy to collect information to help inform the development of assistive technologies. We develop a set of models that can predict the level of independence of people with dementia during 20 activities of daily living using simple, objective information. Using data collected from a Canadian survey conducted with caregivers of people with dementia, we create an ordered logistic regression model for each of the twenty daily tasks in the Bristol ADL scale. Data collected from 430 Canadian caregivers of people with dementia were analyzed to reveal: most care recipients were mothers or husbands, married, living in private housing with their caregivers, English-speaking, Canadian born, clinically diagnosed with dementia 1 to 6 years prior to the study, and were dependent on their caregiver. Next, we developed models that use 13 factors to predict a person with dementia's ability to complete the 20 Bristol activities of daily living independently. The 13 factors include caregiver relation, age, marital status, place of residence, language, housing type, proximity to caregiver, service use, informal primary caregiver, diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or dementia, time since diagnosis, and level of dependence on caregiver. The resulting models predicted the

  10. ICRP Recommendations to the Protection of People Living in Long-Term Contaminated Areas ICRP publication 111 in brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, S.; Gomaa, M. A.; Rashad, S.

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to through some lights on ICRP free release publication at 4 April 2011-Internationally Known as ICRP publication 111. The title of the publication is (application of the commission's recommendations to the protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas after a nuclear accident or a radiation emergency). Nuclear accidents or a radiation emergency may cause contamination. The contamination may be spread on a large area. There are people living in these areas. For many factors the people refuse to leave their homes. They want to stay along their life as in the case of the normal conditions. So, it is important to facilitate their stay and make it safe. This is not easy. But it is possible without neglect the radiation hazard. The radiation hazard is effective on the life fields. It is harmful in plants, animals, foods, water, milk and the buildings it self. With considering the radiological protection principles the living of the people for a long time could be a fact of the life and will be more easy and safe. Optimization principle has priority to apply. This publication achieves these purposes.The ICRP-111 is translated into Arabic at August 2012. This work is a continuation of the efforts series to translate some of the most important of the ICRP radiological protection references into the Arabic; aiming to maximize the benefit. The previous translations include, ICRP-105 (radiation protection in medicine) and ICRP -113 (education and training in radiological protection for diagnostic and interventional procedures).

  11. Psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) among older people living at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bjørg; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Söderhamn, Olle

    2012-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of mental problems among older people are difficult to map because the causes are often complex and the symptoms manifest in a range of ways. Therefore, there is a need for robust and useful instruments for screening mental problems in this group. One instrument used in Norway and around the world is the 30-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30). Nevertheless, studies testing reliability and validity of the Norwegian version are scarce. The aim of this study was to test the psychometric properties, by means of reliability and construct validity, of the Norwegian version of the GHQ-30 in a sample of older people living at home. A cross-sectional design was used. A postal questionnaire including background variables and a range of health related questions, including the GHQ-30, was mailed to 6033 older people (age 65 years or more) who lived in their own homes in southern Norway. A final sample of 2106 persons (34.9%) responded to and returned the questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically regarding reliability and construct validity of the GHQ-30. The reliability of the instrument, reflecting its homogeneity, was shown in a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.93 and in significant item-to-total correlations. Construct validity was supported as the GHQ-30 demonstrated robustness in separating groups with known mental problems. Construct validity was also demonstrated in a logical four factor solution, which accounted for 50.0% of the variance in the study group. The factor structure supported previous testing studies of the instrument. The GHQ-30 showed satisfactory psychometric properties regarding reliability and construct validity in this study group, which may indicate that the instrument is suitable for use in screening mental problems in older people living at home.

  12. Probiotic yogurt consumption is associated with an increase of CD4 count among people living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Stephanie L; Hummelen, Ruben; Hekmat, Sharareh; Looman, Caspar W N; Habbema, J Dik F; Reid, Gregor

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate the long term effect of yogurt supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus Fiti on the immune function (CD4 count) of people living with HIV/AIDS. Gastrointestinal infections and the leakage of microbial products from the gut have a profound impact on the deterioration of the immune system among people living with HIV/AIDS. Among persons not infected with the virus, probiotics can prevent gastrointestinal infections and restore an effective gut barrier, suggesting they might have a beneficial effect on the immune function of people living with HIV/AIDS. We carried out an observational retrospective study over a period of 3 years, with longitudinal comparison of the CD4 count within participants (n=68) before and during probiotic yogurt consumption, and compared with a control group of participants not consuming the yogurt (n=82). Among the yogurt consumers before use and the nonconsumers, an average increase in CD4 count was seen of 0.13 cells/μL/day (95% CI; 0.07-0.20, P=yogurt consumers experienced an additional increase of 0.28 cells/μL/day (95% CI; 0.10-0.46, P=0.003). When adjusting for length of time using antiretroviral medication, the additional increase explained by yogurt consumption remained 0.17 cells/μL/day (95% CI; 0.01-0.34, P=0.04). Treatment with antiretroviral medication was associated with an increase of 0.27 cells/μL/day (95% CI; 0.17-0.38, P=probiotic yogurt, made by local women in a low-income community in Tanzania, was significantly associated with an increase in CD4 count among consumers living with HIV.

  13. Can I help you? Information sharing in online discussion forums by people living with a long-term condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol S Bond

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Peer-to-peer health care is increasing, especially amongst people living with a long-term condition. How information is shared is, however, sometimes of concern to health care professionals. Objective This study explored what information is being shared on health-related discussion boards and identified the approaches people used to signpost their peers to information. Methods This study was conducted using a qualitative content analysis methodology to explore information shared on discussion boards for people living with diabetes. Whilst there is debate about the best ethical lens to view research carried out on data posted on online discussion boards, the researchers chose to adopt the stance of treating this type of information as “personal health text”, a specific type of research data in its own right. Results Qualitative content analysis and basic descriptive statistics were used to analyse the selected posts. Two major themes were identified: ‘Information Sharing from Experience’ and ‘Signposting Other Sources of Information’. Conclusions People were actively engaging in information sharing in online discussion forums, mainly through direct signposting. The quality of the information shared was important, with reasons for recommendations being given. Much of the information sharing was based on experience, which also brought in information from external sources such as health care professionals and other acknowledged experts in the field. With the rise in peer-to-peer support networks, the nature of health knowledge and expertise needs to be redefined. People online are combining external information with their own personal experiences and sharing that for others to take and develop as they wish.

  14. Research protocol for a complex intervention to support hearing and vision function to improve the lives of people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroi, Iracema; Pye, Annie; Armitage, Christopher J; Charalambous, Anna Pavlina; Constantinidou, Fofi; Helmer, Catherine; Himmelsbach, Ines; Marié, Sarah; Miah, Jahanara; Parsons, Suzanne; Regan, Jemma; Thodi, Chryssoula; Wolski, Lucas; Yohannes, Abebaw Mengistu; Dawes, Piers

    2017-01-01

    Hearing and vision impairments are among the most common and disabling comorbidities in people living with dementia. Intervening to improve sensory function could be a means by which the lives of people living with dementia may be improved. However, very few studies have tried to ameliorate outcomes in dementia by improving sensory function. This paper describes the multi-step development of a new intervention designed to support hearing and vision function in people living with dementia in their own homes. At the end of the development programme, it is anticipated that a 'sensory support' package will be ready for testing in a full scale randomised controlled trial. This programme is based on the process of 'intervention mapping' and comprises four integrated steps, designed to address the following: (1) scoping the gaps in understanding, awareness and service provision for the hearing and/or vision impairment care needs of people with dementia using a systematic literature review and Expert Reference Group; (2) investigating the support care needs through a literature search, stakeholder surveys, focus groups, semi-structured interviews and an Expert Reference Group, leading to a prototype sensory support package; (3) refining the prototype by additional input from stakeholders using focus groups and semi-structured interviews; and (4) field testing the draft intervention using an open-labelled, non-randomised feasibility study, integrating feedback from people with dementia and their significant others to develop the final intervention ready for full scale definitive trialling. Input from the 'patient and public voice' is a cornerstone of the work and will interlink with each step of the development process. The programme will take place in study centres in Manchester, Nicosia and Bordeaux. Quantitative and qualitative data analyses will be employed, dependent upon the sub-studies in question. Data from the steps will be integrated with consideration given to

  15. An exploratory study of the effectiveness of memory AIDS for older people living in supported accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collerton, Daniel; Forster, Emily; Packham, Derek

    2014-12-01

    There is increasing evidence that electronic and other aids can support older people's memory. In an effectiveness study, we explored whether assistive technologies could benefit 200 potential beneficiaries in a naturalistic setting. We first interviewed 50 participants to assess needs and preferences for memory aids, then researched, developed and trialled specific aids, and finally administered a follow-up questionnaire assessing future use of aids. Matching aids to needs was not easy. Relatively few people were interested in trailing aids. Simpler aids were most successful. Participants were curious about electronic aids, but found them too complicated and not adapted enough to their needs. Assistance from other people was necessary to prompt use of all types of aids. Future effectiveness studies should focus on longer trials with greater training and support for participants, a wider range of technologies, and more promotion of possible benefits. © The Author(s) 2012.

  16. Turning points and protective processes in the lives of people with chronic disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; Cathers, Tamzin; Brown, Elizabeth; Specht, Jacqueline A; Willoughby, Colleen; Polgar, Janice Miller; MacKinnon, Elizabeth; Smith, Linda K; Havens, Lisa

    2003-02-01

    In this qualitative study, the authors examined the nature of resilience in people with chronic disabilities. Fifteen people with disabilities identified the factors that helped or hindered them at major turning points, and the triggers and resolutions to these turning points. Turning points were emotionally compelling experiences and realizations that involved meaning acquired through the routes of belonging, doing, or understanding the self or the world. The major protective factors were social support, traits such as perseverance and determination, and spiritual beliefs. Three new protective processes were identified: replacing a loss with a gain (transcending), recognizing new things about oneself (self-understanding), and making decisions about relinquishing something in life (accommodating). These protective factors, processes, and ways in which people with disabilities draw sense and meaning in life have important implications for service delivery.

  17. The family and community lives of older people after the Second World War: new evidence from York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Mark; Wannell, Louise

    2009-01-01

    This article uses the findings of a detailed and unpublished survey, carried out in York in 1947 and 1948, to examine the support networks, social lives and economic conditions of older people in a period when considerable sociological attention was being paid to this section of the population. It is argued that the sociology of old age in this period overstated the role of families, and downplayed the involvement of the wider community, in the social networks of older people. The article also shows that even many of those who were physically restricted in some way could participate fully in social activities. Friends, visiting and social clubs played an important role in many lives. However, the financial circumstances of many older people restricted many areas of social participation, and contemporaneous poverty surveys probably understated the real extent of poverty among the elderly. These high levels of poverty themselves underscore the importance of the family and community support networks that are uncovered using the York data.

  18. From problem people to addictive products: a qualitative study on rethinking gambling policy from the perspective of lived experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Helen E; Thomas, Samantha L; Robinson, Priscilla

    2018-04-06

    Previous research has shown that government and industry discussions of gambling may focus on personal responsibility for gambling harm. In Australia, these discussions have largely excluded people with lived experience of problem gambling, including those involved in peer support and advocacy. We conducted 26 in-depth interviews with people with current or previous problem gambling on electronic gaming machines (EGMs) involved in peer support and advocacy activities, using an approach informed by Interpretive Policy Analysis and Constructivist Grounded Theory. Participants perceived that government and industry discussed gambling as safe and entertaining with a focus on personal responsibility for problem gambling. This focus on personal responsibility was perceived to increase stigma associated with problem gambling. In contrast, they described gambling as risky, addictive and harmful, with problem gambling resulting from the design of EGMs. As a result of their different perspectives, participants proposed different interventions to reduce gambling harm, including reducing accessibility and making products safer. Challenging the discourses used by governments and industry to describe gambling, using the lived experience of people with experience of gambling harm, may result in reduced stigma associated with problem gambling, and more effective public policy approaches to reducing harm.

  19. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on People Living with Type 2 Diabetes: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormgoor, Shohn G; Dalleck, Lance C; Zinn, Caryn; Harris, Nigel K

    2017-10-01

    People with type 2 diabetes typically present with comorbidities, such as elevated blood pressure, high cholesterol, high blood glucose, obesity and decreased fitness, all contributive to increased risk for cardiovascular complications. Determination of effective exercise modalities for the management of such complications is important. One such modality is high-intensity interval training (HIIT). To conduct the review, PubMed and EBSCOHost databases were searched through June 1, 2016, for all HIIT intervention studies conducted in people living with type 2 diabetes. Thereafter, the central characteristics of HIIT were analyzed to obtain a broader understanding of the cardiometabolic benefits achievable by HIIT. Fourteen studies were included for review, but the heterogeneity of the participants with type 2 diabetes, the training equipment and HIIT parameters, accompanied by variations in supervision, dietary advice and medications, prevented direct comparisons. However HIIT, regardless of the specific parameters employed, was a suitable option in pursuing improved glycemic control, body composition, aerobic fitness, blood pressure and lipidemia measures in individuals with type 2 diabetes. HIIT is a therapy with at least equivalent benefit to moderate-intensity continuous training; hence, HIIT should be considered when prescribing exercise interventions for people living with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Challenges to conducting research with older people living in nursing homes

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Sue; Longhurst, Susan; Higginson, Irene J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Although older people are increasingly cared for in nursing homes towards the end of life, there is a dearth of research exploring the views of residents. There are however, a number of challenges and methodological issues involved in doing this. The aim of this paper is to discuss some of these, along with residents' views on taking part in a study of the perceptions of dignity of older people in care homes and make recommendations for future research in these settings. M...

  1. A two-billion-year history for the lunar dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoo, Sonia M; Weiss, Benjamin P; Shuster, David L; Suavet, Clément; Wang, Huapei; Grove, Timothy L

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic studies of lunar rocks indicate that the Moon generated a core dynamo with surface field intensities of ~20 to 110 μT between at least 4.25 and 3.56 billion years ago (Ga). The field subsequently declined to <~4 μT by 3.19 Ga, but it has been unclear whether the dynamo had terminated by this time or just greatly weakened in intensity. We present analyses that demonstrate that the melt glass matrix of a young regolith breccia was magnetized in a ~5 ± 2 μT dynamo field at ~1 to ~2.5 Ga. These data extend the known lifetime of the lunar dynamo by at least 1 billion years. Such a protracted history requires an extraordinarily long-lived power source like core crystallization or precession. No single dynamo mechanism proposed thus far can explain the strong fields inferred for the period before 3.56 Ga while also allowing the dynamo to persist in such a weakened state beyond ~2.5 Ga. Therefore, our results suggest that the dynamo was powered by at least two distinct mechanisms operating during early and late lunar history.

  2. To tell or not to tell: Negotiating disclosure for people living with HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From weighing up other people's reactions, to being concerned about the effect of their disclosure on their disclosure targets, to concealing one's status to evade untoward negative reactions towards themselves. Further, negotiating one's disclosure is not only about to whom or how to disclose, it also means finding good ...

  3. Health care screening for people with mental handicap living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D N; Haire, A

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine what contact people with mental handicap had had with their general practitioner in the previous year; what prescribed drugs they were taking and whether these had been reviewed; when hearing and vision had last been screened; and what medical problems were found on examination. DESIGN--Case series. SETTING-Day centre for adults with mental handicap. SUBJECTS--A balanced sample of 75 of the 150 people attending the day centre. 10 Were excluded because consent was not given. RESULTS--The subjects did not consult their general practitioners more frequently than the general population but were more likely to be taking prescribed drugs, and 57% of these prescriptions had not been reviewed by a doctor. Thirty three people failed vision screening, including 13 who wore glasses. Twenty seven of the 62 who were testable had a hearing impairment. CONCLUSIONS--As only eight out of 65 people examined in the study did not have an appreciable problem brought to light, screening seems to be worth while. Whether such screening needs to be done by a medically qualified person needs further research. PMID:2148703

  4. Social Aspects of Eating Events among People with Intellectual Disability in Community Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolfsson, Paivi; Sydner, Ylva Mattsson; Fjellstrom, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Background: In Sweden, a process involving the deinstitutionalisation of services and the establishment of community-based settings for people with intellectual disability has meant changes in meal arrangements. In the present study, we focus on the social arrangements of meals in community-based settings. Method: Participant observations were…

  5. Exploring the Lives of Vulnerable Young People in Relation to Their Food Choices and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombert, Karolina; Douglas, Flora; McArdle, Karen; Carlisle, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    The interdisciplinary "Foodways and Futures" project (2013-2016) is based on a pilot study which found no improvement in the nutritional state of formerly homeless young people (16-25), now in supported accommodation at a charitable youth organization. Because a healthy food intake during adolescence is important, and because young…

  6. Executive functions are associated with gait and balance in community-living elderly people.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M.B. van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Bloem, B.R.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognition influences gait and balance in elderly people. Executive functions seem to play a key role in this mechanism. Previous studies used only a single test to probe executive functions, and outcome measures were restricted to gait variables. We extend this prior work by examining

  7. Executive Functions Are Associated With Gait and Balance in Community-Living Elderly People

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M.B. van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Bloem, B.R.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Cognition influences gait and balance in elderly people. Executive functions seem to play a key role in this mechanism. Previous studies used only a single test to probe executive functions, and outcome measures were restricted to gait variables. We extend this prior work by examining

  8. The Library in the Life of the User: Engaging with People Where They Live and Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, Comp.

    2015-01-01

    The contributions in this volume represent a decade of OCLC's user behavior research findings that articulate the need for the design of future library services to be all about the user. Highlights include: (1) People associate the library with books and do not consider the library in relation to online resources or reference services; (2) People…

  9. Tobacco Cessation Intervention for People with Disabilities: Survey of Center for Independent Living Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhouse, Michael D.; Pomeranz, Jamie L.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Yu, Nami S.; Curbow, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    People with disabilities (PWD) are 50% more likely to smoke compared with the general population, yet interventions tailored to the needs of PWD remain limited. The authors surveyed directors from a leading disability service organization to assess their delivery of tobacco cessation interventions. Although tobacco cessation was identified as a…

  10. Information needs of people living with HIV/AIDS in Kano State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS) is a disease that has social, economic, and political implications in Nigeria. It affects young people who are at their most productive age, thereby affecting the economic productivity of the nation. In order to achieve the objective of reducing ...

  11. The realities people live by: A critical reflection on the value of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contributes to construct social reality. The study will show that religious texts construct the reality(ies) in which people interact and try to make sense of everyday existence. Two stories contemporary to the writer of the article are employed to show that in a certain sense male perceptions about women have not changed ...

  12. Household Living Arrangements and Transition to Sexual Debut among Young People in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkorang, Eric Y.; Adjei, Jones K.

    2015-01-01

    There is abundant research on the links between family and household structure and young people's sexual risk-taking behaviours, but this scholarship although emerging in sub-Saharan Africa is largely limited to the West. Using data from the 2004 National Adolescent Survey conducted among 12-19 year olds in Ghana, and applying discrete time hazard…

  13. Poetics, Power, Possibilities, and Playfulness: Zombies, Performance, and Making Meaning in Young People's Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article considers drama/theater education as a form of constructivism where popular culture is both accessed and employed to engage young people and animate education. Using the familiar cultural trope of zombies, and in reference to three separate performance projects, attention is drawn to why projects such as these matter and why they…

  14. Sexual activity and condom use among people living with HIV in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of studies have shown strong evidence of the association between HIV testing and an increase in consistent condom use. These studies ave shown that HIV testing has contributed to a reduction in risk behaviours, since knowledge of HIV status can motivate both HIV-positive and HIV-negative people to practise ...

  15. What People Living with Aphasia Think about the Availability of Aphasia Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, Jacqueline J.; Hasselkus, Amy; Ganzfried, Ellayne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Obtaining health information and resources can influence an individual's (a) access to services, (b) interactions with health care providers, and (c) ability to manage one's own health needs. The purpose of this study was to gather the perceptions of consumers living with aphasia about resource availability and information needs. Method:…

  16. The Provision of Informal Support By Elderly People Residing in Assisted Living Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Howard

    1998-01-01

    Examines factors facilitating support giving to members of the social network by elderly Jewish persons residing in assisted-living facilities in Israel. Results reveal that it is principally the perceived support measure along with two personal characteristics that explains the variance in support provision scores. (Author/MKA)

  17. Is green space in the living environment associated with people's feelings of social safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Winsum-Westra, M. van; Verheij, R.A.; Vries, S. de; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigate whether the percentage of green space in people’s living environment affects their feelings of social safety positively or negatively. More specifically they investigate the extent to which this relationship varies between urban and rural areas, between groups in the

  18. Oxygen - A Four Billion Year History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    The air we breathe is twenty-one percent oxygen, an amount higher than on any other known world. While we may take our air for granted, Earth was not always an oxygenated planet. How did it become this way? Oxygen is the most current account of the history of atmospheric oxygen on Earth. Donald...... of fields, including geology, paleontology, geochemistry, biochemistry, animal physiology, and microbiology, to explain why our oxygenated Earth became the ideal place for life. Describing which processes, both biological and geological, act to control oxygen levels in the atmosphere, Canfield traces...... the records of oxygen concentrations through time. Readers learn about the great oxidation event, the tipping point 2.3 billion years ago when the oxygen content of the Earth increased dramatically, and Canfield examines how oxygenation created a favorable environment for the evolution of large animals. He...

  19. Oxygen - A Four Billion Year History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    The air we breathe is twenty-one percent oxygen, an amount higher than on any other known world. While we may take our air for granted, Earth was not always an oxygenated planet. How did it become this way? Oxygen is the most current account of the history of atmospheric oxygen on Earth. Donald...... Canfield--one of the world's leading authorities on geochemistry, earth history, and the early oceans--covers this vast history, emphasizing its relationship to the evolution of life and the evolving chemistry of the Earth. With an accessible and colorful first-person narrative, he draws from a variety...... the records of oxygen concentrations through time. Readers learn about the great oxidation event, the tipping point 2.3 billion years ago when the oxygen content of the Earth increased dramatically, and Canfield examines how oxygenation created a favorable environment for the evolution of large animals. He...

  20. Evaluating the Impact of an Anti-stigma Intervention on Pharmacy Students' Willingness to Counsel People Living with Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamgbade, Benita A; Barner, Jamie C; Ford, Kentya H

    2017-07-01

    Third-year pharmacy students (n = 88) participated in an anti-stigma intervention program consisting of presentations, videos, discussion and active-learning exercises. Willingness to counsel (WTC) people with mental illness (MI) was evaluated using immediate pre and post-tests comparing diabetes, depression and schizophrenia. At pre-test, WTC diabetes was highest (higher = increased WTC) while schizophrenia was the lowest. There were no statistically significant differences between pre/post-test WTC for diabetes and depression, while schizophrenia WTC increased significantly (p WTC was significantly higher than depression and schizophrenia (p WTC depression showed that comfortability and gender were significant (p WTC schizophrenia showed that comfortability was a significant (p WTC. Colleges of pharmacy may consider instituting policies that support experiential education involving counseling people living with MI, as this may increase comfortability.

  1. Caffeine and Insomnia in People Living With HIV From the Miami Adult Studies on HIV (MASH) Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, Venkataraghavan; Campa, Adriana; Rubens, Muni; Martinez, Sabrina S; Fleetwood, Christina; Stewart, Tiffanie; Liuzzi, Juan P; George, Florence; Khan, Hafiz; Li, Yinghui; Baum, Marianna K

    We explored the relationship between caffeine consumption, insomnia, and HIV disease progression (CD4+ T cell counts and HIV viral loads). Caffeine intake and insomnia levels were measured using the Modified Caffeine Consumption Questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Insomnia Rating Scale (PIRS) in 130 clinically stable participants who were living with HIV, taking antiretroviral therapy, and recruited from the Miami Adult Studies on HIV cohort. Linear regressions showed that caffeine consumption was significantly and adversely associated with distress score, quality-of-life score, and global PIRS score. Linear regression analyses also showed that global PIRS score was significantly associated with lower CD4+ T cell counts and higher HIV viral loads. Caffeine could have precipitated insomnia in susceptible people living with HIV, which could be detrimental to their disease progression states. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. HIV-Related Stigma and Overlapping Stigmas Towards People Living With HIV Among Health Care Trainees in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Anne C; Girard, Todd; McShane, Kelly E; Margolese, Shari; Hart, Trevor A

    2017-08-01

    HIV continues to be a stigmatized disease, despite significant advances in care and concerted effort to reduce discrimination, stereotypes, and prejudice. Living with HIV is often associated with a multitude of overlapping and intersecting experiences which can, in and of themselves, also be stigmatized, and which may exacerbate HIV-related stigma. The consequences of these stigmatizing experiences are particularly impactful when the stigmatizing individual is a health care provider, as this can influence access to and quality of care. The current study empirically investigates a model of overlapping stigmas (homophobia, racism, sexism, stigma against injection drug use and stigma against sex work) potentially held by health care provider trainees in Canada to determine how these constructs overlap and intersect, and to assess whether HIV-related stigma may have unique attributes. Understanding overlapping stigmas can help inform targeted, stigma-informed training for health care trainees in order to provide effective, compassionate care for people living with HIV.

  3. Palliative and end-of-life care for people living with dementia in care homes: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gary; Agnelli, Joanne; McGreevy, Jessie; Diamond, Monica; Roble, Herlindina; McShane, Elaine; Strain, Joanne

    2016-06-29

    This article, the second of two, provides healthcare practitioners with an overview of best practice in palliative and end-of-life care, including nutrition, hydration, oral hygiene and pain management. Communication and spiritual care are discussed, as well as care after death. Providing support and education for families is an important aspect of palliative and end-of-life care. Care home nurses should ensure that the person living with dementia is at the centre of decision making, and provide care that is inclusive of their needs and wishes. The article is framed in a care home context; there is little research about how to optimise palliative care for people living with dementia in care homes.

  4. Fate control and well-being in Chinese rural people living with HIV: mediation effect of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nancy Xiaonan; Zhang, Jianxin; Chow, Amy Y M; Chan, Celia H Y; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2017-01-01

    Fate control has been often misconceptualized as a superstitious belief and overlooked in health psychology. It is not known how this cultural belief might impact the well-being of Chinese people living with HIV. This study examined the protective role of fate control for well-being and the potential mediation effect of resilience. Participants in this study were rural patients who contracted HIV via commercial blood donation. In this cross-sectional survey, 250 participants completed measures of fate control, well-being, and resilience. The results showed that fate control and resilience were positively associated with well-being. Resilience mediated the association between fate control and well-being. Our findings provide insight into the adaptive function of fate control as a cognitive defensive mechanism and highlight the need to incorporate this cultural belief in developing culturally sensitive intervention programs for resilience enhancement tailored for this understudied population infected with HIV living in rural China.

  5. A review of contemporary work on the ethics of ambient assisted living technologies for people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitzky, Peter; Smeaton, Alan F; Chen, Cynthia; Irving, Kate; Jacquemard, Tim; O'Brolcháin, Fiachra; O'Mathúna, Dónal; Gordijn, Bert

    2015-06-01

    Ambient assisted living (AAL) technologies can provide assistance and support to persons with dementia. They might allow them the possibility of living at home for longer whilst maintaining their comfort and security as well as offering a way towards reducing the huge economic and personal costs forecast as the incidence of dementia increases worldwide over coming decades. However, the development, introduction and use of AAL technologies also trigger serious ethical issues. This paper is a systematic literature review of the on-going scholarly debate about these issues. More specifically, we look at the ethical issues involved in research and development, clinical experimentation, and clinical application of AAL technologies for people with dementia and related stakeholders. In the discussion we focus on: (1) the value of the goals of AAL technologies, (2) the special vulnerability of persons with dementia in their private homes, (3) the complex question of informed consent for the usage of AAL technologies.

  6. Life satisfaction and life values in people with spinal cord injury living in three Asian countries: A multicultural study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasiemski, Tomasz; Priebe, Michael M.; Wilski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the differences in life satisfaction and life values among people with spinal cord injury (SCI) living in three economically similar Asian countries: India, Vietnam, and Sri Lanka. Design Cross-sectional and comparative investigation using the unified questionnaire. Setting Indian Spinal Injuries Centre in New Delhi (India), Spinal Cord Rehabilitation Department of the Bach Mai Hospital in Hanoi (Vietnam), and Foundation for the Rehabilitation of the Disabled in Colombo (Sri Lanka). Participants Two hundred and thirty-seven people with SCI using a wheelchair; 79 from India, 92 from Vietnam, and 66 from Sri Lanka. Outcome measures Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, Chinese Value Survey. Results People with SCI in Vietnam had significantly higher general life satisfaction than participants in India and Sri Lanka. Significant differences were identified in several demographic and life situation variables among the three Asian countries. With regard to “Traditional”, “Universal”, and “Personal” life values significant differences among three participating countries were identified in all domains. No significant relationships were identified between life satisfaction and life values for people with SCI in India, Vietnam, or Sri Lanka. Conclusion It could be presumed that particular demographic and life situation variables are more powerful factors of life satisfaction following SCI than the dominant culture of a country expressed by life values. PMID:23809526

  7. Public perceptions about HIV/AIDS and discriminatory attitudes toward people living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudnia, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Negative and discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are one of the biggest experienced challenges by people suffering from HIV, and these attitudes have been regarded as a serious threat to the fundamental rights of all infected people who are affected or associated with this disease in Iran. This study aimed to determine the relationship between public perception about HIV/AIDS and discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA . The present study was conducted using a descriptive and survey design. Data were collected from 450 patients (236 male and 214 female) in Tehran and Yazd cities. The research instruments were modified HIV-related knowledge/attitude and perception questions about PLWHA, and discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA. The results showed that prevalence of discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA in the studied population was 60.0%. There was a significant negative correlation between citizens' awareness about HIV/AIDS, HIV-related attitudes, negative perception toward people with HIV/AIDS symptoms and their discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA (p AIDS explained for 23.7% of the variance of discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA. Negative public perceptions about HIV/AIDS in Iran associated with discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA and cultural beliefs in Iran tend to stigmatize and discriminate against the LWHA.

  8. Life satisfaction and life values in people with spinal cord injury living in three Asian countries: a multicultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasiemski, Tomasz; Priebe, Michael M; Wilski, Maciej

    2013-03-01

    To compare the differences in life satisfaction and life values among people with spinal cord injury (SCI) living in three economically similar Asian countries: India, Vietnam, and Sri Lanka. Cross-sectional and comparative investigation using the unified questionnaire. Indian Spinal Injuries Centre in New Delhi (India), Spinal Cord Rehabilitation Department of the Bach Mai Hospital in Hanoi (Vietnam), and Foundation for the Rehabilitation of the Disabled in Colombo (Sri Lanka). Two hundred and thirty-seven people with SCI using a wheelchair; 79 from India, 92 from Vietnam, and 66 from Sri Lanka. Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, Chinese Value Survey. People with SCI in Vietnam had significantly higher general life satisfaction than participants in India and Sri Lanka. Significant differences were identified in several demographic and life situation variables among the three Asian countries. With regard to "Traditional", "Universal", and "Personal" life values significant differences among three participating countries were identified in all domains. No significant relationships were identified between life satisfaction and life values for people with SCI in India, Vietnam, or Sri Lanka. It could be presumed that particular demographic and life situation variables are more powerful factors of life satisfaction following SCI than the dominant culture of a country expressed by life values.

  9. A discrete choice experiment to assess people living with HIV's (PLWHIV's) preferences for GP or HIV clinic appointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miners, A H; Llewellyn, C D; Cooper, V L; Youssef, E; Pollard, A J; Lagarde, M; Sabin, C; Nixon, E; Sachikonye, M; Perry, N; Fisher, M

    2017-03-01

    To understand which aspects of general practitioner (GP) and HIV clinic appointments people living with HIV (PLWHIV) most value when seeking advice for new health problems. A discrete choice experiment using a convenience sample of people diagnosed with HIV. Participants were recruited from 14 general HIV clinics in the South East of England between December 2014 and April 2015. ORs were calculated using conditional logit (CLOGIT) and latent class models (LCMs). A total of 1106 questionnaires were returned. Most participants were male (85%), white (74%) and were men who have sex with men (69%). The CLOGIT analysis showed people particularly valued shorter appointment waiting times (ORs between 1.52 and 3.62, panalysis showed there were two distinct classes, with 59% and 41% of respondents likely to be in each. The first class generally preferred GP to HIV clinic appointments and particularly valued 'being seen quickly'. For example, they had strong preferences for shorter appointment waiting times and longer GP opening hours. People in the second class also valued shorter waiting times, but they had a strong general preference for HIV clinic rather than GP appointments. PLWHIV value many aspects of care for new health problems, particularly short appointment waiting times. However, they appear split in their general willingness to engage with GPs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Food insecurity, mental health and quality of life among people living with HIV commencing antiretroviral treatment in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesfaye, Markos; Kæstel, Pernille; Olsen, Mette Frahm

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies from high-income settings show that both food insecurity and common mental disorders (CMDs) are associated with lower quality of life among people living with HIV (PLHIV). However, there is limited research among PLHIV in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study we tested.......99 for owning one more asset, 95 % CI: 0.09; 1.89). CONCLUSION: Poor mental health and food insecurity are associated with lower quality of life in PLHIV. There is a need for longitudinal studies to elucidate the pathways linking CMD, food insecurity and quality of life....

  11. The Role of Social Work Practice and Policy in the Lived and Intimate Citizenship of Young People with Psychological Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the concepts of lived and intimate citizenship and applying a weak theory approach, Warming shows how social work practices at a residence for young people with psychological disorders constitute a social intervention with contested and multidimensional (action-related, emotional...... there unfolds as a risky dance on the edges of non-citizenship, where they are positioned as - or feel - out of place due to politically contingent everyday practices through which emotions, affections and more-than-human agents intertwine with rational human agency....

  12. Family planning need of people living with HIV/AIDS in antiretroviral therapy clinics of Horro Guduru Wollega zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsegaye, Reta

    2017-11-09

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with family planning needs among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Ethiopia. Three hundred twenty-one participants provided information on family planning methods and associated factors. Forty-six-point four percent of respondents reported using at least one form of family planning method; injectables (50.3%) and condoms (70.2%) were the most commonly used type of family planning method before and after HIV diagnosis, respectively. Age, the desire to have children, and the desire to have more than two children were significantly associated with the use of family planning methods.

  13. Physical function, grip strength and frailty in people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Charlotte; Dabis, François; de Rekeneire, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    To present the current knowledge on physical function, grip strength and frailty in HIV-infected patients living in sub-Saharan Africa, where the phenomenon is largely underestimated. A systematic search was conducted on MEDLINE, Scopus and African Index Medicus. We reviewed articles on sub-Saharan African people living with HIV (PLHIV) >18 years old, published until November 2016. Of 537 articles, 12 were conducted in six African countries and included in this review. Five articles reported information on functional limitation and one on disability. Two of these five articles reported functional limitation (low gait speed) in PLHIV. Disability was observed in 27% and 3% of PLHIV living in rural and urban places, respectively. Two of three studies reporting grip strength reported lower grip strength (nearly 4 kg) in PLHIV in comparison with uninfected patients. One study reported that PLHIV were more likely to be frail than HIV-uninfected individuals (19.4% vs. 13.3%), whereas another reported no statistical difference. Decline in physical function, grip strength and frailty are now part of the burden of PLHIV living in SSA countries, but current data are insufficient to characterise the real public health dimension of these impairments. Further studies are needed to depict this major public health challenge. As this is likely to contribute to a significant burden on the African healthcare systems and human resources in the near future, a holistic care approach should be developed to inform guidelines. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. China. Country profile. [China's billion consumers are a rapidly changing market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, K

    1984-10-01

    This article provides a summary of demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the People's Republic of China. Chinese leaders project that achievement of the 4 modernizations (agriculture, industry, science, and technology) will double the per capita income level to $800/year by 2000. Although industrial and agricultural growth have outpaced population growth, stringent population control is considered necessary for continued economic development. China's 1982 population was 1.008 billion, with a birth rate of 20.91, a death rate of 6.36, and a 14.55 rate of natural increase. The growth rate declined from 1.3% in 1982 to 1.15% in 1983. To achieve its goal of preventing the population from exceeding 1.2 billion by the year 2000, the government urges couples to have only 1 child. This policy has been successful in the cities but faces opposition in the rural areas. The sex ratio is 106 males to every 100 females, and there is concern about female infanticide. In 1982 the average household size ranged from a high of 5.2 persons in Qinghai and Yunnan to a low of 3.6 persons in Shanghai. 39% of the population lives in nuclear families without relatives. The literacy rate stood at 77% of those over 12 years of age in 1982, but males outnumber females at higher levels of education. China's campaign to improve health has focused on preventive measures, and there are an estimated 3-5 million health care workers. The 1982 labor force participation rate for those 15-64 years of age was 87.7%, with 44% of workers employed in agricculture. 76.6% of women work, primarily in labor-intensive, low-wage occupations.

  15. Culturally construed beliefs and perceptions of nursing students and the stigma impacting on people living with AIDS: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, David; King, Lindy; de Lacey, Sheryl

    2017-02-01

    Since HIV and AIDS were discovered, studies have demonstrated that negative perceptions and reluctance to provide care to affected people persist among nursing students throughout the world. This leads to poor quality care. To report on a study that explored socio-cultural influences on the perceptions of international nursing students toward caring for people living with HIV/AIDS. A qualitative descriptive research design, guided by stigma theory, was utilised. Participants were 21 international and Australian undergraduate nursing students enrolled in a Bachelor of Nursing program at an Australian university. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews in 2009 and 2011; manual thematic analysis was performed on interview data. Three major themes emerged: blame; othering; values. Perceptions were influenced by complex, interrelated factors and underscored by culturally construed blame and othering. People living with HIV/AIDS were perceived as alien and assumed as homosexuals, drug users, or promiscuous. They were labelled 'bad people'. Many participants were compassionate but others struggled with differences between their personal values and professional values expected of a Registered Nurse. There was considerable variation in the degree to which participants were willing to embrace different perspectives and values. Nursing curricula is vital to patient health and wellbeing and requires increased focus on the impact of HIV/AIDS. It is important for educators to recognise that simply providing information to students does not necessarily change their existing stigmatising perceptions. By addressing the effect of being stigmatised and marginalised by society nursing care to all patients will be enhanced. Students must also reflect on their perceptions and values so as to embrace diversity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. HIV serostatus disclosure: Experiences and perceptions of people living with HIV/AIDS and their service providers in Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita V Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disclosure offers important benefits to people living with HIV/AIDS. However, fear of discrimination, blame, and disruption of family relationships can make disclosure a difficult decision. Barriers to HIV disclosure are influenced by the particular culture within which the individuals live. Although many studies have assessed such barriers in the U.S., very few studies have explored the factors that facilitate or prevent HIV disclosure in India. Understanding these factors is critical to the refinement, development, and implementation of a counseling intervention to facilitate disclosure. Materials and Methods: To explore these factors, we conducted 30 in-depth interviews in the local language with HIV- positive individuals from the Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre in Gujarat, India, assessing the experiences, perceived barriers, and facilitators to disclosure. To triangulate the findings, we conducted two focus group discussions with HIV medical and non-medical service providers, respectively. Results: Perceived HIV-associated stigma, fear of discrimination, and fear of family breakdown acted as barriers to HIV disclosure. Most people living with HIV/AIDS came to know of their HIV status due to poor physical health, spousal HIV-positive status, or a positive HIV test during pregnancy. Some wives only learned of their husbands′ HIV positive status after their husbands died. The focus group participants confirmed similar findings. Disclosure had serious implications for individuals living with HIV, such as divorce, maltreatment, ostracism, and decisions regarding child bearing. Interpretation and Conclusion: The identified barriers and facilitators in the present study can be used to augment training of HIV service providers working in voluntary counseling and testing centers in India.

  17. The potential role for probiotic yogurt for people living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In demonstrating that it is feasible to create a community-run kitchen that produces probiotic yogurt, and that this can contribute to the health of people with HIV/AIDS, we embellished the 2001 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) report on probiotics that recommended efforts be made to take probiotics to developing countries. We proved that driven by humanitarian goals not profit, probiotic yogurt can be produced in the world's poor regions. This food can be safely consumed by HIV/AIDS subjects, and in many of them benefits can be accrued in gut health, nutritional and potentially immune status. Such outcomes have a scientific rationale, many social implications, and perhaps most importantly raise the question, why have developed countries not tried harder to bring nutrition-based probiotics to people in need? PMID:21468226

  18. An assisted-living home architecture with integrated healthcare services for elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Andy; Biniaris, Christos; Vergados, Dimitrios; Eppler, Arnold; Kavvadias, Christoforos; Bigalke, Olaf; Robert, Eric; Jerabek, Boro; Alevizos, Alevizos; Caragiozidis, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Since the population of elderly people grows absolutely and in relation to the overall population in the world, the improvement of the quality of life of elderly people at home is of a great importance. This can be achieved through the development of generic technologies for managing their domestic ambient environment consisting of medical sensors, entertainment equipment, home automation systems and white goods, increasing their autonomy and safety. In this context, the provision intelligent interactive healthcare services will improve their daily life and allowing at the same time the continuous monitoring of their health and their effective treatment. This work is supported by the INHOME Project EU IST-045061-STP, http://www.ist-inhome.eu.

  19. Critical Time Intervention for Homeless People Making the Transition to Community Living: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    de Vet, Renée; Beijersbergen, Mariëlle D.; Jonker, Irene E.; Lako, Danielle A.M.; van Hemert, Albert M.; Herman, Daniel B.; Wolf, Judith R.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights This study contributes to a European evidence base for effective interventions for homeless people. It is the first RCT conducted in Dutch shelter services; this is uncommon outside the United States. In this sample, recurrent homelessness was rare 9 months after moving from a shelter to housing. Beneficial effects of CTI on mental health seem to be independent of health care system or context.

  20. Living with constipation?older people's experiences and strategies with constipation before and during hospitalization

    OpenAIRE

    Munch, Lene; Tvistholm, Nina; Trosborg, Ingelise; Konradsen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Constipation is a common problem among older people. This study aimed to explore how older patients experience constipation and which strategies they used in handling the condition before and during hospitalization.Methods: A qualitative exploratory research design was used. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients (61–91 years of age) during hospitalization. Data were analyzed by using content analysis.Results: Themes concerning experiences were Bodily sig...

  1. Determining the Arterial Blood Pressure of People Living in Yesilyurt Local Healthcare Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyza Dereli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Whereas the prevalance of arterial blood pressure which was a chronical health problem was 20%-25% among 30 year-old people, them showing an increase in aging, the percentage went as high as 50% in 60’s and later ages. What was that worrisome was that despite the high prevalance, only half of these received treathment. This is study was descriptively and cross-sectionally planned to determine whether the people asking their tensions to be measured in and around the Yesilyurt local healthcare office region. METHODS: The environment of the research consisted of 1400 people over 35 age and registered Yesilyurt Local healthcare Office and the whole of the environment were included in this sample. The study was conducted over 340 voluntaries. The data was collected by a questionnaire of 14 questions containing socio-demografic features and by measuring the arterial blood pressure, height and weight of the individuals. In the evaluation of the data, chi-square test was used and the level of significantly was accepted as 0.05. RESULTS: In this study, the rate of high sistolic blood pressure was found to be 21.47% and the rate of high diastolic blood pressure to be 8.23%. It was determined that age and body mass index varrieties were effective on sistolic hipertension. It was also found that in their behaviors of the use of hypertensive medicine, of regular arterial pressure controls and of having the hypertesion diagnosis significant differnces varied statistically on both sistolic and diastolic blood pressure people having. CONCLUSION: In order to improve the health, informative information abouth hypertension was provided for the participants for too days consisting of 4 sessions. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(1.000: 53-58

  2. Psycho neurologic status of people living in the area of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipenko, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    The disease picture in 102 patients suffering from neuroses and living in the area of radioactive contamination has been studied. Dependence between the patient's estimation of risk after Chernobyl accident and the clinic picture of the disease is revealed. It is stated that the fear of waiting for irradiation after effects is accompanied by behavioral reactions of avoiding stimuli associated with the accident and clinically is reflected in asthenic and somatovegetative disturbances. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  3. A Mulditisiciplinary Model of Family Therapy with people living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Fernando Díaz Oropeza

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The multidisciplinary model includes Family Therapy with persons living with HIV/AIDS and their families. Its theoretical basis is based in Medical Family Therapy, biopsychosocial and systemic perspectives. Collaborative and narrative therapies, solution building and reflecting team‘s ideas are combined in clinical practice. As results, families have normalized illness’ impact, they have co generated possibilities such as strengthening of abilities for coping problems related to illness though agency, communion, empowerment, normalizing, reframing and mobilizing family resources.

  4. Ethnic differences in glycaemic control in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus living in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Negandhi, Preeti H; Ghouri, Nazim; Colhoun, Helen M; Fischbacher, Colin M; Lindsay, Robert S; McKnight, John A; Petrie, John; Philip, Sam; Sattar, Naveed; Wild, Sarah H; Scottish Diabetes Research Network Epidemiology Group

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims:\\ud \\ud Previous studies have investigated the association between ethnicity and processes of care and intermediate outcomes of diabetes, but there are limited population-based studies available. The aim of this study was to use population-based data to investigate the relationships between ethnicity and glycaemic control in men and women with diabetes mellitus living in Scotland.\\ud \\ud Methods:\\ud \\ud We used a 2008 extract from the population-based national electronic d...

  5. [Investigations into post-traumatic complications in the practice of forensic medical expertise of living people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezovskiĭ, D P; Shatov, D V; Kovalev, B V; Dodokhova, M A; Panenko, E S; Kornienko, I V

    2012-01-01

    Statistical data on the incidence and spectrum of thrombotic complications presented in this paper are based on the materials collected by the Department of Expertise of Living Subjects, Rostov Regional Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise, during 2004-2010. The cases of interest were analysed by age, sex, time of injury, character of traumatic impact, and time of surgical intervention. It is concluded that such cases require forensic medical expertise by standardized methods.

  6. Citizenship and people living with dementia: A case for the ethics of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannelly, Tula

    2016-05-01

    The ethics of care is an emerging field of interest in many disciplines, including care for people with dementia. The ethics of care as proposed by Joan Tronto is a political argument for care together with a set of principles, the integrity of care, to guide and critique practice. This two-pronged approach enables on one hand, a political, complex and situated examination of inequality, and on the other hand the integrity of care provides a set of principles to guide inclusive citizenship practices. This approach has the significant advantage of recognition of the fight that people with dementia face to achieve rights and citizenship as an issue of social justice. In this paper, three challenges to citizenship are discussed in relation to people with dementia using an ethics of care lens: (a) citizenship as a relationship between the individual and the state; (b) citizenship as a practice and (c) citizenship as identity and belonging. I propose that citizenship can be achieved by promoting inclusion in defining and creating policy, research and practice. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Independent and Social Living Skills Training for People with Schizophrenia in Iran: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Karbalaee-Nouri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Schizophrenia is responsible for a significant proportion of burden of mental diseases in Iran. Lack of a follow-up system has resulted in the repeated hospitalizations. In this study it is hypothesized that standardized living skills training delivered to participants with schizophrenia in outpatient and inpatient centers can be effective compared to a  control group (with occupational therapy in reducing psychopathology severity and increasing quality of life. Methods: This is a multi-centered parallel group randomized controlled trial in Iran and it is single-blinded. Eligible participants are randomly allocated into two groups in a 1:1 ratio. Participants are assigned by stratified balanced block randomization method. The trial is conducted in the cities of Tehran and Mashhad. Its aim is to recruit 160 clients with schizophrenia. The intervention for the experimental group is social living skills training. The intervention for the control group is occupational therapy. The intervention for both groups is conducted in 90 to 120-minute group sessions. Results: The primary outcome of the study would be a decrease in  psychopathology severity, an improvement in participants' quality of life, and reduction in family burden will be followed for 6 months. Discussion: This paper presents a protocol for a randomized controlled trial of independent and social living skills training intervention delivered to participants with schizophrenia. If this intervention is effective, it could be scaled up to be developing for policymaking and improving outcomes for schizophrenic participants and their families in Iran.

  8. Intuitive adaptive orientation control of assistive robots for people living with upper limb disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Dinh-Son; Allard, Ulysse Cote; Gosselin, Clement; Routhier, Francois; Gosselin, Benoit; Campeau-Lecours, Alexandre

    2017-07-01

    Robotic assistive devices enhance the autonomy of individuals living with physical disabilities in their day-to-day life. Although the first priority for such devices is safety, they must also be intuitive and efficient from an engineering point of view in order to be adopted by a broad range of users. This is especially true for assistive robotic arms, as they are used for the complex control tasks of daily living. One challenge in the control of such assistive robots is the management of the end-effector orientation which is not always intuitive for the human operator, especially for neophytes. This paper presents a novel orientation control algorithm designed for robotic arms in the context of human-robot interaction. This work aims at making the control of the robot's orientation easier and more intuitive for the user, in particular, individuals living with upper limb disabilities. The performance and intuitiveness of the proposed orientation control algorithm is assessed through two experiments with 25 able-bodied subjects and shown to significantly improve on both aspects.

  9. Rehabilitation Living Lab in the Mall Community of Practice: Learning Together to Improve Rehabilitation, Participation and Social Inclusion for People Living with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer, Barbara; Kairy, Dahlia; Guindon, Andréanne; Girard, Michel; Swaine, Bonnie; Kehayia, Eva; Labbé, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Communities of practice (CoP) can facilitate collaboration between people who share a common interest, but do not usually work together. A CoP was initiated and developed including stakeholders from clinical, research, community and governmental backgrounds involved in a large multidisciplinary and multi-sectorial project: the Rehabilitation Living Lab in a Mall (RehabMaLL). This study aimed to evaluate the structure, process and outcomes of this CoP. A single case-study, using mixed-methods, evaluated the RehabMaLL CoP initiative after one year, based on Donabedian’s conceptual evaluation model. Forty-three participants took part in the RehabMaLL CoP with 60.5% (n = 26) participating at least once on the online platform where 234 comments were posted. Four in-person meetings were held. Members expressed satisfaction regarding the opportunity to share knowledge with people from diverse backgrounds and the usefulness of the CoP for the RehabMaLL project. Collaboration led to concrete outcomes, such as a sensitization activity and a research project. Common challenges included lack of time and difficulty finding common objectives. A CoP can be a useful strategy to facilitate knowledge sharing on disability issues. Future research is necessary to determine strategies of increasing knowledge creation between members. PMID:25913187

  10. The impact of living with HIV: differences in experiences of stigma for heterosexual and homosexual people living with HIV in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener, Loren; Wilson, Hannah; Slavin, Sean; de Wit, John

    2013-08-01

    Background HIV in Australia has been closely aligned with the gay community and continues to disproportionately affect members of this community. Although heterosexual transmission remains low, recently there has been an increase in new HIV diagnoses attributable to heterosexual sex. This highlights the need to address the health and social consequences for heterosexual people living with HIV (PLHIV). This subanalysis of a larger study compared the experiences of stigma, health and wellbeing of a sample of gay and heterosexual PLHIV. Data were drawn from a study of experiences of stigma among PLHIV in Australia. All 49 participants who reported being heterosexual were included, as were 49 participants randomly selected from the 611 gay participants. The samples were compared on perceived HIV stigma, HIV treatment-related stigma, perceived negative reactions of others, HIV status disclosure, and health and wellbeing measures. The findings illustrate that heterosexual PLHIV have more negative experiences in terms of both general HIV stigma and treatment-related stigma than gay PLHIV. The heterosexual PLHIV also perceived greater negative reactions in relation to their HIV status by different people in their social environment and were less likely to access treatment than the gay PLHIV. There were no differences between the two groups in any of the health and wellbeing measures. This study shows that in the Australian context, heterosexual PLHIV may feel more stigmatised than gay PLHIV. In view of lower HIV treatment uptake in heterosexual PLHIV, addressing HIV-related stigma could contribute to increasing access to HIV treatment.

  11. Living alone, receiving help, helplessness, and inactivity are strongly related to risk of undernutrition among older home-dwelling people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomstad ST

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Solveig T Tomstad1, Ulrika Söderhamn2, Geir Arild Espnes3, Olle Söderhamn21Department of Social Work and Health Science, Faculty of Sciences and Technology Management, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway and Centre for Caring Research – Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway; 2Centre for Caring Research – Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway; 3Research Centre for Health Promotion and Resources HiST-NTNU, Department of Social Work and Health Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, NTNU, Trondheim, NorwayBackground: Being at risk of undernutrition is a global problem among older people. Undernutrition can be considered inadequate nutritional status, characterized by insufficient food intake and weight loss. There is a lack of Norwegian studies focusing on being at risk of undernutrition and self-care ability, sense of coherence, and health-related issues among older home-dwelling people.Aim: To describe the prevalence of being at risk of undernutrition among a group of older home-dwelling individuals in Norway, and to relate the results to reported self-care ability, sense of coherence, perceived health and other health-related issues.Methods: A cross-sectional design was applied. A questionnaire with instruments for nutritional screening, self-care ability, and sense of coherence, and health-related questions was sent to a randomized sample of 450 persons (aged 65+ years in southern Norway. The study group included 158 (35.1% participants. Data were analysed using statistical methods.Results: The results showed that 19% of the participants were at medium risk of undernutrition and 1.3% at high risk. Due to the low response rate it can be expected that the nonparticipants can be at risk of undernutrition. The nutritional at-risk group had lower self-care ability and weaker sense of coherence. Living alone, receiving help

  12. Life memories and the ability to act: the meaning of autonomy and participation for older people when living with chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Maria; Pöder, Ulrika; Mamhidir, Anna-Greta; Nilsson, Annika; Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena; Häggström, Elisabeth

    2015-12-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about how older people living with chronic illness describe the meaning of autonomy and participation, indicating a risk for reduced autonomy and participation in their everyday life. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of autonomy and participation among older people living with chronic illness in accordance with their lived experience. The design was descriptive with a phenomenological approach guided by Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological psychological method. Purposive sampling was used, and 16 older people living with chronic illness who lived in an ordinary home participated in individual interviews. The findings showed that the meaning of autonomy and participation among the older people emerged when it was challenged and evoked emotional considerations of the lived experience of having a chronic illness. It involved living a life apart, yet still being someone who is able, trustworthy and given responsibility--still being seen and acknowledged. The meaning of autonomy and participation was derived through life memories and used by the older people in everyday life for adjustment or adaption to the present life and the future. Our conclusion is that autonomy and participation were considered in relation to older people's life memories in the past, in their present situation and also their future wishes. Ability or disability is of less importance than the meaning of everyday life among older people. We suggest using fewer labels for limitations in everyday life when caring for older people and more use of the phrase 'ability to act' in different ways, based on older people's descriptions of the meaning of autonomy and participation. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  13. The Impact of Enhanced Programming on Aging in Place for People With Dementia in Assisted Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Joan; Perez, Rosa; Doyle, Patrick J; Forester, Brent P; Whitfield, Theodore H

    2015-12-01

    Assisted living (AL) is a growing and operationally diverse option in our nation's long-term care system. Many consumers view AL communities as a viable option to receive needed services and age in place. However, little is known about the factors that influence residents' ability to age in place when experiencing cognitive decline. To estimate the association of resident and site characteristics to length of stay, reason for leaving and destination for residents with dementia in assisted living. In particular, this study sought to assess the impact of an 'Enhanced' Program intended to facilitate aging in place. Data were gathered from a retrospective evaluation of residents' clinical records (N=312) in five dementia-specific ALs (3 with robust enhanced programs) in the Northeastern United States. The time to 50% survival for the full cohort (N=312) was 20.2 months. Both age at move-in and gender were statistically significant predictors of length of stay. Sites with robust support for aging in place exhibited a statistically significant longer length of stay compared to sites with limited support. Of the residents who left or died (N=165) nearly one quarter (24%) were able to stay until the end of their lives, while 52% moved to a nursing home, primarily because of family, financial, or medical concerns. Few residents left these settings because of behavioral problems. AL sites with a more robust commitment to an aging in place model and a willingness to provide palliative care demonstrated a significantly longer length of stay. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Arsenic accumulation in people working with and living near a gold smelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, R.E.; Tiefenbach, B.; Toronto Univ., Ontario

    1979-01-01

    The processing of arsenic-containing ores for the recovery of metals such as gold, copper or lead can cause both an occupational health hazard to smelter workers and an environmental health problem to persons living downwind from the refineries. The study reported is a follow-up to preliminary investigations of possible arsenic ingestion by native children living near a gold refinery at Yellowknife, N.W.T., Canada and of a few mine-mill workers. Instrumental neutron activation of lake water and melted snow used as drinking water as well as of scalp hair gave evidence of appreciable intake of arsenic and some mercury. A further set of 67 hair samples was obtained from most of the smelter workers and from children in a native settlement who were considered most vulnerable, augmented by a set of 26 control samples from steel workers and children living in a comparable (but arsenic-free) northern area about 1000 km distance at Whitehorse, Yukon. Hair arsenic levels were consistently elevated above the controls, ranging to 280 ppm in one worker. The water supplies ranged up to 3 ppm, well above the 0.05 ppm MPC for drinking water. A larger epidemiological study of the area and of Hay River, N.W.T. controls, done in association with electromyography, was just completed and involved a further 414 children and workers from Yellowknife and 105 from the control area. The mean hair arsenic of 6.7 ppm for the former was quite different from a result of 0.33 ppm for the Hay River group, and 33% of the Yellowknife subjects were elevated above 1 ppm but none of the controls were above this concentration. Four workers were above 100 ppm, ranging as high as 620 ppm hair arsenic

  15. The effectiveness of inter-professional working for older people living in the community: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Daksha; Goodman, Claire; Gage, Heather; Baron, Natasha; Scheibl, Fiona; Iliffe, Steve; Manthorpe, Jill; Bunn, Frances; Drennan, Vari

    2013-03-01

    Health and social care policy in the UK advocates inter-professional working (IPW) to support older people with complex and multiple needs. Whilst there is a growing understanding of what supports IPW, there is a lack of evidence linking IPW to explicit outcomes for older people living in the community. This review aimed to identify the models of IPW that provide the strongest evidence base for practice with community dwelling older people. We searched electronic databases from 1 January 1990-31 March 2008. In December 2010 we updated the findings from relevant systematic reviews identified since 2008. We selected papers describing interventions that involved IPW for community dwelling older people and randomised controlled trials (RCT) reporting user-relevant outcomes. Included studies were classified by IPW models (Case Management, Collaboration and Integrated Team) and assessed for risk of bias. We conducted a narrative synthesis of the evidence according to the type of care (interventions delivering acute, chronic, palliative and preventive care) identified within each model of IPW. We retrieved 3211 records and included 37 RCTs which were mapped onto the IPW models: Overall, there is weak evidence of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness for IPW, although well-integrated and shared care models improved processes of care and have the potential to reduce hospital or nursing/care home use. Study quality varied considerably and high quality evaluations as well as observational studies are needed to identify the key components of effective IPW in relation to user-defined outcomes. Differences in local contexts raise questions about the applicability of the findings and their implications for practice. We need more information on the outcomes of the process of IPW and evaluations of the effectiveness of different configurations of health and social care professionals for the care of community dwelling older people. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Unobtrusive Wireless Monitoring System for Assisted Living and Improving the Wellbeing of Elderly People

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, Aidan; Duncliffe, Richard; Spillane, James; Walsh, Colin; Hill, Martin; O'Mahony, Tom; O'Reilly, Fergus

    2011-01-01

    A novel system to unobtrusively monitor the wellbeing of elderly people based on their activity patterns is presented. The system uses a wireless ZigBee network to monitor the electrical usage in a subject's home and then sends this data to an Apache server via HTTP from a GPRS unit. The data is logged in a MySQL database where pattern analysis is used to identify periods of significant inactivity. When such an event is identified designated contacts are notified by text message. For subjects requiring higher levels of monitoring a portable health monitor can be integrated incorporating a fall detector and panic button to inform of emergency situations.

  17. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    the war Hoyle returned to Cambridge, but kept in close contact with his collaborators. Fred Hoyle was a canny and media-savvy scientist, 40 years before such things were recognized. Martin Rees said after his death '[He] also had other dimensions to his career, his inventiveness and skill as a communicator'. It is hard to realize now the impact that Hoyle's broadcasts had in post-war Britain. His programmes for the BBC on The Nature of the Universe won greater audiences than such unlikely rivals as Bertrand Russell and Tommy Handley. Even today many people recall how they were affected by listening to these broadcasts. Hoyle used one of his broadcasts to ridicule the hot explosion theory. He referred to the idea of a 'big bang as fanciful'. Unfortunately the name stuck, much to Hoyle's chagrin. In the 1950s Hoyle began a fruitful collaboration with Willy Fowler of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Hoyle was interested in the origin of the chemical elements. Hans Bethe, Charles Critchfield and Karl-Frederich von Weizsäcker had calculated in 1939 how stars could turn protons into helium nuclei by nuclear fusion. Part of the Vela supernova remmant, the debris left after the type of massive explosion in which Hoyle predicted that heavy nuclei were formed. (© Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Anglo-Australian Observatory.) Building on earlier collaboration with Ed Saltpeter, Hoyle used data supplied by Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge and, working with Fowler, began to piece together how the elements were formed. By looking at very large stars near the end of their lives and examining their chemical composition, they noticed that the abundances of elements almost exactly corresponded to those with a low nuclear capture cross section. Hoyle argued that all of the elements in our bodies had been formed in stars that had been and gone before our solar system had even formed. In their classic paper the elements are produced by three basic methods. The

  18. Effectiveness of Work, Activities of Daily Living, Education, and Sleep Interventions for People With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Lindy L

    2015-01-01

    To examine interventions addressing work, activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), education, and sleep for people with autism spectrum disorder. A total of 23 studies were identified, and 9 work-, 11 ADL/IADL-, and 3 education-related interventions were examined. No sleep studies were identified. Use of mobile and tablet technologies for vocational skills was supported. Support for ADL/IADL intervention is variable, with indications that Cognitive Orientation to Occupational Performance, sensory integration, and contextual interventions may increase occupational performance. Preliminary evidence suggests that daily yoga and brief exercise may improve classroom performance and behavior; group physical activities may assist with school readiness variables. Evidence for using technologies for IADLs was limited, as was evidence determining effective interventions for feeding and eating issues. Studies investigating interventions related to sleep are lacking. More studies are needed in all areas, presenting opportunities for the expansion of science-driven occupational therapy practice and research for people with ASD. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  19. Quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS: temporal, socio-demographic and perceived health relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Leite Hipolito

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to analyze the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and its relationship with sociodemographic variables, health satisfaction and time since diagnosis. Method: quantitative, cross-sectional study with a sample of 100 HIV positive people monitored in a specialized service in southeastern Brazil. Sociodemographic and health forms were applied, followed by the WHOQOL-HIV BREF, a short form instrument validated to evaluate the quality of life. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was performed. Results: the perception of quality of life was intermediate in all quality of life domains. A relationship was identified between greater satisfaction with health and better quality of life, as well as statistically significant differences among the dimensions of quality of life according to gender, employment status, family income, personal income, religious beliefs and time since diagnosis. Conclusions: the time since the diagnosis of HIV infection enables reconfigurations in the perception of quality of life, while spirituality and social relationships can assist in coping with living with this disease.

  20. A longitudinal study of cerebral blood flow and intelligences in normal elderly people living in retirement house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shotai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Kitani, Mitsuhiro; Okada, Kazunori; Arimoto, Satao

    1986-01-01

    It is well known that the number of the neuron in the brain gradually reduced with advancing age, but speed of decline of brain functions differs among individuals. We have reported that social environmental factors had significant influences to cerebral blood flow (CBF) and mental function. In this paper, we report 2.5 years longitudinal study concerning with CBF and intelligences in twenty normal elderly people, mean age of 76 years old at the first measurement, living in retirement house. 1) Mean CBF measured by Xe 133 inhalation method did not alter significantly during the observation period. 2) Performance intelligence evaluated by Kohs' block design test had reduced at the point of begining but no more reduction was observed during the period. 3) Verbal intelligence evaluated by Hasegawa's intelligence scale for aged which was within normal range at the begining, slightly (-7.5 %) but significantly (p < 0.05) reduced during the period. 4) Performance intelligence tended to reduce in subjects who showed reduction of CBF. There were no significant correlation between both intelligences and CBF. CBF could be maintained even in elderly people living in retirement house which has less social stimuli during relatively short observation period in so far as they maintain active daily life. The speed of reduction of performance intelligence may be getting slow after certain age and verbal intelligence gradually decreases perhaps by disuse of the mental function. (author)

  1. Subjective symptoms reported by people living in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations: A review of the studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortkiewicz, A.; Szyjkowska, A.; Gadzicka, E.; Zmyslony, M.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by cellular phone base stations evokes much interest in view of the fact that people living in their vicinity are fated to continuous exposure to EMF. None of the studies carried out throughout the world have revealed excessive values of standards adopted by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). A questionnaire was used as a study tool. The results of the questionnaire survey reveal that people living in the vicinity of base stations report various complaints mostly of the circulatory system, but also of sleep disturbances, irritability, depression, blurred vision, concentration difficulties, nausea, lack of appetite, headache and vertigo. The performed studies showed the relationship between the incidence of individual symptoms, the level of exposure, and the distance between a residential area and a base station. This association was observed in both groups of persons, those who linked their complaints with the presence of the base station and those who did not notice such a relation. Further studies, clinical and those based on questionnaires, are needed to explain the background of reported complaints. (author)

  2. Stigmatization and discrimination towards people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS by the general public in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L P; Syuhada, A R Nur

    2011-09-01

    Globally, HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discriminatory attitudes deter the effectiveness of HIV prevention and care programs. This study investigated the general public's perceptions about HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination towards people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS in order to understand the root of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discriminatory attitudes. Study was carried out using qualitative focus group discussions (FGD). An interview guide with semi-structured questions was used. Participants were members of the public in Malaysia. Purposive sampling was adopted for recruitment of participants. A total 14 focus group discussions (n = 74) was carried out between March and July 2008. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) was profound. Key factors affecting discriminatory attitudes included high-risk taking behavior, individuals related to stigmatized identities, sources of HIV infection, stage of the disease, and relationship with an infected person. Other factors that influence attitudes toward PLWHA include ethnicity and urban-rural locality. Malay participants were less likely than other ethnic groups to perceive no stigmatization if their spouses were HIV positive. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination were stronger among participants in rural settings. The differences indicate attitudes toward PLWHA are influenced by cultural differences.

  3. Stigma Related Avoidance in People Living with Severe Mental Illness (SMI): Findings of an Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiri, Sadat; Oakley, Linda Denise; Hitchcock, Mary E; Hall, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this integrative review is to synthesize primary evidence of the impact of internalized stigma on avoidance in adult community treatment patients living with SMI. A keyword database search of articles published through 2015 yielded 21 papers and a total of 4256 patients. Our analyses found that stigmatizing beliefs associated with avoidance are related to significant loss of self-esteem. Factors generally thought to reduce stigma internalized as self-stigmatizing beliefs, such as improved insight, increased self-awareness, and psycho-education to improve stigma coping skills, do not appear to improve self-esteem.

  4. The impact of flooding on people living with HIV: a case study from the Ohangwena Region, Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthonj, Carmen; Nkongolo, Odon T; Schmitz, Peter; Hango, Johannes N; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Floods are a disaster situation for all affected populations and especially for vulnerable groups within communities such as children, orphans, women, and people with chronic diseases such as HIV and AIDS. They need functioning health care, sanitation and hygiene, safe water, and healthy food supply, and are critically dependent on their social care and support networks. A study carried out in the Ohangwena region, Namibia, where HIV prevalence is high and extensive flooding frequently occurs, aims to provide a deeper understanding of the impact that flooding has on people living with HIV (PLWHIV) as well as on HIV service providers in the region. The qualitative research applying grounded theory included semi-structured interviews with PLWHIV, focus group discussions with HIV service providers, and a national feedback meeting. The findings were interpreted using the sustainable livelihoods framework, the natural hazard research approach, and health behaviour theories. The study reveals that flooding poses major problems to PLWHIV in terms of their everyday lives, affecting livelihoods, work, income, and living conditions. The factors threatening them under normal conditions - poverty, malnutrition, unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene, limited access to health facilities, a weak health status, and stigma - are intensified by flood-related breakdown of infrastructure, insecurity, malnutrition, and diseases evolving over the course of a flood. A potential dual risk exists for their health: the increased risk both of infection and disease due to the inaccessibility of health services and antiretroviral treatment. A HIV and Flooding Framework was developed to display the results. This study demonstrates that vulnerabilities and health risks of PLWHIV will increase in a disaster situation like flooding if access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support are not addressed and ensured. The findings and the HIV and Flooding Framework are not specific to Ohangwena and

  5. Psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30 among older people living at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale B

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bjørg Dale, Ulrika Söderhamn, Olle SöderhamnCentre for Caring Research – Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, NorwayIntroduction: The incidence and prevalence of mental problems among older people are difficult to map because the causes are often complex and the symptoms manifest in a range of ways. Therefore, there is a need for robust and useful instruments for screening mental problems in this group. One instrument used in Norway and around the world is the 30-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30. Nevertheless, studies testing reliability and validity of the Norwegian version are scarce.Aim: The aim of this study was to test the psychometric properties, by means of reliability and construct validity, of the Norwegian version of the GHQ-30 in a sample of older people living at home.Methods: A cross-sectional design was used. A postal questionnaire including background variables and a range of health related questions, including the GHQ-30, was mailed to 6033 older people (age 65 years or more who lived in their own homes in southern Norway. A final sample of 2106 persons (34.9% responded to and returned the questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically regarding reliability and construct validity of the GHQ-30.Results: The reliability of the instrument, reflecting its homogeneity, was shown in a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.93 and in significant item-to-total correlations. Construct validity was supported as the GHQ-30 demonstrated robustness in separating groups with known mental problems. Construct validity was also demonstrated in a logical four factor solution, which accounted for 50.0% of the variance in the study group. The factor structure supported previous testing studies of the instrument.Conclusion: The GHQ-30 showed satisfactory psychometric properties regarding reliability and construct validity in this study group, which may indicate that the

  6. The impact of flooding on people living with HIV: a case study from the Ohangwena Region, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Anthonj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Floods are a disaster situation for all affected populations and especially for vulnerable groups within communities such as children, orphans, women, and people with chronic diseases such as HIV and AIDS. They need functioning health care, sanitation and hygiene, safe water, and healthy food supply, and are critically dependent on their social care and support networks. A study carried out in the Ohangwena region, Namibia, where HIV prevalence is high and extensive flooding frequently occurs, aims to provide a deeper understanding of the impact that flooding has on people living with HIV (PLWHIV as well as on HIV service providers in the region. Design: The qualitative research applying grounded theory included semi-structured interviews with PLWHIV, focus group discussions with HIV service providers, and a national feedback meeting. The findings were interpreted using the sustainable livelihoods framework, the natural hazard research approach, and health behaviour theories. Results: The study reveals that flooding poses major problems to PLWHIV in terms of their everyday lives, affecting livelihoods, work, income, and living conditions. The factors threatening them under normal conditions – poverty, malnutrition, unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene, limited access to health facilities, a weak health status, and stigma – are intensified by flood-related breakdown of infrastructure, insecurity, malnutrition, and diseases evolving over the course of a flood. A potential dual risk exists for their health: the increased risk both of infection and disease due to the inaccessibility of health services and antiretroviral treatment. A HIV and Flooding Framework was developed to display the results. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that vulnerabilities and health risks of PLWHIV will increase in a disaster situation like flooding if access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support are not addressed and ensured. The findings and

  7. Beings of a Feather: Learning About the Lives of Birds with Amazonian Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Jernigan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a memoir of the author's fieldwork experiences studying traditional knowledge of bird species in the Peruvian Amazon. It describes his growth as a researcher, in light of the practical and methodological challenges of carrying out this kind of work. It also relates how the author's thinking has evolved on questions of current theoretical interest in ethnobiology. The first section outlines how the author came to be interested in this topic while pursuing an ethnobotanical dissertation project. Next, the discussion follows his work with the indigenous Aguaruna and Iquito peoples, learning about and documenting their understandings of the nesting, foraging and reproductive behavior of local avian species. On one hand, he found that local people provided details of these behaviors that match, in many ways, the counts of academic ornithologists. However, local interpretations of why these behaviors take place are often framed by some very different assumptions. The author uses Victor Toledo's tripartite framework of kosmos (overarching belief systems, corpus (cognitive categories, and praxis (set of practices to discuss similarities and differences in Aguaruna, Iquito, and academic ornithology. He also discusses his progression of views on the topic of perspectivism and eventual preference for a theoretical framework favoring a polyontological approach to understanding Amazonian ethnoecology.

  8. Depression and discrimination in the lives of women, transgender and gender liminal people in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charmaine C; Curling, Deone; Steele, Leah S; Gibson, Margaret F; Daley, Andrea; Green, Datejie Cheko; Ross, Lori E

    2017-05-01

    This article uses an intersectionality lens to explore how experiences of race, gender, sexuality, class and their intersections are associated with depression and unmet need for mental healthcare in a population of 704 women and transgender/gender liminal people from Ontario, Canada. A survey collecting demographic information, information about mental health and use of mental healthcare services, and data for the Everyday Discrimination Scale and the PHQ-9 Questionnaire for Depression was completed by 704 people via Internet or pen-and-paper between June 2011 and June 2012. Bivariate and regression analyses were conducted to assess group differences in depression and discrimination experiences, and predictors of depression and unmet need for mental healthcare services. Analyses revealed that race, gender, class and sexuality all corresponded to significant differences in exposure to discrimination, experiences of depression and unmet needs for mental healthcare. Use of interaction terms to model intersecting identities and exclusion contributed to explained variance in both outcome variables. Everyday discrimination was the strongest predictor of both depression and unmet need for mental healthcare. The results suggest lower income and intersections of race with other marginalised identities are associated with more depression and unmet need for mental healthcare; however, discrimination is the factor that contributes the most to those vulnerabilities. Future research can build on intersectionality theory by foregrounding the role of structural inequities and discrimination in promoting poor mental health and barriers to healthcare. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Delirium: the lived experience of older people who are delirious post-orthopaedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Cecily; Fitzgerald, Mary; Ford, Karen

    2015-06-01

    Delirium is a common, potentially preventable and reversible cause of postoperative functional disability, morbidity, and mortality. It can lead to increased health-care use and also poses a substantial challenge for nurses caring for patients who experience delirium after surgery. Predominantly, the published work concentrates on diagnosis, reduction of the modifiable risk factors, and treatments. Compared with this body of published work, the experience of delirium from a patient's perspective has been largely ignored except for a limited number of qualitative research reports. The importance of researching the lived experience of delirium is that a better understanding may lead to more empathic, therapeutic nursing care and help other sufferers to know they are not alone. The aims of the study were to explore and clarify the lived experience of delirium. Eleven patients were recruited to the study following discharge post-surgery from an orthopaedic ward of a major tertiary hospital. The study used a qualitative descriptive approach and incorporated grounded theory data analysis processes. The findings of this study provide an insight into the incomprehensible emotional pain suffered by patients while they were delirious and the disparate feelings of remorse, guilt, and shame they experienced after the episode of delirium. Following this study, recommendations for nursing practice include formal follow-up support for patients with post-delirium episodes and more research into the long-term impact of the experience of delirium. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  10. Uranium in Canada: Billion-dollar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whillans, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    In 1988, Canada maintained its position as the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium; five primary uranium producers reported concentrate output containing 12,400 MT of uranium, or about one-third of Western production. Uranium shipments made by these producers in 1988 exceeded 13,200 MT, worth Canadian $1.1 billion. Because domestic requirements represent only 15% of current Canadian output, most of Canada's uranium production is available for export. Despite continued market uncertainty in 1988, Canada's uranium producers signed new sales contracts for some 14,000 MT, twice the 1987 level. About 90% of this new volume is with the US, now Canada's major uranium customer. The recent implementation of the Canada/US Free Trade agreement brings benefits to both countries; the uranium industries in each can now develop in an orderly, free market. Canada's uranium industry was restructured and consolidated in 1988 through merger and acquisition; three new uranium projects advanced significantly. Canada's new policy on nonresident ownership in the uranium mining sector, designed to encourage both Canadian and foreign investment, should greatly improve efforts to finance the development of recent Canadian uranium discoveries

  11. Telephone consultation for improving health of people living with or at risk of HIV: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle H M M T van Velthoven

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low cost, effective interventions are needed to deal with the major global burden of HIV/AIDS. Telephone consultation offers the potential to improve health of people living with HIV/AIDS cost-effectively and to reduce the burden on affected people and health systems. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of telephone consultation for HIV/AIDS care. METHODS: We undertook a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and grey literature. Two authors independently screened citations, extracted data and assessed the quality of randomized controlled trials which compared telephone interventions with control groups for HIV/AIDS care. Telephone interventions were voice calls with landlines or mobile phones. We present a narrative overview of the results as the obtained trials were highly heterogeneous in design and therefore the data could not be pooled for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The search yielded 3321 citations. Of these, nine studies involving 1162 participants met the inclusion criteria. The telephone was used for giving HIV test results (one trial and for delivering behavioural interventions aimed at improving mental health (four trials, reducing sexual transmission risk (one trial, improving medication adherence (two trials and smoking cessation (one trial. Limited effectiveness of the intervention was found in the trial giving HIV test results, in one trial supporting medication adherence and in one trial for smoking cessation by telephone. CONCLUSIONS: We found some evidence of the benefits of interventions delivered by telephone for the health of people living with HIV or at risk of HIV. However, only limited conclusions can be drawn as we only found nine studies for five different interventions and they mainly took place in the United States. Nevertheless, given the high penetration of low-cost mobile phones in countries with high HIV endemicity, more evidence is needed on how telephone consultation

  12. Telephone Consultation for Improving Health of People Living with or at Risk of HIV: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velthoven, Michelle H. M. M. T.; Car, Lorainne Tudor; Car, Josip; Atun, Rifat

    2012-01-01

    Background Low cost, effective interventions are needed to deal with the major global burden of HIV/AIDS. Telephone consultation offers the potential to improve health of people living with HIV/AIDS cost-effectively and to reduce the burden on affected people and health systems. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of telephone consultation for HIV/AIDS care. Methods We undertook a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and grey literature. Two authors independently screened citations, extracted data and assessed the quality of randomized controlled trials which compared telephone interventions with control groups for HIV/AIDS care. Telephone interventions were voice calls with landlines or mobile phones. We present a narrative overview of the results as the obtained trials were highly heterogeneous in design and therefore the data could not be pooled for statistical analysis. Results The search yielded 3321 citations. Of these, nine studies involving 1162 participants met the inclusion criteria. The telephone was used for giving HIV test results (one trial) and for delivering behavioural interventions aimed at improving mental health (four trials), reducing sexual transmission risk (one trial), improving medication adherence (two trials) and smoking cessation (one trial). Limited effectiveness of the intervention was found in the trial giving HIV test results, in one trial supporting medication adherence and in one trial for smoking cessation by telephone. Conclusions We found some evidence of the benefits of interventions delivered by telephone for the health of people living with HIV or at risk of HIV. However, only limited conclusions can be drawn as we only found nine studies for five different interventions and they mainly took place in the United States. Nevertheless, given the high penetration of low-cost mobile phones in countries with high HIV endemicity, more evidence is needed on how telephone consultation can aid in the

  13. Working in group living homes for older people with dementia: the effects on job satisfaction and burnout and the role of job characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, S. te; Willemse, B.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Eefsting, J.A.; Pot, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Group living homes are a fast-growing form of nursing home care for older people with dementia. This study seeks to determine the differences in job characteristics of nursing staff in group living homes and their influence on well-being. Methods: We examined the Job Demand

  14. Working in group living homes for older people with dementia: the effects on job satisfaction and burnout and the role of job characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Boekhorst, S.; Willemse, B.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Eefsting, J.A.; Pot, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Group living homes are a fast-growing form of nursing home care for older people with dementia. This study seeks to determine the differences in job characteristics of nursing staff in group living homes and their influence on well-being. Methods: We examined the Job Demand Control

  15. Psychiatric Morbidity among Elderly People Living in Old Age Homes and in the Community: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disorders such as depression, anxiety, cognitive and psychotic disorders have a high prevalence among elderly. There is some preliminary evidence that life in old age homes is perceived by inmates as more supportive, though the issue is not well studied. Aim: This project is directed towards studying and comparing the psychiatric morbidity and quality of life of elderly people residing in two unique settings: community and old age homes. Method: It is a cross-sectional study where the elderly subjects, 50 each in both the groups, were selected by simple random sampling technique and assessed on Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE, Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in Elderly (IQCODE, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS and Quality of life visual analogue scale. Result: On comparison using suitable statistical analysis, there was no significant difference in the total scores on MMSE, IQCODE and quality of life scale across the groups. Depression was present in 22% of people in the community and 36% of old age home inmates. Psychosis was present in 26% of people in the community and 20% of old age home inmates. Conclusion: The psychiatric morbidity is high in elderly irrespective of the setting in which they live.

  16. Participation of people living in rural areas of Eskisehir province in field researches, and factors affecting their rates of participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozay, Ozkan; Ayhan, Emine; Onsuz, Muhammed Fatih; Isikli, Burhanettin; Metintas, Selma

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine participation rates of people living in the rural area of Eskisehir in field researches, and the factors influencing this. This descriptive study was performed with 1,482 people aged 18 and above in two districts of Eskisehir. Data were collected with a 16 question questionnaire using the face-to-face interview technique. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics, chi- square test, logistic regression analysis, and factors affecting rates of participation in field researches. The most important reason (46.9%) given by participating for participant in field researches was the intention of "helping the interviewer". The other reasons were; believing in the usefulness of the researches (35.0%), contribution to public improvement (14.9%) and taking pleasure in talking with various people (3.2%). The most important reason (34.6%) for not participating in field researches was "considering field researches a waste of time". The other important reasons for non-participation were unnecessarily long questions in the research questionnaire forms (32.7%) and being uninformed of the research results (31.9%). In logistic regression analysis, age was found to be an influential factor in participation rates. Lower rates of participation in field researches cause bias. As far as possible high participation in field researches is important. For the achievement of higher participation rates in field researches, training courses must be provided to both research workers and the public.

  17. Issues and challenges for development of a sustainable service model for people with spinal cord injury living in rural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, James W; McCormick, Melissa; Engel, Stella; Rutkowski, Susan B; Cameron, Ian D; Harradine, Peter; Johnson, Jennifer L; Andrews, David

    2008-10-01

    To develop and implement a service model for people with spinal cord injury (SCI) living in rural regions. Service development, pilot evaluation study. Regional and remote areas of the state of New South Wales, Australia. Persons with SCI, caregivers, and health professionals. Phase 1 included initial needs analysis, followed by education and resource development tailored to needs of rural health professionals, caregivers, and persons with SCI. Phase 2 included coordination, professional support, and network development by part-time rural key worker and metropolitan-based project officer, documenting health- and service-related issues. Self-perception of confidence as a result of education as well as reported issues, adverse health events, and barriers to service provision. Clinician confidence in managing people with SCI improved after education. Various health-related, environmental, and psychosocial issues were reported. Limited availability of resources and health infrastructure, particularly in more isolated or smaller towns, challenged service provision. Rural key workers played a central role in supporting local clinicians and service providers, improving communication and service coordination between rural health professionals and metropolitan SCI services. Education and support for rural workforce that may be limited in numbers and capacity, and a model facilitating communication and coordination between services, are essential for improving health outcomes of rural people with SCI.

  18. The text telephone as an empowering technology in the daily lives of deaf people-A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Carin; Wengelin, Åsa

    2016-01-01

    Text-telephone technology (TTY) has been used for communication between deaf people since 1964. There is a gap in the scientific knowledge about the influence this may have had especially in relation to effective participation in society as well as the feeling of capability, confidence and collective meaningfulness. The aim of the present paper is, first, to disentangle the different aspects of TTY as an empowering artifact; and, second, to explore the role of TTY in their lives. To provide a framework for the empirical analysis, the paper draws on Empowerment Theory: personal control, a proactive approach to life, and a critical awareness of one's socio-political environment. Twenty-four people aged 16-64 with Swedish Sign Language (SSL) as their first language were interviewed. The findings indicate that the introduction of the TTY was of great importance for self-esteem, equality and independence. The findings show that feelings of empowerment are closely linked to language use and contextually driven, and it is in interaction between deaf and hearing that such feelings arise (or not). The results indicate the need for further research into Deaf people's use of other means of interacting, using modern technique for example in social digital media and interactive platforms.

  19. Facilitating aging in place: A qualitative study of practical problems preventing people with dementia from living at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma-Lürken, Theresa; Bleijlevens, Michel H C; Lexis, Monique A S; de Witte, Luc P; Hamers, Jan P H

    Although the majority of people with dementia wish to age in place, they are particularly susceptible to nursing home admission. Nurses can play an important role in detecting practical problems people with dementia and their informal caregivers are facing and in advising them on various ways to manage these problems at home. Six focus group interviews (n = 43) with formal and informal caregivers and experts in the field of assistive technology were conducted to gain insight into the most important practical problems preventing people with dementia from living at home. Problems within three domains were consistently described as most important: informal caregiver/social network-related problems (e.g. high load of care responsibility), safety-related problems (e.g. fall risk, wandering), and decreased self-reliance (e.g. problems regarding self-care, lack of day structure). To facilitate aging in place and/or to delay institutionalization, nurses in community-based dementia care should focus on assessing problems within those three domains and offer potential solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Calibration of the food list and portion sizes of a food frequency questionnaire applied to free-living elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfrimer, Karina; Sartorelli, Daniela Saes; Rosa, Flavia Troncon; Mendes Resende, Cristina Maria; Viera, Daniela Vieira Pallos; Rabito, Estela Iraci; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza; Moriguti, Eny Kiyomi Uemora; Monteiro, Jaqueline Pontes; Ferriolli, Eduardo

    2013-05-01

    To calibrate the food list and relative portion sizes of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for application to a free-living, healthy, elderly population. Cross-sectional study. One hundred free-living, healthy participants, aged from 60 to 75 y, randomly selected from among individuals in the area served by the Family Health Program, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of São Paulo. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and a Diet History Questionnaire (DH) were applied by trained dietitians. Each food item of the FFQ had its portion size recalculated according to the percentiles referenced by the volunteers in the DH (25th = small, 50th = medium, and 75th = large). The list of foods and portion sizes of the original FFQ and those obtained by the application of the DH were compared. The percent contribution of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, folic acid, vitamin C, calcium, and fiber of each food item mentioned in the FFQ was determined from the data obtained by the application of the DH. FFQ, as compared with the DH, provided good estimation of the intake of protein, calcium, folic acid, and fiber (paired t test P food list were found to be appropriate for application to healthy, urban, free-living elderly people in Ribeirao Preto, Brazil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The information needs of people living with ankylosing spondylitis: a questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooksey Roxanne

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today, health care is patient-centred with patients more involved in medical decision making and taking an active role in managing their disease. It is important that patients are appropriately informed about their condition and that their health care needs are met. We examine the information utilisation, sources and needs of people with Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS. Methods Participants in an existing AS cohort study were asked to complete a postal or online questionnaire containing closed and open-ended questions, regarding their information access and needs. Participants were stratified by age and descriptive statistics were performed using STATA 11, while thematic analysis was performed on open-ended question narratives. Qualitative data was handled in Microsoft Access and explored for emerging themes and patterns of experiences. Results Despite 73% of respondents having internet access, only 49% used the internet to access information regarding AS. Even then, this was only infrequently. Only 50% of respondents reported accessing written information about AS, which was obtained mainly in specialist clinics. Women were more likely than men to access information (63% (women 46% (men regardless of the source, while younger patients were more likely to use online sources. The main source of non-written information was the rheumatologist. Overall, the respondents felt there was sufficient information available, but there was a perception that the tone was often too negative. The majority (95% of people would like to receive a regular newsletter about AS, containing positive practical and local information. Suggestions were also made for more information about AS to be made available to non-specialist medical professionals and the general public. Conclusions There appears to be sufficient information available for people with AS in the UK and this is mostly accessed by younger AS patients. Many patients, particularly men, choose

  2. Fall prevention by nursing assistants among community-living elderly people. A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlström, Gunilla; Kamwendo, Kitty; Forsberg, Jenny; Bodin, Lennart

    2017-08-29

    Falls among elderly are a major public health issue in Sweden. The aim was to determine whether nursing assistants can prevent falls by supervising community-living elderly individuals with a history of falling in performing individually designed home exercise programmes. A randomised controlled trial was performed in Sweden, in eight municipalities in the county of Örebro, during 2007-2009. Community-living persons 65 years or older having experienced at least one fall during the last 12 months were included. The intervention group consisted of 76 participants, and there were 72 in the control group. The interventions were free of charge and were shared between a physiotherapist and a nursing assistant. The former designed a programme aiming to improve balance, leg strength and walking ability. The nursing assistant supervised the performance of activities during eight home visits during a 5-month intervention period. The measures and instruments used were health-related quality of life (SF-36), activity of daily living (ADL-staircase), balance, (Falls Efficacy Scale, and Berg Balance Scale), walking ability (Timed Up and Go and the 3-metre walking test), leg strength, (chair stand test). All participants were asked to keep a structured calendar of their physical exercise, walks and occurrence of falls during their 12-month study period. Hospital healthcare consumption data were collected. Although the 5-month intervention did not significantly decrease the risk for days with falls, RR 1.10 (95% CI 0.58, 2.07), p = 0.77, significant changes in favour of the intervention group were noted for balance (p = 0.03), ADL (p = 0.035), bodily pain (p = 0.003) and reported health transition over time (p = 0.008) as well as less hospital care due to fractures (p = 0.025). Additional studies with more participants are needed to establish whether or not falls can be significantly prevented with this model which is workable in home-based fall prevention. © 2017

  3. Virtual intervention to support self-management of antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, José; Godin, Gaston; Ramirez-Garcia, Pilar; Rouleau, Geneviève; Bourbonnais, Anne; Guéhéneuc, Yann-Gaël; Tremblay, Cécile; Otis, Joanne

    2015-01-06

    Living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) necessitates long-term health care follow-up, particularly with respect to antiretroviral therapy (ART) management. Taking advantage of the enormous possibilities afforded by information and communication technologies (ICT), we developed a virtual nursing intervention (VIH-TAVIE) intended to empower HIV patients to manage their ART and their symptoms optimally. ICT interventions hold great promise across the entire continuum of HIV patient care but further research is needed to properly evaluate their effectiveness. The objective of the study was to compare the effectiveness of two types of follow-up--traditional and virtual--in terms of promoting ART adherence among HIV patients. A quasi-experimental study was conducted. Participants were 179 HIV patients on ART for at least 6 months, of which 99 were recruited at a site offering virtual follow-up and 80 at another site offering only traditional follow-up. The primary outcome was medication adherence and the secondary outcomes were the following cognitive and affective variables: self-efficacy, attitude toward medication intake, symptom-related discomfort, stress, and social support. These were evaluated by self-administered questionnaire at baseline (T0), and 3 (T3) and 6 months (T6) later. On average, participants had been living with HIV for 14 years and had been on ART for 11 years. The groups were highly heterogeneous, differing on a number of sociodemographic dimensions: education, income, marital status, employment status, and living arrangements. Adherence at baseline was high, reaching 80% (59/74) in the traditional follow-up group and 84% (81/97) in the virtual follow-up group. A generalized estimating equations (GEE) analysis was run, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics at baseline. A time effect was detected indicating that both groups improved in adherence over time but did not differ in this regard. Improvement at 6 months was significantly

  4. What matters to older people with assisted living needs? A phenomenological analysis of the use and non-use of telehealth and telecare

    OpenAIRE

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Wherton, Joe; Sugarhood, Paul; Hinder, Sue; Procter, Rob; Stones, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Telehealth and telecare research has been dominated by efficacy trials. The field lacks a sophisticated theorisation of [a] what matters to older people with assisted living needs; [b] how illness affects people's capacity to use technologies; and [c] the materiality of assistive technologies. We sought to develop a phenomenologically and socio-materially informed theoretical model of assistive technology use. Forty people aged 60–98 (recruited via NHS, social care and third sector) were visi...

  5. Perceived value of eHealth among people living with multimorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runz-Jørgensen, Sidsel; Schiøtz, Michaela L.; Christensen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of multimorbidity is increasing, creating challenges for patients, healthcare professionals,and healthcare systems. Given that chronic disease management increasingly involves eHealth, it is useful to assess its perceived value among people with multimorbidity. Objective...... practicing self-management activities, when navigating the healthcare sector, and when interacting with healthcare professionals. Patient-perceived value of eHealth varied, depending on their burden of illness and treatment: those with a greater burden had more positive perceptions of eHealth, and expressed...... potentially address some patient-experienced challenges related to multimorbidity by promoting self-management, patient-centeredness, and access. However, patients’ needs and preferences vary and eHealth cannot substitute the personal interaction between patient and healthcare professionals. Our findings...

  6. Living on the edge: examination of people attending food pantries and soup kitchens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggerstaff, Marilyn A; Morris, Patricia McGrath; Nichols-Casebolt, Ann

    2002-07-01

    This article presents information from a study of people receiving food assistance services from food pantries and soup kitchens in Virginia. The data indicate that significant numbers of individuals and families--many of whom are employed--are seeking food assistance. Many of these individuals also have been homeless, victims of domestic violence, unable to pay their utility bills, or have lost their public benefits. A critical issue raised by the findings is the low rate of participation in the food stamp program. Fewer than 40 percent of the respondents were receiving food stamps. Although the food stamp program is intended to help households buy a nutritionally adequate diet, there is growing concern that a large segment of low-income Americans are slipping through this safety net. The article concludes with suggestions for social work interventions to address issues of food security.

  7. Living with constipation--older people's experiences and strategies with constipation before and during hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Lene; Tvistholm, Nina; Trosborg, Ingelise

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Constipation is a common problem among older people. This study aimed to explore how older patients experience constipation and which strategies they used in handling the condition before and during hospitalization. METHODS: A qualitative exploratory research design was used. Fourteen...... semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients (61-91 years of age) during hospitalization. Data were analyzed by using content analysis. RESULTS: Themes concerning experiences were Bodily signs and symptoms of constipation; the participants described severe pain during constipation, as well...... as pronounced relief after bowel movements, Impact on well-being and social activities; being constipated negatively impacted their mood and limited social activities, Striving for bowel balance; the participants experienced an ongoing strive for balancing between constipation and diarrhea. Themes related...

  8. Activities of Daily Living and Prevalence of Chronic diseases Among Elderly People in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-09-01

    Results: The mean grade scores of ADL and IADL were 36.03±5.99 and 24.25±8.22diseases (r=-0.332, p=0.001. The most prevalent diseases of the participants were arthralgia (74/8%, osteoporosis (53/8%, hypertension (49/4%, sleep problems (39/2% and cardiovascular diseases (38/5% respectively. Conclusions: A significant proportion of the elderly in our population were relatively dependent in terms of their activities of daily living.Bathing in this context is one of the most important dependencies. In addition, high prevalence of chronic diseases was arthritis and osteoporosis among others. They needed to be taken care of more andit seems that theeducationalinterventionprograms forthe elderlyand their families seems to be veryuseful.

  9. Investigating the Lived Experience of Recovery in People Who Hear Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Adèle; Rhodes, Paul; Beavan, Vanessa; Holmes, Douglas; McCabe, Kathryn; Thomas, Neil; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Lampshire, Debra; Hayward, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Although there is evidence of both clinical and personal recovery from distressing voices, the process of recovery over time is unclear. Narrative inquiry was used to investigate 11 voice-hearers' lived experience of recovery. After a period of despair/exhaustion, two recovery typologies emerged: (a) turning toward/empowerment, which involved developing a normalized account of voices, building voice-specific skills, integration of voices into daily life, and a transformation of identity, and (b) turning away/protective hibernation, which involved harnessing all available resources to survive the experience, with the importance of medication in recovery being emphasized. Results indicated the importance of services being sensitive and responsive to a person's recovery style at any given time and their readiness for change. Coming to hold a normalized account of voice-hearing and the self and witnessing of preferred narratives by others were essential in the more robust turning toward recovery typology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Digital life storybooks for people with dementia living in care homes: an evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ponnusamy Subramaniam,1 Bob Woods2 1Health Psychology Programme, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Dementia Services Development Centre Wales, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, UK Background and aim: There is increasing interest in using information and communication technology to help older adults with dementia to engage in reminiscence work. Now, the feasibility of such approaches is beginning to be established. The purpose of this study was to establish an evidence-base for the acceptability and efficacy of using multimedia digital life storybooks with people with dementia in care homes, in comparison with conventional life storybooks, taking into account the perspectives of people with dementia, their relatives, and care staff.Methods: Participatory design was used to create a life story movie based on a previously completed conventional life storybook with six older adults with dementia (four females; mean age 82 years. Relatives were involved in helping the participant to provide additional information and materials for the digital life storybook. In this multiple case study design, both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used. For quantitative purposes, a set of questionnaires that had been completed three times before and after the conventional life storybook was developed were repeated 4 weeks after the life story movie was completed. Semistructured interview questions were designed to collect feedback from participants, relatives, and care staff.Results: The result indicated that five of the six participants showed additional improvement in measures of quality of life and autobiographical memory. All participants showed improvement or stability in depression scores. Thematic analysis showed that, participants, relatives, and care home staff viewed digital life storybooks as a very useful tool triggering memories and (largely positive emotions. Participants’ case vignettes were presented to

  11. Community voices: barriers and opportunities for programmes to successfully prevent vertical transmission of HIV identified through consultations among people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ginna; Caswell, Georgina; Edwards, Olive; Hsieh, Amy; Hull, Beri; Mallouris, Christoforos; Mason, Naisiadet; Nöstlinger, Christiana

    2012-07-11

    In 2010, two global networks of people living with HIV, the International Community of Women Living with HIV (ICW Global) and the Global Network of People living with HIV (GNP+) were invited to review a draft strategic framework for the global scale up of prevention of vertical transmission (PVT) through the primary prevention of HIV and the prevention of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV. In order to ensure recommendations were based on expressed needs of people living with HIV, GNP+ and ICW Global undertook a consultation amongst people living with HIV which highlighted both facilitators and barriers to prevention services. This commentary summarizes the results of that consultation. The consultation was comprised of an online consultation (moderated chat-forum with 36 participants from 16 countries), an anonymous online e-survey (601 respondents from 58 countries), and focus-group discussions with people living with HIV in Jamaica (27 participants). The consultation highlighted the discrepancies across regions with respect to access to essential packages of PVT services. However, the consultation participants also identified common barriers to access, including a lack of trustworthy sources of information, service providers' attitudes, and gender-based violence. In addition, participant responses revealed common facilitators of access, including quality counselling on reproductive choices, male involvement, and decentralized services. The consultation provided some understanding and insight into the participants' experiences with and recommendations for PVT strategies. Participants agreed that successful, comprehensive PVT programming require greater efforts to both prevent primary HIV infection among young women and girls and, in particular, targeted efforts to ensure that women living with HIV and their partners are supported to avoid unintended pregnancies and to have safe, healthy pregnancies instead. In addition to providing the insights

  12. What works for whom in the management of diabetes in people living with dementia: a realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Frances; Goodman, Claire; Reece Jones, Peter; Russell, Bridget; Trivedi, Daksha; Sinclair, Alan; Bayer, Antony; Rait, Greta; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Burton, Christopher

    2017-07-28

    Dementia and diabetes mellitus are common long-term conditions and co-exist in a large number of older people. People living with dementia (PLWD) may be less able to manage their diabetes, putting them at increased risk of complications such as hypoglycaemia. The aim of this review was to identify key mechanisms within different interventions that are likely to improve diabetes outcomes in PLWD. This is a realist review involving scoping of the literature and stakeholder interviews to develop theoretical explanations of how interventions might work, systematic searches of the evidence to test and develop the theories and their validation with a purposive sample of stakeholders. Twenty-six stakeholders - user/patient representatives, dementia care providers, clinicians specialising in diabetes or dementia and researchers - took part in interviews, and 24 participated in a consensus conference. We included 89 papers. Ten focused on PLWD and diabetes, and the remainder related to people with either dementia, diabetes or other long-term conditions. We identified six context-mechanism-outcome configurations which provide an explanatory account of how interventions might work to improve the management of diabetes in PLWD. This includes embedding positive attitudes towards PLWD, person-centred approaches to care planning, developing skills to provide tailored and flexible care, regular contact, family engagement and usability of assistive devices. An overarching contingency emerged concerning the synergy between an intervention strategy, the dementia trajectory and social and environmental factors, especially family involvement. Evidence highlighted the need for personalised care, continuity and family-centred approaches, although there was limited evidence that this happens routinely. This review suggests there is a need for a flexible service model that prioritises quality of life, independence and patient and carer priorities. Future research on the management of

  13. 'Talking about my experiences … at times disturbing yet positive': Producing narratives with people living with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbow, Susan M; Kingston, Paul

    2016-09-01

    This research investigated narrative production and use with families living with dementia. We hypothesised that the process of narrative production would be beneficial to people with dementia and carers, and would elicit important learning for health and social care professionals. Through third sector partners, we recruited community-dwelling people with dementia and carers who consented to develop written, audiotaped or videotaped narratives. Audio-taped narratives were transcribed verbatim and handwritten narratives word-processed. After checking by participants, completed narratives were analysed thematically using qualitative data analysis computer software. A summary of the analysis was circulated to participants, inviting feedback: the analysis was then reviewed. A feedback questionnaire was subsequently circulated to participants, and responses were analysed thematically. Twenty-one carers and 20 people with dementia participated in the project. Four themes of support were identified: 'relationships', 'services', 'prior experience of coping' and having an 'explanation for the dementia'. Three themes were identified as possible additional stresses: 'emotions', 'physical health' and 'identity'. We suggest a model incorporating all these themes, which appeared to contribute to three further themes; 'experience of dementia', 'approaches to coping' and 'looking to the future'. In participant feedback, the main themes identified were 'emotions', 'putting things in perspective', 'sharing or not sharing the narrative' and 'actions resulting'. Producing a narrative is a valuable and engaging experience for people with dementia and carers, and is likely to contribute to the quality of dementia care. Further research is needed to establish how narrative production could be incorporated into routine practice. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Relative risk of cardiovascular disease among people living with HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, F M; Wu, J; Jansson, J; Wilson, D P

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the relative risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) compared with the HIV-uninfected population. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies from the peer-reviewed literature. We searched the Medline database for relevant journal articles published before August 2010. Eligible studies were observational and randomized controlled trials, reporting CVD, defined as myocardial infarction (MI), ischaemic heart disease, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events or coronary heart disease among HIV-positive adults. Pooled relative risks were calculated for various groupings, including different classes of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The relative risk of CVD was 1.61 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43-1.81] among PLHIV without ART compared with HIV-uninfected people. The relative risk of CVD was 2.00 (95% CI 1.70-2.37) among PLHIV on ART compared with HIV-uninfected people and 1.52 (95% CI 1.35-1.70) compared with treatment-naïve PLHIV. We estimate the relative risk of CVD associated with protease inhibitor (PI)-, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor- and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based ART to be 1.11 (95% CI 1.05-1.17), 1.05 (95% CI 1.01-1.10) and 1.04 (95% CI 0.99-1.09) per year of exposure, respectively. Not all ART was associated with increased risk; specifically, lopinavir/ritonavir and abacavir were associated with the greater risk and the relative risk of MI for PI-based versus non-PI-based ART was 1.41 (95% CI 1.20-1.65). PLHIV are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Although effective in prolonging survival, ART (in particular PI-based regimens) is related to further increased risk of CVD events among people at highest initial absolute risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2012 British HIV Association.

  15. Stigma against People Living with HIV/AIDS in China: Does the Route of Infection Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Yu; Qiao, Shan; Zhang, Liying; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu; Shen, Zhiyong; Chen, Yi

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that people who contracted HIV from "blameless" routes (e.g., blood transfusion, sex with stable partners) are less stigmatized compared to people who contracted HIV from "blamable" routes (e.g., injection drug use, sex with sex workers). A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,987 participants in Guangxi province, China, between 2012 and 2013. We employed both explanatory and predictive modeling strategy by using multivariate linear regression models. In the explanatory models, we assessed the association between routes of infection and three types of stigma (perceived, internalized, and enacted). From identified routes of infection that significantly contributed to higher stigma, we employed predictive modeling to explore predictors for the specific type of stigma. Multiple-imputation was employed for sensitivity analyses. Of the total sample, 63% were male and the average age was 42.9 years (ranged between 18 and 88). Multivariate regression models revealed that contraction from commercial sex increased the perceived (β = 0.46, 95%CI = 0.02, 0.90) and internalized stigma (β = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.09, 1.10), while injecting drug use increased the perceived (β = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.07, 1.22) and enacted stigma (β = 0.09, 95%CI = 0.02, 0.16) after controlling for confounders. Among PLWHA who were infected via commercial sex partners, social support was negatively associated with perceived (β = -0.47, 95%CI = -0.79, -0.14) and internalized stigma (β = -0.80, 95%CI = -1.24, -0.35). Among PLWHA who were infected via injecting drugs, no adherence to antiretroviral treatment (β = 0.41, 95%CI = 0.01, 0.82) was positively associated with perceived stigma, and disclosure of serostatus to others was negatively associated with enacted stigma (β = -0.20, 95%CI = -0.34, -0.05). Knowledge of the association between routes of infection and stigma can guide health professionals and policy makers to develop tailored intervention

  16. Stigma against People Living with HIV/AIDS in China: Does the Route of Infection Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    Full Text Available In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that people who contracted HIV from "blameless" routes (e.g., blood transfusion, sex with stable partners are less stigmatized compared to people who contracted HIV from "blamable" routes (e.g., injection drug use, sex with sex workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,987 participants in Guangxi province, China, between 2012 and 2013. We employed both explanatory and predictive modeling strategy by using multivariate linear regression models. In the explanatory models, we assessed the association between routes of infection and three types of stigma (perceived, internalized, and enacted. From identified routes of infection that significantly contributed to higher stigma, we employed predictive modeling to explore predictors for the specific type of stigma. Multiple-imputation was employed for sensitivity analyses. Of the total sample, 63% were male and the average age was 42.9 years (ranged between 18 and 88. Multivariate regression models revealed that contraction from commercial sex increased the perceived (β = 0.46, 95%CI = 0.02, 0.90 and internalized stigma (β = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.09, 1.10, while injecting drug use increased the perceived (β = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.07, 1.22 and enacted stigma (β = 0.09, 95%CI = 0.02, 0.16 after controlling for confounders. Among PLWHA who were infected via commercial sex partners, social support was negatively associated with perceived (β = -0.47, 95%CI = -0.79, -0.14 and internalized stigma (β = -0.80, 95%CI = -1.24, -0.35. Among PLWHA who were infected via injecting drugs, no adherence to antiretroviral treatment (β = 0.41, 95%CI = 0.01, 0.82 was positively associated with perceived stigma, and disclosure of serostatus to others was negatively associated with enacted stigma (β = -0.20, 95%CI = -0.34, -0.05. Knowledge of the association between routes of infection and stigma can guide health professionals and policy makers to develop tailored

  17. Exploring the theoretical foundations of visual art programmes for people living with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Gill; Gregory, Samantha; Howson-Griffiths, Teri; Newman, Andrew; O'Brien, Dave; Goulding, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growing international innovations for visual arts interventions in dementia care, limited attention has been paid to their theoretical basis. In response, this paper explores how and why visual art interventions in dementia care influence changes in outcomes. The theory building process consists of a realist review of primary research on visual art programmes. This aims to uncover what works, for whom, how, why and in what circumstances. We undertook a qualitative exploration of stakeholder perspectives of art programmes, and then synthesised these two pieces of work alongside broader theory to produce a conceptual framework for intervention development, further research and practice. This suggests effective programmes are realised through essential attributes of two key conditions (provocative and stimulating aesthetic experience; dynamic and responsive artistic practice). These conditions are important for cognitive, social and individual responses, leading to benefits for people with early to more advanced dementia. This work represents a starting point at identifying theories of change for arts interventions, and for further research to critically examine, refine and strengthen the evidence base for the arts in dementia care. Understanding the theoretical basis of interventions is important for service development, evaluation and implementation.

  18. Living with constipation—older people's experiences and strategies with constipation before and during hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Munch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Constipation is a common problem among older people. This study aimed to explore how older patients experience constipation and which strategies they used in handling the condition before and during hospitalization. Methods: A qualitative exploratory research design was used. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients (61–91 years of age during hospitalization. Data were analyzed by using content analysis. Results: Themes concerning experiences were Bodily signs and symptoms of constipation; the participants described severe pain during constipation, as well as pronounced relief after bowel movements, Impact on well-being and social activities; being constipated negatively impacted their mood and limited social activities, Striving for bowel balance; the participants experienced an ongoing strive for balancing between constipation and diarrhea. Themes related to strategies were Struggling to find a solution; they were aware of different strategies to prevent and treat constipation, though the most common solution described was the use of laxatives, Wait and see; the participants were awaiting to take action until they experienced constipation symptoms, Constipation is a private problem being challenged during hospitalization; constipation was considered a private issue rarely discussed with health-care professionals. Conclusion: This study illuminates the need for health-care professionals to be attentive to this issue and initiate the conversation with patients in order to advise on the management of constipation.

  19. Living with constipation--older people's experiences and strategies with constipation before and during hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munch, Lene; Tvistholm, Nina; Trosborg, Ingelise; Konradsen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Constipation is a common problem among older people. This study aimed to explore how older patients experience constipation and which strategies they used in handling the condition before and during hospitalization. A qualitative exploratory research design was used. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients (61-91 years of age) during hospitalization. Data were analyzed by using content analysis. Themes concerning experiences were Bodily signs and symptoms of constipation; the participants described severe pain during constipation, as well as pronounced relief after bowel movements, Impact on well-being and social activities; being constipated negatively impacted their mood and limited social activities, Striving for bowel balance; the participants experienced an ongoing strive for balancing between constipation and diarrhea. Themes related to strategies were Struggling to find a solution; they were aware of different strategies to prevent and treat constipation, though the most common solution described was the use of laxatives, Wait and see; the participants were awaiting to take action until they experienced constipation symptoms, Constipation is a private problem being challenged during hospitalization; constipation was considered a private issue rarely discussed with health-care professionals. This study illuminates the need for health-care professionals to be attentive to this issue and initiate the conversation with patients in order to advise on the management of constipation.

  20. Living with constipation—older people's experiences and strategies with constipation before and during hospitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munch, Lene; Tvistholm, Nina; Trosborg, Ingelise; Konradsen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Constipation is a common problem among older people. This study aimed to explore how older patients experience constipation and which strategies they used in handling the condition before and during hospitalization. Methods A qualitative exploratory research design was used. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients (61–91 years of age) during hospitalization. Data were analyzed by using content analysis. Results Themes concerning experiences were Bodily signs and symptoms of constipation; the participants described severe pain during constipation, as well as pronounced relief after bowel movements, Impact on well-being and social activities; being constipated negatively impacted their mood and limited social activities, Striving for bowel balance; the participants experienced an ongoing strive for balancing between constipation and diarrhea. Themes related to strategies were Struggling to find a solution; they were aware of different strategies to prevent and treat constipation, though the most common solution described was the use of laxatives, Wait and see; the participants were awaiting to take action until they experienced constipation symptoms, Constipation is a private problem being challenged during hospitalization; constipation was considered a private issue rarely discussed with health-care professionals. Conclusion This study illuminates the need for health-care professionals to be attentive to this issue and initiate the conversation with patients in order to advise on the management of constipation. PMID:27121271