WorldWideScience

Sample records for billion people living

  1. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2016-02-01

    Freshwater scarcity is increasingly perceived as a global systemic risk. Previous global water scarcity assessments, measuring water scarcity annually, have underestimated experienced water scarcity by failing to capture the seasonal fluctuations in water consumption and availability. We assess blue water scarcity globally at a high spatial resolution on a monthly basis. We find that two-thirds of the global population (4.0 billion people) live under conditions of severe water scarcity at least 1 month of the year. Nearly half of those people live in India and China. Half a billion people in the world face severe water scarcity all year round. Putting caps to water consumption by river basin, increasing water-use efficiencies, and better sharing of the limited freshwater resources will be key in reducing the threat posed by water scarcity on biodiversity and human welfare.

  2. Seven Billion People: Fostering Productive Struggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawska, Jaclyn M.

    2018-01-01

    How can a cognitively demanding real-world task such as the Seven Billion People problem promote productive struggle "and" help shape students' mathematical dispositions? Driving home from school one evening, Jaclyn Murawska heard a commentator on the radio announce three statements: (1) experts had determined that the world population…

  3. Global Poverty and the New Bottom Billion: Three-Quarters of the World?s Poor Live in Middle-Income Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Andy Sumner

    2011-01-01

    In 1990, 93 per cent of the world?s poor people lived in poor countries?that is, low-income countries (LICs). For 2007?2008, our estimates suggest three things. First, three-quarters of the world?s poor, or almost 1 billion poor people, now live in middle-income countries (MICs). Second, just a quarter of the world?s poor live in 39 LICs. Third, in contrast to earlier estimates that a third of the poor live in fragile states, our estimate is about 23 per cent if one takes the broadest definit...

  4. Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, Ashok J.; Derby, Elisabeth A.

    2003-06-01

    Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015, the global community will need to provide an additional one billion urban residents and 600 million rural residents with safe water within the next twelve years. This paper examines current water treatment measures and implementation methods for delivery of safe drinking water, and offers suggestions for making progress towards the goal of providing a timely and equitable solution for safe water provision. For water treatment, based on the serious limitations of boiling water and chlorination, we suggest an approach based on filtration coupled with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, combined with public education. Additionally, owing to the capacity limitations for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to take on this task primarily on their own, we suggest a strategy based on financially sustainable models that include the private sector as well as NGOs.

  5. Advancing Cancer Survivorship in a Country with 1.35 Billion People: The China Lymphoma Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven; Reno, Jamie

    Rates of lymphoma are rising rapidly and lymphoma is now the ninth most common cancer among Chinese males. The China Lymphoma Project was founded to increase awareness of lymphoma in China, including the survivability of the disease and the availability of potentially life-saving treatments, and to provide social support for men, women, and children in China who are living with the disease. The project is working with China government officials, several of the top cancer hospitals in China and the U.S., internationally known oncologists and cancer researchers, pharmaceutical and biotech companies in China and the U.S., healthcare and environmental companies, the Confucius Institute at San Diego State University, and the Asian Heritage Society. Advances in e-Health are being utilized to provide patient education and social support. The project will provide free e-books that profile lymphoma survivors (e.g., Kai-Fu Lee, creator of Google China), new videos, websites, pamphlets, blogs, video logs (vlogs), peer-to-peer counseling and support, and information about the latest treatments and oncology clinical trials.

  6. People who live for quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This book introduces the case of model of quality management. There are a lot of titles and people's example such as with dogged perseverance by Kang, Beom Sik in SK industry, come back to company which he submitted his resignation by Kim, Byeong Hui in Hyundai Heavy industries, I want to be the world best by Yeon, Sang Jin in Geum Ho industry, a good beginning is half the battle by Kwon, Bok Sik in KIA company, employee satisfaction is quality management by Hong, Sun Gyeom, in Dong Yang piston, and praying for all by Kim, Youn Ja in Lotte department store.

  7. Older peoples' lived experiences after hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    add to the load of wellbeing-challenges after HF. Evidence-based knowledge in order to address the wellbeing of older people and the challenges they meet in changing times after HF is needed for professionals. Aim To explore the support older people with HF may need to optimize their wellbeing during...... striving for wellbeing in an active daily life after HF; steering-group meetings clarify clinical questions regarding functional ability after HF. This knowledge is the basis for developing the interview guide used when interviewing 13 at-home-living older people with limited functional ability prior...

  8. TB Testing for People Living with HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, explains why it is important for people living with HIV to be tested for TB.  Created: 7/23/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  9. How do people live in the Anthropocene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Libby

    2016-04-01

    While geologists have focused their efforts on which changes in the strata might constitute a functional shift out of the present epoch, environmental humanities scholars, museums and creative artists have taken up the Anthropocene as a concept raising new moral and practical dilemmas. A central concern is with how people adapt and live creatively in a world that is functioning beyond the physical planetary boundaries defined by the Holocene. This paper will provide an overview of the lively scholarly and popular debates on the question of what it means, ethically, to be human in an Age of Humans. Major questions include the question of who are 'we' in the Anthropocene, and how the conditions of the putative new epoch will affect 'more-than-human-others'. Creative and justice activist responses to the Anthropocene typically distinguish among humans, focusing not on the causes, but rather on concerns of the people on the receiving end of global change (for example, the Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) group of 39+8). Some are concerned about the collateral effects of technological 'fixes' for energy transformations and climate, and others about economic shifts and market-based incentives. As a historian of ideas, I explore the multiple paths by which people have come to the Anthropocene concept, and the uses to which it has already been put, even before a final decision is made on its formal status. The Anthropocene already arouses anxiety about 'the future'. One big idea that is shared across activists and scholars (and not just those in the humanities) is the question of enabling hopeful responses. A diversity of creative projects for living in the Anthropocene, which can contribute to coping with the stress of accelerating global change, is essential to this.

  10. Financial situation of people living with HIV in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrooten, W.; Dreezen, C.; Borleffs, J.; Dijkgraaf, M.; Borchert, M.; de Graeve, D.; Hemmer, R.; Fleerackers, Y.; Colebunders, R.

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the financial situation of people living with HIV in Europe. Two surveys using an anonymous questionnaire were organized in Europe among people living with HIV, the first in 1996-97 and the second in 1998-99. One thousand one hundred and sixty-one people from the

  11. Connecting the last billion

    OpenAIRE

    Ben David, Yahel

    2015-01-01

    The last billion people to join the online world, are likely to face at least one of two obstacles:Part I: Rural Internet AccessRural, sparsely populated, areas make conventional infrastructure investments unfeasible: Bigcorporations attempt to address this challenge via the launch of Low-Earth-Orbiting (LEO) satelliteconstellations, fleets of high-altitude balloons, and giant solar-powered drones; although thesegrandiose initiatives hold potential, they are costly and risky. At the same time...

  12. Aspirations of young people living in disadvantaged areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frørup, Anna Kathrine; Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2017-01-01

    how young people's (living in a socially disadvantaged area) possibilities, aspirations and demands are raised, strengthened, transformed or put aside and in what way they feel participating within different local programmes.......how young people's (living in a socially disadvantaged area) possibilities, aspirations and demands are raised, strengthened, transformed or put aside and in what way they feel participating within different local programmes....

  13. Effects of an exercise programme with people living with HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of an exercise programme with people living with HIV: research in a disadvantaged setting. Clemens Ley, Lloyd Leach, María Rato Barrio, Susan Bassett. Abstract. This study aimed to analyse the physical health effects of a community based 10-week physical activity programme with people living with HIV.

  14. Can the World's Farmers Feed a World of 10 Billion People In Spite of Climate Change? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterling, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    The rapid rise in agricultural productivity due to technological innovation and science-based methods was one of the great human achievements of the 20th century. We now face the prospect of needing to double agricultural output by the latter third of the current century to match the growth of demand for food and fiber—albeit the pace of growth in demand shows signs of slowing in the future. How farmers and the agricultural industry deal with climate change will, in large measure, determine success or failure. The Earth is committed to about the same amount of warming in the future as has been experienced over the past hundred years regardless of future greenhouse gas emissions trajectories; such will require adaptive responses by plants, animals, producers and consumers if society’s goals for global food security are to be met. In this paper, I summarize the state-of-the science of how climate change may affect our global agricultural production system. I review the latest thinking on the combined effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate changes on crop productivity across the globe. Prospects for adaptation in agriculturally important regions are examined. While it appears that global food production will be adequate to meet global food demand in spite of advancing climate change, it is clear that many parts of the tropics and dry sub-tropics will see yield decreases and possible loss of comparative advantage. In those regions, continued large population growth and deleterious climate changes will contribute to declining per capita agricultural production. Increasing numbers of people at risk of hunger are probable there.

  15. The physical activity levels among people living with human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.M. Frantz

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... Furthermore, the presence of obesity, dietary imbalances and sedentary ... activities/exercises in people living with HIV/AIDS while being treated with ..... Smoking in Dyslipidaemia in HIV-Infected Patients with Lipodystrophy.

  16. Aspirations of young people living in disadvantaged areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frørup, Anna Kathrine; Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2017-01-01

    how young people's (living in a socially disadvantaged area) possibilities, aspirations and demands are raised, strengthened, transformed or put aside and in what way they feel participating within different local programmes....

  17. My Story: Real Stories of People Living with Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Compartir Real Stories from People living with Thalassemia On this Page Rahul’s Story Aaron’s Story Rahul’s ... is Rahul Kapoor, and I was born with thalassemia, a blood disorder which requires transfusions every other ...

  18. The daily lives of people with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Vivian Valcarenghi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To understand the daily lives of people with Parkinson's disease. Method: Qualitative research, using as methodological and theoretical referential the Grounded Theory and Symbolic Interactionism, respectively. The in-depth interview was conducted with 30 people with Parkinson's disease. Results: From data analysis, three themes were selected: Living with the disease - living with the treatment and changes in lifestyle; Modifying of one's job performance - revealing incapacity for work and the need to anticipate retirement and; Living with the stigma - the feeling of prejudice against the disease and the perceived limitations of the health services. Final considerations: Living with a chronic and non-transferable disease encompasses social, physical and cultural effects, along with the personal experiences of each unique individual. This study assists the improvement of care to people with the disease, because the care practice emerges from the interactions between the subjects.

  19. The daily lives of people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcarenghi, Rafaela Vivian; Alvarez, Angela Maria; Santos, Silvana Sidney Costa; Siewert, Josiane Steil; Nunes, Simony Fabíola Lopes; Tomasi, Andrelise Viana Rosa

    2018-01-01

    To understand the daily lives of people with Parkinson's disease. Qualitative research, using as methodological and theoretical referential the Grounded Theory and Symbolic Interactionism, respectively. The in-depth interview was conducted with 30 people with Parkinson's disease. From data analysis, three themes were selected: Living with the disease - living with the treatment and changes in lifestyle; Modifying of one's job performance - revealing incapacity for work and the need to anticipate retirement and; Living with the stigma - the feeling of prejudice against the disease and the perceived limitations of the health services. Living with a chronic and non-transferable disease encompasses social, physical and cultural effects, along with the personal experiences of each unique individual. This study assists the improvement of care to people with the disease, because the care practice emerges from the interactions between the subjects.

  20. Are people living with HIV less productive at work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Verbooy (Kaya); M.N. Wagener (Marlies); M. Kaddouri (Meriam); P.D.D.M. Roelofs (Pepijn); H.S. Miedema (Harald); E.C.M. van Gorp (Eric); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner); N.J.A. van Exel (Job)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractHealth problems may cause decreased productivity among working people. It is unclear if this also applies for people living with HIV (PLWH). This cross-sectional study compares data of PLWH of one of the main HIV treatment centres in the Netherlands (n = 298) to data of the general

  1. Older people living with HIV in Uganda: understanding their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-prevention, treatment and care programmes should seek to meet the special needs of older people through focused and innovative approaches. Further research with larger samples is needed to explore the impact of these healthcare needs on the quality of life of older people living with HIV. Keywords: ageing ...

  2. Physical Activity among Older People Living Alone in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; While, Alison E; Hicks, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate physical activity among older people living alone in Shanghai, People's Republic of China, and key factors contributing to their physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered in nine communities in Shanghai, using a stratified random cluster sample: 521 community-dwelling older people…

  3. Safely Managed Sanitation for All Means Fecal Sludge Management for At Least 1.8 Billion People in Low and Middle Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendes, David M; Sumner, Trent A; Brown, Joe M

    2017-03-07

    Although global access to sanitation is increasing, safe management of fecal waste is a rapidly growing challenge in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The goal of this study was to evaluate the current need for fecal sludge management (FSM) in LMICs by region, urban/rural status, and wealth. Recent Demographic and Health Survey data from 58 countries (847 685 surveys) were used to classify households by sanitation facility (facilities needing FSM, sewered facilities, ecological sanitation/other, or no facilities). Onsite piped water infrastructure was quantified to approximate need for wastewater management and downstream treatment. Over all surveyed nations, 63% of households used facilities requiring FSM, totaling approximately 1.8 billion people. Rural areas had similar proportions of toilets requiring FSM as urban areas. FSM needs scaled inversely with wealth: in the poorest quintile, households' sanitation facilities were almost 170 times more likely to require FSM (vs sewerage) than in the richest quintile. About one out of five households needing FSM had onsite piped water infrastructure, indicating domestic or reticulated wastewater infrastructure may be required if lacking for safe management of aqueous waste streams. FSM strategies must be included in future sanitation investment to achieve safe management of fecal wastes and protect public health.

  4. Better housing and living conditions for older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    housing stock and local neighbourhood facilites be made more responsive to the demands of older people? How can housing and planning measures contribute to the integration of older people in local communities? How can urban renewal be implemented in elderly-friendly forms? What forms of coordination......There is an increasing emphasis on strategies designed to combat the exclusion of older people from society. The development of social policies oriented towards community care and community living has important consequences for housing policies and urban planning policies. How can the general...

  5. Challenges facing people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is based on a study carried out between October 2006 and April 2007 with People Living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) who are currently in support groups based in the Gaborone, Gabane and Gaphatshwa areas of Botswana. The research project was conducted by the University of Botswana research team as ...

  6. [HIV Stigma and Spiritual Care in People Living With HIV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chia-Hui; Chiu, Yi-Chi; Cheng, Su-Fen; Ko, Nai-Ying

    2018-06-01

    HIV infection has been a manageable and chronic illness in Taiwan since the highly active antiretroviral therapy was introduced in 1997. HIV infection is a stigmatized disease due to its perceived association with risky behaviors. HIV often carries a negative image, and people living with HIV(PLWH) face discrimination on multiple fronts. Internalized HIV stigma impacts the spiritual health of people living with HIV in terms of increased levels of shame, self-blame, fear of disclosing HIV status, and isolation and decreased value and connections with God, others, the environment, and the self. Nursing professionals provide holistic care for all people living with HIV and value their lives in order to achieve the harmony of body, mind, and spirit. This article describes the stigma that is currently associated with HIV and how stigma-related discrimination affects the spiritual health of PLWH and then proposes how to reduce discrimination and stigma in order to improve the spiritual health of PLWH through appropriate spiritual care. Reducing HIV stigma and promoting spiritual well-being will enable Taiwan to achieve the 'Three Zeros' of zero discrimination, zero infection, and zero death advocated by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS for ending the AIDS epidemic in 2030.

  7. Home-Living Elderly People's Views on Food and Meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellinor Edfors

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to describe home-living elderly people's views on the importance of food and meals. Methods. Semistructured interviews with twelve elderly people. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results. Respondents described how their past influenced their present experiences and views on food and meals. Increased reliance on and need of support with food and meals frequently arose in connection with major changes in their life situations. Sudden events meant a breaking point with a transition from independence to dependence and a need for assistance from relatives and/or the community. With the perspective from the past and in the context of dependency, respondents described meals during the day, quality of food, buying, transporting, cooking, and eating food. Conclusions. Meeting the need for optimal nutritional status for older people living at home requires knowledge of individual preferences and habits, from both their earlier and current lives. It is important to pay attention to risk factors that could compromise an individual's ability to independently manage their diet, such as major life events and hospitalisation. Individual needs for self-determination and involvement should be considered in planning and development efforts for elderly people related to food and meals.

  8. Medical and epidemiological examination of people's health living at STS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezina, M.V.; Kenzhina, G.T.

    2003-01-01

    The effort has been performed within the Epidemiology Task Force of K-414 project Design, Development and Demonstration of a Comprehensive and Systematic Database of the Semipalatinsk Test Site. The creation of medical database is a tool necessary for the comprehensive assessment of people's health who lived at the area of the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) in period of 1949 to 1994. The analysis of the data available enables to combine and for the first time to summarize results of all studies for receiving the most realistic picture of people's health in 1949-1994. (author)

  9. Ambient assisted living platform for remote monitoring of bedridden people

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, F.; Barros, C.; Carvalho, V.; Machado, José; Leão, Celina Pinto; Soares, Filomena; Bezerra, K.; Matos, Demétrio Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a platform for remote monitoring of bedridden people developed in the context of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL). This platform, Medical Care Terminal (MCT), includes the measurement of biomedical data (body temperature, galvanic skin resistance, electrocardiogram and electromyogram, level of oxygen, body position and breathing) as well environmental data (level of alcohol in the air, carbon monoxide level in the air, brightness and temperature). It presents ...

  10. Perceptions, motivations, and concerns about living organ donation among people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pilsum Rasmussen, Sarah E; Henderson, Macey L; Bollinger, Juli; Seaman, Shanti; Brown, Diane; Durand, Christine M; Segev, Dorry L; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2018-05-03

    Recent changes to United States law now permit people living with HIV (PLWH) to donate organs to HIV-infected (HIV+) recipients under research protocols. PLWH may have unique motivations for and concerns about living donation and understanding them is critical to ensuring the integrity of this novel approach to organ transplantation. We conducted in-depth interviews with PLWH from an urban HIV clinic who had previously indicated their willingness to be a living donor. Interviews elicited information on their motivations, perceived benefits, and concerns regarding living donation. Codes were identified inductively and then organized into themes and subthemes. Two coders independently analyzed the interviews and reconciled differences in coding by consensus. Thematic saturation was reached after 20 interviews. Motivations for living donation among PLWH included an altruistic desire to help others as well as HIV-specific motivations including solidarity with potential recipients and a desire to overcome HIV-related stigma. Perceived benefits of living donation included gratification from saving or improving the recipient's life and conferring a sense of normalcy for the HIV+ donor. Concerns about donation included the possibility of a prolonged recovery period, organ failure, and transmission of another strain of the virus to the recipients. PLWH had unique motivations, perceived benefits, and concerns about living donation in addition to those previously identified in the general population. These unique factors should be addressed in research protocols, informed consent processes, and the education and training of independent living donor advocates so that these endeavors are ethically sound.

  11. People with an intellectual disability living in an intentional community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, M; Cumella, S

    2009-08-01

    Hospital closure programmes in England have generally sought to attain a fulfilling life for people with an intellectual disability by locating them in domestic-style housing in urban settings. Few have been placed in intentional or 'village' communities. Yet comparative studies of different housing types have found that intentional communities have better or similar outcomes for their residents than dispersed housing or residential clusters on former hospital sites. A possible explanation is the distinctive pattern of social relationships that exist in many intentional communities and the impact this has on the lives of their residents. This paper reports the results of research that explores the perceptions of people with an ID living in an intentional community and the meaning of their community to them. The research used an ethnographic approach to interview a sample of 15 residents in a large intentional community (Botton Village), which is part of the Camphill Movement. Interviews used Makaton, pictures and symbols where required. Respondents included 10 men and 5 women aged between 38 and 78 years. Length of residence in Botton Village ranged from 5 to 50 years. All lived with the families of co-workers and valued these relationships. All but one (who had retired) worked in a diverse range of employment in the village. Almost all were positive about their work. Respondents reported that they took part in both individual and communal leisure activities and all but two had a network of friends. Opportunities for friendship were enhanced by proximity to other people with an ID and a sense of personal security in the village. As in many villages and communities in society in general, these advantages were balanced by some loss of privacy. Results confirm those from earlier studies of intentional communities and suggest that positive outcomes derive from the absence of the overt subordination of residents to staff, the facilitation of friendship with other people

  12. Divergence in the lived experience of people with macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloud, Christine; Khadka, Jyoti; Gilhotra, Jagjit Singh; Pesudovs, Konrad

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to understand people's experience with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in light of new treatment successes. An interpretive qualitative methodology was used to facilitate understanding of the experience of people with AMD. Rich in-depth data were collected using focus groups and individual interviews. Thematic analysis of the data occurred through the processes of line-by-line coding, aggregation, and theme development using the NVivo 10 software. A total of 4 focus groups and 16 individual interviews were conducted with 34 people (median age = 81 years; range = 56 to 102 years; 19 females) with AMD. Four major themes arose from the narratives of the participants: cautious optimism, enduring, adaptation, and profound loss. Cautious optimism resonated for participants who had received successful treatment and stabilization of AMD. Enduring emerged as participants with exudative AMD described an ongoing need for invasive and frequent treatments (anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections) that maintained their vision. Adaptation was evident in the narratives of all participants and was directly related to the physical and psychological limitations that were a consequence of visual disability. Profound loss encompassed both physical and emotional aspects of deteriorating vision and was most evident in patients for whom treatment had failed or had not been considered appropriate for their disease. The findings of this study shed new light on the influence of underlying pathology, disease trajectory, and success of new treatments on quality of life of people living with AMD. Optimism toward maintaining vision in the presence of exudative AMD was described by participants, moderated by ongoing caution and a need for endurance of frequent and often problematic intravitreal treatments. These findings add a deeper understanding of this complex and life-changing experience.

  13. Identifying Symptom Patterns in People Living With HIV Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Natalie L.; Azuero, Andres; Vance, David E.; Richman, Joshua S.; Moneyham, Linda D.; Raper, James L.; Heath, Sonya L.; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette

    2016-01-01

    Symptoms guide disease management, and patients frequently report HIV-related symptoms, but HIV symptom patterns reported by patients have not been described in the era of improved antiretroviral treatment. The objectives of our study were to investigate the prevalence and burden of symptoms in people living with HIV and attending an outpatient clinic. The prevalence, burden, and bothersomeness of symptoms reported by patients in routine clinic visits during 2011 were assessed using the 20-item HIV Symptom Index. Principal component analysis was used to identify symptom clusters and relationships between groups using appropriate statistic techniques. Two main clusters were identified. The most prevalent and bothersome symptoms were muscle aches/joint pain, fatigue, and poor sleep. A third of patients had seven or more symptoms, including the most burdensome symptoms. Even with improved antiretroviral drug side-effect profiles, symptom prevalence and burden, independent of HIV viral load and CD4+ T cell count, are high. PMID:26790340

  14. Aromatherapy for deaf and deafblind people living in residential accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, F; Heidingsfeld, V

    2000-11-01

    This article looks at ways in which aromatherapy and therapeutic massage have been found to be beneficial for a group of deaf and deafblind adults with special needs, living in residential accommodation. Our basic aim is to promote confidence and communication as well as enhancing a sense of well-being through the judicial use of aromatic plant materials and therapeutic massage. Aromatherapy sessions have become an accepted enjoyable and therapeutic part of the residents' lifestyle. It is our belief that this gentle, non-invasive therapy can benefit deaf and deafblind people, especially as their intact senses can be heightened. This paper explores both professional and caring issues related to the use of aromatherapy in this environment.

  15. A comparison of the factors influencing life satisfaction between Korean older people living with family and living alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S H; Sok, S R

    2012-06-01

    As the global population of older people continuously increases, many countries are beginning to experience health problems associated with older age. These countries may be interested in knowing and understanding the health problems experienced by the older Korean population, which is projected to age the most rapidly. This study aimed to compare and examine the factors that influence the life satisfaction between older people living with their family and those living alone. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. The participants comprised a total 300 older Koreans (150 living with their family, 150 living alone) aged 65 years or over who met the eligibility criteria. All measures were self-administered. Data were analysed using the SAS statistical software program version 6.12 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The older people living with their family were better than the older people living alone in perceived health status, self-esteem, depression and life satisfaction. Perceived health status, self-esteem, depression, age and monthly allowance were found to be the factors related to the life satisfaction of older people living with their family and those living alone. The factors that were found to have the greatest influence on the life satisfaction of older people living with their family and those living alone were depression and perceived health, respectively. This study may help healthcare providers to understand the factors that can influence the life satisfaction among older people living with their family and living alone in Korea. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  16. Osteopenia and osteoporosis in people living with HIV: multiprofessional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ana Lucia Lei Munhoz; de Oliveira, Priscila Rosalba D; Plapler, Perola Grimberg; Marcolino, Flora Maria D Andrea; de Souza Meirelles, Eduardo; Sugawara, André; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Dos Santos, Alexandre Leme Godoy; Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2011-01-01

    Increasing bone mineralization abnormalities observed among people living with HIV (PLWHIV) result from various factors relating to the host, the virus, and the antiretrovirals used. Today, HIV infection is considered to be a risk factor for bone mineralization disorders. The test most recommended for diagnosing osteoporosis is measurement of bone mineral density by means of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at two sites. Osteoporosis treatment has the aims of bone mass improvement and fracture control. A combination of calcium and vitamin D supplementation may reduce the risk of fractures. Antiresorptive drugs act by blocking osteoclastic activity and reducing bone remodeling. On the other hand, bone-forming drugs stimulate osteoblastogenesis, thereby stimulating the formation of bone matrix. Mixed-action medications are those that are capable of both stimulating bone formation and inhibiting reabsorption. Antiresorptive drugs form the group of medications with the greatest quantity of scientific evidence confirming their efficacy in osteoporosis treatment. Physical activity is a health promotion strategy for the general population, but only preliminary data on its real value and benefit among PLWHIV are available, especially in relation to osteoporosis.

  17. Sources of Social Capital for Malawi People Living With HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally H. Rankin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With one of the highest rates of poverty and HIV in the world, Malawi faith-based organizations (FBOs, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, and community-based organizations (CBOs are expected to provide tangible and emotional support to people living with HIV (PLWH. Using Lin’s social capital theoretical approach, we examine the perspective of PLWH regarding the adequacy of support responses. Forty-six rural Malawi HIV+ adults provided interviews that were recorded digitally, translated, and transcribed by Malawi research assistants. Atlas.ti was used to organize the data and to aid in the analytic process. Participants expressed disappointment in the lack of resources that could be accessed through the FBOs although their expectations may have been unrealistic. Outcomes from accessing and mobilizing the FBO network were negative in terms of stigmatization by FBO leaders and members, whereas outcomes related to CBOs and NGOs were generally positive in terms of empowerment through HIV information and attendance at support groups.

  18. Tuberculosis control in people living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnabosco, Gabriela Tavares; Lopes, Lívia Maria; Andrade, Rubia Laine de Paula; Brunello, Maria Eugênia Firmino; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena

    2016-09-09

    to analyze the offering of health actions and services for the control of tuberculosis for people living with HIV/AIDS being followed up in the Specialized Care Services for HIV/AIDS in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. quantitative, exploratory survey study. Participated 253 people living with HIV/AIDS followed up by this service, considering as inclusion criteria: individuals older than 18 years living in the city and not inmates. Data collection was conducted from January 2012 to May 2013 through interviews with the support of a specific instrument. Data were analyzed using indicators and a composite index. the offering of services for the control of tuberculosis in people living with HIV/AIDS by municipal services was considered as intermediate, reinforcing the need for better planning for comprehensive assistance, coordination of professionals in teams and among the services network, in addition to professional training and continuing education. it is necessary to implement strategies that promote shared actions between TB and HIV / AIDS programs and between different services in order to strengthen the local care network, aimed at producing an individualized care, comprehensive and responsive. analisar a oferta das ações e serviços de saúde para o controle da tuberculose nas pessoas vivendo com HIV/aids em seguimento pelos Serviços de Atenção Especializada ao HIV/aids de Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. estudo quantitativo, exploratório, do tipo inquérito. Participaram 253 pessoas vivendo com HIV/aids em seguimento nos serviços, considerando os critérios de inclusão: indivíduos maiores de 18 anos, residentes no município e não pertencentes ao sistema prisional. A coleta de dados foi realizada no período de janeiro/2012 a maio/2013, por meio de entrevistas com apoio de um instrumento específico. Os dados foram analisados mediante indicadores e índice composto. a oferta de ações e serviços para o controle da tuberculose nas pessoas vivendo com HIV

  19. A holistic approach to healthy ageing: how can people live longer, healthier lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, P C; Carding, S R; Christopher, G; Kuh, D; Langley-Evans, S C; McNulty, H

    2018-06-03

    Although lifespan is increasing, there is no evidence to suggest that older people are experiencing better health in their later years than previous generations. Nutrition, at all stages of life, plays an important role in determining health and wellbeing. A roundtable meeting of UK experts on nutrition and ageing considered key aspects of the diet-ageing relationship and developed a consensus position on the main priorities for research and public health actions that are required to help people live healthier lives as they age. The group consensus highlighted the requirement for a life course approach, recognising the multifactorial nature of the impact of ageing. Environmental and lifestyle influences at any life stage are modified by genetic factors and early development. The response to the environment at each stage of life can determine the impact of lifestyle later on. There are no key factors that act in isolation to determine patterns of ageing and it is a combination of environmental and social factors that drives healthy or unhealthy ageing. Too little is known about how contemporary dietary patterns and sedentary lifestyles will impact upon healthy ageing in future generations and this is a priority for future research. There is good evidence to support change to lifestyle (i.e. diet, nutrition and physical) activity in relation to maintaining or improving body composition, cognitive health and emotional intelligence, immune function and vascular health. Lifestyle change at any stage of life may extend healthy lifespan, although the impact of early changes appears to be greatest. © 2018 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  20. Depression And Loneliness Levels Among the Older People, a Comparison Between Living Alone, Living with Family or Living at Nursing Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ege Agirman

    2017-09-01

    CONCLUSION: In the study, we found out that, rate of depression in older people is higher than the level in entire society, the same is true for the sense of loneliness, loneliness becomes more fierce, as depression becomes stronger, The older people living alone are more exposed to depression compared to the ones living with family or being nursed, and loneliness becomes a more important problem for these people, [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(3.000: 234-240

  1. Osteopenia and osteoporosis in people living with HIV: multiprofessional approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima AL

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ana Lucia Lei Munhoz Lima, Priscila Rosalba D de Oliveira, Perola Grimberg Plapler, Flora Maria D Andrea Marcolino, Eduardo de Souza Meirelles, André Sugawara, Riccardo Gomes Gobbi, Alexandre Leme Godoy dos Santos , Gilberto Luis CamanhoInstitute of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Hospital das Clínicas, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Increasing bone mineralization abnormalities observed among people living with HIV (PLWHIV result from various factors relating to the host, the virus, and the antiretrovirals used. Today, HIV infection is considered to be a risk factor for bone mineralization disorders. The test most recommended for diagnosing osteoporosis is measurement of bone mineral density by means of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at two sites. Osteoporosis treatment has the aims of bone mass improvement and fracture control. A combination of calcium and vitamin D supplementation may reduce the risk of fractures. Antiresorptive drugs act by blocking osteoclastic activity and reducing bone remodeling. On the other hand, bone-forming drugs stimulate osteoblastogenesis, thereby stimulating the formation of bone matrix. Mixed-action medications are those that are capable of both stimulating bone formation and inhibiting reabsorption. Antiresorptive drugs form the group of medications with the greatest quantity of scientific evidence confirming their efficacy in osteoporosis treatment. Physical activity is a health promotion strategy for the general population, but only preliminary data on its real value and benefit among PLWHIV are available, especially in relation to osteoporosis.Keywords: osteoporosis, HIV/AIDS, diagnosis, treatment, exercise

  2. Nutritional habits of elderly people living at home

    OpenAIRE

    Premoš, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a process that is accompanied by biological, psychological and social changes. These changes can affect the nourishment of elderly people. Elderly people are becoming less independent with years and more dependent on others. Family members, to whom the elderly people trust the most, offer them assistance. On the market, there are various services that provide assistance in different cases. In the diploma work I have been investigating how the elderly people eat, which foods are u...

  3. Quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and on highly active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and on highly active ... the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) was used to measure quality of life among patients on ... instrument for use in Ethiopia to assess the quality of life of people living with ...

  4. Risk Factors of Active Tuberculosis in People Living with HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Determinants of active tuberculosis among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) are not well elucidated in countries with limited resources. The objective of this study was to assess distal and proximate determinants of active tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS in southwest. Ethiopia.

  5. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitudes towards people living with HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV have been widely documented, and have extended their impact into the workplace. Stigmatising attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the workplace significantly hinder HIV prevention efforts and indirectly affect national development.

  6. Disability and Quality of Life among People Living With HIV/AIDS in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, the focus of management for People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) has shifted to issues relating to function and Quality of Life (QoL). Information is scarce on disability issues and quality of life among people living with HIIV/AIDS in Nigeria. This was the premise of this study that assessed the level of disability and ...

  7. Field study of visual and biological light conditions of independently-living elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.P.J.; Westerlaken, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    A field study was carried out to learn more about the influence of light on the lives of elderly people . The results should lead to the development and design of a light concept for elderly people that will improve their everyday health and well-being. Methods: Ninetyone independently-living

  8. Experiences of people living with epilepsy presenting for treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epilepsy is one of the world's most common neurological disorders. It is a condition that affects individuals in most countries worldwide. There is stigma attached to epilepsy, and the condition is often misunderstood. However, there are people who understand the condition and the care that people with epilepsy need.

  9. Chernobyl catastrophe: Information for people living in the contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisevich, Nikolaj

    2001-01-01

    medical examinations; acknowledgement dissonance connected with information about the radiation situation and the possible negative consequences as well; complex character of the effect of different factors. Besides, the economic crisis in the republic has put the radioactively contaminated areas into especially complicated socio-economic conditions. The common features of the crisis are especially acute there: drop of production, population outflow from these regions, the undeveloped state of the consumer's sector, the low level of social and medical services of the population. All residents of the contaminated territories belong to the group of increased risk taking into account the scale of the accident together with a complex of unfavourable factors of non-radiation nature. After the Chernobyl disaster it became evident that adequate perception of radiation risk should be fostered through teaching radiation safety basics to a wide range of people who influence the process of formation of peoples opinion (e.g. teachers, doctors, agronomists, etc.) as well as through public awareness raising. It is of significant importance to provide population with objective and available information on radioecological situation, radiation safety and protective measures when solving social and economical problems. At the first stage the population had a distrust of the information related to the consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident. This distrust was originally caused by concealment of many facts due to their secrecy and also by contradictory information had to be analysed first of all by specialists and only then discussed in public. Therefore, population affected by 'information distress' needs in true information about possibilities to decrease radiation risks and to become aware of conditions to provide safe living on contaminated territories. The vast stock of scientific and practical material in the field of radiobiology, radioecology, radiation medicine has been collected

  10. The role of the occupational therapist in the care of people living with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kahren M

    2016-06-01

    This paper aims to explore the vital role occupational therapists play in enabling people living with lung cancer to continue to actively live. Core assessments and interventions employed by occupational therapists are described in a case study. It will demonstrate how people living with lung cancer can continue to participate in meaningful and chosen life roles, even in the face of functional decline. Skilled management by the occupational therapist of the refractory symptoms of advanced lung cancer supports this participation.

  11. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater scarcity is increasingly perceived as a global systemic risk. Previous global water scarcity assessments, measuring water scarcity annually, have underestimated experienced water scarcity by failing to capture the seasonal fluctuations in water consumption and availability. We assess blue

  12. Preterm delivery among people living around Portland cement plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.-Y.; Chang, C.-C.; Tsai, S.-S.; Huang, H.-Y.; Ho, C.-K.; Wu, T.-N.; Sung, F.-C.

    2003-01-01

    The Portland cement industry is the main source of particulate air pollution in Kaohsiung city. Data in this study concern outdoor air pollution and the health of individuals living in communities in close proximity to Portland cement plants. The prevalence of delivery of preterm birth infants as significantly higher in mothers living within 0-2 km of a Portland cement plant than in mothers living within 2-4 km. After controlling for several possible confounders (including maternal age, season, marital status, maternal education, and infant sex), the adjusted odds ratio was 1.30 (95% I=1.09-1.54) for the delivery of preterm infants for mothers living close to he Portland cement plants, chosen at the start to be from 0 to 2 km. These data provide further support for the hypothesis that air pollution can affect he outcome of pregnancy

  13. Food insecurity and coping strategies among people living with HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-04

    Oct 4, 2011 ... 2Clinton Health Access Initiative, P.O. Box 7727, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ... Food insecurity raises risks of HIV infection as people adopt behaviours to ..... Relatives. Friends. Neighbours. CBO/NGO/FBO. Others. 238. 210.

  14. FACTORS RELATING TO DEPRESSION AMONG OLDER PEOPLE LIVING IN CIMAHI, WEST JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Kiki Gustryanti; Sunanta Thongpat; Sonthaya Maneerat

    2017-01-01

    Background: Depression is commonly found in older people. The prevalence of depression among older people, particularly in Indonesia is increasing worldwide. Objective: This study was aimed to identify the factors relating to depression among older people living in Cimahi, West Java Province, Indonesia. Method: A cross sectional design was used with a total of 267 older people aged from 60 to 79 years old. A multi-stage random sampling has been used in five Public Health Centers in Cima...

  15. Oral manifestations among people living with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabian, F M; Kahabuka, F K; Petersen, P E

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of various oral and peri-oral manifestations in people living with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania. METHODS: A cross sectional study. A total of 187 persons with HIV infection were recruited from non-governmental organisations serving people living...... associated with low body mass index (BMI). CONCLUSION: This community survey carried out in an African sub-Saharan country showed that oral lesions are frequent among people living with HIV/AIDS. As emphasised by the World Health Organization Global Oral Health Programme, national HIV/AIDS programmes should...

  16. Prevalence of risk factors for falls among elderly people living in long-term care homes

    OpenAIRE

    Pradnya Dhargave, PhD; Ragupathy Sendhilkumar, MSc, MPT

    2016-01-01

    Background: Falls are common among the geriatric population, causing frequent morbidity and mortality. There is an increased risk of fall among older people living in long-term care homes. Identifying risk factors for falls among older people living in old-age homes can help in the care and prevention of falls in this population. Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of various risk factors for falls among older people living in long-term care homes. Methods: A total of 163 elderly men and wo...

  17. Embedding a Recovery Orientation into Neuroscience Research: Involving People with a Lived Experience in Research Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Anthony; Brophy, Lisa; Castle, David; Harvey, Carol; Robertson, Joanne; Corlett, Philip; Davidson, Larry; Everall, Ian

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the importance and value of involving people with a lived experience of mental ill health and recovery in neuroscience research activity. In this era of recovery oriented service delivery, involving people with the lived experience of mental illness in neuroscience research extends beyond their participation as "subjects". The recovery paradigm reconceptualises people with the lived experience of mental ill health as experts by experience. To support this contribution, local policies and procedures, recovery-oriented training for neuroscience researchers, and dialogue about the practical applications of neuroscience research, are required.

  18. Counseling People Living in Poverty: The CARE Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Louisa L.; Generali, Margaret M.; Kress, Victoria E.

    2011-01-01

    Counselors frequently counsel clients who live in poverty. The authors describe the new CARE model that addresses the influence of multiple systems on poor clients' experiences. A social justice, humanistic intervention, the CARE model emphasizes cultivating a positive counseling relationship with poor clients, empathizing with their unique…

  19. The Economic Lives of People with Disabilities in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Palmer

    Full Text Available Through a series of focus group discussions conducted in northern and central Vietnam, this study gives voice to the lived economic experience of families with disabilities and how they manage the economic challenges associated with disability. The dynamic of low and unstable income combined with on-going health care and other disability-related costs gives rise to a range of coping mechanisms (borrowing, reducing and foregoing expenditures, drawing upon savings and substituting labour that helps to maintain living standards in the short-run yet threatens the longer-term welfare of both the individual with disability and their household. Current social protection programs were reported as not accessible to all and while addressing some immediate economic costs of disability, do not successfully meet current needs nor accommodate wider barriers to availing benefits.

  20. Quality Of Life Of People Living With Hiv/Aids In Kogi State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , KC Mofolorunsho, KG Osagbemi. Abstract. Introduction: With the appreciable rise in longevity of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), the need for supporting their quality of life (QoL) has become increasingly important. However, limited ...

  1. Exploring the lived experiences of people with learning disabilities who are dying of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Bernal, Jane; Hubert, Jane; Butler, Gary; Hollins, Sheila

    Growing numbers of people with learning disabilities are living longer and dying of age related illnesses such as cancer. To explore the experiences of people with learning disabilities who have cancer. The study used participant observation with 13 people with learning disabilities. All had a cancer diagnosis and 10 were terminally ill. Participants were visited regularly at home and in other settings, including hospitals. The main themes were: dependent lives; deprived lives; truth telling and understanding; the importance of families; inexperienced carers and unprepared services; and resilience. To understand the experiences of people with learning disabilities who are dying of cancer, it is important to understand their previous life experiences and key relationships. Healthcare professionals who treat people with respect, dignity and openness can make a positive difference to their care.

  2. Therapeutic use of dolls for people living with dementia: A critical review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, G.; McCormack, Brendan; McCance, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are a number of therapies currently available to assist healthcare professionals and carers with non-pharmacological treatment for people living with dementia. One such therapy that has been growing in clinical practice is doll therapy. Providing dolls to some people living with dementia has the potential to enhance personal well-being through increased levels of communication and engagement with others. Despite its potential for benefits, the practice is currently under-dev...

  3. 6. Disability and Quality Of Life among People Living With HIV AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Disability and Quality of Life among People Living. With HIV/AIDS in Ibadan, ... activities of daily living as well as challenges with. 7,8 ... infected individuals, their family and the society at large. ... Independence, Social Relationships, Environment ..... efavirenz on neuropsychological performance .... Acta paul. enferm. 2015 ...

  4. Alcohol use and psychiatric morbidity in people living with HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Concerns have been raised about the increasing use of alcohol among the people living with HIV/AID in Nigeria. A better understanding of the source and prevention of alcohol use in these people may serve as a useful strategy for reducing the burden associated with HIV/AIDS. Aims: This study assesses the ...

  5. Disability and service use among homeless people living with psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Helen; Evert, Helen; Harvey, Carol; Gureje, Oye; Pinzone, Tony; Gordon, Ian

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of psychosis and needs for care among homeless people were studied in inner Melbourne. This was a two-stage nested study within the Australian National Survey of People Living with Psychotic Illness. A screen for psychosis was administered to a representative sample of men and women living in marginal housing in a mental health service catchment area. A selected subsample of 82 screen-positive respondents was interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview for Psychosis (DIP), a semistructured, standardized interview with three modules: (i) demography, functioning and quality of life; (ii) diagnosis; and (iii) service use. An unexpectedly high prevalence of people living with psychotic disorders (estimated lifetime prevalence 42%, 95% CI=37-47%) may reflect a concentration of vulnerable people in the shrinking marginal housing supply in the inner city areas. Disability in everyday, occupational and social functioning is greater for this subgroup than for other people living with psychosis in Australia. Most people were single and unemployed, and many reported social isolation and feeling unsafe. Substance use disorders were common. Most people were using health services, including specialist mental health services, but few were receiving rehabilitation, vocational or housing support. Despite high levels of contact with a well-organized, sectorized mental health service in an affluent country, this pocket of several hundred people had high levels of persisting disability and needs. The literature and local experience suggest that changing this situation is likely to require co-ordinated policy and practice between the health, welfare and housing sectors.

  6. Theorising the Relationship between Older People and Their Immediate Social Living Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffel, Tine; Verte, Dominique; De Donder, Liesbeth; De Witte, Nico; Dury, Sarah; Vanwing, Tom; Bolsenbroek, Anouk

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical framework for exploring the dynamics between older people and their immediate social living environment. After introducing a gerontological perspective that goes beyond "microfication," a literature review presents findings from studies that have explored the role of place and locality for older people. Next,…

  7. Sustainable Living in Long-Term Care: For People with Dementia/Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Nonhome-based long-term care sustainable living arrangements for elderly people with Alzheimer's is presented. Characteristics contributing to sustainability are discussed. The ultimate goal in sustainable design for older adult communities is a people-centered model of care in environments that improve their quality of life. Without sustainable…

  8. Depression in people, that live with HIV in Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninoshka Fasce Cayo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the depression in a group 55 adults (14 women and 41 men who live with VJH, between 18 and 58 years, oflow and medium low socioeconomic leve! which attend public health centers, NGO and mutual support groups (MSG of Lima. The Beck Depression Inventory was used to study the level of depression, as well as the five factors found in this population.The descriptive results were correlated with the following demographic variables: age,sex, time of diagnosis, the presence or absence of symptoms associated to VIH, the participationor not in a MSG, sexual orientation and sex. Results indicated that depression varies depending on whether the person belongs or not to a MSG, sex and sexual orientation.

  9. Sinusitis in people living in the medieval ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teul, Iwona; Lorkowski, Jacek; Lorkiewicz, Wieslaw; Nowakowski, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Breathing vitally serves body homeostasis. The prevalence of upper airway infections is often taken as an indicator of overall health status of a population living at a given time. In the present study we examined the unearthed remains of skulls from the XIII-XV century inhabitants searching for signs of maxillary sinusitis. Maxillary sinuses of the skulls of 92 individuals were inspected macroscopically and, if necessary, endoscopically. Osseous changes, including the pitting and abnormal spicule formation were present in 69 cases (75.0 %). It was found that, overall, dental infection was a major cause of maxillary sinusitis (18.8 %). Severe bone changes were observed in the adults' skulls, but were also present in the sinus walls of children's skulls. Post-inflammatory changes were manifest as remodeling and damage to the sinus walls. The results indicate that both children and adults of the Middle Ages suffered from chronic sinusitis. These observations confirm that the climate, environment, and lifestyle of the medieval populations contributed to the morbidity of the upper respiratory tract.

  10. Assisted Living Systems for Elderly and Disabled People: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Iliev

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The number of elderly people living alone in their homes is permanently growing in the whole western world. Because of the deteriorating capabilities to sense and interact with the environment, such as memory, eye sight, hearing and mobility, the ageing populations often live with significantly degraded life quality. Many also suffer from chronic diseases that require medical treatment and periodical examinations. Different Assisted Living Systems have been proposed to cope with the problems. The goal is to enable the elderly people to live longer in their preferred environment, to enhance the quality of their live and to reduce the expenses of the public health care. The Assisted Living Systems are based on a lot of sensors, actuators and multimedia equipment, providing for the autonomy of people and assisting them in carrying out their daily activities together with available interaction with remote relatives and friends. The applied approaches and implementations are specific that limit the dissemination of the results between the object oriented groups. Besides, most of the projects require considerable funding for implementation. For the time being and especially for some countries with lower Gross Domestic Product, the efforts may be directed to creation of low-cost assistive systems performing some basic tasks, related to the need and health status of the living alone adults or disabled people, e.g. automatic fall detection and signalization, as well as instantaneous monitoring the photo-pletismographic signals together with permanently available communication interface between the caregiver and the user.

  11. Enabling healthy living: Experiences of people with severe mental illness in psychiatric outpatient services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Marjut; Sandgren, Anna; Carlsson, Ing-Marie; Jormfeldt, Henrika

    2018-02-01

    It is well known that people with severe mental illness have a reduced life expectancy and a greater risk of being affected by preventable physical illnesses such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. There are still, however, only a few published studies focusing on what enables healthy living for this group. This study thus aimed to describe what enables healthy living among people with severe mental illness in psychiatric outpatient services. The data were collected in qualitative interviews (n = 16) and content analysis was used to analyze the data. The interviews resulted in an overall theme "Being regarded as a whole human being by self and others", which showed the multidimensional nature of health and the issues that enable healthy living among people with severe mental illness. Three categories emerged: (i) everyday structure (ii), motivating life events and (iii) support from significant others. The results indicate that a person with severe mental illness needs to be encountered as a whole person if healthy living is to be enabled. Attaining healthy living requires collaboration between the providers of care, help and support. Health care organizations need to work together to develop and provide interventions to enable healthy living and to reduce poor physical health among people with severe mental illness. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  12. A second chance at life: people's lived experiences of surviving out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Ann-Sofie; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Lundblad, Dan; Söderberg, Siv

    2017-12-01

    There is more to illuminate about people's experiences of surviving out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and how such an event affects people's lives over time. This study aimed to elucidate meanings of people's lived experiences and changes in everyday life during their first year after surviving OHCA. A qualitative, longitudinal design was used. Eleven people surviving OHCA from northern Sweden agreed to participate and were interviewed 6 and 12 months after the event. A phenomenological hermeneutic interpretation was used to analyse the transcribed texts. The structural analysis resulted in two themes: (i) striving to regain one's usual self and (ii) a second chance at life, and subthemes (ia) testing the body, (ib) pursuing the ordinary life, (ic) gratitude for help to survival, (iia) regaining a sense of security with one's body, (iib) getting to know a new self, and (iic) seeking meaning and establishing a future. To conclude, we suggest that people experienced meanings of surviving OHCA over time as striving to regain their usual self and getting a second chance at life. The event affected them in many ways and resulted in a lot of emotions and many things to think about. Participants experienced back-and-forth emotions, when comparing their present lives to both their lives before cardiac arrest and those lives they planned for the future. During their first year, participants' daily lives were still influenced by 'being dead' and returning to life. As time passed, they wanted to resume their ordinary lives and hoped for continued lives filled with meaning and joyous activities. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  13. Mortality in relation to the type of household among elderly people living in a community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, N; Nakura, I; Nagano, K; Yoneda, H; Takatorige, T; Shinsho, F; Tatara, K

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether there is an association of mortality with the type of household in elderly people. A cohort of 1,352 elderly people aged 65 years and over at baseline in October 1992 was followed for 42 months. Follow-up was completed for 1,266 (93.6%) (172 deceased and 1,094 alive). From the analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test, male sex, older age group (75 years and over), no satisfaction with present dwelling, disability, no use of health checks, no practices of daily preventive health promotion, no participation in social activities, and no finding life worth living (no Ikigai) were univariately statistically significantly related to mortality. Furthermore, elderly people living with their spouse only or living alone had higher survival rates than those living with their spouse and children or living with their children, and the curves among the four subclasses of household were significantly different. From the Cox proportional hazards model, living with a spouse only remained as an independent predictor for survival, and living alone was not an increased risk factor for mortality, controlling for sex, age, housing conditions, disability, use of health management, and psychosocial conditions.

  14. Quality of life of people living with HIV and AIDS and antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O

    2012-01-01

    The development of antiretroviral drugs has significantly changed the perception of HIV/AIDS from a very fatal to a chronic and potentially manageable disease, and the availability and administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly reduced mortality and morbidity associated with HIV and AIDS. There is a relationship between ART and quality of life of people living with HIV and AIDS, and several studies have reported a strong positive association between ART and improved quality of life in different domains among people living with HIV and AIDS in both developed and developing countries. However, a few studies have reported on the negative effects of ART, which directly or indirectly relate to the quality of life and longevity of HIV-infected persons. In this review, the effects and benefits of ART on people living with HIV and AIDS based on studies done in developed and developing countries is examined.

  15. Belonging and quality of life as perceived by people with advanced cancer who live at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peoples, Hanne; Nissen, Nina; Brandt, Åse

    Purpose: In previous research (Peoples, Nissen, Brandt, & la Cour, 2017), we explored how people with advanced cancer who live at home perceive quality of life. Findings from our previous study indicate that dimensions of belonging in various ways may be connected to quality of life when living...... with an impending death. These findings prompted our curiosity to further explore, how perceived quality of life may be linked to belonging when living with advanced cancer. By drawing on our findings and the theoretical concept of belonging within occupational science, the purpose of this study was to gain...... a deeper understanding of the ways in which quality of life may be related to belonging as perceived by people with advanced cancer. Method: The study employed a qualitative approach using a combination of qualitative interviews and photo-elicitation. A thematic approach was used to analyse the data. Ten...

  16. Quality of life of people living with HIV and AIDS and antiretroviral therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O

    2012-01-01

    The development of antiretroviral drugs has significantly changed the perception of HIV/AIDS from a very fatal to a chronic and potentially manageable disease, and the availability and administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly reduced mortality and morbidity associated with HIV and AIDS. There is a relationship between ART and quality of life of people living with HIV and AIDS, and several studies have reported a strong positive association between ART and improved quality of life in different domains among people living with HIV and AIDS in both developed and developing countries. However, a few studies have reported on the negative effects of ART, which directly or indirectly relate to the quality of life and longevity of HIV-infected persons. In this review, the effects and benefits of ART on people living with HIV and AIDS based on studies done in developed and developing countries is examined. PMID:22893751

  17. Collaborative development of an educational resource on rehabilitation for people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Patricia; Salbach, Nancy M; O'Brien, Kelly K; Nixon, Stephanie; Worthington, Catherine; Baxter, Larry; Tattle, Stephen; Gervais, Nicole

    2017-07-12

    The objective of this study is to describe the collaborative development of a rehabilitation guide for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which was adapted from an online resource for clinicians. We adapted a comprehensive evidence-informed online clinical resource for people living with HIV using a three-phase participatory process. In Phase 1, we interviewed 26 clinicians and 16 people living with HIV to gather recommendations on how to adapt and format the content to benefit people living with HIV. In Phase 2, we adapted the patient education resource using the recommendations that emerged from Phase 1. Phase 3 consisted of comprehensive stakeholder review of the revised resource on the adaptability, usability, communicability, and relevance of the information. Stakeholders participated in an interview to obtain in-depth information on their perspectives. Transcribed interviews underwent qualitative content analysis. Stakeholders indicated that the e-guide had utility for people living with HIV, community HIV service organizations, and care providers. Engaging people living with HIV resulted in a more relevant and meaningful resource that incorporated patients' values, needs, and preferences. Involving multiple stakeholders and user groups in the adaptation and evaluation of online patient education resources can assist in meeting patients' needs through increasing the relevance, organization and presentation of the content, and incorporating patients' values and needs. Implications for Rehabilitation Online patient education resources should be adapted in order to maximize relevance and meaningfulness to patients. Involving multiple stakeholders in the adaptation and evaluation of online patient education resources can assist in meeting patients' needs. Involving multiple stakeholders increases the relevance, organization and presentation of the content and allows the incorporation of patient values and needs. This collaborative approach with

  18. Therapeutic effects of an indoor gardening programme for older people living in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Mimi Mun Yee

    2010-04-01

    To explore the activities of daily living and psychological well-being of older people living in nursing homes and also to examine the effectiveness of a gardening programme in enhancing socilaisation and life satisfaction, reducing loneliness and promoting activities of daily living for older people living in nursing homes. Life in nursing homes can mean very limited physical and social activity, leading to further decline in function for many older people. This was a quasi-experimental pre and posttest control group design. Older people from nursing homes were invited to join the eight week indoor gardening programme (experimental group), while older people in other nursing homes were treated as the control group; they received regular care without the eight week indoor gardening programme. There were 26 older people (25 female and one male; mean age 85 years) in the experimental group and 27 (20 female and seven male; mean age 82 years) in the control group. Demographic data including age, gender, educational level and financial situation were collected, in addition to information regarding life satisfaction, loneliness, physical activity and social network situation, before and after the eight week indoor gardening programme for both the experimental and control groups. Also, details of experimental group subjects' experience of the indoor gardening programme were elicited using open-ended questions. There were significant improvements in life satisfaction and social network and a significant decrease in perception of loneliness for older people in the experimental group after the eight week indoor gardening programme, while the activities of daily living were unchanged for both groups after the programme. Given the positive effects of gardening activities, it is suggested that they be promoted more widely among nursing home residents.

  19. Novel Active Learning Experiences for Students to Identify Barriers to Independent Living for People with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Polly; Burch, Lillian; Moore, Katherine; Hodges, Mary Sue

    2016-07-01

    This article describes interactive learning about independent living for people with disabilities and features the partnership of the College of Nursing and a Center for Independent Living (CIL). Using qualitative descriptive approach, students' written reflections were analyzed. Through "Xtreme Challenge," 82 undergraduate nursing students participated in aspects of independent living as well as identifying barriers. Students were engaged and learned to consider the person before the disability. Moreover, students valued the activity leaders' openness, which facilitated understanding the point of view of a person with disability. The value of partnership was evident as it allowed students to participate in active learning, which led to growth in the affective domain. Students became aware of potential education resources through the CIL. This article will guide educators in designing experiences that teach nursing care at the individual, family, and community level for people living with disabilities. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  20. A Seat Around the Table: Participatory Data Analysis With People Living With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Charlotte L; Wilkinson, Heather; Watson, Julie; Wilcockson, Jane; Kinnaird, Lindsay; Williamson, Toby

    2018-05-01

    The involvement of "people with experience" in research has developed considerably in the last decade. However, involvement as co-analysts at the point of data analysis and synthesis has received very little attention-in particular, there is very little work that involves people living with dementia as co-analysts. In this qualitative secondary data analysis project, we (a) analyzed data through two theoretical lenses: Douglas's cultural theory of risk and Tronto's Ethic of Care, and (b) analyzed data in workshops with people living with dementia. The design involved cycles of presenting, interpreting, representing and reinterpreting the data, and findings between multiple stakeholders. We explore ways of involving people with experience as co-analysts and explore the role of reflexivity, multiple voicing, literary styling, and performance in participatory data analysis.

  1. A billion-dollar bonanza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, J.

    1993-01-01

    In late May -- only weeks after Congress had rejected the president's economic stimulus package because it would add to the federal deficit -- the House of Representatives generously allocated an extra $1.2 billion to the Pentagon. This article discusses some of the rationalizations House members gave for the gift and describes the attempts of a bipartisan group to defeat this request for funds propounded by Pennsylvania Democrat John Murtha. This gist of the arguments for and against the $1.2 billion and the results of votes on the bill are presented

  2. Missed Opportunities for Religious Organizations to Support People Living with HIV/AIDS: Findings from Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, Melissa H.; Maman, Suzanne; Jacobson, Mark; Laiser, John; John, Muze

    2009-01-01

    Religious beliefs play an important role in the lives of Tanzanians, but little is known about the influence of religion for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study shares perspectives of PLWHA and identifies opportunities for religious organizations to support the psychological well-being of this group. Data were collected in 2006 and 2007 through semistructured interviews with 36 clients (8 Muslims and 28 Christians) receiving free antiretrovirals (ARVs) in Arusha, Tanzania. Swahili...

  3. Analysis of trace elements in scalp hair for long-lived people, hypertensives and healthy students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaofeng; Zhang Yurong; Zhang Longxing; Zhang Agen

    1989-01-01

    The XRF method was used to analyse nine kinds of trace elements in hair samples for three groups of people. While the information on long-lived people is used to explore the secret of long life, the work on hypertensives helps understand the effect of some trace elements on the disease. The normal values of trace elements for university students have been also set up

  4. Sustainability in Health Condition of the People Living in Rural Province of Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Kon, Sayuri; Kubo, Harutaka

    2010-01-01

    In Zambia, located in southern part of Africa, drought is frequently happened in dry season but recently heavy rainfall seriously damages crops in rainy season. Life of the people depending on farming are liable to be greatly affected by environmental change, which decrease provision of food, furthermore it affects their nutritional and health conditions. We have conducted longitudinal body measurements for the people living in rural villages to reveal the variation of nutritional status whic...

  5. FACTORS RELATING TO DEPRESSION AMONG OLDER PEOPLE LIVING IN CIMAHI, WEST JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiki Gustryanti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is commonly found in older people. The prevalence of depression among older people, particularly in Indonesia is increasing worldwide. Objective: This study was aimed to identify the factors relating to depression among older people living in Cimahi, West Java Province, Indonesia. Method: A cross sectional design was used with a total of 267 older people aged from 60 to 79 years old. A multi-stage random sampling has been used in five Public Health Centers in Cimahi. The instruments comprised socio-demographic questionnaires, General Health Perceptions questionnaire, Chula Activities of Daily Living Index (CADLI, and Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistic, chi-square, and point-biserial. Results: The result revealed that 56.2% respondents was no depression and 43.8% respondents was depression. The results also showed that age, marital status, family history of depression, perceived health status, and activities of daily living was significant relationship with depression a mong older people (p<.01; p<.05. Conclusion: This finding can be used as a reference to implement new strategies to decrease depression among older people.

  6. 12 billion DM for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The German atomic industry has achieved the break-through to the world market: Brazil orders eight nuclear electricity generating plants from Siemens-AEG daughter Kraftwerk-Union. US concerns attacked the twelve billion DM deal, the biggest export order in the history of German industry. Without avail - the contract is to be signed in Bonn this week. (orig./LH) [de

  7. The impact of a livelihood program on depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Mayumi; Yi, Siyan; Tuot, Sovannary; Suong, Samedy; Sron, Samrithea; Shibanuma, Akira; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-01-01

    Psychological and social problems are major concerns in this era of successful antiretroviral therapy. Although livelihood programs have been implemented extensively to improve the daily living conditions of people living with HIV in Cambodia, no studies have yet investigated the impacts of these programs on the mental health of this vulnerable population. Therefore, we examined the impact of a livelihood program on depressive symptoms and associated factors among people living with HIV in Cambodia. A quasi-experimental, nonequivalent comparison group study was conducted in six provinces of Cambodia in 2014. Data were collected from an intervention group comprising 357 people living with HIV who had participated in the livelihood program and a comparison group comprising 328 people living with HIV who had not participated in this program. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to examine the association between livelihood-program participation and depressive symptoms as measured by the depressive symptoms subscale of the 25-item Cambodian version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. A propensity score matching was used to examine the effect of the livelihood program on depressive symptoms while controlling for selection bias. Overall, 56.0% and 62.7% of the participants in the intervention and comparison groups, respectively, met the Hopkins Symptom Checklist threshold for depressive symptoms. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the participants in the intervention group had significantly lower odds of having depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.52-0.88). The analysis from propensity score matching indicated that the livelihood program helped mitigate depressive symptoms among the participants in the intervention group (T=-1.99). The livelihood program appeared to help mitigate the burden of depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in Cambodia. Thus, this program should be scaled up and

  8. Comparison of place attachment influence on the level of happiness of people living near residential parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhakim, I.; Kurniawan, E. B.; Wardhani, D. K.

    2018-05-01

    Several studies have shown that living close to a park is associated with high levels of happiness. However, there is a possible difference in the level of happiness between living close to a park (0-400 meters radius) compared to living far from the park (400-1.000 meters radius). Therefore, this study aims to compare the influence of Place Attachment on the level of happiness for people living near a park, especially residential parks in some housing areas in Malang City. Place Attachment in this study defined as a bond between an individual and a particular setting. The study demonstrates a positive influence of Place Attachment on the level of happiness of people living near the park. Respondents who live close to a park (R = 0.441; Happiness Level = 97.8%; Average Happiness = 6.833) tend to have a higher level of happiness compared to respondents who live far from a park (R = 0.326; Happiness Level = 69.9%; average Happiness = 4.148). This result shows the urgency to reconsider the provision standard of residential parks in Indonesia which only suggests one residential park for every 1,000 meters radius.

  9. Factors associated with increasing functional decline in multimorbid independently living older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, W.; Bleijenberg, N.; Drubbel, I.; Numans, M.E.; De Wit, N.J.; Schuurmans, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives With increasing age the levels of activities of daily living (ADL) deteriorate. In this study we aimed to investigate which demographic characteristics and disorders are associated with ADL disabilities in multi-morbid older people. Study design We performed a cross-sectional study with

  10. Apparent quality-of-life in nations : how long and happy people live

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractQuality-of-life in nations can be measured by how long and happy people live. This is assessed by combining data on life expectancy drawn from civil registration with survey data on subjective enjoyment of life as a whole. This measure of 'apparent' quality-of-life is a good alternative

  11. Sexual and reproductive health services for people living with HIV: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickley, Deborah Bain; Almers, Lucy; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Spaulding, Alicen B; Mirjahangir, Joy; Kennedy, Gail E; Packel, Laura; Osborne, Kevin; Mbizvo, Michael; Collins, Lynn

    2011-03-01

    People living with HIV often have unmet needs for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. We present results of a systematic review of studies offering SRH services targeted to people living with HIV. Studies were selected from a broader SRH and HIV linkages review. Inclusion criteria included: (1) peer-reviewed journal articles with a pre-post or multiple-arm study design; (2) reported post-intervention evaluation data; and (3) published 1 January 1990 through 31 December 2007. Nine studies were identified with an average rigour score of 5.1 out of 9. Services included family planning (one study), sexually transmitted infection (STI) services (two studies), combined family planning and STI services (three studies) and multiple services (three studies). The review identified mostly positive effects on the outcomes measured, including condom and contraceptive use and quality of services. Yet gaps remain in the research to establish the best approaches for addressing needs and choices of people living with HIV. There is a need for high-quality intervention studies to determine the most successful and cost-effective strategies for providing SRH services to people living with HIV.

  12. Satisfaction of People Living with HIV/AIDS with the Care Services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Satisfaction of People Living with HIV/AIDS Helena G. et al. 17. ORIGINAL ARTICLE ... RESULTS: Women had a mean age of 30.5 years while men 35.2 years. ... The hospital management should work to strengthen the .... married, 144 (50.3%) Orthodox Christian and 137. (47.9%) were ... Currently unmarried. 142. 144.

  13. Is green space in the living environment associated with people's feelings of social safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Winsum-Westra, M. van; Verheij, R.A.; Vries, S. de; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. The authors investigate whether the percentage of green space in people's living environ- ment affects their feelings of social safety positively or negatively. More specifically they investigate the extent to which this relationship varies between urban and rural areas, between groups in

  14. The implementation of the functional task exercise programme for elderly people living at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleuren, M.A.H.; Vrijkotte, S.; Jans, M.P.; Pin, R.; Hespen, A. van; Meeteren, N.L.U. van; Siemonsma, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Functional Task Exercise programme is an evidence-based exercise programme for elderly people living at home. It enhances physical capacity with sustainable effects. FTE is provided by physiotherapists and remedial therapists. Although the intervention was found to be effective in a

  15. Caries status and opinions of people living with HIV/AIDS on oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the dental caries status and opinions of the People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) on how they should be handled by oral health care providers. Design: A cross sectional study. Study subjects and Methods The study was carried out among PLHA in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

  16. The moderation effect of personality on healthcare utilization in Chinese people living with HIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, N.X.; Mols, F.; Stewart, S.M.; Zhang, J.X.

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence that Type D personality can predict impaired quality of life and health status in various chronic conditions. The evidence is conflicting as to whether Type D is associated with increased healthcare services, and no study has reported on the healthcare utilization of people living

  17. Urinary incontinence in older people living in the community: examining help-seeking behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, T.A.M.; Weel, C. van; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Only a small proportion of older people with urinary incontinence seek help, despite the availability of adequate treatment. AIM: To ascertain the patient- and disease-specific factors that determine whether medical care for urinary incontinence is sought by independently living older

  18. Perceived impact of environmental barriers on participation among people living with spinal cord injury in Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhardt, Jan D; Ballert, Carolina; Brinkhof, Martin W G; Post, Marcel W M

    Objective: To describe the impact of environmental barriers perceived by people living with spinal cord injury in the Swiss community and to compare this across subpopulations. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A total of 1,549 participants in the community survey of the Swiss spinal cord

  19. Exploring sources of emotional distress among people living with scleroderma: A focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gumuchian, S.T.; Peláez, S.; Delisle, V.C.; Carrier, M.E.; Jewett, L.R.; El-Baalbaki, G.; Fortune, C.; Hudson, M.; Impens, A.; Körner, A.; Persmann, J.; Kwakkenbos, C.M.C.; Bartlett, S.J.; Thombs, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Systemic sclerosis, or scleroderma, is a chronic and rare connective tissue disease with negative physical and psychological implications. Sources of emotional distress and the impact they have on the lives of people with scleroderma are not well understood. Objectives: To gain an

  20. Sexual activity and condom use among people living with HIV in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the extent to which knowledge of one's HIV status contributes to behavioural change among people living with HIV (PLHIV) has not been comprehensively documented. Drawing on an analysis of 37 in-depth interviews and five focus group discussions with PLHIV, this paper examines the nature of sexual activity ...

  1. Internet-Based Health Information Consumer Skills Intervention for People Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Cherry, Charsey; Cain, Demetria; Pope, Howard; Kalichman, Moira; Eaton, Lisa; Weinhardt, Lance; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2006-01-01

    Medical information can improve health, and there is an enormous amount of health information available on the Internet. A randomized clinical trial tested the effectiveness of an intervention based on social-cognitive theory to improve information use among people living with HIV/AIDS. Men and women (N = 448) were placed in either (a) an…

  2. The meaning of assisted feeding for people living with spinal cord injury: a phenomenological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, B.; Harder, I.; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2008-01-01

    AIM: This paper is a report of a study to explore the meaning of assisted feeding through the experiences of people with high cervical spinal cord injury. Background. Eating difficulties are known to affect a person's self-image and transform social lives. Little is known about the experience of ...

  3. Process and Outcome Evaluation of an Art Therapy Program for People Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Matthew B.; Betts, Donna J.; Blausey, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Program evaluation offers an opportunity for improving the implementation and impact of art therapy. This article describes a process and outcomes evaluation of an art therapy program within the mental health services unit of a community-based organization for people living with HIV/AIDS. The aims were to assess utilization patterns and program…

  4. Thai people living with tuberculosis and how they adhere to treatment: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choowong, Jiraporn; Tillgren, Per; Söderbäck, Maja

    2017-12-01

    To develop a conceptual framework of adherence to treatment among Thai people living with tuberculosis, a grounded theory approach was used. A purposive sample of 20 Thai people living with tuberculosis, aged from 23 to 85 years, was interviewed. From the participants' perspective, a core category of social belonging was highlighted, with three categories of conditions connected: personal barriers, personal resilience, and social facilitation. Personal barriers encompassed fear of stigma, concealing the illness, and lack of knowledge and motivation to complete the treatment regime. Personal resilience encompassed positive thinking and self-awareness. Social facilitation encompassed the ease of access to health services, continuity in the health service's ability to choose a directly-observed therapy observer, and social support. This study contributes a deeper understanding of the perspective of Thai people living with tuberculosis with regards to adherence to tuberculosis treatment. It might improve how local healthcare workers provide tuberculosis care, and inspire them to tailor care to people living with tuberculosis in a local community to increase personal resilience and reduce stigma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Preferences for food and nutritional supplements among adult people living with HIV in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodas Moya, Carlos; Kodish, Stephen; Manary, Mark; Grede, Nils; Pee, de Saskia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the factors influencing food intake and preferences for potential nutritional supplements to treat mild and moderate malnutrition among adult people living with HIV (PLHIV). Design: Qualitative research using in-depth interviews with a triangulation of participants and an

  6. Status Disclosure among People Living With HIV/AIDS in Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HIV/AIDS is a disease that is characterised by discrimination and stigmatisation particularly in Africa. Objective: To determine rate of disclosure of HIV status among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Ilorin, Nigeria. Methods: A semi-structured, interviewer administered questionnaire containing 40 items ...

  7. Psychoactive Substance use among People living with HIV/AIDS in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a wide opinion on pattern of use of psychoactive substances especially parenteral psychoactive substances which have been indicted as one of the major mode of transmission of HIV among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the western world. However, there is regional variability especially in ...

  8. Involving People with Lived Experience of Homelessness in Electronic Health Records Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Luchenski

    2017-04-01

    Using a participatory and dynamic approach to involve people with lived experience of homelessness and exclusion is an effective public engagement methodology for complex topics such as EHR research and data linkage. Information provided in the workshop was useful for interpreting findings, identifying strengths and gaps in health and social services, and developing research and practice recommendations.

  9. Positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stansfeld, J.; Stoner, C.R.; Wenborn, J.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Moniz-Cook, E.; Orrell, M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Family caregivers of people living with dementia can have both positive and negative experiences of caregiving. Despite this, existing outcome measures predominately focus on negative aspects of caregiving such as burden and depression. This review aimed to evaluate the development and

  10. The risk of developing malnutrition in people living with HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were 1) to determine the proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) at risk of developing malnutrition, 2) to determine the prevalence of malnutrition (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2), and 3) to describe the dietary intake and other nutrition parameters of PLWHA with membership in support ...

  11. People with Intellectual Disabilities at the End of Their Lives: The Case for Specialist Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester-Jones, Rachel; Beecham, Jennifer K.; Barnoux, Magali; Oliver, David; Couch, Elyse; Bates, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities have a shorter life expectancy, but healthcare improvements mean that they are beginning to live longer, with associated health difficulties. This means that there is an urgent need to focus research on ageing as well as end-of-life care. This study aimed to explore a specialist intellectual…

  12. Perceived impact of environmental barriers on participation among people living with spinal cord injury in Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhardt, Jan D; Ballert, Carolina; Brinkhof, Martin W G; Post, Marcel W M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of environmental barriers perceived by people living with spinal cord injury in the Swiss community and to compare this across subpopulations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: A total of 1,549 participants in the community survey of the Swiss spinal cord

  13. "A life of living death": the experiences of people living with chronic low back pain in rural Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igwesi-Chidobe, Chinonso N; Kitchen, Sheila; Sorinola, Isaac O; Godfrey, Emma L

    2017-04-01

    This study explored the experiences of people living with non-specific chronic low back pain (CLBP) in a rural Nigerian community. Qualitative in-depth semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with purposively sampled participants until data saturation. Questions explored back pain beliefs, coping/management strategies and daily activities. Thematic analysis of transcripts was performed using the Framework approach. Themes showed that back pain beliefs were related to manual labour/deprivation, infection/degeneration, spiritual/cultural beliefs and rural-urban divide. These beliefs impacted on gender roles resulting in adaptive or maladaptive coping. Adaptive coping was facilitated by positive beliefs, such as not regarding CLBP as an illness, whereas viewing CLBP as illness stimulated maladaptive coping strategies. Spirituality was associated with both adaptive and maladaptive coping. Maladaptive coping strategies led to dissatisfaction with health care in this community. CLBP-related disability in rural Nigeria is strongly influenced by beliefs that facilitate coping strategies that either enhance or inhibit recovery. Interventions should therefore target maladaptive beliefs while emphasizing behavioural modification. Implications for Rehabilitation Non-specific chronic low back pain (CLBP) is highly prevalent and responsible for much pain and disability in rural Nigeria. No qualitative study has investigated the experiences of people living with CLBP in rural Nigeria or any other rural African context. Qualitative study of peoples' experiences of living with CLBP in rural Nigeria has the potential of exposing complex socio-cultural and psychological factors associated with CLBP which has potential implications for designing effective interventions. The results of this study may inform the development of complex interventions for reducing the disability associated with CLBP in rural Nigeria and other rural African contexts.

  14. HIV Futures 8: Protocol for a Repeated Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Survey of People Living with HIV in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Jennifer; Brown, Graham; Lyons, Anthony; Thorpe, Rachel; Dowsett, Gary W.; Lucke, Jayne

    2017-01-01

    Introduction More than 27,000 Australians currently live with HIV. Most of these people have access to quality clinical care and antiretroviral treatment (ART) and can expect good general health. However, HIV-related stigma is a problem and many people living with HIV experience poorer than average mental health. Issues of aging are also of increasing concern. This paper describes the methods and sample for the HIV Futures 8 study, a national survey of people living with HIV in Australia that...

  15. Exploring Sources of Emotional Distress among People Living with Scleroderma: A Focus Group Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie T Gumuchian

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis, or scleroderma, is a chronic and rare connective tissue disease with negative physical and psychological implications. Sources of emotional distress and the impact they have on the lives of people with scleroderma are not well understood.To gain an in-depth understanding of the emotional experiences and sources of emotional distress for women and men living with scleroderma through focus group discussions.Three semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted (two in English, one in French with a total of 22 people with scleroderma recruited through the Scleroderma Society of Ontario in Hamilton, Ontario and a scleroderma clinic in Montreal, Canada. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded for emerging themes using thematic inductive analysis.Core themes representing sources of emotional distress were identified, including: (a facing a new reality; (b the daily struggle of living with scleroderma; (c handling work, employment and general financial burden; (d changing family roles; (e social interactions; and (f navigating the health care system. Collectively, these themes refer to the stressful journey of living with scleroderma including the obstacles faced and the emotional experiences beginning prior to receiving a diagnosis and continuing throughout the participants' lives.Scleroderma was portrayed as being an unpredictable and overwhelming disease, resulting in many individuals experiencing multiple sources of emotional distress. Interventions and supportive resources need to be developed to help individuals with scleroderma and people close to them manage and cope with the emotional aspects of the disease.

  16. The roles of adult siblings in the lives of people with severe intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah A; Rossetti, Zach

    2018-05-01

    Siblings of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) often assume key roles to support their brothers and sisters. For people with more significant support needs, siblings may undertake additional roles and responsibilities throughout their lives. The purpose of the present study was to identify and describe the roles of adult siblings who have a brother or sister with severe IDD. Seventy-nine adult siblings from 19 to 72 years of age completed an online survey with open-ended questions about the roles they play in their relationships with their brother or sister. Thematic analysis resulted in identification of several roles including caregiver, friend (social partner), advocate, legal representative, sibling (teacher/role model), leisure planner and informal service coordinator. Siblings assume key roles in the lives of people with IDD and need support from family and professionals to perform these roles. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Changes in living arrangements and mortality among older people in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Feng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Living arrangements in later life are dynamic, with changes associated with life events such as widowhood or moves into an institution. Previous research has found particular changes in living arrangements to be associated with an elevated risk of mortality. However, research in this area within the context of China is limited, despite China being home to the world's largest population of older people. This study investigates the impact of changes in living arrangements on older persons’ survival using the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey from 2002 to 2011. The original sample was 16,064 in 2002, and this study includes 6191 individuals who survived in 2005 and had complete information of track record in later waves. Changes in living arrangements are examined between 2002 and 2005. Cox-proportional hazards models are then used to investigate the association between the dynamics of living arrangements and respondents’ survival status from 2005 to 2011 . Results show that men and women who lived in an institution in both 2002 and 2005, or who moved into an institution from living with family faced a greater risk of dying compared to those continuing to live with family. By contrast, continuing to live with family or alone, or moving between living with family and living alone, were not associated with an increased mortality risk, although there were some differences by gender. The institutional care sector in China is still in its infancy, with provision based on ability to pay market fees rather than need associated with age-related function impairment. The findings show that living in, or moving into, an institution is associated with a high mortality risk therefore requires further investigation in the context of a rapidly changing Chinese society.

  18. Homosexuality among People with a Mild Intellectual Disability: An Explorative Study on the Lived Experiences of Homosexual People in the Netherlands with a Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffelen, J.; Kok, G.; Hospers, H.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Empirical research on homosexuality among people with an intellectual disability (ID) is limited and, to date, very little is known regarding the personal experiences of gay and lesbian people with an ID. This study set out to answer the question: "What are the lived experiences of a specific cohort of homosexual people with an…

  19. Self-rated health and health-strengthening factors in community-living frail older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Zahra; Dahlin-Ivanoff, Synneve; Eklund, Kajsa; Jakobsson, Annika; Wilhelmson, Katarina

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the explanatory power of variables measuring health-strengthening factors for self-rated health among community-living frail older people. Frailty is commonly constructed as a multi-dimensional geriatric syndrome ascribed to the multi-system deterioration of the reserve capacity in older age. Frailty in older people is associated with decreased physical and psychological well-being. However, knowledge about the experiences of health in frail older people is still limited. The design of the study was cross-sectional. The data were collected between October 2008 and November 2010 through face-to-face structured interviews with older people aged 65-96 years (N = 161). Binary logistic regression was used to analyse whether a set of explanatory relevant variables is associated with self-rated health. The results from the final model showed that satisfaction with one's ability to take care of oneself, having 10 or fewer symptoms and not feeling lonely had the best explanatory power for community-living frail older peoples' experiences of good health. The results indicate that a multi-disciplinary approach is desirable, where the focus should not only be on medical problems but also on providing supportive services to older people to maintain their independence and experiences of health despite frailty. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Living in supportive housing for people with serious mental illness: a paradoxical everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson-Tops, Anita; Ericsson, Ulf; Ehliasson, Kent

    2014-10-01

    Since the closure of large psychiatric institutions, various types of community-based supportive housing for people with serious mental illness (SMI) have been developed. There is currently limited knowledge about users' experiences of living in supportive housing. The aim of the present study was to describe user experiences of living in supportive housing for people with SMI. Twenty-nine people living in such facilities participated in open, qualitative interviews. Data were subjected to latent content analysis. Three main themes emerged from this analysis: (i) having a nest, which included the subthemes of a place to rest and having someone to attach to; (ii) being part of a group, with the subthemes of being brought together and a community spirit; and (iii) leading an oppressive life, including the subthemes of questioning one's identity, sense of inequality, and a life of gloom. It could be concluded that user experiences of living in supportive housing are complex and paradoxical. In order to provide supportive housing, staff need to recognize and work within social group processes, and perform continual and structural evaluations of users' social and emotional needs. © 2014 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  1. The incidence of oral dryness in people over 65 years living in Lublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamińska-Pikiewicz Katarzyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Saliva plays an important part in naturally maintaining oral homeostasis. Dry mouth or 'xerostomia', is a serious problem connected with decreased saliva secretion which considerably limits the quality of life in elderly people. The aim of the study was the assessment of the subjective oral dryness in the oral mucosa in people over 65 living in Lublin, Poland. The study was conducted among 240 people aged 65 to 96. The patients were placed into two groups: I - 117 residents of nursing homes, II - 123 people living with their families. Assessment of the subjective oral dryness taking into account the place of residence, sex and drug administration was performed based on a questionnaire survey. In the group of nursing homes residents, 32.48% of the surveyed experienced subjective oral dryness, while among the seniors living with their families, 33.33% reported this kind of discomfort. The conducted analysis revealed that oral dryness was more common amongst women than men, and it can be very often a side-effect of administered medicine drugs.

  2. Positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, Jacki; Stoner, Charlotte R; Wenborn, Jennifer; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Moniz-Cook, Esme; Orrell, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Family caregivers of people living with dementia can have both positive and negative experiences of caregiving. Despite this, existing outcome measures predominately focus on negative aspects of caregiving such as burden and depression. This review aimed to evaluate the development and psychometric properties of existing positive psychology measures for family caregivers of people living with dementia to determine their potential utility in research and practice. A systematic review of positive psychology outcome measures for family caregivers of people with dementia was conducted. The databases searched were as follows: PsychINFO, CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed. Scale development papers were subject to a quality assessment to appraise psychometric properties. Twelve positive outcome measures and six validation papers of these scales were identified. The emerging constructs of self-efficacy, spirituality, resilience, rewards, gain, and meaning are in line with positive psychology theory. There are some robust positive measures in existence for family caregivers of people living with dementia. However, lack of reporting of the psychometric properties hindered the quality assessment of some outcome measures identified in this review. Future research should aim to include positive outcome measures in interventional research to facilitate a greater understanding of the positive aspects of caregiving and how these contribute to well-being.

  3. The nutritional care of people living with dementia at home: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, Louise; Kent, Bridie; Abbott, Rebecca; Wood, Chloë; Hickson, Mary

    2018-01-24

    There are an increasing number of people with dementia living in their own home for longer, often supported by a family member. The symptoms of dementia can affect an individual's nutritional status, which can lead to a reduced quality of life for the person with dementia and their family members. A scoping review was conducted from July 2016 until September 2016, using a recognised framework, to explore what is currently known, and identify any gaps in the research regarding the nutritional care of people living with dementia at home. This included any interventions that may have been trialled or implemented, and the views of those living with dementia, carers and clinicians. Six electronic databases were searched from inception to July 2016. A review team was involved in screening and data extraction for selected articles. Published qualitative and quantitative studies were included that explored the nutritional care of people living with dementia at home. Methods included data extraction and conventional content analysis. Stakeholders were involved in the development of final categories. Following screening, 61 studies reported in 63 articles were included. Most studies were cross-sectional (n = 24), cohort (n = 15) or qualitative (n = 9). Only three were randomised controlled trials. Three overarching categories represented the results: Timely identification of nutritional risk and subsequent regular monitoring of nutritional status, multi-component tailored interventions and the influence of the care-giving dyad on nutritional status. Many studies identify people living at home with dementia as a vulnerable group prone to malnutrition; however, a lack of interventions exists to address the increased risk. There is a lack of research exploring the role of home care providers and healthcare professionals in the provision of nutritional care. Further research is required to explore how the emotional aspect of the care-giving dyad influences nutritional care

  4. Nurses' job satisfaction and attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamama, L; Tartakovsky, E; Eroshina, K; Patrakov, E; Golubkova, A; Bogushevich, J; Shardina, L

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies internationally have highlighted that working with people living with HIV/AIDS may lead to nurses' stress and burnout. However, this topic has not been well explored in Russia, a country with an exponential growth in HIV/AIDS. This study focused on nurses' job satisfaction and their attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS in centres where nurses regularly treat such patients, and in a general hospital where nurses rarely treat such patients. We distributed three self-report questionnaires: demographics, job satisfaction and attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS to nurses working in six HIV/AIDS centres and the largest general hospital in Ekaterinburg, Russia. Sixty-nine nurses from the HIV/AIDS centres and 66 from the general hospital (about 90% of those approached) completed these. Nurses who regularly treated people with HIV/AIDS were significantly younger and a greater number held master degrees than those who rarely treated such patients. No significant differences between the two settings emerged for job satisfaction but what did emerge were differences in nurses' attitudes: nurses in HIV/AIDS centres reported less avoidance than nurses in the general hospital. Regarding empathetic attitudes, no significant differences emerged, but empathetic attitudes contributed to the explained variance of job satisfaction. Although our sample was small, the associations found between avoidant attitudes and job satisfaction highlight the need for stigma-reduction strategies and increased disease knowledge. Healthcare managers should consider attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS as an important factor in ensuring adequate care for them and initiate education programmes for nurses, especially programmes dealing with HIV/AIDS in general hospitals. Support and supervision can be used as a strategy, for empowering nurses to meet the challenges of working with HIV/AIDS patients. © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  5. How older people with incurable cancer experience daily living: A qualitative study from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Sigrid Helene Kjørven; Danbolt, Lars J; Kvigne, Kari; Demarinis, Valerie

    2015-08-01

    An increasing number of older people are living with incurable cancer as a chronic disease, requiring palliative care from specialized healthcare for shorter or longer periods of time. The aim of our study was to describe how they experience daily living while receiving palliative care in specialized healthcare contexts. We conducted a qualitative research study with a phenomenological approach called "systematic text condensation." A total of 21 participants, 12 men and 9 women, aged 70-88, took part in semistructured interviews. They were recruited from two somatic hospitals in southeastern Norway. The participants experienced a strong link to life in terms of four subthemes: to acknowledge the need for close relationships; to maintain activities of normal daily life; to provide space for existential meaning-making and to name and handle decline and loss. In addition, they reported that specialized healthcare contexts strengthened the link to life by prioritizing and providing person-centered palliative care. Older people with incurable cancer are still strongly connected to life in their daily living. The knowledge that the potential for resilience remains despite aging and serious decline in health is considered a source of comfort for older people living with this disease. Insights into the processes of existential meaning-making and resilience are seen as useful in order to increase our understanding of how older people adapt to adversity, and how their responses may help to protect them from some of the difficulties inherent to aging. Healthcare professionals can make use of this information in treatment planning and for identification of psychosocial and sociocultural resources to support older people and to strengthen patients' life resources.

  6. Environmental Exposure to Arsenic, Lead, and Cadmium in People Living near Janghang Copper Smelter in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Dae; Eom, Sang-Yong; Yim, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, In-Soo; Won, Hee-Kwan; Park, Choong-Hee; Kim, Guen-Bae; Yu, Seung-Do; Choi, Byung-Sun; Park, Jung-Duck; Kim, Heon

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals exceed safety thresholds in the soil near Janghang Copper Refinery, a smelter in Korea that operated from 1936 to 1989. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of exposure to toxic metals and the potential effect on health in people living near the smelter. The study included 572 adults living within 4 km of the smelter and compared them with 413 controls group of people living similar lifestyles in a rural area approximately 15 km from the smelter. Urinary arsenic (As) level did not decrease according to the distance from the smelter, regardless of gender and working history in smelters and mines. However, in subjects who had no occupational exposure to toxic metals, blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and urinary Cd decreased according to the distance from the smelter, both in men and women. Additionally, the distance from the smelter was a determinant factor for a decrease of As, Pb, and Cd in multiple regression models, respectively. On the other hands, urinary Cd was a risk factor for renal tubular dysfunction in populations living near the smelter. These results suggest that Janghang copper smelter was a main contamination source of As, Pb, and Cd, and populations living near the smelter suffered some adverse health effects as a consequence. The local population should be advised to make efforts to reduce exposure to environmental contaminants, in order to minimize potential health effects, and to pay close attention to any health problems possibly related to toxic metal exposure.

  7. The experiences of people living with epilepsy in developing countries: a systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanywe, Asahngwa; Matchawe, Chelea; Fernandez, Ritin

    2016-05-01

    Epilepsy is a global public health problem affecting people of all ages, sex, races, nations and social class. The majority of the 50 million people with epilepsy live in developing countries, with a prevalence rate of five to 10 people per 1000. The disease poses an enormous psychological, social and economic burden on patients. An estimated 90% of people with epilepsy in developing countries do not receive treatment due to sociocultural, economic and political factors. Current treatment interventions are limited to the clinical management of the disease and are largely driven by the healthcare provider's perspective, ignoring the experiences of people living with epilepsy (PLWE). The aim of this review was to identify, critically appraise, extract, synthesize and present the best and most current available evidence on the experiences of PLWE in developing countries. • What are the experiences of PLWE regarding the causes of their condition?• What are the experiences of PLWE regarding treatment of epilepsy?• How has epilepsy shaped the social relationships of the affected persons? People living with epilepsy in developing countries (Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America).The experiences of PLWE in developing countries with particular attention on the causes, treatment and its impact on their social relationships.Primary research studies with a qualitative design not limited to phenomenology, ethnography, grounded theory, ethnomethodology, phenomenography, critical theory, interpretative or feminist analysis, case study, narrative studies and action research. Qualitative studies conducted in hospitals and community settings in developing countries. A three-step search strategy was used to identify published and unpublished studies in the English language from the 1990s to the present. Identified studies that met the inclusion criteria were retrieved and critically appraised by two independent reviewers prior to their inclusion using the Joanna Briggs

  8. Significant Improvement in Sleep in People with Intellectual Disabilities Living in Residential Settings by Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylkema, T.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although about 15 to 50 percent of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) living in residential settings suffer from sleep problems, scant attention is paid to these problems. Most available studies focus on pharmaceutical solutions. In this study we focus on improving sleep in people with intellectual disabilities living in…

  9. Use of in-patient hospital beds by people living in residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finucane, P; Wundke, R; Whitehead, C; Williamson, L; Baggoley, C

    2000-01-01

    There is concern that people living in residential care in Australia make significant and often inappropriate use of acute in-patient hospital services. To date, no factual information has been collected in Australia and its absence may allow myths and negative stereotypes to proliferate. To determine how and why people living in residential care in Australia use in-patient hospital beds. To determine the outcome of hospitalisation and functional status at 3 months following discharge. Prospective study of 184 consecutive admissions to hospital following Emergency Department (ED) attendance involving people aged over 65 years and living in residential care in southern Adelaide, South Australia. Information was obtained from the facilities' transfer letters, and where these were inadequate or absent, telephone interviews were held with residential care staff. 153 people accounted for the 184 admissions. They had a mean age of 84 years and 69% were female. 61% came from hostels and 35% from nursing homes. They had a wide range of clinical problems and twice as many were admitted to medical than to surgical units. Their mean length of hospital stay was 7.9 days, 2.3 days higher than for non-same-day patients and was higher for hostel than for nursing home residents. All but two admissions were considered unavoidable though the provision of specialised care within residential care could have prevented a further 19 (10%) admissions. 96% of admissions resulted in survival to leave hospital and in 74%, people returned directly to their place of origin. At 3 months follow-up, a further 20% of the group had died while 5% were in hospital. In all, 14% of the original group were in a different long-term care facility while 56% were living at their former residence. People living in residential care are often hospitalised because of acute illness. In the vast majority of cases hospitalisation is both appropriate and unavoidable. Most did not require prolonged hospitalisation

  10. The treatment experiences of people living with ileostomies: an interpretative phenomenological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Spiers, Johanna; Smith, Jonathan A.; Simpson, P.; Nicholls, A.

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To explore treatment and healthcare experiences of people living with ileostomies, so nurses can build on best practice whilst caring for these patients. \\ud Background Ileostomies, in which the small intestine is re-directed out of a stoma in the abdominal wall so waste is collected using a bag, are used to treat conditions including Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Existing research suggests that although life with a stoma can be challenging, ileostomy patients are largely supported by mul...

  11. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, S; Lin, C; Ji, G; Li, L

    2017-01-01

    Among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms associated with HIV diagnosis is a common problem. This study examined HIV diagnosis-related PTSD symptoms and its associated factors among PLHA in rural China. We used baseline data from a randomized controlled trial conducted in Anhui Province, China. Surveys of 522 PLHA were conducted via computer-assisted personal interview method. PTSD symptoms were measured based on re-experiencing...

  12. Condom Use Determinants and Practices Among People Living with HIV in Kisii County, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel, Wamalwa; Edward, Neyole; Moses, Poipoi; William, Ringera; Geoffrey, Otomu; Monicah, Bitok; Rosemary, Mbaluka

    2015-01-01

    The male condom remains the single, most efficient and available technology to reduce sexual transmission of HIV as well as sexually transmitted infections. This study sought to establish condom use determinants and practices among people living with HIV (PLHIVs) in Kisii County, Kenya. We interviewed 340 PLHIVs and 6 health workers. Although most PLHIVs had correct knowledge and approved condoms as effective for HIV prevention, consistent use and condom use at last sex were notably low espec...

  13. Exploring Clothing as a Barrier to Workplace Participation Faced by People Living with Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kerri McBee-Black; Jung Ha-Brookshire

    2018-01-01

    In response to research which argues that people living with a disability (PLWD) face societal barriers including workplace participation, this study explored how the barriers to social participation, specifically workplace participation, faced by PLWD are exacerbated by the lack of appropriate clothing and the role that stigma, self-efficacy, and clothing have in workplace participation. Finding appropriate clothing is a significant barrier to social participation for many PLWD. The social m...

  14. Food security for community-living elderly people in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yang; Rosenberg, Mark; Yu, Jie; Zhang, Hua

    2016-11-01

    Food security has been identified as an important issue for elderly people's quality of life and ageing in place. A food security index composed of three indicators (food intake, food quality and food affordability) was developed to measure the food security status of community-living elderly people. Food security was then examined among community-living elderly in the central urban districts of Beijing, China. Data were collected by a questionnaire survey in the summer of 2013 and the response rate was 78.5%. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were applied to analyse food security and the associations between food security and demographic and socioeconomic factors. The results showed that 54.2% of the surveyed elderly experienced food security. Participants with better education (OR = 1.68) and better health (OR = 1.47) were more likely to experience food security. The young-old were less likely to experience food security than the older old (OR = 0.94). Elderly people who lived with their children were less likely to experience food security than those who lived alone (OR = 0.43). The results of impact factors on food security highlight both similarities with studies from more developed countries and the unique challenges faced in a rapidly changing China with its unique social, cultural and political systems. The food security index we developed in this study is a simple and effective measure of food security status, which can be used in surveys for evaluating the food security status of elderly people in the future. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Using case-based reasoning to detect risk scenarios of elderly people living alone at home

    OpenAIRE

    Lupiani, Eduardo; Juarez, Jose M.; Palma, Jose; Sauer, Christian; Roth-Berghofer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In today’s ageing societies, the proportion of elderly people living alone in their own homes is dramatically increasing. Smart homes provide the appropriate environment for keeping them independent and, therefore, enhancing their quality of life. One of the most important requirements of these systems is that they have to provide a pervasive environment without disrupting elderly people’s daily activities. The present paper introduces a CBR agent used within a commercial Smart Home system, d...

  16. Preferences for food and nutritional supplements among adult people living with HIV in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Rodas Moya, Carlos; Kodish, Stephen; Manary, Mark; Grede, Nils; Pee, de, Saskia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the factors influencing food intake and preferences for potential nutritional supplements to treat mild and moderate malnutrition among adult people living with HIV (PLHIV). Design: Qualitative research using in-depth interviews with a triangulation of participants and an iterative approach to data collection. Setting: The study was conducted in a health clinic of rural Chilomoni, a southern town of Blantyre district, Malawi. Subjects: Male and female participants, age...

  17. Anthropometric and Nutritional Profile of People Living with HIV and AIDS in India: an Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Anand, Deepika; Puri, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Background: Importance of nutrition in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is well-established; however, the information regarding the diet quality of people living with HIV (PLHIV) especially in India is lacking. Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the anthropometric and nutritional profile of Indian PLHIV. Material and Methods: The study was performed on 400 adult PLHIV registered at the Antiretroviral Center (ART) center in New Delhi, India. Anthropometric data including he...

  18. Changeover-time in psychosocial wellbeing of people living with HIV and people living close to them after an HIV stigma reduction and wellness enhancement community intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidrawi, H Christa; Greeff, Minrie; Temane, Q Michael; Ellis, Suria

    2015-01-01

    HIV stigma continues to affect the psychosocial wellbeing of people living with HIV (PLWH) and people living close to them (PLC). Literature unequivocally holds the view that HIV stigma and psychosocial wellbeing interact with and have an impact on each other. This study, which is part of a larger research project funded by the South Africa Netherlands research Programme on Alternatives in Development (SANPAD), responds to the lack of interventions mitigating the impactful interaction of HIV stigma and psychosocial wellbeing and tests one such intervention. The research objectives were to test the changeover-time in the psychosocial wellbeing of PLWH and PLC in an urban and a rural setting, following a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction and wellness enhancement intervention. An experimental quantitative single system research design with a pre- and four repetitive post-tests was used, conducting purposive voluntary sampling for PLWH (n = 18) and snowball sampling for PLC (n = 60). The average age of participants was 34 years old. The five measuring instruments used for both groups were the mental health continuum short-form scale, the patient health questionnaire, the satisfaction with life scale, the coping self-efficacy scale and the spirituality wellbeing scale. No significant differences were found between the urban-rural settings and data were pooled for analysis. The findings show that initial psychosocial wellbeing changes after the intervention were better sustained (over time) by the PLC than by the PLWH and seemed to be strengthened by interpersonal interaction. Recommendations included that the intervention should be re-utilised and that its tenets, content and activities be retained. A second intervention three to six months after the first should be included to achieve more sustainability and to add focused activities for the enhancement of psychosocial wellbeing. PLWH and PLC are to be encouraged to engage with innovative community

  19. Treatments for people living with schizophrenia in Sub-Saharan Africa: an adapted realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidarikire, S; Cross, M; Skinner, I; Cleary, M

    2018-03-01

    To identify the treatments and interventions available and their impact on people living with schizophrenia in Sub-Saharan Africa. Help-seeking behaviour and the choice of treatment are largely influenced by socio-cultural factors and beliefs about the causes of mental illness. This review addresses the gap in knowledge regarding the treatment options available to people living with schizophrenia in Sub-Saharan Africa. Adapted realist literature review. Electronic databases searched in June 2016 included PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ProQuest and CINAHL. The adapted realist review approach used to synthesize the published research involved identifying the review aim, searching and selecting relevant studies, extracting, iteratively analysing and synthesizing relevant data and reporting results. Forty studies from eight countries were reviewed. Most people were treated by both faith/traditional healers and modern psychiatry. Common treatments included antipsychotics, electroconvulsive therapy and psychosocial interventions. Few treatment options were available outside major centres, there was poor adherence to medication and families reported a high level of burden associated with caring for a relative. Major limitations of this review were the lack of studies, variable quality and low level of evidence available from most countries from Sub-Saharan Africa and lack of generalizability. People living with schizophrenia in Sub-Saharan Africa were treated by faith, traditional healers and modern psychiatry, if at all. Further research is needed to better understand the local situation and the implications for caring for people from this region. Mental health services in Sub-Saharan Africa are limited by fiscal shortages, lack of mental health services and qualified mental health professionals. This review provides evidence to inform nursing and healthcare policy, including recruiting and training mental health professionals and ensuring access to evidence-based, person

  20. The Mental Health of People Living with HIV in China, 1998-2014: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Niu

    Full Text Available Understanding the mental health burdens faced by people living with HIV in China is instrumental in the development of successful targeted programs for psychological support and care.Using multiple Chinese and English literature databases, we conducted a systematic review of observational research (cross-sectional, case-control, or cohort published between 1998 and 2014 on the mental health of people living with HIV in China.We identified a total of 94 eligible articles. A broad range of instruments were used across studies. Depression was the most widely studied problem; the majority of studies reported prevalence greater than 60% across research settings, with indications of a higher prevalence among women than men. Rates of anxiety tended to be greater than 40%. Findings regarding the rates of suicidality, HIV-related neurocognitive disorders, and substance use were less and varied. Only one study investigated posttraumatic stress disorder and reported a prevalence of 46.2%. Conflicting results about health and treatment related factors of mental health were found across studies.Despite limitations, this review confirmed that people living with HIV are vulnerable to mental health problems, and there is substantial need for mental health services among this population.

  1. Quality of life of people living with HIV and AIDS and antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguntibeju OO

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Oluwafemi O OguntibejuOxidative Stress Research Centre, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville, South AfricaAbstract: The development of antiretroviral drugs has significantly changed the perception of HIV/AIDS from a very fatal to a chronic and potentially manageable disease, and the availability and administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART has significantly reduced mortality and morbidity associated with HIV and AIDS. There is a relationship between ART and quality of life of people living with HIV and AIDS, and several studies have reported a strong positive association between ART and improved quality of life in different domains among people living with HIV and AIDS in both developed and developing countries. However, a few studies have reported on the negative effects of ART, which directly or indirectly relate to the quality of life and longevity of HIV-infected persons. In this review, the effects and benefits of ART on people living with HIV and AIDS based on studies done in developed and developing countries is examined.Keywords: benefits, negative effects, oxidative stress, treatment, modifications of desires

  2. How children and young people construct and negotiate living with medical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Susan

    2010-11-01

    Increasing numbers of children need the support of medical technology for their survival and wellbeing, yet little is known about their experiences of living technology-assisted lives. This study aimed to explore how this group of children experience and construct medical technology and its influence on their identity and social relationships. Using a Grounded Theory approach, 28 children/young people aged between 8 and 19 years old and using different types of medical devices were recruited via nursing services in England. Data were collected by in-depth interviews conducted in children's homes. The medical technology occupied an ambivalent position in children's lives being seen as having both an enabling and disabling presence. Children actively engaged in work to incorporate the technology into their lives and bodies by developing strategies to manage their condition, the technology and their identities. This body work appeared to be driven by a desire to 'normalise' their bodies and their lives. Technologies were shaped to integrate them into everyday life and children managed their self-presentation and controlled information about their condition. This work was ongoing, responding to changing social contexts and relationships. For these children the process of 'growing up' involves incorporating disability, illness and technology. This study contributes to knowledge by examining how medical technology is constructed by children whose lives are dependent on it and illuminating the resources and strategies they use to manage their identity and negotiate peer culture interactions and norms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Lived Environment Life Quality Model for institutionalized people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; Lampe, Jenna L; Logan, Christina A; Metcalfe, Amy R; Hoesly, Beth E

    2017-02-01

    There is a need for a conceptual practice model that explicates ecological complexities involved in using occupation to optimize the quality of life of institutionalized people with dementia. This study aimed to prepare the Lived Environment Life Quality Model, a dementia-specific conceptual practice model of occupational therapy in institutional facilities, for publication and application to practice. Interviews and focus groups with six expert occupational therapists were subjected to qualitative content analysis to confirm, disconfirm, and further develop the model. The model's lived-environment domain as the focus of assessment and intervention was extensively confirmed, and its quality-of-life domain as the focus of intervention goals and outcomes was both confirmed and further developed. As confirmed in this study, the Lived Environment Life Quality Model is a client-centred, ecologically valid, and occupation-focused guide to optimizing quality of life of institutionalized adults with dementia in present moments and progressively over time.

  4. Photo-ethnography by People Living in Poverty Near the Northern Border of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús René Luna Hernández

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available People living in poverty have had little opportunity to express their feelings about the precarious situation in which they live. Most studies on poverty have focused on describing its most prominent characteristics, more often in a quantitative manner. This paper aims to explore the way in which people living in poverty conceptualize what they consider important and/or interesting in their everyday lives. Disposable cameras were given to 30 participants. In this paper efforts of 10 different photographers are reported. After the photographs were developed the participants were asked to comment on any aspect or situation portrayed in one or more photographs that could be considered interesting or important to them. Three main topics emerged: family, environmental problems and dangers, and community actions. Most of the photographs and commentaries centered on physically and emotionally-related themes, with a clear tendency to denounce unjust situations and to portray the manner in which the poor cope with the vicissitudes of daily life. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902353

  5. Managing occupations in everyday life for people with advanced cancer living at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Hanne; Brandt, Åse; Wæhrens, Eva E; la Cour, Karen

    2017-01-01

    People with advanced cancer are able to live for extended periods of time. Advanced cancer can cause functional limitations influencing the ability to manage occupations. Although studies have shown that people with advanced cancer experience occupational difficulties, there is only limited research that specifically explores how these occupational difficulties are managed. To describe and explore how people with advanced cancer manage occupations when living at home. A sub-sample of 73 participants from a larger occupational therapy project took part in the study. The participants were consecutively recruited from a Danish university hospital. Qualitative interviews were performed at the homes of the participants. Content analysis was applied to the data. Managing occupations were manifested in two main categories; (1) Conditions influencing occupations in everyday life and (2) Self-developed strategies to manage occupations. The findings suggest that people with advanced cancer should be supported to a greater extent in finding ways to manage familiar as well as new and more personally meaningful occupations to enhance quality of life.

  6. People living on the street from the health point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Paula; Santos, Jaqueline de Oliveira; Rosa, Anderson da Silva

    2018-01-01

    To know the Brazilian scientific production of the last ten years (2007 to 2016) about people who experience street situations under the health gaze. Integrative literature review using the descriptors: street people, health policy and public health. We analyzed 21 articles available in the Virtual Health Library. Four categories of analysis emerged. There was an increase in the frequency of published work on the subject, showing that the experience of living on the street makes people vulnerable to various diseases and health problems and, in addition, increases the difficulties of access to health services. There was an increase in the discussion of this topic due to the increase in the number of published studies. Despite the existence of public health policies directed to this social group, much still needs to be done to guarantee the health of this population.

  7. Quality of life and people living with AIDS: relationship with sociodemographic and health aspects

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    Tadeu Lessa da Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the relationship of sociodemographic and health dimensions with the quality of life of people living with the human immunodeficiency virus.METHOD: descriptive and quantitative study. The subjects were 131 seropositive people treated in a specialized center of the Norte-Fluminense municipality, Brazil. A form with sociodemographic and health data was applied, as well as the World Health Organization instrument for the assessment of the quality of life of people with the human immunodeficiency virus.RESULTS: the statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in the assessment of the various dimensions of quality of life by the subjects for gender, education, employment, personal income, medical condition, self-perception of sickness, history of hospitalizations, and bodily alterations due to the antiretroviral drugs.CONCLUSION: professional nursing and health care, as well as public policies in the area, should valorize the quality of life approach, considering the conditions related to its configuration.

  8. Smart technologies to enhance social connectedness in older people who live at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meg E; Adair, Brooke; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Kurowski, William; Miller, Kimberly J; Pearce, Alan J; Santamaria, Nick; Long, Maureen; Ventura, Cameron; Said, Catherine M

    2014-09-01

    To examine the effectiveness of smart technologies in improving or maintaining the social connectedness of older people living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of research articles published between 2000 and 2013. Article screening, data extraction and quality assessment (using the Downs and Black checklist) were conducted by two independent researchers. Eighteen publications were identified that evaluated the effect of smart technologies on dimensions of social connectedness. Fourteen studies reported positive outcomes in aspects such as social support, isolation and loneliness. There was emerging evidence that some technologies augmented the beneficial effects of more traditional aged-care services. Smart technologies, such as tailored internet programs, may help older people better manage and understand various health conditions, resulting in subsequent improvements in aspects of social connectedness. Further research is required regarding how technological innovations could be promoted, marketed and implemented to benefit older people. © 2014 ACOTA.

  9. Do older people with visual impairment and living alone in a rural developing country report greater difficulty in managing stairs?

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    Hairi, Noran N; Bulgiba, Awang; Peramalah, Devi; Mudla, Izzuna

    2013-01-01

    Managing stairs is a challenging activity of daily living (ADL) for older people. This study aims to examine the association between visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone and those living with others. A population-based cross sectional study was conducted in rural Malaysia from 2007 till 2008. Seven hundred and sixty five older people aged 60 years and over underwent eye examination for visual impairment. Visual acuity criteria were used to define visual impairment. Presenting visual acuity was assessed using a standard metric Snellen Chart of E type. Difficulty in managing stairs was measured according to a question drawn from the Barthel Index which asks "do you need help in climbing stairs". Overall, the prevalence of difficulty in managing stairs among older people in our population was 135 (18.3%, 95% CI 15.7-21.2). After adjusting for important confounders the odds ratio (OR) for visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone was 5.04 (95% CI 2.27, 10.62). Among older people living with others, the adjusted OR for visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs was 3.10 (95% CI 1.52, 6.80). In a sample of older people aged 60 years and over, those living alone with visual impairment had greater difficulty in managing stairs than those living with others. Identification of these groups of older people is useful for targeting interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Narratives reflecting the lived experiences of people with brain disorders: common psychosocial difficulties and determinants.

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    Sally Hartley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with brain disorders - defined as both, mental disorders and neurological disorders experience a wide range of psychosocial difficulties (PSDs (e.g., concentrating, maintaining energy levels, and maintaining relationships. Research evidence is required to show that these PSDs are common across brain disorders. OBJECTIVES: To explore and gain deeper understanding of the experiences of people with seven brain disorders (alcohol dependency, depression, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke. It examines the common PSDs and their influencing factors. METHODS: Seventy seven qualitative studies identified in a systematic literature review and qualitative data derived from six focus groups are used to generate first-person narratives representing seven brain disorders. A theory-driven thematic analysis of these narratives identifies the PSDs and their influencing factors for comparison between the seven disorders. RESULTS: First-person narratives illustrate realities for people with brain disorders facilitating a deeper understanding of their every-day life experiences. Thematic analysis serves to highlight the commonalities, both of PSDs, such as loneliness, anger, uncertainty about the future and problems with work activities, and their determinants, such as work opportunities, trusting relationships and access to self-help groups. CONCLUSIONS: The strength of the methodology and the narratives is that they provide the opportunity for the reader to empathise with people with brain disorders and facilitate deeper levels of understanding of the complexity of the relationship of PSDs, determinants and facilitators. The latter reflect positive aspects of the lives of people with brain disorders. The result that many PSDs and their influencing factors are common to people with different brain disorders opens up the door to the possibility of using cross-cutting interventions involving different sectors

  11. Narratives reflecting the lived experiences of people with brain disorders: common psychosocial difficulties and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sally; McArthur, Maggie; Coenen, Michaela; Cabello, Maria; Covelli, Venusia; Roszczynska-Michta, Joanna; Pitkänen, Tuuli; Bickenbach, Jerome; Cieza, Alarcos

    2014-01-01

    People with brain disorders - defined as both, mental disorders and neurological disorders experience a wide range of psychosocial difficulties (PSDs) (e.g., concentrating, maintaining energy levels, and maintaining relationships). Research evidence is required to show that these PSDs are common across brain disorders. To explore and gain deeper understanding of the experiences of people with seven brain disorders (alcohol dependency, depression, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke). It examines the common PSDs and their influencing factors. Seventy seven qualitative studies identified in a systematic literature review and qualitative data derived from six focus groups are used to generate first-person narratives representing seven brain disorders. A theory-driven thematic analysis of these narratives identifies the PSDs and their influencing factors for comparison between the seven disorders. First-person narratives illustrate realities for people with brain disorders facilitating a deeper understanding of their every-day life experiences. Thematic analysis serves to highlight the commonalities, both of PSDs, such as loneliness, anger, uncertainty about the future and problems with work activities, and their determinants, such as work opportunities, trusting relationships and access to self-help groups. The strength of the methodology and the narratives is that they provide the opportunity for the reader to empathise with people with brain disorders and facilitate deeper levels of understanding of the complexity of the relationship of PSDs, determinants and facilitators. The latter reflect positive aspects of the lives of people with brain disorders. The result that many PSDs and their influencing factors are common to people with different brain disorders opens up the door to the possibility of using cross-cutting interventions involving different sectors. This strengthens the message that 'a great deal can be done' to improve

  12. Social and health care needs of elderly people living in the countryside in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziechciaż, Małgorzata; Guty, Edyta; Wojtowicz, Agata; Filip, Rafał

    2012-01-01

    The needs of elderly people living in the countryside constitute serious health, social, financial and organizational problems. To define the needs of elderly people living in the countryside regarding complex living actions. DATA COLLECTED AND METHODOLOGY: The study was carried out among 89 village citizens from the Podkarpackie Voivodeship (N=55; 61.8% women; N=34; 38.2% men) aged 61-2. Average age in the group was 76.3 (+/ -7.9 years). Research methods were 3 different questionnaires, applied to evaluate: socio-demographic data, occurrence of diseases and rehabilitation usage, mental and intellectual status, as well as the Lawton scale (IADL) assessing complex life activities. 18 subjects (20.2%) were fully functional in the scope of complex everyday activities. The highest number were independent in their financial affairs (N=52; 58.4%), preparation and taking of medicine (N=45; 50.6%), and using the telephone (N=39; 43.8%). Lack of self-reliance was most commonly observed with difficult housework (N=62; 69.7%), shopping (N=55; 61.8%), and walking distances exceeding regular walks (N=46; 51.7%). No relation was observed between gender, usage of social welfare, and self-reliance in complex everyday activities. Deterioration in efficiency in the scope of complex everyday activities was observed which progressed with age, and was worse among the unmarried subjects. A relation between material situation and independence, based on the IADL scale, was confirmed, with the exception of using the telephone. 1). People of old age living in the countryside most often need help with complex everyday housework, shopping, and walking distances exceeding regular walks. 2). With the advancement of age, the subjects need help with all IADL activities increased.

  13. Information preferences of people living with fibromyalgia – a survey of their information needs and preferences

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    Lubna Daraz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A lack of understanding about fibromyalgia and how to live with it may undermine the foundations of self-management and may compromise quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine the information needs and preferences pertinent to people living with fibromyalgia. A cross-sectional web-based survey was developed based on conceptual and qualitative work informing information needs. Recruitment took place through hospitals, clinics, physicians and fibromyalgia support groups across Canada. Descriptive statistics using SPSS and graphical representations were employed to summarize and represent data. A total of 442 respondents (93% female, mode age 51-65 participated in the survey. No statistical differences in information needs were found between males and females or education level. Respondents (74% frequently searched for information about fibromyalgia using a variety of resources including Internet (91%, doctors (75%, support groups (76%, and people with same condition (87%. Respondents expressed a strong need for information about symptoms (81%, implications (79%, treatments (87%, resources (85% and coping (79%. However, concerns were expressed about the reliability of information and majority (93% wanted information to be available online that is provided by healthcare providers or from reputable sources. Internet (48%, people with similar condition (35% and support groups (35% were perceived as useful resources for people living with fibromyalgia. Information resources need to be developed on the basis of both content and knowledge of the information needs of the target end-user. Healthcare providers and the Internet are expected to be reliable resources of information.

  14. MUSIC CUED EXERCISES FOR PEOPLE LIVING WITH DEMENTIA: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

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    Yasmine S Gomaa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dementia can be associated with motor and non-motor disorders such as cognitive impairment, depression, and behavioral disturbance. The symptoms typically progress gradually over time. Music-cued exercises have been of therapeutic interest in recent years, especially to enable people with chronic neurological diseases to move more easily and to experience greater well-being. Objective: To investigate whether music-cued exercises are more effective than usual care for the management of motor and non-motor symptoms in people living with dementia Methods: Systematic searching of the international literature was conducted in January 2018. Keywords were searched through electronic databases including MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, the Web of Science, Science Direct, Wiley online library, and JOVE. The Cochrane collaboration tool was used to assess the risk of bias of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs. The Downs and Black checklist assessed the quality of non-RCTs. Results: Twelve studies met the eligibility criteria, including 4 RCTs. Three investigated the effects of music-cued exercises on motor performance, four examined non-motor outcomes, four quantified the level of exercise participation, and one examined both motor and non-motor outcomes. The included studies were of modest to low quality. Conclusion: There is growing evidence for the beneficial effects of music-cued exercises for people living with dementia. Enjoyable music and physical exercises matched to rhythmical music appear to have benefits for some individuals.The dosage of music-cued exercise is a key determinant of the motor and non-motor outcomes in people living with a variety of forms of dementia.

  15. Origins fourteen billion years of cosmic evolution

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    Tyson, Neil deGrasse

    2004-01-01

    Origins explores cosmic science's stunning new insights into the formation and evolution of our universe--of the cosmos, of galaxies and galaxy clusters, of stars within galaxies, of planets that orbit those stars, and of different forms of life that take us back to the first three seconds and forward through three billion years of life on Earth to today's search for life on other planets. Drawing on the current cross-pollination of geology, biology and astrophysics, Origins explains the thrilling daily breakthroughs in our knowledge of the universe from dark energy to life on Mars to the mysteries of space and time. Distilling complex science in clear and lively prose, co-authors Neil deGrasse Tyson and Donald Goldsmith conduct a galvanising tour of the cosmos revealing what the universe has been up to while turning part of itself into us.

  16. Dying means suffocating: perceptions of people living with severe COPD facing the end of life.

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    Hall, Sylvie; Legault, Alan; Côté, José

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to describe the perceptions of people living with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with respect to the end of life. For this descriptive exploratory qualitative study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with six participants suffering from severe COPD hospitalized in the past year following an exacerbation episode. The data were analyzed using the method developed by Miles and Huberman (2003), which comprises three main steps: data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing/verification. The analysis yielded four themes that reflect the perceptions of participants with respect to the end of life, namely: living and seeing oneself decline, living and preparing to die, dying of COPD means suffocating, and dying in hospital surrounded by family and friends. What emerges from the study is that persons living with severe COPD wish to die without suffocating, in hospital, surrounded by family and friends, all the while hoping to go on living. This study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the end-of-life experience. It shows the importance of accompanying these persons properly towards the end of life and at the moment of dying. The study proposes a series of avenues for future research and makes recommendations for practice.

  17. Learning and knowing technology as lived experience in people with Alzheimer's disease: a phenomenological study.

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    Rosenberg, Lena; Nygård, Louise

    2017-12-01

    Most research on learning in the field of dementia has studied teaching approaches, while little is known about learning as experienced and enacted by the people with dementia. The aim was to explore the lived experience of learning and maintaining knowledge related to technology among people with mild to moderate stage dementia. Seven persons with dementia were interviewed in-depth, and data were analyzed with a phenomenological approach. The participants positioned themselves on a continuum from 'Updating and expanding is not for me' to 'Updating and expanding is really for me'. They used different ways of learning in their everyday life - relying on one's habituated repertoire of actions, on other people or on technology itself, or belonging to a learning context. We have much to gain from better understanding of how people with dementia strive to learn and maintain their skills and knowledge related to technology. This is particularly important as they seem to use other approaches than those employed in current teaching methods. The necessity of learning stands out particularly when it comes to the interaction with the current multitude and ever-changing designs of technologies, including assistive technologies developed specifically to support people with dementia.

  18. 'Living within your limits': activity restriction in older people experiencing chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackichan, Fiona; Adamson, Joy; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2013-11-01

    although maintaining activity is key to successful pain management, and important to health and wellbeing, it is known that older people in pain frequently alter or reduce activity levels. A 'fear-avoidance' model is often used to explain avoidance of activity in the face of pain. However, this model is not intended to take account of the wider context in which activity changes take place, nor older people's own explanations for their behaviour. to investigate the reasons why older people in the community adjust their activity levels when living with chronic pain. thirty-one people aged between 67 and 92 were purposively sampled from respondents to a community-based cross-sectional survey. All participants had reported long-term pain and were interviewed about this. Data were collected and analysed using a qualitative constructivist grounded theory approach. explanations for deliberative reduction or ceasing of activities reflected a desire to prevent pain exacerbation, thereby avoiding medical intervention. It also reflected a desire to safeguard autonomy in the face of pain in older age. Restrictions were often rationalised as normal in older age, although co-existing accounts of perseverance and frustration with limitation were also evident. a rational desire to avoid pain exacerbation and medical intervention motivated restrictions to activity. However, deliberative limitation of activity has the potential to compromise autonomy by increasing social isolation and de-conditioning. Supporting older people with pain to be active requires sensitivity to the function of activity restriction, especially as a means of preventing deterioration.

  19. Motivational Determinants of Exergame Participation for Older People in Assisted Living Facilities: Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekes, Wytske; Stanmore, Emma Kate

    2017-07-06

    Exergames (exercise-based videogames) for delivering strength and balance exercise for older people are growing in popularity with the emergence of new Kinect-based technologies; however, little is known about the factors affecting their uptake and usage by older people. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that may influence the motivation of older people to use exergames to improve their physical function and reduce fall risk. Mixed methods were employed in which 14 semistructured interviews were conducted with older people (n=12, aged 59-91 years) from 2 assisted living facilities in the North West of the United Kingdom. The older people participated in a 6-week trial of exergames along with one manager and one physiotherapist; 81 h of observation and Technology Acceptance Model questionnaires were conducted. The findings suggest that the participants were intrinsically motivated to participate in the exergames because of the enjoyment experienced when playing the exergames and perceived improvements in their physical and mental health and social confidence. The social interaction provided in this study was an important extrinsic motivator that increased the intrinsic motivation to adhere to the exergame program. The findings of this study suggest that exergames may be a promising tool for delivering falls prevention exercises and increasing adherence to exercise in older people. Understanding the motivation of older people to use exergames may assist in the process of implementation. ©Wytske Meekes, Emma Kate Stanmore. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 06.07.2017.

  20. Measuring quality of life among people living with HIV: a systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Vanessa; Clatworthy, Jane; Harding, Richard; Whetham, Jennifer

    2017-11-15

    A systematic review of reviews was conducted to identify and appraise brief measures of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) that have been used in peer-reviewed research with people living with HIV. The review was conducted in two stages: 1) search of electronic databases to identify systematic reviews of tools used to measure HRQoL in adults living with HIV, published since the year 2000; 2) selection of HRQol scales from those identified in the reviews. Inclusion criteria included scales that could be self-administered in 10 min or less, covering at least 3 domains of quality of life (physical function, social/role function and mental/emotional function). For generic scales, inclusion criteria included the availability of normative data while for HIV-specific scales, patient input into the development of the scale was required. Ten reviews met the inclusion criteria. Nine generic scales met the inclusion criteria: the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D); Health Utilities Index; McGill Quality of Life questionnaire; Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Short Form (SF)-12; SF-36; World Health Organisation Quality of Life (WHOQOL- BREF), Questions of Life Satisfaction (FLZM) and SF-20. Available psychometric data supported the EQ-5D and SF-36. Seven HIV-specific scales met the inclusion criteria: the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG)-21; HIV-QL-31; MOS-HIV; Multidimensional Quality of Life Questionnaire for Persons with HIV/AIDS (MQOL-HIV), PROQOL-HIV, Symptom Quality of Life Adherence (HIV-SQUAD) and the WHOQOL-HIV BREF. Of the HIV -specific measures, the MOS-HIV was considered to have the most well-established psychometric properties, however limitations identified in the reviews included insufficient input from people living with HIV in the development of the scale, cross-cultural relevance and continued applicability. Two relatively new measures, the WHOQOL-HIV BREF and PROQOL-HIV, were considered to have promising psychometric properties and may have

  1. Exploring the Healthcare Environment and Associations with Clinical Outcomes of People Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Mary; Coulter, Robert W S; Egan, James E; Friedman, Mackey Reuel; Meanley, Steven; Fisk, Stuart; Watson, Courtney; Kinsky, Suzanne

    2017-12-01

    Despite three decades of dramatic treatment breakthroughs in antiretroviral regimens, clinical outcomes for people living with HIV vary greatly. The HIV treatment cascade models the stages of care that people living with HIV go through toward the goal of viral suppression and demonstrates that <30% of those living with HIV/AIDS in the United States have met this goal. Although some research has focused on the ways that patient characteristics and patient-provider relationships contribute to clinical adherence and treatment success, few studies to date have examined the ways that contextual factors of care and the healthcare environment contribute to patient outcomes. Here, we present qualitative findings from a mixed-methods study to describe contextual and healthcare environment factors in a Ryan White Part C clinic that are associated with patients' abilities to achieve viral suppression. We propose a modification of Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization, and its more recent adaptation developed by Ulett et al., to describe the ways that clinic, system, and provider factors merge to create a system of care in which more than 86% of the patient population is virally suppressed.

  2. Factors related to the perceived stigmatization of people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliari, Juliano de Souza; Teles, Sheila Araujo; Reis, Renata Karina; Gir, Elucir

    2017-10-09

    Analyzing the factors related to perceived stigmatization of people living with HIV. A cross-sectional study conducted from September of 2014 to December 2015 with users from a specialized service in Minas Gerais. Data were collected through individual instrument application, organized in Microsoft Office Excel(r) 2010 spreadsheets and processed on IBM(r) SPSS 23.0. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression method were used for data analysis, adopting statistical significance set at 5.0% (p≤0.05). The study development met research ethics standards. 258 users participated in the study. Most were males between 40 and 49 years of age, single, with low educational level and income. Being between 40 and 49 years of age and having been hospitalized for complications related to HIV were positively associated predictors to increased stigmatization; while not having comorbidities and not being aware of exposure to HIV were predictors associated to reduced stigmatization. Given these results, we highlight that stigmatization can have an impact on the lives of people living with HIV, strengthening their feelings of guilt and shame, which can lead to depression, social isolation and abandoning treatment and clinical follow-up.

  3. Sickle cell anaemia and the experiences of young people living with the condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Nicole; Ellis, Michelle

    2018-04-26

    Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a life-threatening haemoglobin disorder acknowledged for its unpredictability and painful episodes. The aim of this qualitative literature review was to explore the experiences of young people living with SCA and its effect on their lives. The objective was to critically review selected primary research and make recommendations for practice, education and research. After reviewing potential articles using EBSCOhost, inclusion and exclusion criteria were devised and six appropriate studies were found with most participants in the 10-25 years age range. These studies were conducted in the UK and the United States. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme qualitative research checklist was used to evaluate the articles. Thematic analysis identified three themes: acceptance, support and unpredictability, with sub-themes of spirituality and discrimination. It was clear that SCA affected multiple areas of young people's lives. Recommendations are made for practice, education and research. © 2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  4. Indices of body fat distribution for assessment of lipodysthrophy in people living with HIV/AIDS

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    Segatto Aline Francielle

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic and morphological changes associated with excessive abdominal fat, after the introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV/AIDS(PLWHA. Accurate methods for body composition analysis are expensive and the use of anthropometric indices is an alternative. However the investigations about this subject in PLWHA are rare, making this research very important for clinical purpose and to advance scientific knowledge. The aim of this study is to correlate results of anthropometric indices of evaluation of body fat distribution with the results obtained by Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry(DEXA, in people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods The sample was of 67 PLWHA(39 male and 28 female, aged 43.6+7.9 years. Body mass index, conicity index, waist/hip ratio, waist/height ratio and waist/thigh were calculated. Separated by sex, each index/ratio was plotted in a scatter chart with linear regression fit and their respective Pearson correlation coefficients. Analyses were performed using Prism statistical program and significance was set at 5%. Results The waist/height ratio presented the highest correlation coefficient, for both male (r=0.80, p Conclusion Anthropometric indices, especially waist/height ratio may be a good alternative way to be used for evaluating the distribution of fat in the abdominal region of adults living with HIV/ADIS.

  5. Anticipated stigma and quality of life among people living with chronic illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Quinn, Diane M; Park, Crystal L

    2012-06-01

    We examined the process by which anticipated stigma relates to quality of life among people living with chronic illnesses. We hypothesized that stress, social support and patient satisfaction mediate the relationships between three sources of anticipated stigma and quality of life. Data were collected from adults living with chronic illnesses recruited from support groups and online communities, and were analysed with path analysis. Results demonstrated that stress mediated the relationships between anticipated stigma from friends and family, and work colleagues with quality of life; social support mediated the relationships between anticipated stigma from friends and family, and work colleagues with quality of life; and patient satisfaction mediated the relationship between anticipated stigma from healthcare providers with quality of life. The final path model fit the data well (χ (2) (8) = 8.66, p = 0.37; RMSEA = 0.02; CFI = 0.99; SRMR = 0.03), and accounted for 60% of the variance in participants' quality of life. This work highlights potential points of intervention to improve quality of life. It calls attention to the importance of differentiating between sources of anticipated stigma in clinical settings, interventions and research involving people living with chronic illnesses.

  6. Living with companion animals after stroke: experiences of older people in community and primary care nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Maria; Ahlström, Gerd; Jönsson, Ann-Cathrin

    2014-12-01

    Older people often have companion animals, and the significance of animals in human lives should be considered by nurses-particularly in relation to older people's health, which can be affected by diseases. The incidence of stroke increases with age and disabilities as a result of stroke are common. This study aimed to explore older people's experiences of living with companion animals after stroke, and their life situation with the animals in relation to the physical, psychological and social aspects of recovery after stroke. The study was performed using individual interviews approximately 2 years after stroke with 17 participants (10 women and 7 men) aged 62-88 years. An overarching theme arising from the content analysis was contribution to a meaningful life. This theme was generated from four categories: motivation for physical and psychosocial recovery after stroke; someone to care for who cares for you; animals as family members; and providers of safety and protection. The main conclusion was that companion animals are experienced as physical and psychosocial contributors to recovery and a meaningful life after stroke.

  7. Health effects of people living close to a petrochemical industrial estate in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Singkaew, Panawadee; Yoosook, Witaya; Chantanakul, Suttinun; Sujiratat, Dusit

    2013-12-01

    An acute health effect of people living near the petrochemical industrial estate in Thailand was assessed using a panel study design. The populations in communities near the petrochemical industrial estates were recruited. The daily air pollutant concentrations, daily percentage of respiratory and other health symptoms reported were collected for 63 days. The effect of air pollutants to reported symptoms of people were estimated by adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence interval using binary logistic regression. The significant associations were found with the adjusted odds ratios of 38.01 for wheezing, 18.63 for shortness of breath, 4.30 for eye irritation and 3.58 for dizziness for total volatile organic compounds (Total VOCs). The adjusted odds ratio for carbon monoxide (CO2) was 7.71 for cough, 4.55 for eye irritation and 3.53 for weakness and the adjusted odds ratio for ozone (O3) was 1.02 for nose congestion, sore throat and 1.05 for phlegm. The results showed that the people living near petrochemical industrial estate had acute adverse health effects, shortness of breath, eye irritation, dizziness, cough, nose congestion, sore throat, phlegm and weakness from exposure to industrial air pollutants.

  8. A Service Delivery Model for Addressing Activity and Social Participation Needs of People Living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Restall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational therapy can contribute to the health and well-being of people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV who are experiencing health consequences of living long term with this disease. However, there are no comprehensive rehabilitation service delivery models to guide this emerging area of practice. The purpose of this study was to obtain critical feedback about a service delivery model to address the activity and social participation needs of people living with HIV. Method: We developed a service delivery model from a synthesis of the literature. Using a qualitative research design, we conducted individual and focus group interviews with 35 informants from diverse backgrounds and involvement in HIV-related research, service provision, and policymaking to provide critical feedback about the model. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using inductive qualitative methods. Results: The informants identified the strengths and limitations of the model and supports and barriers to its implementation. They highlighted the importance of principle-based services, increasing resources for service navigation, building capacity of rehabilitation services to address the needs of people with HIV, and increasing research and program evaluation targeted to achieving activity and social participation outcomes. Conclusions: The model provides a framework for occupational therapists to design and evaluate services for this population.

  9. The relationship between negative responses to HIV status disclosure and psychosocial outcomes among people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cama, Elena; Brener, Loren; Slavin, Sean; de Wit, John

    2017-07-01

    This report examines rates of HIV status disclosure and negative responses to disclosure among people living with HIV in Australia. Among 697 people living with HIV, most (>90%) had disclosed their status to friends, sexual partners and health providers. Almost a third had not disclosed to family, and half had not told any work colleagues. Negative responses to disclosure (e.g. blame, rejection) by all groups were associated with increased HIV-related stigma, psychological distress and diminished social support and health satisfaction. These results shed light on rates of disclosure among people living with HIV in Australia and the adverse health impacts of negative responses to disclosure.

  10. Nuclear business worth billions begins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.; Marcan, P.; Slovak, K.

    2005-01-01

    specific data regarding the direct costs of decommissioning. Preliminary estimates state 50 billions Slovak crowns (1.28 billions EUR), but the actual costs will mainly depend on the volume of nuclear waste to be disposed of. (authors)

  11. Pvevalence of hypertension in people living in coastal areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abu Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of hypertension was reported higher in the coastal areas in different populations of the world. There was no study on the prevalence of hypertension among the coastal people in Bangladesh. This study addressed the prevalence and risk of hypertension among people living in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. Total 32 different coastal communities were selected purposively in the six coastal districts (Barisal, Borguna, Vola, Pirojpur, Potuakhali and Jhalukathi of Bangladesh. All people over 18 years were considered eligible. Social, clinical and family histories were taken. Height, weight, waist- and hip-girths were measured including systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP. Fasting blood glucose and lipids were also estimated. The accepted cut offs for systolic hypertension (sHTN was ³135mmHg and diastolic hypertension (dHTN was ³85 mmHg. Overall, 7058 (m / f = 2631 / 4427 people volunteered to participate in the study. The crude prevalence of sHTN was 17.8% [95% CI, 17.39 – 18.21] and dHTN was 19.0% [95% CI 18.08 – 19.92]. Compared to female, the male participants had higher prevalence of both sHTN (16.4 v. 20.2 %, p<0.001 and dHTN (17.4 v. 21.5%, p<0.001. The prevalence rates of sHTN were 14.6, 18.5 and 24.6% in the poor, the middle and in the rich class, respectively (p<0.001. Similar trend was observed with dHTN. Both types of HTN increased with increasing age (p<0.001, BMI (p<0.001, WHR (p<0.001 and WHtR (p<0.001. Logistic regression analyses proved that the participants of higher social class, of advancing age and with higher obesity had excess risk of hypertension. Positive family history of HTN, DM and stroke had also increased risk for HTN. We found higher prevalence of HTN in Bangladeshi coastal population compared to people living in other areas of Bangladesh. Family history of DM, HTN and stroke were significantly related to sHTN and dHTN. Increasing age, higher obesity and higher social class had excess

  12. The implementation of the functional task exercise programme for elderly people living at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleuren Margot A H

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Functional Task Exercise programme is an evidence-based exercise programme for elderly people living at home. It enhances physical capacity with sustainable effects. FTE is provided by physiotherapists and remedial therapists. Although the intervention was found to be effective in a Randomised Controlled Trial, we may not assume that therapists will automatically supply the programme or that elderly people will automatically join the programme. This study protocol focuses on identifying determinants of implementation, developing implementation strategies and studying the effects of the implementation in daily practice. Methods/Design Phase 1: The systematic identification of determinants of the implementation of FTE among therapists and the elderly. A questionnaire study was conducted in a random sample of 100 therapists, and interviews took place with 23 therapists and 8 elderly people (aged 66 to 80 years. The determinants were broken down into four categories: the characteristics of the environment, the organisation, the therapists, and the training programme. Phase 2: Developing and applying strategies adapted to the determinants identified. Fifteen physiotherapists will be trained to provide FTE and to recruit elderly people living at home. The therapists will then deliver the 12-week programme to two groups of elderly, each consisting of six to twelve people aged 70 years or older. Phase 3: Study of implementation and the impact. To study the actual use of FTE: 1 therapists record information about the selection of participants and how they apply the key features of FTE, 2 the participating elderly will keep an exercise logbook, 3 telephone interviews will take place with the therapists and the elderly and there will be on-site visits. The effects on the elderly people will be studied using: 1 the Patient-Specific Questionnaire, the Timed Up and Go test and a two performance tests. All tests will be performed at

  13. Social marketing strategies for reaching older people with disabilities: findings from a survey of centers for independent living participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moone, Rajean Paul; Lightfoot, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Centers for independent living (CILs) provide critical supports, services, and advocacy for assisting people with disabilities in living independently. As there is a rapidly increasing population of older people with disabilities, many CILs are now considering how to actively engage older adults in their organizations. This study utilized a survey of older people with disabilities to help identify social marketing techniques that community organizations like CILs can use to effectively reach older people with disabilities. Utilizing the components of the social marketing mix in designing outreach efforts, including a critical examination of product, place, price, participants, and partnering, CILs and other community agencies can better reach older adults with disabilities.

  14. People living with AIDS/HIV in Botswana: a needs assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuyderduin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A deficit in information and knowledge regarding people living with AIDS in Botswana, hampering health care planning and satisfactory health care delivery to these people, necessitated the needs assessment reported on in this paper. Not only did self-imposed alienation and societal levels of stigma surrounding HIV and AIDS force many people living with AIDS/HIV (PLWAH into silence and denial of their HIV+ve diagnosis, thereby creating knowledge and information deficits. These same factors also pose challenges for conducting a needs assessment among these persons. Consequently, a 73 item questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 39 male and 77 female PLWAH in Botswana. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs served as a general theoretical point of departure for the needs analysis and the 73 items represented needs at all levels of this hierarchy. Analysis of the data indicates that 65% of the respondents lived in urban areas. The majority of individuals (42% were tested for HIV because they became ill, while 28% did so voluntarily. Other reasons for testing were: child becoming ill, partner becoming ill, being pregnant and having been raped. Only 7% indicated that their HIV status had been disclosed to other persons. With regards to love and belongingness 70% of the respondents indicated that they were not in an intimate relationship, nearly one third experienced multiple deaths within their families due to AIDS, 61% had access to a support group, and 48% had not informed their parents about their HIV+ve status. Stigmatisation weighed down self-esteem. Despite the deficiencies in the fulfilment of safety, belonging

  15. Perceived value of eHealth among people living with multimorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runz-Jørgensen, Sidsel; Schiøtz, Michaela L.; Christensen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of multimorbidity is increasing, creating challenges for patients, healthcare professionals,and healthcare systems. Given that chronic disease management increasingly involves eHealth, it is useful to assess its perceived value among people with multimorbidity. Objective......: To explore challenges related to multimorbidity and patients’ perspectives on eHealth. Design: Ten semi-structured interviews with adults, living with multimorbidity in Copenhagen, Denmark. Interviews focused on patient-experienced challenges, from challenges related to self-management to challenges...... experienced in the healthcare sector, as well as perceptions of eHealth. During interviews, participants were presented with pictures of different eHealth technologies. Data analysis followed the systematic text condensation approach. Results: Participants experienced challenges in their daily lives,e.g. when...

  16. Self-fulfillment despite barriers: volunteer work of people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, André; Lavigne, René M; MacPherson, Paul

    2009-11-01

    With the decline in the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection, the majority of people living with HIV (PWHIV) experience a higher quality of life and longer life expectancy. Since this diagnosis no longer prevents an active lifestyle, many PWHIV are re-integrating into the workplace or are contemplating this possibility. Despite the multiple advantages associated with a return to work, research has identified barriers related to work and HIV infection. These barriers could prevent an important minority of PWHIV who wish to return to work from re-integrating into this environment. In this context, volunteering could be an alternate way to regain an active lifestyle. This research found that volunteer work allowed participants to enrich their social lives, to regain a sense of psychological well-being, and to apply their abilities to the benefit of others. However, participants are restricted by their preference to volunteer for HIV-related organizations in order to avoid social stigma and rejection.

  17. The Meaning of Everyday Meals in Living Units for Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Karen Marie

    2005-01-01

    Even when frail older people become unable to live on their own and manage everyday activities, they can still experience a variety of meanings within meal-related activities that contribute to quality of life. This article reports research findings that focused on the meal, from preparation......, adjacent to which is a shared dining room and kitchen. If the residents choose to, and are capable, they are involved in everyday activities of the unit and eat together with staff. This way of organising meals seems to influence most of the everyday life in the unit by shaping a homely place. It also...... enables a living community that acts in and enlivens everyday existence. Meals themselves also make it possible to be somebody and be yourself in ordinary life and to make a place for valued occupations, things that give substance to everyday life. In sum, the study found that as an occupation, meals give...

  18. Exploring Treatment Needs and Expectations for People Living with HIV in South Africa: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Bogart, Laura M; Courtney, Ingrid; Zanoni, Holly; Bangsberg, David R; Orrell, Catherine; Goggin, Kathy; Katz, Ingrid T

    2018-04-04

    The UNAIDS 90-90-90 treatment targets aim to dramatically increase the number of people who initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) by 2020. Greater understanding of barriers to ART initiation in high prevalence countries like South Africa is critical. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 participants in Gugulethu Township, South Africa, including 10 healthcare providers and 20 people living with HIV (PLWH) who did not initiate ART. Interviews explored barriers to ART initiation and acceptability of theory-based intervention strategies to optimize ART initiation. An inductive content analytic approach was applied to the data. Consistent with the Theory of Triadic Influence, barriers to ART initiation were identified at the individual, social, and structural levels. Results suggested high acceptability for intervention strategies involving trained HIV-positive peers among South African PLWH and healthcare providers. Research is needed to evaluate their feasibility and efficacy in high HIV prevalence countries.

  19. People who live in a cold climate: thermal adaptation differences based on availability of heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J; Cao, G; Cui, W; Ouyang, Q; Zhu, Y

    2013-08-01

    Are there differences in thermal adaptation to cold indoor environments between people who are used to living in heating and non-heating regions in China? To answer this question, we measured thermal perceptions and physiological responses of young men from Beijing (where there are indoor space heating facilities in winter) and Shanghai (where there are not indoor space heating facilities in winter) during exposures to cold. Subjects were exposed to 12°C, 14°C, 16°C, 18°C, 20°C for 1 h. Subjects from Beijing complained of greater cold discomfort and demonstrated poorer physiological acclimatization to cold indoor environments than those from Shanghai. These findings indicate that people's chronic indoor thermal experience might be an important determinant of thermal adaptation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. An exploratory survey measuring stigma and discrimination experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa: the People Living with HIV Stigma Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Monika Ml; Kruger, Pieter; Mellors, Shaun E; Wolvaardt, Gustaaf; van der Ryst, Elna

    2014-01-27

    The continued presence of stigma and its persistence even in areas where HIV prevalence is high makes it an extraordinarily important, yet difficult, issue to eradicate. The study aimed to assess current and emerging HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination trends in South Africa as experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). The PLHIV Stigma Index, a questionnaire that measures and detects changing trends in relation to stigma and discrimination experienced by PLHIV, was used as the survey tool. The study was conducted in 10 clinics in four provinces supported by the Foundation for Professional Development (FPD), with an interview total of 486 PLHIV. A cross-sectional design was implemented in the study, and both descriptive and inferential analysis was conducted on the data. Findings suggest that PLHIV in this population experience significant levels of stigma and discrimination that negatively impact on their health, working and family life, as well as their access to health services. Internalised stigma was prominent, with many participants blaming themselves for their status. The findings can be used to develop and inform programmes and interventions to reduce stigma experienced by PLHIV. The current measures for dealing with stigma should be expanded to incorporate the issues related to health, education and discrimination experienced in the workplace, that were highlighted by the study.

  1. Challenges in sexual and reproductive health of Roma people who live in settlements in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlecky, Katarina; Rašević, Mirjana

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the differences in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) between Roma women of reproductive age who live in settlements and the general population of women of the same age in Serbia who do not live in settlements. The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4 (MICS4) was administered to Roma and Serbian women and the results were compared between the two groups. In order to get a qualitative perspective, a specifically designed, short open-ended questionnaire about Roma women was given to Roma Health Mediators (RHMs). Roma women have a higher total fertility rate and adolescent birth rate, and early marriage is much more common among them. Differences are less clear regarding antenatal care and assistance during delivery from skilled personnel. Roma women more frequently rely on traditional contraception, and are less likely to use modern contraceptives than the general female population. Problems in the socio-economic sphere, poor school enrolment and maintenance of traditional patterns in Roma people living in settlements contribute to the disparities observed. Although data on the SRH of the general population of women in Serbia are far from being satisfactory, those for women who live in Roma settlements are much worse. Political actions aimed at the empowerment of Roma women in the spheres of education, employment and health promotion have been implemented with the hope that they might improve the SRH of this vulnerable population group.

  2. Airflow limitation in people living with HIV and matched uninfected controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Lundgren, Jens; Afzal, Shoaib

    2018-01-01

    -matched controls from the Copenhagen General Population Study were included. Lung function was assessed using FEV1 and FVC, while airflow limitation was defined by the lower limit of normal (LLN) of FEV1/FVC and by FEV1/FVClinear regression models were used......INTRODUCTION: Whether HIV influences pulmonary function remains controversial. We assessed dynamic pulmonary function in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) and uninfected controls. METHODS: A total of 1098 PLWHIV from the Copenhagen Co-morbidity in HIV infection study and 12 161 age-matched and sex...

  3. A survey of habits of people living close to the Sellafield nuclear processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, T.H.; Fulker, M.J.; Jones, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    A survey has been carried out of the habits of people living within 3 km of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant. The survey included estimates of consumption rates of foodstuffs for a range of ages and of time spent indoors, outdoors and away from home. A high proportion of those interviewed were farmers and they provided additional data on time spent in the various farming activities. A comparison is made of the food consumption rates and generalised values recommended for critical groups by the NRPB and MAFF. (author)

  4. Self-compassion and Risk Behavior among People Living with HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson Rose, Carol; Webel, Allison; Sullivan, Kathleen M.; Cuca, Yvette P.; Wantland, Dean; Johnson, Mallory O.; Brion, John; Portillo, Carmen J.; Corless, Inge B.; Voss, Joachim; Chen, Wei-Ti; Phillips, J. Craig; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Rivero-Méndez, Marta; Nicholas, Patrice K.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual risk behavior and illicit drug use among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) contribute to poor health and onward transmission of HIV. The aim of this collaborative multi-site nursing research study was to explore the association between self-compassion and risk behaviors in PLWHA. Nurse researchers in Canada, China, Namibia, Puerto Rico, Thailand and the U.S. enrolled 2,182 PLWHA using convenience sampling. Over half of study participants were sexually active in the past three months....

  5. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Stephanie K Y; Boyle, E.; Cairney, John

    2016-01-01

    ) was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable...... of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and demonstrate the need for long-term support and routine management of depression, particularly for individuals at high risk. © 2016...

  6. A mixed-methods study into ballet for people living with Parkinson's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Sara; McGill, Ashley

    2013-06-01

    Background : Parkinson's is a neurological disease that is physically debilitating and can be socially isolating. Dance is growing in popularity for people with Parkinson's and claims have been made for its benefits. The paper details a mixed-methods study that examined a 12-week dance project for people with Parkinson's, led by English National Ballet. Methods : The effects on balance, stability and posture were measured through the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale and a plumb-line analysis. The value of participation and movement quality were interpreted through ethnographic methods, grounded theory and Effort analysis. Results : Triangulation of results indicates that people were highly motivated, with 100% adherence, and valued the classes as an important part of their lives. Additionally, results indicated an improvement in balance and stability, although not in posture. Conclusions : Dancing may offer benefit to people with Parkinson's through its intellectual, artistic, social and physical aspects. The paper suggests that a range of research methods is fundamental to capture the importance of multifaceted activity, such as dance, to those with Parkinson's.

  7. Social adaptation following intestinal stoma formation in people living at home: a longitudinal phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Gabrielle; McArthur, Maggie

    2017-11-01

    Intestinal stoma formation profoundly changes the relationship between a person and their social world. The aim of this study was to understand the experience of living with a new stoma; this paper explores the theme "disrupted social world," highlighting how stoma-forming surgery impacts on individuals' abilities to participate and interact socially over time. A longitudinal phenomenological approach. Twelve participants with a new stoma were recruited using purposeful sampling. Data were collected at three, nine and 15 months following surgery through in-depth, unstructured interviews and analysed using a bespoke iterative framework. Three categories were identified: participation in the social environment; interpersonal relationships: changes and challenges; and setting and achieving goals. Stoma-forming surgery changes the ways people relate to their social environment and connect with others, creating self-consciousness and impeding social confidence and autonomy. Understanding the social implications of stoma-forming surgery can help clinicians to provide responsive and appropriate support to facilitate social rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Assisting people with a stoma to develop competent stoma self-care skills will promote social adaptation and self-acceptance. Clinicians should promote access to others with a stoma, an important source of support for many people adjusting to a new stoma. Graded exposure to social participation can engender feelings of control and confidence for people with a stoma. Clinicians can help individuals with a stoma to set realistic goals for their recovery, while encouraging a range of positive coping strategies.

  8. A mixed-methods study into ballet for people living with Parkinson's1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Sara; McGill, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parkinson's is a neurological disease that is physically debilitating and can be socially isolating. Dance is growing in popularity for people with Parkinson's and claims have been made for its benefits. The paper details a mixed-methods study that examined a 12-week dance project for people with Parkinson's, led by English National Ballet. Methods: The effects on balance, stability and posture were measured through the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale and a plumb-line analysis. The value of participation and movement quality were interpreted through ethnographic methods, grounded theory and Effort analysis. Results: Triangulation of results indicates that people were highly motivated, with 100% adherence, and valued the classes as an important part of their lives. Additionally, results indicated an improvement in balance and stability, although not in posture. Conclusions: Dancing may offer benefit to people with Parkinson's through its intellectual, artistic, social and physical aspects. The paper suggests that a range of research methods is fundamental to capture the importance of multifaceted activity, such as dance, to those with Parkinson's. PMID:23805165

  9. What things make people with a learning disability happy and satisfied with their lives: an inclusive research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Anna; Lee, Darren; Shaw, Carl; Hawthorne, Michelle; Chamberlain, Stephen; Newman, David W; Clarke, Zara; Beail, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    We looked at the research that other people have done about what makes people with a learning disability happy and satisfied with their lives. Researchers call being happy and satisfied with your life 'subjective well-being'. They found out that having things like money and good health does not always mean people are happy. They also found that some people are really happy, even if there are things in their lives they would like to change. None of the people who have done research about 'subjective well-being' have interviewed people with a learning disability about what makes them happy with their lives. We have carried out a study about what makes people with a learning disability happy and satisfied with their lives. This report talks about the research that we did, and what we found out. We interviewed 20 people with a learning disability who said they were very happy and satisfied. We asked them about what things helped them feel like this. The people we spoke to said things like relationships, choice and independence, activities and valuable social roles made them feel satisfied with their lives. They told us about the things that enable them to lead happy lives, and the things that disable them. We also found out about the importance of personal characteristics. These are things like looking on the bright side of life or having ways to manage difficult emotions like sadness or anger. We found out that it is important for people with a learning disability to have good things in their lives, but it is also important to be enabled to access these good things. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. The SUSTAIN Project: A European Study on Improving Integrated Care for Older People Living at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Annerieke; Billings, Jenny; Leichsenring, Kai; Ruppe, Georg; Tram, Nhu; Barbaglia, María Gabriela; Ambugo, Eliva A.; Zonneveld, Nick; Paat-Ahi, Gerli; Hoffmann, Henrik; Khan, Usman; Stein, Viktoria; Wistow, Gerald; Lette, Manon; Jansen, Aaltje P.D.; Nijpels, Giel; Baan, Caroline A.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Integrated care programmes are increasingly being put in place to provide care to older people who live at home. Knowledge of how to further develop integrated care and how to transfer successful initiatives to other contexts is still limited. Therefore, a cross-European research project, called Sustainable Tailored Integrated Care for Older People in Europe (SUSTAIN), has been initiated with a twofold objective: 1. to collaborate with local stakeholders to support and monitor improvements to established integrated care initiatives for older people with multiple health and social care needs. Improvements focus on person-centredness, prevention orientation, safety and efficiency; 2. to make these improvements applicable and adaptable to other health and social care systems, and regions in Europe. This paper presents the overall structure and approach of the SUSTAIN project. Methods: SUSTAIN uses a multiple embedded case study design. In three phases, SUSTAIN partners: (i) conduct interviews and workshops with stakeholders from fourteen established integrated care initiatives to understand where they would prefer improvements to existing ways of working; (ii) collaborate with local stakeholders to support the design and implementation of improvement plans, evaluate implementation progress and outcomes per initiative, and carry out overarching analyses to compare the different initiatives, and; (iii) translate knowledge and experience to an online roadmap. Discussion: SUSTAIN aims to generate evidence on how to improve integrated care, and apply and transfer the knowledge gained to other health and social care systems, and regions. Lessons learned will be brought together in practical tools to inform and support policy-makers and decision-makers, as well as other stakeholders involved in integrated care, to manage and improve care for older people living at home. PMID:29632456

  11. Working Paper 5: Beyond Collier's Bottom Billion | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-16

    Dec 16, 2010 ... The heart of the narrative presented in the book is that a group of almost 60 countries, with a population of about a billion people, are caught in four main traps. Their prospects for escaping the traps are poor, and they need a set of actions from the international community to achieve the rapid rates of growth ...

  12. Future of family support: Projected living arrangements and income sources of older people in Hong Kong up to 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kok-Hoe

    2016-06-01

    The study aims to project future trends in living arrangements and access to children's cash contributions and market income sources among older people in Hong Kong. A cell-based model was constructed by combining available population projections, labour force projections, an extrapolation of the historical trend in living arrangements based on national survey datasets and a regression model on income sources. Under certain assumptions, the proportion of older people living with their children may decline from 59 to 48% during 2006-2030. Although access to market income sources may improve slightly, up to 20% of older people may have no access to either children's financial support or market income sources, and will not live with their children by 2030. Family support is expected to contract in the next two decades. Public pensions should be expanded to protect financially vulnerable older people. © 2015 AJA Inc.

  13. The Effects of Quality of Life and Ability to Perform Activities of Daily Living on Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older People Living in Publicly Managed Congregate Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Feng; Yang, Rea-Jeng; Chang, Shu-Fang; Chou, Yuan Hwa; Huang, Ean-Wen

    2017-06-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is characterized by a decrease in cognitive abilities that does not affect the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs). Therefore, this condition is easily overlooked. The prevalence and factors of influence for MCI in older people living in publicly managed congregate housing are currently unknown. This study investigated the prevalence and distribution of MCI in older people living in publicly managed congregate housing and assessed the correlations among quality of life (QoL), ADL, and MCI. This study applied a correlational study design. The participants were older people who met the study criteria and who lived in public housing in Wanhua District, Taipei City, Taiwan. One-on-one interviews were conducted to measure the cognitive abilities of the participants, and 299 valid samples were collected. The prevalence of MCI in older people living in publicly managed congregate housing was 16.1%. The χ test was employed to evaluate the distribution of MCI prevalence and indicated that the group with higher MCI prevalence exhibited the following characteristics: older than 81 years; married; lived in public housing for more than 20 years; cohabiting; had a history of drinking; and exhibited severe memory regression, physical disabilities, psychological distress, and low QoL. The difference between the groups achieved statistical significance (p < .05). After performing logistical regression analysis to control demographic variables, we found that QoL and ADL were critical for predicting MCI. This study confirmed that QoL and ADL correlate significantly with MCI in older people. Maintaining an open and supportive community enables older people to maintain sufficient mental activity, which has been shown to reduce MCI. These findings may provide an important reference for policy makers, educators, researchers, and community practitioners in their development of service strategies for older people.

  14. Risk sexual behavior among people living with HIV/AIDS and receiving antiretroviral therapy in Piura, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Juarez-Vílchez, José P.; Subregión de Salud “Luciano Castillo Colonna” Sullana, Perú. Licenciado en Obstetricia, Candidato a Magister en Género, Sexualidad y Salud Reproductiva.; Pozo, Edwar J.; Subregión de Salud “Luciano Castillo Colonna” Sullana, Perú. Biólogo-Microbiólogo, Candidato a Magister en Control de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Tropicales.

    2010-01-01

    Objetive. To explore opinions and beliefs about risky sexual behavior and HIH transmission in tow hospital of Piura. Material y methods. Qualitative study based on extensive interviews and focus groups of people over 15 years old of age living with HIV. Interviews were recorded as audio, and then transcribed as text in MS Word. Information was analyzed with AtlasTi. Results. Results indicate that people living with HIV and receive antiretrovirals practice risky sexual behavior. Those resu...

  15. YouTube as a source of quit smoking information for people living with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ratika; Lucas, Maya; Ford, Pauline; Meurk, Carla; Gartner, Coral E

    2016-11-01

    YouTube is the most popular video sharing website, and is increasingly used to broadcast health information including smoking cessation advice. This study examines the quality and quantity of YouTube quit smoking videos targeted at people living with mental illness (MI). We systematically searched YouTube using selected relevant search terms. The first 50 videos obtained for each search term were screened for relevance and further videos screened through snowball sampling. Forty unique, English language videos focussing on people with MI were included in the assessment and evaluated for general video characteristics, themes, format, targeted smoking cessation and harm reduction information. Most videos either discussed the problem of high smoking rates among people with MI (n=12) or smoking cessation programmes and policies at an institutional level (n=13). Only nine videos were aimed at providing quit smoking advice to this population. One video recommended higher doses of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for people with MI while six videos referred to possible changes in medication dosage on quitting smoking. Four videos suggested cutting down smoking for harm reduction. Very few YouTube videos specifically focus on the problem of high smoking rates among people with MI and even fewer provide targeted smoking cessation and harm reduction advice for this priority population. There is a need to develop comprehensive, evidence based, quit smoking video resources for smokers with a MI. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Social, Psychological and Health Concerns of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Mysore District, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Siddanna, Sunitha

    2016-03-01

    One of the significant health and social problem the world facing today is Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AiDS). The patients affected with HIV and their family may face various psychosocial problems during diagnosis and treatment due to the stigma associated with this disease. The objective of the study was to identify social, psychological and health concerns of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and its association with the demographic factors in Mysore District, Karnataka, India. A questionnaire based study was conducted among 194 participants in Mysore District, Karnataka state who were receiving care and support services. A 22-item questionnaire provided information regarding social, psychological and health concerns of PLWHA in Mysore district. A general linear regression model was used for assessing the predictors of social, psychological and health concerns. The main social concern was that of "Fear of Losing a loved one" whereas the main psychological concern was "Too much worry", "No cure for AIDS" was the highly rated health concern. Males had more social, psychological and health concerns when compared to females but was not statistically significant. Employed people were having fewer psychological concerns when compared to unemployed people. Unemployed people were having fewer health concerns than employed people. For every unit increase in age there were fewer social and health concerns and both these findings were statistically significant. PLWHA in the present study reported that they were concerned about social, psychological and health issues in spite of the fact they were attending counseling. Health care workers, including those in public health sector should be educated about the importance of these factors that influence the health of the population they are caring for.

  17. Intuitive wireless control of a robotic arm for people living with an upper body disability.

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    Fall, C L; Turgeon, P; Campeau-Lecours, A; Maheu, V; Boukadoum, M; Roy, S; Massicotte, D; Gosselin, C; Gosselin, B

    2015-08-01

    Assistive Technologies (ATs) also called extrinsic enablers are useful tools for people living with various disabilities. The key points when designing such useful devices not only concern their intended goal, but also the most suitable human-machine interface (HMI) that should be provided to users. This paper describes the design of a highly intuitive wireless controller for people living with upper body disabilities with a residual or complete control of their neck and their shoulders. Tested with JACO, a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) assistive robotic arm with 3 flexible fingers on its end-effector, the system described in this article is made of low-cost commercial off-the-shelf components and allows a full emulation of JACO's standard controller, a 3 axis joystick with 7 user buttons. To do so, three nine-degree-of-freedom (9-DOF) inertial measurement units (IMUs) are connected to a microcontroller and help measuring the user's head and shoulders position, using a complementary filter approach. The results are then transmitted to a base-station via a 2.4-GHz low-power wireless transceiver and interpreted by the control algorithm running on a PC host. A dedicated software interface allows the user to quickly calibrate the controller, and translates the information into suitable commands for JACO. The proposed controller is thoroughly described, from the electronic design to implemented algorithms and user interfaces. Its performance and future improvements are discussed as well.

  18. The Digital Competences and Agency of Older People Living in Rural Villages in Finnish Lapland

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    Päivi Rasi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Older people’s digital competencies are a means to minimise their possible risks for being excluded from society. Therefore, the research in this field needs to be strengthened. This paper examines the digital competences and agency of older people who live in remote rural villages in Finnish Lapland. We argue that older people’s agency is the key factor that keeps them included in contemporary society. Hence, our theoretical viewpoint rests on the theory of the modalities of agency. Our data consist of three focus group interviews that were conducted in small, remote villages during the spring of 2015. We analysed our data deductively, and the results showed that elderly villagers interpret their digital competencies through their personal needs and desires. History, the present and the future are intertwined in the villagers’ conceptions. Our respondents’ digital competencies are diverse; older people living in villages are not a homogenous group. Based on our results, we argue that digital competence is very much a distributed competence of elderly dyads, families with three generations and informal networks of villagers and that it should not, therefore, be assessed solely as an individual characteristic.

  19. Religious and spiritual coping in people living with HIV/Aids

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    Clarissa Mourão Pinho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: evaluate the religiosity and the religious/spiritual coping of people living with HIV/Aids. Method: descriptive, cross-sectional study with quantitative approach, conducted in a reference HIV/Aids outpatient clinic in a university hospital of Recife-PE, Brazil, from June to November 2015. At total of 52 people living with HIV/Aids (PLWHA participated in the research, which employed own questionnaire, the Duke University Religion Index (DUREL, and the Religious/Spiritual Coping Scale (RCOPE. Results: the sample presented high indices of organizational religiosity (4.23±1.66, non-organizational religiosity (4.63±1.50, and intrinsic religiosity (13.13±2.84. Positive RCOPE was used in high mean scores (3.66±0.88, and negative RCOPE had low use (2.12 ± 0.74. In total, use of RCOPE was high (3.77±0.74, having predominated the positive RCOPE (NegRCOPE/PosRCOPE ratio=0.65±0.46. Conclusion: it is evident the importance of encouraging religious activity and RCOPE strategies, seen in the past as inappropriate interventions in clinical practice.

  20. Projected demographic profile of people living with HIV in Australia: planning for an older generation.

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    James Jansson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advances in HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART has reduced mortality in people living with HIV (PLHIV, resulting in an ageing population of PLHIV. Knowledge of demographic details such as age, geographical location and sex, will aid in the planning of training and resource allocation to effectively care for the future complex health needs of PLHIV. METHODS: An agent-based, stochastic, geographical model was developed to determine the current and future demographic of PLHIV in Australia. Data and parameters were sourced from Australia's National HIV Registry and peer reviewed literature. Processes that were simulated include progression to AIDS, mortality and internal migration. FINDINGS: The model estimates the mean age of PLHIV in Australia is increasing at a rate of 0.49 years each year. The expected proportion of PLHIV in over 55 years is estimated to increase from 25.3% in 2010 to 44.2% in 2020. Median age is lower in inner-city areas of the capital cities than in rural areas. The areas with the highest prevalence of HIV will continue to be capital cities; however, other areas will have greater percentage growth from 2010 to 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The age of the population of people living with HIV is expected to increase considerably in the future. As the population of PLHIV ages, specialist clinical training and resource provision in the aged care sector will also need to be addressed.

  1. [Sleep Quality, Depression, Anxiety, and Self-Esteem in People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiang-Chun; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Wen-Chuan; Yu, Chien-Tai; Feng, Ming-Chu

    2017-12-01

    HIV has become a chronic disease. Therefore, the mental health and sleep quality of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have become increasingly important issues of concern. To explore the sleep quality, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem of PLWHA and the correlation between sleep quality and various related mental-health factors. A cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study was conducted at a medical center in southern Taiwan in 2013-2014. Data on the sleep quality, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem of 146 PLWHA cases were collected using a structural questionnaire (the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Zung's Self-Administered Anxiety Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). Three-fifths (60.3%) of the cases had poor sleep quality, 50% were inclined toward depression, and 36.3% were inclined toward anxiety, indicating that sleep quality, depression, and anxiety levels in these cases were worse than the general population. Moreover, significant correlations were identified between poor sleep quality and the variables of depression (r = .40, p self-esteem. About half of the PLWHA cases in the present study exhibited poor sleep quality and tendencies toward depression and anxiety. Moreover, sleep quality and mental health factors were found to be not correlated with CD4 lymphocyte count, HIV viral load, or receiving antiretroviral therapy. Therefore, early evaluation of the sleep quality and mental health of people living with HIV/AIDS is recommended in order to provide holistic care.

  2. What determines the preference for future living arrangements of middle-aged and older people in urban China?

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    Meng, Dijuan; Xu, Guihua; He, Ling; Zhang, Min; Lin, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Living arrangements are important to the elderly. However, it is common for elderly parents in urban China to not have a living situation that they consider ideal. An understanding of their preferences assists us in responding to the needs of the elderly as well as in anticipating future long-term care demands. The aim of this study is to provide a clear understanding of preferences for future living arrangements and their associated factors among middle-aged and older people in urban China. Data were extracted from the CHARLS 2011-2012 national baseline survey of middle-aged and elderly people. In the 2011 wave of the CHARLS, a total of 17,708 individual participants (10,069 main respondents and 7,638 spouses) were interviewed; 2509 of the main respondents lived in urban areas. In this group, 41 people who were younger than 45 years old and 162 who had missing data in the variable "living arrangement preference" were excluded. Additionally, 42 people were excluded because they chose "other" for the variable "living arrangement preference" (which was a choice with no specific answer). Finally, a total of 2264 participants were included in our study. The most popular preference for future living arrangements was living close to their children in the same community/neighborhoods, followed by living with adult children. The degree of community handicapped access, number of surviving children, age, marital status, access to community-based elderly care centers and number of years lived in the same community were significantly associated with the preferences for future living arrangements among the respondents. There is a trend towards preference for living near adult children in urban China. Additionally, age has a positive effect on preference for living close to their children. Considerations should be made in housing design and urban community development plans to fulfill older adults' expectations. In addition, increasing the accessibility of public facilities in

  3. Correlation Between the Concentration of Lead in the Blood of Dogs and People Living in the Same Environmental Conditions

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    Monkiewicz Jerzy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The studies, conducted between 2010 and 2012, involved 102 dogs and 505 people from Lower Silesia (LS, 104 dogs and 578 people from the Legnica - Głogów Copper Mining Region (LGCMR, and 101 dogs and 897 people from the Upper Silesian Industrial Region (USIR. A significant positive correlation between blood lead concentration (BLC in dogs and people living in the same environment was found. Moreover, the data revealed an increase in BLC in dogs and people with the progressive aging of the body. The highest average BLC in dogs and humans were reported in the LGCMR followed by USIR and LS.

  4. Staff views on how to improve mealtimes for elderly people with dementia living at home.

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    Johansson, Linda; Björklund, Anita; Sidenvall, Birgitta; Christensson, Lennart

    2017-10-01

    Dementia commonly leads to difficulties in performing daily activities, which can also often affect the ability to prepare and eat meals. As a result, formal support to maintain good nutritional intake might be needed, but there is a lack of knowledge concerning how to support older persons with dementia living at home. The aim of this study was to explore and describe staff views on how to improve mealtimes for persons with dementia who are still living at home. A qualitative descriptive study was performed and data were collected during 2011-2012 through four focus group interviews with staff working in the homes of persons with dementia. Data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. The participants described several ways to improve mealtimes for persons with dementia and advocated adjustments facilitating the preservation of the persons' independence. Finding suitable actions calls for knowledge about the person and his/her individual situation. Proposed actions were enabling meals at home, taking over, and moving meals outside of the home. In addition, it was found that, the types of meals served to these persons should be as familiar to the individual as possible. The results of this study indicate the importance of using a person-centered approach and meeting the individual needs when supporting people with dementia in regards to their meals when living at home. Individualized care in the home may be expensive, however, it is fair to say that people who become malnourished and admitted to hospitals is even more costly. Furthermore, sharing and reflecting experiences and knowledge can assist staff to identify ways to manage complex situations. Therefore, the use of refection should be a part of staff members' everyday work.

  5. How do you interpret a billion primary care records?

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    Martin Heaven

    2017-04-01

    To establish this we explored just over 1 billion unique Read coded records generated in the time period 1999 to 2015 by GP practices participating in the provision of anonymised records to SAIL, aligning, filtering and summarising the data in a series of observational exercises to generate hypotheses related to the capture and recording of the data. Results A fascinating journey through 1 billion GP practice generated pieces of information, embarked upon to aid interpretation of our Supporting People results, and providing insights into the patterns of recording within GP data.

  6. Coping with pain in the hip or knee in relation to physical disability in community-living elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman-Rock, M.; Kraaimaat, F. W.; Odding, E.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the use of pain coping strategies by community-living older people with pain in the hip or knee and the mediating role of coping with pain in the relationship between the chronicity of pain and physical disability. A group of 157 people with pain "in the last month" was identified.

  7. Learning to (Dis)Engage? The Socialising Experiences of Young People Living in Areas of Socio-Economic Disadvantage

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    Mason, Carolynne; Cremin, Hilary; Warwick, Paul; Harrison, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Young people are increasingly required to demonstrate civic engagement in their communities and help deliver the aspirations of localism and Big Society. Using an ecological systems approach this paper explores the experiences of different groups of young people living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage. Using volunteering as an example of…

  8. Utility of Staff Training on Correcting Sleep Problems in People With Intellectual Disabilities Living in Residential Settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hylkema, T.; Petitiaux, W.; Vlaskamp, C.

    While sleep problems in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) living in residential settings are very common, scant attention is paid to them. This study examined how to improve the knowledge and understanding of sleep quality and sleep problems in people with ID among care staff at a

  9. Literature review on monitoring technologies and their outcomes in independently living elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peetoom, Kirsten K B; Lexis, Monique A S; Joore, Manuela; Dirksen, Carmen D; De Witte, Luc P

    2015-07-01

    To obtain insight into what kind of monitoring technologies exist to monitor activity in-home, what the characteristics and aims of applying these technologies are, what kind of research has been conducted on their effects and what kind of outcomes are reported. A systematic document search was conducted within the scientific databases Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane, PsycINFO and Cinahl, complemented by Google Scholar. Documents were included in this review if they reported on monitoring technologies that detect activities of daily living (ADL) or significant events, e.g. falls, of elderly people in-home, with the aim of prolonging independent living. Five main types of monitoring technologies were identified: PIR motion sensors, body-worn sensors, pressure sensors, video monitoring and sound recognition. In addition, multicomponent technologies and smart home technologies were identified. Research into the use of monitoring technologies is widespread, but in its infancy, consisting mainly of small-scale studies and including few longitudinal studies. Monitoring technology is a promising field, with applications to the long-term care of elderly persons. However, monitoring technologies have to be brought to the next level, with longitudinal studies that evaluate their (cost-) effectiveness to demonstrate the potential to prolong independent living of elderly persons. [Box: see text].

  10. FAMILY INTERACTION AND SOCIAL STIGMATIZATION OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV AND AIDS IN PUERTO RICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Díaz, Marinilda; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Padilla, Mark; de Los Ángeles Vargas-Cancel, María; Serrano, Neisha

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to describe the manifestation of HIV stigma in the family context and how this could impact the life of people living with HIV (PLWH). The data derive from a larger phenomenological study addressing manifestations of stigma in the lives of PLWH when interacting with the health sector. Nine focus groups were carried out in 2011 with PLWH (N=67). Eight themes emerged from the qualitative analysis. For the purpose of this article, we focus on the categories related to family dynamics: the negotiation of disclosure and non-disclosure, fear of the HIV virus and family dynamics, and life as a couple. Socio demographic information showed that 53% were between 44 to 54 years old, 80% were single, 51% were male, 42% did not complete a high school diploma, 82% were unemployed. Also, 82% described themselves as religious persons and 41% had lived with HIV for 10 years or less. Qualitative results show stigma is still present in the family context. PLWH experience fear of disclosure, discrimination, avoid initiating families or couple relationships, experience physical and verbal abuse from relatives, and even separation from other family members. After more than 30 years of the ongoing HIV epidemic, stigma is still manifested by family members with detrimental social and medical implications for PLWH. Research and educational efforts should continue addressing manifestations of stigma among family members of PLWH.

  11. Estimates of the Number of People Living with HIV in Italy

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    Laura Camoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the HIV prevalence and the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV in Italy with a projection for 2020. Methods. Two methods elaborated by Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS were used: Estimate and Projection Package and Spectrum. Results. A total of 123,000 (115,000–145,000 individuals aged 15 or more were estimated to be living with HIV in Italy at the end of 2012 and the estimated HIV prevalence was 0.28 (0.24–0.32 per 100 residents aged 15 or more. In 2012, the estimated number of new HIV infections among adults was 3,000 (2,700–4,000, and the number of adults in need for ART was 93,000 (80,000–110,000. The projection estimates that 130,000 (110,000–150,000 adults will live with HIV/AIDS in 2020 in Italy. Conclusion. Estimates of PLHIV in Italy stress the high number of PLHIV in need of care and treatment, as well as the need for more information and prevention campaigns.

  12. Navigating complex lives: a longitudinal, comparative perspective on young people's trajectories.

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    Wyn, Johanna; Andres, Lesley

    2011-02-01

    Drawing on a sociological analysis that brings the prevailing social and economic policies into the frame of this analysis, this article focuses on the relationship between the social conditions faced by young people in the 1990s and early 2000s, the opportunities and constraints that these conditions presented to them, and patterns of mental health. The article presents an analysis of selected data from two longitudinal cohort studies. One is the Paths on Life's Way cohort study by Andres, based in British Columbia, Canada, and the other is the Life-Patterns cohort by Wyn, based in Victoria, Australia. These cohort studies have tracked the lives of young people who entered the labour market in the early 1990s. The longitudinal analysis is based on the data available for 733 participants in the Canadian study in 2003, and 625 participants in the Australian study in 2004, which remains representative of the larger original samples. The data were collected through a mixed-method approach of surveys and interviews. As part of the study, education and employment policies in Australia and Canada during the 1990 s were also analysed. The data reveal that it took 14 years from the time of leaving secondary school for the majority of Australians and Canadians to find a degree of employment security. Young Australians had lower rates of marriage and fertility, and assessed their mental health as being worse than their Canadian peers. Education and labour market policies aimed to increase human capital to ensure global competitiveness and to increase the flexibility of labour for employers. Social policies matter. In both countries, the creation of higher levels of human capital through increasing young people's participation in education, combined with labour market policies that increased job uncertainty and labour market precariousness meant that young people found it difficult to achieve their goals of modest affluence and security. The policies had an impact on young

  13. Non-verbal communication of the residents living in homes for the older people in Slovenia.

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    Zaletel, Marija; Kovacev, Asja Nina; Sustersic, Olga; Kragelj, Lijana Zaletel

    2010-09-01

    Aging of the population is a growing problem in all developed societies. The older people need more health and social services, and their life quality in there is getting more and more important. The study aimed at determining the characteristics of non-verbal communication of the older people living in old people's homes (OPH). The sample consisted of 267 residents of the OPH, aged 65-96 years, and 267 caregivers from randomly selected twenty-seven OPH. Three types of non-verbal communication were observed and analysed using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. In face expressions and head movements about 75% older people looked at the eyes of their caregivers, and about 60% were looking around, while laughing or pressing the lips together was rarely noticed. The differences between genders were not statistically significant while statistically significant differences among different age groups was observed in dropping the eyes (p = 0.004) and smiling (0.008). In hand gestures and trunk movements, majority of older people most often moved forwards and clenched fingers, while most rarely they stroked and caressed their caregivers. The differences between genders were statistically significant in leaning on the table (p = 0.001), and changing the position on the chair (0.013). Statistically significant differences among age groups were registered in leaning forwards (p = 0.006) and pointing to the others (p = 0.036). In different modes of speaking and paralinguistic signs almost 75% older people spoke normally, about 70% kept silent, while they rarely quarrelled. The differences between genders were not statistically significant while statistically significant differences among age groups was observed in persuasive speaking (p = 0.007). The present study showed that older people in OPH in Slovenia communicated significantly less frequently with hand gestures and trunk movements than with face expressions and head movements or different modes of speaking

  14. Association between oral health status and nutritional status in south Brazilian independent-living older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Renato José; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Padilha, Dalva Maria Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Evidence suggests that older people with partial tooth loss and edentulism change their diet and lack specific nutrients, but few studies have assessed whether poor oral status is associated with risk of malnutrition and malnutrition in independent-living older people. We evaluated if poor oral status was associated with risk of malnutrition and malnutrition in this population. A random sample of 471 south Brazilians > or =60 y of age was evaluated. Measurements included a questionnaire to assess sociodemographic, behavioral, general, and oral health data; nutritional status assessment, according to the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA); and oral status assessment, by means of oral examinations assessing the number of teeth and use of dental prostheses. Correlates of risk of malnutrition/malnutrition according to the MNA were assessed by means of multivariate logistic regression. Participants who reported dissatisfaction with their gingival health and edentulous persons wearing only one denture were more likely to be at risk of malnutrition, according to the screening MNA. Dissatisfaction with gingival health was a risk indicator, whereas having one to eight natural teeth was protective against the risk of malnutrition/malnutrition according to the full MNA. In the present study, older people with a compromised oral status had higher odds for risk of malnutrition. The maintenance of a few teeth had a crucial role in increasing the chance of maintaining an adequate nutritional status in the studied population. In cases where edentulism was present, complete dental prosthetic use was associated with better nutritional status.

  15. Challenges to conducting research with older people living in nursing homes

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    Higginson Irene J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although older people are increasingly cared for in nursing homes towards the end of life, there is a dearth of research exploring the views of residents. There are however, a number of challenges and methodological issues involved in doing this. The aim of this paper is to discuss some of these, along with residents' views on taking part in a study of the perceptions of dignity of older people in care homes and make recommendations for future research in these settings. Methods Qualitative interviews were used to obtain the views on maintaining dignity of 18 people aged 75 years and over, living in two private nursing homes in South East London. Detailed field notes on experiences of recruiting and interviewing participants were kept. Results Challenges included taking informed consent (completing reply slips and having a 'reasonable' understanding of their participation; finding opportunities to conduct interviews; involvement of care home staff and residents' families and trying to maintain privacy during the interviews. Most residents were positive about their participation in the study, however, five had concerns either before or during their interviews. Although 15 residents seemed to feel free to air their views, three seemed reluctant to express their opinions on their care in the home. Conclusion Although we experienced many challenges to conducting this study, they were not insurmountable, and once overcome, allowed this often unheard vulnerable group to express their views, with potential long-term benefits for future delivery of care.

  16. Meaningful lives: Supporting young people with psychosis in education, training and employment: an international consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Unemployment is the major disability faced by people with psychotic illness. Unemployment rates of 75–95% are found among those with schizophrenia. Unemployment is associated with poorer social and economic inclusion, greater symptomatology, decreased autonomy and generally poorer life functioning. Unemployment also makes up over half of the total costs associated with psychotic illness. A meeting was convened in London in June 2008. Invitees to this meeting included people from the USA, Canada and the UK interested in vocational intervention in early psychosis from either a research, clinical, economic or policy point of view. From this meeting a larger group–the International First Episode Vocational Recovery (iFEVR) group–has developed an international consensus statement about vocational recovery in first episode psychosis. The document is a basic statement of the rights of young people with psychosis to pursue employment, education and training; the evidence which exists to help them do this; and ways in which individuals, organizations and governments can assist the attainment of these ends. It is hoped that the Meaningful Lives consensus statement will increase the focus on the area of functional recovery and lift it to be seen in parallel with symptomatic recovery in the approach to treating early psychosis.

  17. "People try and label me as someone I'm not": The social ecology of Indigenous people living with HIV, stigma, and discrimination in Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Roberta L; Zurba, Melanie; Tennent, Pauline; Cochrane, Carla; Payne, Mike; Mignone, Javier

    2017-12-01

    Indigenous peoples (First Nations, Inuit, and Métis) are currently overrepresented in the HIV epidemic in Canada and are infected at a younger age than those who are not Indigenous. This article presents our findings on the stigma and discrimination (as well as related themes such as disclosure) experienced by Indigenous people who contracted HIV in their youth and live in urban and non-urban settings in Manitoba, Canada. The findings were derived from a qualitative study that sought to understand the experiences and needs of Indigenous people living with HIV (including AIDS). We situate such experiences within a social ecological framework towards developing a better structural understanding of the impacts of stigma and discrimination on the lives of Indigenous people who are HIV positive. Stigma and discrimination caused barriers for Indigenous people living with HIV through inhibiting their ease of access to supports including family, peers, community, and long- and short-term health services. Creative forms of outreach and education that are culturally appropriate and/or rooted in culture were considered to be possibly impactful ways of reducing stigma and discrimination at the community level. Learning from communities who are successfully managing stigma also showed promise for developing new programming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Seeing through their eyes: lived experiences of people with retinitis pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prem Senthil, M; Khadka, J; Pesudovs, K

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most common retinal degeneration causing blindness. Although their clinical problems are amenable for the clinical diagnosis, their day-to-day problems for having to live with the disease are mostly unexplored. This study aims to explore and understand the issues and impact of people with RP on quality of life (QoL). Methods A qualitative research methodology to facilitate the understanding of the experiences of people with RP was carried out. Data were collected through audio-recorded semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis occurred through the process of line-by-line coding, aggregation, and theme development using the NVivo-10 software. Results Twenty-three interviews were conducted (mean age=56 years; females, 14). We identified five major QoL themes: (1) struggle to perform important day-to-day tasks; (2) concerns about disease progression, disease outcome and personal safety; (3) facing a lot of emotional and psychological challenges; (4) experiencing a myriad of visual symptoms; and (5) adopting different strategies to cope and manage stressful circumstances. Difficulty in performing important day-to-day tasks was the most prominent QoL issue among these people. Their major concerns were going blind and uncertainties about their future. They face a lot of emotional and psychological challenges to adapt to the physiological stress associated with the progressive vision loss. However, they adopt several coping strategies to manage the stressful circumstances. Conclusions People with RP experience a myriad of QoL issues. Despite all the hardship, they remain optimistic and learn to accept their eye condition and move on in life. PMID:28085147

  19. Quality of life among people living with hypertension in a rural Vietnam community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ninh Thi; Duy, Hoa Thi; Le, Ninh Hoang; Khanal, Vishnu; Moorin, Rachael

    2014-08-11

    To respond to growing prevalence of hypertension in Vietnam, it is critical to have an in-depth understanding about quality of life (QOL) among people living with hypertension and related factors. This study aimed to measure QOL among hypertensive people in a rural community in Vietnam, and its association with socio-demographic characteristics and factors related to treatment. This study was conducted in a rural community located 60 km from Ho Chi Minh City. Face-to-face interviews were conducted among 275 hypertensive people aged 50 years and above using WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to examine mean scores of quality of life. Cronbach's alpha coefficient and Pearson's correlation coefficient were applied to estimate the internal consistency, and the level of agreement between different domains of WHOQOL-BREF, respectively. Independent T-test and ANOVA test followed by multiple linear regression analyses were used to measure the association between QOL domains and independent variables. Both overall WHOQOL-BREF and each domain had a good internal consistency, ranging from 0.65 to 0.88. The QOL among hypertensive patients was found moderate in all domains, except for psychological domain that was fairly low (mean = 49.4). Backward multiple linear regressions revealed that being men, married, attainment of higher education, having physical activities at moderate level, and adherence to treatment were positively associated with QOL. However, older age and presence of co-morbidity were negatively associated with QOL. WHOQOL-BREF is a reliable instrument to measure QOL among hypertensive patients. The results revealed low QOL in psychological domain and inequality in QOL across socio-demographic characteristics. Given the results, encouraging physical activities and strengthening treatment adherence should be considered to improve QOL of hypertensive people, especially for psychological aspect. Actions to improve QOL among hypertensive

  20. 1B.08: USEFULNESS OF 24-HOUR AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING IN PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuernberg, M; Lang, S; Curjol, A; Haddour, N; Ederhy, S; Asri, C El; Dufour-Soulat, L; Van Der Vynckt, C; Charbonnier, M; Cohen, A; Boccara, F

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the utility of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in a priori normotensive and known hypertensive people living with HIV by quantifying new hypertension (HTN), masked hypertension, uncontrolled BP, and white coat effect. Data analysed was from the Register of cardiovascular Complications among people living with HIV (RECOVIH), including 263 HIV+ individuals with 1 or more CV risk factors who underwent 24-h ABPM in our cardiac centre.Diagnostic criteria:Elevated clinic BP: at or above 140/90 mmHgElevated mean 24-h ABPM: at or above 130/80 mmHg, systolic and/or diastolicNew hypertension: elevated clinic BP and/or elevated mean 24-h ABPMMasked hypertension: normal clinic BP and elevated mean 24-h ABPMUncontrolled BP: elevated clinic BP and/or elevated mean 24 h ABPM, in known HTNWhite coat effect: elevated clinic BP and normal mean 24-h ABPM, in a priori normotensives. The cohort had a mean age of 50.3 ± 7.7 years, was predominantly male (91%), had a long median HIV duration (15.3 years), and included 150 (57%) known HTN.In RECOVIH the prevalence of new HTN was 22% (n = 25), of which 50% masked hypertension diagnosed by 24-h ABPM solely. Uncontrolled HTN prevalence was 45% using clinic BP alone and 32% using 24-h ABPM alone. 24-h ABPM revealed that this masked uncontrolled HTN was frequently due to poor nocturnal BP control. White coat effect prevalence was not significantly different between the 2 groups (6.3% a priori normotensives vs. 9.3% known HTN, p = 0.37).HTN subjects were older, had higher BMI, and more frequently had a history of diabetes, coronary heart disease, and heart failure as compared to normotensives. Masked hypertension prevalence is high in RECOVIH, particularly among a priori normotensives. Suboptimal BP control is frequent among patients with treated and well-controlled clinic BP. Clinic BP monitoring alone is inadequate to diagnose HTN and assess true BP control because elevated

  1. Qualitative exploration of a smoking cessation trial for people living with HIV in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Nandita; Gittelsohn, Joel; Ross, Alexandra; Elf, Jessica; Chon, Sandy; Niaura, Raymond; Martinson, Neil; Golub, Jonathan E

    2017-06-16

    In South Africa, people living with HIV (PLWH) have a high prevalence of smoking, which undermines the beneficial effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, little is known about barriers to smoking cessation and what interventions work for PLWH in this setting. A randomized trial comparing intensive anti-smoking counseling versus counseling and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was recently concluded in Klerksdorp, South Africa. In a post-trial follow-up, 23 in-depth interviews with patients and one focus group discussion with counselors from the trial were conducted. A codebook was developed and codes were applied to the transcripts, which were analyzed using a thematic analysis. Barriers at the economic, social/interpersonal, and individual levels induced stress, which hindered smoking cessation. Economic stressors included unemployment and poverty. Social or interpersonal stressors were lack of social support for quitting smoking and lack of social support due to having HIV. Individual stressors were traumatic life events. Alcohol was used to cope with stress and frequently co-occurred with smoking. Managing cravings was a barrier unrelated to stress. Participants proposed income and employment opportunities, group counseling and more frequent counseling as solutions to address stressors at different levels. NRT was helpful to mitigate cravings. Future smoking cessation interventions need to target barriers at multiple levels. Increasing the supply and duration of NRT may increase its effectiveness. Other behavioral approaches such as group counseling or peer counseling could hold promise in this setting but need to be tested for efficacy through randomized controlled trials. To our knowledge, this is the first qualitative study examining barriers to smoking cessation for people living with HIV in South Africa. Smoking is highly prevalent among people with HIV in South Africa and cessation interventions are urgently needed. A better understanding of

  2. Perceptions of exercise for older people living with dementia in Bangkok, Thailand: an exploratory qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuncharernpanit, Sirikul; Hendricks, Joyce; Toye, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Dementia is a significant issue globally, including in Thailand, and exercise is known to have health benefits for people living with dementia. However, little is known about exercise acceptable to, and feasible for, this population group in low-to-middle income countries although, more broadly, it is recognised that health-related behaviours are influenced by the perceptions of the individual, which exist within a cultural context. To explore and describe perceptions of appropriate exercise for people living with dementia in Bangkok, Thailand. Qualitative exploratory descriptive. Bangkok, Thailand. Nine professionals - experts in exercise, dementia care and relevant policy development - and nine dyads of people with dementia and their family caregivers all recruited using purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews subjected to thematic analysis. Three themes emerged: how exercise was defined, perceived benefits of exercise and how exercise should be implemented. Professionals recognised three exercise elements: aerobic exercise plus balance and strength training. Dyads recognised home-based activities (e.g., housework) and walking. Both groups recognised benefits of exercise in maintaining health and function and improving mood and sleep. Only health professionals identified falls risk reduction. There was limited appreciation of benefits for caregivers by maintaining function in care recipients. Professionals deemed that exercise should address all three elements, using easily accessible low-cost resources. The need for safety was emphasised, and there was agreement that in-home exercise was appropriate. Family/cultural values were evident that could present barriers to exercise implementation. Changing health-related behaviours requires an understanding of individual perspectives, which exist within a cultural context. This study has illuminated the Thai context and has implications beyond this. Findings emphasise a need for potential benefits to be

  3. The effect of nutritional supplementation on quality of life in people living with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesfaye Woldeyohannes, Markos; Kæstel, Pernille; Olsen, Mette Frahm

    2016-01-01

    the subsequent 3 months. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial in three ART clinics within public health facilities in Jimma, Ethiopia. Participants were PLHIV eligible to start ART with body mass index >17kg/m(2) and given daily supplements of 200 grams of LNS containing whey or soy either during the first 3......OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) on the quality of life of people living with HIV (PLHIV) during the first 3 months of antiretroviral treatment (ART), and to investigate the effects of timing of supplementation by comparing with supplementation during...... months or the subsequent months of ART. The outcome was measured in terms of total quality of life scores on the adapted version of the WHOQOL-HIV-BREF assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months. RESULTS: Of the 282 participants, 186 (66.0%) were women. The mean age (standard deviation SD) was 32.8 (±9...

  4. Coping, social support, stigma, and gender difference among people living with HIV in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiwen; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong

    2018-01-01

    The current study examined whether gender, HIV-related stigma, social support, and the interaction between gender and social support are associated with coping responses among people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) in Guangxi, China. A total of 2987 PLWHA in Guangxi participated from October 2012 to August 2013. Multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted with gender and social support as main factors in the model, and stigma and other variables as covariates. After controlling for demographic variables and stigma, there were significant main effects of emotional social support (F = 1.61, p social support (F = 1.67, p social support (F = 3.67, p social support (F = 1.33, p social support differences in the coping strategies among PLWHA in Guangxi, China.

  5. Incidental lung cancers and positive computed tomography images in people living with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Kristensen, Thomas; Klitbo, Ditte M.

    2017-01-01

    in 901 patients, including 113 at high risk for lung cancer. A positive image was found in 28 (3.1% of the entire cohort and 9.7% of the high-risk group). Nine patients (all in the high-risk group) had invasive procedures undertaken with no serious adverse events. Lung cancer (stages IA, IIA, and IIIA......Objective: Lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) of high-risk groups in the general population is recommended by several authorities. This may not be feasible in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) due to higher prevalence of nodules. We therefore assessed the prevalence...... of positive computed tomography (CT) images and lung cancers in PLWHIV. Design: The Copenhagen comorbidity in HIV infection (COCOMO) study is an observational, longitudinal cohort study. Single-round LDCT was performed with subsequent clinical follow-up (NCT02382822). Method: Outcomes included histology...

  6. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sitong; Lin, Chunqing; Ji, Guoping; Li, Li

    2017-11-01

    Among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms associated with HIV diagnosis is a common problem. This study examined HIV diagnosis-related PTSD symptoms and its associated factors among PLHA in rural China. We used baseline data from a randomized controlled trial conducted in Anhui Province, China. Surveys of 522 PLHA were conducted via computer-assisted personal interview method. PTSD symptoms were measured based on re-experiencing, avoidance and arousal of the day of HIV diagnosis. Association between PTSD symptoms and demographic characteristics, physical and social functioning were assessed by multiple regression analysis and structural equation modeling. Social functioning exhibited a direct association with HIV diagnosis-related PTSD symptoms, and also mediated the association between PTSD symptoms and age, family income, and physical functioning. The study findings underscore the importance of developing interventions that alleviate PTSD symptoms and improve social functioning among PLHA in rural China.

  7. Depressive symptoms and social support among people living with HIV in Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honghong; Zhang, Caihong; Ruan, Ye; Li, Xianhong; Fennie, Kristopher; Williams, Ann B

    2014-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are common among people living with HIV (PLWH) and are associated with poor adherence to antiretroviral treatment and poor treatment outcomes. Our study investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with depressive symptoms in PLWH in one Chinese province. Data were collected from 496 PLWH between July 2009 and July 2010 at two HIV treatment sites in Hunan Province, China. Sixty-two percent (n = 309) of participants scored 16 or more on the Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression scale, indicating moderate to high levels of depressive symptoms. Independent predictors of depressive symptoms included active heroin use, lack of a stable job, female gender, and limited social support. These data suggest that interventions addressing depressive symptoms should be included in HIV care programs provided by the Chinese government, with a special focus on PLWH who are heroin users, female, unemployed, or socially isolated. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. In memoriam Ladislau Steiner, neurosurgeon: some people from transylvania do live forever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, Eduard B; Ciurea, Alexandru V; Valéry, Charles-Ambroise

    2014-01-01

    We review the extraordinary professional trajectory of Ladislau Steiner, a prolific neurosurgeon and radiosurgeon, who died earlier this year. Dr. Steiner trained and practiced as a neurosurgeon in his native Romania until he was 42, before moving to Stockholm. After 25 years at the Karolinska Institute, when most people consider retirement, he spent the following 25 years of his life as director of the Lars Leksell Center for Gamma Knife Radiosurgery at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia. At 90, nostalgia for Europe made him accept the position of director of the Gamma Knife Center at the International Neuroscience Institute in Hannover, Germany. His life was dedicated to the 15,000 patients whose lives he saved in his lengthy career. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Personal values and attitudes toward people living with HIV among health care providers in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Eugene; Hamama, Liat

    2013-01-01

    Our study investigates the relationship between health care providers' personal value preferences and their attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLWH). The study was conducted among nurses (n = 38) and physicians (n = 87) working in HIV Centers in Kazakhstan. Significant relationships were found between the providers' personal value preferences and their attitudes toward PLWH: higher preferences for tradition and power values and lower preferences for benevolence values were associated with more negative attitudes toward PLWH. In addition, more years of experience working with PLWH was associated with more positive attitudes toward this population. Age, gender, family status, religiosity, occupation, and number of years working in health care were not related to the health care providers' attitudes toward PLWH. Theoretical and practical implications of the results obtained are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Value of a Gardening Service for the Frail Elderly and People With a Disability Living in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Same, Anne; Lee, Elinda Ai Lim; McNamara, Beverley; Rosenwax, Lorna

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the significance of gardening services for frail elderly people. This study explored the value of a gardening service for frail older people and people with a disability living in the community. Using qualitative and quantitative data collected from pre-gardening ( n = 38) and post-gardening service delivery interviews ( n = 35) and the Housing Enabler, the value of a gardening service was examined. Findings suggest that the service had a positive impact on the independence and emotional well-being of frail aged people and younger people with a functional disability, with little impact on physical health. Results indicate that gardening services should be fundamental to planning for these populations to remain or return to living in the community.

  11. Impact of cognitive function on oral perception in independently living older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutake, Motoyoshi; Ogawa, Taiji; Ikebe, Kazunori; Mihara, Yusuke; Inomata, Chisato; Takeshita, Hajime; Matsuda, Kenichi; Hatta, Kodai; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Masui, Yukie; Inagaki, Hiroki; Arai, Yasumichi; Kamide, Kei; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2018-04-10

    Oral tactile perception is important for better mastication, appetite, and enjoyment of food. However, previous investigations have not utilized comprehensible variables thought to have negative effect on oral perception, including aging, denture wearing, and cognitive function. The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of cognitive function on oral perception in independently living older individuals. The study sample was comprised of 987 participants (466 males, 521 females; age 69-71 years). Oral examinations, assessments of cognitive function in preclinical level by Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)-J, and determination of oral stereognostic ability as an indicator of oral perception were performed. Related variables were selected by univariate analyses; then, multivariate logistic regression model analysis was conducted. Univariate analyses revealed that number of teeth, removable dentures usage, and cognitive function respectively had a significant relationship with stereognostic score. Next, the subjects were classified into good and poor perception groups (lowest 17.4%) according to oral stereognostic ability. Logistic regression analysis revealed that lower cognitive function was significantly associated with poor oral perception (OR = 0.934, p = 0.017) after controlling for other variables. Cognitive decline even in preclinical stage was associated with reduced oral perception after controlling for gender, tooth number and denture use in independent living older people. This study suggested that preclinical level of change in cognitive function affected oral perception. Dental practitioners and caregivers may need to pay attention to reduced oral perception among older people even if they do not have trouble in daily life.

  12. [Characteristics of bedridden elderly people living at home and in a hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagura, E; Igata, A; Fujita, H; Inoue, T; Kanno, K; Matsuura, T; Tokuda, H; Hosokawa, T

    1997-07-01

    We compared bedridden elderly people living at home to others who were hospital inpatients. Questionnaires regarding medical status and care were returned by 85 of 116 people caring for a bedridden elderly person at home in Obu city, Aichi prefecture and by 62 of 64 nurses and family members caring for bedridden inpatients at Chubu National hospital. All subjects were at least 65 years old. The median age in both groups was 81 years, neither age distribution nor female sex predominance differed between both groups. The percentage of subjects with only one underlying disease was 62.5% among those living at home and 64.4% among inpatients. In both groups the most common disease was cerebrovascular disease (42.5% among those at home and 39.0% among inpatients), followed by dementia (31.3%), infirmity of old age (17.5%) and bone fracture (13.8%) among those at home, and by bone fracture (27.1%), dementia (20.3%) and infirmity of old age (16.9%) among inpatients. The median durations of bedridden status were 2 years and 3 months among those at home and 3 months among inpatients. The proportion of subjects bedridden for less than 6 months was greater among inpatients (p bedridden, and 17.7% were completely bedridden. The most common cause rending the patients bedridden was infection (usually pneumonia). The degree of disability did not differ between groups. Decubitus ulcers were present in 25.9% of those at home and 17.7% of inpatients.

  13. TRITIUM IN URINE OF PEOPLE LIVING IN THE AREA OF INFLUENCE OF THE BELOYARSKAYA NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ya. Chebotina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the research is to determine relationship between tritium concentration in the body fluid (urine of people living in the area of influence of the Beloyarskaya NPP and tritium concentration in drinking water.Materials and methods. Studed population (men and women. Urine samples were collected in the clinical laboratory of a medical unit in Zarechny town. There were 50 individuals in the studied group. Patients were different on age and weight. Water samples were collected in an arbitrary way, through the all study period, from October to November in 2015 year. Tritium concentrations were determined with the ultra-low level liquid scintillation spectrometer Quantulus-1220 (USA. The facility developed by L.G. Bondareva was used for tritium extraction. The method allowes to separate the template, which significantly effects determination of tritium.Results. The urine samples from people living in the area of influence of the Beloyarskaya NPP in Zarechny town were analyzed in the study. There was positive relationship between tritium concentration in drinking water and tritium concentration in urine. Statistically significant correlation between analyzed parameters was found (correlation coefficient 0.98; significance level 0,007. Individual doses were estimated according to Harrison, Khursheed, Lambert. The Doses vary from 0,32 to 1,12 with an allowance for consumption of drinking water 100 l y–1 (according to the consumption standard for the analyzed region, which amounts 0,032–0,12 % from dose limit for population (1 mSv y–1. It was determined what drinking water is the main source of the radionuclide in human body in this region. The determined values of tritium concentration in drinking water are significantly lower than the intervention level for tritium of 7600 Bq l–1 ( Radiation Safety Standards-99/2009, Appendix 2a.

  14. The case of value-based healthcare for people living with complex long-term conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elf, Marie; Flink, Maria; Nilsson, Marie; Tistad, Malin; von Koch, Lena; Ytterberg, Charlotte

    2017-01-11

    There is a trend towards value-based health service, striving to cut costs while generating value for the patient. The overall objective comprises higher-quality health services and improved patient safety and cost efficiency. The approach could align with patient-centred care, as it entails a focus on the patient's experience of her or his entire cycle of care, including the use of well-defined outcome measurements. Challenges arise when the approach is applied to health services for people living with long-term complex conditions that require support from various healthcare services. The aim of this work is to critically discuss the value-based approach and its implications for patients with long-term complex conditions. Two cases from clinical practice and research form the foundation for our reasoning, illustrating several challenges regarding value-based health services for people living with long-term complex conditions. Achieving value-based health services that provide the health outcomes that matter to patients and providing greater patient-centredness will place increased demands on the healthcare system. Patients and their informal caregivers must be included in the development and establishment of outcome measures. The outcome measures must be standardized to allow evaluation of specific conditions at an aggregated level, but they must also be sensitive enough to capture each patient's individual needs and goals. Healthcare systems that strive to establish value-based services must collaborate beyond the organizational boundaries to create clear patient trajectories in order to avoid fragmentation. The shift towards value-based health services has the potential to align healthcare-service delivery with patient-centred care if serious efforts to take the patient's perspective into account are made. This is especially challenging in fragmented healthcare systems and for patients with long-term- and multi-setting-care needs.

  15. Review of randomized controlled trials of nutritional supplementation in people living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneij A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alicia Sneij, Adriana Campa, Marianna K Baum Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work, Florida International University, Modesto Maidique Campus, Miami, FL, USA Background: Nutritional deficiencies are widespread in people living with HIV (PLWH, prior to the antiretroviral treatment (ART. Nutrient deficiencies and other nutrition-related conditions, however, have been identified in patients receiving ART. Trials of nutritional supplementation have been conducted to alleviate these nutritional conditions and improve or reverse nutrition-related outcomes. This review aims to evaluate the benefits of supplementation, its unintended adverse effects, and the difference in approach and focus, research design, formulations, and outcomes between those randomized clinical trials (RCTs conducted before and after the initiation of ART. Methods: An evidence-based systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases and the resources of the Florida International University Research Library. Forty-two RCTs were selected for review, and their design and outcomes were compared and contrasted conceptually and in the form of tables. Results: Most of the RCTs (n=31 were conducted before the advent of ART, and their aims were delaying disease progression, reversing malnutrition, and improving pregnancy outcomes in women and infants infected with HIV. The RCTs conducted with coadministration of ART were fewer (n=11, with relative smaller sample size, of shorter duration, and mainly focused on preventing or ameliorating the nutrition-related conditions generated by the chronic infection, its treatment, and the aging of PLWH. Conclusion: As ART is becoming more accessible worldwide, and people are living longer with the disease, more longitudinal trials of nutritional interventions with larger sample sizes are needed to study the nutritional consequences and potential treatments for PLWH. Keywords: HIV, antiretroviral therapy

  16. A needs assessment of people living with diabetes and diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Claudette E; Hall, Anthony B; Kok, Gerjo; Mallya, Joyse; Courtright, Paul

    2016-02-01

    The Kilimanjaro Diabetic Programme was initiated in response to the needs of people living with diabetes (PWLD) to identify barriers to uptake of screening for diabetic retinopathy, to improve management of diabetes, and establish an affordable, sustainable eye screening and treatment programme for diabetic retinopathy. Intervention Mapping was used as the framework for the needs assessment. A mixed methods approach was used. Five psychometric measures, Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire, Diabetes Health Beliefs, Self-Efficacy scale, Problem Areas in Diabetes scale, and Hopkins Scale Checklist-25 and a structured interview relating to self-efficacy, addressing disclosure of living with diabetes and life-style changes were used to triangulate the quantitative findings. These were administered to 26 PWLD presenting to rural district hospitals. The interviewees demonstrated low levels of perceived stigma regarding disclosure of living with diabetes and high levels of self-efficacy in raising community awareness of diabetes, seeking on going treatment from Western medicine over traditional healers and in seeking care on sick days. Self-efficacy was high for adjusting diet, although comprehensive dietary knowledge was poor. Negative emotions expressed at diagnosis, changes in life style and altered quality of life were reflected in high levels of anxiety and depression. Low levels of stigma surrounding living with diabetes were linked to a desire to raise community awareness of diabetes, help others live with diabetes and to secure social support to access hospital services. Confusion over what constituted a healthy diet showed the importance of comprehensive, accessible diabetes education, essential to ensuring good glycaemic control, and preventing diabetic complications, including diabetic retinopathy. Low levels of self-efficacy along with high levels of anxiety and depression may have a negative impact on the uptake of screening for Diabetic Retinopathy. The findings

  17. We are all people living with AIDS: myths and realities of AIDS in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, H

    1991-01-01

    Although AIDS was expected in Brazil, no serious efforts were undertaken to prevent AIDS from taking root. Irresponsible press and media coverage highlighted the spread of AIDS within the gay community of the United States, creating an aura of immunity in Brazil to what was characterized as a "foreign" disorder. When AIDS did surface in 1983, the official response was to adopt an abstract, inappropriate, and ideological "Western" model, in which only stigmatized "others" and "minorities" were at risk of HIV infection. Brazilian health authorities subsequently downplayed the significance of the sale of contaminated blood in HIV transmission, and likewise ignored the rising rates of AIDS among Brazil's one unarguable majority group: the poor. An analysis of efforts to force the "facts" of AIDS to fit a false model's predictions leads to a clearer definition of the broader context of the Brazilian epidemic: we all are people living with AIDS, precisely because we live in this age of AIDS; it is sheer folly to discriminate against persons infected by HIV and to obstruct their participation in efforts to curtail the epidemic's spread; and the necessary response to AIDS is solidarity, not because it is poetic, but because no other response will suffice.

  18. Community matrons as problem-solvers for people living with multi-co-morbid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Sue; Thunhurst, Colin; Furze, Gill

    2016-12-02

    Working with patients in their own homes gives community matrons an advantage of seeing patients in the context of their everyday lives. This allows comprehensive assessment of need with an aim of promoting health or promoting stability for people living with chronic disease. Complex issues are resolved through problem-solving and this can result in patients being maintained in their own homes and thus in reduced unplanned hospitalisation. Data were collected from participants using semi-structured interviews and audio diaries. The sample comprised professionals: CMs (n=21), managers (n=4), former commissioners (n=2) and GPs (n=3); and patients (n=10) and their family carers (n=5). In this article, data from community matrons is discussed. Community matrons often drew on the social determinants model of health to problem solve and to create meaningful strategies that work for patients in their care. Raising awareness of the high-level skills of community matrons and promoting appreciation of the importance of a social determinants model of health is important in explaining why nurses are such a crucial element of the primary health care workforce.

  19. Uncertainty, the Overbearing Lived Experience of the Elderly People Undergoing Hemodialysis: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahaf, Robab; Sadat Ilali, Ehteram; Peyrovi, Hamid; Akbari Kamrani, Ahmad Ali; Spahbodi, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    The chronic kidney disease is a major health concern. The number of the elderly people with chronic renal failure has increased across the world. Dialysis is an appropriate therapy for the elderly, but it involves certain challenges. The present paper reports uncertainty as part of the elderly experiences of living with hemodialysis. This qualitative study applied Max van Manen interpretative phenomenological analysis to explain and explore experiences of the elderly with hemodialysis. Given the study inclusion criteria, data were collected using in-depth unstructured interviews with nine elderly undergoing hemodialysis, and then analyzed according to Van Manen 6-stage methodological approach. One of the most important findings emerging in the main study was "uncertainty", which can be important and noteworthy, given other aspects of the elderly life (loneliness, despair, comorbidity of diseases, disability, and mental and psychosocial problems). Uncertainty about the future is the most psychological concerns of people undergoing hemodialysis. The results obtained are indicative of the importance of paying attention to a major aspect in the life of the elderly undergoing hemodialysis, uncertainty. A positive outlook can be created in the elderly through education and increased knowledge about the disease, treatment and complications.

  20. Uncertainty, the Overbearing Lived Experience of the Elderly People Undergoing Hemodialysis: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Sahaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The chronic kidney disease is a major health concern. The number of the elderly people with chronic renal failure has increased across the world. Dialysis is an appropriate therapy for the elderly, but it involves certain challenges. The present paper reports uncertainty as part of the elderly experiences of living with hemodialysis. Methods: This qualitative study applied Max van Manen interpretative phenomenological analysis to explain and explore experiences of the elderly with hemodialysis. Given the study inclusion criteria, data were collected using in-depth unstructured interviews with nine elderly undergoing hemodialysis, and then analyzed according to Van Manen 6-stage methodological approach. Results: One of the most important findings emerging in the main study was “uncertainty”, which can be important and noteworthy, given other aspects of the elderly life (loneliness, despair, comorbidity of diseases, disability, and mental and psychosocial problems. Uncertainty about the future is the most psychological concerns of people undergoing hemodialysis. Conclusion: The results obtained are indicative of the importance of paying attention to a major aspect in the life of the elderly undergoing hemodialysis, uncertainty. A positive outlook can be created in the elderly through education and increased knowledge about the disease, treatment and complications.

  1. Uncertainty, the Overbearing Lived Experience of the Elderly People Undergoing Hemodialysis: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahaf, Robab; Sadat Ilali, Ehteram; Peyrovi, Hamid; Akbari Kamrani, Ahmad Ali; Spahbodi, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The chronic kidney disease is a major health concern. The number of the elderly people with chronic renal failure has increased across the world. Dialysis is an appropriate therapy for the elderly, but it involves certain challenges. The present paper reports uncertainty as part of the elderly experiences of living with hemodialysis. Methods: This qualitative study applied Max van Manen interpretative phenomenological analysis to explain and explore experiences of the elderly with hemodialysis. Given the study inclusion criteria, data were collected using in-depth unstructured interviews with nine elderly undergoing hemodialysis, and then analyzed according to Van Manen 6-stage methodological approach. Results: One of the most important findings emerging in the main study was “uncertainty”, which can be important and noteworthy, given other aspects of the elderly life (loneliness, despair, comorbidity of diseases, disability, and mental and psychosocial problems). Uncertainty about the future is the most psychological concerns of people undergoing hemodialysis. Conclusion: The results obtained are indicative of the importance of paying attention to a major aspect in the life of the elderly undergoing hemodialysis, uncertainty. A positive outlook can be created in the elderly through education and increased knowledge about the disease, treatment and complications. PMID:28097174

  2. Doses from potential inhalation by people living near plutonium contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iranzo Gonzales, E.; Salvador Ruiz, S.

    1983-09-01

    An aviation accident above the town of Palomares, Spain resulted in four thermonuclear bombs carried by one of the planes falling. The nuclear fuel in two of them ignited and formed an aerosol which contaminated a 226-hectare area of underbrush, farmland and an urban center. The magnitude of risk to people living in the area who may have inhaled the plutonium aerosol or dusts during the fifteen-year period since the time the accident is addressed in this report. In addition the internal radiation doses that people may have received during this period and during a fifty-year period commencing with the accident is estimated. In brief summary, the lungs received the greatest dose equivalent (1966 to 1980). Over the fifty year period (to 2015) the bones are projected to receive the greatest dose. For the remaining organs - liver-intestines-kidneys, - the relationships or between the doses that will be accumulated up to the year 2015 and the corresponding annual dose equivalent limits are less than those for the bones and lungs

  3. Quality of life of elderly people living with HIV/AIDS in outpatient follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano de Souza Caliari

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze factors related to the quality of life of elderly people living with HIV/AIDS. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out with people aged 50 years or more in a specialized outpatient clinic. The data collection was by means of an interview. For the analysis of data and characterization of the sample, descriptive statistics and comparison tests were used. The project met the ethical requirements. Results: Participants were 81 users aged 50 to 75 years, mean age was 57.8 (± 6.1 years, 71.6% of whom were men. There was a statistically significant relationship with the quality of life, the following variables: gender, children, occupation, religion, diagnosis time, HIV exposure, adverse effects, treatment interruption, viral load counts, hospitalization, dependence for daily activities and use of drugs. Conclusion: The results suggest that the quality of life deficit is related not only to physical changes, but to the anguish and stigma related to HIV/AIDS.

  4. [Living and dying with frailty : Qualitative interviews with elderly people in the domestic environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klindtworth, Katharina; Geiger, Karin; Pleschberger, Sabine; Bleidorn, Jutta; Schneider, Nils; Müller-Mundt, Gabriele

    2017-02-01

    Frail older people are becoming an increasingly more important target group in healthcare provision. Little is known about patients' views on frailty and its various impacts, especially towards the end of life. This study was carried out to analyze the needs of frail elderly people at the end of life. A qualitative, longitudinal case study design was applied and included 31 frail older patients (≥ 70 year) with a Canadian study of health and aging (CSHA) clinical frailty scale (CFS) grade 6/7 from urban and rural areas within the region of Lower Saxony. The analysis was based on guided interviews and followed the principles of grounded theory. From the patients' perspective frailty is perceived as a process of increasing complexity of health problems, increased vulnerability and reduced ability to perform tasks. Frailty is experienced as various deficits including the physical, psychological, social and existential dimensions. Living and dying in a familiar environment and maintaining autonomy was identified as a core category. Key determinants were access to and quality of healthcare services as well as various individual and social resources. A palliative biopsychosocial care approach should be established early in the process of frailty, including advance care planning in order to meet the patients' needs of staying in a familiar environment. General practitioners as well as home care nursing personnel have to collaborate in order to balance issues of autonomy with increased care needs and the support of informal carers as key partners towards the end of life.

  5. Dependence on care experienced by people living with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Bente; Dreyer, Pia

    2012-04-01

    Being dependent on care in a hospital or in a traditional homecare setting may generate an experience of inferiority in patients. In a private home, dependence is easier to bear if the dependent person has the possibility to influence the planning of care. Little is known about the experience of being dependent on care in a private home, where the dependent person employs his or her own helpers. The aim of this study was to describe the meaning of dependence on care in a private home setting among people living with help requirements for all aspects of daily life. The article draws on two interview studies of people with high cervical spinal cord injury and men with Duschenne muscular dystrophy. Transcriptions of the interviews were analyzed according to a phenomenological hermeneutic approach influenced by Paul Ricoeur's philosophy of interpretation. The meaning of all the interview texts is presented as four short stories. Four themes were identified: the helper as liberating, the paramount verbalization of own needs, the creative engagement in life, and accessibility as an issue in everyday life. Dependence on care was identified to be a movement between freedom and restriction, where the helpers played a crucial role, because it was key that they were sensitive to the signals they got and were able to transform words into meticulous actions.

  6. Objective Analysis of Performance of Activities of Daily Living in People With Central Field Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardhan, Shahina; Latham, Keziah; Tabrett, Daryl; Timmis, Matthew A

    2015-11-01

    People with central visual field loss (CFL) adopt various strategies to complete activities of daily living (ADL). Using objective movement analysis, we compared how three ADLs were completed by people with CFL compared with age-matched, visually healthy individuals. Fourteen participants with CFL (age 81 ± 10 years) and 10 age-matched, visually healthy (age 75 ± 5 years) participated. Three ADLs were assessed: pick up food from a plate, pour liquid from a bottle, and insert a key in a lock. Participants with CFL completed each ADL habitually (as they would in their home). Data were compared with visually healthy participants who were asked to complete the tasks as they would normally, but under specified experimental conditions. Movement kinematics were compared using three-dimension motion analysis (Vicon). Visual functions (distance and near acuities, contrast sensitivity, visual fields) were recorded. All CFL participants were able to complete each ADL. However, participants with CFL demonstrated significantly (P approach. Various kinematic indices correlated significantly to visual function parameters including visual acuity and midperipheral visual field loss.

  7. Physiotherapy intervention as a complementary treatment for people living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pullen SD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sara D Pullen,1 Nnenna Nina Chigbo,2 Emmanuel Chukwudi Nwigwe,2 Chinwe J Chukwuka,3 Christopher Chim Amah,4 Stanley C Idu21Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Division of Physical Therapy, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Department of Physiotherapy, 3Department of Medicine, 4Paediatric Surgery Division, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, NigeriaBackground: The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has dramatically extended the life expectancy of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Despite this increased longevity, HIV disease and its pharmacological treatment can cause long-term and acute health complications, many of which can be treated successfully by physiotherapy. The purpose of this paper is to report the effect of a 12-week rehabilitation program on several health-related markers in a 43-year-old woman living with HIV.Methods: This case study examined the effect of a 12-week exercise and manual therapy intervention on morphology, pain, cardiopulmonary fitness, strength, neurological balance, immune markers (CD4 cell count, and quality of life in a 43-year-old woman living with HIV.Results: The results showed complete elimination of pain and shortness of breath on exertion. There was also a reduction in resting heart rate, waist circumference, exercise duration, muscle strength, and endurance. The patient showed an increase in peak expiratory flow rate, maximal heart rate attained, upper arm, forearm, and thigh circumference, and CD4+ cell count. The patient also showed improvements in the quality of life domains of general health, pain, energy/fatigue, social and physical functioning, and emotional well-being.Conclusion: Physiotherapy interventions consisting of exercise and manual therapy appear beneficial in several areas as an adjunct therapy in HIV management.Keywords: exercise, manual therapy, quality of life

  8. Therapeutic Argentine tango dancing for people living with Parkinson’s disease: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Blandy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individuals living with Parkinson’s disease (PD can experience a range of movement disorders. Therapeutic dance is enjoyable and thought to improve mobility, balance and well being in some people with PD. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of a 4 week Argentine tango dance program for people with PD. Methods: Six community dwelling individuals with mild-moderate PD were recruited from Parkinson’s support groups, movement disorder clinics and the Parkinson’s disease Association in Australia. To minimise falls risk, participants were required to be less than 75 years of age and physically independent (Hoehn and Yahr stages I-III. They were also required to speak English. Participants attended a 1 hour dance class at a dance studio twice per week for 4 weeks. A professional dance instructor led and choreographed the classes. Physiotherapists were present to assist participants during the class and served as dance partners as necessary. The primary outcome was feasibility which was determined by measures of recruitment, adherence, attrition, safety (falls, near misses and adverse events and resource requirements. Secondary measures included the Beck Depression Inventory and the Euroqol-5D, administered at baseline and post intervention. Therapy outcomes pre and post-intervention were analysed descriptively as medians and inter-quartile ranges and using Wilcoxon matched pair signed-rank tests.Results: The Argentine tango dance intervention was shown to be safe, with no adverse events. Adherence to the dance program was 89%. Depression scores improved after intervention (p=0.04. Some challenges were associated with the need to quickly recruitment participants and supplying physiotherapists to act as dance partners. Conclusion: The program was shown to be feasible and safe for people with mild to moderately severe PD.

  9. The experience of caregivers of people living with serious mental disorders: a study from rural Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Ayuurebobi Ae-Ngibise

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Families and friends who give care to people with mental disorders (MDs are affected in a variety of ways and degrees. The interplay of caregiving consequences: poverty, discrimination and stigma, lack of support from others, diminished social relationships, depression, emotional trauma, and poor or interrupted sleep are associated caregiver burden. Objective: The burden of care on caregivers of people living with MDs was assessed in two districts located in the middle part of Ghana. Coping strategies and available support for caregivers of MDs were also assessed. Design: A qualitative study was carried out involving 75 caregivers of participants with MDs registered within the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems. Data were gathered from caregivers about their experiences in providing care for their relations with MDs. Results: Caregivers reported various degrees of burden, which included financial, social exclusion, emotional, depression, and inadequate time for other social responsibilities. Responsibilities around caregiving were mostly shared among close relatives but to a varying and limited extent. Religious prayers and the anticipation of cure were the main coping strategies adopted by caregivers, with expectation of new treatments being discovered. Conclusions: Emotional distress, stigma, financial burden, lack of support networks, social exclusion, health impact, and absence of decentralised mental health services were experienced by family caregivers. These findings highlight the need for interventions to support people with MDs and their caregivers. This might include policy development and implementation that will decentralise mental health care provision including psychosocial support for caregivers. This will ameliorate families’ financial and emotional burden, facilitate early diagnosis and management, reduce travel time to seek care, and improve the quality of life of family caregivers of persons

  10. Countdown to Six Billion Teaching Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This teaching kit features six activities focused on helping students understand the significance of the world population reaching six billion for our society and our environment. Featured activities include: (1) History of the World: Part Six Billion; (2) A Woman's Place; (3) Baby-O-Matic; (4) Earth: The Apple of Our Eye; (5) Needs vs. Wants; and…

  11. Understanding the impact of visual arts interventions for people living with dementia: a realist review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Gill; Gregory, Samantha; Newman, Andrew; Goulding, Anna; O'Brien, Dave; Parkinson, Clive

    2014-08-15

    Arts-based activities are being increasingly suggested as a valuable activity for people living with dementia in terms of countering the negative aspects of their condition. The potential for such programmes to improve a broad range of psychosocial outcomes is suggested in some studies. However, there is largely an absence of rigorous methodology to demonstrate the benefits, and research results are mixed. Practice variability in terms of the content, contexts and implementation of such interventions raises challenges in terms of identifying an optimal arts programme model that could be adopted by other service providers. Understanding how interventions may have the best chance at broad implementation success and uptake is limited. A realist review will be undertaken. This aims to understand how visual arts interventions influence outcomes in people living with dementia. The review will explore how the context, that is the circumstances which enable or constrain, affect outcomes through the activation of mechanisms. An early scoping search and a stakeholder survey formulated the preliminary programme theory. A systematic literature search across a broad range of disciplines (arts, humanities, social sciences, health) will be undertaken to identify journal articles and grey literature. Data will be extracted in relation to the programme theory, contextual factors, mechanisms and outcomes and their configurations, background information about the study design and participant characteristics, detail about the quantity ('dose') of an intervention, theoretical perspectives proposed by the authors of the paper and further theorising by the reviewer. Thematic connections/patterns will be sought across the extracted data, identifying patterns amongst contextual factors, the mechanisms they trigger and the associated outcomes. Along with stakeholder engagement and validation, this review will help inform the development of an optimal, replicable arts intervention for people

  12. A community living management program for people with disabilities who have moved out of nursing homes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Danbi; Hammel, Joy; Wilson, Tom

    2015-06-23

    This study describes implementation and evaluation of the Stepping Stones program, a community living management program designed to assist people with disabilities to gain community living skills after moving out of nursing homes. Thirteen people with diverse disabilities participated in the 10-week Stepping Stones program. The participants attended two sessions a day every week, over a 5-week period. Interviewer-administered surveys were used at baseline and 1 week post-intervention to evaluate the impact of the program. Focus group interviews were conducted at 1 week post-intervention. Analyses of quantitative data demonstrated improved self-efficacy in community living management skills, with medium-to-high effect sizes. Participants reported improved sense of empowerment and confidence in finding resources and managing community living. They also reported high satisfaction with the program. Preliminary findings suggest that the Stepping Stones program is beneficial to the target group. The study indicates that application of social learning and self-efficacy theories is effective to empower and enable people with disabilities to manage their lives in the community. The Stepping Stones program may be provided as a risk management intervention after individuals' transition into the community. Implications for Rehabilitation Long-term institutionalization negatively influences people with disabilities' self-esteem, autonomy and ability to independently live in the community. Successful community living requires complex management involving the coordination of personal, social, resource and environmental factors. This study shows that programming on choice and control and community living skill development improved participants' confidence in managing community living.

  13. People, Aid and institutions in socio-economic recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, Thea; Weijs, Bart; Haar, van der Gemma

    2017-01-01

    An estimated 2 billion people live in countries affected by fragility, conflict and violence. Extreme poverty is increasingly concentrated in these areas, and governments and international agencies seek avenues to enable socio-economic recovery and to support people as they try to rebuild their

  14. [Predictors of social isolation among older people living in urban area: a prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiri, Manami; Kawai, Hisashi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Ihara, Kazushige; Hirano, Hirohiko; Kojima, Motonaga; Obuchi, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to investigate the predictors of social isolation among older people living in urban area.Methods A mail survey was sent out to 7,015 elderly subjects living in nine districts of Itabashi ward. At baseline (2012), 3,696 subjects and at follow-up (2014) 2,375 replied to the self-administered questionnaire. We defined social isolation as seeing friends or relatives less than two or three times a month. Gender, age, self-rated health, present illnesses, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), frequency of going out, frequency of social participation, family structure, and perceived financial status were also investigated. A t-test, a chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis were conducted to examine the predictors of social isolation in a follow-up study.Results Of the 1,791 subjects who were analyzed for social isolation, 348 (19.4%) were found to be socially isolated in 2014. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that men (adjusted odds ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.41-2.50) were significantly more likely to be isolated than women. Being older (1.03, 1.01-1.06) was also a significant predictor of isolation. Subjects who participated in group activities one to three times a month (1.62, 1.04-2.53) were significantly more likely to be isolated than those who participated in them more than once a week. Subjects who rated their financial status as low (1.67, 1.20-2.32) were more likely to be isolated than those who rated it as high. Subjects who were isolated (10.24, 7.60-13.81), and those who did not respond to questions about isolation (8.15, 3.76-17.67), were significantly more likely to be isolated than those who were not isolated at baseline. Among the subjects who were not isolated at baseline, being male (2.39, 1.57-3.64) and lower self-rated health (3.99, 1.33-11.94) were predictors of social isolation.Conclusion Participation in social activities is effective in preventing social isolation among

  15. Reading the Bible Positively Popular Reading of the Bible with people living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil

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    Schroder, Elisa Fenner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the early 60s, it began to emerge, in Latin America and Brazil, political movements that sought to raise awareness about their situation of oppression and theneed for ruptures with the dominant society. The Bible had been given to the people and was read from the experience and reality of men and women in situations ofoppression. The situations of oppression and exclusion experienced in Latin America broaden the understanding about the poor and the excluded and challenges newreadings of the Bible from each context. Prejudice and stigma affects the lives of people with HIV, causing them suffering. The situation of social vulnerability affecting a major portion of this population complicates the lives of these people even further. We seek to read the Bible through the context of lives of women with HIV by using popular bible reading methodology. This article bring some introductions reflection on the method and on the experience of a women group in Brazil.

  16. The relationship between rural community type and attachment to place for older people living in North Wales, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burholt, Vanessa; Naylor, Dawn

    2005-06-01

    This paper explores the relationship between rural community type and attachment to place for 387 older people aged 70 and over. Six rural settlements in North Wales are characterised according to certain statistics (e.g. age structure, in-migration, strength of local culture, and multiple deprivation) to provide distinct community profiles. It is hypothesised that community type is characterised by particular types of attachment, which are dependent on life course trajectories and changes or stability in the environment. Using a sevenfold classification of attachment to place, the paper tests seven hypotheses. The results support four of the seven hypotheses. Older people living in a retirement destination are more likely to report aesthetic qualities and the appropriateness of the environment. People living in native areas with a strong culture and local language are more likely to note the importance of historical attachment and social integration into the community. Three hypotheses are rejected: older people living in a retirement destination are not less likely to report social support, or a historical perspective in attachment to place, and older people living in areas with high levels of multiple deprivation are not more likely to encounter relocation restraints than are others. Overall, the findings suggest that the taxonomy of attachment to place provides a flexible framework for differentiation by community. The paper concludes that communities are not merely settings-they play a significant role in self-identity and are a vital source of emotional and experiential meaning for the inhabitant.

  17. This illness diminishes me. What it does is like theft. A qualitative synthesis of people's experiences of living with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Pickles, K; Eassey, D; Reddel, H; Locock, L; Kirkpatrick, SF; Smith, L

    2017-01-01

    Background: What matters to people in their everyday experiences of living with asthma is influenced by a diverse range of personal, social, medical and environmental factors. Previous reviews of the asthma literature have largely focused on medical aspects of asthma or specific population groups with particular needs. Objective: To identify, describe and synthesise from the available qualitative literature the views and experiences of adults living with asthma. Method: We syst...

  18. Straight Gods, White Devils: Exploring Paths to Non-Religion in the Lives of Black LGBTQ People

    OpenAIRE

    Kolysh, Simone

    2017-01-01

    To examine paths to non-religion in the lives of black LGBTQ people, I analyze 10 interviews of black LGBTQ people who were raised Christian. Utilizing an intersectional lens, I conclude that lessons of the Christian home, reinforced in religious school and at church, drew a connection between Christianity, one’s racial and ethnic identity, and heterosexuality in such a way that being LGBTQ was marked un-Christian and foreign, and sometimes associated with whiteness. This further shaped how m...

  19. Community access networks: how to connect the next billion to the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community access networks: how to connect the next billion to the Internet. Despite recent progress with mobile technology diffusion, more than four billion people worldwide are unconnected and have limited access to global communication infrastructure. The cost of implementing connectivity infrastructure in underserved ...

  20. Provider training and experience for people living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackal, Julia M; Tynan, Anne-Marie; Handford, Curtis D; Rzeznikiewiz, Damian; Agha, Ayda; Glazier, Richard

    2011-06-15

    The complexity of HIV/AIDS raises challenges for the effective delivery of care. It is important to ensure that the expertise and experience of care providers is of high quality. Training and experience of HIV/AIDS providers may impact not only individual patient outcomes but increasingly on health care costs as well. The objective of this review is to assess the effects of provider training and experience on people living with HIV/AIDS on the following outcomes: immunological (ie. viral load, CD4 count), medical (ie. mortality, proportion on antiretrovirals), psychosocial (ie. quality of life measures) and economic outcomes (ie health care costs). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI), CINAHL, HealthStar, PsycInfo, PsycLit, Social Sciences Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts from January 1, 1980 through May 29, 2009.  Electronic searches were performed for abstracts from major international AIDS conferences. Reference lists from pertinent articles, books and review articles were retrieved and reviewed. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials, cohort, case control, cross-sectional studies and controlled before and after designs that examined the qualifications/training and patient volume of HIV/AIDS care of providers caring for persons known to be infected with HIV/AIDS were included. At least two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for further information as required. Assessment of confounding factors was undertaken independently by two reviewers. A total of four studies (one randomized controlled trial, three non- randomized studies) involving 8488 people living with HIV/AIDS were included. The main findings of this review demonstrated a trend to improved outcomes when treated by a provider with more training/expertise in HIV/AIDS care in the outpatient (clinic) setting. Due to the heterogeneity of the included studies, we could not perform a

  1. AIR POLLUTION AND LUNG CAPACITY OF PEOPLE LIVING AROUND THE CEMENT INDUSTRY, INDONESIA

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    Erwin Azizi Jayadipraja

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: A cement industry is one of anthropogenic sources of air pollution. In polluting the air, the industry creates some dust particles, nitrogen oxide (NO2, sulfur oxide (SO2, and carbon monoxide (CO. Research Purpose: The research aimed at finding out the ambient air quality around a cement industry and relating it with the lung capacity of people living around the area. Methodology: This was a cross sectional studies by measuring the ambient air quality in the morning, noon, and evening in four different settlements within 3 km from the cement industry. The measurement is then correlated with the FEV1 and FVC of lung capacity of people living around the area. Result: Of all four locations, three have ambient air quality (PM2.5 = 109.47 µg/Nm3, TSP = 454.7 µg/Nm3 that surpass the quality standard (PM2.5 = 65 µg/Nm3, TSP = 230 µg/Nm3. Of 241 respondents, the average level of FVC and FEV1 is respectively 1.9352 liter (SD: 0.45578 and 1.7486 liter (SD: 0.43874. Furthermore, the level of PM2.5 in the morning and at noon is respectively p=0.009 and p=0.003; the level of TSP in the morning and at noon is respectively p=0.003 and p=0.01; the level of NO2 in the morning is p=0.006; the level of SO2 in the morning, at noon and in the evening is respectively p=0.000, p=0.022, and p=0.000; and the level of CO in the morning, at noon and in the evening is respectively p=0.003, p=0.015, and p=0.024. Those levels are associated with the level of respondents’ FEV1. Moreover, the level of TSP in the morning is p=0.024; the level of SO2 in the morning and in the evening is p=0.007. These levels relate to the level of respondents’ FVC. Conclusion: The ambient air quality around a cement industry is affected by dispersion of industrial emission and of other sources which can cause some impairment to lung capacity.

  2. Health literacy, source of information and impact on adherence to therapy in people living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst Dorner, Thomas; Schulte-Hermann, Kathrin; Zanini, Matteo; Leichsenring, Birgit; Stefanek, Wiltrut

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Adequate information and health literacy (HL) has a high impact on patients understanding on the causes and consequences of many chronic diseases, including HIV, and is a crucial prerequisite to ensure adherence to therapy regimens. Several Austrian patient organizations developed an online survey together with MSD (the so-called “PAB-test”) aimed to evaluate how people living with HIV perceive the level of care in Austria. Materials and Methods An online survey has been developed to assess HL in people living with HIV and to evaluate the impact of HL on therapy adherence. HL was assessed with seven items regarding the self-rated comprehension of HIV related information, which showed a high reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.876). A low health literacy was defined by reaching a score below the median of 20 points in the related indicator. Results A total of 303 subjects completed the questionnaire. Women slightly had more often a low HL than men (57.1% vs 44.7%, p=0.335). Heterosexual subjects had more often a low HL compared to homosexual ones (58.3% vs 38.1%, p=0.007). Health literacy slightly increased with age (not significant). An increasing education level correlated with higher HL, (66.7%, 46.2%, and 38.9% of persons showed low HL with primary, secondary and tertiary education, respectively, p=0.037). The number of missed appointments with the HIV physician was significantly higher in the low HL population (30.0% vs 14.4%, p=0.002), which also showed to be more prone to interrupt the therapy without consulting a physician (22.4% vs 9.8%, p=0.006). The low HL population, however, did not report of having forgotten the medication intake more often than the one with high HL (33.1% vs 39.1%, p=0.305). The most important source of information is the treating physician, followed by NGOs/patient organizations and the internet (Figure 1). Conclusions There are significant differences in HL between different sub-groups in the HIV community. Low HL is

  3. Impact of age on care pathways of people living with HIV followed up in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacomet, Christine; Berland, Pauline; Guiguet, Marguerite; Simon, Anne; Rey, David; Arvieux, Cédric; Pugliese, Pascal; Gerbaud, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    The aging population of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH) is exposed to a widening spectrum of non-AIDS-defining diseases. Thus, our objective was to compare the health care offered to PLWH according to age. We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional study on PLWH who consulted at one of 59 French HIV reference centers from 15th to 19th October 2012. Using our survey questionnaires, PLWH self-reported the medical care they received, whether or not tied to HIV infection monitoring, during the previous year. A total of 650 PLWH participated in the survey (median age 48 years, Interquartile range (IQR) 40-54), of which 95 were aged 60 years or over (14.5%). Compared to younger PLWH, 60-and-over PLWH were more often under complementary health insurance cover and less socially deprived based on the French EPICES (Evaluation of Precarity and Inequalities in Health Examination Centers) score. The elderly PLWH presented more comorbidities and less coinfections with hepatitis viruses. During health care, therapeutic education was less often offered to older PLWH (14% vs. 26%, p = .01), but this difference was mainly explained by sociodemographic factors and clinical status. Over the previous 6 months, 74% of PLWH who were followed up in hospital had also consulted another doctor, with a mean of 3.75 consultations (±4.18) without difference between age groups. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors and comorbidities, PLWH over 60 years were more likely to have consulted medical specialists as outpatients in the last 6 months (odds ratio [OR] = 2.63 [1.11-6.20]). Whatever their age, 13% of PLWH had been refused care on disclosure of their HIV status, and 27% of PLWH still did not disclose their HIV status to some caregivers. Coordinated health care throughout patients' lives is crucial, as health-care pathways evolve toward outpatient care as the patients get older.

  4. Perspectives of People Living with HIV on Access to Health Care: Protocol for a Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Shabnam; Maybank, Allison; Hurley, Oliver; Modir, Hilary; Farrell, Alison; Marshall, Zack; Kendall, Claire; Johnston, Sharon; Hogel, Matthew; Rourke, Sean B; Liddy, Clare

    2016-05-18

    Strategies to improve access to health care for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) have demonstrated limited success. Whereas previous approaches have been informed by the views of health providers and decision-makers, it is believed that incorporating patient perspectives into the design and evaluations of health care programs will lead to improved access to health care services. We aim to map the literature on the perspectives of PLHIV concerning access to health care services, to identify gaps in evidence, and to produce an evidence-informed research action plan to guide the Living with HIV program of research. This scoping review includes peer-reviewed and grey literature from 1946 to May 2014 using double data extraction. Variations of the search terms "HIV", "patient satisfaction", and "health services accessibility" are used to identify relevant literature. The search strategy is being developed in consultation with content experts, review methodologists, and a librarian, and validated using gold standard studies identified by those stakeholders. The inclusion criteria are (1) the study includes the perspectives of PLHIV, (2) study design includes qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods, and (3) outcome measures are limited to patient satisfaction, their implied needs, beliefs, and desires in relation to access to health care. The papers are extracted by two independent reviewers, including quality assessment. Data is then collated, summarized, and thematically analyzed. A total of 12,857 references were retrieved, of which 326 documents were identified as eligible in pre-screening, and 64 articles met the inclusion criteria (56% qualitative studies, 38% quantitative studies and 6% mixed-method studies). Only four studies were conducted in Canada. Data synthesis is in progress and full results are expected in June, 2016. This scoping review will record and characterize the extensive body of literature on perspectives of PLHIV

  5. Factors associated with the quality of life of people living with HIV in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Nuno; Pereira, Marco; Roine, Risto P; Sintonen, Harri; Sutinen, Jussi

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, the concept of quality of life (QoL) has received significant attention in the HIV/AIDS literature. In Finland, however, the factors associated with the QoL of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) still remain unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the sociodemographic and HIV-related factors associated with the different domains of QoL of PLWHA in Finland. The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 453 HIV-infected patients (Mean age = 46.5 years; 76.5% male) followed at the Infectious Disease Clinic of Helsinki University Hospital. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire covering sociodemographic and HIV-related information, and the Finnish version of the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref questionnaire. Participants reported rather high scores in the six QoL domains, which ranged between 68.48 (Social relationships) and 78.05 (Environment) on a 0-100 scale. Multiple regression analyses revealed that male gender, being married or living in a partnered relationship, being employed, having fewer financial concerns, and not having depression and other medical comorbidities were the main factors positively and consistently associated with higher scores in the different domains of the QoL. HIV-related variables were not significantly associated with QoL ratings. Sociodemographic factors were independently associated with the QoL of PLWHA in Finland. Psychosocial support should reflect these factors in order to improve the health status and well-being of PLWHA.

  6. The symptom experience of people living with HIV and AIDS in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaswana-Mafuya Nancy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptom management for persons living with HIV (PLHIV or AIDS is an important part of care management. Limited information about symptom prevalence exists about HIV infected persons in South Africa, in particular in the context of antiretroviral treatment (ART. The aim of this study was to assess HIV symptoms and demographic, social and disease variables of people living with HIV in South Africa. Methods In 2007 607 PLHIV, sampled by all districts in the Eastern Cape Province and recruited through convenience sampling, were interviewed by PLHIV at health facilities, key informants in the community and support groups. Results Two-thirds of the PLHIV (66% classified themselves with being given an AIDS (advanced stage of HIV diagnosis, 48% were currently on ART, 35% were currently on a disability grant for HIV/AIDS and for 13% the disability grant had been stopped. Participants reported that on the day of the interview, they were experiencing an average of 26.1 symptoms out of a possible 64. In a regression model with demographic and social variables, higher HIV symptom levels were associated with lower educational levels, higher age, urban residence and not on a disability grant, lack of enough food and having a health insurance, and in a regression model with demographic, social and disease variables only being on ART, lack of enough food and having a health insurance were associated with HIV symptoms. Conclusion Symptom assessment provides information that may be valuable in evaluating AIDS treatment regimens and defining strategies to improve quality of life. Because of the high levels of symptoms reported, the results imply an urgent need for effective health care, home- and community-based as well as self-care symptom management to help patients and their families manage and control AIDS symptoms.

  7. Correlates of perceived stigma for people living with epilepsy: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Wang, Shouqi; Ying, Jie; Zhang, Meiling; Liu, Pengcheng; Zhang, Huanhuan; Sun, Jiao

    2017-05-01

    Epilepsy, one of the most common, serious chronic neurological diseases, is accompanied by different levels of perceived stigma that affects people in almost all age groups. This stigma can negatively impact the physical and mental health of people living with epilepsy (PLWE). Good knowledge of perceived stigma for PLWE is important. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to identify the correlates of perceived stigma for PLWE. Studies on factors associated with perceived stigma for PLWE, including sociodemographic, psychosocial, and disease-related variables, were searched in PubMed, PsychINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Nineteen variables (k>1) were included in the meta-analysis. For sociodemographic characteristics, findings revealed that the significant weighted mean correlation (R) for "residence" and "poor financial status" were 0.177 and 0.286, respectively. For disease-related characteristics, all variables of significance, including "seizure severity," "seizure frequency," "number of medicines," and "adverse event" (R ranging from 0.190 to 0.362), were positively correlated with perceived stigma. For psychosocial characteristics, "depression" and "anxiety" with R values of 0.414 and 0.369 were significantly associated with perceived stigma. In addition, "social support," "quality of life (QOLIE-31,89)," "knowledge," and "attitude," with R values ranging from -0.444 to -0.200 indicating negative correlation with perceived stigma. The current meta-analysis evaluated the correlates of perceived stigma for PLWE. Results can serve as a basis for policymakers and healthcare professionals for formulating health promotion and prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sarcopenia and mortality in older people living in a nursing home in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Ahmet; Aras, Sevgi; Atmis, Volkan; Cengiz, Ozlem Karaarslan; Cinar, Esat; Atli, Teslime; Varli, Murat

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between mortality and sarcopenia defined by the criteria of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People in older nursing home residents in Turkey. This was an observational prospective study. Nursing home residents who were aged older than 65 years and living in the Seyranbagları Nursing Home and Rehabilitation Center (Ankara, Turkey) were recruited for the study. The main outcome measure was the relationship between sarcopenia and mortality. Diagnosis of sarcopenia was carried out according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used for skeletal muscle mass measurement. Muscle strength and muscle performance were evaluated by handgrip testing and gait speed, respectively. Mortality was assessed at the end of 2 years. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to evaluate the relationship between sarcopenia and all-cause mortality. The prevalence of sarcopenia and severe sarcopenia were 29% and 25.4%, respectively. A total of 44% (18) of sarcopenic participants died, whereas 15% (15) of participants without sarcopenia died after 2 years of follow up (P sarcopenia was associated with all-cause mortality among older nursing home residents in Turkey (HR 2.38, 95% CI 1.04-5.46; P = 0.039). However, sarcopenia was not significantly related with mortality after adjustment of MNA score (HR 2.04, 95% CI 0.85-4.9; P = 0.1). Sarcopenia independently increases all-cause mortality in older nursing home residents in Turkey. Nutritional status plays a role in sarcopenia-related mortality. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1118-1124. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. Projected demographic composition of the United States population of people living with diagnosed HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Julia E; Golden, Matthew R; Hughes, James P; Goodreau, Steven M; Siddiqi, Azfar-E-Alam; Buskin, Susan E; Hawes, Stephen E

    2017-12-01

    The transformation of HIV from a fatal disease to lifelong disease has resulted in an HIV-infected population that is growing and aging, placing new and increasing demands on public programs and health services. We used National HIV Surveillance System and US census data to project the demographic composition of the population of people living with diagnosed HIV (PLWDH) in the United States through 2045. The input parameters for the projections include: (1) census projections, (2) number of people with an existing HIV diagnosis in 2013, (3) number of new HIV diagnoses in 2013, and (4) death rate within the PLWDH population in 2013. Sex-, risk group-, and race-specific projections were estimated through an adapted Leslie Matrix Model for age-structured populations. Projections for 2013-2045 suggest that the number of PLWDH in the U.S. will consistently grow, from 917,294 to 1,232,054, though the annual growth rate will slow from 1.8% to 0.8%. The number of PLWDH aged 55 years and older will increase from 232,113 to 470,221. The number of non-Hispanic (NH) African Americans/Blacks and Hispanics is projected to consistently grow, shifting the racial/ethnic composition of the US PLWDH population from 32 to 23% NH-White, 42 to 38% NH-Black, and 20-32% Hispanic between 2013 and 2045. Given current trends, the composition of the PLWDH population is projected to change considerably. Public health practitioners should anticipate large shifts in the age and racial/ethnic structure of the PLWDH population in the United States.

  10. Perceptions of a cognitive rehabilitation group by older people living with cognitive impairment and their caregivers: A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moebs, Isabelle; Gee, Susan; Miyahara, Motohide; Paton, Helen; Croucher, Matthew

    2017-05-01

    Cognitive rehabilitation has been developed to improve quality of life, activities of daily living and mood for people with cognitive impairment, but the voice of people with cognitive impairment has been underrepresented. This study aimed to understand the experience of people living with cognitive impairment, as well as their caregivers who took part in a cognitive rehabilitation intervention programme. Twelve individuals with cognitive impairment and 15 caregivers participated in individual qualitative interviews. The interview data were analysed in three steps: 1) familiarisation of the transcripts; 2) identification of themes; 3) re-interpretation, refinement and integration of themes with methodological auditors. Both participants living with cognitive impairment and caregivers valued the comfortable environment with friendly, caring and supportive group leaders who taught practical tips and strategies. The participants living with cognitive impairment enjoyed socialising with like others. Caregivers benefited from learning about memory problems and sharing their challenges with other caregivers. The participants living with cognitive impairment emphasised the benefits of relational and practical aspects, whereas the caregivers valued the informational and emotional support. In conclusion, both participants living with cognitive impairment and caregivers found the cognitive rehabilitation group useful.

  11. The use of assistive technology in the everyday lives of young people living with dementia and their caregivers. Can a simple remote control make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentoft, Rita; Holthe, Torhild; Arntzen, Cathrine

    2014-12-01

    This study was a part of a larger study exploring the impact of assistive technology on the lives of young people living with dementia (YPD). This paper focuses on one of the most useful devices, the simple remote control (SRC). The objective was to explore the reason why the SRC is significant and beneficial in the everyday lives of YPD and their caregivers. This qualitative longitudinal study had a participatory design. Eight participants received an SRC. The range for using it was 0-15 months. In-depth interviews and observations were conducted at baseline and repeated every third month up to 18 months. A situated learning approach was used in the analysis to provide a deeper understanding of the significance and use of SRC. Young people having dementia spend a substantial amount of time alone. Watching television was reported to be important, but handling remote controls was challenging and created a variety of problems. YPD learned to use SRC, which made important differences in the everyday lives of all family members. Comprehensive support from caregivers and professionals was important for YPD in the learning process. The SRC was deemed a success because it solved challenges regarding the use of television in everyday lives of families. The design was recognizable and user-friendly, thus allowing YPD to learn its operation. Access to professional support and advice regarding assistive technology is vital for establishing a system for follow-up and continued collaboration to make future adaptations and adjustments.

  12. Repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation for activities of daily living and functional ability in people after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momosaki, Ryo; Yamada, Naoki; Ota, Erika; Abo, Masahiro

    2017-06-23

    Repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rPMS) is a form of therapy that creates painless stimulation of deep muscle structures to improve motor function in people with physical impairment from brain or nerve disorders. Use of rPMS for people after stroke has been identified as a feasible approach to improve activities of daily living and functional ability. However, no systematic reviews have assessed the findings of available trials. The effect and safety of this intervention for people after stroke currently remain uncertain. To assess the effect of rPMS for improving activities of daily living and functional ability in people after stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (August 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 8) in the Cochrane Library (August 2016), MEDLINE Ovid (November 2016), Embase Ovid (August 2016), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) in Ebsco (August 2016), PsycINFO Ovid (August 2016), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) Ovid (August 2016), Occupational Therapy Systematic Evaluation of Evidence (OTseeker) (August 2016), the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) (October 2016), and ICHUSHI Web (October 2016). We also searched five ongoing trial registries, screened reference lists, and contacted experts in the field. We placed no restrictions on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted to assess the therapeutic effect of rPMS for people after stroke. Comparisons eligible for inclusion were (1) active rPMS only compared with 'sham' rPMS (a very weak form of stimulation or a sound only); (2) active rPMS only compared with no intervention; (3) active rPMS plus rehabilitation compared with sham rPMS plus rehabilitation; and (4) active rPMS plus rehabilitation compared with rehabilitation only. Two review authors independently assessed

  13. Help-seeking behaviour among people living with chronic hip or knee pain in the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamson Joy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of people living with hip or knee pain do not consult health care professionals. Pain severity is often believed to be the main reason for help seeking in this population; however the evidence for this is contradictory. This study explores the importance of several potential risk factors on help seeking across different practitioner groups, among adults living with chronic hip or knee pain in a large community sample. Methods Health care utilization, defined as having seen a family doctor (GP during the past 12 months; or an allied health professional (AHP or alternative therapist during the past 3 months, was assessed in a community based sample aged 35 or over and reporting pain in hip or knee. Adjusted odds ratios were determined for social deprivation, rurality, pain severity, mobility, anxiety/depression, co-morbidities, and body mass index. Results Of 1119 persons reporting hip or knee pain, 52% had pain in both sites. Twenty-five percent of them had seen a doctor only, 3% an AHP only, and 4% an alternative therapist only. Thirteen percent had seen more than one category of health care professionals, and 55% had not seen any health care professional. In the multivariate model, factors associated with consulting a GP were mobility problems (OR 2.62 (1.64-4.17, urban living (OR 2.40 (1.14-5.04 and pain severity (1.28 (1.13-1.44. There was also some evidence that obesity was associated with increased consultation (OR 1.72 (1.00-2.93. Factors were similar for consultation with a combination of several health care professionals. In contrast, seeing an alternative therapist was negatively associated with pain severity, anxiety and mobility problems (adjusting for age and sex. Conclusion Disability appears to be a more important determinant of help-seeking than pain severity or anxiety and depression, for adults with chronic pain in hip or knee. The determinants of seeking help from alternative practitioners

  14. A literature-based intervention for older people living with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, Josie; Carroll, Janine; Davis, Philip; Healey, Christine; Kinderman, Peter

    2013-05-01

    While several studies have explored the impact of literature and reading on mental health, there has been relatively little work done on how a literature-based intervention might impact on the behaviours of those living with dementia. The present report addresses the effect that a specific literature-based intervention - Get into Reading, designed and practised by national charity The Reader Organisation - might have on the health and well-being of people living with dementia. This present study arises out of a service evaluation that specifically assessed to what extent the shared-reading intervention impacted upon behaviours symptomatic of dementia. Its aims were: (1) to understand the influence that reading has on older adults with dementia in different health-care environments; (2) to identify staff perceptions of the influence that engagement in a reading group has on older adults living with dementia; and (3) to investigate any changes in dementia symptoms of older adults participating in a reading group. The study employed a mixed-method design conducted within three health-care environments: three care homes, two hospital wards and one day centre. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q) assessed staff views of any changes in dementia symptom severity for participants in reading groups conducted in the care homes. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were then conducted with staff who attended the reading groups and/or had extensive knowledge of service users involved in all of the health-care settings. Responses to questions were recorded verbatim and then subject to thematic analysis. 61 service users and 20 staff members took part in the overall project. The NPI-Q results indicate that symptom scores were lower during the reading group period than at baseline. These findings were supported by the qualitative interviews, which suggested that three themes were perceived to be important to effective engagement with the reading groups: (1) the

  15. Healing of the haemorrhaging woman as a model for checkmating stigma of people living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth O. Oke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases in human history are not just originating as a hit out of space. Some theologians contend that they must have originated with the human race. Apparently, it is inferred that they have come as a result of human disobedience to God in the Garden of Eden, or as a means of expression of his wrath. Other biblical perspectives ascribe disease to the work of the adversary or the Devil (Job 2:7, jealousy from others (Job 5:2 and self-indulgence (1 Sm 15:1�17, 16:14�15; 23, 1 Cor 10:1ff.. Stigmatisation of people with haemorrhaging condition (the issues of blood in the biblical accounts of the old Jewish society compares well with stigmatisation of people living with HIV (PLH in the current dispensation. It is needful to ask whether stigmatisation, discrimination and exclusion of the sick are a recent phenomenon. Landman observes that people with communicable diseases were separated from the rest of the congregation in the Old Testament dispensation. However, in the New Testament, a more charitable standpoint was anticipated because of the revolutionary stance of Jesus Christ in the Gospels. During his ministry, Jesus regarded the outcasts as integral members of the Jewish community. He in fact associated with and touched those who had dreadful diseases like leprosy (Mk 1:40�43, 2:1ff., Jn 8:1�9. Stigmatisation is associated with HIV in Nigeria and all over the world. However, the model of interaction set by Jesus with the Woman with the Issue of Blood in Mark�s narrative in the Gospel proposed a charitable standpoint which if adopted by the Nigerian society will go a long way in stemming the stigma associated with HIV. It is anticipated that these biblical indices will facilitate reduction, if not the eradication of stigma in the society. The text under study will be contextualised.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: In this article, the African reading of the Bible is brought to the fore using a liberating

  16. An exploration of how young people and parents use online support in the context of living with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Susan; Milnes, Linda

    2016-04-01

    There is increasing recognition of the Internet's potential role in providing information and support for people living with long-term conditions. However, how young people and parents use online forms of self-care support in the context of living with childhood chronic illness has been under-researched. To explore how online peer support is used by young people and parents to support self-care in relation to cystic fibrosis (CF). Online forum for young people and parents based on a CF charity website. A total of 279 individuals participated in the forum during the study. An online ethnographical approach, involving observing, downloading and analysing discussion group postings. All postings made over a random 4-month period were included (151 discussion threads). The online setting enabled a physically disconnected group to connect and create a safe space to collectively share experiences and receive support to manage and live with cystic fibrosis. Participants exchanged experientially derived advice and views on how to manage treatments, emotions, relationships, identity and support from services. While parents sought information and support on managing specific therapies/services and ways of maintaining their child's health, the information and support young people desired appeared to be more directed at how to 'fit' CF into their everyday lives. Online support groups appear to supplement professional support in relation to self-management. They enable young people and parents to share experiences, feelings and strategies for living with long-term conditions with peers and develop the expertise to empower them in interactions with health-care professionals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Is life getting better? : how long and happy people live in modern society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractHuman society has changed much over the last centuries and this process of 'modernization' has profoundly affected the lives of individuals; currently we live quite different lives from those forefathers lived only five generations ago. There is difference of opinion as to whether we

  18. Network stigma towards people living with HIV/AIDS and their caregivers: An egocentric network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei; He, Xin; Guida, Jennifer; Xu, Yongfang; Liu, Hongjie

    2015-10-01

    HIV stigma occurs among peers in social networks. However, the features of social networks that drive HIV stigma are not well understood. The objective of this study is to investigate anticipated HIV stigma within the social networks of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) (N = 147) and the social networks of PLWHA's caregivers (N = 148). The egocentric social network data were collected in Guangxi, China. More than half of PLWHA (58%) and their caregivers (53%) anticipated HIV stigma from their network peers. Both PLWHA and their caregivers anticipated that spouses or other family members were less likely to stigmatise them, compared to friend peers or other relationships. Married network peers were believed to stigmatise caregivers more than unmarried peers. The association between frequent contacts and anticipated stigma was negative among caregivers. Being in a close relationship with PLWHA or caregivers (e.g., a spouse or other family member) was associated with less anticipated stigma. Lower network density was associated with higher anticipated stigma among PLWHA's alters, but not among caregivers' alters. Findings may shed light on innovative stigma reduction interventions at the social network level and therefore improve HIV/AIDS treatment utilisation.

  19. [Stigma and discrimination experienced by people living with HIV in Togo, in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Bayaki; Tchounga, Boris; Ekouevi, Didier K; Sehonou, Céphas; Sewu, Essèboè; Dokla, Augustin; Maboudou, Angèle; Kassankogno, Yao; Palokinam Pitche, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination experienced by people living with HIV (PLWHA) prevent and delay access to prevention and treatment services. The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of stigma and discrimination experienced by PLWHA in Togo and to identify the associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among PLWHA in Togo in order to collect data on stigma or discrimination experiences. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify associated factors. A total of 891 PLWHA were interviewed, including 848 (95.2%) receiving antiretroviral therapy. External stigma (37.9%) was the major form of stigmatization followed by internalized stigma (35.4%). The main features of external stigma were gossip (36.5%) and issues to access education (36.0%). Internalized stigma mainly consisted of a feeling of guilt (37.6%) and self-devaluation (36.0%). In univariate and multivariate analysis, female gender was significantly associated with stigma (aOR = 1.73, 95% CI [1.08-2.77]). Of the 891 PLWHA, 75 (8.4%) reported a violation of their rights. Finally 27 (4.1%) were discouraged from having children by a health professional because of their HIV status. Stigma affects more than one-third of PLWHA in Togo, more particularly females. It appears necessary to design new interventions and integrate psychosocial care in the management of PLWHA, in addition to antiretroviral therapy.

  20. Audience reactions and receptivity to HIV prevention message concepts for people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, Jennifer D; Bann, Carla M; Wasserman, Jill; Guenther-Grey, Carolyn; Eroğlu, Doğan

    2010-04-01

    This study measured audience reactions and receptivity to five draft HIV prevention messages developed for people living with HIV (PLWH) to inform future HIV message choice and audience targeting decisions. Our premise was that message concepts that receive wide audience appeal constitute a strong starting point for designing future HIV prevention messages, program activities, and health communication and marketing campaigns for PLWH. The majority of participants indicated agreement with evaluative statements that expressed favorable attitudes toward all five of the message concepts we evaluated. Participants gave the lowest approval to the message promoting sero-sorting. Sociodemographic characteristics played less of a role in predicting differences in message perceptions than attitudes, beliefs and sexual behavior. The general appeal for these messages is encouraging given that messages were expressed in plain text without the support of other creative elements that are commonly used in message execution. These results confirm the utility of systematic efforts to generate and screen message concepts prior to large-scale testing.

  1. HIV Stigma and Unhealthy Alcohol Use Among People Living with HIV in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunze, Karsten; Lioznov, Dmitry; Cheng, Debbie M; Nikitin, Ruslan V; Coleman, Sharon M; Bridden, Carly; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2017-09-01

    Unhealthy alcohol use, highly prevalent in the Russian Federation (Russia), is associated with HIV risk behaviors among people living with HIV (PLWH). HIV stigma contributes to the HIV risk environment in Russia. To examine HIV stigma among Russian PLWH and to explore its association with unhealthy alcohol use, we conducted a longitudinal analysis of 700 PLWH in St. Petersburg, Russia. We assessed the association between alcohol dependence and HIV stigma measured at baseline and 12 months follow-up. Participants with alcohol dependence (n = 446) reported significantly higher HIV stigma scores over time than those without dependence (n = 254) (adjusted mean difference 0.60, 95% CI 0.03-1.17; p = 0.04). In secondary analyses, we examined recent risky alcohol use and did not detect an association with HIV stigma. Alcohol dependence is associated with high HIV stigma among Russian PLWH but the nature of the association is conjectural. HIV prevention efforts in Russia that address alcohol use disorders hold potential to mitigate HIV-related stigma and its possible adverse effects among PLWH.

  2. Beliefs about chlamydia testing amongst young people living in relatively deprived areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, A R; Harris, P R; Goyder, E; Norman, P

    2013-06-01

    This study uses the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) as a framework to investigate salient beliefs about chlamydia testing, amongst young people living in relatively deprived areas. These beliefs may form targets for intervention to increase testing in this high-risk population. Participants recruited from colleges in deprived areas of a UK city, completed open-ended questions designed to elicit salient beliefs. Responses were content analysed and categorized as describing behavioural, normative or control beliefs. Beliefs were elicited from 128 respondents (51% male; median age = 17). The commonest behavioural belief, which could have a positive or negative impact on screening intentions, was that testing provides information about health status. Partners were referred to most commonly amongst the normative beliefs. Practical aspects and concerns about social implications of testing were common control beliefs. References to several negative emotions emerged throughout. This study indicates that raising awareness of chlamydia as a serious sexual health problem may not be the best way to increase the uptake of testing in a high-risk population. Promoting chlamydia testing as potentially providing reassurance may be an alternative. It may also be important to reduce perceptions of social disapproval as well as negative emotion regarding chlamydia testing.

  3. Stigma, discrimination and the implications for people living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, D; Mfecane, S

    2004-11-01

    Stigma and discrimination play significant roles in the development and maintenance of the HIV epidemic. It is well documented that people living with HIV and AIDS experience stigma and discrimination on an ongoing basis. This impact goes beyond individuals infected with HIV to reach broadly into society, both disrupting the functioning of communities and complicating prevention and treatment of HIV. This paper reviews the available scientific literature on HIV/AIDS and stigma in South Africa, as well as press reports on the same subject over a period of 3 years. Analysis of this material indicates that stigma drives HIV out of the public sight, so reducing the pressure for behaviour change. Stigma also introduces a desire not to know one's own status, thus delaying testing and accessing treatment. At an individual level stigma undermines the person's identity and capacity to cope with the disease. Fear of discrimination limits the possibility of disclosure even to potential important sources of support such as family and friends. Finally, stigma impacts on behaviour change as it limits the possibility of using certain safer sexual practices. Behaviour such as wanting to use condoms could be seen as a marker of HIV, leading to rejection and stigma. All interventions need to address stigma as part of their focus. However, the difficulty of the task should not be underestimated, as has been shown by the persistence of discrimination based on factors such as race, gender and sexual orientation.

  4. Stigma, disclosure, and depressive symptoms among informal caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mary M; Knowlton, Amy

    2009-08-01

    Informal care receipt is associated with better HIV treatment outcomes among patients vulnerable to treatment failure. Yet, informal caregiving can be highly stressful, leading to distress and cessation of caregiving. Research on factors contributing to informal caregivers' psychological distress may advance our understanding of how to improve caregivers' well-being and sustained HIV caregiving for a vulnerable population. We examined relationships among caregiver stigma, disclosure, and depressive symptoms in a cross-sectional sample of 207 informal caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) in Baltimore, Maryland. Caregivers were primarily African American, low-income, urban adults participating in the Action, Resources, and Knowledge (ARK) study (2003-2005), which recruited urban PLWHAs and their main supporters. Results indicated that among caregivers, HIV caregiving-related stigma was associated with more depressive symptoms, while disclosure of caregiving status was associated with fewer symptoms. We also explored the buffering effect of disclosure in the relationship between stigma and depressive symptoms. Results indicated that among those who reported greater stigma, there was a significant decrease in depressive symptoms as the number of disclosures increased. In contrast, participants who indicated lower stigma had consistently fewer depressive symptoms regardless of number of disclosures. These results suggest the need for interventions to address high levels of depressive symptoms among informal HIV caregivers, particularly those who report greater caregiving stigma and less disclosure of their caregiver status. In addition, future research should examine these relationships further using longitudinal data from informal caregivers and their care recipients.

  5. A daily living activity remote monitoring system for solitary elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Hiromichi; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Matsuoka, Shingo; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Caldwell, W Morton

    2011-01-01

    A daily living activity remote monitoring system has been developed for supporting solitary elderly people. The monitoring system consists of a tri-axis accelerometer, six low-power active filters, a low-power 8-bit microcontroller (MC), a 1GB SD memory card (SDMC) and a 2.4 GHz low transmitting power mobile phone (PHS). The tri-axis accelerometer attached to the subject's chest can simultaneously measure dynamic and static acceleration forces produced by heart sound, respiration, posture and behavior. The heart rate, respiration rate, activity, posture and behavior are detected from the dynamic and static acceleration forces. These data are stored in the SD. The MC sends the data to the server computer every hour. The server computer stores the data and makes a graphic chart from the data. When the caregiver calls from his/her mobile phone to the server computer, the server computer sends the graphical chart via the PHS. The caregiver's mobile phone displays the chart to the monitor graphically.

  6. Stigmatization among people living with HIV in Hong Kong: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Phoenix K H; Ng, Charlson T Y

    2017-10-01

    HIV/AIDS is one of the most stigmatized medical conditions across the world. Self-stigma is prevalent among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and a major obstacle to HIV prevention and care. This study aimed to describe the experiences of stigmatization and explore the possible factors that might be associated with stigmatization among PLHIV in Hong Kong. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted. 15 PLHIV were recruited from two local non-governmental organizations on HIV prevention. Participants were interviewed about their views and feelings towards oneself as a PLHIV and contributing factors, experiences of discriminations, stigmatizing behaviours, issues about disclosure, social relationships and potential impact of HIV. Thematic analyses revealed three levels of factors which might be associated with stigmatization: (i) intrapersonal level (misconceptions about HIV, attribution of self-responsibility, severe state of illness, side-effects of medication), (ii) interpersonal level (discrimination, social rejection) and (iii) social level (mass media, public stereotypes). Findings provide important insights into which interventions to reduce stigmatization of PLHIV could be designed. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Internalised HIV-stigma, loneliness, depressive symptoms and sleep quality in people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Erin M; Williams, Stacey L; Skinta, Matthew D

    2018-03-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) commonly report sleep disturbances which are associated with long-term health consequences, including disease progression. PLWH also experience internalised stigma as a result of their HIV status, which can be associated with increased loneliness and depression. Little attention focuses on the impact of these factors on sleep. Therefore, we examined whether internalised HIV-stigma was indirectly related to poorer sleep quality through higher levels of loneliness and depressive symptoms. 181 PLWH from across the United States completed an online survey. Main Study Measures: Internalised HIV-stigma was assessed using the HIV-Stigma Scale, loneliness was assessed using the UCLA-Loneliness Scale-Short Form, depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Index, and Sleep Quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Internalised HIV-stigma was indirectly associated with poorer global sleep quality and daytime sleep dysfunction through both loneliness and depressive symptoms. PLWH who experience HIV-related stigma may experience greater feelings of loneliness, which are related to increased depressive symptoms and poorer sleep quality. Interventions focused on improving sleep in PLWH should focus on multiple factors that influence sleep, including psychosocial factors such as stigma, social isolation and depressive symptoms.

  8. Depressive Symptoms and Associated Factors among People Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal-Bó, Márcio José; Manoel, André Luciano; Filho, Arthur Onofre Beltram; Silva, Bibiana Quatrin Tiellet da; Cardoso, Yuri Souza; Cortez, Josué; Tramujas, Lucas; Silva, Rosemeri Maurici da

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and associated variables among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in a specialized treatment center in a city located in southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the Beck Depression Inventory to assess the presence of depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 53.5% among the surveyed population, which supports the idea that depressive symptoms are more common among PLWHA, mainly if compared with the general population. It was observed that 57.7% of the study participants were with depressive symptoms and did not take any psychiatric medication and 100% did not undergo psychotherapy, which indicates undertreatment. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean CD4 count between patients with depressive symptoms (484.1  ±  353) and patients without depressive symptoms (528.4  ±  263). Further actions should be taken to improve the care for PLWHA. The interface between psychology, psychiatry, and internal medicine is of utmost importance to provide a more humanized care, in which the psychosocial, psychological, and psychiatric aspects are not neglected. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Exploring Clothing as a Barrier to Workplace Participation Faced by People Living with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri McBee-Black

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to research which argues that people living with a disability (PLWD face societal barriers including workplace participation, this study explored how the barriers to social participation, specifically workplace participation, faced by PLWD are exacerbated by the lack of appropriate clothing and the role that stigma, self-efficacy, and clothing have in workplace participation. Finding appropriate clothing is a significant barrier to social participation for many PLWD. The social model of disability used in this study supports this by suggesting that it is society which places barriers to PLWD rather than their disability. A qualitative inquiry of semi-structured, in-depth interviews was used, and the results showcase six sub-themes of barriers: work defines me, disability as the barrier to workplace participation, work allows extra societal opportunities, stigma questions my self-efficacy, workplace accommodations diminish my stigma, and clothing builds my self-efficacy. The study found that, for PLWD, workplace participation is hindered because of occupational typecasting and lack of appropriate clothing, which increases their stigma and decreases their self-efficacy. The contributions of this study include theory support, policy, community, and educational enhancement.

  10. Dilemmas in the Legal Treatment of the Status of People Living with Disabilities

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    Laki Ildikó

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The legal treatment of disability affairs carries in itself an inherent contradiction due to the nature of modern society and free-market economy. On the one hand both the historically developed notions of essentialism and on the other the particular-functional definition of manhood drawing its roots from the established democratic order and market economics are present simultaneously. However, within the current order of things there is an unbridgeable divide between them. Nevertheless, with the progression of time there is a slow gradual shift discernible away from the functional definition with the parallel strengthening of the essentialist approach. This shift is further exaggerated by the more widespread acceptance of the rights of self-determination and the provision of opportunities for the disabled, the emergence of social self-determination in case of a population subgroup living under special conditions. For the proper interpretation of the currents in the evolution of legal treatment of disabled people it would be indispensable to institute a proper social-discourse analysis, which, however, exceeds in scope its narrowly defined task.

  11. Cooking fuel and respiratory symptoms among people living with HIV in rural Uganda

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    Crystal M. North

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Household air pollution (HAP and chronic HIV infection are each associated with significant respiratory morbidity. Little is known about relationships between HAP and respiratory symptoms among people living with HIV. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between cooking fuel type and chronic respiratory symptoms in study participants from the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes Study. Study participants were enrolled at the time of antiretroviral therapy initiation and seen quarterly from 2005 to 2014 for health-focused questionnaires, CD4 count and HIV viral load. We used multivariable logistic regression and generalised estimating equations, with each study visit as a unit of observation, to investigate relationships between cooking fuel type and chronic respiratory symptoms. We observed an association between cooking with firewood (versus charcoal and chronic cough among HIV-infected females in rural Uganda (adjusted OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.00–1.99; p=0.047. We did not observe an association between cooking fuel type and respiratory symptoms among males (adjusted OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.47–1.63; p=0.658. Associations between cooking fuel and chronic cough in this HIV-infected cohort may be influenced by sex-based roles in meal preparation. This study raises important questions about relationships between household air pollution, HIV infection and respiratory morbidity.

  12. Screening for latent tuberculous infection in people living with HIV infection in Auckland, New Zealand.

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    Gow, N; Briggs, S; Nisbet, M

    2017-09-01

    New Zealand, which has a low incidence of tuberculosis (TB), has historically taken a risk-based approach to screening for latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) in adult people living with the human immunodeficiency virus infection (PLHIV). To evaluate LTBI screening, treatment and outcomes in an adult PLHIV population. This was a retrospective clinical record review of an initial cohort of adult PLHIV attending the Auckland City Hospital HIV clinic in 2011, and a second cohort of adult PLHIV newly attending the clinic in 2014. We analysed high-risk (born in or acquiring HIV in a high TB incidence country) and low-risk patients using descriptive statistical methods. Of the 752 patients from the initial cohort, 416 (55%) had documentation of LTBI screening, which was positive in 74 (10%): 19/461 (4%) low-risk and 55/291 (19%) high-risk patients. LTBI treatment was received in 13 low-risk and 44 high-risk patients. Of 73 patients in the second cohort, 68 (93%) were screened. LTBI screening was incomplete in our clinic, but improved between 2011 and 2014. A significant number of patients with LTBI did not originate from a high TB incidence country.

  13. Association of physical inactivity with hypertension and low educational level in people living with HIV / AIDS.

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    Silveira, Erika Aparecida; Santos, Annelisa Silva E Alves de Carvalho; Falco, Marianne de Oliveira; Cardoso, Rodrigo de Castro; Vitorino, Priscila Valverde de Oliveira

    2018-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical inactivity and whether it is associated with sociodemographic, lifestyle, clinical, anthropometric, and body composition variables in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study makes use of data from a cohort of 288 adults aged ≥19 years, conducted between October 2009 and July 2011. The variables studied were sex, age, education, income, skin color, tobacco use, alcohol intake, body mass index, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio, length of HIV/AIDS diagnosis, use of antiretroviral therapy and length of its use, CD4, hypertension (HT) and diabetes mellitus. Physical inactivity was defined as a score below 600 metabolic equivalent minutes/week according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Version. Poisson multiple regression was applied in the multivariate analysis with a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of physical inactivity was 44.1%. Education of ≤4 years of study (prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.71) and HT (PR: 1.49) were associated with physical inactivity. Physical inactivity was highly prevalent in PLWHA and associated with low educational level and HT. We highlight the simultaneous association between two cardiometabolic risk factors, HT and physical inactivity.

  14. A Microfinance Program Targeting People Living with HIV in Uganda: Client Characteristics and Program Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnemayr, Sebastian; Buzaalirwa, Lydia; Balya, James; Wagner, Glenn

    HIV has disproportionately affected economically vulnerable populations. HIV medical care, including antiretroviral therapy, successfully restores physical health but can be insufficient to achieve social and economic health. It may therefore be necessary to offer innovative economic support programs such as providing business training and microcredit tailored to people living with HIV/AIDS. However, microfinance institutions have shown reluctance to reach out to HIV-infected individuals, resulting in nongovernment and HIV care organizations providing these services. The authors investigate the baseline characteristics of a sample of medically stable clients in HIV care who are eligible for microcredit loans and evaluate their business and financial needs; the authors also analyze their repayment pattern and how their socioeconomic status changes after receipt of the program. The authors find that there is a significant unmet need for business capital for the sample under investigation, pointing toward the potentially beneficial role of providing microfinance and business training for clients in HIV care. HIV clients participating in the loans show high rates of repayment, and significant increases in (disposable) income, as well as profits and savings. The authors therefore encourage other HIV care providers to consider providing their clients with such loans.

  15. Prevalence and Evolution of Renal Impairment in People Living With HIV in Rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapesi, Herry; Kalinjuma, Aneth V; Ngerecha, Alphonce; Franzeck, Fabian; Hatz, Christoph; Tanner, Marcel; Mayr, Michael; Furrer, Hansjakob; Battegay, Manuel; Letang, Emilio; Weisser, Maja; Glass, Tracy R

    2018-04-01

    We assessed the prevalence, incidence, and predictors of renal impairment among people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in rural Tanzania. In a cohort of PLWHIV aged ≥15 years enrolled from January 2013 to June 2016, we assessed the association between renal impairment (estimated glomerural filtration rate impairment at enrollment. Of 921 patients with normal renal function at baseline, 117 (12.7%) developed renal impairment during a median follow-up (interquartile range) of 6.2 (0.4-14.7) months. The incidence of renal impairment was 110 cases per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 92-132). At enrollment, logistic regression identified older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.79; 95% CI, 1.52-2.11), hypertension (aOR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.08-3.15), CD4 count impairment. Cox regression model confirmed older age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.85; 95% CI, 1.56-2.20) and CD4 count impairment. Our study found a low prevalence of renal impairment among PLWHIV despite high usage of tenofovir and its association with age, hypertension, low CD4 count, and advanced WHO stage. These important and reassuring safety data stress the significance of noncommunicable disease surveillance in aging HIV populations in sub-Saharan Africa.

  16. Factors associated with hepatitis C seropositivity in people living with HIV

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    Valdete M. Kuehlkamp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV seropositivity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients. METHODS: A paired case-control study adjusted by age and gender was conducted. It included adults coinfected with HIV and HCV (cases and HIV mono-infected subjects (controls using non-probability sampling. Data were collected through interviews and review of medical records. The chi-square test was used for comparing categorical variables and the Student’s t-test or Wilcoxon (Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables. Confidence intervals (95% were estimated along with crude and adjusted odds ratios using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 165 patients were surveyed, including 55 cases and 110 controls. The mean age was 43.6 ± 8.4 years, ranging from 19 to 64 years; 70.9% were male. Independent risk factors for HIV/HCV coinfection were education (up to eight years of schooling; age at first intercourse < 15 years; having undergone tattooing; blood transfusion; and use of injecting drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Low level of education, early age at first sexual intercourse, tattooing, blood transfusions, and sharing needles and other drug injection equipment were factors that increased the risk of HIV/HCV coinfection. The results from this research can be compared with similar data from other regions to help direct preventive and educational efforts targeting people living with HIV.

  17. Do elderly people at more severe activity of daily living limitation stages fall more?

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    Henry-Sánchez, John T; Kurichi, Jibby E; Xie, Dawei; Pan, Qiang; Stineman, Margaret G

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how activity of daily living (ADL) stages and the perception of unmet needs for home accessibility features associate with a history of falling. Participants were from a nationally representative sample from the Second Longitudinal Survey of Aging conducted in 1994. The sample included 9250 community-dwelling persons 70 yrs or older. The associations of ADL stage and perception of unmet needs for home accessibility features with a history of falling within the past year (none, once, or multiple times) were explored after accounting for sociodemographic characteristics and comorbidities using a multinomial logistic regression model. The adjusted relative risk of falling more than once peaked at 4.30 (95% confidence interval, 3.29-5.61) for persons with severe limitation (ADL-III) compared those with no limitation (ADL-0) then declined for those at complete limitation (ADL-IV). The adjusted relative risks of falling once and multiple times were 1.42 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.87) and 1.85 (95% confidence interval, 1.44-2.36), respectively, for those lacking home accessibility features. Risk of falling appeared greatest for those whose homes lacked accessibility features and peaked at intermediate ADL limitation stages, presumably at a point when people have significant disabilities but sufficient function to remain partially active.

  18. Three Sides of a Coin in the Life of People Living with HIV (PLWH).

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    Khakha, Deepika Cecil; Kapoor, Bimla; Manju; Sharma, Singh K

    2015-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a global epidemic, a major challenge as a health care problem of modern times. As the survival of life increases from the time of an HIV-positive diagnosis, growing concern for the quality of the life has been extended. To assess and correlate the coping, social support and quality of life. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic of AIIMS, New Delhi. The sample comprised people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who were seropositive for last six months. The tools used to assess the coping, social support and quality of life were BREF COPE, MOS social support survey and WHO QOL-HIV BREF, respectively. Permission was taken from the authors of the tools. The ethical permission was taken from the center. The coping, social support and quality of life were assessed and their association was observed. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17. The most commonly used coping styles were acceptance and religion. The social support used by most of PLWHA was tangible support and affectionate support, while the least used support was positive social interaction. The lowest quality of life is seen in social relations, followed by physical quality of life. There was positive association seen between coping and quality of life as well as social support and quality of life. There was positive association between coping, social support and quality of life.

  19. Three sides of a coin in the life of people living with HIV (PLWH

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    Deepika Cecil Khakha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS is a global epidemic, a major challenge as a health care problem of modern times. As the survival of life increases from the time of an HIV-positive diagnosis, growing concern for the quality of the life has been extended. Objectives: To assess and correlate the coping, social support and quality of life. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at antiretroviral therapy (ART clinic of AIIMS, New Delhi. The sample comprised people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA who were seropositive for last six months. The tools used to assess the coping, social support and quality of life were BREF COPE, MOS social support survey and WHO QOL-HIV BREF, respectively. Permission was taken from the authors of the tools. The ethical permission was taken from the center. The coping, social support and quality of life were assessed and their association was observed. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17. Results: The most commonly used coping styles were acceptance and religion. The social support used by most of PLWHA was tangible support and affectionate support, while the least used support was positive social interaction. The lowest quality of life is seen in social relations, followed by physical quality of life. There was positive association seen between coping and quality of life as well as social support and quality of life. Conclusion: There was positive association between coping, social support and quality of life.

  20. Perceived discrimination, social support, and perceived stress among people living with HIV/AIDS in China.

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    Su, Xiaoyou; Lau, Joseph T F; Mak, Winnie W S; Chen, Lin; Choi, K C; Song, Junmin; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Guanglu; Feng, Tiejian; Chen, Xi; Liu, Chuliang; Liu, Jun; Liu, De; Cheng, Jinquan

    2013-01-01

    Perceived stress among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) was associated with severe mental health problems and risk behaviors. Discrimination toward PLWH in China is prevalent. Both perceived discrimination and social supports are determinants of the stress level among PLWH. Psychological support services for PLWH in China are scarce. It is unknown whether social support is a buffer between the perceived discrimination and perceived stress. With written consent, this study surveyed 258 PLWH recruited from multiple sources in two cities in China. Instruments were validated in previous or the present study, including the perceived stress scale for PLWH (PSSHIV), the perceived social support scale (PSSS), and the perceived discrimination scale for PLWH (PDSHIV). Pearson correlations and multiple regression models were fit. PDSHIV was associated with the Overall Scale and all subscales of PSSHIV, whilst lower socioeconomic status in general and lower scores of PSSS were associated with various subscales of PSSHIV. The interaction item (PSSS×PSDHIV) was nonsignificant in modeling PSSHIV, hence no significant moderating effect was detected. Whilst perceived discrimination is a major source of stress and social support can reduce stress among PLWH in China, improved social support cannot buffer the stressful consequences due to perceived discrimination. The results highlight the importance to reduce discrimination toward PLWH and the difficulty to alleviate its negative consequences. It is warranted to improve mental health among PLWH in China and it is still important to foster social support among PLWH as it has direct effects on perceived stress.

  1. Preparing research on optimized construction of sustainable human living environment in regions where people of a certain ethnic group live in compact communities in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Junyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the poor transport system, remoteness and few channels to access to information from the outside world in most minority-inhabited areas in China, buildings in these areas are well preserved. In particular, dwellings in these places show low-tech and ecological features. Different types and the natural environment of the plateau where Shangri-La lies provide people with a variety of living resources. As living environments vary in different areas, different inhabitation forms have been formed. Tibetan people adjust measures to local conditions and excel at using local materials and appropriate technologies to build houses. In this paper, a case study is made of traditional dwellings in Tibetan-inhabited areas in Shangri-La, to analyze low-tech and ecological strategies for traditional dwellings in Tibetan-inhabited areas in Shangri-La, from three aspects: regional environment measures, building technologies and the spatial order system.

  2. Listening to Bodies and Watching Machines: Developing Health Information Skills, Tools and Services for People Living with Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Godbold, Natalya

    2013-01-01

    When patients need information, they may visit a doctor, ask a nurse, or look online. But these are not the only sources of information used by patients. This paper examines discussion threads in online renal support groups to describe how people living with kidney failure conceive of help, information and support. I use Actor Network Theory to…

  3. Factors Associated with Perceived Stigma among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Post-Conflict Northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattabi, Barbara; Li, Jianghong; Thompson, Sandra C.; Orach, Christopher G.; Earnest, Jaya

    2011-01-01

    HIV-related stigma continues to persist in several African countries including Uganda. This study quantified the burden of stigma and examined factors associated with stigma among 476 people living with HIV (PLHTV) in Gulu, northern Uganda. Data were collected between February and May 2009 using the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument-PLWA. Females more…

  4. An Exploratory Study on the Quality of Life of Older Chinese People Living Alone in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jik Joen

    2005-01-01

    This study successfully interviewed 109 randomly selected Chinese people aged 60 and over living alone in two public housing estates in an urban area of Hong Kong. The results show that mental health status, number of days staying in hospital, life satisfaction, age, and self-esteem are significant factors in predicting the life quality of older…

  5. Effects of Nurse-Led Multifactorial Care to Prevent Disability in Community-Living Older People : Cluster Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijker, Jacqueline J.; van Rijn, Marjon; Buurman, Bianca M.; ter Riet, Gerben; van Charante, Eric P. Moll; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effects of nurse-led multifactorial care to prevent disability in community-living older people. Methods In a cluster randomized trail, 11 practices (n = 1,209 participants) were randomized to the intervention group, and 13 practices (n = 1,074 participants) were

  6. Adherence to antiretroviral treatment and associated factors in people living with HIV/AIDS in Quindío, Colombia

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    Deisy Viviana Cardona-Duque

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Depression and self-report on compliance were associated with adherence to antiretroviral therapy. A comprehensive study on the perception of social support and cognitive variables, such as self-efficacy and risk perception, is highly recommended for people living with HIV/AIDS.

  7. Psychosocial factors influencing preferences for food and nutritional supplements among people living with HIV in Bangkok, Thailand

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    Rodas Moya, Carlos; Pengnonyang, Supabhorn; Kodish, Stephen; Pee, de Saskia; Phanuphak, Praphan

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition and HIV are often coincident and may lead to wasting, a strong predictor of mortality. However; ready to use therapeutic foods (RUTF) are showing promising results in restoring the nutritional status of adult people living with HIV (PLHIV) in resource constrained settings but, its

  8. Mobile Money Empowering People Living at Bottom of Pyramid and Boosting Socio-Economic Development in a Big Way

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    Agrawal Reena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hardly anyone would disagree that mobile money is an engine of financial inclusion and has the potential to outreach millions of people, living at the bottom of pyramid and those living in remote areas. The current study was taken up to investigate the impact of mobile money access on the people living at the bottom of pyramid. The aim was to: (1 understand the concept of mobile money, (2 explore the relevance of mobile money in economic growth, (3 capture the growth of mobile money worldwide, (4 explore the socio – economic impact of mobile money and (4 discuss vital insights for traditional financial institutions and policy makers. The study revealed that mobile money had positive impact on financial inclusion. It also enhanced the economic opportunities for the large unbanked population living at the bottom of pyramid. The increase in the mobile penetration and use of mobile internet, among the people living at the bottom of pyramid in the developing countries, clearly reflect at the potential of mobile money, in bringing the financially excluded in the economic mainstream and thus help in sustainable socio-economic development.

  9. Straight Gods, White Devils: Exploring Paths to Non-Religion in the Lives of Black LGBTQ People

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    Simone Kolysh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine paths to non-religion in the lives of black LGBTQ people, I analyze 10 interviews of black LGBTQ people who were raised Christian. Utilizing an intersectional lens, I conclude that lessons of the Christian home, reinforced in religious school and at church, drew a connection between Christianity, one’s racial and ethnic identity, and heterosexuality in such a way that being LGBTQ was marked un-Christian and foreign, and sometimes associated with whiteness. This further shaped how my participants navigated the urban public sphere, one of the only spheres where they could ‘be LGBTQ’ – some neighborhoods were constructed as Christian, connected to one’s childhood and hostile to LGBTQ people, while others were LGBTQ-friendly, albeit largely white and gentrified. The overall impact of Christianity across multiple spheres influenced which non-religious paths my participants took. One remained with a Christian denomination of her childhood and one remained with a Christian denomination of her mother but not her father. The other eight left Christianity behind, with one choosing a different religion and seven becoming non-religious, holding identities from Unitarian Universalist to atheist. Overall, black LGBTQ people struggle to find acceptance of their LGBTQ identities by people closest to them and acceptance of their racial, ethnic and non-religious identities in largely white and often non-religious LGBTQ spaces. In response, they use different strategies to find community and live coherent lives, whenever possible.

  10. Interventions for promoting habitual exercise in people living with and beyond cancer.

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    Bourke, Liam; Homer, Kate E; Thaha, Mohamed A; Steed, Liz; Rosario, Derek J; Robb, Karen A; Saxton, John M; Taylor, Stephanie J C

    2013-09-24

    The beneficial effects of regular exercise for people living with or beyond cancer are becoming apparent. However, how to promote exercise behaviour in sedentary cancer cohorts is not as well understood. A large majority of people living with or recovering from cancer do not meet exercise recommendations. Hence, reviewing the evidence on how to promote and sustain exercise behaviour is important. To assess the effects of interventions to promote exercise behaviour in sedentary people living with and beyond cancer and to address the following questions: Which interventions are most effective in improving aerobic fitness and skeletal muscle strength and endurance? What adverse effects are attributed to different exercise interventions? Which interventions are most effective in improving exercise behaviour amongst patients with different cancers? Which interventions are most likely to promote long-term (12 months or longer) exercise behaviour? What frequency of contact with exercise professionals is associated with increased exercise behaviour? What theoretical basis is most often associated with increased exercise behaviour? What behaviour change techniques are most often associated with increased exercise behaviour? We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 8, 2012), MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, PsycLIT/PsycINFO, SportDiscus and PEDro from inception to August 2012. We also searched the grey literature, wrote to leading experts in the field, wrote to charities and searched reference lists of other recent systematic reviews. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared an exercise intervention with a usual care approach in sedentary people over the age of 18 with a homogenous primary cancer diagnosis. Two review authors working independently (LB and KH) screened all titles and abstracts to identify studies that might meet the inclusion criteria, or that

  11. In their own words: the place of faith in the lives of young people with autism and intellectual disability.

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    Liu, Eleanor X; Carter, Erik W; Boehm, Thomas L; Annandale, Naomi H; Taylor, Courtney E

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Although the prominence of spirituality and religious connections among the people of the United States is well documented, little is known about the place of faith in the lives of youth with developmental disabilities. In this qualitative interview study, we examined the perspectives of 20 young people with intellectual disability or autism on their faith, spiritual expressions, and disability. Participants identified key spiritual expressions and themes reflecting the importance of faith in their lives. They also shared perceptions of their disability in the context of their faith, highlighting affirmation and acceptance of their disability. We offer recommendations to families, faith communities, and service systems for supporting the spiritual formation, expression, and connections of young people with disabilities.

  12. Psychological interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in people living with HIV in Resource poor settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhey, Ruth; Chibanda, Dixon; Brakarsh, Jonathan; Seedat, Soraya

    2016-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is pervasive in low- and middle-income countries. There is evidence to suggest that post-traumatic stress disorder is more common among people living with HIV than non-infected matched controls. We carried out a systematic review of interventions for adult post-traumatic stress disorder from resource poor settings with a focus on people living with HIV. We included all studies that investigated interventions for adult post-traumatic stress disorder from resource poor settings with a focus on interventions that were either randomised controlled trials or observational cohort studies carried out from 1980 to May 2015. Of the 25 articles that were identified for full review, two independent reviewers identified seven studies that met our study inclusion criteria. All randomised controlled trials (RCT) (n = 6) used cognitive behavioural therapy-based interventions and focused on people living with HIV in resource poor settings. There was only one study focusing on the use of lay counsellors to address post-traumatic stress disorder but core competencies were not described. There were no intervention studies from Africa, only an observational cohort study from Rwanda. Rigorously evaluated interventions for adult post-traumatic stress disorder in people living with HIV are rare. Most were undertaken in resource poor settings located in high-income countries. There is a need for research on the development and implementation of appropriate interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in people living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Exercise for reducing fear of falling in older people living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Denise; Kumar, Arun; Carpenter, Hannah; Zijlstra, G A Rixt; Skelton, Dawn A; Cook, Juliette R; Stevens, Zoe; Belcher, Carolyn M; Haworth, Deborah; Gawler, Sheena J; Gage, Heather; Masud, Tahir; Bowling, Ann; Pearl, Mirilee; Morris, Richard W; Iliffe, Steve; Delbaere, Kim

    2014-11-28

    Fear of falling is common in older people and associated with serious physical and psychosocial consequences. Exercise (planned, structured, repetitive and purposive physical activity aimed at improving physical fitness) may reduce fear of falling by improving strength, gait, balance and mood, and reducing the occurrence of falls. To assess the effects (benefits, harms and costs) of exercise interventions for reducing fear of falling in older people living in the community. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (July 2013), the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2013, Issue 7), MEDLINE (1946 to July Week 3 2013), EMBASE (1980 to 2013 Week 30), CINAHL (1982 to July 2013), PsycINFO (1967 to August 2013), AMED (1985 to August 2013), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (accessed 7 August 2013) and Current Controlled Trials (accessed 7 August 2013). We applied no language restrictions. We handsearched reference lists and consulted experts. We included randomised and quasi-randomised trials that recruited community-dwelling people (where the majority were aged 65 and over) and were not restricted to specific medical conditions (e.g. stroke, hip fracture). We included trials that evaluated exercise interventions compared with no intervention or a non-exercise intervention (e.g. social visits), and that measured fear of falling. Exercise interventions were varied; for example, they could be 'prescriptions' or recommendations, group-based or individual, supervised or unsupervised. Pairs of review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias in the studies and extracted data. We combined effect sizes across studies using the fixed-effect model, with the random-effect model used where significant statistical heterogeneity was present. We estimated risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for rate outcomes. We

  14. Food consumption and serum nutritional status of people living in the Kathmandu valley in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoshimi; Hirai, Kazuko; Sakata, Susumu; Shimizu, Satoshi; Akai, Yuko; Ogoshi, Kumiko; Sherchand, Sarala; Gurung, Rajesh; Sherchand, Jeevan B; Shrestha, Mathura P

    2005-03-01

    The food consumption and serum nutritional status of people living in the Kathmandu valley, Nepal, were examined to obtain actual data for comparison with our previous findings. A dietary survey of 45 males and 60 females was carried out in March 1997 by the 24-hr dietary recall method and nutrient intake was calculated from food tables of India and Japan. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained and serum biochemical parameters were measured using clinical kits. The mean body mass index values was at about the same level in both sexes, although the mean percentage body fat of females was higher than that of males, and vice versa for packed red cell volume. The main foods consumed by both sexes, were rice, potatoes, meats, milk & dairy products and vegetables, with a difference in the amounts consumed. Females did not drink alcoholic beverages. The mean daily intakes of energy, protein, lipids, iron and vitamin B group for the males were higher than those for the females, while those of vitamins A and C for the males were lower than those for the females. The mean values of serum biochemical parameters for both sexes were generally at the normal levels, but those of ALT and TG were at the higher end of the normal range. Differences of correlation between food groups and between serum parameters were observed depending on the sex, however, no clear relationship between food and nutrient intake and serum biochemical parameters were observed. The present food intake study revealed that the amounts of food consumption for both sexes, especially for the females, were mostly insufficient although the serum parameters were at the normal levels. The energy intake of both sexes was lower than that of estimated requirements and those in Terai region. The relatively high serum TG level of the subjects may be due to the consumption of large amounts of cereals containing much carbohydrate. Our findings suggested a marked influence on food consumption by food price and income

  15. Cancer incidence in people living with HIV/AIDS in Israel, 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Mor; Micha, Barchana

    2015-09-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) improved the survival of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and decreased HIV-related morbidities. This study assesses the cancer incidence of all adult PLWHA in Israel by transmission routes before and after 1996. This cohort study was based on cross-matching the National HIV/AIDS and Cancer Registries of all HIV/AIDS and cancer cases reported from 1981 to 2010 with the National civil census. PLWHA were followed-up until cancer diagnosis, death, leaving Israel, or 2010, whichever occurred first. Cancer incidence was adjusted for age, and compared with the National incidence. Of all 5,154 PLWHA followed-up for 36,296 person-years, 362 (7.0%) developed cancer (997.4 cases per 100,000 person-years). Higher hazard ratios to develop cancer were demonstrated among older PLWHA, Jewish people, and intravenous drug users. Cancer incidence among PLWHA was higher in the pre-ART period than after 1997 (1,232.0 and 846.7 cases per 100,000 person-years, respectively). The incidence of AIDS-defining cancers was higher than non-AIDS-defining malignancies, and higher in the pre-ART than the post-ART period (777.0 and 467.2 cases per 100,000 person-years, respectively), while the incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancers showed the opposite trend (376.5 and 455.0 cases per 100,000 person-years, respectively). The incidence of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining cancers declined between the pre-ART and the post-ART period by 2.0 to 3.4 times. PLWHA had higher rates of malignancies than the general population. In conclusion, cancer incidence among PLWHA was associated with age, and declined after ART introduction; yet it was higher than that of the general population. PLWHA may benefit from age-related cancer screening, increased adherence to ART, and reduction of environmental oncogenes.

  16. Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfray, H Charles J; Beddington, John R; Crute, Ian R; Haddad, Lawrence; Lawrence, David; Muir, James F; Pretty, Jules; Robinson, Sherman; Thomas, Sandy M; Toulmin, Camilla

    2010-02-12

    Continuing population and consumption growth will mean that the global demand for food will increase for at least another 40 years. Growing competition for land, water, and energy, in addition to the overexploitation of fisheries, will affect our ability to produce food, as will the urgent requirement to reduce the impact of the food system on the environment. The effects of climate change are a further threat. But the world can produce more food and can ensure that it is used more efficiently and equitably. A multifaceted and linked global strategy is needed to ensure sustainable and equitable food security, different components of which are explored here.

  17. Do Social Networks Differ? Comparison of the Social Networks of People with Intellectual Disabilities, People with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other People Living in the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt-Goverts, A. E.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Hendriks, A. H. C.; Wegman, K. M.; Teunisse, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the similarities and differences in social network characteristics, satisfaction and wishes with respect to the social network between people with mild or borderline intellectual disabilities (ID), people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a reference group. Data were gathered from 105 young adults…

  18. Has the employment status of people living with HIV changed since the early 2000s?

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    Annequin, Margot; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2015-07-31

    In a context marked by major changes in the field of HIV and in the general socioeconomic context, this study aimed at investigating changes in the employment situation of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in France since the early 2000s. Repeated cross-sectional survey among two nationally representative samples of PLWHIV followed at hospital in France in 2003 (N = 2932) and 2011 (N = 3022). Differences between 2003 and 2011 in (1) rates of employment, unemployment, and inactivity and (2) rates of work cessation and access to work following HIV diagnosis were measured using two-step multivariate Poisson regression models adjusted for individual sociodemographic determinants of position on the labor market, and then additionally for health status characteristics. Overall, among working-age PLWHIV 60.9% in 2003 and 59.6% in 2011 were employed; 12.6 and 15.8%, respectively, were unemployed; and 26.5 and 24.6%, respectively, were inactive. Adjusting for sociodemographic determinants of position on the labor market, while employment rate was not different in 2011 compared with 2003, inactivity rate significantly decreased (adjusted prevalence rate ratio: 0.83, 95% confidence interval: [0.72-0.96]) and unemployment rate significantly increased (1.28 [1.04-1.57]). After additional adjustment for health status characteristics, the difference was no longer significant for inactivity (0.89 [0.77-1.03]) but remained significant for unemployment (1.55 [1.24-1.93]). Compared with 2003, in 2011 transitions to unemployment following HIV diagnosis tended to be more frequent (1.58 [0.92-2.68]) and access to work was significantly less frequent (0.57 [0.33-0.99]). Improvements in HIV care have not translated into improvements in PLWHIV's situation regarding employment.

  19. Perceived social support affects disease coping among people living with HIV: a study in Tehran, Iran

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    Elham Faraji

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine potential correlations between perceived social support and disease coping styles among people living with HIV infection at a referral center in Tehran. Methods: In an observational study, 112 patients were recruited between April and July 2012. Along with demographic characteristics, availability of tangible, informational, and emotional support was measured using subscales extracted from the medical outcomes study: social support survey; disease coping styles were investigated in four groups (problem-focused, emotion-focused, engagement-based, and meaning-based. Data were analyzed to examine whether social support subscales predict coping styles. Results: Almost 70% of the patients were male, and 52% reported sexual contact as their perceived route of infection. Use of coping styles was positively correlated with social support scores (rs = 0.53, P < 0.001, and informational support had significant influence on implementation of three out of the four coping styles (emotion-focused, problem-focused, engagement-based. Being married and not reporting the route of infection were associated with higher social support scores; monthly income and level of education had significant associations with the use of various coping styles. Conclusions: Patients who implement strategies to cope with HIV/AIDS have received more informational and emotional support. This study recommends that the delivery of informational support in a comprehensive package can practically target the current demands of our patients; while thorough investigation of potential effects on disease coping, response to treatment, and compliance can aid us in the design of interventions to target stigma at societal level.

  20. The use of complementary and alternative medicine among people living with diabetes in Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manya, Kiran; Champion, Bernard; Dunning, Trisha

    2012-01-12

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is common in patients with chronic disease such as diabetes mellitus. The primary objective of the study was to determine the overall prevalence and type of CAM use in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) in Western Sydney and to compare the prevalence and factors associated with CAM use with the literature. A multicenter cross-sectional study was undertaken using a self-completed questionnaire distributed to patients with DM attending a public hospital and specialist endocrinology clinics in the region. The type of DM and pattern of CAM utilisation were analyzed. Sixty nine people responded to the questionnaire: age range of 18-75 years during a twelve week collection period. Overall, 32 respondents with diabetes were using some form of CAM, resulting in a utilisation rate of 46.3%. Twenty of the 32 CAM users used CAM specifically to treat their diabetes accounting for 28.9% of the respondent sample population. Multivitamins (40%), cinnamon, Co-enzyme q10 and prayer were the most frequently used CAM modalities. There was no significant difference between males and females, age range, income or diabetes complications between CAM and non-CAM users. (p values each > 0.05) The factor most significantly associated with CAM usage was being born overseas (p = 0.044). Almost half the respondents (46.3%) used CAM: 28% used CAM specifically to treat their diabetes. Individuals born overseas were significantly more likely to use CAM than those born in Australia. Other factors such as age, gender, wealth and duration of living with diabetes were not associated with higher rate of CAM usage.

  1. Development of the perceived stress scale for people living with HIV/AIDS in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyou; Lau, Joseph T F; Mak, Winnie W S; Chen, Lin; Feng, Tiejian; Chen, Xi; Liu, Chuliang; Liu, Jun; Liu, De; Cheng, Jinquan

    2008-12-01

    Stress among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is associated with psychological morbidity. There are only a few stress scales specially developed for PLWHA and none of them is in Chinese. This study develops and validates a new Chinese Perceived Stress Scale among PLWHA (PSSHIV) in Shenzhen of Guangdong Province and Hengyang of Hunan Province in China during September 2006 through July 2007. In-depth interviews were administered to 58 PLWHA (33 males, mean age, 32) to generate the items, while 215 other PLWHA were interviewed in another survey to validate the instrument (136 males, mean age, 33). Exploratory factor analysis yielded 8 factors (percent variance explained, 71.47%), namely: social/psychological problems, sexual relationship, functional problems, social acceptance/rejection issues, work-related issues, family/offspring issues, accessibility to treatment, and treatment outcomes. The Cronbach alpha values ranged from 0.76 to 0.94 for the overall scale and the 8 subscales. The scores of the overall scale, the social/psychological problems, and functional problems subscales of the PSSHIV were significantly correlated with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), and all domains of the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV) (correlation coefficient = 0.50 to 0.71 for positive correlations, and -0.73 to -0.21 for negative correlations, p DASS, and MOS-HIV (correlation coefficient = 0.16 to 0.39 for positive correlation, -0.58 to -0.15 for negative correlation, p < 0.05). This new instrument collected information from the PLWHA from qualitative interviews and the items are specific to the HIV/AIDS context. PSSHIV can be used for assessing the level of stress faced by PLWHA in China.

  2. Factors associated with self-rated health in older people living in institutions

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    Pastor-Barriuso Roberto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although self-rated health has been extensively studied in community older people, its determinants have seldom been investigated in institutional settings. We carried out a cross-sectional study to describe the physical, mental, and social factors associated with self-rated health in nursing homes and other geriatric facilities. Methods A representative sample of 800 subjects 65 years of age and older living in 19 public and 30 private institutions of Madrid was randomly selected through stratified cluster sampling. Residents, caregivers, physicians, and nurses were interviewed by trained geriatricians using standardized instruments to assess self-rated health, chronic illnesses, functional capacity, cognitive status, depressive symptoms, vision and hearing problems, and social support. Results Of the 669 interviewed residents (response rate 84%, 55% rated their health as good or very good. There was no association with sex or age. Residents in private facilities and those who completed primary education had significantly better health perception. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval for worse health perception was 1.18 (1.07–1.28 for each additional chronic condition, 2.37 (1.38–4.06 when comparing residents with moderate dependency to those functionally independent, and 10.45 (5.84–18.68 when comparing residents with moderate/severe depressive symptoms to those without symptoms. Visual problems were also associated with worse health perception. Similar results were obtained in subgroup analyses, except for inconsistencies in cognitively impaired individuals. Conclusion Chronic conditions, functional status, depressive symptoms and socioeconomic factors were the main determinants of perceived health among Spanish institutionalized elderly persons. Doubts remain about the proper assessment of subjective health in residents with altered cognition.

  3. The dimensions of food insecurity and malnutrition among people living with HIV in Senegal, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzekri, Noelle A; Sambou, Jacques F; Diaw, Binetou; Sall, El Hadji Ibrahima; Sall, Fatima; Niang, Alassane; Ba, Selly; Guèye, Ndèye Fatou Ngom; Diallo, Mouhamadou Baïla; Hawes, Stephen E; Seydi, Moussa; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S

    2017-12-01

    An understanding of the factors contributing to food insecurity and malnutrition among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Senegal is urgently needed in order to develop effective interventions. The goals of this study were to identify differences in the dimensions of food security among PLHIV in Dakar versus Ziguinchor, Senegal, to determine which of these dimensions are most predictive of severe food insecurity, and to identify factors associated with malnutrition. We conducted a cross-sectional study at outpatient clinics in Dakar and Ziguinchor, Senegal. Data were collected using participant interviews, anthropometry, the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, the Individual Dietary Diversity Scale, and chart review. Interviews were conducted with ninety-five food insecure, HIV-infected subjects. Daily household income and daily food expenditure per household member were the strongest predictors of severe food insecurity. The practice of agriculture, livestock ownership, nutritional status, and HIV outcomes were not predictive of severe food insecurity. CD4 count malnutrition. Severe food insecurity, daily household income, daily food expenditure per household member, dietary diversity score, skipping meals, the practice of agriculture, livestock ownership, ART status, and adherence were not predictive of malnutrition. This is the first study to analyze the dimensions of food security among PLHIV in Senegal. We discovered important differences in food access, availability, stability, and utilization in Dakar versus Ziguinchor. We found that economic access was the strongest predictor of severe food insecurity and poorly controlled HIV was the strongest predictor of malnutrition. Our findings suggest that the interventions needed to address food insecurity differ from those necessary to target malnutrition, and that effective interventions may differ in Dakar versus Ziguinchor. Furthermore, this study highlights a need for a greater understanding of the

  4. Knowledge and psychosocial wellbeing of nurses caring for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH

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    Lufuno Makhado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of caring for people living with HIV (PLWH in a low-resource setting has had a negative impact on the nursing profession, resulting in a shortage of skilled nurses. In response to this shortage and perceived negative impact, we conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study to describe the level of knowledge and psychosocial wellbeing of nurses caring for PLWH at a regional hospital in Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 233 nurses, the majority being female, participated and were stratified into professional nurses (n = 108, enrolled nurses (n = 58 and enrolled nursing auxiliaries (n = 66. Data were collected using HIV/AIDS knowledge questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory; AIDS Impact Scale and Beck's Depression Inventory. The total knowledge score obtained by all the participants ranged from 2 to 16, with an average of 12.93 (SD = 1.92 on HIV/AIDS knowledge. Depersonalization (D (83.7% and emotional exhaustion (EE (53.2% were reported among participating nurses caring for PLWH. Burnout was higher among professional nurses as compared to both enrolled nurses and enrolled nursing auxiliaries. There was a moderate negative significant correlation between HIV knowledge with the nurses' emotional exhaustion (r = −0.592, depression (r = −0.584 and stigma and discrimination (r = −0.637. A moderate to high level of burnout was evident among all levels of nurses. These findings lead to the recommendations for support of nurses caring for PLWH that include structured nursing educational support, organisational support with respect to employee wellness programmes that address depression and work burnout, as well as social support. The provision of these support mechanisms has the potential of creating a positive practice environment for nurses in the Vhembe District of the Limpopo Province in particular, and South Africa in general, and in improved care for PLWH.

  5. Creating contexts for effective homebased care of people living with HIV/AIDS

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    C. Campbell

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Home-based care (HBC plays a vital role in the care of people living with AIDS. Most carers perform their arduous role in adverse conditions. Yet little is known about how to facilitate contexts that maximise the effectiveness of carers. This paper reviews existing research into home-based care in sub-Saharan Africa to highlight gaps in understanding and to outline new conceptual frameworks for future research. Current research identifies multi-level factors that undermine carers in performing their role. These include e.g. lack of knowledge, skills and support - both at the individual and organisational levels; physical and psychological burnout; the destruction of household economies in the face of the demands of care; community stigma and rejection. Research and policy documents repeatedly advocate ‘partnerships’ or ‘linkages’ between carers/ patients and more powerful groupings (locally, nationally and/or internationally as a solution to these problems. Yet they give no indication as how best to mobilise already over-burdened carers and their terminally ill charges. Furthermore, partnerships between poor communities and more influential groupings and agencies are notoriously difficult to promote and sustain. If partnerships are indeed to play such a key role in supporting carers and their patients, there is an urgent need for systematic research into the effectiveness of various partnership styles and strategies. The concepts of bonding, bridging and linking social capital - within a framework sensitive to the interaction between social capital and poverty - are put forward as a valuable starting point for the development of better understandings of the types of networks and partnerships most likely to support carers and their local communities.

  6. Stigma, activism, and well-being among people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Rosenthal, Lisa; Lang, Shawn M

    2016-01-01

    Evidence demonstrates that HIV stigma undermines the psychological and physical health of people living with HIV (PLWH). Yet, PLWH describe engaging in HIV activism to challenge stigma, and research suggests that individuals may benefit from activism. We examine associations between experiences of HIV stigma and HIV activism, and test whether HIV activists benefit from greater well-being than non-activists. Participants include 93 PLWH recruited from drop-in centers, housing programs, and other organizations providing services to PLWH in the Northeastern USA between 2012 and 2013 (mean age = 50 years; 56% Black, 20% White, 18% Other; 61% non-Latino(a), 39% Latino(a); 59% male, 38% female, 3% transgender; 82% heterosexual, 15% sexual minority). Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Results of regression analyses suggest that PLWH who experienced greater enacted stigma engaged in greater HIV activism. Anticipated, internalized, and perceived public stigma, however, were unrelated to HIV activism. Moreover, results of a multivariate analysis of variance suggest that HIV activists reported greater social network integration, greater social well-being, greater engagement in active coping with discrimination, and greater meaning in life than non-activists. Yet, HIV activists also reported somewhat greater depressive symptoms than non-activists, suggesting that the association between HIV activism and well-being is complex. By differentiating between HIV stigma mechanisms, the current study provides a more nuanced understanding of which experiences of HIV stigma may be associated with HIV activism. It further suggests that engagement in activism may offer benefits to PLWH, while raising the possibility that activists could experience greater depressive symptoms than non-activists. Given the preliminary nature of this study, future research should continue to examine these complex associations between HIV stigma, activism, and well-being among PLWH

  7. Defining cognitive impairment in people-living-with-HIV: the POPPY study

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    Davide De Francesco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reported prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI varies widely in cohorts of people living with HIV (PLWH; this may partly be due to the use of different diagnostic criteria. Agreement between diagnostic criteria of CI, the optimal definition to use, and associations with patient-reported cognitive symptoms have not been fully investigated. Methods Two hundred ninety PLWH aged >50 years and 97 matched negative controls completed a detailed assessment of cognitive function and three questions regarding cognitive symptoms. Age- and education-adjusted test scores (T-scores determined if subjects met the following definitions of CI: Frascati, global deficit score (GDS and the multivariate normative comparison (MNC method. Results PLWH were more likely than controls to meet each definition of CI (ORs were 2.17, 3.12 and 3.64 for Frascati, GDS and MNC, respectively. Agreement of MNC with Frascati and GDS was moderate (Cohen’s k = 0.42 and 0.48, respectively, whereas that between Frascati and GDS was good (k = 0.74. A significant association was found between all the three criteria and reporting of memory loss but not with attention and reasoning problems. The 41 (14 % PLWH meeting all the three criteria had the lowest median global T-score (36.9 and highest rate of symptom reporting (42 %. Conclusions Different CI criteria show fair diagnostic agreement, likely reflecting their ability to exclude CI in the same group of individuals. Given the lower overall cognitive performance and higher rates of symptom reporting in those meeting all three criteria of CI, further work assessing this as a definition of CI in PLWH is justified.

  8. Sexual practices of people living with HIV in South Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikechebelu, J; Mbamara, S U; Joe-Ikechebebelu, N N; Ezenwabachili, A O

    2009-12-01

    Couples could be in serodiscordant or seroconcordant sexual relationship. The seroconcordant could be seroconcrdant positive or negative in a heterosexual or homosexual or bisexual relationship. The various sexual practices include vaginal sex; anal sex fisting; oral sex fellatio, cunnilingus; masturbation mutual or exclusive and a host of others. These sexual practices outside safer sex guidelines will lead to HIV transmission among couples. The study is set to determine the sexual practices of people living with HIV (PLWHA) in Southeast Nigeria. This is an analytical epidemiological study. A total of 300 subjects were studied using interviewer administered questionnaires. Data is presented in tables and figures. Analysis was done using SPSS 11.0 statistical package. Most respondents were in heterosexual relationship (97%). The married couples in serodiscordant relationship were 25.3% while the singles in serodiscordant relationship were 20%. About 56% do not use condom for the adopted sexual practice although 65% believe that condom use would protect against HIV transmission. Couples in seroconcordant seronegative relationship have it as a challenge to remain so. This study suggests that the PLWHA are very important in the spread of HIV infection as they are still sexually active, in non-cohabiting conjugal unstable relationship, and they do not use the condom consistently. There is an urgent need to target this population with effective behavioural change communications that will translate to safer sexual behaviour. The practice of safer sex should be taught in every health care center, in schools and in village gatherings by qualified health care workers. This will help curb the transmission of HIV.

  9. Knowledge and psychosocial wellbeing of nurses caring for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH

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    Lufuno Makhado

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of caring for people living with HIV (PLWH in a low-resource setting has had a negative impact on the nursing profession, resulting in a shortage of skilled nurses. In response to this shortage and perceived negative impact, we conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study to describe the level of knowledge and psychosocial wellbeing of nurses caring for PLWH at a regional hospital in Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 233 nurses, the majority being female, participated and were stratified into professional nurses (n =108, enrolled nurses (n = 58 and enrolled nursing auxiliaries (n = 66. Data were collected using HIV/AIDS knowledge questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory; AIDS Impact Scale and Beck's Depression Inventory. The total knowledge score obtained by all the participants ranged from 2 to 16, with an average of 12.93 (SD = 1.92 on HIV/AIDS knowledge. Depersonalization (D (83.7% and emotional exhaustion (EE (53.2% were reported among participating nurses caring for PLWH. Burnout was higher among professional nurses as compared to both enrolled nurses and enrolled nursing auxiliaries. There was a moderate negative significant correlation between HIV knowledge with the nurses' emotional exhaustion (r = 0.592, depression (r = 0.584 and stigma and discrimination (r = 0.637. A moderate to high level of burnout was evident among all levels of nurses. These findings lead to the recommendations for support of nurses caring for PLWH that include structured nursing educational support, organisational support with respect to employee wellness programmes that address depression and work burnout, as well as social support. The provision of these support mechanisms has the potential of creating a positive practice environment for nurses in the Vhembe District of the Limpopo Province in particular, and South Africa in general, and in improved care for PLWH.

  10. Family planning knowledge and practice among people living with HIV in Nepal.

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    Shiva Raj Mishra

    Full Text Available Unsafe sexual behavior is common among the HIV infected. This exposes them to the risks of unintended pregnancy, HIV transmission to uninfected partners and super-infection. Studies on the use of family planning measures among People Living with HIV (PLHIV are scarce in Nepal. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and practice of family planning (FP in PLHIV. A cross sectional survey was conducted during July-December 2012 in Kaski district of Nepal. A total of 120 PLHIVs were recruited using snowball sampling from three HIV clinics within the Pokhara sub-metropolitan city area. This study found that nine in ten PLHIV had heard about family planning. Two thirds of respondents were using at least one FP method. The majority (65.8% used condoms and had received FP counseling (67.5%. Less than one percent used condoms in addition to another contraceptive. Being single, being female and having received the counselling sessions were associated with the use of FP. The individuals who received FP counseling were more likely [OR 4.522; 95% CI (1.410-14.504] to use FP. Females were more likely [OR 4.808; 95% CI (1.396-16.556] to use FP than males. The individuals who were single/de-facto widowed were more likely [OR 7.330; 95% CI (2.064-26.028] to use FP than the married individuals. Our findings suggest that there is a need to focus on FP counseling if the HIV prevention program is to increase FP use among the PLHIV population. Use of dual contraceptives need to be promoted through counseling sessions and other health promotion programs focusing in HIV prevention.

  11. Mortality among people living with HIV on antiretroviral treatment in Bali, Indonesia: incidence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Sri; Sawitri, Anak Agung Sagung; Wulandari, Luh Putu Lila; Artawan Eka Putra, I Wayan Gede; Astuti, Putu Ayu Swandewi; Wirawan, Dewa Nyoman; Causer, Louise; Mathers, Bradley

    2017-10-01

    Indonesia has the third highest number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) and the greatest increase in proportion of AIDS-related mortality in the Asia Pacific region between 2005 and 2013. Longitudinal mortality data among PLWH in Indonesia are limited. We conducted a retrospective cohort study from medical records of antiretroviral treatment (ART) recipients attending Badung General Hospital (BGH) and Bali Medica Clinic (BMC) between 2006 and 2014. We explored incidence of mortality by Kaplan-Meier analysis and identified predictors using a Cox proportional hazard model. In total, 575 patients were included in the analysis; the majority were male. The overall mortality rate was 10% per year. Multivariate analysis suggested that being male (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 2.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-5.59), having a lower education (aHR: 2.17; 95%CI: 1.31-3.61), having heterosexual (aHR: 7.40; 95% CI: 2.61-21.00) or injecting drug use (aHR: 13.20; 95% CI: 3.17-55.00) as the likely transmission risk category, starting treatment with low CD4 cell counts (aHR: 3.18; 95% CI: 1.16-8.69), and not having a treatment supervisor (aHR: 4.02; 95% CI: 2.44-6.65) were independent predictors of mortality. The mortality was high, particularly in the first three months after initiating ART. These findings highlight the need to encourage HIV testing and early diagnosis and prompt treatment. Applying aspects of BMCs targeted HIV services model in more generalised services such as BGH may be beneficial. Providing adherence support as part of ART services is key to promoting adherence to ART.

  12. Anthropometric and nutritional profile of people living with HIV and AIDS in India: an assessment

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    Deepika Anand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Importance of nutrition in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is well-established; however, the information regarding the diet quality of people living with HIV (PLHIV especially in India is lacking. Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the anthropometric and nutritional profile of Indian PLHIV. Material and Methods: The study was performed on 400 adult PLHIV registered at the Antiretroviral Center (ART center in New Delhi, India. Anthropometric data including height, weight, waist, hip, mid arm, and calf circumferences, were collected; 1-day 24-h dietary recall was done to gather nutrient intake from which nutrient adequacy ratios were computed. Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA was also conducted. Results: The mean body mass index (BMI of the sample was 19.73 ± 3.55 kg/m 2 with around 40% having BMI <18.5 kg/m 2 . All anthropometric measurements were found to correlate positively and significantly with CD4 count (P < 0.05. The sample consumed poor quality of diet as they could not meet even the 2/3 rd of the Indian Council of Medical Research (2010 requirements for energy, protein, calcium, iron, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, B12, copper, and zinc. Classification of subjects according to MNA indicated that more than 50% of the sample was at-risk of malnutrition and 34% were malnourished. With 40% of sample having BMI less than normal, 50% at risk of malnutrition together with poor nutrient intakes over a long period of time could contribute to further worsening of the nutritional status. Conclusion: There is a need to develop a database on nutritional profile of PLHIV in India which reinforces the need for development of effective strategies to improve their nutritional status.

  13. Daily tritium intakes by people living near a heavy-water research reactor facility: dosimetric significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Cornett, R.J.; Galeriu, D.; Workman, W.; Brown, R.M.

    1997-02-01

    We have estimated the relative daily intakes of tritiated water (HTO) and organically bound tritium (OBT), and have measured HTO-in-urine, in an adult population residing in the town of Deep River, Ontario, near a heavy-water research reactor facility at Chalk River. The daily intake of elevated levels of atmospheric tritium has been estimated from its concentration in environmental and biological samples, and various food items from a local tritium-monitoring program. Where the available data were inadequate, we used estimates generated by an environmental tritium-transfer model. From these data and estimates, we calculated a total daily tritium intake of about 55 Bq. Of this amount, 2.5 Bq is obtained from OBT-in-diet. Inhalation of HTO-in-air (15 Bq d -1 ) and HTO-in-drinking water (15 Bq d -1 ) accounts for more than half of the HTO intake. Skin absorption of HTO from air and bathing or swimming (for 30 min d -1 ) accounts for another 9 Bq d -1 and 0.1 Bq d -1 , respectively. The remaining intake of HTO is from food as tissue-free water tritium. The International Commission on Radiological Protection's recommended two-compartment metabolic model for tritium predicts an equilibrium body burden of about 900 Bq from HTO (818 Bq) and OBT (83 Bq) in the body, which corresponds to an annual tritium dose of 0.41 μSv. The model-predicted urinary excretion of HTO (∼18 Bq L -1 ) agrees well with measured HTO-in-urine (range, 10-32 Bq L -1 ). The OBT dose contribution to the total tritium dose is about 16%. We conclude that for the people living near the Chalk River research reactor facility, the bulk of the tritium dose is due to HTO intake. (author)

  14. The use of complementary and alternative medicine among people living with diabetes in Sydney

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    Manya Kiran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is common in patients with chronic disease such as diabetes mellitus. The primary objective of the study was to determine the overall prevalence and type of CAM use in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM in Western Sydney and to compare the prevalence and factors associated with CAM use with the literature. Methods A multicenter cross-sectional study was undertaken using a self-completed questionnaire distributed to patients with DM attending a public hospital and specialist endocrinology clinics in the region. The type of DM and pattern of CAM utilisation were analyzed. Results Sixty nine people responded to the questionnaire: age range of 18-75 years during a twelve week collection period. Overall, 32 respondents with diabetes were using some form of CAM, resulting in a utilisation rate of 46.3%. Twenty of the 32 CAM users used CAM specifically to treat their diabetes accounting for 28.9% of the respondent sample population. Multivitamins (40%, cinnamon, Co-enzyme q10 and prayer were the most frequently used CAM modalities. There was no significant difference between males and females, age range, income or diabetes complications between CAM and non-CAM users. (p values each > 0.05 The factor most significantly associated with CAM usage was being born overseas (p = 0.044. Conclusions Almost half the respondents (46.3% used CAM: 28% used CAM specifically to treat their diabetes. Individuals born overseas were significantly more likely to use CAM than those born in Australia. Other factors such as age, gender, wealth and duration of living with diabetes were not associated with higher rate of CAM usage.

  15. Support needs of people living with Mycobacterium ulcerans (Buruli ulcer) disease in a Ghana rural community: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effah, Alex; Ersser, Steven J; Hemingway, Ann

    2017-12-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans (also known as Buruli ulcer) disease is a rare skin disease which is prevalent in rural communities in the tropics mostly in Africa. Mortality rate is low, yet morbidity and consequent disabilities affect the quality of life of sufferers. The aim of this paper is to use the grounded theory method to explore the support needs of people living with the consequences of Buruli ulcer in an endemic rural community in Ghana. We used the grounded theory research approach to explore the experiences of people living with Mycobacterium ulcerans in a rural district in Ghana and provide a basis to understand the support needs of this group. The key support needs identified were: functional limitations, fear and frequency of disease recurrence, contracture of limbs and legs, loss of sensation and numbness in the affected body area, lack of information from health professionals about self-care, feeling tired all the time, insomnia, lack of good diet, lack of access to prostheses, having to walk long distances to access health services, and loss of educational opportunities. The study discusses how the systematically derived qualitative data has helped to provide a unique insight and advance our understanding of the support needs of people living with BU and how they live and attempt to adapt their lives with disability. We discuss how the availability of appropriate interventions and equipment could help them self-manage their condition and improve access to skin care services. The support needs of this vulnerable group were identified from a detailed analysis of how those living with BU coped with their lives. A key issue is the lack of education to assist self-management and prevent deterioration. Further research into the evaluation of interventions to address these support needs is necessary including self-management strategies. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. One hundred miles of lives: The Stasi files as a people's history of East Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Molly

    1998-01-01

    The article explores a guiding assumption about oral history or "people's history": that it empowers "the people" simply because they are at the center of it. It provides the context of the Ministerium fur Staatsicherheit the "MfS" or "Stasi" files which were gathered by the communist government of Eastern Germany during the cold war. The author observes that although these files represent one of the most extensive examples which exist of a real people's history they are also a people's histo...

  17. A two-billion-year history for the lunar dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoo, Sonia M; Weiss, Benjamin P; Shuster, David L; Suavet, Clément; Wang, Huapei; Grove, Timothy L

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic studies of lunar rocks indicate that the Moon generated a core dynamo with surface field intensities of ~20 to 110 μT between at least 4.25 and 3.56 billion years ago (Ga). The field subsequently declined to lunar dynamo by at least 1 billion years. Such a protracted history requires an extraordinarily long-lived power source like core crystallization or precession. No single dynamo mechanism proposed thus far can explain the strong fields inferred for the period before 3.56 Ga while also allowing the dynamo to persist in such a weakened state beyond ~2.5 Ga. Therefore, our results suggest that the dynamo was powered by at least two distinct mechanisms operating during early and late lunar history.

  18. "Heroes" and "Villains" in the Lives of Children and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sally; Smith, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the responses of nearly 1,200 children and young people in Wales who were asked to identify which three famous people they most admired and which three they most disliked. Analysis of these young people's responses reveals a number of sociological and educational issues. Their selections confirm other research which has…

  19. Interventions to build resilience in family caregivers of people living with dementia: a comprehensive systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriwskyj, Andrea; Parker, Deborah; O'Dwyer, Siobhan; Moyle, Wendy; Nucifora, Nikki

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have indicated that family caregivers of people with dementia have higher rates of depression, anxiety and hopelessness, as well as higher levels of burden, stress and distress. Not all caregivers, however, succumb to the negative effects of caring. Caregivers who are able to recover from, resist or adapt to the physical and psychological demands of caring can be considered "resilient". The objective of this review was to examine the existing evidence regarding interventions for building resilience in family caregivers of people living with dementia. This review considered studies that included family caregivers of people with dementia. Studies investigating interventions to build resilience in family caregivers were considered by the review. For qualitative studies, the phenomena of interest were family caregivers' experiences of the interventions including factors affecting implementation and their subjective experience of outcomes. Studies conducted in any cultural or geographical context and any settings including participants' homes in the community, residential aged care or hospital, medical or allied health practice were considered for inclusion. Quantitative studies incorporating experimental and descriptive study designs and qualitative studies, including, but not limited to, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, action research and feminist research were considered for inclusion. Quantitative studies were included that contained either objective or subjective outcome measures (or a combination of both). In cases in which proxy measures of resilience were used, only those papers that explicitly related the aims of the intervention and the measurement of outcomes to resilience itself were considered for inclusion. Proxies could include, but were not limited to, self-efficacy, locus of control, perceived burden, psychological wellbeing, strength, coping, positive adjustment and resourcefulness. Qualitative studies were similarly

  20. Eating in the City: A Review of the Literature on Food Insecurity and Indigenous People Living in Urban Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Skinner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous people often occupy different overlapping or co-existing food environments that include market-based foods, land and water based foods, and combinations of the two. Studying these food environments is complicated by the cultural and geographic diversity of Indigenous people and the effects of colonialism, land dispossession, relocation and forced settlement on static reserves, and increasing migration to urban areas. We conducted a scoping study of food insecurity and Indigenous peoples living in urban spaces in Canada, the United States, and Australia. The 16 studies reviewed showed that food insecurity among urban Indigenous populations is an issue in all three nations. Findings highlight both the variety of experiences of urban Indigenous peoples within and across the three nations, and the commonalities of these experiences.

  1. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    underneath me; I really wanted to be catapulted into a different culture. Going to teach in Zimbabwe just meant fulfilling an awful lot of things in one go really - teaching science as well as going to live in a completely different place and being the only white person for 60 miles. But I didn't want to teach in a school forever. With something like science communication, and the joy of working on this exhibition at @Bristol for example, I've been able to try to appeal to all ages and kinds of people. And I've also been able to use different media, such as hands-on exhibits or computers, give talks or run events. What do you think the role of the exhibition is? We're much more interested in getting people excited, motivated and inspired by science and natural history rather than just trying to get across facts. We also think it's important to enable people to feel more confident about their own science and feel they can have a view about science issues. Do you have a wide range of visitors from primary school children to adults? Absolutely. I think a lot of people see hands-on science centres as being places for kids and we really wanted to make sure that teenagers, adults and senior citizens would see it as a place that was appropriate for them. So we actually split the exhibition up into four different areas in order to appeal to different age groups in different ways. For instance our area on the brain and body is more appropriate for teenagers, adults and senior citizens; small children will still find fun things to do, but there are other areas that are much more engaging for them. Whereas for adults finding out about themselves, finding out what they react to emotionally, finding out more about sex and reproduction, is something that they have responded to really well. And the great thing has been seeing teenagers coming in, choosing to come to a science centre on a Saturday afternoon. Quite a few teenagers have said that they came here with their families and now

  2. Is a change in functional capacity or dependency in activities of daily living associated with a change in mental health among older people living in residential care facilities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conradsson M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mia Conradsson,1 Håkan Littbrand,1,2 Gustaf Boström,1 Nina Lindelöf,1 Yngve Gustafson,1 Erik Rosendahl1,2 1Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 2Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Aim: Functional capacity and dependency in activities of daily living (ADL could be important mediators for an association between physical exercise and mental health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a change in functional capacity or dependency in ADL is associated with a change in depressive symptoms and psychological well-being among older people living in residential care facilities, and whether dementia can be a moderating factor for this association. Methods: A prospective cohort study was undertaken. Participants were 206 older people, dependent in ADL, living in residential care facilities, 115 (56% of whom had diagnosed dementia. Multivariate linear regression, with comprehensive adjustment for potential confounders, was used to investigate associations between differences over 3 months in Berg Balance Scale (BBS and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15 scores, and in BBS and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS scores. Associations were also investigated between differences in Barthel ADL Index and GDS-15 scores, and in Barthel ADL Index and PGCMS scores. Results: There were no significant associations between changes in scores over 3 months; the unstandardized β for associations between BBS and GDS-15 was 0.026 (P=0.31, BBS and PGCMS 0.045 (P=0.14, Barthel ADL Index and GDS-15 0.123 (P=0.06, and Barthel ADL Index and PGCMS -0.013 (P=0.86. There were no interaction effects for dementia. Conclusion: A change in functional capacity or dependency in ADL does not appear to be associated with a change in depressive symptoms or psychological well-being among older people living in residential care

  3. The perspectives of children and young people living with cleft lip and palate: a review of qualitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Mohammad Owaise; Callery, Peter; Tierney, Stephanie

    2013-05-01

    Objective :  To explore the experiences of children and young people with cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) in relation to being treated for and living with this condition. Design :  A systematic review of qualitative research. Electronic databases and hand-searching were employed to identify relevant studies. The review centered on studies examining the views or experiences of young patients first-hand. Any study using a qualitative/mixed method design was eligible for inclusion. Results :  From 184 potential references, 38 papers were read in full, from which only two studies of young people met all the review's inclusion criteria. Common reasons for exclusion were not being a qualitative study, not focusing on CL/P, or data coming from parents only. A further two papers provided a retrospective account of childhood with CL/P from interviews with adults. Their suitability for the review's aims was limited, but they were discussed. Conclusions :  This review demonstrates that there is a paucity of evidence about the experiences of young people living with CL/P. No studies of children and only two studies of young people met all inclusion criteria. Identified papers implied that more attention is needed within families and services to help young people manage everyday difficulties such as bullying and self-consciousness due to facial difference.

  4. HIV-Related Self-Stigma and Health-Related Quality of Life of People Living With HIV in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Nobre, Nuno; Pereira, Marco; Roine, Risto P.; Sutinen, Jussi; Sintonen, Harri

    2017-01-01

    We examined how HIV-related self-stigma was associated with different domains of quality of life (QoL), as measured by the World Health Organization Quality of Life in HIV-infected persons instrument (WHOQOL-HIV-Bref), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as measured by the generic 15D (15-dimensional measure of HRQoL), to identify the factors associated with self-stigma of people living with HIV (PLWH). The study sample included 440 patients living with HIV followed at the Infectious D...

  5. Cost-effectiveness of community vegetable gardens for people living with HIV in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puett, Chloe; Salpéteur, Cécile; Lacroix, Elisabeth; Zimunya, Simbarashe Dennis; Israël, Anne-Dominique; Aït-Aïssa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    There is little evidence to date of the potential impact of vegetable gardens on people living with HIV (PLHIV), who often suffer from social and economic losses due to the disease. From 2008 through 2011, Action Contre la Faim France (ACF) implemented a project in Chipinge District, eastern Zimbabwe, providing low-input vegetable gardens (LIGs) to households of PLHIV. Program partners included Médecins du Monde, which provided medical support, and Zimbabwe's Agricultural Extension Service, which supported vegetable cultivation. A survey conducted at the end of the program found LIG participants to have higher Food Consumption Scores (FCS) and Household Dietary Diversity Scores (HDDS) relative to comparator households of PLHIV receiving other support programs. This study assessed the incremental cost-effectiveness of LIGs to improve FCS and HDDS of PLHIV compared to other support programs. This analysis used an activity-based cost model, and combined ACF accounting data with estimates of partner and beneficiary costs derived using an ingredients approach to build an estimate of total program resource use. A societal perspective was adopted to encompass costs to beneficiary households, including their opportunity costs and an estimate of their income earned from vegetable sales. Qualitative methods were used to assess program benefits to beneficiary households. Effectiveness data was taken from a previously-conducted survey. Providing LIGs to PLHIV cost an additional 8,299 EUR per household with adequate FCS and 12,456 EUR per household with HDDS in the upper tertile, relative to comparator households of PLHIV receiving other support programs. Beneficiaries cited multiple tangible and intangible benefits from LIGs, and over 80% of gardens observed were still functioning more than one year after the program had finished. Cost outcomes were 20-30 times Zimbabwe's per capita GDP, and unlikely to be affordable within government services. This analysis concludes that

  6. A Web-Based Study of Dog Ownership and Depression Among People Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Abigail L; Kuhns, Lisa M; Supple, Julie; Jacobson, Kristen C; Garofalo, Robert

    2017-11-08

    People living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) are approximately twice as likely to be depressed compared with HIV-negative individuals. Depression is consistently associated with low antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, an important step within the HIV care continuum related to HIV disease progression and overall health. One factor that may have positive psychosocial benefits and promote ART adherence is dog ownership. Research indicates that dog ownership is associated with lower depression, and initial evidence suggests its positive impact on psychosocial outcomes for PLHIV. The aim of our study was to expand the existing research by examining the relationship between current dog ownership and depression for a sample of PLHIV while controlling for demographic characteristics and other potential confounders. Participants aged 18 years or older and who self-reported an HIV diagnosis were recruited via social media into When Dogs Heal, a cross-sectional Web-based survey to collect data among adult PLHIV. The research visit was conducted via a Web-based survey, and there was no in-person interaction with the participant. Primary outcome measures included demographic questions (age, race, ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation), pet ownership (type of pet owned and current dog ownership), depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, 10 items), and resilience (Resilience Research Centre Adult Resilience Measure, 28 items). A total of 252 participants were enrolled into the study in January 2016, with a final analytic sample of 199 participants. Mean age was 49 years, 86.4% (172/199) of participants were male, and 80.4% (160/199) were white. Current dog ownership was prevalent among the sample (68.3%, 136/199). Bivariate analysis indicated that there was no significant relationship between depression and demographic characteristics (age, race, ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation), with P>.05. The multivariate logistic regression

  7. Smoking and renal function in people living with human immunodeficiency virus: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlström MG

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Magnus Glindvad Ahlström,1 Bo Feldt-Rasmussen,2 Rebecca Legarth,1 Gitte Kronborg,3 Court Pedersen,4 Carsten Schade Larsen,5 Jan Gerstoft,1 Niels Obel1 1Department of Infectious Diseases, 2Department of Nephrology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 3Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, 4Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Odense, 5Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Aarhus, Denmark Introduction: Smoking is a main risk factor for morbidity and mortality in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV, but its potential association with renal impairment remains to be established. Methods: We did a nationwide population-based cohort study in Danish PLHIV to evaluate the association between smoking status and 1 overall renal function and risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD, 2 risk of any renal replacement therapy (aRRT, and 3 mortality following aRRT. We calculated estimated creatinine clearance using the Cockcroft–Gault equation (CG-CrCl, and evaluated renal function graphically. We calculated cumulative incidence of CKD (defined as two consecutive CG-CrCls of ≤60 mL/min, ≥3 months apart and aRRT and used Cox regression models to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs for risk of CKD, aRRT, and mortality rate ratios (MRRs following aRRT. Results: From the Danish HIV Cohort Study, we identified 1,475 never smokers, 768 previous smokers, and 2,272 current smokers. During study period, we observed no association of smoking status with overall renal function. Previous and current smoking was not associated with increased risk of CKD (adjusted IRR: 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7–1.7; adjusted IRR: 1.3, 95% CI: 0.9–1.8 or aRRT (adjusted IRR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.4–1.7; adjusted IRR: 0.9, 95% CI: 0.5–1.7. Mortality following aRRT was high in PLHIV and increased in smokers vs never smokers (adjusted MRR: 3

  8. Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV by healthcare providers, Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyissa Garumma T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stigma and discrimination against people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are obstacles in the way of effective responses to HIV. Understanding the extent of stigma / discrimination and the underlying causes is necessary for developing strategies to reduce them. This study was conducted to explore stigma and discrimination against PLHIV amongst healthcare providers in Jimma zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study, employing quantitative and qualitative methods, was conducted in 18 healthcare institutions of Jimma zone, during March 14 to April 14, 2011. A total of 255 healthcare providers responded to questionnaires asking about sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, perceived institutional support and HIV-related stigma and discrimination. Factor analysis was employed to create measurement scales for stigma and factor scores were used in one way analysis of variance (ANOVA, T-tests, Pearson’s correlation and multiple linear regression analyses. Qualitative data collected using key-informant interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs were employed to triangulate with the findings from the quantitative survey. Results Mean stigma scores (as the percentages of maximum scale scores were: 66.4 for the extra precaution scale, 52.3 for the fear of work-related HIV transmission, 49.4 for the lack of feelings of safety, 39.0 for the value-driven stigma, 37.4 for unethical treatment of PLHIV, 34.4 for discomfort around PLHIV and 31.1 for unofficial disclosure. Testing and disclosing test results without consent, designating HIV clients and unnecessary referral to other healthcare institutions and refusal to treat clients were identified. Having in-depth HIV knowledge, the perception of institutional support, attending training on stigma and discrimination, educational level of degree or higher, high HIV case loads, the presence of ART service in the healthcare facility and claiming to be

  9. Looking beyond health-related quality of life: predictors of subjective well-being among people living with HIV in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberjé, E.J.M.; Dima, A.L.; van Hulzen, A.G.W.; Prins, J.M.; de Bruin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Health care interventions are increasingly expected to improve subjective well-being (SWB) rather than health-related quality of life (HRQOL) only. However, little is known about how HRQOL and other relevant quality of life (QOL) domains relate to SWB among people living with HIV. People living with

  10. Empowering billions with food safety and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, Suresh D.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: There are virtually millions of people -who die needlessly every year due to contaminated water and food. There are virtually many millions more who are starving due to an inadequate supply of food. Billions of pounds of food are unnecessarily wasted due to insect and other damage. Deaths and illness due to contaminated food or inadequate food are at catastrophic levels in many regions of the world. A majority of the food and water borne illnesses and deaths are preventable. It can be prevented by improved food production methods, improved food processing technologies, improved food distribution systems and improved personal hygiene. Food irradiation technology is over 100 years old. Yet, this technology is poorly understood by governments and corporate decision makers all around the world. Many consumers also are unfortunately misinformed of this technology. There is an urgent need for nations and people around the world to empower themselves with the knowledge and the expertise to harness this powerful technology. Widespread and sensible adoption of this technology can empower billions around the world with clean and abundant food supplies. It is unconscionable in the 21st century for governments to allow people to die or go hungry when the technology to prevent them is readily available

  11. New living for elderly people. An outline of domotics and sustainability for elderly people; Het nieuwe wonen voor ouderen. Een omgevingsverkenning naar domotica en duurzaamheid voor ouderen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dries, J.; Ellen, G.J.; Den Blanken, M. [TNO Strategie, Technologie en Beleid TNO-STB, Delft (Netherlands); Maas, N. [TNO Bouw, Delft (Netherlands)

    2003-03-01

    A brief overview is given of the possibilities for elderly people to make use of domotics in order to live on one's own. The results of the title study are based on literature and other information sources. [Dutch] Dit rapport geeft een beknopt overzicht van de mogelijkheden om met behulp van domotica ouderen langer zelfstandig en duurzaam te laten wonen. Binnen het begrip duurzaamheid wordt onderscheid gemaakt tussen ecologische duurzaamheid (planet), economische duurzaamheid (profit) en sociale duurzaamheid (people). Hiertoe zijn projecten, literatuur en andere informatiebronnen verzameld op het terrein van domotica, duurzaamheid en ouderen waaruit blijkt dat er, sinds domotica de laatste tien jaar actueel is geworden, al enorm veel geprobeerd en geschreven is. Met name de combinatie 'ouderen en domotica' en 'domotica en duurzaamheid' levert veel materiaal op. Zeldzamer is echter de combinatie van alledrie de elementen.

  12. Validation of Six Short and Ultra-short Screening Instruments for Depression for People Living with HIV in Ontario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Stephanie KY; Boyle, Eleanor; Burchell, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Objective Major depression affects up to half of people living with HIV. However, among HIV-positive patients, depression goes unrecognized 60–70% of the time in non-psychiatric settings. We sought to evaluate three screening instruments and their short forms to facilitate the recognition...... acceptance. This could lead to clinical benefits in fast-paced speciality HIV care settings and better management of depression in HIV-positive patients....

  13. Adherence to antiretroviral treatment and associated factors in people living with HIV/AIDS in Quindío, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Deisy Viviana Cardona-Duque; Oscar Adolfo Medina-Pérez; Sandra Milena Herrera-Castaño; Paula Andrea Orozco-Gómez

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: HIV/AIDS is a chronic disease; therefore, recognizing which factors favor adherence to antiretroviral treatment is necessary. Objective: To determine the association between adherence to antiretroviral treatment and depression, anxiety, perception of social support and sociodemographic variables in people living with HIV/AIDS in Quindío, Colombia. Materials and methods: An observational, cross-sectional study was performed in an intentional sample of 70 adults, who were ap...

  14. Critical Time Intervention for Homeless People Making the Transition to Community Living: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vet, R. de; Beijersbergen, M.D.; Jonker, I.E.; Lako, D.A.M.; Hemert, A.M. van; Herman, D.B.; Wolf, J.R.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    To help create an evidence base in Europe for effective interventions that improve the well-being of homeless people, we tested whether critical time intervention (CTI), a time-limited intervention developed to support vulnerable people during times of transition, is effective outside the United

  15. Affinity Spaces: How Young People Live and Learn on Line and out of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    2018-01-01

    In the digital age, young people's most powerful learning opportunities often occur online, in experiences and environments created by people working outside of the K-12 school system. In a sense, the internet has given new life to an older, less formal approach to education, in which individuals seek out and learn from others who share their…

  16. Motivational determinants of exergame participation for older people in assisted living facilities : Mixed-methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meekes, W.M.A.; Stanmore, E.K.

    2017-01-01

    Exergames (exercise-based videogames) for delivering strength and balance exercise for older people are growing in popularity with the emergence of new Kinect-based technologies; however, little is known about the factors affecting their uptake and usage by older people.The aim of this study was to

  17. A place to live: housing needs for people with psychotic disorders identified in the second Australian National Survey of Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Carol; Killackey, Eoin; Groves, Aaron; Herrman, Helen

    2012-09-01

    Access to adequate housing consistent with personal preferences and needs is a human right and supports recovery from psychosis. This study aimed to: (1) describe people with psychosis living in different housing types, and their preferences and needs; (2) explore selected demographic and social inclusion correlates in relation to housing; and (3) compare two subgroups - participants living in supported group accommodation and supported housing - on key demographic, functional, clinical and social inclusion variables. Current housing, preferences, needs and assistance, and housing-related social inclusion variables were assessed in a two-phase prevalence survey conducted within seven catchment areas across five Australian states. Two supported housing models were compared: supported group accommodation and supported housing (rental accommodation with in-reach support). Descriptive statistics were used. Of the total participants (n = 1825), one half were living in public or private rented housing (48.6%) and 22.7% were waiting for public housing. Despite being the preferred form of housing, only 13.1% were living in their own home. One in 20 participants (5.2%) was currently homeless; 12.8% had been homeless in the previous 12 months. Residents of supported group accommodation felt safer in their locality than those in supported housing, but experienced less privacy and choice. Although fewer participants were homeless compared with the first Australian survey of psychosis, the proportion remains high. Housing difficulties are experienced by people with psychoses living in various accommodation and concern housing adequacy and safety as well as autonomy and choice. Access to public housing is restricted compared with the identified need. Since residents of supported group accommodation felt safer in their locality than those in supported housing, but experienced less privacy and choice, each supported housing model may offer different advantages to people with

  18. Nutritional self-care among a group of older home-living people in rural Southern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale B

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bjørg Dale, Ulrika SöderhamnCentre for Caring Research – Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, NorwayBackground: Older home-living people are an at-risk group for undernutrition, particularly those who are living alone. Lack of knowledge about healthy dietary habits, altered taste sensation, and declined health status are shown to be some of the factors related to undernutrition. The aims of this study were to explore how a small group of older people in Southern Norway perceived their nutritional self-care.Methods: An exploratory qualitative approach, combined with a simple self-report questionnaire, was used. Five persons living in rural areas in Southern Norway, who in a former study were screened and found to be at risk for undernutrition, participated. Qualitative data assessed by means of individual self-care talks in the persons' own homes were analyzed using directed content analysis. A simple self-report questionnaire containing demographic variables, two health-related questions, and the Nutritional Form For the Elderly (NUFFE-NO instrument was filled out at baseline and 6 months after the self-care talks.Results: The qualitative data showed that the participants had adequate knowledge about healthy and nutritious diets. They were aware of and motivated to adapt their diet to their current state of health and to perform the necessary actions to maintain an optimal nutritional status and nutritional self-care.Conclusion: Older people living at home are a diverse group. However, this study showed that they may have sufficient knowledge, willingness, and ability to perform nutritional self-care, even if they live alone and have several chronic illnesses and impaired health.Keywords: adapting, decision-making, knowledge, self-care talks

  19. Dietary intake of energy, nutrients and water in elderly people living at home or in nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelheart, S; Akner, G

    2015-03-01

    There is a lack of detailed information on dietary intake in elderly people at an individual level, which is crucial for improvement of nutritional support. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary intake in elderly people in two types of living situations. Observational study, analysing prospective data. The dietary intake was studied in elderly people living at home or in nursing home, in different cities of Sweden. A total of 264 elderly people (mean age 84) participated in the observational study. Dietary intake was measured using weighed food records and food diaries, comparing females and males. The observed dietary intake was related to Recommended intake and Lower intake level. All dietary intake and patient characteristic variables showed large individual differences (ranges). We found no significant differences (p>0.05) between those living at home and nursing home residents regarding the average intake of energy, protein and water when expressed as total intake per kg of body weight. A very low daily intake of energy (<20 kcal/kg body weight/day) was observed in 16% of the participants. For vitamin D and iron, 19% and 15%, respectively, had intakes below the Lower intake level. There was no correlation between intake of energy, protein or water and resident characteristics such as age, autonomy, morbidity, nutritional state or cognition. The large individual differences (ranges) in energy, nutrients and water show that the use of mean values when analysing dietary intake data from elderly people is misleading. From a clinical perspective it is more important to consider the individual intake of energy, nutrients and water. Ageism is intrinsic in the realm of 'averageology'.

  20. A study on quality of life between elderly people living in old age home and within family setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Panday

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ageing in the new millennium will be greatly influenced by both global and region specific factors, although increasing numbers as well as significant changes in the socio-cultural milieu are responsible for the recent emphasis on studies pertaining to older adults in India. This has resulted in the caregiver issue becoming a growing concern for national policy makers. The family as a single unit is undergoing changes leading to significant adjustments in accommodating and caring for older adults in the family, making them more vulnerable to illness and psychosocial strains in the absence of familial support network. Aim: To assess and compare quality of life (QOL between elderly people living in old age home and within the family setup. Methods and materials: A cross sectional research design was adopted for the study. The study was conducted at two old age homes and two areas of Ranchi - Kantatoli and Kanke. The sample comprised of 80 participants who were further divided into 40 participants from old age homes and 40 participants from family. Tools such as socio-demographic data sheet and QOL scale were administered to obtain the data. Result and conclusion: Findings of this study indicate that QOL was better of those elderly people who were living in old age home in comparison of those elderly people who were living within family setup.

  1. Importance of Footwear for Preventing Xerosis and Hyperkeratosis in Older People with Psychiatric Disorders Living in an Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pico, Ana María; Marcos-Tejedor, Félix; Iglesias-Sánchez, María José; Acevedo, Raquel Mayordomo

    2018-03-24

    Few studies have focused on the relation between the use and characteristics of footwear and the presence of foot lesions in people with psychiatric disorders. This work analyzes the influence of different footwear habits on the presence of deformities and ungueal and dermal pathologies of the foot of institutionalized people with psychiatric disorders compared to people without these disorders. A transversal and observational study was conducted on 107 participants, divided into two groups who have used different types of shoes throughout their lives. The control group comprised 63 autonomous people who mainly use leather footwear and a study group of 44 institutionalized people with intellectual disabilities and psychiatric disorders who mainly use textile footwear. There were significant differences between populations. The group with psychiatric disorders presented more xerosis and hyperkeratosis. Footwear with inappropriate characteristics is a possible causal agent of skin alterations. Wearing footwear with quality textile uppers, e.g., fabric or felt, could influence the appearance of these alterations. Leather footwear is recommended for institutionalized people to reduce symptoms of xerosis and improve their quality of life.

  2. Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Among People Living with HIV and Childhood Sexual Abuse: The Role of Shame and Posttraumatic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Tiara C; Overstreet, Nicole M; Peasant, Courtney; Kershaw, Trace; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Hansen, Nathan B

    2016-08-01

    There is a critical need to examine protective and risk factors of anxiety and depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in order to improve quality of life. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the associations between HIV-related shame, sexual abuse-related shame, posttraumatic growth, and anxiety and depressive symptoms among a cohort of 225 heterosexual women and men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Higher sexual abuse-related shame was related to more anxiety and depressive symptoms for heterosexual women. Higher posttraumatic growth predicted less anxiety symptoms for only heterosexual women. Higher posttraumatic growth predicted less depressive symptoms for heterosexual women and MSM, but the magnitude of this effect was stronger for heterosexual women than MSM. Psychosocial interventions may need to be tailored to meet the specific needs of heterosexual women and MSM living with HIV and CSA.

  3. [Does the care for the fear of falling bring a profit to community living elderly people who had experienced falls?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrot, Marion De Rogalski; Perrot, Catherine; Blanc, Patricia; Beauchet, Olivier; Blanchon, Marie Ange; Gonthier, Régis

    2007-09-01

    fall is common in old people and has multiple consequences, physical but also psychological, with a fear of falling which results in reduction in the activities of everyday life, loss of autonomy and entry in dependence. The aim of the study was to evluate the benefit of taking into account the fear of falling in the care of old people who had experienced falls. old people who experienced falls and with a good cognitive status were followed in a day hospital during one year. Evaluation including a specific assessment of the responsibility of the psychological factor, the photolangage, was performed before and after multi-field rehabilitation. We used the rating scales ADL, IADL, SF-36, SAFE, and verbal and analogical scales of the fear of falling. fifteen patients were included (mean age 85 years +/- 5,7). The majority were women living alone, with a good nutritional status, a moderated renal insufficiency, and a comorbidity involving polymedication. Scores on the ADL and IADL scales showed a consolidation of the patients' autonomy, with a slight but significant improvement of the IADL scores (p fear of falling (visual analogical, verbal scales, SAFE) showed a statistically significant improvement (pfear of falling brings a benefit in term of quality of life and preservation of autonomy in old people living in the community who had experienced falls.

  4. SOCIO - DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF OLD AGE PEOPLE LIVING IN URBAN & URBAN SLUM AREAS IN MAHARASHTRA, KARAD: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Rahul Salunkhe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available NTRODUCTION: Aging refers to normal, progressive and irreversible biological changes that occur over an individual’s life span. The advancement of medical science and increased awareness among the people has brought about a sharp decline in mortality and a steady decline in fertility. This has resulted in a worldwide shift in the demographic profile and has led to significant increase in the aged population. About two thirds of all older people are concentrated in the developing world. OBJECTIVES: to study & compare socio - demographic variables of old age people living in Urban & Urban slum areas. MATERIAL & METHODS: all the old age people living in urb a n slum area & rando mly selected one urban area of K arad town were interviewed by using pre structured proforma about socio - demographic variable & compared with each other. OBSERVATIONS: Total 153 from urban & 135 from urban slum were enrolled for the study. Nearly 2/3 rd subjects were above age 65yrs in both areas with more female proportions in slum area than urban area. Significant difference was found with education, occupation & socio - economic status in both areas. CONCLUSION: Ageing is a universal phenomenon, with advanced fertility control, improvement in health and social services life expectancy has increased. Ageing has profound effect on the individual status in the family, the work force, goals and organization of health, social services, policies and practices of the government

  5. The problem group? Psychological wellbeing of unmarried people living alone in the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Hwa Ho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of unmarried one-person households has increased rapidly among young adults living in the Republic of Korea since 2000. How this rise in solo living is related to psychological wellbeing is of importance to both individuals and society as a whole. Objective: This study examined how living alone is related to psychological wellbeing and how this association differs across attitudes toward marriage among young adults aged 25-39. Methods: We relied on repeated cross-sectional data from the Korea Social Survey (2010 and 2012 to compare unmarried solo residents to both unmarried and married individuals living with family members. Psychological wellbeing was measured in terms of life satisfaction and suicidal ideation over the past twelve months. Results: In general, unmarried solo residents experienced greater life satisfaction than did unmarried family coresidents. Of those with a positive attitude toward marriage, unmarried solo residents had lower life satisfaction than did married family coresidents. For those with a non-positive attitude toward marriage, however, there was no difference in the level of life satisfaction between unmarried solo residents and married family coresidents. Suicidal ideation did not differ by living arrangement. Conclusions: Unmarried solo living does not necessarily relate to lower psychological wellbeing among young adults in Korea. Life stage and attitudes toward marriage should be considered when examining the association between living arrangements and psychological wellbeing.

  6. Lived experiences of student nurses caring for intellectually disabled people in a public psychiatric institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Temane

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caring for intellectually disabled people can be demanding for student nurses who are novices in the nursing profession. To ensure that quality nursing care is provided, student nurses should have an understanding of and a positive attitude towards intellectually disabled people. Nursing intellectually disabled people can be a challenge for the student nurses. Therefore, student nurses need to be able to deal with challenges of caring for intellectually disabled people. Objective: This article aims to explore and describe experiences of student nurses caring for intellectually disabled people in a public psychiatric institution. Design and method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used. Data were collected through individual in-depth phenomenological interviews, naïve sketches and field notes. Thematic analysis was utilised to analyse the collected data. Results were contextualised within the literature and measures to ensure trustworthiness were adhered to. Ethical principals were also applied throughout the research process. Results: Five themes emerged from the data. Student nurses experienced a profoundly unsettling impact on their whole being when caring for intellectually disabled people; they developed a sense of compassion and a new way of looking at life, and experienced a need for certain physical, mental and spiritual needs to be met. Conclusion: From the results, it is evident that student nurses were challenged in caring for intellectually disabled people. However, they developed a sense of awareness that intellectually disabled people have a need to be cared for like any other person. Keywords: experiences, student nurses, caring, intellectually disabled people, public psychiatric institution

  7. Sensor monitoring to measure and support daily functioning for independently living older people: A systematic review and road map for further development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, M.C.; Poerbodipoero, S.; Robben, S.; Daams, J.; van Hartingsveldt, M.; de Vos, R.; de Rooij, S.E.; Kröse, B.; Buurman, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To study sensor monitoring (use of a sensor network placed in the home environment to observe individuals' daily functioning (activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living)) as a method to measure and support daily functioning for older people living independently

  8. Sensor monitoring to measure and support daily functioning for independently living older people: a systematic review and road map for further development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, Margriet C.; Poerbodipoero, Soemitro; Robben, Saskia; Daams, Joost; van Hartingsveldt, Margo; de Vos, Rien; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Kröse, Ben; Buurman, Bianca M.

    2013-01-01

    To study sensor monitoring (use of a sensor network placed in the home environment to observe individuals' daily functioning (activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living)) as a method to measure and support daily functioning for older people living independently at home.

  9. A Review of Smart House Analysis Methods for Assisting Older People Living Alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veralia Gabriela Sanchez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Smart Houses are a prominent field of research referring to environments adapted to assist people in their everyday life. Older people and people with disabilities would benefit the most from the use of Smart Houses because they provide the opportunity for them to stay in their home for as long as possible. In this review, the developments achieved in the field of Smart Houses for the last 16 years are described. The concept of Smart Houses, the most used analysis methods, and current challenges in Smart Houses are presented. A brief introduction of the analysis methods is given, and their implementation is also reported.

  10. A review of Smart House Analysis Methods for Assisting Older People Living Alone

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Veralia Gabriela; Pfeiffer, Carlos; Skeie, Nils-Olav

    2017-01-01

    Smart Houses are a prominent field of research referring to environments adapted to assist people in their everyday life. Older people and people with disabilities would benefit the most from the use of Smart Houses because they provide the opportunity for them to stay in their home for as long as possible. In this review, the developments achieved in the field of Smart Houses for the last 16 years are described. The concept of Smart Houses, the most used analysis methods, and current challen...

  11. The Indigenous Red Ribbon Storytelling Study: What does it mean for Indigenous peoples living with HIV and a substance use disorder to access antiretroviral therapy in Saskatchewan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowgesic, Earl; Meili, Ryan; Stack, Sandra; Myers, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous peoples living with HIV are less likely than non-Indigenous peoples living with HIV to access antiretroviral therapy; however, there is not enough contextual information surrounding this issue. The Indigenous Red Ribbon Storytelling Study was conducted in part to examine how Indigenous peoples living with HIV construct and understand their experiences accessing antiretroviral therapy. Our study design was critical Indigenous qualitative research, using the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use and community-based participatory research approaches. The study was conducted in partnership with Indigenous and non-Indigenous organizations. Study participants were adults from two Canadian cities. The study methods included 20 individual and two Indigenous sharing circle interviews, six participant observation sessions, a short survey and thematic analysis. Accessing antiretroviral therapy within the context of living with a substance use disorder was an overarching theme. Indigenous peoples living with HIV felt they had to choose between living with their active substance use disorder and accessing antiretroviral therapy. They felt misunderstood as a person living with a substance use disorder and often felt coerced into using antiretroviral therapy. Despite these challenges, they persevered as Indigenous peoples living with HIV and a substance use disorder. Further research on antiretroviral therapy access among Indigenous peoples living with HIV and a substance use disorder, particularly from the perspective of health service providers, is needed.

  12. risk factors of active tuberculosis in people living with hiv/aids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    2011-07-02

    Jul 2, 2011 ... The objective of this study was to assess distal ... KEYWORDS: Active TB, HIV, risk factors, case control study, Southwest Ethiopia ... and Khat (stimulant plant from Chata Edulis), .... to live in a house made of a cement floor.

  13. Risk management in providing specialized care for people living with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadebal, Oriana Deyze Correia Paiva; Medeiros, Leidyanny Barbosa de; Morais, Kalline Silva de; Nascimento, João Agnaldo do; Monroe, Aline Aparecida; Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing the provision of actions related to managing clinical risk in managing specialized care for people living with AIDS. A cross-sectional study carried out in a reference outpatient clinic in Paraíba, with a sample of 150 adults with AIDS. Data were collected through primary and secondary sources using a structured questionnaire, analyzed using descriptive statistics, multiple correspondence analysis and logistic regression model to determine the association between "providing care" and "clinical risk." Actions with satisfactory provision express a biological care focus; the dimensions that most contributed to a satisfactory assessment of care provision were "clinical and laboratory evaluations" and "prevention and self-care incentivization"; 45.3% of participants were categorized into high clinical risk, 34% into average clinical risk, and 20.7% into low clinical risk; a positive association between providing care and clinical risk was found. The need to use risk classification technologies to direct the planning of local care provision became evident considering its requirements, and thus qualifying the care provided in these areas. Analisar a oferta de ações relacionadas ao manejo de risco clínico na gestão do cuidado especializado a pessoas vivendo com aids. Estudo transversal realizado em ambulatório de referência na Paraíba, com amostra de 150 adultos com aids. Os dados foram coletados por meio de fontes primárias e secundárias utilizando-se de formulário estruturado, e analisados através de estatística descritiva, análise de correspondência múltipla e modelo de regressão logística para averiguar a associação entre "oferta" e "risco clínico". As ações de oferta satisfatória expressam foco biologicista do cuidado; as dimensões que mais contribuíram para o julgamento satisfatório da oferta foram "avaliação clínica e laboratorial" e "prevenção e estímulo ao autocuidado"; 45,3% dos participantes foram categorizados em risco

  14. Protecting People and Families from Radon: A Federal Action Plan for Saving Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    This strategy for radon action outlines actions federal agencies can take within existing resources and program capacities to advance the Healthy People 2020 radon objectives and launch a national effort to end all avoidable radon-induced lung cancer death

  15. The realities people live by: A critical reflection on the value of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-11

    Apr 11, 2013 ... reality(ies) in which people interact and try to make sense of everyday existence. ..... namely a society with a blind spot for evil in its midst. Thus, .... management theory, literary theory and psychology (family systems theory).

  16. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    teachers in Iceland and on Friday to teachers in Ireland. Fred and Frances from Southgate College showed great team spirit in the world's most chaotic quiz, then sang in harmony with Dave from Barnsley and Yoji from Japan amongst others. Kirsten from across the Atlantic shared her research on children and museums on Friday and later I discovered how much I didn't know about global warming from a chemist and a set of unreadable graphs in a computer lab. What a pleasure to see Tom and Seamus from Ireland again. The day closed with a barn dance fling where I managed to boogie on down with some teachers from Turkey. A final 'strip the willow' with Pete and Allison finished me off. Saturday started with breakfast with Ken from Greenwich offering me some part-time work. The exhibitions called and amongst others I hugged Sue from Cardiff, Barry and Leila from London, Pauline from Scotland and an unknown but very friendly lady from Holland. I met a lady from Scotland who lived in Iceland but who taught in Norway and of course Catherine was everywhere. I had tea with Jean from Edinburgh, Janet from London, Gordon from Aberdeen. I laughed with Mick from Sheffield and the same friendly lady from Holland. I ate posh food with Susie from Ayr and applauded big names from America and Australia. I shared a lump in my throat for John and for Wynne and nodded and smiled at countless people whose names I had forgotten but our paths had crossed sometime in the past. There are more than 20 000 members in the ASE and countless thousands of science teachers across the globe. The world is indeed expansive but for three days in Guildford it seemed that the very best speakers and the very cheeriest folk had magically converged on one place. If ever there were confirmation that science and science teaching were alive and well it was there and it was then. If you were there you will know exactly what I mean. If you weren't there then don't miss it next January in Liverpool.www.ase.org.uk

  17. FY97 nuclear-related budgets total 493 billion yen (4.4 billion dollars)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    On September 13, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan announced the estimated nuclear-related budget requests for FY1997 (April, 1997 - Mach, 1998), giving the breakdowns for eight ministries and agencies. The total amount requested by the government bodies was 493.3 billion yen, 0.8% increase as compared with FY96. this figure includes the budget requests of the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Transport, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the Okinawa Development Agency, and the Ministry of Home Affairs, but excludes the budget request made by the Ministry of Education. The budget requests of STA and MITI are 360 billion yen and 126 billion yen, respectively. On August 29, STA released its estimated FY97 budget request. The nuclear-related 360.4 billion yen is 0.9% more than that in year before. Of this sum, 199.9 billion yen is in the general account, and 160.6 billion yen is in the special account for power source development. The details of the nuclear-related amounts are explained. On August 26, MITI released its estimated budget request for FY97, and of the nuclear-related 125.7 billion yen (0.1% increase from FY96), 200 million yen is in the general account, and 98.9 billion yen and 26.6 billion yen are in the special accounts for power resource development and power source diversification, respectively. (K.I.)

  18. ICRP Recommendations to the Protection of People Living in Long-Term Contaminated Areas ICRP publication 111 in brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, S.; Gomaa, M. A.; Rashad, S.

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to through some lights on ICRP free release publication at 4 April 2011-Internationally Known as ICRP publication 111. The title of the publication is (application of the commission's recommendations to the protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas after a nuclear accident or a radiation emergency). Nuclear accidents or a radiation emergency may cause contamination. The contamination may be spread on a large area. There are people living in these areas. For many factors the people refuse to leave their homes. They want to stay along their life as in the case of the normal conditions. So, it is important to facilitate their stay and make it safe. This is not easy. But it is possible without neglect the radiation hazard. The radiation hazard is effective on the life fields. It is harmful in plants, animals, foods, water, milk and the buildings it self. With considering the radiological protection principles the living of the people for a long time could be a fact of the life and will be more easy and safe. Optimization principle has priority to apply. This publication achieves these purposes.The ICRP-111 is translated into Arabic at August 2012. This work is a continuation of the efforts series to translate some of the most important of the ICRP radiological protection references into the Arabic; aiming to maximize the benefit. The previous translations include, ICRP-105 (radiation protection in medicine) and ICRP -113 (education and training in radiological protection for diagnostic and interventional procedures).

  19. Self-management programmes for people living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a call for a reconceptualisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Helga

    2013-03-01

    To synthesise findings from previously published studies on the effectiveness of self-management programmes for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Self-management is a widely valued concept to address contemporary issues of chronic health problems. Yet, findings of self-management programmes for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are indecisive. Literature review of (1) previously published systematic reviews and (2) an integrative literature review. Synthesis of findings from previously published systematic reviews (n = 4) of the effectiveness of self-management programmes for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and an integrated review that was performed on papers published between January 2007-June 2012 (n = 9). Findings demonstrate that there are few studies on the effectiveness of self-management programmes on people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease despite more than a decade of research activities. Outcomes of the studies reveal some increase in health-related quality of life and reduction in use of healthcare resources. The methodological approaches vary, and the sample size is primarily small. Families are not acknowledged. Features of patient-centredness exist in self-management programmes, particularly in the more recent articles. The effectiveness of self-management programmes for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remains indecisive. A reconceptualisation of self-management programmes is called for with attention to a family-centred, holistic and relational care focusing on living with and minimising the handicapping consequences of the health problems in their entirety. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Can I help you? Information sharing in online discussion forums by people living with a long-term condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol S Bond

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Peer-to-peer health care is increasing, especially amongst people living with a long-term condition. How information is shared is, however, sometimes of concern to health care professionals. Objective This study explored what information is being shared on health-related discussion boards and identified the approaches people used to signpost their peers to information. Methods This study was conducted using a qualitative content analysis methodology to explore information shared on discussion boards for people living with diabetes. Whilst there is debate about the best ethical lens to view research carried out on data posted on online discussion boards, the researchers chose to adopt the stance of treating this type of information as “personal health text”, a specific type of research data in its own right. Results Qualitative content analysis and basic descriptive statistics were used to analyse the selected posts. Two major themes were identified: ‘Information Sharing from Experience’ and ‘Signposting Other Sources of Information’. Conclusions People were actively engaging in information sharing in online discussion forums, mainly through direct signposting. The quality of the information shared was important, with reasons for recommendations being given. Much of the information sharing was based on experience, which also brought in information from external sources such as health care professionals and other acknowledged experts in the field. With the rise in peer-to-peer support networks, the nature of health knowledge and expertise needs to be redefined. People online are combining external information with their own personal experiences and sharing that for others to take and develop as they wish.

  1. From Research to Application: Supportive and Therapeutic Environments for People Living With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Margaret P

    2018-01-18

    The evidence about the role the designed and built environment plays in supporting individuals living with dementia has been steadily mounting for almost 40 years. Beginning with the work of M. Powell Lawton at the Weiss Pavilion at the Philadelphia Geriatric Center, there are now dozens of researchers who are exploring how the environment can be either supportive and therapeutic, indeed even serving as a prosthetic for various changes in cognition, or be a barrier to independent functioning and high quality of life. Two recent literature reviews published on the impact of environmental factors and characteristics on individuals living with dementia clearly delineate evidence that the environment can have a therapeutic or a debilitating impact on individuals living with dementia. Rather than duplicate these excellent reviews, this article puts the knowledge gleaned from this research into the shifting context that is long-term care. This article begins with an exploration of the evolution of approaches to the design of spaces for individuals living with dementia from traditional or medical models, to special care units (SCUs), to person-centered care (PCC), which is the organizing theme of this supplemental issue. A novel, person-centered way of conceptualizing the domains of environmental systems is then presented and used as the framework for structuring recommendations and creating supportive and therapeutic environments for individuals living with dementia. Although there are distinct pathophysiological and behavioral manifestations of different forms of dementia, there is almost no evidence that suggests alternative environmental characteristics are better for one type of dementia over another. Thus, this article will refer to "individuals living with dementia" as opposed to Alzheimer's disease or other specific forms of dementia. Further, this article only addresses residential environments: homes in the community, independent and assisted living residences

  2. From problem people to addictive products: a qualitative study on rethinking gambling policy from the perspective of lived experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Helen E; Thomas, Samantha L; Robinson, Priscilla

    2018-04-06

    Previous research has shown that government and industry discussions of gambling may focus on personal responsibility for gambling harm. In Australia, these discussions have largely excluded people with lived experience of problem gambling, including those involved in peer support and advocacy. We conducted 26 in-depth interviews with people with current or previous problem gambling on electronic gaming machines (EGMs) involved in peer support and advocacy activities, using an approach informed by Interpretive Policy Analysis and Constructivist Grounded Theory. Participants perceived that government and industry discussed gambling as safe and entertaining with a focus on personal responsibility for problem gambling. This focus on personal responsibility was perceived to increase stigma associated with problem gambling. In contrast, they described gambling as risky, addictive and harmful, with problem gambling resulting from the design of EGMs. As a result of their different perspectives, participants proposed different interventions to reduce gambling harm, including reducing accessibility and making products safer. Challenging the discourses used by governments and industry to describe gambling, using the lived experience of people with experience of gambling harm, may result in reduced stigma associated with problem gambling, and more effective public policy approaches to reducing harm.

  3. The impact of living in a care home on the health and wellbeing of spinal cord injured people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brett; Caddick, Nick

    2015-04-15

    In the UK, 20% of people with spinal cord injury (SCI) are discharged from rehabilitation into an elderly care home. Despite this, and knowledge that the home is central to health and wellbeing, little research has examined the impact of being in care homes on the health and wellbeing of people with SCI. The purpose of this study was to address this gap. Twenty adults who lived in care homes or had done so recently for over two years were interviewed in-depth. Qualitative data were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Analyses revealed that living in a care home environment severely damages quality of life, physical health and psychological wellbeing in the short and long-term. Reasons why quality of life, health, and wellbeing were damaged are identified. These included a lack of freedom, control, and flexibility, inability to participate in community life, inability to sustain relationships, safety problems, restricted participation in work and leisure time physical activity, lack of meaning, self-expression, and a future, loneliness, difficulties with the re-housing process, depression, and suicidal thoughts and actions. It is concluded that for people with SCI, the care home environment violates social dignity, is oppressive, and denies human rights. Implications for housing and health care policies are also offered.

  4. Using personal goal setting to promote the social inclusion of people with intellectual disability living in supported accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, R; Collins, S

    2010-02-01

    The social exclusion of persons with intellectual disability is more marked in congregated than in individualised supported accommodation. Goal setting was used as a means of increasing individuals' choices and engaging support staff in personalised planning. Method People living in four different housing and support options were invited to identify up to three 'social inclusion' goals they wanted to achieve in the coming months. Nine months later, a review was undertaken to see if their goals had been attained and also to identify what had helped or hindered individuals in doing this. The goal selection was then repeated and reviewed again after a further 9 months. Results The most commonly chosen goals were around social activities with other people and over half the participants were reported to have attained at least one of their goals within 9 months, particularly those in supported living arrangements that had greater hours of individual staff support. In the second 9-month period, fewer people chose goals, although the same proportion as before were successful. The main reason given for goal attainment was the information and support provided by staff. Conclusions Goal setting seems a suitable way of promoting social inclusion as it can be tailored to the needs and aspirations of individuals, although extra efforts may be needed to implement and sustain it with staff across all accommodation options.

  5. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on People Living with Type 2 Diabetes: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormgoor, Shohn G; Dalleck, Lance C; Zinn, Caryn; Harris, Nigel K

    2017-10-01

    People with type 2 diabetes typically present with comorbidities, such as elevated blood pressure, high cholesterol, high blood glucose, obesity and decreased fitness, all contributive to increased risk for cardiovascular complications. Determination of effective exercise modalities for the management of such complications is important. One such modality is high-intensity interval training (HIIT). To conduct the review, PubMed and EBSCOHost databases were searched through June 1, 2016, for all HIIT intervention studies conducted in people living with type 2 diabetes. Thereafter, the central characteristics of HIIT were analyzed to obtain a broader understanding of the cardiometabolic benefits achievable by HIIT. Fourteen studies were included for review, but the heterogeneity of the participants with type 2 diabetes, the training equipment and HIIT parameters, accompanied by variations in supervision, dietary advice and medications, prevented direct comparisons. However HIIT, regardless of the specific parameters employed, was a suitable option in pursuing improved glycemic control, body composition, aerobic fitness, blood pressure and lipidemia measures in individuals with type 2 diabetes. HIIT is a therapy with at least equivalent benefit to moderate-intensity continuous training; hence, HIIT should be considered when prescribing exercise interventions for people living with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The family and community lives of older people after the Second World War: new evidence from York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Mark; Wannell, Louise

    2009-01-01

    This article uses the findings of a detailed and unpublished survey, carried out in York in 1947 and 1948, to examine the support networks, social lives and economic conditions of older people in a period when considerable sociological attention was being paid to this section of the population. It is argued that the sociology of old age in this period overstated the role of families, and downplayed the involvement of the wider community, in the social networks of older people. The article also shows that even many of those who were physically restricted in some way could participate fully in social activities. Friends, visiting and social clubs played an important role in many lives. However, the financial circumstances of many older people restricted many areas of social participation, and contemporaneous poverty surveys probably understated the real extent of poverty among the elderly. These high levels of poverty themselves underscore the importance of the family and community support networks that are uncovered using the York data.

  7. Prevalence and socioeconomic factors associated with smoking in people living with HIV by sex, in Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna d’Arc Lyra Batista

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the world. The prevalence of smoking is higher in people infected with HIV than in the general population. Although it is biologically plausible that smoking increases the morbidity and mortality of people living with HIV/AIDS, few studies in developing countries have analyzed the determinants and consequences of smoking in HIV infected people. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of smoking and identify the socioeconomic factors associated with smoking and smoking cessation in patients with HIV by sex. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with baseline data, obtained from an ongoing prospective cohort study of patients with HIV attending two referral centers in Recife, Northeast Region of Brazil, between July 2007 and October 2009. Results: The prevalence of current smoking was 28.9%. For both sexes, smoking was independently associated with heavy alcohol drinking and marijuana use. Among women, smoking was associated with living alone, not being married and illiteracy; and among men, being 40 years or older, low income and using crack. Compared with ex-smokers, current smokers were younger and more likely to be unmarried, heavy drinkers and marijuana users. Conclusions: It is important to incorporate smoking cessation interventions for the treatment of heavy alcohol drinkers and marijuana users with HIV/AIDS, which may increase life expectancy and quality of life, as smoking is related to risk of death, relapse of tuberculosis, and non communicable diseases.

  8. Challenges to conducting research with older people living in nursing homes

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Sue; Longhurst, Susan; Higginson, Irene J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Although older people are increasingly cared for in nursing homes towards the end of life, there is a dearth of research exploring the views of residents. There are however, a number of challenges and methodological issues involved in doing this. The aim of this paper is to discuss some of these, along with residents' views on taking part in a study of the perceptions of dignity of older people in care homes and make recommendations for future research in these settings. M...

  9. The reproductive needs and rights of people living with HIV in Argentina: health service users' and providers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogna, Mónica Laura; Pecheny, Mario M; Ibarlucía, Inés; Manzelli, Hernán; López, Sara Barrón

    2009-09-01

    This article focuses on the contraceptive and reproductive experiences and needs of people living with HIV and on public health services' responses to them in Argentina. Data collected through a national survey amongst people living with HIV (N=841) and semi-structured interviews (N=89) explored the perspectives of both health-care users and HIV/AIDS program coordinators and providers. The survey revealed that 55% of women and 30% of men had had children after their HIV diagnosis and that half of those pregnancies had been unintended. At the time of the survey in 2006, 73% of men and 64% of women did not want a (new) pregnancy. The vast majority report systematic condom use, but acknowledge difficulties complying with this recommendation. Dual protection (i.e., condom use plus another method) is low among those who do not want children or another pregnancy (8% of women and 9% of men reported using it). Mostly women and heterosexual men without children either expressed their wish or were seeking to be parents. Institutional and cultural barriers to friendly and/or effective contraceptive and reproductive counselling were identified. Most physicians encourage only condom use while a minority refers patients to family planning providers or talk with them about contraception. A lack of updated information about interactions between antiretroviral drugs and hormonal contraception and/or intrauterine devices was not infrequent among providers. Users reported having being discouraged or blamed by health professionals when they revealed they wanted to have (or were expecting) a baby. Professionals and program directors' attitudes regarding reproduction range from not acknowledging people's wishes, to providing useful information or referral. Whether wanted or unexpected, parenthood is a challenge for many of the people living with HIV. Social and biomedical responses still need to be refined in order to fully respect people's rights and succeed in preventing (re

  10. 'What really annoys me is people take it like it's a disability', epilepsy, disability and identity among people of Pakistani origin living in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Penny J; Small, Neil A; Ismail, Hanif; Wright, John P

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of Pakistani people with epilepsy. It explores their attitudes towards their condition, others' attitudes, its impact on their lives, and the extent to which they considered themselves as disabled. Epilepsy was variously interpreted within biomedical, folk and religious paradigms. In line with popular understandings, participants associated disability with stable, permanent and visible physical impairments and did not consider themselves as disabled. However, they also recognised a social dimension to their experience. Much of the distress and disadvantage they experienced was socially determined, both through direct prejudice and discrimination, and indirectly through a fear of others' negative reactions. However, the invisible and unpredictable nature of epilepsy meant that they could conceal their condition and thereby mitigate its social effects. 'Disability' was not experienced as a static and permanent state but as a potential identity that was both contingent and contested. The literature portrays people moving from biomedical to social interpretations of disability. However, the tensions experienced by people in the study were more between competing religious interpretations of their condition and, to some extent, between religious and medical approaches. Conceptions of disability, which are presented in the literature as antagonistic and mutually exclusive, were experienced as different dimensions reflecting the complexity of experience. The paper concludes by suggesting that for many people, for whom disability is an ambiguous, contingent and contested identity, public self-identification as disabled is an unrealistic goal. Rather than conceiving of disability as primarily physical or primarily social, it would be better construed as a complex interweaving of multiple factors--physical, environmental, socio-cultural and psychological factors.

  11. What People Living with Aphasia Think about the Availability of Aphasia Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, Jacqueline J.; Hasselkus, Amy; Ganzfried, Ellayne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Obtaining health information and resources can influence an individual's (a) access to services, (b) interactions with health care providers, and (c) ability to manage one's own health needs. The purpose of this study was to gather the perceptions of consumers living with aphasia about resource availability and information needs. Method:…

  12. Is green space in the living environment associated with people's feelings of social safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Winsum-Westra, M. van; Verheij, R.A.; Vries, S. de; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigate whether the percentage of green space in people’s living environment affects their feelings of social safety positively or negatively. More specifically they investigate the extent to which this relationship varies between urban and rural areas, between groups in the

  13. [Implementation of a continuum of care for people living with HIV/AIDS in Hanoi (Vietnam)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Loenzien, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    Caring for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) encompasses various tasks, from prevention to palliative care. It involves a set of consistent and coordinated actions. This article presents the first free-of-charge management programme including antiretroviral treatment in Vietnam (as opposed to research and evaluation programmes). It was launched in 2004 in Hanoi. Our study was conducted in 2003-2004 as part of a collaborative research programme led by IRD (Research Institute for Development) and the National Economic University in Hanoi and was funded by ESTHER (Together for a Therapeutic Solidarity in Hospital Network) group. Data collection included 68 qualitative interviews with patients, members of their families and members of the hospital staff, observations of outpatient consultations, and analysis of inpatient files. The results show that patients, their families and hospital staff members all perceive a comprehensive care and treatment programme as very important and consider that it should include social and psychological care as well as an integrated set of actions involving various types of participants. Outpatient and inpatient care are closely linked: they take place in the same hospital department, they involve patients with similar social and demographic characteristics marked by multiple risk behaviours and recourse to several kinds of healthcare services. The observation of outpatient consultations showed the limitations of strictly biomedical care to which social and psychological care were added only lately. One of the principal difficulties is patients' difficulties in keeping their outpatient appointments. Overall, patients consider themselves lucky to able to receive care and treatment with antiretroviral drugs. They nevertheless complain about the lack of social and psychological support, which they expect should help them to tolerate and adapt to their biomedical treatment and to include counselling and information about this treatment and

  14. To tell or not to tell: Negotiating disclosure for people living with HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From weighing up other people's reactions, to being concerned about the effect of their disclosure on their disclosure targets, to concealing one's status to evade untoward negative reactions towards themselves. Further, negotiating one's disclosure is not only about to whom or how to disclose, it also means finding good ...

  15. Negotiating Identities: The Lives of Pakistani and Bangladeshi Young Disabled People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Zoebia

    2008-01-01

    Research has generally amalgamated minority ethnic (all called "Asian" or "black") disabled young people's experiences and failed to acknowledge the multiple aspects of Asian and black disabled identities, for example how the combined attributes of race, ethnicity, religion, gender, culture, class and disability shape their…

  16. Exploring the Lives of Vulnerable Young People in Relation to Their Food Choices and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombert, Karolina; Douglas, Flora; McArdle, Karen; Carlisle, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    The interdisciplinary "Foodways and Futures" project (2013-2016) is based on a pilot study which found no improvement in the nutritional state of formerly homeless young people (16-25), now in supported accommodation at a charitable youth organization. Because a healthy food intake during adolescence is important, and because young…

  17. Tobacco Cessation Intervention for People with Disabilities: Survey of Center for Independent Living Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhouse, Michael D.; Pomeranz, Jamie L.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Yu, Nami S.; Curbow, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    People with disabilities (PWD) are 50% more likely to smoke compared with the general population, yet interventions tailored to the needs of PWD remain limited. The authors surveyed directors from a leading disability service organization to assess their delivery of tobacco cessation interventions. Although tobacco cessation was identified as a…

  18. Information needs of people living with HIV/AIDS in Kano State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS) is a disease that has social, economic, and political implications in Nigeria. It affects young people who are at their most productive age, thereby affecting the economic productivity of the nation. In order to achieve the objective of reducing ...

  19. Managing occupations in everyday life for people with advanced cancer living at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peoples, Hanne; Brandt, Åse; Wæhrens, Eva Elisabet Ejlersen

    2017-01-01

    occupations in everyday life and 2) Self-developed strategies to manage occupations. Significance: The findings suggest that people with advanced cancer should be supported to a greater extent in finding ways to manage familiar as well as new and more personally meaningful occupations to enhance quality...

  20. The Library in the Life of the User: Engaging with People Where They Live and Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaway, Lynn Silipigni, Comp.

    2015-01-01

    The contributions in this volume represent a decade of OCLC's user behavior research findings that articulate the need for the design of future library services to be all about the user. Highlights include: (1) People associate the library with books and do not consider the library in relation to online resources or reference services; (2) People…

  1. The realities people live by: A critical reflection on the value of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contributes to construct social reality. The study will show that religious texts construct the reality(ies) in which people interact and try to make sense of everyday existence. Two stories contemporary to the writer of the article are employed to show that in a certain sense male perceptions about women have not changed ...

  2. Social innovation to reduce the gap between innovative assistive technology and people living with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Gastel; L. Snaphaan; MD E.J.M. Wouters; E. van der Lubbe-Verhaegh; I. Bongers

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Currently, most technology (robotics, smart homes, etc) that has been developed for the healthcare sector are difficult in use, expensive and often not affordable for individual persons in their home situation. Affordable innovations that activate people instead of taking tasks over can be a

  3. Moving in: adjustment of people living with dementia going into a nursing home and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sury, Laura; Burns, Kim; Brodaty, Henry

    2013-06-01

    Most people with dementia in Western societies will eventually be placed in a nursing home. This can be stressful to those with dementia and to their families. The adjustment to this new caring environment by both residents and their family caregivers and the factors that influence this are the focus of this review. A literature search of Embase, Scopus, and Medline databases of articles published in English between 1990 and 2011 using specified search terms was performed to examine this transition. The 174 titles located were screened and reference lists hand searched resulting in the 49 relevant articles included in this review. This decision and the subsequent adjustment period is a difficult time for people with dementia and their family caregivers. Admission has been linked to increased behavioral symptoms and in particular depression and agitation, decreasing cognition, frailty, and falls in people with dementia. For caregivers, guilt, depression, feelings of failure, and continuing burden but also improvement in quality of life have been variously reported. Research to determine what influences the trajectory of these different outcomes and the prevalence of positive outcomes for people with dementia is lacking. Successful transitions may be assisted by ensuring that the person with dementia has input into decision making, orientation procedures for the person with dementia and family member prior to and on admission, a "buddy" system for new arrivals, and a person-centered approach. Adjustment to admission to residential care can be difficult for people with dementia and their family caregivers. Longitudinal research examining factors influencing the adjustment can provide a basis for intervention trials to improve this transition.

  4. Perceptions, opinions and knowledge of pharmacists towards the use of complementary medicines by people living with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, Joanna; Le, Trong Quy; Smith, Lorraine; Krass, Ines

    2018-05-09

    Background Biologically-based complementary medicine (BB-CM) use is prevalent amongst people living with cancer. Pharmacists play an important role in the provision of standard treatments for cancer. Less is known about pharmacist's provision of BB-CM information. Objective This study investigated the opinions, perceptions and knowledge of pharmacists regarding the use of BB-CMs by people living with cancer and the facilitators and barriers to providing information and advice. Setting Australia. Method A cross-sectional 53-item survey was developed and the survey link distributed in two professional associations newsletters. The associations represent ~29,000 pharmacists. Questions were categories into pharmacist's perceptions, opinions, and knowledge towards the use of BB-CM in cancer. Main Outcome Measure Scores obtained from responses to perception, opinion and knowledge statements and responses to demographic questions Results Respondents (n=70) were predominantly female (73%), Caucasian (66%) and under 40 years of age (78%). Respondents estimated that 19% of daily inquiries related to BB-CMs. Seventy-two per cent of respondents believed they had a responsibility to advise about the concomitant use of BB-CM with standard cancer treatments despite 60% reporting a lack of confidence in their knowledge. There was a moderate positive association (Spearman's rho 0.41 p= 0.001) between a pharmacists confidence in their level of knowledge and their total knowledge scores. The main barriers to providing information about BB-CMs reported were inadequate training in BB-CMs (94%) and reservations about the evidence base for efficacy and safety (50%). Conclusion Pharmacists have a role to play in counselling people living with cancer about their use of BB-CMs and this role could be maximized with further training and education in this area.

  5. Experiences of stigma and discrimination in social and healthcare settings among trans people living with HIV in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, M; Wolton, A; Crenna-Jennings, W; Benton, L; Kirwan, P; Lut, I; Okala, S; Ross, M; Furegato, M; Nambiar, K; Douglas, N; Roche, J; Jeffries, J; Reeves, I; Nelson, M; Weerawardhana, C; Jamal, Z; Hudson, A; Delpech, V

    2018-07-01

    The People Living with HIV StigmaSurvey UK 2015 was a community led national survey investigating experiences of people living with HIV in the UK in the past 12 months. Participants aged 18 and over were recruited through over 120 cross-sector community organisations and 46 HIV clinics to complete an anonymous online survey. Trans is an umbrella term which refers to individuals whose current gender identity is different to the gender they were assigned at birth. Trans participants self-identified via gender identity and gender at birth questions. Descriptive analyses of reported experiences in social and health care settings were conducted and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify sociodemographic predictors of reporting being treated differently to non-HIV patients, and being delayed or refused healthcare treatment in the past 12 months. 31 out of 1576 participants (2%) identified as trans (19 trans women, 5 trans men, 2 gender queer/non-binary, 5 other). High levels of social stigma were reported for all participants, with trans participants significantly more likely to report worrying about verbal harassment (39% vs. 23%), and exclusion from family gatherings (23% vs. 9%) in the last 12 months, compared to cisgender participants. Furthermore, 10% of trans participants reported physical assault in the last 12 months, compared to 4% of cisgender participants. Identifying as trans was a predictor of reporting being treated differently to non-HIV patients (48% vs. 30%; aOR 2.61, CI 1.06, 6.42) and being delayed or refused healthcare (41% vs. 16%; aOR 4.58, CI 1.83, 11.44). Trans people living with HIV in the UK experience high levels of stigma and discrimination, including within healthcare settings, which is likely to impact upon health outcomes. Trans-specific education and awareness within healthcare settings could help to improve service provision for this demographic.

  6. Caffeine and Insomnia in People Living With HIV From the Miami Adult Studies on HIV (MASH) Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, Venkataraghavan; Campa, Adriana; Rubens, Muni; Martinez, Sabrina S; Fleetwood, Christina; Stewart, Tiffanie; Liuzzi, Juan P; George, Florence; Khan, Hafiz; Li, Yinghui; Baum, Marianna K

    We explored the relationship between caffeine consumption, insomnia, and HIV disease progression (CD4+ T cell counts and HIV viral loads). Caffeine intake and insomnia levels were measured using the Modified Caffeine Consumption Questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Insomnia Rating Scale (PIRS) in 130 clinically stable participants who were living with HIV, taking antiretroviral therapy, and recruited from the Miami Adult Studies on HIV cohort. Linear regressions showed that caffeine consumption was significantly and adversely associated with distress score, quality-of-life score, and global PIRS score. Linear regression analyses also showed that global PIRS score was significantly associated with lower CD4+ T cell counts and higher HIV viral loads. Caffeine could have precipitated insomnia in susceptible people living with HIV, which could be detrimental to their disease progression states. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fate control and well-being in Chinese rural people living with HIV: mediation effect of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nancy Xiaonan; Zhang, Jianxin; Chow, Amy Y M; Chan, Celia H Y; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2017-01-01

    Fate control has been often misconceptualized as a superstitious belief and overlooked in health psychology. It is not known how this cultural belief might impact the well-being of Chinese people living with HIV. This study examined the protective role of fate control for well-being and the potential mediation effect of resilience. Participants in this study were rural patients who contracted HIV via commercial blood donation. In this cross-sectional survey, 250 participants completed measures of fate control, well-being, and resilience. The results showed that fate control and resilience were positively associated with well-being. Resilience mediated the association between fate control and well-being. Our findings provide insight into the adaptive function of fate control as a cognitive defensive mechanism and highlight the need to incorporate this cultural belief in developing culturally sensitive intervention programs for resilience enhancement tailored for this understudied population infected with HIV living in rural China.

  8. $17 billion needed by year 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R

    1995-09-01

    The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) estimates that US$17 billion will be needed to fund reproductive health care in developing countries by the year 2000. About US$10 billion of would go for family planning: currently, the amount spent on family planning is about US$5 billion. Donors are focusing on fewer countries because of limited resources. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is planning to phase out support for family planning in Jamaica and Brazil because the programs there have advanced sufficiently. Resources will be shifted to countries with more pressing needs. Dr. Richard Osborn, senior technical officer for UNFPA, states that UNFPA works with national program managers in allocating resources at the macro level (commodities, training). Currently, two-thirds of family planning funds spent worldwide come from developing country governments (mainly China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa, Turkey, and Bangladesh). Sustaining programs, much less adding new services, will be difficult. User fees and public-private partnerships are being considered; worldwide, consumers provide, currently, about 14% of family planning funds (The portion is higher in most Latin American countries.). In a few countries, insurance, social security, and other public-private arrangements contribute. Social marketing programs are being considered that would remove constraints on prescriptions and prices and improve the quality of services so that clients would be more willing to pay for contraceptives. Although governments are attempting to fit family planning into their health care budgets, estimates at the national level are difficult to make. Standards are needed to make expenditure estimates quickly and at low cost, according to Dr. Barbara Janowitz of FHI, which is developing guidelines. Studies in Bangladesh, Ecuador, Ghana, Mexico, and the Philippines are being conducted, with the assistance of The Evaluation Project at the Population

  9. Impact of caring for people living with HIV on the psychosocial well-being of palliative caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavashni Valjee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS continues to be a serious public health issue, and it is often the caregivers who carry the brunt of the epidemic. Caregivers of people with AIDS face distinctive demands that could make them more prone to occupational stress, with serious consequences for their psychosocial well-being. The impact of caring for people living with HIV infection on the psychosocial well-being of palliative caregivers was investigated using in-depth interviews and questionnaires in 28 participants. The results indicated no burnout, but occupational stress was prevalent. Factors impacting negatively on well-being were stressors inherent in AIDS care, such as suffering and dying of the persons being cared for, work-related stressors such as heavy workload, lack of support and ineffective coping mechanisms. Positive aspects of caring such as job satisfaction, holistic palliative care, effective coping mechanisms and psychosocial support were identified. Recommendations to curb the negative effects of caregiving are provided.

  10. Internet use and the network composition of people living with HIV/AIDS in an urban area in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Peter; Curioso, Walter H

    2010-12-01

    This study examines the association between Internet use and (1) the number of close ties (people with whom a person is closely acquainted), and (2) the percentage of HIV-positive individuals in the personal network of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in an urban area of Peru. Ninety-four PLHA responded to a survey; 72% were male, and the average age was 36.65 (SD = 7.92). Internet use was not associated with the number of close ties or with a greater number of close ties who are HIV-positive in one's personal network. Internet use was higher among those with greater than a high school education and females reported more social ties than males.

  11. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and its correlation with human papillomavirus in people living with HIV: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Manuela; Rullo, Emmanuele Venanzi; Facciolà, Alessio; Madeddu, Giordano; Cacopardo, Bruno; Taibi, Rosaria; D'Aleo, Francesco; Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Picerno, Isa; di Rosa, Michele; Visalli, Giuseppa; Condorelli, Fabrizio; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Pellicanò, Giovanni Francesco

    2018-03-30

    Over the last 20 years we assisted to an increase in the mean age of People Living with HIV and their comorbidities. Especially, there was an increase in Human Papillomavirus-related head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Despite their increasing incidence in HIV-positive people, mechanisms that lead to their development and progression are only partially understood. The aim of this review is to identify key data and factors about HPV-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in HIV-seropositive patients. Systematic search and review of the relevant literature-peer-reviewed and grey-was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. We included in our review only the 35 full-text articles we considered the most substantial. It is mandatory to improve our knowledge about the interactions existing between HPV and HIV, and about their actions on oral mucosa immune system.

  12. HIV-Related Self-Stigma and Health-Related Quality of Life of People Living With HIV in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Nuno; Pereira, Marco; Roine, Risto P; Sutinen, Jussi; Sintonen, Harri

    We examined how HIV-related self-stigma was associated with different domains of quality of life (QoL), as measured by the World Health Organization Quality of Life in HIV-infected persons instrument (WHOQOL-HIV-Bref), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as measured by the generic 15D (15-dimensional measure of HRQoL), to identify the factors associated with self-stigma of people living with HIV (PLWH). The study sample included 440 patients living with HIV followed at the Infectious Disease Clinic of Helsinki University Hospital. Participants with more severe self-stigma reported significantly lower QoL and HRQoL. Male gender, cohabiting with a partner, and disclosure of HIV status were associated with less self-stigma; high education level and financial difficulties were associated with greater self-stigma. Having lived longer with HIV, being unemployed, and living alone were also predictors of self-stigma via financial difficulties. The findings suggest that self-stigma is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon that impacts the HRQoL of PLWH. Psychosocial interventions to enhance the well-being of PLWH are increasingly needed. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Physical function, grip strength and frailty in people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Charlotte; Dabis, François; de Rekeneire, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    To present the current knowledge on physical function, grip strength and frailty in HIV-infected patients living in sub-Saharan Africa, where the phenomenon is largely underestimated. A systematic search was conducted on MEDLINE, Scopus and African Index Medicus. We reviewed articles on sub-Saharan African people living with HIV (PLHIV) >18 years old, published until November 2016. Of 537 articles, 12 were conducted in six African countries and included in this review. Five articles reported information on functional limitation and one on disability. Two of these five articles reported functional limitation (low gait speed) in PLHIV. Disability was observed in 27% and 3% of PLHIV living in rural and urban places, respectively. Two of three studies reporting grip strength reported lower grip strength (nearly 4 kg) in PLHIV in comparison with uninfected patients. One study reported that PLHIV were more likely to be frail than HIV-uninfected individuals (19.4% vs. 13.3%), whereas another reported no statistical difference. Decline in physical function, grip strength and frailty are now part of the burden of PLHIV living in SSA countries, but current data are insufficient to characterise the real public health dimension of these impairments. Further studies are needed to depict this major public health challenge. As this is likely to contribute to a significant burden on the African healthcare systems and human resources in the near future, a holistic care approach should be developed to inform guidelines. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis infections among people living in a slum area in Kathmandu valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattachan, Balkrishna; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadhur; Tandukar, Sarmila; Dhoubhadel, Bhim Gopal; Gauchan, Leesa; Rai, Ganesh

    2017-09-07

    The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis and Cryptosporidium parvum infections among people living a slum in Kathmandu valley, Nepal. Ten different parasites were detected in the stool samples; the prevalence of any parasite was in 27.1% (71/262). The prevalence of C. cayetanensis and C. parvum were 14.1% (10/71) and 5.6% (4/71), respectively. This study showed high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections along with the coccidian parasites in the slum area of Kathmandu Valley.

  15. Engagement, knowledge and autonomy : facing a new generation older urban living people : studies on self-care and health

    OpenAIRE

    Sundsli, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The overall purpose of this thesis was to explore the phenomenon of self-care among older, urban homedwelling people in order to enhance health and well-being and be able to inform and improve policy and practise. Methods: A mixed methods design was chosen. A descriptive cross-sectional design was applied for Study I and 1,044 randomly chosen men and women aged 65+ years, living in urban areas in southern Norway answered a postal questionnaire consisting of five instrument...

  16. The Role of Social Work Practice and Policy in the Lived and Intimate Citizenship of Young People with Psychological Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the concepts of lived and intimate citizenship and applying a weak theory approach, Warming shows how social work practices at a residence for young people with psychological disorders constitute a social intervention with contested and multidimensional (action-related, emotional......, affective, positioning-related) outcomes for clients’ rights, participation and belonging. Although the clients describe their stay as empowering and characterised by recognition, they also experience discrimination and exclusion. Indeed, the chapter’s socio-spatial analysis show how their time...

  17. Public perceptions about HIV/AIDS and discriminatory attitudes toward people living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudnia, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Negative and discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are one of the biggest experienced challenges by people suffering from HIV, and these attitudes have been regarded as a serious threat to the fundamental rights of all infected people who are affected or associated with this disease in Iran. This study aimed to determine the relationship between public perception about HIV/AIDS and discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA . The present study was conducted using a descriptive and survey design. Data were collected from 450 patients (236 male and 214 female) in Tehran and Yazd cities. The research instruments were modified HIV-related knowledge/attitude and perception questions about PLWHA, and discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA. The results showed that prevalence of discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA in the studied population was 60.0%. There was a significant negative correlation between citizens' awareness about HIV/AIDS, HIV-related attitudes, negative perception toward people with HIV/AIDS symptoms and their discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA (p AIDS explained for 23.7% of the variance of discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA. Negative public perceptions about HIV/AIDS in Iran associated with discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA and cultural beliefs in Iran tend to stigmatize and discriminate against the LWHA.

  18. Life satisfaction and life values in people with spinal cord injury living in three Asian countries: a multicultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasiemski, Tomasz; Priebe, Michael M; Wilski, Maciej

    2013-03-01

    To compare the differences in life satisfaction and life values among people with spinal cord injury (SCI) living in three economically similar Asian countries: India, Vietnam, and Sri Lanka. Cross-sectional and comparative investigation using the unified questionnaire. Indian Spinal Injuries Centre in New Delhi (India), Spinal Cord Rehabilitation Department of the Bach Mai Hospital in Hanoi (Vietnam), and Foundation for the Rehabilitation of the Disabled in Colombo (Sri Lanka). Two hundred and thirty-seven people with SCI using a wheelchair; 79 from India, 92 from Vietnam, and 66 from Sri Lanka. Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, Chinese Value Survey. People with SCI in Vietnam had significantly higher general life satisfaction than participants in India and Sri Lanka. Significant differences were identified in several demographic and life situation variables among the three Asian countries. With regard to "Traditional", "Universal", and "Personal" life values significant differences among three participating countries were identified in all domains. No significant relationships were identified between life satisfaction and life values for people with SCI in India, Vietnam, or Sri Lanka. It could be presumed that particular demographic and life situation variables are more powerful factors of life satisfaction following SCI than the dominant culture of a country expressed by life values.

  19. Life satisfaction and life values in people with spinal cord injury living in three Asian countries: A multicultural study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasiemski, Tomasz; Priebe, Michael M.; Wilski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the differences in life satisfaction and life values among people with spinal cord injury (SCI) living in three economically similar Asian countries: India, Vietnam, and Sri Lanka. Design Cross-sectional and comparative investigation using the unified questionnaire. Setting Indian Spinal Injuries Centre in New Delhi (India), Spinal Cord Rehabilitation Department of the Bach Mai Hospital in Hanoi (Vietnam), and Foundation for the Rehabilitation of the Disabled in Colombo (Sri Lanka). Participants Two hundred and thirty-seven people with SCI using a wheelchair; 79 from India, 92 from Vietnam, and 66 from Sri Lanka. Outcome measures Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, Chinese Value Survey. Results People with SCI in Vietnam had significantly higher general life satisfaction than participants in India and Sri Lanka. Significant differences were identified in several demographic and life situation variables among the three Asian countries. With regard to “Traditional”, “Universal”, and “Personal” life values significant differences among three participating countries were identified in all domains. No significant relationships were identified between life satisfaction and life values for people with SCI in India, Vietnam, or Sri Lanka. Conclusion It could be presumed that particular demographic and life situation variables are more powerful factors of life satisfaction following SCI than the dominant culture of a country expressed by life values. PMID:23809526

  20. Like a prayer: the role of spirituality and religion for people living with HIV in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Damien; Williams, Ian; Anderson, Jane; Elford, Jonathan

    2008-04-01

    Over 40,000 people are now living with diagnosed HIV in the UK. There is, however, uncertainty about how people with HIV use religion or spirituality to cope with their infection. Adopting a modified grounded theory approach, we analysed individual and group interviews with the people most affected by HIV in the UK: black African heterosexual men and women and gay men (mostly white). For the majority of black African heterosexual men and women in our study, religion was extremely important. We found that gay men in the study were less religious than black Africans, although many were spiritual in some way. Black African individuals constructed their spiritual narratives as largely Christian or collective, while gay men described more individualistic or 'New Age' approaches. We developed a six-level heuristic device to examine the ways in which prayer and meditation were deployed in narratives to modulate subjective wellbeing. These were: (i) creating a dialogue with an absent counsellor; (ii) constructing a compassionate 'life scheme'; (iii) interrupting rumination; (iv) establishing mindfulness; (v) promoting positive thinking, and (vi) getting results. That people with HIV report specific subjective benefits from prayer or meditation presents a challenge to secular healthcare professionals and sociologists.

  1. HIV serostatus disclosure: Experiences and perceptions of people living with HIV/AIDS and their service providers in Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita V Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disclosure offers important benefits to people living with HIV/AIDS. However, fear of discrimination, blame, and disruption of family relationships can make disclosure a difficult decision. Barriers to HIV disclosure are influenced by the particular culture within which the individuals live. Although many studies have assessed such barriers in the U.S., very few studies have explored the factors that facilitate or prevent HIV disclosure in India. Understanding these factors is critical to the refinement, development, and implementation of a counseling intervention to facilitate disclosure. Materials and Methods: To explore these factors, we conducted 30 in-depth interviews in the local language with HIV- positive individuals from the Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre in Gujarat, India, assessing the experiences, perceived barriers, and facilitators to disclosure. To triangulate the findings, we conducted two focus group discussions with HIV medical and non-medical service providers, respectively. Results: Perceived HIV-associated stigma, fear of discrimination, and fear of family breakdown acted as barriers to HIV disclosure. Most people living with HIV/AIDS came to know of their HIV status due to poor physical health, spousal HIV-positive status, or a positive HIV test during pregnancy. Some wives only learned of their husbands′ HIV positive status after their husbands died. The focus group participants confirmed similar findings. Disclosure had serious implications for individuals living with HIV, such as divorce, maltreatment, ostracism, and decisions regarding child bearing. Interpretation and Conclusion: The identified barriers and facilitators in the present study can be used to augment training of HIV service providers working in voluntary counseling and testing centers in India.

  2. Emergency preparedness among people living near US army chemical weapons sites after September 11, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bryan L; Magsumbol, Melina S

    2007-09-01

    We examined trust in the army and perceptions of emergency preparedness among residents living near the Anniston, Ala, and Richmond, Ky, US Army chemical weapons stockpile sites shortly after September 11, 2001. Residents (n = 655) living near the 2 sites who participated in a cross-sectional population were relatively unprepared in the event of a chemical emergency. The events of September 11 gave rise to concerns regarding the security of stored chemical weapons and the sites' vulnerability to terrorist attacks. Although residents expressed trust in the army to manage chemical weapons safely, only a few expressed a desire to actively participate in site decisions. Compliance with procedures during emergencies could be seriously limited, putting residents in these sites at higher levels of risk of exposure to chemical hazards than nonresidents.

  3. The potential role for probiotic yogurt for people living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In demonstrating that it is feasible to create a community-run kitchen that produces probiotic yogurt, and that this can contribute to the health of people with HIV/AIDS, we embellished the 2001 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) report on probiotics that recommended efforts be made to take probiotics to developing countries. We proved that driven by humanitarian goals not profit, probiotic yogurt can be produced in the world's poor regions. This food can be safely consumed by HIV/AIDS subjects, and in many of them benefits can be accrued in gut health, nutritional and potentially immune status. Such outcomes have a scientific rationale, many social implications, and perhaps most importantly raise the question, why have developed countries not tried harder to bring nutrition-based probiotics to people in need? PMID:21468226

  4. An assisted-living home architecture with integrated healthcare services for elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Andy; Biniaris, Christos; Vergados, Dimitrios; Eppler, Arnold; Kavvadias, Christoforos; Bigalke, Olaf; Robert, Eric; Jerabek, Boro; Alevizos, Alevizos; Caragiozidis, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Since the population of elderly people grows absolutely and in relation to the overall population in the world, the improvement of the quality of life of elderly people at home is of a great importance. This can be achieved through the development of generic technologies for managing their domestic ambient environment consisting of medical sensors, entertainment equipment, home automation systems and white goods, increasing their autonomy and safety. In this context, the provision intelligent interactive healthcare services will improve their daily life and allowing at the same time the continuous monitoring of their health and their effective treatment. This work is supported by the INHOME Project EU IST-045061-STP, http://www.ist-inhome.eu.

  5. Ethnic differences in glycaemic control in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus living in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Negandhi, Preeti H; Ghouri, Nazim; Colhoun, Helen M; Fischbacher, Colin M; Lindsay, Robert S; McKnight, John A; Petrie, John; Philip, Sam; Sattar, Naveed; Wild, Sarah H; Scottish Diabetes Research Network Epidemiology Group

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims:\\ud \\ud Previous studies have investigated the association between ethnicity and processes of care and intermediate outcomes of diabetes, but there are limited population-based studies available. The aim of this study was to use population-based data to investigate the relationships between ethnicity and glycaemic control in men and women with diabetes mellitus living in Scotland.\\ud \\ud Methods:\\ud \\ud We used a 2008 extract from the population-based national electronic d...

  6. Living with constipation?older people's experiences and strategies with constipation before and during hospitalization

    OpenAIRE

    Munch, Lene; Tvistholm, Nina; Trosborg, Ingelise; Konradsen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Constipation is a common problem among older people. This study aimed to explore how older patients experience constipation and which strategies they used in handling the condition before and during hospitalization.Methods: A qualitative exploratory research design was used. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients (61–91 years of age) during hospitalization. Data were analyzed by using content analysis.Results: Themes concerning experiences were Bodily sig...

  7. Determining the Arterial Blood Pressure of People Living in Yesilyurt Local Healthcare Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyza Dereli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Whereas the prevalance of arterial blood pressure which was a chronical health problem was 20%-25% among 30 year-old people, them showing an increase in aging, the percentage went as high as 50% in 60’s and later ages. What was that worrisome was that despite the high prevalance, only half of these received treathment. This is study was descriptively and cross-sectionally planned to determine whether the people asking their tensions to be measured in and around the Yesilyurt local healthcare office region. METHODS: The environment of the research consisted of 1400 people over 35 age and registered Yesilyurt Local healthcare Office and the whole of the environment were included in this sample. The study was conducted over 340 voluntaries. The data was collected by a questionnaire of 14 questions containing socio-demografic features and by measuring the arterial blood pressure, height and weight of the individuals. In the evaluation of the data, chi-square test was used and the level of significantly was accepted as 0.05. RESULTS: In this study, the rate of high sistolic blood pressure was found to be 21.47% and the rate of high diastolic blood pressure to be 8.23%. It was determined that age and body mass index varrieties were effective on sistolic hipertension. It was also found that in their behaviors of the use of hypertensive medicine, of regular arterial pressure controls and of having the hypertesion diagnosis significant differnces varied statistically on both sistolic and diastolic blood pressure people having. CONCLUSION: In order to improve the health, informative information abouth hypertension was provided for the participants for too days consisting of 4 sessions. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(1.000: 53-58

  8. Intuitive adaptive orientation control of assistive robots for people living with upper limb disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Dinh-Son; Allard, Ulysse Cote; Gosselin, Clement; Routhier, Francois; Gosselin, Benoit; Campeau-Lecours, Alexandre

    2017-07-01

    Robotic assistive devices enhance the autonomy of individuals living with physical disabilities in their day-to-day life. Although the first priority for such devices is safety, they must also be intuitive and efficient from an engineering point of view in order to be adopted by a broad range of users. This is especially true for assistive robotic arms, as they are used for the complex control tasks of daily living. One challenge in the control of such assistive robots is the management of the end-effector orientation which is not always intuitive for the human operator, especially for neophytes. This paper presents a novel orientation control algorithm designed for robotic arms in the context of human-robot interaction. This work aims at making the control of the robot's orientation easier and more intuitive for the user, in particular, individuals living with upper limb disabilities. The performance and intuitiveness of the proposed orientation control algorithm is assessed through two experiments with 25 able-bodied subjects and shown to significantly improve on both aspects.

  9. Independent and Social Living Skills Training for People with Schizophrenia in Iran: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Karbalaee-Nouri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Schizophrenia is responsible for a significant proportion of burden of mental diseases in Iran. Lack of a follow-up system has resulted in the repeated hospitalizations. In this study it is hypothesized that standardized living skills training delivered to participants with schizophrenia in outpatient and inpatient centers can be effective compared to a  control group (with occupational therapy in reducing psychopathology severity and increasing quality of life. Methods: This is a multi-centered parallel group randomized controlled trial in Iran and it is single-blinded. Eligible participants are randomly allocated into two groups in a 1:1 ratio. Participants are assigned by stratified balanced block randomization method. The trial is conducted in the cities of Tehran and Mashhad. Its aim is to recruit 160 clients with schizophrenia. The intervention for the experimental group is social living skills training. The intervention for the control group is occupational therapy. The intervention for both groups is conducted in 90 to 120-minute group sessions. Results: The primary outcome of the study would be a decrease in  psychopathology severity, an improvement in participants' quality of life, and reduction in family burden will be followed for 6 months. Discussion: This paper presents a protocol for a randomized controlled trial of independent and social living skills training intervention delivered to participants with schizophrenia. If this intervention is effective, it could be scaled up to be developing for policymaking and improving outcomes for schizophrenic participants and their families in Iran.

  10. Perceptions of risk of coronary heart disease among people living with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammouri, Ali Ahmad; Abu Raddaha, Ahmad H; Natarajan, Jansi; D'Souza, Melba Sheila

    2018-02-01

    Our aim is to assess perception of risk of developing coronary heart disease and to examine its associations with individuals' characteristics and health behaviours among Omani people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Evaluating perceptions of being at risk of developing a disease may give insight into health promotion behaviours. People with diabetes are at high risk of coronary heart disease. The management of diabetes mellitus should include prevention and control of coronary heart disease. A cross-sectional correlational study was conducted. A convenience sample of 160 adults with T2DM was invited to participate in this study between November 2014 and March 2015. Descriptive and regression analyses were performed to examine associations between study variables. Perception of risk of developing coronary heart disease was significantly associated with low educational level (β = 0.191, P diabetes mellitus (β = 0.200, P healthy diet more frequently. Teaching people with T2DM about the risk of developing coronary heart disease is essential as it could motivate them to perform health promotion behaviours, which may assist in controlling and reducing coronary heart disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Citizenship and people living with dementia: A case for the ethics of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannelly, Tula

    2016-05-01

    The ethics of care is an emerging field of interest in many disciplines, including care for people with dementia. The ethics of care as proposed by Joan Tronto is a political argument for care together with a set of principles, the integrity of care, to guide and critique practice. This two-pronged approach enables on one hand, a political, complex and situated examination of inequality, and on the other hand the integrity of care provides a set of principles to guide inclusive citizenship practices. This approach has the significant advantage of recognition of the fight that people with dementia face to achieve rights and citizenship as an issue of social justice. In this paper, three challenges to citizenship are discussed in relation to people with dementia using an ethics of care lens: (a) citizenship as a relationship between the individual and the state; (b) citizenship as a practice and (c) citizenship as identity and belonging. I propose that citizenship can be achieved by promoting inclusion in defining and creating policy, research and practice. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Living with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification 3: a qualitative study describing the lives and illness of people diagnosed with a rare neurological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Tomiko; Muraoka, Koko; Yamada, Megumi; Nishio, Yuri; Hozumi, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is a rare, intractable disease with unknown etiology. IBGC3 is a familial genetic disease defined by genetic mutations in the major causative gene ( SLC20A2 ). People with IBGC3 experience distress from the uncommon nature of their illness and uncertainty about treatment and prognoses. The present study aimed to describe the lives and illness of people with IBGC3. Participants were recruited from patients aged 20 years or older enrolled in a genetic study, who were diagnosed with IBGC3 and wanted to share their experiences. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with six participants. Interviews were conducted between December 2012 and February 2014, and were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Qualitative data analysis was performed to identify categories and subcategories. Efforts were made to ensure the credibility, transferability, dependability, conformability, and validity of the data. Six thematic categories, 17 subcategories, and 143 codes emerged. The six categories were: (1) Frustration and anxiety with progression of symptoms without a diagnosis; (2) Confusion about diagnosis with an unfamiliar disease; (3) Emotional distress caused by a genetic disease; (4) Passive attitude toward life, being extra careful; (5) Taking charge of life, becoming active and engaged; and (6) Requests for healthcare. The qualitative data analysis indicated a need for genetic counseling, access to disease information, establishment of peer and family support systems, mental health services, and improvement in early intervention and treatment for the disease.

  13. Living alone, receiving help, helplessness, and inactivity are strongly related to risk of undernutrition among older home-dwelling people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomstad ST

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Solveig T Tomstad1, Ulrika Söderhamn2, Geir Arild Espnes3, Olle Söderhamn21Department of Social Work and Health Science, Faculty of Sciences and Technology Management, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway and Centre for Caring Research – Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway; 2Centre for Caring Research – Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway; 3Research Centre for Health Promotion and Resources HiST-NTNU, Department of Social Work and Health Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, NTNU, Trondheim, NorwayBackground: Being at risk of undernutrition is a global problem among older people. Undernutrition can be considered inadequate nutritional status, characterized by insufficient food intake and weight loss. There is a lack of Norwegian studies focusing on being at risk of undernutrition and self-care ability, sense of coherence, and health-related issues among older home-dwelling people.Aim: To describe the prevalence of being at risk of undernutrition among a group of older home-dwelling individuals in Norway, and to relate the results to reported self-care ability, sense of coherence, perceived health and other health-related issues.Methods: A cross-sectional design was applied. A questionnaire with instruments for nutritional screening, self-care ability, and sense of coherence, and health-related questions was sent to a randomized sample of 450 persons (aged 65+ years in southern Norway. The study group included 158 (35.1% participants. Data were analysed using statistical methods.Results: The results showed that 19% of the participants were at medium risk of undernutrition and 1.3% at high risk. Due to the low response rate it can be expected that the nonparticipants can be at risk of undernutrition. The nutritional at-risk group had lower self-care ability and weaker sense of coherence. Living alone, receiving help

  14. Life memories and the ability to act: the meaning of autonomy and participation for older people when living with chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Maria; Pöder, Ulrika; Mamhidir, Anna-Greta; Nilsson, Annika; Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena; Häggström, Elisabeth

    2015-12-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about how older people living with chronic illness describe the meaning of autonomy and participation, indicating a risk for reduced autonomy and participation in their everyday life. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of autonomy and participation among older people living with chronic illness in accordance with their lived experience. The design was descriptive with a phenomenological approach guided by Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological psychological method. Purposive sampling was used, and 16 older people living with chronic illness who lived in an ordinary home participated in individual interviews. The findings showed that the meaning of autonomy and participation among the older people emerged when it was challenged and evoked emotional considerations of the lived experience of having a chronic illness. It involved living a life apart, yet still being someone who is able, trustworthy and given responsibility--still being seen and acknowledged. The meaning of autonomy and participation was derived through life memories and used by the older people in everyday life for adjustment or adaption to the present life and the future. Our conclusion is that autonomy and participation were considered in relation to older people's life memories in the past, in their present situation and also their future wishes. Ability or disability is of less importance than the meaning of everyday life among older people. We suggest using fewer labels for limitations in everyday life when caring for older people and more use of the phrase 'ability to act' in different ways, based on older people's descriptions of the meaning of autonomy and participation. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  15. Arsenic accumulation in people working with and living near a gold smelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, R.E.; Tiefenbach, B.; Toronto Univ., Ontario

    1979-01-01

    The processing of arsenic-containing ores for the recovery of metals such as gold, copper or lead can cause both an occupational health hazard to smelter workers and an environmental health problem to persons living downwind from the refineries. The study reported is a follow-up to preliminary investigations of possible arsenic ingestion by native children living near a gold refinery at Yellowknife, N.W.T., Canada and of a few mine-mill workers. Instrumental neutron activation of lake water and melted snow used as drinking water as well as of scalp hair gave evidence of appreciable intake of arsenic and some mercury. A further set of 67 hair samples was obtained from most of the smelter workers and from children in a native settlement who were considered most vulnerable, augmented by a set of 26 control samples from steel workers and children living in a comparable (but arsenic-free) northern area about 1000 km distance at Whitehorse, Yukon. Hair arsenic levels were consistently elevated above the controls, ranging to 280 ppm in one worker. The water supplies ranged up to 3 ppm, well above the 0.05 ppm MPC for drinking water. A larger epidemiological study of the area and of Hay River, N.W.T. controls, done in association with electromyography, was just completed and involved a further 414 children and workers from Yellowknife and 105 from the control area. The mean hair arsenic of 6.7 ppm for the former was quite different from a result of 0.33 ppm for the Hay River group, and 33% of the Yellowknife subjects were elevated above 1 ppm but none of the controls were above this concentration. Four workers were above 100 ppm, ranging as high as 620 ppm hair arsenic

  16. A new microcomputer-based safety and life support system for solitary-living elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Kosuke; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Maki, Hiromichi; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Hahn, Allen W; Caldwell, W Morton

    2003-01-01

    A new safety and life support system has been developed to detect emergency situations of solitary-living elderly persons. The system employs a dual axis accelerometer, two low-power active filters, a low-power 8-bit single chip microcomputer and a personal handy phone. Body movements due to walking, running and posture changes are detected by the dual axis accelerometer and sent to the microcomputer. If the patient is in an inactive state for 5 minutes after falling, or for 64 minutes without previously falling, then the system automatically alarms the emergency situation, via the personal handy phone, to the patient's family, the fire station or the hospital.

  17. Stigma Related Avoidance in People Living with Severe Mental Illness (SMI): Findings of an Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiri, Sadat; Oakley, Linda Denise; Hitchcock, Mary E; Hall, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this integrative review is to synthesize primary evidence of the impact of internalized stigma on avoidance in adult community treatment patients living with SMI. A keyword database search of articles published through 2015 yielded 21 papers and a total of 4256 patients. Our analyses found that stigmatizing beliefs associated with avoidance are related to significant loss of self-esteem. Factors generally thought to reduce stigma internalized as self-stigmatizing beliefs, such as improved insight, increased self-awareness, and psycho-education to improve stigma coping skills, do not appear to improve self-esteem.

  18. People

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    the war Hoyle returned to Cambridge, but kept in close contact with his collaborators. Fred Hoyle was a canny and media-savvy scientist, 40 years before such things were recognized. Martin Rees said after his death '[He] also had other dimensions to his career, his inventiveness and skill as a communicator'. It is hard to realize now the impact that Hoyle's broadcasts had in post-war Britain. His programmes for the BBC on The Nature of the Universe won greater audiences than such unlikely rivals as Bertrand Russell and Tommy Handley. Even today many people recall how they were affected by listening to these broadcasts. Hoyle used one of his broadcasts to ridicule the hot explosion theory. He referred to the idea of a 'big bang as fanciful'. Unfortunately the name stuck, much to Hoyle's chagrin. In the 1950s Hoyle began a fruitful collaboration with Willy Fowler of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Hoyle was interested in the origin of the chemical elements. Hans Bethe, Charles Critchfield and Karl-Frederich von Weizsäcker had calculated in 1939 how stars could turn protons into helium nuclei by nuclear fusion. Part of the Vela supernova remmant, the debris left after the type of massive explosion in which Hoyle predicted that heavy nuclei were formed. (© Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Anglo-Australian Observatory.) Building on earlier collaboration with Ed Saltpeter, Hoyle used data supplied by Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge and, working with Fowler, began to piece together how the elements were formed. By looking at very large stars near the end of their lives and examining their chemical composition, they noticed that the abundances of elements almost exactly corresponded to those with a low nuclear capture cross section. Hoyle argued that all of the elements in our bodies had been formed in stars that had been and gone before our solar system had even formed. In their classic paper the elements are produced by three basic methods. The

  19. The Socioeconomic Implications among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Sudan: Challenges and Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Salwa M; Kari, Fatimah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    To determine the socioeconomic impacts among HIV-infected persons in Sudan and examine whether there are significant variations in coping strategies between infected men and women, a primary survey was conducted among infected persons (n = 555). Discriminant function was used to analyze the data. We found significant variation in the coping strategies (<.001). HIV/AIDS impacts were more critical for women. Infected people have 3 alternatives in coping with the changes in their income and expenditure, that is, borrow, utilize savings, or sell assets. Policy makers should consider economic information in planning health care to mitigate the impacts and remove the gender gap.

  20. Unobtrusive Wireless Monitoring System for Assisted Living and Improving the Wellbeing of Elderly People

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, Aidan; Duncliffe, Richard; Spillane, James; Walsh, Colin; Hill, Martin; O'Mahony, Tom; O'Reilly, Fergus

    2011-01-01

    A novel system to unobtrusively monitor the wellbeing of elderly people based on their activity patterns is presented. The system uses a wireless ZigBee network to monitor the electrical usage in a subject's home and then sends this data to an Apache server via HTTP from a GPRS unit. The data is logged in a MySQL database where pattern analysis is used to identify periods of significant inactivity. When such an event is identified designated contacts are notified by text message. For subjects requiring higher levels of monitoring a portable health monitor can be integrated incorporating a fall detector and panic button to inform of emergency situations.

  1. The Limits of Existential Autonomy and the Fundamental Law Duties of Preserving Inconscious People Lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Stela Vieira Mendes Câmara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the face of factual, conceptual and scientific uncertainties surrounding the finitude of life, and assuming the search for the ideal of a dignified, natural and proper death without prepayments or undue extensions, this research has the scope to investigate the reasonableness of the parameters that establish limitations on existential autonomy, due to the preservation of life of unconscious people. Identifies, based on heteronomous component of human dignity, the existence of a bundle of basic legal duties of protection of these individuals whose ownership rests with the family and the state. The methodology is qualitative, interdisciplinary bibliographic and documentary, in which it is used hypothetical-deductive approach.

  2. Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Statistics of Oldest Old People (>80 Years Living in Ikaria Island: The Ikaria Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demosthenes B. Panagiotakos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are places around the world where people live longer and they are active past the age of 100 years, sharing common behavioral characteristics; these places (i.e., Sardinia in Italy, Okinawa in Japan, Loma Linda in California and Nicoya Peninsula in Costa Rica have been named the “Blue Zones”. Recently it was reported that people in Ikaria Island, Greece, have also one of the highest life expectancies in the world, and joined the “Blue Zones”. The aim of this work work was to evaluate various demographic, lifestyle and psychological characteristics of very old (>80 years people participated in Ikaria Study. Methods. During 2009, 1420 people (aged 30+ men and women from Ikaria Island, Greece, were voluntarily enrolled in the study. For this work, 89 males and 98 females over the age of 80 yrs were studied (13% of the sample. Socio-demographic, clinical, psychological and lifestyle characteristics were assessed using standard questionnaires and procedures. Results. A large proportion of the Ikaria Study's sample was over the age of 80; moreover, the percent of people over 90 were much higher than the European population average. The majority of the oldest old participants reported daily physical activities, healthy eating habits, avoidance of smoking, frequent socializing, mid-day naps and extremely low rates of depression. Conclusion. Modifiable risk factors, such as physical activity, diet, smoking cessation and mid-day naps, might depict the “secrets” of the long-livers; these findings suggest that the interaction of environmental, behavioral together with clinical characteristics may determine longevity. This concept must be further explored in order to understand how these factors relate and which are the most important in shaping prolonged life.

  3. Stigma and discrimination experienced by people living with severe and persistent mental illness in assertive community treatment settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Chen, Timothy F; Paul, Diane; McCahon, Rebecca; Shankar, Sumitra; Rosen, Alan; O'Reilly, Claire L

    2016-09-01

    To describe the perceived experiences of stigma and discrimination among people living with severe and persistent mental illness in assertive community treatment (ACT teams) settings in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC) was used in this cross-sectional study with people living with severe and persistent mental illness. The DISC is a reliable and valid, quantitative and qualitative instrument used to explore and measure levels of negative, anticipated and positive discrimination. Relevant clinical history and socio-demographic information were also collected. A total of 50 clients participated, with 40 (80%) reporting experienced negative discrimination in at least one life area. Negative discrimination was most commonly experienced in being avoided or shunned (n=25, 50%), by neighbours (n=24, 48%) and family (n=23, 46%). Anticipated discrimination was common, with half of participants (n=25, 50%) feeling the need to conceal their mental health diagnosis. Discrimination was highly prevalent in everyday aspects of life. While healthcare professionals often tend to increase perceived stigma and discrimination, this was only experienced in interactions with general health professionals, while interactions with ACT team members decreased perceived stigma and increased positive discrimination. This indicates that healthcare professionals potentially have a significant role in reducing stigma and discrimination in mental health and that such an effect may be optimised in an ACT team setting. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. A longitudinal study of cerebral blood flow and intelligences in normal elderly people living in retirement house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shotai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Kitani, Mitsuhiro; Okada, Kazunori; Arimoto, Satao

    1986-01-01

    It is well known that the number of the neuron in the brain gradually reduced with advancing age, but speed of decline of brain functions differs among individuals. We have reported that social environmental factors had significant influences to cerebral blood flow (CBF) and mental function. In this paper, we report 2.5 years longitudinal study concerning with CBF and intelligences in twenty normal elderly people, mean age of 76 years old at the first measurement, living in retirement house. 1) Mean CBF measured by Xe 133 inhalation method did not alter significantly during the observation period. 2) Performance intelligence evaluated by Kohs' block design test had reduced at the point of begining but no more reduction was observed during the period. 3) Verbal intelligence evaluated by Hasegawa's intelligence scale for aged which was within normal range at the begining, slightly (-7.5 %) but significantly (p < 0.05) reduced during the period. 4) Performance intelligence tended to reduce in subjects who showed reduction of CBF. There were no significant correlation between both intelligences and CBF. CBF could be maintained even in elderly people living in retirement house which has less social stimuli during relatively short observation period in so far as they maintain active daily life. The speed of reduction of performance intelligence may be getting slow after certain age and verbal intelligence gradually decreases perhaps by disuse of the mental function. (author)

  5. Food insecurity, mental health and quality of life among people living with HIV commencing antiretroviral treatment in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesfaye, Markos; Kæstel, Pernille; Olsen, Mette Frahm

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies from high-income settings show that both food insecurity and common mental disorders (CMDs) are associated with lower quality of life among people living with HIV (PLHIV). However, there is limited research among PLHIV in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study we tested the hypothe......BACKGROUND: Studies from high-income settings show that both food insecurity and common mental disorders (CMDs) are associated with lower quality of life among people living with HIV (PLHIV). However, there is limited research among PLHIV in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study we tested...... the hypothesis that food insecurity and CMDs would be associated with poorer quality of life of PLHIV in Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 348 PLHIV who were initiating antiretroviral therapy recruited from two primary care centers and a tertiary Hospital in southwest Ethiopia. Food...... insecurity, CMD, and quality of life were measured using instruments adapted and validated in Ethiopia (Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, Kessler-6, and WHOQOL-HIV-BREF-ETH, respectively). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with quality of life after adjusting...

  6. Subjective symptoms reported by people living in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations: A review of the studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortkiewicz, A.; Szyjkowska, A.; Gadzicka, E.; Zmyslony, M.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by cellular phone base stations evokes much interest in view of the fact that people living in their vicinity are fated to continuous exposure to EMF. None of the studies carried out throughout the world have revealed excessive values of standards adopted by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). A questionnaire was used as a study tool. The results of the questionnaire survey reveal that people living in the vicinity of base stations report various complaints mostly of the circulatory system, but also of sleep disturbances, irritability, depression, blurred vision, concentration difficulties, nausea, lack of appetite, headache and vertigo. The performed studies showed the relationship between the incidence of individual symptoms, the level of exposure, and the distance between a residential area and a base station. This association was observed in both groups of persons, those who linked their complaints with the presence of the base station and those who did not notice such a relation. Further studies, clinical and those based on questionnaires, are needed to explain the background of reported complaints. (author)

  7. Stigmatization and discrimination towards people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS by the general public in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L P; Syuhada, A R Nur

    2011-09-01

    Globally, HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discriminatory attitudes deter the effectiveness of HIV prevention and care programs. This study investigated the general public's perceptions about HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination towards people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS in order to understand the root of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discriminatory attitudes. Study was carried out using qualitative focus group discussions (FGD). An interview guide with semi-structured questions was used. Participants were members of the public in Malaysia. Purposive sampling was adopted for recruitment of participants. A total 14 focus group discussions (n = 74) was carried out between March and July 2008. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) was profound. Key factors affecting discriminatory attitudes included high-risk taking behavior, individuals related to stigmatized identities, sources of HIV infection, stage of the disease, and relationship with an infected person. Other factors that influence attitudes toward PLWHA include ethnicity and urban-rural locality. Malay participants were less likely than other ethnic groups to perceive no stigmatization if their spouses were HIV positive. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination were stronger among participants in rural settings. The differences indicate attitudes toward PLWHA are influenced by cultural differences.

  8. Correlates and consequences of internalized stigma for people living with mental illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, James D; Boyd, Jennifer E

    2010-12-01

    An expansive body of research has investigated the experiences and adverse consequences of internalized stigma for people with mental illness. This article provides a systematic review and meta-analysis of the extant research regarding the empirical relationship between internalized stigma and a range of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and psychiatric variables for people who live with mental illness. An exhaustive review of the research literature was performed on all articles published in English that assessed a statistical relationship between internalized stigma and at least one other variable for adults who live with mental illness. In total, 127 articles met the inclusion criteria for systematic review, of which, data from 45 articles were extracted for meta-analyses. None of the sociodemographic variables that were included in the study were consistently or strongly correlated with levels of internalized stigma. The review uncovered a striking and robust negative relationship between internalized stigma and a range of psychosocial variables (e.g., hope, self-esteem, and empowerment). Regarding psychiatric variables, internalized stigma was positively associated with psychiatric symptom severity and negatively associated with treatment adherence. The review draws attention to the lack of longitudinal research in this area of study which has inhibited the clinical relevance of findings related to internalized stigma. The study also highlights the need for greater attention on disentangling the true nature of the relationship between internalized stigma and other psychosocial variables. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of flooding on people living with HIV: a case study from the Ohangwena Region, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Anthonj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Floods are a disaster situation for all affected populations and especially for vulnerable groups within communities such as children, orphans, women, and people with chronic diseases such as HIV and AIDS. They need functioning health care, sanitation and hygiene, safe water, and healthy food supply, and are critically dependent on their social care and support networks. A study carried out in the Ohangwena region, Namibia, where HIV prevalence is high and extensive flooding frequently occurs, aims to provide a deeper understanding of the impact that flooding has on people living with HIV (PLWHIV as well as on HIV service providers in the region. Design: The qualitative research applying grounded theory included semi-structured interviews with PLWHIV, focus group discussions with HIV service providers, and a national feedback meeting. The findings were interpreted using the sustainable livelihoods framework, the natural hazard research approach, and health behaviour theories. Results: The study reveals that flooding poses major problems to PLWHIV in terms of their everyday lives, affecting livelihoods, work, income, and living conditions. The factors threatening them under normal conditions – poverty, malnutrition, unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene, limited access to health facilities, a weak health status, and stigma – are intensified by flood-related breakdown of infrastructure, insecurity, malnutrition, and diseases evolving over the course of a flood. A potential dual risk exists for their health: the increased risk both of infection and disease due to the inaccessibility of health services and antiretroviral treatment. A HIV and Flooding Framework was developed to display the results. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that vulnerabilities and health risks of PLWHIV will increase in a disaster situation like flooding if access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support are not addressed and ensured. The findings and

  10. The impact of flooding on people living with HIV: a case study from the Ohangwena Region, Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthonj, Carmen; Nkongolo, Odon T; Schmitz, Peter; Hango, Johannes N; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Floods are a disaster situation for all affected populations and especially for vulnerable groups within communities such as children, orphans, women, and people with chronic diseases such as HIV and AIDS. They need functioning health care, sanitation and hygiene, safe water, and healthy food supply, and are critically dependent on their social care and support networks. A study carried out in the Ohangwena region, Namibia, where HIV prevalence is high and extensive flooding frequently occurs, aims to provide a deeper understanding of the impact that flooding has on people living with HIV (PLWHIV) as well as on HIV service providers in the region. The qualitative research applying grounded theory included semi-structured interviews with PLWHIV, focus group discussions with HIV service providers, and a national feedback meeting. The findings were interpreted using the sustainable livelihoods framework, the natural hazard research approach, and health behaviour theories. The study reveals that flooding poses major problems to PLWHIV in terms of their everyday lives, affecting livelihoods, work, income, and living conditions. The factors threatening them under normal conditions - poverty, malnutrition, unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene, limited access to health facilities, a weak health status, and stigma - are intensified by flood-related breakdown of infrastructure, insecurity, malnutrition, and diseases evolving over the course of a flood. A potential dual risk exists for their health: the increased risk both of infection and disease due to the inaccessibility of health services and antiretroviral treatment. A HIV and Flooding Framework was developed to display the results. This study demonstrates that vulnerabilities and health risks of PLWHIV will increase in a disaster situation like flooding if access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support are not addressed and ensured. The findings and the HIV and Flooding Framework are not specific to Ohangwena and

  11. The shift to rapid job placement for people living with mental illness: an analysis of consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewurtz, Rebecca E; Cott, Cheryl; Rush, Brian; Kirsh, Bonnie

    2012-12-01

    This article reports on the consequences of the revised policy for employment supports within the Ontario Disability Support Program, a disability benefit program administered by the provincial government in Ontario, Canada. The revised policy involves a change from a fee-for-service model to an outcome-based funding model. This revision has encouraged a shift from preemployment to job placement services, with a particular focus on rapid placement into available jobs. Using a qualitative case study approach, 25 key informant interviews were conducted with individuals involved in developing or implementing the policy, or delivering employment services for individuals living with mental illness under the policy. Policy documents were also reviewed in order to explore the intent of the policy. Analysis focused on exploring how the policy has been implemented in practice, and its impact on employment services for individuals living with mental illness. The findings highlight how employment support practices have evolved under the new policy. Although there is now an increased focus on employment rather than preemployment supports, the financial imperative to place individuals into jobs as quickly as possible has decreased attention to career development. Jobs are reported to be concentrated at the entry-level with low pay and little security or benefits. These findings raise questions about the quality of employment being achieved under the new policy, highlight problems with adopting selected components of evidence-based approaches, and begin to explicate the influence that funding structures can have on practice.

  12. Depression and discrimination in the lives of women, transgender and gender liminal people in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charmaine C; Curling, Deone; Steele, Leah S; Gibson, Margaret F; Daley, Andrea; Green, Datejie Cheko; Ross, Lori E

    2017-05-01

    This article uses an intersectionality lens to explore how experiences of race, gender, sexuality, class and their intersections are associated with depression and unmet need for mental healthcare in a population of 704 women and transgender/gender liminal people from Ontario, Canada. A survey collecting demographic information, information about mental health and use of mental healthcare services, and data for the Everyday Discrimination Scale and the PHQ-9 Questionnaire for Depression was completed by 704 people via Internet or pen-and-paper between June 2011 and June 2012. Bivariate and regression analyses were conducted to assess group differences in depression and discrimination experiences, and predictors of depression and unmet need for mental healthcare services. Analyses revealed that race, gender, class and sexuality all corresponded to significant differences in exposure to discrimination, experiences of depression and unmet needs for mental healthcare. Use of interaction terms to model intersecting identities and exclusion contributed to explained variance in both outcome variables. Everyday discrimination was the strongest predictor of both depression and unmet need for mental healthcare. The results suggest lower income and intersections of race with other marginalised identities are associated with more depression and unmet need for mental healthcare; however, discrimination is the factor that contributes the most to those vulnerabilities. Future research can build on intersectionality theory by foregrounding the role of structural inequities and discrimination in promoting poor mental health and barriers to healthcare. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Beings of a Feather: Learning About the Lives of Birds with Amazonian Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Jernigan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a memoir of the author's fieldwork experiences studying traditional knowledge of bird species in the Peruvian Amazon. It describes his growth as a researcher, in light of the practical and methodological challenges of carrying out this kind of work. It also relates how the author's thinking has evolved on questions of current theoretical interest in ethnobiology. The first section outlines how the author came to be interested in this topic while pursuing an ethnobotanical dissertation project. Next, the discussion follows his work with the indigenous Aguaruna and Iquito peoples, learning about and documenting their understandings of the nesting, foraging and reproductive behavior of local avian species. On one hand, he found that local people provided details of these behaviors that match, in many ways, the counts of academic ornithologists. However, local interpretations of why these behaviors take place are often framed by some very different assumptions. The author uses Victor Toledo's tripartite framework of kosmos (overarching belief systems, corpus (cognitive categories, and praxis (set of practices to discuss similarities and differences in Aguaruna, Iquito, and academic ornithology. He also discusses his progression of views on the topic of perspectivism and eventual preference for a theoretical framework favoring a polyontological approach to understanding Amazonian ethnoecology.

  14. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on the Pulmonary Functions, Respiratory Symptoms and Psychological Status of People Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aweto, Happiness Anulika; Aiyegbusi, Ayoola Ibifubara; Ugonabo, Adaora Justina; Adeyemo, Titilope Adenike

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary complications, respiratory symptoms and depression are common occurrences which contribute to the morbidity and mortality seen in individuals living with HIV/AIDS. This study investigated the effect of aerobic exercise on the pulmonary functions, respiratory symptoms and psychological status of people living with HIV. This study was conducted in Lagos, Nigeria from October 2014 to May 2015. Forty eligible individuals with HIV aged 18 yr and above participated, of which 33 cooperated to the end. They were recruited from the HIV/AIDS Prevention and Intervention Initiative (APIN) Clinic, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria and were randomly assigned to either the study or the control group. The study group received aerobic exercise training three times a week for six weeks and counselling while the control group received only counselling. Pulmonary functions, respiratory symptoms and psychological status were evaluated at baseline and at six weeks. Inferential statistics of paired and independent t-test were used to analyse the data. Comparison of mean changes in the pulmonary variables of the study group with those of the control group showed significant differences in all but in the respiratory rate (RR) - [Forced Expiratory Volume in one second: P=0.001, Forced Vital Capacity: P=0.001, Peak Expiratory Flow: P=0.001]. There were also significant differences between the mean changes in respiratory symptoms (P=0.001) and depressive symptoms (P=0.001) of study group and those of the control group. Aerobic exercise training significantly improved pulmonary functions as well as significantly reduced respiratory and depressive symptoms in people living with HIV.

  15. Employment discrimination and HIV stigma: survey results from civil society organisations and people living with HIV in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Laurel; Simon, Sara; Sprague, Courtenay

    2011-01-01

    The article presents findings from three surveys of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and civil society organisations about the experience of employment discrimination and stigma in the workplace. The work seeks to contribute to efforts by businesses and other organisations to effectively respond to the HIV epidemic within the world of work, and to deepen our understanding of the ways in which HIV stigma and employment discrimination persist in the workplace. The findings of global and regional surveys indicate the existence of high levels of employment discrimination based on HIV status worldwide, including forced disclosure of HIV status, exclusion in the workplace, refusals to hire or promote, and terminations of people known to be living with HIV. The survey findings show that employment discrimination based on HIV status is experienced in all African subregions. Country-level surveys conducted in Kenya and Zambia indicated that PLHIV face marked barriers to employment, including discrimination in hiring, loss of promotions, and termination because of HIV status. Additionally, large variances were found in the degree of support versus discrimination that employees living with HIV in those two countries received following their disclosure. The discussion emphasises the importance of the workplace as a site for intervention and behaviour change. To address this, we introduce a conceptual framework - the employment continuum - that maps multiple points of entry within the workplace to address HIV-related stigma and discrimination. Additional recommendations include: actions to ensure equal opportunity in hiring for PLHIV; ensuring that HIV testing is voluntary, never mandatory, and that disclosure is not necessary for employment; ensuring confidentiality of HIV status; communicating and enforcing HIV-related antidiscrimination policies; establishing support groups in the workplace; providing safe and confidential processes for resolving complaints of employment

  16. Telephone consultation for improving health of people living with or at risk of HIV: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle H M M T van Velthoven

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low cost, effective interventions are needed to deal with the major global burden of HIV/AIDS. Telephone consultation offers the potential to improve health of people living with HIV/AIDS cost-effectively and to reduce the burden on affected people and health systems. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of telephone consultation for HIV/AIDS care. METHODS: We undertook a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and grey literature. Two authors independently screened citations, extracted data and assessed the quality of randomized controlled trials which compared telephone interventions with control groups for HIV/AIDS care. Telephone interventions were voice calls with landlines or mobile phones. We present a narrative overview of the results as the obtained trials were highly heterogeneous in design and therefore the data could not be pooled for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The search yielded 3321 citations. Of these, nine studies involving 1162 participants met the inclusion criteria. The telephone was used for giving HIV test results (one trial and for delivering behavioural interventions aimed at improving mental health (four trials, reducing sexual transmission risk (one trial, improving medication adherence (two trials and smoking cessation (one trial. Limited effectiveness of the intervention was found in the trial giving HIV test results, in one trial supporting medication adherence and in one trial for smoking cessation by telephone. CONCLUSIONS: We found some evidence of the benefits of interventions delivered by telephone for the health of people living with HIV or at risk of HIV. However, only limited conclusions can be drawn as we only found nine studies for five different interventions and they mainly took place in the United States. Nevertheless, given the high penetration of low-cost mobile phones in countries with high HIV endemicity, more evidence is needed on how telephone consultation

  17. Working in group living homes for older people with dementia: the effects on job satisfaction and burnout and the role of job characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Boekhorst, S.; Willemse, B.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Eefsting, J.A.; Pot, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Group living homes are a fast-growing form of nursing home care for older people with dementia. This study seeks to determine the differences in job characteristics of nursing staff in group living homes and their influence on well-being. Methods: We examined the Job Demand Control

  18. Working in group living homes for older people with dementia: the effects on job satisfaction and burnout and the role of job characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, S. te; Willemse, B.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Eefsting, J.A.; Pot, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Group living homes are a fast-growing form of nursing home care for older people with dementia. This study seeks to determine the differences in job characteristics of nursing staff in group living homes and their influence on well-being. Methods: We examined the Job Demand

  19. Personalization, Self-Advocacy and Inclusion: An Evaluation of Parent-Initiated Supported Living Schemes for People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reindl, Marie-Sol; Waltz, Mitzi; Schippers, Alice

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on parent-initiated supported living schemes in the South of the Netherlands and the ability of these living schemes to enhance participation, choice, autonomy and self-advocacy for people with intellectual or developmental disabilities through personalized planning, support and care. Based on in-depth interviews with tenants,…

  20. Fall prevention by nursing assistants among community-living elderly people. A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlström, Gunilla; Kamwendo, Kitty; Forsberg, Jenny; Bodin, Lennart

    2017-08-29

    Falls among elderly are a major public health issue in Sweden. The aim was to determine whether nursing assistants can prevent falls by supervising community-living elderly individuals with a history of falling in performing individually designed home exercise programmes. A randomised controlled trial was performed in Sweden, in eight municipalities in the county of Örebro, during 2007-2009. Community-living persons 65 years or older having experienced at least one fall during the last 12 months were included. The intervention group consisted of 76 participants, and there were 72 in the control group. The interventions were free of charge and were shared between a physiotherapist and a nursing assistant. The former designed a programme aiming to improve balance, leg strength and walking ability. The nursing assistant supervised the performance of activities during eight home visits during a 5-month intervention period. The measures and instruments used were health-related quality of life (SF-36), activity of daily living (ADL-staircase), balance, (Falls Efficacy Scale, and Berg Balance Scale), walking ability (Timed Up and Go and the 3-metre walking test), leg strength, (chair stand test). All participants were asked to keep a structured calendar of their physical exercise, walks and occurrence of falls during their 12-month study period. Hospital healthcare consumption data were collected. Although the 5-month intervention did not significantly decrease the risk for days with falls, RR 1.10 (95% CI 0.58, 2.07), p = 0.77, significant changes in favour of the intervention group were noted for balance (p = 0.03), ADL (p = 0.035), bodily pain (p = 0.003) and reported health transition over time (p = 0.008) as well as less hospital care due to fractures (p = 0.025). Additional studies with more participants are needed to establish whether or not falls can be significantly prevented with this model which is workable in home-based fall prevention. © 2017

  1. Virtual intervention to support self-management of antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, José; Godin, Gaston; Ramirez-Garcia, Pilar; Rouleau, Geneviève; Bourbonnais, Anne; Guéhéneuc, Yann-Gaël; Tremblay, Cécile; Otis, Joanne

    2015-01-06

    Living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) necessitates long-term health care follow-up, particularly with respect to antiretroviral therapy (ART) management. Taking advantage of the enormous possibilities afforded by information and communication technologies (ICT), we developed a virtual nursing intervention (VIH-TAVIE) intended to empower HIV patients to manage their ART and their symptoms optimally. ICT interventions hold great promise across the entire continuum of HIV patient care but further research is needed to properly evaluate their effectiveness. The objective of the study was to compare the effectiveness of two types of follow-up--traditional and virtual--in terms of promoting ART adherence among HIV patients. A quasi-experimental study was conducted. Participants were 179 HIV patients on ART for at least 6 months, of which 99 were recruited at a site offering virtual follow-up and 80 at another site offering only traditional follow-up. The primary outcome was medication adherence and the secondary outcomes were the following cognitive and affective variables: self-efficacy, attitude toward medication intake, symptom-related discomfort, stress, and social support. These were evaluated by self-administered questionnaire at baseline (T0), and 3 (T3) and 6 months (T6) later. On average, participants had been living with HIV for 14 years and had been on ART for 11 years. The groups were highly heterogeneous, differing on a number of sociodemographic dimensions: education, income, marital status, employment status, and living arrangements. Adherence at baseline was high, reaching 80% (59/74) in the traditional follow-up group and 84% (81/97) in the virtual follow-up group. A generalized estimating equations (GEE) analysis was run, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics at baseline. A time effect was detected indicating that both groups improved in adherence over time but did not differ in this regard. Improvement at 6 months was significantly

  2. Strategies for improving mental health and wellbeing used by older people living with HIV: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Dana; Catalan, Jose; Ridge, Damien

    2018-05-30

    Recent research into "successful ageing" and "resilience" in the context of ageing with HIV highlights older people living with HIV's (OPLWH) adaptations and coping strategies hitherto neglected by early research's emphasis on difficulties and challenges. Yet "resilience" and "successful ageing" are limited by their inconsistent definition, conflation of personal traits and coping strategies, normative dimension, and inattention to cultural variation and the distinctive nature of older age. This article thus adopts an interpretivist approach to how OPLWH manage the challenges to their mental health and wellbeing of ageing with HIV. Drawing on interviews with 76 OPLWH (aged 50+) living in the United Kingdom, we document both the strategies these participants use (for example, "accentuating the positive" and accessing external support) and the challenges to these strategies' success posed by the need to manage their HIV's social and clinical dimensions and prevent their HIV from dominating their lives. This points to (a) the complex overlaps between challenges to and strategies for improving or maintaining mental health and wellbeing in the context of ageing with HIV, and (b) the limitations of the "resilience" and "successful ageing" approaches to ageing with HIV.

  3. Calibration of the food list and portion sizes of a food frequency questionnaire applied to free-living elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfrimer, Karina; Sartorelli, Daniela Saes; Rosa, Flavia Troncon; Mendes Resende, Cristina Maria; Viera, Daniela Vieira Pallos; Rabito, Estela Iraci; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza; Moriguti, Eny Kiyomi Uemora; Monteiro, Jaqueline Pontes; Ferriolli, Eduardo

    2013-05-01

    To calibrate the food list and relative portion sizes of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for application to a free-living, healthy, elderly population. Cross-sectional study. One hundred free-living, healthy participants, aged from 60 to 75 y, randomly selected from among individuals in the area served by the Family Health Program, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of São Paulo. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and a Diet History Questionnaire (DH) were applied by trained dietitians. Each food item of the FFQ had its portion size recalculated according to the percentiles referenced by the volunteers in the DH (25th = small, 50th = medium, and 75th = large). The list of foods and portion sizes of the original FFQ and those obtained by the application of the DH were compared. The percent contribution of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, folic acid, vitamin C, calcium, and fiber of each food item mentioned in the FFQ was determined from the data obtained by the application of the DH. FFQ, as compared with the DH, provided good estimation of the intake of protein, calcium, folic acid, and fiber (paired t test P food list were found to be appropriate for application to healthy, urban, free-living elderly people in Ribeirao Preto, Brazil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Living and dying with dignity: a qualitative study of the views of older people in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sue; Longhurst, Susan; Higginson, Irene

    2009-07-01

    most older people living in nursing homes die there. An empirically based model of dignity has been developed, which forms the basis of a brief psychotherapy to help promote dignity and reduce distress at the end of life. to explore the generalisability of the dignity model to older people in nursing homes. qualitative interviews were used to explore views on maintaining dignity of 18 residents of nursing homes. A qualitative descriptive approach was used. The analysis was both deductive (arising from the dignity model) and inductive (arising from participants' views). the main categories of the dignity model were broadly supported: illness-related concerns, social aspects of the illness experience and dignity conserving repertoire. However, subthemes relating to death were not supported and two new themes emerged. Some residents saw their symptoms and loss of function as due to old age rather than illness. Although residents did not appear to experience distress due to thoughts of impending death, they were distressed by the multiple losses they had experienced. these findings add to our understanding of the concerns of older people in care homes on maintaining dignity and suggest that dignity therapy may bolster their sense of dignity.

  5. Why People Play: Artificial Lives Acquiring Play Instinct to Stabilize Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Tamura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a model to generate a group of artificial lives capable of coping with various environments which is equivalent to a set of requested task, and likely to show that the plays or hobbies are necessary for the group of individuals to maintain the coping capability with various changes of the environment as a whole. This may be an another side of saying that the wide variety of the abilities in the group is necessary, and if the variety in a species decreased, its species will be extinguished. Thus, we show some simulation results, for example, in the world where more variety of abilities are requested in the plays, performance of the whole world becomes stable and improved in spite of being calculated only from job tasks, and can avoid the risk of extinction of the species. This is the good effect of the play.

  6. The cardiovascular risk management for people living with HIV in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahmanesh, M; Schultze, A; Burns, F

    2016-01-01

    . Moderate to high risk was defined as 5-year CV risk >5% and risk modification as two measurements meeting the European AIDSClinical Society guidelines. Factors associated with risk development and modifications were investigated using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Of 8762 individuals, 32.1% were...... Europe, with traditional CV-risk factors. Men who have sex with men, with longer exposure to antiretroviral therapy,low CD4 nadir, higher current CD4, and prior AIDs events were more likely to develop CV-risk. Those on antihypertensive treatment and living in central Europe wereless likely to develop CV-risk....... Of those clinically indicated for risk modification, 1205/2077(58.0%) successfully modified BP; 1283/3919(32.8%) stopped smoking; 277/1394(19.9%) modified cholesterol and 543/2163(25.1%) reduced their BMI. There was variation in modification of individual risk factors, by gender, age, HIV related factors...

  7. The "politics of the queue": the politicization of people living with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Nadine; Bujra, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Starting from a body of literature on movements around "biological citizenship," this article analyses the political significance of HIV-positive people's collective action in Tanzania. We explore reasons for the limited impact of Tanzanian AIDS activism on the wider political scene, concluding that the formation of a "movement" is still in its infancy and faces many constraints, though some breakthroughs have been made. Participation in PLHA groups in Tanzania encourages politicizing struggles over representation, democratic forms and gender that can lead to a process of political socialization in which members learn to recognize and confront abuses of power. It is in such low-level, less visible social transformations that the greatest potential of participation in collective action around HIV/AIDS in Tanzania lies.

  8. Environmental factors that influence the safety of life of people living in big cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashrafov, R.E.; Rustamova, D.F.

    2015-01-01

    There are three reasons of the expansion and strengthening of the scale of human impact on the environment. 1.The volume of production of all types increases continuously and stimulates the growth of production. 2.Waste increases, then environmental pollution increases gradually. 3.The number of people growing constantly, in connection with it the relationship between human and nature expanding. 4.The attitude of human to the nature changes than previous, chemical not being used normally for the sake of getting more products from nature. Every year 1250 million tons of carbon dioxide, 20 million tons of nitrous oxide, fluorinated compounds, chlorinated compounds discarded into the atmosphere and at the same time a large number of powders discarded during the various production process. The disparity in the metabolism between nature and society is reflected in the environmental problem.

  9. Pathways to Attempted Suicide as Reflected in the Narratives of People with Lived Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kätlin Luhaäär

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Narratives, i.e., stories told by suicidal people, describing personal experiences and meanings given to these experiences, play an important role in understanding suicidal behaviour. The aim of the current study was to analyse suicidal processes that have resulted in attempted suicide and to improve the understanding of protective and risk factors of suicidal behaviour. Special emphasis was paid to religious/spiritual aspects. The material was collected in Estonia by conducting narrative interviews with adults (18 years or older who had attempted suicide during their lifetimes (N = 8. Thematic analysis was used for analysing the data. The main themes identified from the narratives were: childhood and family relationships, romantic relationships, alcohol/drug abuse, losses, sleep, previous suicide attempts, and religious/spiritual beliefs. The findings of the study show that there are many pathways to attempted suicide and that the process leading to attempted suicide is complex. Protective and risk factors are both multi-faceted.

  10. Digital life storybooks for people with dementia living in care homes: an evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ponnusamy Subramaniam,1 Bob Woods2 1Health Psychology Programme, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Dementia Services Development Centre Wales, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, UK Background and aim: There is increasing interest in using information and communication technology to help older adults with dementia to engage in reminiscence work. Now, the feasibility of such approaches is beginning to be established. The purpose of this study was to establish an evidence-base for the acceptability and efficacy of using multimedia digital life storybooks with people with dementia in care homes, in comparison with conventional life storybooks, taking into account the perspectives of people with dementia, their relatives, and care staff.Methods: Participatory design was used to create a life story movie based on a previously completed conventional life storybook with six older adults with dementia (four females; mean age 82 years. Relatives were involved in helping the participant to provide additional information and materials for the digital life storybook. In this multiple case study design, both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used. For quantitative purposes, a set of questionnaires that had been completed three times before and after the conventional life storybook was developed were repeated 4 weeks after the life story movie was completed. Semistructured interview questions were designed to collect feedback from participants, relatives, and care staff.Results: The result indicated that five of the six participants showed additional improvement in measures of quality of life and autobiographical memory. All participants showed improvement or stability in depression scores. Thematic analysis showed that, participants, relatives, and care home staff viewed digital life storybooks as a very useful tool triggering memories and (largely positive emotions. Participants’ case vignettes were presented to

  11. Community voices: barriers and opportunities for programmes to successfully prevent vertical transmission of HIV identified through consultations among people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ginna; Caswell, Georgina; Edwards, Olive; Hsieh, Amy; Hull, Beri; Mallouris, Christoforos; Mason, Naisiadet; Nöstlinger, Christiana

    2012-07-11

    In 2010, two global networks of people living with HIV, the International Community of Women Living with HIV (ICW Global) and the Global Network of People living with HIV (GNP+) were invited to review a draft strategic framework for the global scale up of prevention of vertical transmission (PVT) through the primary prevention of HIV and the prevention of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV. In order to ensure recommendations were based on expressed needs of people living with HIV, GNP+ and ICW Global undertook a consultation amongst people living with HIV which highlighted both facilitators and barriers to prevention services. This commentary summarizes the results of that consultation. The consultation was comprised of an online consultation (moderated chat-forum with 36 participants from 16 countries), an anonymous online e-survey (601 respondents from 58 countries), and focus-group discussions with people living with HIV in Jamaica (27 participants). The consultation highlighted the discrepancies across regions with respect to access to essential packages of PVT services. However, the consultation participants also identified common barriers to access, including a lack of trustworthy sources of information, service providers' attitudes, and gender-based violence. In addition, participant responses revealed common facilitators of access, including quality counselling on reproductive choices, male involvement, and decentralized services. The consultation provided some understanding and insight into the participants' experiences with and recommendations for PVT strategies. Participants agreed that successful, comprehensive PVT programming require greater efforts to both prevent primary HIV infection among young women and girls and, in particular, targeted efforts to ensure that women living with HIV and their partners are supported to avoid unintended pregnancies and to have safe, healthy pregnancies instead. In addition to providing the insights

  12. Age identity, social influence and socialization through physical activity in elderly people living in a nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevc, Petra; Doupona Topic, Mojca

    2009-12-01

    Elderly people perceive their own ageing in very different ways and the aim of the present study was to explore age identity, the perception of "old age", the role of physical activity in the socialization of elderly people and social influences on physical activity in elderly people living in a nursing home. Questionnaires were answered by 75 nursing home residents (79 +/- 8 years old; 19 males, 56 females), coming from two different Slovenian regions. Subjective age ("felt age") was on average 5.5 years less than chronological age. Neither increasing chronological age nor subjective age was significantly correlated with a negative perception of health. Subjective age was neither correlated with any of the statements related to well-being and satisfaction with life. The importance of health in old age was confirmed by significant correlation of health status with perception of one's well-being and satisfaction with life. Interestingly, the age at which one perceives a person as having become old was not significantly related to one's own age. Nursing home residents in general associate old age with physical impairment and poor health. Slight differences between genders were noted; men grade retirement and communication difficulties with younger people as more prominent in old age. Interaction with other residents seems to be an important component of physical activity, as participants grade the importance of socializing during exercise quite highly; no significant differences between regions nor between men and women were noted. The social influence on physical activity did not differ significantly between genders and observed regions; the presence of negative social influence was relatively low. Furthermore, in the third period of life, physical activity plays an important socialization role and is, at the same time, influenced by the beliefs and ideas of the environment.

  13. Stigma against People Living with HIV/AIDS in China: Does the Route of Infection Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    Full Text Available In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that people who contracted HIV from "blameless" routes (e.g., blood transfusion, sex with stable partners are less stigmatized compared to people who contracted HIV from "blamable" routes (e.g., injection drug use, sex with sex workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,987 participants in Guangxi province, China, between 2012 and 2013. We employed both explanatory and predictive modeling strategy by using multivariate linear regression models. In the explanatory models, we assessed the association between routes of infection and three types of stigma (perceived, internalized, and enacted. From identified routes of infection that significantly contributed to higher stigma, we employed predictive modeling to explore predictors for the specific type of stigma. Multiple-imputation was employed for sensitivity analyses. Of the total sample, 63% were male and the average age was 42.9 years (ranged between 18 and 88. Multivariate regression models revealed that contraction from commercial sex increased the perceived (β = 0.46, 95%CI = 0.02, 0.90 and internalized stigma (β = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.09, 1.10, while injecting drug use increased the perceived (β = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.07, 1.22 and enacted stigma (β = 0.09, 95%CI = 0.02, 0.16 after controlling for confounders. Among PLWHA who were infected via commercial sex partners, social support was negatively associated with perceived (β = -0.47, 95%CI = -0.79, -0.14 and internalized stigma (β = -0.80, 95%CI = -1.24, -0.35. Among PLWHA who were infected via injecting drugs, no adherence to antiretroviral treatment (β = 0.41, 95%CI = 0.01, 0.82 was positively associated with perceived stigma, and disclosure of serostatus to others was negatively associated with enacted stigma (β = -0.20, 95%CI = -0.34, -0.05. Knowledge of the association between routes of infection and stigma can guide health professionals and policy makers to develop tailored

  14. What do people living in deprived communities in the UK think about household energy efficiency interventions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Fiona L.; Jones, Christopher R.; Webb, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    While physical interventions such as external wall cladding can improve the energy efficiency of domestic properties, how residents think about and respond to such interventions can influence both their uptake and impact on the household’s energy use. The present research investigated what residents living within deprived communities in Yorkshire and the Humber (United Kingdom) thought about a number of household energy efficiency interventions proposed as part of a project known as “The BIG Energy Upgrade”. The Theory of Planned Behaviour was used as a framework for investigating residents' beliefs. Residents generally felt positive about the proposed interventions and expected that they would lead to financial savings, improve the appearance and warmth of their homes, and sense of pride in the local community. However, while residents intended to adopt energy efficiency interventions if offered them, they were less willing to personally invest in them. Home ownership and the belief in humans' ability to tackle climate change were found to predict willingness to invest. These findings help to understand responses to initiatives that seek to improve the energy efficiency of hard-to-treat homes. - Highlights: • We investigate beliefs about energy efficiency interventions in deprived areas. • Residents felt positive and predicted considerable financial savings. • Improved appearance, warmth and pride in place were important for residents • Home ownership predicted willingness to invest in interventions • Belief in humans' ability to tackle climate change predicted willingness to invest

  15. Effects of Reiki With Music Compared to Music Only Among People Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, Marie N; Blake, Barbara J; Wagner, V Doreen; Pearcey, Sharon M

    2016-01-01

    Persons living with HIV (PLWH) often seek complementary treatments to improve their overall health and well-being. Reiki, an ancient healing practice, has been found to be effective in reducing symptoms of stress, anxiety, pain, and depression. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Reiki as a complementary treatment for PLWH. Using a two-group mixed-methods experimental design, 37 participants were randomized to either a 6-week Reiki with Music Group or a Music Only Group. Self-reported and physiologic measures were obtained at baseline, 6 weeks, and 10 weeks. Significant improvements in relief of pain and stress in those receiving RMG were found. At the 6-week assessment, semi-structured interviews were conducted with all participants. Qualitative findings indicated that Reiki and music therapy helped reduce stress, anxiety, and depression. Evidence-based data regarding the effectiveness of Reiki will help nurses help patients better manage HIV-related symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intercomparison of iodine thyroid doses estimated for people living in urban and rural environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.

    2000-01-01

    The radioecological model ECOSYS, developed in GSF-Institut fuer Strahlenschutz has been applied to calculate thyroid doses to the population due to I-131 exposures after the Chernobyl accident. The main contribution to the thyroid doses calculated is given by the consumption of milk and vegetables. Results are presented taking into account the different activity concentrations measured in milk of private family cows and mixed collective milk of a creamery in upper Bavaria, as well as different consumption behaviour of children and adults in rural and urban areas. Thyroid doses due to different milk consumption habits and a different milk origin in adults living in urban environments are estimated to be up to 12 times, in children up to 3 times lower than those estimated for rural environments. The dose contribution by vegetables, however, in any case exceeded the one by milk because of the high intake rates for the case investigated here. These values, however, may be overestimates for vegetables and have a very high uncertainty. For adults total thyroid dose by ingestion was higher in rural areas by a factor of 1.4, for children at the age of 10 years, total thyroid dose by ingestion was 1.5 times higher in urban environments for the conditions described here. (author)

  17. Stigma and Spiritual Well-being among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Southern Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Sadie P; Darlington, Caroline K; Hall, Joanne M; Heidel, R Eric; Gaskins, Susan

    2018-06-01

    The Appalachian South is disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Partly due to the negative connotation that this disease carries in religiously conservative areas, HIV-related stigma remains a critical barrier to HIV care in the South. However, spirituality is a well-documented, effective coping mechanism among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between HIV-related stigma and spiritual well-being among a sample of PLWH (n = 216) in Appalachian counties of Tennessee and Alabama using the HIV Stigma Scale and the Spiritual Well-being Scale. Overall, disclosure of HIV status was the most highly reported stigma concern. Women reported higher levels of stigma and religious well-being than men. While existential well-being was negatively correlated with stigma, no significant overall correlation was found between religious well-being and stigma. Our findings reveal the importance of defining theology and differentiating between cultural religious conditioning and internalized beliefs.

  18. [Reproductive options for people living with HIV: 2013 guidelines from the French expert working group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelbrot, L; Berrebi, A; Rouzioux, C; Partisani, M; Faucher, P; Tubiana, R; Matheron, S; Bujan, L; Morlat, P

    2014-01-01

    The desire for children is a legitimate aspiration that should be part of multidisciplinary care for all men, women or couples living with HIV. The use of effective antiretroviral therapy has revolutionized the prevention of sexual, as well as mother-to-child HIV transmission. When the HIV plasma viral load is undetectable on long-term antiretroviral therapy, the risk of mother-to-child transmission is <1% and the risk of heterosexual HIV transmission without condom use in a stable relationship is very low (estimated at less than 1/10,000) in the absence of inflammation of the genital tract. In a man with a long-term undetectable viral load, viral shedding in semen is uncommon, but may occur persistently or intermittently. The same appears true of viral shedding in the vaginal tract of women. Reproductive options are: natural conception, self-insemination when the woman is HIV-infected, assisted reproduction. Natural conception is now considered to be an acceptable option when the conditions are met, after exploring four aspects: (1) virological (viral load undetectable sustained for at least 6 months on therapy), (2) genital (absence of genital infections or lesions), (3) fertility (after appropriate evaluation) and (4) detecting the ovulation period to limit intercourse without condoms. Assisted reproduction has two objectives in the context of HIV, to allow the couple to conceive without abandoning condom use and/or to treat infertility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploring the theoretical foundations of visual art programmes for people living with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Gill; Gregory, Samantha; Howson-Griffiths, Teri; Newman, Andrew; O'Brien, Dave; Goulding, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growing international innovations for visual arts interventions in dementia care, limited attention has been paid to their theoretical basis. In response, this paper explores how and why visual art interventions in dementia care influence changes in outcomes. The theory building process consists of a realist review of primary research on visual art programmes. This aims to uncover what works, for whom, how, why and in what circumstances. We undertook a qualitative exploration of stakeholder perspectives of art programmes, and then synthesised these two pieces of work alongside broader theory to produce a conceptual framework for intervention development, further research and practice. This suggests effective programmes are realised through essential attributes of two key conditions (provocative and stimulating aesthetic experience; dynamic and responsive artistic practice). These conditions are important for cognitive, social and individual responses, leading to benefits for people with early to more advanced dementia. This work represents a starting point at identifying theories of change for arts interventions, and for further research to critically examine, refine and strengthen the evidence base for the arts in dementia care. Understanding the theoretical basis of interventions is important for service development, evaluation and implementation.

  20. Living with constipation--older people's experiences and strategies with constipation before and during hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munch, Lene; Tvistholm, Nina; Trosborg, Ingelise; Konradsen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Constipation is a common problem among older people. This study aimed to explore how older patients experience constipation and which strategies they used in handling the condition before and during hospitalization. A qualitative exploratory research design was used. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients (61-91 years of age) during hospitalization. Data were analyzed by using content analysis. Themes concerning experiences were Bodily signs and symptoms of constipation; the participants described severe pain during constipation, as well as pronounced relief after bowel movements, Impact on well-being and social activities; being constipated negatively impacted their mood and limited social activities, Striving for bowel balance; the participants experienced an ongoing strive for balancing between constipation and diarrhea. Themes related to strategies were Struggling to find a solution; they were aware of different strategies to prevent and treat constipation, though the most common solution described was the use of laxatives, Wait and see; the participants were awaiting to take action until they experienced constipation symptoms, Constipation is a private problem being challenged during hospitalization; constipation was considered a private issue rarely discussed with health-care professionals. This study illuminates the need for health-care professionals to be attentive to this issue and initiate the conversation with patients in order to advise on the management of constipation.

  1. Living with constipation—older people's experiences and strategies with constipation before and during hospitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munch, Lene; Tvistholm, Nina; Trosborg, Ingelise; Konradsen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Constipation is a common problem among older people. This study aimed to explore how older patients experience constipation and which strategies they used in handling the condition before and during hospitalization. Methods A qualitative exploratory research design was used. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients (61–91 years of age) during hospitalization. Data were analyzed by using content analysis. Results Themes concerning experiences were Bodily signs and symptoms of constipation; the participants described severe pain during constipation, as well as pronounced relief after bowel movements, Impact on well-being and social activities; being constipated negatively impacted their mood and limited social activities, Striving for bowel balance; the participants experienced an ongoing strive for balancing between constipation and diarrhea. Themes related to strategies were Struggling to find a solution; they were aware of different strategies to prevent and treat constipation, though the most common solution described was the use of laxatives, Wait and see; the participants were awaiting to take action until they experienced constipation symptoms, Constipation is a private problem being challenged during hospitalization; constipation was considered a private issue rarely discussed with health-care professionals. Conclusion This study illuminates the need for health-care professionals to be attentive to this issue and initiate the conversation with patients in order to advise on the management of constipation. PMID:27121271

  2. Living with constipation—older people's experiences and strategies with constipation before and during hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Munch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Constipation is a common problem among older people. This study aimed to explore how older patients experience constipation and which strategies they used in handling the condition before and during hospitalization. Methods: A qualitative exploratory research design was used. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients (61–91 years of age during hospitalization. Data were analyzed by using content analysis. Results: Themes concerning experiences were Bodily signs and symptoms of constipation; the participants described severe pain during constipation, as well as pronounced relief after bowel movements, Impact on well-being and social activities; being constipated negatively impacted their mood and limited social activities, Striving for bowel balance; the participants experienced an ongoing strive for balancing between constipation and diarrhea. Themes related to strategies were Struggling to find a solution; they were aware of different strategies to prevent and treat constipation, though the most common solution described was the use of laxatives, Wait and see; the participants were awaiting to take action until they experienced constipation symptoms, Constipation is a private problem being challenged during hospitalization; constipation was considered a private issue rarely discussed with health-care professionals. Conclusion: This study illuminates the need for health-care professionals to be attentive to this issue and initiate the conversation with patients in order to advise on the management of constipation.

  3. Use of Ethnomedicinal Plants by the People Living around Indus River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakina Mussarat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to document and preserve ethnomedicinal knowledge use to treat different human ailments by traditional healers of Dera Ismail Khan region, Pakistan. Field work was conducted between February 2012 and January 2013 using semistructured questionnaires. Data was collected from 120 traditional healers through questionnaire survey. Traditional healers in the study area use 70 plant species mostly herbs (57% for ethnomedicinal and other purposes. The highest FIC values (0.80 were obtained each for gastrointestinal and kidney problems followed by respiratory infections (0.72 and skin infections (0.73. There was a significant correlation (r2=0.950;  p<0.01 between the age and traditional knowledge of respondent. Direct matrix ranking indicated Morus alba and Dalbergia sissoo as highly multipurpose and threatened species in the study area. The results showed high dependency of local inhabitants on medicinal plants in meeting their primary health care needs. Moreover, the traditional knowledge has been restricted to elder people. Protection measures should be taken in order to conserve precious multipurpose species that are facing overexploitation. Medicinal plants treating major ailments in the region may be subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological investigations for the identification of bioactive compounds.

  4. Sexuality and intimacy among people living with serious mental illnesses: Factors contributing to sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfils, Kelsey A; Firmin, Ruth L; Salyers, Michelle P; Wright, Eric R

    2015-09-01

    Limited research has focused on sexuality for those diagnosed with a severe mental illness. We aimed to extend existing work by exploring relationships between mastery (perception of control of one's life and future), sexual self-esteem (perceptions of one's capacity to engage in healthy sexual behavior), sexual attitudes (permissive ideas about sexuality), and perceived importance of relationships/sexuality and number of sexual partners. A secondary analysis of survey data from adult participants living with a severe mental illness (N = 401) in the Indiana Mental Health Services and HIV-Risk Study (Perry & Wright, 2006) was conducted. Analysis of covariance (controlling for marital status) compared those with 0 partners, 1 partner, or multiple partners over the past 3 months on the dependent variables of mastery, sexual self-esteem, sexual attitudes, and perceived importance. Participants with more permissive attitudes, greater perceived importance, and higher mastery were more likely to be sexually active with multiple partners. Self-esteem did not differentiate groups. Given the key role of sexual satisfaction in quality of life and the high rates of sexual risk behavior in this population, it is important that clinicians systematically assess mastery, perceived importance, and attitudes about sexuality when working with consumers diagnosed with a severe mental illness. Individually tailoring existing interventions on the basis of consumers' levels of mastery, related to self-efficacy for implementing changes in life, could improve long-term outcomes for these programs. Future research should examine other constructs that may account for more variance in sexual activity, such as perceptions of risk, intentions for sexual safety, or romantic relationship functioning. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Increased mortality among Indigenous persons in a multisite cohort of people living with HIV in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Anita C; Younger, Jaime; Beaver, Kerrigan; Jackson, Randy; Loutfy, Mona; Masching, Renée; Nobis, Tony; Nowgesic, Earl; O'Brien-Teengs, Doe; Whitebird, Wanda; Zoccole, Art; Hull, Mark; Jaworsky, Denise; Benson, Elizabeth; Rachlis, Anita; Rourke, Sean B; Burchell, Ann N; Cooper, Curtis; Hogg, Robert S; Klein, Marina B; Machouf, Nima; Montaner, Julio S G; Tsoukas, Chris; Raboud, Janet

    2017-06-16

    Compare all-cause mortality between Indigenous participants and participants of other ethnicities living with HIV initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in an interprovincial multi-site cohort. The Canadian Observational Cohort is a collaboration of 8 cohorts of treatment-naïve persons with HIV initiating cART after January 1, 2000. Participants were followed from the cART initiation date until death or last viral load (VL) test date on or before December 31, 2012. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the effect of ethnicity on time until death after adjusting for age, gender, injection drug use, being a man who has sex with men, hepatitis C, province of origin, baseline VL and CD4 count, year of cART initiation and class of antiretroviral medication. The study sample consisted of 7080 participants (497 Indigenous, 2471 Caucasian, 787 African/Caribbean/Black (ACB), 629 other, and 2696 unknown ethnicity). Most Indigenous persons were from British Columbia (BC) (83%), with smaller numbers from Ontario (13%) and Québec (4%). During the study period, 714 (10%) participants died. The five-year survival probability was lower for Indigenous persons (0.77) than for Caucasian (0.94), ACB (0.98), other ethnicities (0.96) and unknown ethnicities (0.85) (p < 0.0001). In an adjusted proportional hazard model for which missing data were imputed, Indigenous persons were more likely to die than Caucasian participants (hazard ratio = 2.69, p < 0.0001). The mortality rate for Indigenous persons was higher than for other ethnicities and is largely reflective of the BC population. Addressing treatment challenges and identifying HIV- and non-HIV-related causes for mortality among Indigenous persons is required to optimize their clinical management.

  6. Implementation of an Integrative Holistic Healthcare Model for People Living with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretzer-Aboff, Ingrid; Prettyman, Allen

    2015-06-01

    Research demonstrates that people with Parkinson's disease (PD) benefit greatly from multidisciplinary medical care. Delaware does not have a Movement Disorder Center or a movement disorder specialist. To address this issue, the University of Delaware Nurse Managed Health Center (NMHC) developed a novel PD Telehealth Clinic serving individuals with PD and their caregivers throughout Delaware. The PD clinic is based on a collaborative framework that uses synchronous videoconferencing telehealth technology to bring together out-of-state clinicians and scientists with expertise in PD to help deliver specialized care to PD patients and their caregivers. The team includes a movement disorder specialist, psychologists, nurse practitioners, researchers, physical and speech therapists, exercise physiologists, nutritionists, and graduate students. The PD Clinic delivery model seamlessly blends telehealth provider and onsite provider interactions, enabling the diagnosis, treatment, and ongoing management of PD. In the first 6 months of the Parkinson's clinic opening, the nurse practitioners along with the movement disorder specialist evaluated 36 PD patients. Several patients have received recommendations to change their medication regimen by the movement disorder specialist. About 20 patients were referred to physical therapy, 7 to speech therapy, 9 to mental health services, 1 to occupational therapy, and 12 to local support groups. The location of the NMHC-PD clinic has reduced travel time and distance by as much as 1.5 hr or 80 miles, each way, and wait time for a new patient appointment is less than 3 months. The NMHC - PD Telehealth Clinic provides access to specialized multidisciplinary and advanced care and was successfully implemented. This model can be replicated in other nurse managed health centers across the United States. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For

  7. Perceptions of care and patient-reported outcomes in people living with neuroendocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Vanessa L; Burge, Matthew; Dumbrava, Monica; Callum, Jack; Neale, Rachel E; Wyld, David K

    2018-03-29

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are rare, and when metastatic NETs are incurable, the tumours are frequently slowly growing. Patients may be confronted with disease-specific problems and distinct issues when accessing health-care. We aimed to assess perceptions of care coordination, identify unmet needs, and examine if these varied by whether patients received specialist oncology care in a single hospital or shared between that and another hospital. We also quantified anxiety, depression, and NET-related physical symptoms. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 111 NET patients managed at Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital. Validated surveys measured care coordination (CCCQ), unmet needs (SCNS-SF34), anxiety and depression (HADS), and quality of life and symptoms (FACT). Participants were between 2 months and 27 years after diagnosis. The worst-ranked items on the CCCQ related to health professionals having a full case history, providing information about financial entitlements and asking about how well patients and their families were coping. People with shared care were significantly less satisfied with some aspects of care. One in three participants reported a moderate-to-high unmet need for help with fatigue and one in four with psychological concerns about their cancer spreading, uncertainty about their future, and about the worries of those close to them. Overall, 30% of participants had anxiety and 20% had depression and they had significantly lower physical and emotional well-being compared to the general population. NETs are experienced as a chronic illness. In addition to ongoing psychological and physical symptom management, improvements to case history documentation and discussions about coping and finance are recommended.

  8. Five-factor model personality traits, spirituality/religiousness, and mental health among people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Ironson, Gail H; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Costa, Paul T

    2009-10-01

    We examined the association between five-factor personality domains and facets and spirituality/religiousness as well as their joint association with mental health in a diverse sample of people living with HIV (n=112, age range 18-66). Spirituality/religiousness showed stronger associations with Conscientiousness, Openness, and Agreeableness than with Neuroticism and Extraversion. Both personality traits and spirituality/religiousness were significantly linked to mental health, even after controlling for individual differences in demographic measures and disease status. Personality traits explained unique variance in mental health above spirituality and religiousness. Further, aspects of spirituality and religiousness were found to mediate some of the links between personality and mental health in this patient sample. These findings suggest that underlying personality traits contribute to the beneficial effects of spirituality/religiousness among vulnerable populations.

  9. Technology use and reasons to participate in online social networking websites for people living with HIV in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Keith J.; Danilenko, Gene P.; Williams, Mark L.; Simoni, Jane; Amico, K. Rivet; Oakes, J. Michael; Rosser, B.R. Simon

    2012-01-01

    It is unknown if online social networking technologies are already highly integrated among some people living with HIV (PLWH) or have yet to be adopted. To fill this gap in understanding, 312 PLWH (84% male, 69% white) residing in the US completed on online survey in 2009 of their patterns of social networking and mobile phone use. Twenty-two persons also participated in one of two online focus groups. Results showed that 76% of participants with lower adherence to HIV medication used social networking websites/features at least once a week. Their ideal online social networking health websites included one that facilitated socializing with others (45% of participants) and relevant informational content (22%), although privacy was a barrier to use (26%). Texting (81%), and to a lesser extent mobile web-access (51%), was widely used among participants. Results support the potential reach of online social networking and text messaging intervention approaches. PMID:22350832

  10. Acceptability of HIV cure-related trials: the challenges for physicians and people living with HIV (ANRS-APSEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preau, Marie; Doumergue, Marjolaine; Protiere, Christel; Goujard, Cécile; Mora, Marion; Meyer, Laurence; Lelievre, Jean-Daniel; Raffi, François; Spire, Bruno; Lambotte, Olivier; Suzan-Monti, Marie

    2018-01-18

    Essential HIV cure-related clinical trials (HCRCT) have a potentially high-risk profile in terms of participants' health, which could hinder enrollment by people living with HIV (PLWH) and healthcare professionals (HP). The ANRS-APSEC survey is part of the IAS "Towards an HIV cure" initiative, which promotes multidisciplinary research for a safe, affordable and scalable cure. The study objectives were to understand the psychosocial mechanisms underlying PLWH and HP viewpoints about future HCRCT. Six focus group discussions (three with PLWH (n = 21) and three with HP (n = 30)) were held in three French infectious disease units. From these, three perspectives on HCRCT were identified. The first involved beliefs and knowledge associating HCRCT with poorer health and quality of life for PLWH. The second concerned perceptions of HCRCT as a biological and epidemiological flashback to a situation when HIV infection was left uncontrolled. The third was characterized by aspects of historical HIV culture that embrace innovation.

  11. Higher Risk of Abdominal Obesity, Elevated LDL Cholesterol and Hypertriglyceridemia, but not of Hypertension, in People Living with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelpi, Marco; Afzal, Shoaib; Lundgren, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Background: People living with HIV (PLWH) have lower life expectancy than uninfected individuals, partly explained by excess risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and CVD risk factors. We investigated the association between HIV infection and abdominal obesity, elevated LDL cholesterol (LDL...... and underwent blood pressure, waist-, hip-, weight-, and height-measurements. Non-fasting blood samples were obtained from all participants. We assessed whether HIV was independently associated with abdominal obesity, elevated LDL-C, hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension using logistic regression models...... adjusted for known risk factors. Results: HIV infection was associated with higher risk of abdominal obesity (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.92[1.60-2.30]) for a given BMI, elevated LDL-C (aOR: 1.32[1.09-1.59]), hypertriglyceridemia (aOR 1.76[1.49-2.08]), and lower risk of hypertension (aOR: 0.63[0.54 - 0...

  12. Prevalence and impact of xerostomia on the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busato, Ivana Maria Saes; Thomaz, Mariana; Toda, Alexandre Issamu; Alanis, Danilo Gustavo Pulita; França, Beatriz Helena Sottile; de Lima, Antônio Adilson Soares; Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of xerostomia on the quality of life (QOL) of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) from Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed on 195 PLWHA. Xerostomia was detected by asking a question about the sensation of having "dry mouth," and Oral Health Impact Profile 14 (OHIP-14) was used to measure the impact of xerostomia on QOL. Time of diagnosis of HIV/AIDS was assessed. A total of 78 (40.0%) subjects presented with xerostomia. Xerostomia was associated with female gender, low amount of saliva perceived (p ≤ .01), difficulty in swallowing food (p ≤ .05), and showed to have a negative impact on QOL as measured by OHIP-14 (p ≤ .01). Xerostomia was frequent and showed to have a negative impact on the QOL of PLWHA. ©2012 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Factors that can influence feelings towards and interactions with people living with HIV/AIDS in rural Central Kenya.

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    Kingori, Caroline; Haile, Zelalem T; Ngatia, Peter; Nderitu, Ruth

    2017-08-01

    Background In Kenya, HIV incidence and prevalence have declined. HIV rates are lower in rural areas than in urban areas. However, HIV infection is reported higher in men in rural areas (4.5%) compared to those in urban areas (3.7%). Objectives This study examined HIV knowledge, feelings, and interactions towards HIV-infected from 302 participants in rural Central Kenya. Methods Chi square tests and multivariable logistic regression analyzed variables of interest. Results Most participants exhibited positive feelings in their interaction with people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). Association between HIV knowledge and socio-demographic characteristics revealed that the proportion of participants with a correct response differed by gender, age, level of education, and marital status ( p risk populations from the general population is needed to reduce stigma.

  14. An evaluation of quality of life and its determinants among people living with HIV/AIDS from Southern Brazil

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    Susane Müller Klug Passos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study evaluated the quality of life and its associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS at a regional reference center for the treatment of HIV/AIDS in southern Brazil. WHOQOL-HIV Bref, ASSIST 2.0, HAD Scale, and a questionnaire were used to assess 625 participants on quality of life, clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, drug use, depression and anxiety. Multivariate analysis was performed through linear regression. The lowest results for quality of life were associated with being female, age (< 47 years, low education levels, low socioeconomic class, unemployment, not having a stable relationship, signs of anxiety and depression, abuse or addiction of psychoactive substances, lack of perceived social support, never taking antiretroviral medication, lipodystrophy, comorbidities, HIV related hospitalizations and a CD4+ cell count less than 350. Psychosocial factors should be included in the physical and clinical evaluation given their strong association with quality of life domains.

  15. Integrating tuberculosis and HIV services for people living with HIV: Costs of the Zambian ProTEST Initiative

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    Kayawe Ignatius

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the face of the dual TB/HIV epidemic, the ProTEST Initiative was one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of providing collaborative TB/HIV care for people living with HIV (PLWH in poor settings. The ProTEST Initiative facilitated collaboration between service providers. Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT acted as the entry point for services including TB screening and preventive therapy, clinical treatment for HIV-related disease, and home-based care (HBC, and a hospice. This paper estimates the costs of the ProTEST Initiative in two sites in urban Zambia, prior to the introduction of anti-retroviral therapy. Methods Annual financial and economic providers costs and output measures were collected in 2000–2001. Estimates are made of total costs for each component and average costs per: person reached by ProTEST; VCT pre-test counselled, tested and completed; isoniazid preventive therapy started and completed; clinic visit; HBC patient; and hospice admission and bednight. Results Annual core ProTEST costs were (in 2007 US dollars $84,213 in Chawama and $31,053 in Matero. The cost of coordination was 4%–5% of total site costs ($1–$6 per person reached. The largest cost component in Chawama was voluntary counselling and testing (56% and the clinic in Matero (50%, where VCT clients had higher HIV-prevalences and more advanced HIV. Average costs were lower for all components in the larger site. The cost per HBC patient was $149, and per hospice bednight was $24. Conclusion This study shows that coordinating an integrated and comprehensive package of services for PLWH is relatively inexpensive. The lessons learnt in this study are still applicable today in the era of ART, as these services must still be provided as part of the continuum of care for people living with HIV.

  16. Opening communication channels with people living with HIV using mobile phone text messaging: insights from the CAMPS trial.

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    Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Thabane, Lehana; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre

    2013-04-04

    Using two-way mobile phone text messages to improve adherence to antiretroviral medication enhances communication between patients and health workers. We describe the implications of participants' responses to text messages in the Cameroon Mobile Phone SMS (CAMPS) trial. This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from the intervention arm of the CAMPS trial. CAMPS was a randomized controlled trial of motivational text messaging versus usual care to improve adherence to antiretroviral medication among people living with HIV in Yaounde, Cameroon (n = 200) over a 6 month period. Participants in the intervention arm (n = 101) were given a contact phone number, but were not required to respond to their reminder messages. If they did, their responses were noted and reported as counts and percentages. We received 99 phone calls and 55 text messages (154 responses) from 48 participants during the study period. The median number of responses was 1 (first quartile [Q1]: 1; third quartile [Q3]: 3). Half (n = 79, 51.1%) of them were expressions of gratitude. The rest included requests for logistical (n = 21, 13.6%), medical (n = 20, 12.9%) and financial (n = 11, 7.1%) support. Initiating two-way mobile communication opens more channels for people living with HIV to express unmet needs. Researchers, policy makers and clinicians should be ready to respond to the needs expressed by patients who respond to text messages. Pan-African Clinical Trials Registry: PACTR201011000261458;

  17. The influence of participation on mortality in very old age among community-living people in Sweden.

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    Haak, Maria; Löfqvist, Charlotte; Ullén, Susann; Horstmann, Vibeke; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2018-04-20

    Participation in everyday life and society is generally seen as essential for health-related outcomes and acknowledged to affect older people's well-being. To investigate if aspects of performance- and togetherness-related participation influence on mortality among very old single living people in Sweden. ENABLE-AGE Survey Study data involving single-living participants in Sweden (N = 314, aged 81-91 years), followed over 10 years were used. Multivariate Cox regression models adjusted for demographic and health-related variables were used to analyse specific items influencing mortality. Participation in performance- or togetherness-oriented activities was found to significantly influence mortality [HR 0.62 (0.44-0.88), P value 0.006, and HR 0.72 (0.53-0.97), P value 0.031, respectively]. Talking to neighbours and following local politics had a protective effect on mortality, speaking to relatives on the phone (CI 1.10-2.02) and performing leisure activities together with others (CI 1.10-2.00) had the opposite influence. That is, those performing the latter activities were significantly more likely to die earlier. The main contribution of this study is the facet of the results showing that aspects of performance- and togetherness-related participation have a protective effect on mortality in very old age. This is important knowledge for designing health promotion and preventive efforts for the ageing population. Moreover, it constitutes a contribution to the development of instruments capturing aspects of participation influencing on mortality. In the development of health promotion and preventive efforts the inclusion of participation facets could be considered in favour of potential positive influences on longevity.

  18. An Assistive Technology System that Provides Personalized Dressing Support for People Living with Dementia: Capability Study.

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    Burleson, Winslow; Lozano, Cecil; Ravishankar, Vijay; Lee, Jisoo; Mahoney, Diane

    2018-05-01

    Individuals living with advancing stages of dementia (persons with dementia, PWDs) or other cognitive disorders do not have the luxury of remembering how to perform basic day-to-day activities, which in turn makes them increasingly dependent on the assistance of caregivers. Dressing is one of the most common and stressful activities provided by caregivers because of its complexity and privacy challenges posed during the process. In preparation for in-home trials with PWDs, the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a prototype intelligent system, the DRESS prototype, to assess its ability to provide automated assistance with dressing that can afford independence and privacy to individual PWDs and potentially provide additional freedom to their caregivers (family members and professionals). This laboratory study evaluated the DRESS prototype's capacity to detect dressing events. These events were engaged in by 11 healthy participants simulating common correct and incorrect dressing scenarios. The events ranged from donning a shirt and pants inside out or backwards to partial dressing-typical issues that challenge a PWD and their caregivers. A set of expected detections for correct dressing was prepared via video analysis of all participants' dressing behaviors. In the initial phases of donning either shirts or pants, the DRESS prototype missed only 4 out of 388 expected detections. The prototype's ability to recognize other missing detections varied across conditions. There were also some unexpected detections such as detection of the inside of a shirt as it was being put on. Throughout the study, detection of dressing events was adversely affected by the relatively smaller effective size of the markers at greater distances. Although the DRESS prototype incorrectly identified 10 of 22 cases for shirts, the prototype preformed significantly better for pants, incorrectly identifying only 5 of 22 cases. Further analyses identified opportunities to improve the

  19. People

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    Mohammad Aref

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to analyze a part of the findings of documentation survey and field work carried out for five years in two cities and 67villages in Komeijan region of Markazi province, Iran, from some new perspectives such as ritual morphography, dramatic origin studies, eastern Scapegoat’s and anthropology of rituals. Using methods of current, and interviewing with 119 of the eldest native settlers ,as informants, and regarding the biochronology of man’s life in this region from the primitive form to civility which have been assigned to go back from the third millennium B.C.up to the present time, the morphography of 48 popular Dramatic Rituals has been determined. Among the findings of the study, one of the Archetypal Dramatic rituals, called Qaraiskurmah in the field of Anthropology of rituals, is Scapegoat’s. All these show the high IQ, innovative mind, and creative artistic tastes of the people in this region of Iran, whether they are Turkish, Persia, or Tats speakers.

  20. Psychological functioning of people living with chronic pain: a meta-analytic review.

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    Burke, Anne L J; Mathias, Jane L; Denson, Linley A

    2015-09-01

    Chronic pain (CP; >3 months) is a common condition that is associated with significant psychological problems. Many people with CP do not fit into discrete diagnostic categories, limiting the applicability of research that is specific to a particular pain diagnosis. This meta-analysis synthesized the large extant literature from a general CP, rather than diagnosis-specific, perspective to systematically identify and compare the psychological problems most commonly associated with CP. Four databases were searched from inception to December 2013 (PsychINFO, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, and PubMed) for studies comparing the psychological functioning of adults with CP to healthy controls. Data from 110 studies were meta-analysed and Cohen's d effect sizes calculated. The CP group reported experiencing significant problems in a range of psychological domains (depression, anxiety, somatization, anger/hostility, self-efficacy, self-esteem and general emotional functioning), with the largest effects observed for pain anxiety/concern and somatization; followed by anxiety and self-efficacy; and then depression, anger/hostility, self-esteem and general emotional functioning. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that individuals with CP are more likely to experience physically focussed psychological problems than other psychological problems and that, unlike self-efficacy, fear of pain is intrinsically tied to the CP experience. This challenges the prevailing view that, for individuals with CP, problems with depression are either equal to, or greater than, problems with anxiety, thereby providing important information to guide therapeutic targets. Positive clinical implications: This is the first time that the CP literature has been synthesized from a general perspective to examine psychological functioning in the presence of CP and provide practical recommendations for assessment and therapy. Individuals with CP were most likely to experience psychological problems