WorldWideScience

Sample records for billion dollars annually

  1. A billion-dollar bonanza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, J.

    1993-01-01

    In late May -- only weeks after Congress had rejected the president's economic stimulus package because it would add to the federal deficit -- the House of Representatives generously allocated an extra $1.2 billion to the Pentagon. This article discusses some of the rationalizations House members gave for the gift and describes the attempts of a bipartisan group to defeat this request for funds propounded by Pennsylvania Democrat John Murtha. This gist of the arguments for and against the $1.2 billion and the results of votes on the bill are presented

  2. Proton collider breaks the six-billion-dollar barrier

    CERN Multimedia

    Vaughan, C

    1990-01-01

    The SSC will cost at least 1 billion more than its estimated final price of 5.9 billion dollars. Critics in congress believe the final bill could be double that figure. The director of the SSC blames most of the increase in cost on technical problems with developing the superconducting magnets for the SSC (1/2 page).

  3. Uranium in Canada: Billion-dollar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whillans, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    In 1988, Canada maintained its position as the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium; five primary uranium producers reported concentrate output containing 12,400 MT of uranium, or about one-third of Western production. Uranium shipments made by these producers in 1988 exceeded 13,200 MT, worth Canadian $1.1 billion. Because domestic requirements represent only 15% of current Canadian output, most of Canada's uranium production is available for export. Despite continued market uncertainty in 1988, Canada's uranium producers signed new sales contracts for some 14,000 MT, twice the 1987 level. About 90% of this new volume is with the US, now Canada's major uranium customer. The recent implementation of the Canada/US Free Trade agreement brings benefits to both countries; the uranium industries in each can now develop in an orderly, free market. Canada's uranium industry was restructured and consolidated in 1988 through merger and acquisition; three new uranium projects advanced significantly. Canada's new policy on nonresident ownership in the uranium mining sector, designed to encourage both Canadian and foreign investment, should greatly improve efforts to finance the development of recent Canadian uranium discoveries

  4. Winglets Save Billions of Dollars in Fuel Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The upturned ends now featured on many airplane wings are saving airlines billions of dollars in fuel costs. Called winglets, the drag-reducing technology was advanced through the research of Langley Research Center engineer Richard Whitcomb and through flight tests conducted at Dryden Flight Research Center. Seattle-based Aviation Partners Boeing -- a partnership between Aviation Partners Inc., of Seattle, and The Boeing Company, of Chicago -- manufactures Blended Winglets, a unique design featured on Boeing aircraft around the world. These winglets have saved more than 2 billion gallons of jet fuel to date, representing a cost savings of more than $4 billion and a reduction of almost 21.5 million tons in carbon dioxide emissions.

  5. FY97 nuclear-related budgets total 493 billion yen (4.4 billion dollars)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    On September 13, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan announced the estimated nuclear-related budget requests for FY1997 (April, 1997 - Mach, 1998), giving the breakdowns for eight ministries and agencies. The total amount requested by the government bodies was 493.3 billion yen, 0.8% increase as compared with FY96. this figure includes the budget requests of the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Transport, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the Okinawa Development Agency, and the Ministry of Home Affairs, but excludes the budget request made by the Ministry of Education. The budget requests of STA and MITI are 360 billion yen and 126 billion yen, respectively. On August 29, STA released its estimated FY97 budget request. The nuclear-related 360.4 billion yen is 0.9% more than that in year before. Of this sum, 199.9 billion yen is in the general account, and 160.6 billion yen is in the special account for power source development. The details of the nuclear-related amounts are explained. On August 26, MITI released its estimated budget request for FY97, and of the nuclear-related 125.7 billion yen (0.1% increase from FY96), 200 million yen is in the general account, and 98.9 billion yen and 26.6 billion yen are in the special accounts for power resource development and power source diversification, respectively. (K.I.)

  6. Megacity Green Infrastructure Converts Water into Billions of Dollars in Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endreny, T. A.; Ulgiati, S.; Santagata, R.

    2016-12-01

    Cities can invest in green infrastructure to purposefully couple water with urban tree growth, thereby generating ecosystem services and supporting human wellbeing as advocated by United Nations sustainable development initiatives. This research estimates the value of tree-based ecosystem services in order to help megacities assess the benefits relative to the costs of such investments. We inventoried tree cover across the metropolitan area of 10 megacities, in 5 continents and biomes, and developed biophysical scaling equations using i-Tree tools to estimate the tree cover value to reductions in air pollution, stormwater, building energy, and carbon emissions. Metropolitan areas ranged from 1173 to 18,720 sq km (median value 2530 sq km), with median tree cover 21%, and potential additional tree cover 19%, of this area. Median tree cover density was 39 m2/capita (compared with global value of 7800 m2/capita), with lower density in desert and tropical biomes, and higher density in temperate biomes. Using water to support trees led to median benefits of 1.2 billion/yr from reductions in CO, NO2, SO2, PM10, and PM2.5, 27 million/yr in avoided stormwater processing by wastewater facilities, 1.2 million/yr in building energy heating and cooling savings, and 20 million/yr in CO2 sequestration. These ecosystem service benefits contributed between 0.1% and 1% of megacity GDP, with a median contribution of 0.3%. Adjustment of benefit value between different city economies considered factors such as purchasing power parity and emergy to money ratio conversions. Green infrastructure costs billions of dollars less than grey infrastructure, and stormwater based grey infrastructure provides fewer benefits. This analysis suggests megacities should invest in tree-based green infrastructure to maintain and increase ecosystem service benefits, manage their water resources, and improve human wellbeing.

  7. Saving billions of dollars--and physicians' time--by streamlining billing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchfield, Bonnie B; Heffernan, James L; Osgood, Bradford; Sheehan, Rosemary R; Meyer, Gregg S

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. system of billing third parties for health care services is complex, expensive, and inefficient. Physicians end up using nearly 12 percent of their net patient service revenue to cover the costs of excessive administrative complexity. A single transparent set of payment rules for multiple payers, a single claim form, and standard rules of submission, among other innovations, would reduce the burden on the billing offices of physician organizations. On a national scale, our hypothetical modeling of these changes would translate into $7 billion of savings annually for physician and clinical services. Four hours of professional time per physician and five hours of practice support staff time could be saved each week.

  8. 77 FR 54659 - Price for the 2012 Annual Uncirculated Dollar Coin Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the 2012 Annual Uncirculated Dollar Coin Set AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing a price of $54.95 for the 2012 Annual Uncirculated Dollar Coin Set. This set...

  9. 77 FR 61475 - Price for the 2012 Annual Uncirculated Dollar Coin Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the 2012 Annual Uncirculated Dollar Coin Set AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Because of the recent increase in the market price of silver, the United States Mint is announcing a new price of $59.95...

  10. Behind the ink : multi-billion dollar oil deal between Venezuela and China not necessarily bad for either the United States or Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentein, J.

    2009-01-01

    Although China has recently signed large contracts with Venezuela for crude oil, experts are convinced that Chinese refiners will want more Canadian crude oil because they have greater confidence in Canada as a reliable provider. Production difficulties with nationalized oil industries in Venezuela and Mexico will create further opportunities for Canadian oil producers. The recent recession has caused delays in plans to increase pipeline capacity. China may invest $US 8 billion in Venezuelan oil in order to increase exports to China to over a million barrels per day by 2015. The Chinese government granted the Venezuelan government a $4 billion loan last year. The Venezuelan government has increased the maximum royalty rates paid by foreign oil companies. The Venezuelan-owned Citgo operates more than 7000 gasoline retail outlets in the United States. The country is capable of processing 1.3 million barrels per day. Studies have suggested that the Chinese see their investments as a business opportunity, and not as a means of antagonizing western countries. It was concluded that economists are predicting that Venezuela's currency will be devalued this year. 3 figs

  11. The economic consequences of malnutrition in Cambodia, more than 400 million US dollar lost annually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagriansky, Jack; Champa, Ngy; Pak, Kimchoeun; Whitney, Sophie; Laillou, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Cambodia is among the 28 worst countries globally with the highest rates of childhood malnutrition. The aim of the assessment was to apply published evidence associating malnutrition and a variety of functional consequences to project economic implications of this high rate of childhood malnutrition. Such information is vital to advocate for appropriate programs and action plan to reduce malnutrition (from severe stunting to micronutrient deficiencies). This exercise used a "consequence model" to apply these "coefficients of loss" established in the global scientific literature to Cambodia health, demographic and economic data to develop a national estimation of the economic losses link to malnutrition. The impact of the indicators of malnutrition analysed represent a burden to the national economy of Cambodia estimated at more than $400 million annually -2.5% of GDP. Micronutrient deficiencies suggest deficits in the quality of the diet - representing a national burden of more than $200 million annually while breastfeeding behaviours account for 6% of the burden. 57% of the losses emerge from indicators measured in children, while 43% of losses are from indicators independent of childhood measurements - indicators of maternal behaviour along with maternal and adult nutrition. Given the low cost of interventions and the high baseline losses, investment in nutrition programs in Cambodia is likely to offer high returns and attractive benefit cost ratios. Since nearly half the losses are determined prior to the birth of the child, this has implications for targeting and timing of programs.

  12. Follow the money: how the billions of dollars that flow from smokers in poor nations to companies in rich nations greatly exceed funding for global tobacco control and what might be done about it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callard, Cynthia

    2010-08-01

    The business of selling cigarettes is increasingly concentrated in the hands of five tobacco companies that collectively control almost 90% of the world's cigarette market, four of which are publicly traded corporations. The economic activities of these cigarette manufacturers can be monitored through their reports to shareholders and other public documents. Reports for 2008 show that the revenues of these five companies exceeded $300 billion, of which more than $160 billion was provided to governments as taxes, and that corporate earnings of the four publicly traded companies were over $25 billion, of which $14 billion was retained after corporate income taxes were paid. By contrast, funding for domestic and international tobacco control is not reliably reported. Estimated funding for global tobacco control in 2008, at $240 million, is significantly lower than resources provided to address other highmortality global health challenges. Tobacco control has not yet benefited from the innovative finance mechanisms that are in place for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. The Framework Convention On Tobacco Control (FCTC) process could be used to redirect some of the earnings from transnational tobacco sales to fund FCTC implementation or other global health efforts.

  13. Advancing the design of a dynamic petro-dollar currency basket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbeck, Matt

    2010-01-01

    This study offers Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) member nations a crude oil pricing currency basket based on currency liquidity, in contrast with prior emphasis on OPEC trading patterns. Motivating the search for an alternative US dollar pricing of crude oil is the significant and inverse relationship (r=-0.82, p<0.01) between the US dollar major currencies index and crude oil price over the period January 1999-March 2009. A dynamically weighted petro-dollar currency basket is proposed based on the five currency claims (US dollar, Euro, British pound, Japanese yen and Swiss franc) and their varying proportions of foreign exchange reserves held by central banks. The major currencies US dollar index is compared against the proposed petro-dollar index to reveal an average US$8.1 billion annual gain in favor of the petro-dollar currency basket, offering OPEC members a revenue stream of diversified and highly liquid currencies to transition away from complete dependence on the US dollar crude oil pricing. The proposed petro-dollar crude oil pricing schema offers OPEC a crude oil price dynamically denominated in currencies reflecting the global use and importance of crude oil. This paper concludes with implementation issues facing a move toward the dynamically weighted petro-dollar crude oil pricing schema. (author)

  14. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasability of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.

    2005-12-15

    whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country's present petroleum consumption--the goal set by the Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  15. Billion dollar paperclip think smarter about your data

    CERN Document Server

    Short, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    EVERY PRODUCT HAS A STORY TO BE TOLD Two nearly identical products are released: one breaks all sales records while the other sits on store shelves untouched. The products look the same. They have the same target market, the same price, and similar retailers. So why did one succeed, where the other failed? Market researchers and data analysts have been wrestling with questions like this for decades. As the flood of Big Data adds both possibilities and complexities to traditional research methodologies, the ultimate solution for companies seeking to become data enabled has finally emerged. Insp

  16. SQUID use for Geophysics: finding billions of dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Catherine

    2014-03-01

    Soon after their discovery, Jim Zimmerman saw the potential of using Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices, SQUIDs, for the study of Geophysics and undertook experiments to understand the magnetic phenomena of the Earth. However his early experiments were not successful. Nevertheless up to the early 1980's, some research effort in the use of SQUIDs for geophysics continued and many ideas of how you could use SQUIDs evolved. Their use was not adopted by the mining industry at that time for a range of reasons. The discovery of high temperature superconductors started a reinvigoration in the interest to use SQUIDs for mineral exploration. Several groups around the world worked with mining companies to develop both liquid helium and nitrogen cooled systems. The realisation of the achievable sensitivity that contributed to successful mineral discoveries and delineation led to real financial returns for miners. By the mid 2000's, SQUID systems for geophysics were finally being offered for sale by several start-up companies. This talk will tell the story of SQUID use in geophysics. It will start with the early work of the SQUID pioneers including that of Jim Zimmerman and John Clarke and will also cover the development since the early 1990's up to today of a number of magnetometers and gradiometers that have been successfully commercialised and used to create significant impact in the global resources industry. The talk will also cover some of the critical technical challenges that had to be overcome to succeed. It will focus mostly on magnetically unshielded systems used in the field although some laboratory-based systems will be discussed.

  17. Tapping into a Billion Dollar Resource, SBIR/STTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexcur, Paul; Kalshoven, James

    2002-10-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and the Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs as implemented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). These programs, as mandated by Congress, provide an opportunity for small, high technology companies and research institutions to participate in Government sponsored research and development (R&D) efforts in key technology areas. This presentation describes the background and operation of these two programs and discusses what factors a business should consider in making the decision to participate.

  18. The Multi-Billion Dollar Drug-Sensitive Spending Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Jon C; Thorpe, Kenneth

    2018-01-01

    Chronic diseases increase utilization and avoidable drug-sensitive spending, but little is done to optimize medication use and drive value. Value-based approaches to health care financing should shift focus to drug-sensitive spending to balance patient access and quality improvement with cost containment. ©2018 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  19. Theoretical innovation and technical progress will usher in a production period of gas fields with an annual capacity of ten billion cubic meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwei Gan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Challenged by the increasing complexity of targets and the tense situation of turning losses into profits during the 12th Five-Year Plan, by virtue of technological innovation, Sinopec Southwest Oil & Gas Company proposed the theories of gas exploration in continental clastic rock and marine carbonate rock, and developed the development technologies for reef, channel sandstone and tight sandstone reservoirs. Moreover, it innovatively formed a series of engineering technologies, including intelligent sliding sleeve staged fracturing, blasting–packing–fracturing stimulation, impulse fracturing, and drilling, completion and production technologies for ultra-deep horizontal wells with high sulfur contents. With these innovated theories and improved technologies, great discoveries have been made in the continental clastic rocks and marine carbonate rocks in West Sichuan Basin, the marine shale in South Sichuan Basin, and the marine carbonate rocks in Yuanba area of NE Sichuan Basin, and three 100 billion-m3 class commercial gas reserves zones were discovered. Moreover, two medium- and large-sized gas fields were proved, and three medium- and large-sized gas fields were completely constructed. Both reserves and production reached a new record in history. During the 13th Five-Year Plan, Sinopec Southwest Oil & Gas Company will focus on the exploration and development of deep marine carbonate reservoirs, commercial development of deep shale gas, safe development of gas fields with high sulfur, and enhancement of recovery in mature gas fields. By the end of the 13th Five-Year Plan, it is expected that the annual gas production of (10–12 × 109 m3 will be achieved.

  20. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply, April 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country’s present petroleum consumption – the goal set by the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  1. Connecting the last billion

    OpenAIRE

    Ben David, Yahel

    2015-01-01

    The last billion people to join the online world, are likely to face at least one of two obstacles:Part I: Rural Internet AccessRural, sparsely populated, areas make conventional infrastructure investments unfeasible: Bigcorporations attempt to address this challenge via the launch of Low-Earth-Orbiting (LEO) satelliteconstellations, fleets of high-altitude balloons, and giant solar-powered drones; although thesegrandiose initiatives hold potential, they are costly and risky. At the same time...

  2. Inventory - Dollars and sense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear utilities are becoming more aware of the importance of having an inventory investment that supports two opposing philosophies. The business philosophy wants a minimal inventory investment to support a better return on invested dollars. This increase in return comes from having the dollars available to invest versus having the money tied up in inventory sitting on the shelf. The opposing viewpoint is taken by maintenance/operations organizations, which desire the maximum inventory available on-site to repair any component at any time to keep the units on-line at all times. Financial managers also want to maintain cash flow throughout operations so that plants run without interruptions. Inventory management is therefore a mixture of financial logistics with an operation perspective in mind. A small amount of common sense and accurate perception also help. The challenge to the materials/inventory manager is to optimize effectiveness of the inventory by having high material availability at the lowest possible cost

  3. Sneak Peek to the 2016 Billion-Ton Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    The 2005 Billion-Ton Study became a landmark resource for bioenergy stakeholders, detailing for the first time the potential to produce at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually in a sustainable manner from U.S. agriculture and forest resources. The 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update expanded and updated the analysis, and in 2016, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office plans to release the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy.

  4. Ubiquitous Supercritical Wing Design Cuts Billions in Fuel Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A Langley Research Center engineer’s work in the 1960s and ’70s to develop a wing with better performance near the speed of sound resulted in a significant increase in subsonic efficiency. The design was shared with industry. Today, Renton, Washington-based Boeing Commercial Airplanes, as well as most other plane manufacturers, apply it to all their aircraft, saving the airline industry billions of dollars in fuel every year.

  5. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2016-02-01

    Freshwater scarcity is increasingly perceived as a global systemic risk. Previous global water scarcity assessments, measuring water scarcity annually, have underestimated experienced water scarcity by failing to capture the seasonal fluctuations in water consumption and availability. We assess blue water scarcity globally at a high spatial resolution on a monthly basis. We find that two-thirds of the global population (4.0 billion people) live under conditions of severe water scarcity at least 1 month of the year. Nearly half of those people live in India and China. Half a billion people in the world face severe water scarcity all year round. Putting caps to water consumption by river basin, increasing water-use efficiencies, and better sharing of the limited freshwater resources will be key in reducing the threat posed by water scarcity on biodiversity and human welfare.

  6. The trillion dollar power project jackpot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roseman, E.J.

    1994-01-01

    International power needs, if not insatiable, are certainly of a magnitude beyond anything heretofore imagined. The international opportunities for independent power development are huge: Power Plants -- $700 to $800 billion worth of the new facilities will be needed by the year 2000; Transmission and Distribution -- Expansion of services will require an additional $300 to $400 billion; and Repowering and Improving Existing Plants -- The estimate is $40-$60 billion. RCG/Hagler, Bailly tracks the international power project development activities of over a hundred developers, and monitors the emerging private power market in Europe, Asia, and Latin America. On behalf of private clients and multi-lateral institutions, the authors have worked in more than three dozen countries in the past two years. There are far-reaching global implications involved in this massive movement toward independent power projects. New levels of international economic growth depend on it. Far greater energy efficiencies must accompany it. Environmental problems which will arise must be recognized and solved. The results from the trillion dollars that are to be invested will be far-reaching, dramatic, and vastly beneficial

  7. Regional Inflation and Financial Dollarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, M.; de Haas, R.; Sokolov, V.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We exploit variation in consumer price inflation across 71 Russian regions to examine the relationship between the perceived stability of the local currency and financial dollarization. Our results show that regions with higher inflation experience an increase in the dollarization of

  8. 12 billion DM for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The German atomic industry has achieved the break-through to the world market: Brazil orders eight nuclear electricity generating plants from Siemens-AEG daughter Kraftwerk-Union. US concerns attacked the twelve billion DM deal, the biggest export order in the history of German industry. Without avail - the contract is to be signed in Bonn this week. (orig./LH) [de

  9. Oil price and the dollar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coudert, V.; Mignon, V.; Penot, A.

    2007-01-01

    Oil prices and the United States (US) dollar exchange rate are driving the evolution of the world economy. This paper investigated long-term relationships between oil prices and the US effective exchange rate. An empirical study was performed on oil prices and the dollar real effective exchange rate between 1974 to 2004. The impact of the dollar exchange rate was also explored, and the effects of oil prices on supply and demand were considered. A dynamic partial equilibrium framework study was evaluated in order to compare how other countries used revenues from oil exports in dollars. The study showed that both variables had similar evolutions when price fluctuations were low. Strong increases in the dollar were associated with lower oil prices. However, adjustment speeds of the dollar real effective exchange rate was slow. Co-integration and causality tests showed that oil prices influenced the exchange rate, and that the link between the 2 variables was transmitted through the country's net foreign asset position. It was concluded that higher oil prices improved US net foreign asset position in relation to other countries, and had a positive impact on dollar appreciation. 24 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  10. Actinide chemistry: From test tube to billion dollar plant--A BNFL perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkes, Peter

    2000-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) is currently operating its third generation of nuclear plant for the management of irradiated nuclear fuel. Development for the fourth generation plant must meet requirements for processing higher burn-up fuel with lower unit costs, lower environmental impact, better process control, and more flexible control of actinides

  11. Master plan envisions multi-billion-dollar expansion of Vietnam's electricity monopoly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    Massive investment in Vietnam's electricity monopoly by Western aid and export credit agencies form part of the ten-year master plan developed for Vietnam. Central planning and political patronage, instead of market assessments and customer choice form the basis for monopoly investments in a centralized grid linking big hydro, gas, coal, and nuclear power projects. Western aid agencies might effectively crowd out viable private-sector energy investments by financing power projects considered too large and risky by the private sector. These investments by Western aid agencies would assist in winning contracts for favoured exporters of engineering services and equipment. It would be a breeding ground for corruption in Vietnam if market discipline, public oversight, and enforceable property rights are not present in the face of power sector aid. There is a real possibility that damages to the environment could result from electricity investments, and some communities might be victimized, electricity costs might increase, the indebtedness level of the population might increase

  12. Dollar aina tugevneb / Kristel Raesaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raesaar, Kristel

    2000-01-01

    Valuutaspekulantide hirm USA majanduse järsu halvenemise ees on lahtunud ja vahepeal nõrgenenud dollar võib lähinädalatel taas rünnata uusi rekordtasemeid. Graafik: Dollari kursi muutus alates euro loomisest

  13. Nuclear business worth billions begins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.; Marcan, P.; Slovak, K.

    2005-01-01

    specific data regarding the direct costs of decommissioning. Preliminary estimates state 50 billions Slovak crowns (1.28 billions EUR), but the actual costs will mainly depend on the volume of nuclear waste to be disposed of. (authors)

  14. Your Automobile Dollar. Money Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.

    This booklet is designed to help first-time car buyers determine if they can or should buy a car and how to get the most from their car-buying dollar. Leasing and renting options also are discussed. The booklet outlines the process of buying a new car, starting with a review of sizes, types, and features. This is followed by a rundown on showroom…

  15. Estimating annualized earthquake losses for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor S.; Bausch, Douglas; Chen, Rui; Bouabid, Jawhar; Seligson, Hope

    2015-01-01

    We make use of the most recent National Seismic Hazard Maps (the years 2008 and 2014 cycles), updated census data on population, and economic exposure estimates of general building stock to quantify annualized earthquake loss (AEL) for the conterminous United States. The AEL analyses were performed using the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) Hazus software, which facilitated a systematic comparison of the influence of the 2014 National Seismic Hazard Maps in terms of annualized loss estimates in different parts of the country. The losses from an individual earthquake could easily exceed many tens of billions of dollars, and the long-term averaged value of losses from all earthquakes within the conterminous U.S. has been estimated to be a few billion dollars per year. This study estimated nationwide losses to be approximately $4.5 billion per year (in 2012$), roughly 80% of which can be attributed to the States of California, Oregon and Washington. We document the change in estimated AELs arising solely from the change in the assumed hazard map. The change from the 2008 map to the 2014 map results in a 10 to 20% reduction in AELs for the highly seismic States of the Western United States, whereas the reduction is even more significant for Central and Eastern United States.

  16. LLNL's Big Science Capabilities Help Spur Over $796 Billion in U.S. Economic Activity Sequencing the Human Genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Jeffrey S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-28

    LLNL’s successful history of taking on big science projects spans beyond national security and has helped create billions of dollars per year in new economic activity. One example is LLNL’s role in helping sequence the human genome. Over $796 billion in new economic activity in over half a dozen fields has been documented since LLNL successfully completed this Grand Challenge.

  17. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Stokes, Bryce [Navarro Research & Engineering; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL

    2011-08-01

    The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small

  18. Currency speculation and dollar fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Schulmeister

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the reasons behind the wide fluctuations of the dollar exchange rate following the breakdown of the Bretton Woods system, for the most part unexplained by the prevailing exchange rate theories, are explored. To do so, the author investigates the exchange rate between the two most traded currencies, the dollar and the deutschemark, from 1973 to 1988. In the first part, the pattern of the daily exchange rate movements is examined to show that a sequence of upward and downward trends interrupted by non-directional movements is typical of exchange rate dynamics in the short run. Moreover, this pattern is systemically exploited through currency speculation, particularly through the use of “technical analysis”. In the second part, the author focuses on the medium-term, arguing that fluctuations can be explained as the result of interacting disequilibria in the goods and asset markets. Although currency speculation has been systemically profitable for most currencies, it should be considered to be destabilizing since the sequence of price runs caused large and persistent deviations of exchange rates from their equilibrium values (purchasing power parity.

  19. Countdown to Six Billion Teaching Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This teaching kit features six activities focused on helping students understand the significance of the world population reaching six billion for our society and our environment. Featured activities include: (1) History of the World: Part Six Billion; (2) A Woman's Place; (3) Baby-O-Matic; (4) Earth: The Apple of Our Eye; (5) Needs vs. Wants; and…

  20. Seven Billion People: Fostering Productive Struggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawska, Jaclyn M.

    2018-01-01

    How can a cognitively demanding real-world task such as the Seven Billion People problem promote productive struggle "and" help shape students' mathematical dispositions? Driving home from school one evening, Jaclyn Murawska heard a commentator on the radio announce three statements: (1) experts had determined that the world population…

  1. Mining Surveillance and Maintenance Dollars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARTINEZ, R.

    2000-01-01

    Accelerating site cleanup to reduce facility risks to the workers, the public and the environment during a time of declining federal budgets represents a significant technical and economic challenge to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices and their respective contractors. A significant portion of a facility's recurring annual expenses are associated with routine, long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M) activities. However, ongoing S and M activities do nothing to reduce risks and basically spend money that could be reallocated towards facility deactivation. This paper discusses the background around DOE efforts to reduce surveillance and maintenance costs, one approach used to perform cost reviews, lessons learned from field implementation and what assistance is available to assist DOE sites in performing these evaluations

  2. Florida Progress Corporation 1991 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Florida Progress Corporation is a utility holding company with assets of 5 billion dollars. Its principal subsidiary is the Florida Power Corporation; others are the Electric Fuels Corporation, the Mid-Continent Life Assurance Company, the Talquin Corporation, the Progress Credit Corporation and Advanced Separation Technologies Incorporated. The annual report describes achievements during the year. To meet growing energy demand Florida Power is building new peaking and base-load generating units, purchasing power from neighbouring utilities and cogenerators, and building more bulk power transmission line capacity in the state. Emphasis has been placed on meeting load growth by demand-site management. Attention is given to balancing energy needs with concerns for the environment, and there is an award-winning recycling program. The Electric Fuels Corporation major area of business is coal mining and transportation services. Advanced Separation Technologies has sold several of its patented ion separation machines. The report includes consolidated financial statements for the year ended 31 December 1991

  3. Billions of Dollars are Involved in Taxation of the Life Insurance Industry -- Some Corrections in the Law are Needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-17

    CRVM Commissioners Reserve Valuation Method CSO Commissioners Standard Ordinary Mortality Table of 1941 DOC Department of Commerce GAAP Generally...earned, rents and royalties earned of a company less certain de- ductions (investment expenses, depreciation , real estate taxes and depletion) produces...less Investment Deductions Investment expenses Real estate expenses Depreciation Depletion Trade or business expenses related to the income from such

  4. 77 FR 15052 - Dataset Workshop-U.S. Billion Dollar Disasters Dataset (1980-2011): Assessing Dataset Strengths...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ..., located at 151 Patton Avenue, Asheville, North Carolina 28801. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Adam Smith...-4183, Email: Adam.Smith@noaa.gov ) For RSVP responses, use the email address noted above ( Karen.L...

  5. The Effect of Farmers' Decisions on Pest Control with Bt Crops: A Billion Dollar Game of Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Alice E; Bell, James R; Hutchison, William D; van den Bosch, Frank; Mitchell, Paul D; Crowder, David; Parnell, Stephen; Whitmore, Andrew P

    2015-12-01

    A farmer's decision on whether to control a pest is usually based on the perceived threat of the pest locally and the guidance of commercial advisors. Therefore, farmers in a region are often influenced by similar circumstances, and this can create a coordinated response for pest control that is effective at a landscape scale. This coordinated response is not intentional, but is an emergent property of the system. We propose a framework for understanding the intrinsic feedback mechanisms between the actions of humans and the dynamics of pest populations and demonstrate this framework using the European corn borer, a serious pest in maize crops. We link a model of the European corn borer and a parasite in a landscape with a model that simulates the decisions of individual farmers on what type of maize to grow. Farmers chose whether to grow Bt-maize, which is toxic to the corn borer, or conventional maize for which the seed is cheaper. The problem is akin to the snow-drift problem in game theory; that is to say, if enough farmers choose to grow Bt maize then because the pest is suppressed an individual may benefit from growing conventional maize. We show that the communication network between farmers' and their perceptions of profit and loss affects landscape scale patterns in pest dynamics. We found that although adoption of Bt maize often brings increased financial returns, these rewards oscillate in response to the prevalence of pests.

  6. Force Structure: Restructuring and Rebuilding the Army Will Cost Billions of Dollars for Equipment but the Total Cost Is Uncertain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    St. Laurent, Janet A

    2008-01-01

    .... Several factors are contributing to the uncertainties about future costs. First, the Army's $43.6 funding plan for equipping modular units was based on preliminary modular unit designs and did not fully consider the needs of National Guard units...

  7. The Effect of Farmers' Decisions on Pest Control with Bt Crops: A Billion Dollar Game of Strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice E Milne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A farmer's decision on whether to control a pest is usually based on the perceived threat of the pest locally and the guidance of commercial advisors. Therefore, farmers in a region are often influenced by similar circumstances, and this can create a coordinated response for pest control that is effective at a landscape scale. This coordinated response is not intentional, but is an emergent property of the system. We propose a framework for understanding the intrinsic feedback mechanisms between the actions of humans and the dynamics of pest populations and demonstrate this framework using the European corn borer, a serious pest in maize crops. We link a model of the European corn borer and a parasite in a landscape with a model that simulates the decisions of individual farmers on what type of maize to grow. Farmers chose whether to grow Bt-maize, which is toxic to the corn borer, or conventional maize for which the seed is cheaper. The problem is akin to the snow-drift problem in game theory; that is to say, if enough farmers choose to grow Bt maize then because the pest is suppressed an individual may benefit from growing conventional maize. We show that the communication network between farmers' and their perceptions of profit and loss affects landscape scale patterns in pest dynamics. We found that although adoption of Bt maize often brings increased financial returns, these rewards oscillate in response to the prevalence of pests.

  8. Hydroelectric dams need billions for rehab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, F.H.; Soast, A.

    1993-01-01

    Many of the Corps of Engineers older hydroelectric dams will require major rehabilitation over the next ten years. Preventive maintenance, repair work, and major rehabilitation of the Corp's hydro dams in inadequate because the revenue generated by sales of electricity, by law, is returned to the Treasury. Most multimillion dollar rehabilitation projects require specific approval for funding by Congress and securing it is a long and difficult process. It is hoped the funding problem will soon be addressed by the Clinton administration. Already, nearly one-sixth of the 2,154 Mw of hydro is unavailable because with hydro units are either out of service or operating at less than full capacity

  9. Cognitive processing of currency: Euros and Dollars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis

    2015-11-01

    In the current study, we evaluated whether the processing of currency was determined by familiarity of people with banknotes. In Experiment 1, participants who used the Euro currency named sequences of Euro banknotes and Dollar banknotes blocked by category or mixed with exemplars of other categories. The participants showed an interference effect in the blocked context with Dollar banknotes but not with Euro banknotes. In Experiment 2, the interference effect was observed with Euro banknotes when participants were not familiar with the Euro currency. These results suggest that the semantic processing of banknotes depends on the participants' familiarity with currency. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  10. $17 billion needed by year 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R

    1995-09-01

    The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) estimates that US$17 billion will be needed to fund reproductive health care in developing countries by the year 2000. About US$10 billion of would go for family planning: currently, the amount spent on family planning is about US$5 billion. Donors are focusing on fewer countries because of limited resources. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is planning to phase out support for family planning in Jamaica and Brazil because the programs there have advanced sufficiently. Resources will be shifted to countries with more pressing needs. Dr. Richard Osborn, senior technical officer for UNFPA, states that UNFPA works with national program managers in allocating resources at the macro level (commodities, training). Currently, two-thirds of family planning funds spent worldwide come from developing country governments (mainly China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa, Turkey, and Bangladesh). Sustaining programs, much less adding new services, will be difficult. User fees and public-private partnerships are being considered; worldwide, consumers provide, currently, about 14% of family planning funds (The portion is higher in most Latin American countries.). In a few countries, insurance, social security, and other public-private arrangements contribute. Social marketing programs are being considered that would remove constraints on prescriptions and prices and improve the quality of services so that clients would be more willing to pay for contraceptives. Although governments are attempting to fit family planning into their health care budgets, estimates at the national level are difficult to make. Standards are needed to make expenditure estimates quickly and at low cost, according to Dr. Barbara Janowitz of FHI, which is developing guidelines. Studies in Bangladesh, Ecuador, Ghana, Mexico, and the Philippines are being conducted, with the assistance of The Evaluation Project at the Population

  11. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater scarcity is increasingly perceived as a global systemic risk. Previous global water scarcity assessments, measuring water scarcity annually, have underestimated experienced water scarcity by failing to capture the seasonal fluctuations in water consumption and availability. We assess blue

  12. Dollarization in emerging markets: evidence from Georgia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loiseau-Aslanidi, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2012), s. 70-84 ISSN 1540-496X Grant - others:UK(CZ) GAUK 259027 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : dollarization * Georgia * money-in-utility function Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.190, year: 2012

  13. Do You Automate? Saving Time and Dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Christine H.

    2010-01-01

    An automated workforce management strategy can help schools save jobs, improve the job satisfaction of teachers and staff, and free up precious budget dollars for investments in critical learning resources. Automated workforce management systems can help schools control labor costs, minimize compliance risk, and improve employee satisfaction.…

  14. Origins fourteen billion years of cosmic evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Neil deGrasse

    2004-01-01

    Origins explores cosmic science's stunning new insights into the formation and evolution of our universe--of the cosmos, of galaxies and galaxy clusters, of stars within galaxies, of planets that orbit those stars, and of different forms of life that take us back to the first three seconds and forward through three billion years of life on Earth to today's search for life on other planets. Drawing on the current cross-pollination of geology, biology and astrophysics, Origins explains the thrilling daily breakthroughs in our knowledge of the universe from dark energy to life on Mars to the mysteries of space and time. Distilling complex science in clear and lively prose, co-authors Neil deGrasse Tyson and Donald Goldsmith conduct a galvanising tour of the cosmos revealing what the universe has been up to while turning part of itself into us.

  15. Stabilization Policy and the Costs of Dollarization

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Schmitt-Grohe; Martin Uribe

    2000-01-01

    This paper compares the welfare costs of business cycles in a dollarized economy to those arising in economies with different monetary arrangements. The alternative monetary policy regimes studied belong to three broad families: devaluation rate rules, inflation targeting, and money growth rate rules. The analysis is conducted within an optimizing model of a small open economy with sticky prices. The model is calibrated to the Mexican economy and is driven by three external shocks: terms of t...

  16. Squeezing the most from your audit dollar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwell, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    Basic requirements for auditing nuclear power plant quality assurance programs are described to ANSI N45.2.12. The paper discusses the quality assurance discipline of auditing within the nuclear power industry. It reflects actual work philosophy and techniques developed by one Architect/Engineer/Construction Q.A. management Audit Group to assess implemented programs while providing maximum benefit from each audit dollar

  17. Costs to build Fermilab in 1984 dollars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, N.G.; Livdahl, P.V.

    1984-02-01

    It is of current interest to examine the costs incurred to date to build Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and to determine what those costs are when stated in FY 1984 constant dollars. The appended tables are in support of this exercise and are based on all costs for Equipment items (reduced by obsolescence) and all Plant Projects which have been appropriated through FY 1984. Also included are non-plant costs which are required to complete the Energy Saver, Tevatron I and II projects (i.e., Equipment and R and D in support of Construction). This study makes the assumption that all funding through FY 1984 will have been costed by the end of FY 1986. Those costs incurred in FY 1985 and FY 1986 have been deflated to FY 1984 dollars. See Appendix A for the DOE inflation factors used in the conversion to FY 1984 dollars. The costs are identified in three categories. The Accelerator Facilities include all accelerator components, the buildings which enclose them and utilities which support them. The Experimental Facilities include all beam lines, enclosures, utilities and experimental equipment which are usable in current experimental programs. The Support Facilities include lab and office space, shops, assembly facilities, roads, grounds and the utilities which do not specifically support the Accelerator or Experimental Facilities, etc

  18. 31 CFR 103.51 - Dollars as including foreign currency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.51 Dollars as including foreign currency. Wherever in this part an amount is stated in dollars, it shall be deemed to mean... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dollars as including foreign currency...

  19. Million Dollar Baby (2004 and Palliative Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elías García Sánchez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The worst misfortune that can befall an old, tormented and fearful boxing trainer is that the pupil he is training and of whom he is very fond should have a lesion as serious as a quadriplegia. This is the crux of the plot in Million Dollar Baby. A person who suffers a quadriplegia sees how most of her physical and sensorial abilities disappear and habitually suffers psychological disturbances requiring palliative medical care. Relatives are subjected to great stress and suffering. All these aspects are reflected, in general accurately, in the film.

  20. Fuel efficient stoves for the poorest two billion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2012-03-01

    About 2 billion people cook their daily meals on generally inefficient, polluting, biomass cookstoves. The fuels include twigs and leaves, agricultural waste, animal dung, firewood, and charcoal. Exposure to resulting smoke leads to acute respiratory illness, and cancers, particularly among women cooks, and their infant children near them. Resulting annual mortality estimate is almost 2 million deaths, higher than that from malaria or tuberculosis. There is a large diversity of cooking methods (baking, boiling, long simmers, brazing and roasting), and a diversity of pot shapes and sizes in which the cooking is undertaken. Fuel-efficiency and emissions depend on the tending of the fire (and thermal power), type of fuel, stove characteristics, and fit of the pot to the stove. Thus, no one perfect fuel-efficient low-emitting stove can suit all users. Affordability imposes a further severe constraint on the stove design. For various economic strata within the users, a variety of stove designs may be appropriate and affordable. In some regions, biomass is harvested non-renewably for cooking fuel. There is also increasing evidence that black carbon emitted from stoves is a significant contributor to atmospheric forcing. Thus improved biomass stoves can also help mitigate global climate change. The speaker will describe specific work undertaken to design, develop, test, and disseminate affordable fuel-efficient stoves for internally displaced persons (IDPs) of Darfur, Sudan, where the IDPs face hardship, humiliation, hunger, and risk of sexual assault owing to their dependence on local biomass for cooking their meals.

  1. Strong Dollar, Weak Dollar: Foreign Exchange Rates and the U.S. Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tim

    Many generalizations sound simple enough--for example, "strong is good, weak is bad"--but they can be confusing when talking about money. This booklet explores how the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies affect each other and how their interaction affects the individual and the economy. The booklet contains the following sections:…

  2. ANALISIS PERUBAHAN KURS RUPIAH TERHADAP DOLLAR AMERIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triyono Triyono

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This research analyse influence of money supply, inflation, SBI rate of interest, and import to Indonesia Rupiah exchange rate to US Dollar. In analysis, used multiple regression analysis instrument with model Error Correction Model (ECM. With this method obtained equation of regression in long-run and short-run equilibrium. In the long run equilibrium model, covered series of adjustment process that bringing every shock to equilibrium. In other word, in the long run very possibly performed full adjustment to every changes in arising out. Estimation result from regression ECM and long-run analysis indicate that inflation variable, SBI rate of interest, and import have significant influence with positive direction to exchange rate. While variable JUB have influence with negative direction to exchange rate.

  3. Throughput/inventory dollar-days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Mahesh; Andersen, Soeren

    2018-01-01

    As the semiconductor industry moves away from vertical integration, performance measures play an increasingly important role to ensure effective collaboration. This paper demonstrates that the theory of constraints (TOC)-based measures, Throughput and Inventory Dollar-Days (T/IDD), induce...... autonomous supply chain (SC) links to function as a synergistic whole and thereby, improve the performance of the whole SC network significantly. We model an SC network of a well-known TOC case study using discrete event simulation and discuss managerial implications of these measures via a set of scenarios....... The scenarios explain how these measures – without sharing sensitive financial data – allow members of an SC network to monitor both the effectiveness (TDD) and efficiency (IDD) of SC members and lead them to create win-win solutions following well-known TOC-based planning and control concepts. We conclude...

  4. 78 FR 38946 - National Conference on Weights and Measures 98th Annual Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... variety of commodities (e.g., coal, grains, and chemicals) totaling billions of dollars each year. The... propellant is not expelled with the product when the valve is activated. BOV packaging has been in the...

  5. Targeting Inflation in a Dollarized Economy: The Peruvian Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián Armas; Francisco Grippa

    2005-01-01

    This discusses the unique experience of Peru`s Central Bank with inflation targeting in an economy characterized by a high degree of financial dollarization. The paper outlines how Peru has taken financial dollarization into consideration in the design of monetary policy, then deals with monetary policy implementation and the Central Bank`s strategy for controlling financial dollarization risks. The paper concludes with analysis and lessons drawn from the Peruvian case.

  6. Global Absolute Poverty: Behind the Veil of Dollars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moatsos, M.

    2017-01-01

    The widely applied “dollar-a-day” methodology identifies global absolute poverty as declining precipitously since the early 80’s throughout the developing world. The methodological underpinnings of the “dollar-a-day” approach have been questioned in terms of adequately representing equivalent

  7. 26 CFR 1.7872-15 - Split-dollar loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...'s death benefit proceeds, the policy's cash surrender value, or both. (ii) Payments that are only... regarding certain split-dollar term loans payable on the death of an individual, certain split-dollar term... insurance arrangement make a representation—(i) Requirement. An otherwise noncontingent payment on a split...

  8. Summary and Comparison of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report with the 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    In terms of the magnitude of the resource potential, the results of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report (BT16) are consistent with the original 2005 Billion-Ton Study (BTS) and the 2011 report, U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry (BT2. An effort was made to reevaluate the potential forestland, agricultural, and waste resources at the roadside, then extend the analysis by adding transportation costs to a biorefinery under specified logistics assumptions to major resource fractions.

  9. Corporate governance for trillion dollar opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Grove

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Boards of Directors will have to play a key role in the technological survival and development of companies by asking corporate executives about their plans and strategies for these emerging technological changes and challenges. Key challenges and opportunities discussed in this paper, with corresponding corporate governance implications, included Big Data, Artificial Intelligence (AI with Industry 4.0, AI with the Internet of Things (IoT, Deep Learning, and Neural Networks. Survival should not be the goal, but it may be the necessary first step for today’s companies. Potential winners seizing these trillion dollar opportunities will be company executives and Boards of Directors who can incorporate these technological changes into specific new business models, strategies, and practices. While the awareness on boards regarding risks originating from disruptive innovation, cyber threats and privacy risks has been increasing, Boards of Directors must equally be able to challenge executives and identify opportunities and threats for their companies. This shift for companies is not only about digital technology but also cultural. How can people be managed when digital, virtual ways of working are increasing? What do robotics and Big Data analysis mean for managing people? One way to accelerate the digital learning process has been advocated: the use of digital apprentices for boards. For example, Board Apprentice, a non-profit organization, has already placed digital apprentices on boards for a year-long period (which helps to educate both apprentices and boards in five different countries. Additional plans and strategies are needed in this age of digitalization and lifelong learning. For example, cybersecurity risks are magnified by all these new technology trends, such as Big Data, AI, Industry 4.0, and IoT. Accordingly, the main findings of this paper are analysing the challenges and opportunities for corporate executives, Boards of Directors

  10. Essentially stronger -1999 EPCOR annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This annual report provides details of the financial operations of EPCOR, the newly formed utility, combining together three essential elements of modern living --electric power, water and natural gas-- as a single entity. In addition to this report on financial management, there are two companion reports on environmental performance entitled {sup E}ssential Balance', and on contributions to the community with the title of 'Essential Spirit'. While this report focuses on the Corporation's financial performance, it also provides a summary on the Corporation's growth, operational excellence, regulatory matters, environmental achievements and management of the Corporation's people resources. The financial report includes the customary consolidated financial statements, the auditor's report, and management's discussion and analysis of the financial report. Revenues for 1999 totalled just over one billion dollars ($978 million in 1998); net income was $116 million ($121 million in 1998); operating expenses were higher than in 1998 ($765 million versus $642 million) due to higher natural gas prices; capital spending was $198 million, compared to $153 million in 1998. Operations, maintenance, and administrative costs were also higher in 1999 due to higher employee costs across the EPCOR Group, one-time costs associated with EPCOR's master branding initiative, Y2K testing and remediation, and increased business development costs.

  11. Essentially stronger -1999 EPCOR annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This annual report provides details of the financial operations of EPCOR, the newly formed utility, combining together three essential elements of modern living --electric power, water and natural gas-- as a single entity. In addition to this report on financial management, there are two companion reports on environmental performance entitled E ssential Balance', and on contributions to the community with the title of 'Essential Spirit'. While this report focuses on the Corporation's financial performance, it also provides a summary on the Corporation's growth, operational excellence, regulatory matters, environmental achievements and management of the Corporation's people resources. The financial report includes the customary consolidated financial statements, the auditor's report, and management's discussion and analysis of the financial report. Revenues for 1999 totalled just over one billion dollars ($978 million in 1998); net income was $116 million ($121 million in 1998); operating expenses were higher than in 1998 ($765 million versus $642 million) due to higher natural gas prices; capital spending was $198 million, compared to $153 million in 1998. Operations, maintenance, and administrative costs were also higher in 1999 due to higher employee costs across the EPCOR Group, one-time costs associated with EPCOR's master branding initiative, Y2K testing and remediation, and increased business development costs

  12. Annual report to shareholders 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Esso Imperial is Canada's largest producer of crude oil and a major producer of natural gas. It is also the largest refiner and marketer of petroleum products, including petrochemicals, with a coast-to-coast supply network. Due mainly to higher energy prices and strong refining margins, in 2000 the Company had the highest earnings in its 120-year history. Return on equity also rose to the highest level in two decades; returns to shareholders have exceeded 20 per cent per year compounded, over the last five years. Net earnings were $1.42 billion, or $3.40 per share, compared with $510 million and $1.18 per share in 1999. During the year the Company continued to adhere to its four guiding principles -- flawless execution of day-to-day fundamentals of all aspects of the business, growth in profitable sales volumes, best-in-class cost structure, and improved productivity of asset mix. Some operating highlights from the year 2000 include: (1) expansion of the Moncton, NB-based Customer Service and Support Centre, (2) significant reduction in the number of hazardous incidents, (3) increased production of natural gas, in part as a result of new production from the Sable Offshore Energy project, (4) beginning of production from the new Aurora Mine at Syncrude, (5) start of construction on the next three phases of development at Cold Lake, (6) commissioning further conceptual engineering work and initiation of baseline biophysical data collection in the Mackenzie Delta as part of the study of the feasibility of bringing northern gas to southern markets, (7) achieving best-in-class cost structure in some of the Company's business units, despite upward pressure on operating expenses from the increased cost of energy to run plants and facilities, (8) anticipated capital expenditures of over one billion dollars, and (9) reaching agreement with ExxonMobil Canada to share common business and support services in natural resources operations, and to jointly pursue new oil

  13. USA dollar langes eile alla 12 krooni / Andris Feldmanis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feldmanis, Andris, 1982-

    2004-01-01

    Odavast dollarist kaotavad Eesti ettevõtjatest dollaritsooni eksportijad, võidavad importijad. Skeem: Dollari kurss tagasi 90ndate aastate keskpaiga tasemel. Vt. samas: Tõnis Oja. Ameerikale nõrk dollar meeldib

  14. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Operational activities and financial performance of Purcell Energy Ltd., an emerging junior in oil and gas exploration and production in Alberta are detailed. Production in 1998 grew to 966 boe/day, up from 860 boe/day in 1997. Revenues of 5.6 million dollars were slightly under the 5.7 million dollars earned in 1997, due solely to the substantial decrease in product prices. Net income was recorded at a loss of 2.5 million dollars after four consecutive years of positive earnings. The company's future prospects and opportunities lie in the very positive results achieved at Fort Liard where preliminary K-29 reserves increased proven and probable reserves to 44.2 billion cubic feet of natural gas, in leveraging these results, in capitalizing on opportunities that arise in the low point of the price cycle and grassroots exploration. Details of the company's operations at its various sites in Saskatchewan and Alberta are reviewed. Audited financial reports are also provided

  15. How do you interpret a billion primary care records?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Heaven

    2017-04-01

    To establish this we explored just over 1 billion unique Read coded records generated in the time period 1999 to 2015 by GP practices participating in the provision of anonymised records to SAIL, aligning, filtering and summarising the data in a series of observational exercises to generate hypotheses related to the capture and recording of the data. Results A fascinating journey through 1 billion GP practice generated pieces of information, embarked upon to aid interpretation of our Supporting People results, and providing insights into the patterns of recording within GP data.

  16. Cosmic rays and the biosphere over 4 billion years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Variations in the flux of cosmic rays (CR) at Earth during the last 4.6 billion years are constructed from information about the star formation rate in the Milky Way and the evolution of the solar activity. The constructed CR signal is compared with variations in the Earths biological productivit...... as recorded in the isotope delta C-13, which spans more than 3 billion years. CR and fluctuations in biological productivity show a remarkable correlation and indicate that the evolution of climate and the biosphere on the Earth is closely linked to the evolution of the Milky Way....

  17. Canadian Food Dollar: Breakdown between Farm and Marketing Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Jessica; Weersink, Alfons; Cranfield, John

    2013-01-01

    This poster assesses the breakdown of the Canadian food dollar between farm and marketing costs. It uses input-output methods, comparable to those used by the Economic Research Service (ERS), in order to allow for Canadian-American comparison. The farm share and marketing bill provide a valuable snapshot of the dynamics of the agri-food supply chain, changing consumer demands, and the resultant value distribution of the retail food dollar.

  18. First-dollar cost-sharing for skilled nursing facility care in medicare advantage plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Laura M; Grebla, Regina C; Rahman, Momotazur; Mukamel, Dana B; Lee, Yoojin; Mor, Vincent; Trivedi, Amal

    2017-08-29

    The initial days of a Medicare-covered skilled nursing facility (SNF) stay may have no cost-sharing or daily copayments depending on beneficiaries' enrollment in traditional Medicare or Medicare Advantage. Some policymakers have advocated imposing first-dollar cost-sharing to reduce post-acute expenditures. We examined the relationship between first-dollar cost-sharing for a SNF stay and use of inpatient and SNF services. We identified seven Medicare Advantage plans that introduced daily SNF copayments of $25-$150 in 2009 or 2010. Copays began on the first day of a SNF admission. We matched these plans to seven matched control plans that did not introduce first-dollar cost-sharing. In a difference-in-differences analysis, we compared changes in SNF and inpatient utilization for the 172,958 members of intervention and control plans. In intervention plans the mean annual number of SNF days per 100 continuously enrolled inpatients decreased from 768.3 to 750.6 days when cost-sharing changes took effect. Control plans experienced a concurrent increase: 721.7 to 808.1 SNF days per 100 inpatients (adjusted difference-in-differences: -87.0 days [95% CI (-112.1,-61.9)]). In intervention plans, we observed no significant changes in the probability of any SNF service use or the number of inpatient days per hospitalized member relative to concurrent trends among control plans. Among several strategies Medicare Advantage plans can employ to moderate SNF use, first-dollar SNF cost-sharing may be one influential factor. Not applicable.

  19. Areva - First quarter 2009 revenue climbs 8.5% to 3.003 billion euros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    First quarter 2009 revenue was up 8.5% compared with the same period last year, to 3.003 billion euros. At constant exchange rates and consolidation scope, growth came to 3.9%. Currency translation had a positive impact of 57 million euros over the quarter. Changes in the consolidation scope had an impact of 66 million euros, primarily due to the consolidation of acquisitions made in 2008 in Transmission and Distribution and in Renewable Energies. The growth engines for first quarter revenue were the Reactors and Services division and the Transmission and Distribution division, with growth of 9.2% and 16.1% respectively. Outside France, revenue rose to 2.032 billion euros, compared with 1.857 billion euros in the first quarter of 2008, and represents 68% of total revenue. Orders were steady in the first quarter, particularly in the Front End, which posted several significant contracts with US and Asian utilities, and in Transmission and Distribution, with orders up sharply in Asia and South America. As of March 31, 2009, the group's backlog reached 49.5 billion euros, for 28.3% growth year-on-year, including 31.3% growth in Nuclear and 10.2% in Transmission and Distribution. For the year as a whole, the group confirms its outlook for backlog and revenue growth as well as rising operating income It should be noted that revenue may vary significantly from one quarter to the next in nuclear operations. Accordingly, quarterly data cannot be viewed as a reliable indicator of annual trends

  20. Conserving large carnivores: dollars and fence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, C; Loveridge, A; Canney, S; Caro, T; Garnett, S T; Pfeifer, M; Zander, K K; Swanson, A; Macnulty, D; Balme, G; Bauer, H; Begg, C M; Begg, K S; Bhalla, S; Bissett, C; Bodasing, T; Brink, H; Burger, A; Burton, A C; Clegg, B; Dell, S; Delsink, A; Dickerson, T; Dloniak, S M; Druce, D; Frank, L; Funston, P; Gichohi, N; Groom, R; Hanekom, C; Heath, B; Hunter, L; Deiongh, H H; Joubert, C J; Kasiki, S M; Kissui, B; Knocker, W; Leathem, B; Lindsey, P A; Maclennan, S D; McNutt, J W; Miller, S M; Naylor, S; Nel, P; Ng'weno, C; Nicholls, K; Ogutu, J O; Okot-Omoya, E; Patterson, B D; Plumptre, A; Salerno, J; Skinner, K; Slotow, R; Sogbohossou, E A; Stratford, K J; Winterbach, C; Winterbach, H; Polasky, S

    2013-05-01

    Conservationists often advocate for landscape approaches to wildlife management while others argue for physical separation between protected species and human communities, but direct empirical comparisons of these alternatives are scarce. We relate African lion population densities and population trends to contrasting management practices across 42 sites in 11 countries. Lion populations in fenced reserves are significantly closer to their estimated carrying capacities than unfenced populations. Whereas fenced reserves can maintain lions at 80% of their potential densities on annual management budgets of $500 km(-2) , unfenced populations require budgets in excess of $2000 km(-2) to attain half their potential densities. Lions in fenced reserves are primarily limited by density dependence, but lions in unfenced reserves are highly sensitive to human population densities in surrounding communities, and unfenced populations are frequently subjected to density-independent factors. Nearly half the unfenced lion populations may decline to near extinction over the next 20-40 years. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  1. 77 FR 16484 - Annual Stress Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...-2011-0029] RIN 1557-AD58 Annual Stress Test AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Treasury... billion to conduct an annual stress test and comply with certain reporting and disclosure requirements. To... conduct annual stress tests pursuant to regulations prescribed by their respective Federal primary...

  2. One billion cubic meters of gas produced in Kikinda area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicicevic, M; Duric, N

    1969-10-01

    The Kikinda gas reservoir has just passed a milestone in producing one billion cubic meters of natural gas. The reservoir was discovered in 1962, and its present production amounts to 26 million cu m. One of the biggest problems was formation of hydrates, which has successfully been solved by using methanol. Four tables show production statistics by years and productive formations.

  3. International collaboration in SSC (or any $4 billion scientific project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses the superconducting supercollider. This is a project that costs U.S. $4.4 billion. The author spends a short time giving the motivation (which is a scientific motivation) and also giving the idea of how it is possible, with U.S. deficits

  4. Working Paper 5: Beyond Collier's Bottom Billion | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-16

    Dec 16, 2010 ... The heart of the narrative presented in the book is that a group of almost 60 countries, with a population of about a billion people, are caught in four main traps. Their prospects for escaping the traps are poor, and they need a set of actions from the international community to achieve the rapid rates of growth ...

  5. Congress OKs $2 Billion Boost for the NIH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    President Donald Trump last week signed a $1.1 trillion spending bill for fiscal year 2017, including a welcome $2 billion boost for the NIH that will support former Vice President Joe Biden's Cancer Moonshot initiative, among other priorities. However, researchers who rely heavily on NIH grant funding remain concerned about proposed cuts for 2018. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. 29 CFR 779.342 - Methods of computing annual volume of sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service...) of the Act are specified in terms of the “annual dollar volume of sales” of goods or of services (or... annual dollar volume before deduction of those taxes which are excluded in determining whether the $250...

  7. Behind the cloud: the untold story of how Salesforce.com went from idea to billion-dollar company--and revolutionized an industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benioff, Marc R; Adler, Carlye

    2009-01-01

    ...? For the first time, Marc Benioff, the visionary founder, chairman and CEO of salesforce.com, tells how he and his team created and used new business, technology, and philanthropic models tailored to this time of extraordinary change...

  8. Recovery Act: Billions of Dollars in Education Credits Appear to Be Erroneous. Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration. Reference Number: 2011-41-083

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of the Treasury, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Education credits are available to help offset the costs of higher education for taxpayers, their spouses, and dependents who qualify as eligible students. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) amended the Hope Scholarship Tax Credit (Hope Credit) to provide for a refundable tax credit known as the American Opportunity…

  9. Hedge Effectiveness in the Brazilian US Dollar Futures Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Lima Gomes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, one could observe a very definite surge in dollar prices in Brazil. Many Brazilian Companies, especially those with large amounts of dollar denominated debt incurred substantial losses due to the strong and fast growth of the dollar. The subsequent dollar price collapse from 2002 to 2008 caused great losses to exporters. In the context of hedge being a form of protection against currency oscillations, this paper aimed to study its effectiveness using the dollar future market in the BM&FBovespa. Specifically, four alternatives for calculating the optimum hedge ratio were compared: a the so called naïve approach, where opposite positions are taken in the spot and future markets; b OLS – Ordinary Least Squares c symmetric bi-variate GARCH (Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity; d asymmetric bi-variate GARCH. The results showed that both GARCH supported hedge ratios presented higher effectiveness when compared to OLS, with in turn surpassed the naïve one.

  10. A two-billion-year history for the lunar dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoo, Sonia M; Weiss, Benjamin P; Shuster, David L; Suavet, Clément; Wang, Huapei; Grove, Timothy L

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic studies of lunar rocks indicate that the Moon generated a core dynamo with surface field intensities of ~20 to 110 μT between at least 4.25 and 3.56 billion years ago (Ga). The field subsequently declined to lunar dynamo by at least 1 billion years. Such a protracted history requires an extraordinarily long-lived power source like core crystallization or precession. No single dynamo mechanism proposed thus far can explain the strong fields inferred for the period before 3.56 Ga while also allowing the dynamo to persist in such a weakened state beyond ~2.5 Ga. Therefore, our results suggest that the dynamo was powered by at least two distinct mechanisms operating during early and late lunar history.

  11. Oncology pharma costs to exceed $150 billion by 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide costs of oncology drugs will rise above $150 billion by 2020, according to a report by the IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics. Many factors are in play, according to IMS, including the new wave of expensive immunotherapies. Pembrolizumab (Keytruda), priced at $150,000 per year per patient, and nivolumab (Opdivo), priced at $165,000, may be harbingers of the market for cancer immunotherapies.

  12. Gaia: Science with 1 billion objects in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusti, Timo

    2018-02-01

    Gaia is an operational satellite in the ESA science programme. It is gathering data for more than a billion objects. Gaia measures positions and motions of stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, but captures many asteroids and extragalactic sources as well. The first data release has already been made and exploitation by the world-wide scientific community is underway. Further data releases will be made with further increasing accuracy. Gaia is well underway to provide its promised set of fundamental astronomical data.

  13. Document de travail 5: Beyond Collier's Bottom Billion | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    16 déc. 2010 ... L'ouvrage de Paul Collier, The Bottom Billion, suscite un grand intérêt dans le domaine du développement. Il repose sur la thèse selon laquelle un groupe de près de 60 pays, dont la population totale avoisine un milliard de personnes, sont pris dans quatre pièges principaux.

  14. Cost of solving mysteries of universe: $6.7 billion

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    "An international consortium of physicists on Thursday released the first detailed design of what they believe will be the next big thing in physics. The machine, 20 miles long, will slam together electrons and their opposites, positrons, to produce fireballs of energy re-creating conditions when the universe was only a trillionth of a second old. It would cost about $6.7 billion." (1 page)

  15. Philanthro-metrics: Mining multi-million-dollar gifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Una O Osili

    Full Text Available The Million Dollar List (MDL, online at http://www.milliondollarlist.org is a compilation of publicly announced charitable donations of $1 million or more from across the United States since 2000; as of December 2016, the database contains close to 80,000 gifts made by U.S. individuals, corporations, foundations, and other grant-making nonprofit organizations. This paper discusses the unique value of the Million Dollar List and provides unique insights to key questions such as: How does distance affect giving? How do networks impact million-dollar-plus gifts? Understanding the geospatial and temporal dimensions of philanthropy can assist researchers and policymakers to better understand the role of private funding in innovation and discovery. Moreover, the results from the paper emphasize the importance of philanthropy for fueling research and development in science, the arts, environment, and health. The paper also includes the limitations of the presented analyses and promising future work.

  16. $35 billion habit: will nuclear cost overruns bankrupt the utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has proposed some 150 modifications in the design and operation of nuclear power plants as a result of the accident at Three Mile Island. The Atomic Industrial Forum estimates the total cost of the NRC's proposed rule changes at $35.5 billion ($3.5 billion in capital costs for the entire industry, and $32 billion in outage and construction-delay costs to the utilities) for existing facilities and for those with construction well underway. The changes range from improved training for reactor workers to a major overhaul of the reactor-containment design. The nuclear industry is asking the NRC to modify the proposals citing excessive costs (like the $100 million changes needed for a plant that cost $17 million to build) and safety (some of the complex regulations may interfere with safety). Financing the changes has become a major problem for the utilities. If the regulators allow all the costs to be passed along to the consumer, the author feels electricity will be too expensive for the consumer

  17. US DOLLAR STABILITY AND THE GLOBAL CURRENCY RESERVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Gavranić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The participation of the United States in the First and the Second World War, as well as in the Vietnam War led to an increase in expenditures for the US national defense and the need to finance such expenditures from the primary emission. This further led to the rising inflation and the falling value of the dollar. Since today the US dollar holds a leading position in the world's foreign exchange reserves, its decline would have an effect on reduction of the foreign exchange reserves value.

  18. Faktor - Faktor Determinan Kurs Rupiah Terhadap Dollar Amer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    elys fauziyah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a developing country that is often affected by fluctuations in foreign exchange rates, especially US Dollar. This condition is the effect of the government policies that implement the floating exchange rate system since August 14, 1977. The aims of this study are to know the development and to analyze the effect of macroeconomic variables on the Rupiah exchange rate against US Dollar in 2008-2014. The method which used in this study is descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression. The results of the study show that during 2008-2014, the variables of inflation, interest rate (BI rate of Indonesia’s balance of payments, and exports fluctuated, while the variable of PDB tended to increase. Other results show that interest rates and gross domestic product have a positive effect on the exchange rate of Rupiah against US Dollar, whereas the inflation and exports have a negative effect. Meanwhile, Indonesia’s balance of payments does not significantly affect the Rupiah against US Dollar.

  19. Eesti ettevõtteid dollar ei heiduta / Piret Reiljan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reiljan, Piret, 1983-

    2007-01-01

    Kuigi dollar on aastate jooksul läbi teinud tugeva languse, on Eesti ettevõtted USA turu suhtes optimistlikud ning kasvatavad ka ekspordimahtusid. Kommenteerivad Ülo Kaasik ja Hardo Pajula. Diagramm: Euro on eelmise aasta oktoobrist sammhaaval dollari suhtes tugevnenud. Vt. samas: Kertu Ruus. USA ettevõtja näeb dollarit kui äri

  20. Smart Energy Choices Free Up Dollars for Capital Improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, David

    2003-01-01

    Describes several ways to design or renovate school building to save thousand of dollars of energy costs. Considers site design, energy-efficient building envelope, renewable energy systems, lighting and electrical systems, mechanical and ventilation systems, water conservation, and transportation. Describes how to obtain information about the…

  1. Kaun Banega Crorepati - A Million Dollars for a Mathematician

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    after a long journey with his left and right hands interchanged as with the swimmer in the Moebius band. I can now state the million dollar question - the Poincare conjecture. Is any compact simply connected 3-manifold homeomorphic to the 3-sphere? This question can be suitably generalised to higher dimensions.

  2. The turning black tide : energy prices and the Canadian dollar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issa, R.; Lafrance, R.; Murray, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examined the relationship between energy prices and the Canadian-United States dollar real exchange rate. The researchers evaluated the standard Amano-van Norden (AvN) equation formulated to demonstrate that higher real energy prices lead to a depreciation of the Canadian dollar. Major developments in the Canadian energy market were discussed, as well as policy initiatives designed to address Canada's trade balance by increasing energy exports. The study examined the AvN equation using Monte Carlo experiments to determine the parameter stability of the equation. Results indicated that the co-integrating relationship in the standard AvN equation were no longer supported. Structural break tests were used to demonstrate that major changes in Canada's energy policies and cross-border trade and investment strategies have led to an increase in the Canadian dollar's value when energy prices are high. The study presented a new equation designed to account for Canadian dollar's appreciation since 2003. It was concluded that net energy exports in the 1990s outweighed the negatives associated with Canada's energy-intensive production processes. 39 refs., 6 tabs., 10 figs

  3. Dollarization in transition economies: new evidence from Georgia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aslanidi, Olga

    -, č. 366 (2008), s. 1-31 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : dollarization * Georgia * money-in-utility-function Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp366.pdf

  4. The turning black tide : energy prices and the Canadian dollar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issa, R.; Lafrance, R.; Murray, J. [Bank of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2008-08-15

    This paper examined the relationship between energy prices and the Canadian-United States dollar real exchange rate. The researchers evaluated the standard Amano-van Norden (AvN) equation formulated to demonstrate that higher real energy prices lead to a depreciation of the Canadian dollar. Major developments in the Canadian energy market were discussed, as well as policy initiatives designed to address Canada's trade balance by increasing energy exports. The study examined the AvN equation using Monte Carlo experiments to determine the parameter stability of the equation. Results indicated that the co-integrating relationship in the standard AvN equation were no longer supported. Structural break tests were used to demonstrate that major changes in Canada's energy policies and cross-border trade and investment strategies have led to an increase in the Canadian dollar's value when energy prices are high. The study presented a new equation designed to account for Canadian dollar's appreciation since 2003. It was concluded that net energy exports in the 1990s outweighed the negatives associated with Canada's energy-intensive production processes. 39 refs., 6 tabs., 10 figs.

  5. Empowering billions with food safety and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, Suresh D.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: There are virtually millions of people -who die needlessly every year due to contaminated water and food. There are virtually many millions more who are starving due to an inadequate supply of food. Billions of pounds of food are unnecessarily wasted due to insect and other damage. Deaths and illness due to contaminated food or inadequate food are at catastrophic levels in many regions of the world. A majority of the food and water borne illnesses and deaths are preventable. It can be prevented by improved food production methods, improved food processing technologies, improved food distribution systems and improved personal hygiene. Food irradiation technology is over 100 years old. Yet, this technology is poorly understood by governments and corporate decision makers all around the world. Many consumers also are unfortunately misinformed of this technology. There is an urgent need for nations and people around the world to empower themselves with the knowledge and the expertise to harness this powerful technology. Widespread and sensible adoption of this technology can empower billions around the world with clean and abundant food supplies. It is unconscionable in the 21st century for governments to allow people to die or go hungry when the technology to prevent them is readily available

  6. The Boring Billion, a slingshot for Complex Life on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Indrani; Large, Ross R; Corkrey, Ross; Danyushevsky, Leonid V

    2018-03-13

    The period 1800 to 800 Ma ("Boring Billion") is believed to mark a delay in the evolution of complex life, primarily due to low levels of oxygen in the atmosphere. Earlier studies highlight the remarkably flat C, Cr isotopes and low trace element trends during the so-called stasis, caused by prolonged nutrient, climatic, atmospheric and tectonic stability. In contrast, we suggest a first-order variability of bio-essential trace element availability in the oceans by combining systematic sampling of the Proterozoic rock record with sensitive geochemical analyses of marine pyrite by LA-ICP-MS technique. We also recall that several critical biological evolutionary events, such as the appearance of eukaryotes, origin of multicellularity & sexual reproduction, and the first major diversification of eukaryotes (crown group) occurred during this period. Therefore, it appears possible that the period of low nutrient trace elements (1800-1400 Ma) caused evolutionary pressures which became an essential trigger for promoting biological innovations in the eukaryotic domain. Later periods of stress-free conditions, with relatively high nutrient trace element concentration, facilitated diversification. We propose that the "Boring Billion" was a period of sequential stepwise evolution and diversification of complex eukaryotes, triggering evolutionary pathways that made possible the later rise of micro-metazoans and their macroscopic counterparts.

  7. The impacts of dollarization on Zimbabwe’s tourism industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabote, F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The word “dollarization” has been used to describe the adoption of United States Dollar (US$ or other major advanced country’s currency as the currency of choice in a foreign country. Upon adoption in 2009 February, Zimbabweans and the tourism industry were optimistic about the future as they thought it would bring a more stable economy. Three years down the line it is prudent to evaluate and see if this much talked about and praised economic move had any effect on the performance of one key sector of the Zimbabwean economy (Tourism. To answer this question a graphical and quantitative analysis of Zimbabwean Tourism industry performance indicators was done. The data was grouped into pre-2009 and post-2009 and compared the means and variables between these two eras. The results of the analysis lead us to conclude that there is a positive impact of dollarization on the Zimbabwean Tourism industry.

  8. Ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions: the first billion seconds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baym, Gordon

    2016-12-15

    I first review the early history of the ultrarelativistic heavy ion program, starting with the 1974 Bear Mountain Workshop, and the 1983 Aurora meeting of the U.S. Nuclear Science Committtee, just one billion seconds ago, which laid out the initial science goals of an ultrarelativistic collider. The primary goal, to discover the properties of nuclear matter at the highest energy densities, included finding new states of matter – the quark-gluon plasma primarily – and to use collisions to open a new window on related problems of matter in cosmology, neutron stars, supernovae, and elsewhere. To bring out how the study of heavy ions and hot, dense matter in QCD has been fulfilling these goals, I concentrate on a few topics, the phase diagram of matter in QCD, and connections of heavy ion physics to cold atoms, cosmology, and neutron stars.

  9. Orbital forcing of climate 1.4 billion years ago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Hammarlund, Emma U

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuating climate is a hallmark of Earth. As one transcends deep into Earth time, however, both the evidence for and the causes of climate change become difficult to establish. We report geochemical and sedimentological evidence for repeated, short-term climate fluctuations from the exceptionally...... well-preserved ∼1.4-billion-year-old Xiamaling Formation of the North China Craton. We observe two patterns of climate fluctuations: On long time scales, over what amounts to tens of millions of years, sediments of the Xiamaling Formation record changes in geochemistry consistent with long-term changes...... reflect what appear to be orbitally forced changes in wind patterns and ocean circulation as they influenced rates of organic carbon flux, trace metal accumulation, and the source of detrital particles to the sediment....

  10. Bitcoin, gold and the dollar: A GARCH volatility analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dyhrberg, Anne Haubo

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the financial asset capabilities of bitcoin using GARCH models. The initial model showed several similarities to gold and the dollar indicating hedging capabilities and advantages as a medium of exchange. The asymmetric GARCH showed that bitcoin may be useful in risk management and ideal for risk averse investors in anticipation of negative shocks to the market. Overall bitcoin has a place on the financial markets and in portfolio management as it can be classified as some...

  11. Shell Canada Limited 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A report of operational and financial achievements is reported. Shell Canada's Resources Division is one of Canada's largest producers of crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids, sulphur and bitumen. This report presents an operations review, provides consolidated financial statements, and common share information, and summarizes revenue and expenditure statements. The company was one of Canada's most profitable integrated oil and gas companies in 1998. It was the second most profitable year in the company's history for continuing operations. Oil products earnings for 1998 were a record $275 million, mostly because of strong sales volumes and increased retail market share. The company also confronted several environmental issues in 1998, including climate change and the reduction of greenhouse gases. Construction of the Sable Project, offshore Nova Scotia, continued on budget and on schedule to bring natural gas to market by early 2000. Plans for the three elements of the Oil Sands project (the Muskeg River mine in the Athabaska Region, an upgrader at Shell's Scotford site and the Corridor Pipeline) proceeded on schedule. The Caroline complex made its expected contribution to the company's overall performance. Improved seismic technology helped to add new reserves through Shell's interest in wells in southern Alberta. Exploration activity in northeastern British Columbia and northern Alberta produced encouraging results. The work will continue in 1999. The company plans to invest some 4.9 billion dollars over the next five years in capital expenditures. Shell remains committed to the Voluntary Challenge and Registry Program. Annual reduction of CO 2 emissions increased by an estimated 800,000 tonnes

  12. Dollarization in East Africa: Causes, Consequences, and Future Forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sayid Hassan Musse

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The dollarization phenomenon has been widespread among the East African countries for many decades. This trend results in several consequences that might be either beneficial or harmful to these countries and their likes.The objective of this research was to empirically examine the causes, consequences and the future scenarios of dollarization in one of the leading regional countries such as Somalia. The research used a survey of over 100respondents and applied descriptive statistics and t-tests to achieve the above objectives. The findings show that the main causes of Dollarization in Somalia are the implementation of the Hawallah (money transfer system,the remarkable absence of the central bank and other monitoring financial authorities, the increasing exports and imports of the Somalian economy, the loss of confidence in the local Somalian Shilling, and the relative ease atwhich the Somalian Shilling can be printed and manipulated by selected market players. These causes are found to be mainly triggered by the revenue from exports, the policies and regulations implemented by the Somali government, the Somali Diaspora, and the international aid organizations. This has resulted in the foreign traders buying Somali goods at a relatively lower price and taking advantage of the depreciated Somali Shilling against most international currencies.

  13. Dollar as the world's reserve currency: Challenges and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Radovan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The US dollar gained the status of the world's reserve currency in the Bretton Woods system and has preserved it until the present day. Such position in international finance entails both advantages and disadvantages to the USA as the issuer of this currency, and to the rest of the world using it in trading, as store of value, and for the purpose of various financial operations and transactions. After the collapse of the Bretton Woods system, the regime of fixed FX rates was replaced by floating FX rates. Yet, regardless of this change, the dollar kept its role of the world's reserve currency. Numerous banking and currency crises following the transfer to the floating FX rates regime, along with the shifts in international capital flows, forced the developing countries and countries in transition to increase their FX reserves. In the tendency to store their value, central banks usually invest them into US Treasury securities, as liquid and reliable assets. However, due to the risk incurred by the reliance on a single national currency in the role of the world's reserve currency, there have been many proposals to reform the international monetary system. According to the current global tendencies, the most serious candidates for acquiring the status of the world's reserve currency in the future are the dollar, the euro, and the Chinese yuan.

  14. Effective interventions for unintentional injuries: a systematic review and mortality impact assessment among the poorest billion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I; Jafri, Aisha; Hyder, Adnan A

    2018-05-01

    Between 1990 and 2015, the global injury mortality declined, but in countries where the poorest billion live, injuries are becoming an increasingly prevalent cause of death. The vulnerability of this population requires immediate attention from policy makers to implement effective interventions that lessen the burden of injuries in these countries. Our aim was two-fold; first, to review all the evidence on effective interventions for the five main types of unintentional injury; and second, to estimate the potential number of lives saved by effective injury interventions among the poorest billion. For our systematic review we used references in the Disability Control Priorities third edition, and searched PubMed and the Cochrane database for papers published until Sept 10, 2016, using a comprehensive search strategy to find interventions for the five major causes of unintentional injuries: road traffic crashes, falls, drowning, burns, and poisoning. Studies were included if they presented evidence with significant effects sizes for any outcome; no inclusions or exclusions made on the basis of where the study was carried out (ie, low-income, middle-income, or high-income country). Then we used data from the Global Burden of Disease 2015 study and a Monte Carlo simulation technique to estimate the potential annual attributable number of lives saved among the poorest billion by these evidence-based injury interventions. We estimated results for 84 countries where the poorest billion live. From the 513 papers identified, 47 were eligible for inclusion. We identified 11 interventions that had an effect on injury mortality. For road traffic deaths, the most successful interventions in preventing deaths are speed enforcement (>80 000 lives saved per year) and drink-driving enforcement (>60 000 lives saved per year). Interventions potentially most effective in preventing deaths from drowning are formal swimming lessons for children younger than 14 years (>25 000 lives

  15. Effective interventions for unintentional injuries: a systematic review and mortality impact assessment among the poorest billion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres I Vecino-Ortiz, PhD

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Between 1990 and 2015, the global injury mortality declined, but in countries where the poorest billion live, injuries are becoming an increasingly prevalent cause of death. The vulnerability of this population requires immediate attention from policy makers to implement effective interventions that lessen the burden of injuries in these countries. Our aim was two-fold; first, to review all the evidence on effective interventions for the five main types of unintentional injury; and second, to estimate the potential number of lives saved by effective injury interventions among the poorest billion. Methods: For our systematic review we used references in the Disability Control Priorities third edition, and searched PubMed and the Cochrane database for papers published until Sept 10, 2016, using a comprehensive search strategy to find interventions for the five major causes of unintentional injuries: road traffic crashes, falls, drowning, burns, and poisoning. Studies were included if they presented evidence with significant effects sizes for any outcome; no inclusions or exclusions made on the basis of where the study was carried out (ie, low-income, middle-income, or high-income country. Then we used data from the Global Burden of Disease 2015 study and a Monte Carlo simulation technique to estimate the potential annual attributable number of lives saved among the poorest billion by these evidence-based injury interventions. We estimated results for 84 countries where the poorest billion live. Findings: From the 513 papers identified, 47 were eligible for inclusion. We identified 11 interventions that had an effect on injury mortality. For road traffic deaths, the most successful interventions in preventing deaths are speed enforcement (>80 000 lives saved per year and drink-driving enforcement (>60 000 lives saved per year. Interventions potentially most effective in preventing deaths from drowning are formal swimming

  16. 77 FR 22467 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ...-0006] RIN 0563-AC32 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop... Insurance Corporation (FCIC) finalizes the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar... Common Crop Insurance Regulations (7 CFR part 457), Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions...

  17. 26 CFR 1.61-22 - Taxation of split-dollar life insurance arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of split-dollar life insurance..., and Taxable Income § 1.61-22 Taxation of split-dollar life insurance arrangements. (a) Scope—(1) In general. This section provides rules for the taxation of a split-dollar life insurance arrangement for...

  18. The Canadian Dollar and the Dutch and Canadian Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Coulombe

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With the spectacular rise of the dollar, along with rising natural-resource prices during the first decade of the 21st century, Canadians heard a great deal about Dutch disease. Many politicians and pundits blamed the phenomenon — in which a country’s currency, inflated by rising commodity prices, renders manufacturing exports increasingly uncompetitive — for rising unemployment in the Canadian manufacturing industry. But a close look at what happened during that period reveals that the Dutch disease mechanism was only part of the story. The other part, and quantitatively the most important, is an affliction of an altogether different providence: Canadian disease. Canadian disease is the economic trouble that can be caused by Canada’s extraordinarily heavy reliance on the United States as a trading partner. As a consequence, a sudden depreciation of the U.S, dollar will deteriorate the competitiveness of Canadian manufacturing exporters. Such a phenomenon was at work during the “Great Appreciation” of the Canadian dollar between 2002 and 2008 — the largest such appreciation on record in this country. The depreciation of the U.S. dollar is a phenomenon that is independent of the resource boom and the resulting consequences on the Canadian economy cannot be endorsed to a Dutch disease. Almost 2/3 of the employment losses that are exchange rate related in the trade-exposed manufacturers in Canada during the 2002–2008 period could be attributed to the Canadian disease. The Canadian dollar is partly driven by commodity prices, and the appreciation of the Canadian dollar exerts a negative impact on manufacturing industries that are exposed to international competition. This phenomenon can be coined as a Dutch Affair. The Dutch Affair becomes a disease in the long run when the non-renewable resource is depleted and the manufacturing base is gone. New manufacturing activities might not reappear due to a variety of obstacles. In Canada

  19. Water and life from snow: A trillion dollar science question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Matthew; Goldstein, Michael A.; Parr, Charles

    2017-05-01

    Snow provides essential resources/services in the form of water for human use, and climate regulation in the form of enhanced cooling of the Earth. In addition, it supports a thriving winter outdoor recreation industry. To date, the financial evaluation of the importance of snow is incomplete and hence the need for accelerated snow research is not as clear as it could be. With snow cover changing worldwide in several worrisome ways, there is pressing need to determine global, regional, and local rates of snow cover change, and to link these to financial analyses that allow for rational decision making, as risks related to those decisions involve trillions of dollars.

  20. [The Six Million Dollar Man: from fiction to reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeveld, C H Kees

    2013-01-01

    The term 'bionic' has been in existence since 1958, but only gained general recognition from the television series 'The Six Million Dollar Man'. Following a crash, the central figure in this series - test pilot Steve Austin - has an eye, an arm and both legs replaced by prostheses which make him stronger and faster than a normal person. This story is based on the science fiction book 'Cyborg' by Martin Caidin. In the world of comic books and films there are a number of examples of people who are given superhuman powers by having technological gadgets built in. Although the latter is not yet possible, the bionic human has now become reality.

  1. Oil price fluctuations and U.S. dollar exchange rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizardo, Radhames A.; Mollick, Andre V.

    2010-01-01

    Adding oil prices to the monetary model of exchange rates, we find that oil prices significantly explain movements in the value of the U.S. dollar (USD) against major currencies from the 1970s to 2008. Our long-run and forecasting results are remarkably consistent with an oil-exchange rate relationship. Increases in real oil prices lead to a significant depreciation of the USD against net oil exporter currencies, such as Canada, Mexico, and Russia. On the other hand, the currencies of oil importers, such as Japan, depreciate relative to the USD when the real oil price goes up. (author)

  2. ANALISIS PARITAS DAYA BELI KURS RUPIAH TERHADAP DOLLAR AMERIKA SERIKAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elysa Pernika Simanjuntak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis bagaimana penerapan teori paritas daya beli kurs Rupiah terhadap Dollar AS dalam jangka panjang maupun jangka pendek dan pengaruh tingkat inflasi, produk domestik bruto, jumlah uang beredar, dan cadangan devisa terhadap kurs Rp/USD dengan menggunakan alat analisis Error Correction Model Engle-Granger. Variabel dependen dalam penelitian ini adalah kurs, sedangkan variabel independennya adalah inflasi, produk domesti bruto, jumlah uang beredar, dan cadangan devisa. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa dalam jangka panjang maupun jangka pendek, teori paritas daya beli berlaku pada kurs Rupiah terhadap Dollar Amerika Serikat. Variabel independen secara bersama-sama berpengaruh terhadap kurs Rupiah dalam jangka pendek maupun jangka panjang kecuali variabel jumlah uang beredar tidak berpengaruh dalam jangka panjang dan cadangan devisa tidak berpengaruh terhadap kurs dalam jangka pendek. Rekomendasi dari penelitian ini adalah Bank Indonesia selaku bank sentral Republik Indonesia diharapkan lebih berhati- hati dalam mengambil kebijakan yang tepat demi menjaga kestabilan nilai tukar Rupiah. Salah satunya tetap mengawasi kebijakan yang ditetapkan pemerintah mengenai pemakaian Rupiah untuk seluruh transaksi dalam negeri.  This research aims to analyze how the application of the theory of purchasing power parity exchange rate of the Rupiah against the US Dollar in the long term and short term and influence the rate of inflation, GDP, money supply, and the foreign exchange reserves of the exchange rate of Rp/USD by using analytical tools Error Correction Model Engle-Granger. Dependent variable in this study is the exchange rate, while the independent variables are inflation, gross domestic product, money supply, and the foreign exchange reserves. The results of this study indicated that in the long term and short term, the theory of purchasing power parity exchange rate prevailing at the Rupiah against the US

  3. Vizualization Challenges of a Subduction Simulation Using One Billion Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, M. L.; Gerya, T. V.; Yuen, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    Recent advances in supercomputing technology have permitted us to study the multiscale, multicomponent fluid dynamics of subduction zones at unprecedented resolutions down to about the length of a football field. We have performed numerical simulations using one billion tracers over a grid of about 80 thousand points in two dimensions. These runs have been performed using a thermal-chemical simulation that accounts for hydration and partial melting in the thermal, mechanical, petrological, and rheological domains. From these runs, we have observed several geophysically interesting phenomena including the development of plumes with unmixed mantle composition as well as plumes with mixed mantle/crust components. Unmixed plumes form at depths greater than 100km (5-10 km above the upper interface of subducting slab) and consist of partially molten wet peridotite. Mixed plumes form at lesser depth directly from the subducting slab and contain partially molten hydrated oceanic crust and sediments. These high resolution simulations have also spurred the development of new visualization methods. We have created a new web-based interface to data from our subduction simulation and other high-resolution 2D data that uses an hierarchical data format to achieve response times of less than one second when accessing data files on the order of 3GB. This interface, WEB-IS4, uses a Javascript and HTML frontend coupled with a C and PHP backend and allows the user to perform region of interest zooming, real-time colormap selection, and can return relevant statistics relating to the data in the region of interest.

  4. Evaluating the Impact of Macroeconomic Factors on the Level of Dollarization in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnova Iryna V.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the article are identifying causal relationships between the macroeconomic determinants and the level of dollarization in Ukraine, as well as determining the activities for de-dollarization. The prerequisites, causes and consequences of dollarization have been covered. On the external grounds, dollarization is recognized as a manifestation of financial integration, on internal grounds, as a consequence of financial instability. The main types and forms of dollarization have been allocated. Forms of financial dollarization have been considered as: deposit, credit and monetary. The determinants that potentially impact the dollarization level have been allocated. According to the results of a correlation analysis, the thesis of direct strong connection between dollarization and currency deposits, i.e. the dominance of deposit dollarization, has been confirmed. In order to determine the causal nature of the interdependencies between variables and the level of dollarization, a Granger causality test was carried out, which confirmed the hypothesis of the significant influence of psychological attitudes and the distrust of economic agents towards the policies of government and monetary authorities. A set of macroeconomic, market and incentive de-dollarization activities have been proposed.

  5. AREVA 2010 annual results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    remaining 49% of Multibrid) bring total gross capex to 2.176 billion euros, compared with 1.808 billion euros in 2009. Net capex came to 2.013 million euros in 2010, compared with 1.294 billion euros in 2009, reflecting asset disposals of 163 million euros in 2010 (mainly from the sale of 2% of the Georges Besse II plant), compared with 514 million euros in 2009. Free operating cash flow before tax went from -919 million euros in 2009 to -1.090 billion euros in 2010. Part of the increase in net capex is financed by the improved EBITDA and working capital requirement. The group's net financial debt comes to 3.672 billion euros at December 31, 2010 (based on the 2007 valuation of the debt to Siemens i.e. 2.049 billion euros, plus accrued interest) compared with 6.193 billion euros at December 31, 2009. The 2.521-billion euro reduction is due to the cash generated by the disposal of the Transmission and Distribution business (3.124 billion euros), by the transactions on Safran securities in the amount of 636 million euros, and by the 900-million euro capital increase, which helped largely offset the free operating cash flow described above, as well as the payment of dividends for 2009 to AREVA SA shareholders in the amount of 250 million euros. These amounts should be compared with equity of 9.578 billion euros at December 31, 2010, compared with 7.574 billion at year-end 2009. The group's gearing thus went from 45% in 2009 to 28% in 2010, illustrating the notable strengthening of the group's balance sheet. As part of this process, AREVA's Supervisory Board will not propose to the Annual General Meeting of Shareholders the payment of a dividend for 2010. In addition, the group's liquidity was reinforced in 2010 by a fourth bond issue of 750 million euros. Excluding the debt to Siemens, the group has no major reimbursement due before 2016

  6. Missing billions. How the Australian government's climate policy is penalising farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riguet, T.

    2006-10-01

    The Climate Institute analysis suggests ratifying the Kyoto Protocol and implementing a national emissions trading scheme today could provide Australian farmers with an income of $1.8 billion over the period 2008-2012, due to the emissions saved by limiting land clearing. Separately, a report to the National Farmers Federation by the Allen Consulting Group earlier this year concluded that a carbon emission trading system which recognised Kyoto Protocol rules could create an additional income stream of $0.7-0.9 billion over a five year period from revenue to farmers from forestry sinks. These two studies suggest that ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and the introduction of a national emissions trading scheme could provide farmers an income stream in the order of $2.5 billion. A central tenet of the Federal Government's greenhouse policy for over a decade has been to not ratify Kyoto, but to meet its Kyoto target - a national emissions increase of 8% from 1990 levels, in the period 2008-2012. Australia's National Greenhouse Gas Accounts show that farmers, by reducing land clearing rates since 1990, have offset substantial increases in greenhouse gas emissions from other sectors, mainly energy. Official Federal Government projections show that without land clearing reductions, Australia's greenhouse emissions would be 30% above 1990 levels by 2010. Australia's farmers have been responsible for virtually the entire share of the nation's greenhouse gas emissions reductions, but their efforts, worth around $2 billion, have not been recognised or financially rewarded by the Government. By reducing land clearing, farmers have already reduced greenhouse gas emissions by about 75 million tonnes since 1990. By 2010, the savings are projected to be about 83 million tonnes. This level of emissions reductions is equivalent to eliminating the total annual emissions of New Zealand or Ireland. Over that same period, emissions from energy and transport have and continue to sky

  7. Novel model of direct and indirect cost-benefit analysis of mechanical embolectomy over IV tPA for large vessel occlusions: a real-world dollar analysis based on improvements in mRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangla, Sundeep; O'Connell, Keara; Kumari, Divya; Shahrzad, Maryam

    2016-01-20

    Ischemic strokes result in significant healthcare expenditures (direct costs) and loss of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) (indirect costs). Interventional therapy has demonstrated improved functional outcomes in patients with large vessel occlusions (LVOs), which are likely to reduce the economic burden of strokes. To develop a novel real-world dollar model to assess the direct and indirect cost-benefit of mechanical embolectomy compared with medical treatment with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) based on shifts in modified Rankin scores (mRS). A cost model was developed including multiple parameters to account for both direct and indirect stroke costs. These were adjusted based upon functional outcome (mRS). The model compared IV tPA with mechanical embolectomy to assess the costs and benefits of both therapies. Direct stroke-related costs included hospitalization, inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation, home care, skilled nursing facilities, and long-term care facility costs. Indirect costs included years of life expectancy lost and lost QALYs. Values for the model cost parameters were derived from numerous resources and functional outcomes were derived from the MR CLEAN study as a reflective sample of LVOs. Direct and indirect costs and benefits for the two treatments were assessed using Microsoft Excel 2013. This cost-benefit model found a cost-benefit of mechanical embolectomy over IV tPA of $163 624.27 per patient and the cost benefit for 50 000 patients on an annual basis is $8 181 213 653.77. If applied widely within the USA, mechanical embolectomy will significantly reduce the direct and indirect financial burden of stroke ($8 billion/50 000 patients). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. A SWIRE Picture is Worth Billions of Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: SWIRE View of Distant Galaxies [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2Figure 3 Figure 4 These spectacular images, taken by the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) Legacy project, encapsulate one of the primary objectives of the Spitzer mission: to connect the evolution of galaxies from the distant, or early, universe to the nearby, or present day, universe. The Tadpole galaxy (main image) is the result of a recent galactic interaction in the local universe. Although these galactic mergers are rare in the universe's recent history, astronomers believe that they were much more common in the early universe. Thus, SWIRE team members will use this detailed image of the Tadpole galaxy to help understand the nature of the 'faint red-orange specks' of the early universe. The larger picture (figure 2) depicts one-sixteenth of the SWIRE survey field called ELAIS-N1. In this image, the bright blue sources are hot stars in our own Milky Way, which range anywhere from 3 to 60 times the mass of our Sun. The fainter green spots are cooler stars and galaxies beyond the Milky Way whose light is dominated by older stellar populations. The red dots are dusty galaxies that are undergoing intense star formation. The faintest specks of red-orange are galaxies billions of light-years away in the distant universe. Figure 3 features an unusual ring-like galaxy called CGCG 275-022. The red spiral arms indicate that this galaxy is very dusty and perhaps undergoing intense star formation. The star-forming activity could have been initiated by a near head-on collision with another galaxy. The most distant galaxies that SWIRE is able to detect are revealed in a zoom of deep space (figure 4). The colors in this feature represent the same objects as those in the larger field image of ELAIS-N1. The observed SWIRE

  9. 1998 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Globex Resources is a Calgary-based junior energy company doing exploration, development and production of oil and natural gas in Western Canada. This annual report contains an account of corporate accomplishments and operational performance during 1998, financial statements attesting to the fiscal situation of the company at year end, and management's analysis and discussion of operations and financial performance. In its first full year of operation the company completed equity financing to the tune of three million dollars, established proven and one-half probable reserves of over 1.7 million barrels of oil equivalent (boe), increased production to 450 boe/day at year end, split almost equally between crude oil and natural gas, acquired 20,595 acres of undeveloped land, primarily in Alberta, and established a net asset value of seven million dollars on 1998 year-end proven and one-half probable reserves. In achieving these results the company laid the foundation for a successful junior oil and natural gas company with a balanced production and asset base

  10. Dollarization hysteresis, network externalities and the “past legacy” effect: the case of Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo X. Fernández Tellería

    2007-01-01

    Dollarization in Bolivia rose rapidly immediately after the hyperinflation and currency crisis episode that took place between 1984 and 1985, but failed to reduce and, in fact, continued increasing the following years. In order to explain this dollarization hysteresis, this document proposes and estimates a model, based in the work of Oomes (2003), where network externalities can generate multiple steady-states for dollarization while a so-called past legacy effect increases the likelihood of...

  11. The twin risks in the dollarization debate: country and devaluation risks

    OpenAIRE

    Druck, Pablo; Morón, Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses dollarization from the perspective of the relation between country and devaluation risk. In the absence of balance sheet effects, we find that a full dollarization of an economy increases its country risk. On the other hand, when balance sheet effects are present, the full dollarization could reduce country risk. The link between these two risks is based on the government's financial needs. In this paper government devalue the currency for fiscal purposes. Consequently, a...

  12. AREVA annual results 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    AREVA expanded its backlog and increased its revenues compared with 2008, on strong installed base business and dynamic major projects, fostering growth in operating income of 240 million euros. As announced previously, Areva is implementing a financing plan suited to its objectives of profitable growth. The plan was implemented successfully in 2009, including the conclusion of an agreement, under very satisfactory terms, to sell its Transmission and Distribution business for 4 billion euros, asset sales for more than 1.5 billion euros, and successful bond issues of 3 billion euros. The plan will continue in 2010 with a capital increase, the completion of asset disposals and cost reduction and continued operational performance improvement programs. Areva bolstered its Renewable Energies business segment by supplementing its offshore wind power and biomass businesses with the acquisition of Ausra, a California-based leader in concentrated solar power technology. Despite the sale of T and D, Areva is maintaining its financial performance outlook for 2012: 12% average annual revenue growth to 12 billion euros in 2012, double digit operating margin and substantially positive free operating cash flow. Annual results 2009: - For the group as a whole, including Transmission and Distribution: Backlog: euros 49.4 bn (+2.5%), Revenues: euros 14 bn (+6.4%), Operating income: euros 501 m (+20.1%); - Nuclear and Renewable Energies perimeter: Backlog: euros 43.3 bn (+1.8%), Strong revenue growth: +5.4% to euros 8.5 bn, Operating income before provision for the Finnish project in the first half of 2009: euros 647 m, Operating income: euros 97 m, for a euros 240 m increase from 2008; - Net income attributable to equity holders of the parent: euros 552 m, i.e. euros 15.59 per share; - Net debt: euros 6,193 m; - Pro-forma net debt, including net cash to be received from the sale of T and D in 2010: euros 3,022 m; - Dividend of euros 7.06 per share to be proposed during the Annual

  13. The U.S. dollar exchange rate and the demand for oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schryder, Selien de; Peersman, Gert [Gent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Financial Economics

    2013-02-15

    Using recent advances in panel data estimation techniques, we find that an appreciation of the US dollar exchange rate leads to a significant decline in oil demand for a sample of 65 oil-importing countries. The estimated effect turns out to be much larger than the impact of a shift in the global crude oil price expressed in US dollar. Furthermore, the effect of the US dollar on oil demand tends to be declining over time and, for a subsample of OECD countries, stronger for an appreciation compared to a depreciation of the US dollar.

  14. The U.S. dollar exchange rate and the demand for oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schryder, Selien de; Peersman, Gert

    2013-01-01

    Using recent advances in panel data estimation techniques, we find that an appreciation of the US dollar exchange rate leads to a significant decline in oil demand for a sample of 65 oil-importing countries. The estimated effect turns out to be much larger than the impact of a shift in the global crude oil price expressed in US dollar. Furthermore, the effect of the US dollar on oil demand tends to be declining over time and, for a subsample of OECD countries, stronger for an appreciation compared to a depreciation of the US dollar.

  15. Nuclear budget for FY1991 up 3.6% to 409.7 billion yen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A total of yen409.7 billion was approved for the Governmental nuclear energy draft budget for fiscal 1991 on December 28, as the Cabinet gave its approval. The total, the highest ever, was divided into yen182.6 billion for the general account and yen227.1 billion for the special account for power resources development, representing a 3.6% increase over the ongoing fiscal year's level of yen395.5 billion. The draft budget will be examined for approval of the Diet session by the end of March. The nuclear energy budget devoted to research and development projects governed by the Science and Technology Agency amounts yen306.4 billion, up 3.5% exceeding yen300 billion for the first time. The nuclear budget for the Ministry of International Trade and Industry is yen98.1 billion, up 3.5%. For the other ministries, including the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, yen5.1 billion was allotted to nuclear energy-related projects. The Government had decided to raise the unit cost of the power plant siting promotion subsidies in the special account for power resources development by 25% --- from yen600/kw to yen750/kw --- in order to support the siting of plants. Consequently, the power resources siting account of the special accounts for both STA and MITI showed high levels of growth rates: 6.3% and 7.5%, respectively. (N.K.)

  16. Community access networks: how to connect the next billion to the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community access networks: how to connect the next billion to the Internet. Despite recent progress with mobile technology diffusion, more than four billion people worldwide are unconnected and have limited access to global communication infrastructure. The cost of implementing connectivity infrastructure in underserved ...

  17. Interactive (statistical) visualisation and exploration of a billion objects with vaex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breddels, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    With new catalogues arriving such as the Gaia DR1, containing more than a billion objects, new methods of handling and visualizing these data volumes are needed. We show that by calculating statistics on a regular (N-dimensional) grid, visualizations of a billion objects can be done within a second

  18. Potential effects of the next 100 billion hamburgers sold by McDonald's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Elsa H; Frank, Erica; McIntosh, Nichole F

    2005-05-01

    McDonald's has sold >100 billion beef-based hamburgers worldwide with a potentially considerable health impact. This paper explores whether there would be any advantages if the next 100 billion burgers were instead plant-based burgers. Nutrient composition of the beef hamburger patty and the McVeggie burger patty were obtained from the McDonald's website; sales data were obtained from the McDonald's customer service. Consuming 100 billion McDonald's beef burgers versus the same company's McVeggie burgers would provide, approximately, on average, an additional 550 million pounds of saturated fat and 1.2 billion total pounds of fat, as well as 1 billion fewer pounds of fiber, 660 million fewer pounds of protein, and no difference in calories. These data suggest that the McDonald's new McVeggie burger represents a less harmful fast-food choice than the beef burger.

  19. Investigating unusual changes in real-dollar exchange rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Pechir Gomes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Price distributions forecast has become a relevant subject for risk and pricing literature. Special concern resides on tail probabilities, which usually present more severe observations than Normal distributions would predict. This work aims to verify ifthe volatility implied in real-dollar options contains useful information about unexpected large-magnitude returns. Implied volatility is also checked as a predictor for realized volatility. Our results indicate that implied volatilities provide useful information on unusual returns and also work as a good predictor for observed volatility. Moreover, we implement an early-warning system and implied volatilities seem to signalize large-magnitude returns.A previsibilidade das distribuições de preços de ativos financeiros consiste em tema relevante tanto na literatura de risco como de apreçamento de ativos. Interesse especial reside na investigação acerca das probabilidades dos eventos de cauda, cujas realizações apresentam impacto de maior severidade comparativamente ao previsto pela distribuição Normal. Este trabalho tem como objetivo verificar se as volatilidades implícitas de opções de dólar detêm conteúdo informacional e poder preditivo em relação a retornos de grande magnitude. Nossos resultados sugerem que essas expectativas de mercado, de fato, carregam informação relevante sobre retornos futuros, além de conter poder preditivo significativo.

  20. Defense Business Transformation: Status of Department of Defense Efforts to Develop a Management Approach to Guide Business Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pickup, Sharon L; Yarborough, Deborah; Coleman, Grace; Harms, K. N; Perkins, Suzanne; Richardson, Terry; Watkins, Joseph; Watson, Angela

    2009-01-01

    .... The GAO has reported on weaknesses in DOD's business operations that result in billions of dollars being wasted annually, reduced efficiencies, ineffective performance, inadequate accountability...

  1. Taking out one billion tones of carbon: the magic of China's 11thFive-Year Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark D.; Fridley, David

    2007-05-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious targetfor energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country sgross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20 percent from 2005 to2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and bindingtarget has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift inChina's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energydevelopment. The 20 percent energy intensity target also translates intoan annual reduction of over one billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making theChinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in theworld today. While it is still too early to tell whether China willachieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend inenergy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options towardmeeting the 20 percent target using a detailed endues energymodel.

  2. Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Project Abstracts; May 25-27, Portland, Oregon, 1997 Annual Review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allee, Brian J. (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Portland, OR)

    1997-06-26

    Abstracts are presented from the 1997 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Review of Projects. The purpose was to provide information and education on the approximate 127 million dollars in Northwest electric ratepayer fish and wildlife mitigation projects funded annually.

  3. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-18 - Split-dollar life insurance arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... life insurance arrangements. See §§ 1.61-22 and 1.7872-15 for rules relating to the treatment of split-dollar life insurance arrangements. [T.D. 9092, 68 FR 54352, Sept. 17, 2003] ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Split-dollar life insurance arrangements. 1...

  4. 48 CFR 1.109 - Statutory acquisition-related dollar thresholds-adjustment for inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-related dollar thresholds-adjustment for inflation. 1.109 Section 1.109 Federal Acquisition Regulations..., Issuance 1.109 Statutory acquisition-related dollar thresholds—adjustment for inflation. (a) 41 U.S.C. 431a... the FAR for inflation, except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section. This adjustment is...

  5. Reassessing the empirical relationship between the oil price and the dollar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coudert, Virginie; Mignon, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at reassessing the empirical relationship between the real price of oil and the U.S. dollar real effective exchange rate over the 1974–2015 period. We find that changes in both variables are now linked by a negative relationship, going from the dollar exchange rate to the real oil price. However, the same relationship is found positive when ending the sample in the mid-2000s, in line with the previous literature. To understand and investigate this evolution, we rely on a nonlinear, smooth transition regression model in which the oil price-dollar nexus depends on the dynamics followed by the U.S. currency. Our results show that the relationship is negative most of the times but turns positive when the dollar hits very high values, as in the early eighties. - Highlights: •We reassess the relationship between the real oil price and the dollar over the 1974–2015 period. •Changes in the two variables are linked by a negative relationship over the whole period. •The link between both variables is positive over the subsample ending in the mid-2000s. •We estimate a nonlinear model in which the oil price-dollar nexus depends on the evolution the dollar. •The relationship is negative most of the times, except when the dollar hits very high values.

  6. The challenge of teaching astronomy with 0 dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Rosa Maria; García, Beatriz

    2015-08-01

    The training courses on Astronomy are necessary for teachers in all the countries. Normally they are more necessary in developing countries that in other ones. The challenge is to do this work without expenses. NASE, Network for Astronomy School Education, organizes courses for teachers in service and future teachers practically free of charge. The host country only pays accommodation and meals of NASE visitors. But the most interesting aspect of NASE is that presents a lot of activities to carry out in the classroom by 0 dollars using “learning by doing” methodology. After more than 60 courses in about 20 countries we can show several examples of materials generated by participants themselves during the course. With this materials they can make observations and reasoning about their observations in order to understand the astronomy concepts which appear in the curricula of different levels of formal education.Waste materials, cardboard or paper, pieces of string or wire, a stick or a CD, some milk or a drop of oil can be very useful to produce a spectrograph, a photometer, a sundial, a goniometer or a quadrant. The imagination and creativity can replace funding which are difficult to achieve in secondary and primary schools in small towns or villages. NASE is a solution for teachers. which discover that they can explain, in a simple way, complex concepts using models and observations that do not need any money!Participants in NASE courses receive instructions in order to work with NASE materials and after the courses they can find (and create) complementary materials at the NASE website, in order to continue working in the same way. We receive some contributions from some of them that we publish at our web.http:www.naseprogram.org

  7. How can the government buy more with less dollars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heipt, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Significant reductions in the federal budget can be expected over the next several years and many major programs are in danger of being cut back or canceled. This presentation addresses how the cutbacks and cancellations can be mitigated by introducing efficiencies into the acquisition system that will result in cutbacks and cancellations of unnecessary procedures instead of major programs. The presentation is directed toward the acquisition process and how it might be revamped to accommodate more buying power with less dollars. It addresses why more regulation, legislation, and blue ribbon panels won't solve the problems and urges that the process develop a reward system for those who return common sense to the process and refuse to implement nonsensical requirements just because the regulation requires it. The material presented is applicable to both government and commercial procurement systems, particularly when the system has been in place over a long period of time. How the systems themselves have transcended the underlying requirement for the procurement organization is addressed. The evaluation process used in acquiring state of the art technology and the government's practice of requiring best and final offers, often more than once, is analyzed. In addition, how industry's participation in the preparation of statements of work and specifications can result in real savings by limiting the buyer's role to addressing what his requirements are vis a vis how the contractor has to design and manufacture it. Beyond the initial acquisition, there are tremendous costs occasioned by the systems' contract administration and audit requirements. The cost of industry's responding to these requirements is discussed together with the rippling effect upon industry every time a new requirement is implemented

  8. The Role of Private Information in Short-term Fluctuations of Won/Dollar Exchange Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haesik Park

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have examined the short-run movement of the won/dollar exchange rate using information obtained from the inter-bank market in Korea. First, we constructed the hourly measure of excess demand for dollar and used it as a proxy for the trading pattern of market participants. To construct this time series, we relied on the bid and ask won/dollar exchange rates collected on the two-minute interval. We then estimated the structural VAR model consisting of the actually observed won/dollar exchange rate and the proxied trading pattern of market participants to see if private information, as opposed to public information, is relevant for explaining the hourly movement of the won/dollar exchange rate. Private information is found to account for more 30% of hourly variations of the won/dollar exchange rate. Next, we constructed the trading pattern of market participants on a daily basis using the same data set employed to build the hourly measure. We then examined whether private information is useful for predicting the daily won/dollar exchange rate movement. We found that the forecast model using both private and public information reduces out-of-sample forecast errors of an alternative model relying only on public information by 20~25%. Also, the out-of-sample forecast of the model using both private and public information is found to be more accurate than the random walk model.

  9. LE BINOME EURO-DOLLAR SOUS LE SIGNE DE L’INCERTITUDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bal

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Will the Dollar remain the dominant international currency (mainly as a reserve currency? To answer this question, the paper presents in the first part the opinions of the most prominent experts concerning the determinant factors of an international currency status, in the two sphere of utilization: public and private. The most important are: the magnitude of the economies of emission, the externalities of network, the liquidity of their financial market, the confidence in their stability. Then there follows the evaluations concerning the two international currencies, Dollar and Euro, from these perspectives. Finally, the paper evaluates their role as measure of value, instrument of reserve and instrument of payment in the international economic relations. In the second part, the paper evaluates the recent tendencies of the exchange rate Euro/Dollar (2006-2008 from the point of view of fundamentals. After a period of depreciation, from the middle of the year 2008 until now, the dollar marked an unexpected appreciation towards the euro. But, the global financial and economic crisis increases the incertitude concerning the evolution of the exchange rate euro/dollar. Undoubtedly the two currencies will remain the prominent international currencies and the dollar the main reserve currency. Finally the paper presents Mundell’s proposal of stabilization of the binomial euro/dollar.

  10. China and the relationship between the oil price and the dollar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benassy-Quere, Agnes; Mignon, Valerie; Penot, Alexis

    2007-01-01

    We study cointegration and causality between the real price of oil and the real price of the dollar over the 1974-2004 period. Our results suggest that a 10% rise in the oil price coincides with a 4.3% appreciation of the dollar in the long run, and that the causality runs from oil to the dollar. Through the development of a theoretical model, we then investigate possible reasons why this relationship could be reversed in the future due to the emergence of China as a major player on both the oil and the foreign exchange markets

  11. Hanford general employee training - A million dollar cost beneficial program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, P.R.

    1991-02-01

    In January 1990, Westinghouse Hanford Company implemented an interactive videodisc training program entitled Hanford General Employee Training. Covering all Institute of Nuclear Power Operations general employee training objectives, training mandated by US Department of Energy orders, and training prescribed by internal Westinghouse Hanford Company policies, Hanford General Employee Training presents and manages engaging training programs individually tailored to each of the 9,000 employees. Development costs for a sophisticated program such as Hanford General Employee Training were high compared to similar costs for developing ''equivalent'' traditional training. Hardware ($500,000) and labor costs ($400,000) totaled $900,000. Annual maintenance costs, equipment plus labor, are totalling about $200,000. On the benefit side, by consolidating some 17 previous Westinghouse Hanford Company courses and more effectively managing the instructional process, Hanford General Employee Training reduced the average student training time from over 11 hours to just under 4 hours. For 9,000 employees, the computed net annual savings exceeds $1.3 million. 2 refs

  12. Biomass as feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: The technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, Robert D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wright, Lynn L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Turhollow, Anthony F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Graham, Robin L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stokes, Bryce J. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (United States); Erbach, Donald C. [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30% or more of the country's present petroleum consumption.

  13. Institutionalisation of Mediation for Dispute Resolution in the Field of Social Bankruptcy of Citizens in Russia or how to prevent losses of 300 billions rubles of Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdyev Marat Aleksandrovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The important problem of modern Russia is poverty of about 22,1 billions citizens. because of illegal action or practice of lending money at unreasonably high rates of interest. About 4,2 billions citizens of Russian are social bankrupts. There are many obstacles for human right in court. Total budget for legal expenses may estimates over than 1,5-2 average annual income of household. Therefore author considers mediation as alternative procedure for dispute resolution between creditors and debtors. Some amendment of law desirable for institutionalization of mediation practice in this types conflicts such as mandatory mediation and so on.

  14. Transportation Infrastructure: Managing the Costs of Large-Dollar Highway Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) was requested to assess the effectiveness of the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA's) oversight of the costs of large-dollar highway and bridge projects (those with a total estimated cost of over $100 million)...

  15. Faith community nursing demonstrates good stewardship of community benefit dollars through cost savings and cost avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ameldia R; Coppola, Patricia; Giacona, Marian; Petriches, Anne; Stockwell, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Health systems seeking responsible stewardship of community benefit dollars supporting Faith Community Nursing Networks require demonstration of positive measurable health outcomes. Faith Community Nurses (FCNs) answer the call for measurable outcomes by documenting cost savings and cost avoidances to families, communities, and health systems associated with their interventions. Using a spreadsheet tool based on Medicare reimbursements and diagnostic-related groupings, 3 networks of FCNs have together shown more than 600 000 (for calendar year 2008) healthcare dollars saved by avoidance of unnecessary acute care visits and extended care placements. The cost-benefit ratio of support dollars to cost savings and cost avoidance demonstrates that support of FCNs is good stewardship of community benefit dollars.

  16. The U.S. Trade Deficit, The Dollar, and The Price of Oil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, James K

    2008-01-01

    .... In mid-2008 as the price of oil rose to unprecedented heights and then dropped sharply, the international exchange value of the dollar fell and then rose relative to a broad basket of currencies...

  17. Moral Hazard of Ukraine’s External Debt Increase under Economy Dollarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoryana Lutsyshyn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides overview of Ukraine's international debt currency structure, urgency thereof as well as mutual interaction with internal dollarization processes in the country. Determinative analysis of «moral hazard» definition has been conducted.

  18. Fiscal 1988 draft budget for nuclear energy up 1.9% to yen 369 billion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    AT the cabinet meeting held on December 28, the government approved the fiscal 1988 draft budget, with a general account of yen 56.6 trillion. The nuclear energy related budget is yen 181.124 billion from the general account and yen 186.098 billion from the special account for power sources development, totalling yen 367.222 billion, up 1.9% on the previous year. The largest appropriation goes to the Science and Technology Agency (STA) totaling yen 271 billion. The STA is promoting safety studies and R and D for extensive nuclear energy utilization but the budget shows a 0.7% decrease from the previous year, reflecting completion of the construction of JT-60, which is one of the Agency's major projects. MITI, with its budget of yen 91 billion will carry on policies related to the promotion of commercial nuclear power program as well as support for the industrialization program of the nuclear fuel cycle. Nuclear related budget of Ministry of Foreign Affairs is yen 2.8 billion, consisting mainly of IAEA subscriptions and contributions and OECD/NEA subscriptions. Besides these three government agencies, a large sum of yen 1.2 billion is allocated to the Okinawa Development Agency for the prevention and elimination of melon-flies in Kume Island and islands around Okinawa main island. The draft government budget will be submitted to the ordinary session of the Diet when it resumes towards the end of January. After deliberation in the Budget Committees of the House of Representatives and the House of Councilors, the draft budget will be put to the vote in the plenary session. Assuming that all proceeds smoothly, the budget is expected to be approved by the end of March without any major revision. (author)

  19. Prediction of the dollar to the ruble rate. A system-theoretic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodachev, Sergey M.

    2017-07-01

    Proposed a simple state-space model of dollar rate formation based on changes in oil prices and some mechanisms of money transfer between monetary and stock markets. Comparison of predictions by means of input-output model and state-space model is made. It concludes that with proper use of statistical data (Kalman filter) the second approach provides more adequate predictions of the dollar rate.

  20. The Impact of Financial Dollarization on Inflation Targeting: Empirical Evidence from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabris Nikola

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Serbia has applied inflation targeting against the backdrop of financial dollarization for almost a decade. In such circumstances, efficiency of monetary policy instruments decreases and begs the question of efficiency of the monetary regime efficiency issue. Although there is some empirical testing of financial dollarization effects on monetary policy performance in the inflation targeting regime for some countries, such studies for Serbia mostly cover periods of early application of the regime.

  1. Investigating the Impact of Dollarization on Economic Growth: A Case of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby NGAMANYA MUNHUPEDZI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of dollarization on business in Zimbabwe focusing on economic indicators such as inflation rate, GDP, employment and ease of doing business during the period 2009-2015. Zimbabwe experienced a very difficult economic phase characterised by hyperinflation, negative economic growth, unavailability of basic commodities and negative economic growth rates during the period 1998-2008. In 2009 the country adopted a multi-currency system whereby the Zimbabwean dollar was in circulation alongside various other currencies, with the United States Dollar and the South African Rand being the dominant ones. There has been general speculation that Zimbabwe’s economic problems are due to dollarization. Through analysing data from interviews and secondary sources, the research established that dollarization brought about stability in the economy, arrested inflation, and caused a marginal increase in GDP. However, the response of the employment rate was independent of the dollarization and may be attributed to other factors such as Economic Structural Adjustment Programme (ESAP in 1992, the global economic crisis in 2008 and the absence of reliable data.

  2. U.S. Geological Survey—Energy and wildlife research annual report for 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mona

    2017-09-08

    IntroductionTerrestrial and aquatic ecosystems provide valuable services to humans and are a source of clean water, energy, raw materials, and productive soils. The Nation’s food supply is more secure because of wildlife. For example, native pollinators enhance agricultural crops, and insect-eating bats provide pest control services worth billions of dollars to farmers annually. Fish and wildlife are also vital to a vibrant outdoor recreation and tourism industry. Recreational activities, such as hunting, shooting, boating, and angling, generated \\$1.1 billion in excise taxes paid to State wildlife agencies in 2017. National parks, wildlife refuges, and monuments accounted for $35 billion in economic output and 318,000 jobs nationwide in 2016. Additional economic benefits are generated from the use and enjoyment of wildlife in State-owned lands and waters.Although the United States is rich in natural resources, human activity continues to place new pressures on fish and wildlife and the habitats they rely on. The United States became the world’s top producer of petroleum and natural gas products in 2012, surpassing Russia’s natural gas production levels in 2009 and Saudi Arabia’s petroleum production in 2013. The U.S. Energy Information Administration projects that the demand for liquid fuel, natural gas, and renewable energy will show strong growth in the next 20 years. Wind energy has demonstrated consistent growth since 2007 with now more than 53,000 wind turbines contributing to power grids in 41 States, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Solar energy has seen rapid growth since 2013 and made up nearly one-third of the total electricity generation additions in 2016. Yet as our Nation works to advance energy security and sustain wildlife, some conflicts have surfaced. Impacts of an expanding energy infrastructure include fragmentation and loss of habitat as well as mortality of birds, bats, fish, and other animals from interactions with energy generation facilities

  3. Regional Feedstock Partnership Summary Report: Enabling the Billion-Ton Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Vance N. [South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States). North Central Sun Grant Center; Karlen, Douglas L. [Dept. of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Ames, IA (United States). National Lab. for Agriculture and the Environment; Lacey, Jeffrey A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Process Science and Technology Division

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Sun Grant Initiative established the Regional Feedstock Partnership (referred to as the Partnership) to address information gaps associated with enabling the vision of a sustainable, reliable, billion-ton U.S. bioenergy industry by the year 2030 (i.e., the Billion-Ton Vision). Over the past 7 years (2008–2014), the Partnership has been successful at advancing the biomass feedstock production industry in the United States, with notable accomplishments. The Billion-Ton Study identifies the technical potential to expand domestic biomass production to offset up to 30% of U.S. petroleum consumption, while continuing to meet demands for food, feed, fiber, and export. This study verifies for the biofuels and chemical industries that a real and substantial resource base could justify the significant investment needed to develop robust conversion technologies and commercial-scale facilities. DOE and the Sun Grant Initiative established the Partnership to demonstrate and validate the underlying assumptions underpinning the Billion-Ton Vision to supply a sustainable and reliable source of lignocellulosic feedstock to a large-scale bioenergy industry. This report discusses the accomplishments of the Partnership, with references to accompanying scientific publications. These accomplishments include advances in sustainable feedstock production, feedstock yield, yield stability and stand persistence, energy crop commercialization readiness, information transfer, assessment of the economic impacts of achieving the Billion-Ton Vision, and the impact of feedstock species and environment conditions on feedstock quality characteristics.

  4. Annual Report 2001; Aarsrapport 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This is the annual report 2001 for the TotalFinaElf oil company. This concern operates in more than 100 countries and covers all aspects of the energy industry, from oil- and gas exploration and production to refining and marketing of refined products and international trade with both unrefined and refined products. Through the Atofina division the concern is also a major player in the chemicals markets. The demonstrated reserves of TotalFinaElf has been calculated to more than ten billion barrels of oil equivalents. At a rate of 2.1 million barrels a day this ensures 14 years of production.

  5. 1.6 billion euros for nuclear research through the 'Horizon 2020' program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union Council has approved the budget for the future European program for research and innovation called 'Horizon 2020'. A global funding of 77 billion euros has been allocated to 'Horizon 2020' for the 2014 to 2020 years. The share for nuclear sciences will reach 1.6 billion euros and will break down as follows: 316 million euros for fundamental research on fission, 728 million euros for fundamental research on fusion (ITER not included) and 560 million euros for the research projects of the European Joint Research Center (JRC). (A.C.)

  6. Electron capture detection of sulphur gases in carbon dioxide at the parts-per-billion level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pick, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    A gas chromatograph with an electron capture detector has been used to determine sulphur gases in CO 2 at the parts-per-billion level, with particular application to the analysis of coolant from CO 2 cooled nuclear reactors. For COS, CS 2 , CH 3 SH, H 2 S and (CH 3 ) 2 S 2 the detector has a sensitivity comparable with the more commonly used flame photometric detector, but it is much less sensitive towards (CH 3 ) 2 S and thiophene. In addition, the paper describes a simple method for trapping sulphur gases which might enable detection of sub parts-per-billion levels of sulphur compounds. (Auth.)

  7. A Cautionary Analysis of a Billion Dollar Athletic Expenditure: The History of the Renovation of California Memorial Stadium and the Construction of the Barclay Simpson Student Athlete High Performance Center. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.3.17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, John

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a description and analysis of the history of the renovation of Memorial Stadium and the building of the Barclay Simpson Student Athlete High Performance Center (SAHPC) on the Berkeley campus, showing how incremental changes over time result in a much riskier and financially less viable project than originally anticipated. It…

  8. Dynamic linkages among the gold market, US dollar and crude oil market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Bin; Nie, He; Jiang, Yonghong

    2018-02-01

    This paper aims to examine the dynamic linkages among the gold market, US dollar and crude oil market. The analysis also delves more deeply into the effect of the global financial crisis on the short-term relationship. We use fractional cointegration to analyze the long-term memory feature of these volatility processes to investigate whether they are tied through a common long-term equilibrium. The DCC-MGARCH model is employed to investigate the time-varying long-term linkages among these markets. The Krystou-Labys non-linear asymmetric Granger causality method is used to examine the effect of the financial crisis. We find that (i) there is clearly a long-term dependence among these markets; (ii) the dynamic gold-oil relationship is always positive and the oil-dollar relationship is always negative; and (iii) after the crisis, we can observe evidence of a positive non-linear causal relationship from gold to US dollar and US dollar to crude oil, and a negative non-linear causal relationship from US dollar to gold. Investors who want to construct their optimal portfolios and policymakers who aim to make effective macroeconomic policies should take these findings into account.

  9. Community access networks: how to connect the next billion to the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community access networks: how to connect the next billion to the Internet ... services is a prerequisite to sustainable socio-economic development. ... It will provide case studies and formulate recommendations with respect to ... An IDRC delegation will join international delegates and city representatives at the ICLEI World ...

  10. Guangdong Aluminum to Raise RMB 3 billion for New Production Base in Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>On July 7, a loan signing ceremony was held between the Guangdong Aluminum Group, China Construction Bank, Hua Xia Bank and Guangzhou Bank Consortium. It is reported that these banks will provide Guangdong Aluminum Group with RMB 30 billion for an alu-minum oxide and supporting bauxite mining project in Guizhou.

  11. Readability of the web: a study on 1 billion web pages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heus, Marije; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    We have performed a readability study on more than 1 billion web pages. The Automated Readability Index was used to determine the average grade level required to easily comprehend a website. Some of the results are that a 16-year-old can easily understand 50% of the web and an 18-year old can easily

  12. Anhui Tongling Invests 1 Billion Yuan to Set up “Copper Industry Fund”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>On September 12, the signing ceremony for "Anhui Copper Industry Fund" set up by Anhui Tongling Development & Investment Group Co., Ltd. and Shanghai V. Stone Investment Management Co., Ltd. was held in Tongling. The fund is 1 billion yuan.

  13. Spatial variability in oceanic redox structure 1.8 billion years ago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulton, Simon W.; Fralick, Philip W.; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2010-01-01

    to reconstruct oceanic redox conditions from the 1.88- to 1.83-billion-year-old Animikie group from the Superior region, North America. We find that surface waters were oxygenated, whereas at mid-depths, anoxic and sulphidic (euxinic) conditions extended over 100 km from the palaeoshoreline. The spatial extent...

  14. Price of next big thing in physics: $6.7 billion

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The price of exploring inner space went up Thursday. The machine discusses in a news conference in Beijing, will be 20 miles long and would cost about $6.7 billion and 13'000 person-years of labor to be built. (1,5 page)

  15. Universities Report $1.8-Billion in Earnings on Inventions in 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Universities and their inventors earned more than $1.8-billion from commercializing their academic research in the 2011 fiscal year, collecting royalties from new breeds of wheat, from a new drug for the treatment of HIV, and from longstanding arrangements over enduring products like Gatorade. Northwestern University earned the most of any…

  16. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-07-06

    This product builds on previous efforts, namely the 2005 Billion-Ton Study (BTS) and the 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update (BT2).With each report, greater perspective is gained on the potential of biomass resources to contribute to a national energy strategy. Similarly, each successive report introduces new questions regarding commercialization challenges. BTS quantified the broad biophysical potential of biomass nationally, and BT2 elucidated the potential economic availability of these resources. These reports clearly established the potential availability of up to one billion tons of biomass resources nationally. However, many questions remain, including but not limited to crop yields, climate change impacts, logistical operations, and systems integration across production, harvest, and conversion. The present report aims to address many of these questions through empirically modeled energy crop yields, scenario analysis of resources delivered to biorefineries, and the addition of new feedstocks. Volume 2 of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report is expected to be released by the end of 2016. It seeks to evaluate environmental sustainability indicators of select scenarios from volume 1 and potential climate change impacts on future supplies.

  17. U of M seeking $1.1 billion in projects for Soudan Mine lab.

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The University of Minnesota is hoping that groundbreaking research underway at its labs at the Soudan Underground Mine near Tower will help secure up to $1.1 billion in the next 5 to 20 years to expand its work into particle physics (1 page).

  18. Syncrude annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Syncrude Canada Ltd. is the world's largest producer of custom made crude oil from the oil sands, and the largest single source of oil in Canada. This annual report claimed many outstanding achievements for 1994. A new production record resulted in higher revenue, lower unit operating costs, increased cash flow, improved productivity, and higher net income. With a focus on technology development and continuous improvement in operations, including environment, health and safety performance, operating results are projected to improve further. The formation of the Canadian Oil Sands Network for Research and Development (CONRAD) early in 1994 was a major step assuring maximum leverage from every dollar expended to realize this objective. Production of Syncrude Sweet Blend is expected to rise by over 10 million barrels to 81 million barrels a year at an average cash operating expenditure of Can$12.00/ barrel by the year 2000. The Corporation's business plans include capital investments for major projects, such as the North Mine hydrotransport, product quality enhancements, and upgrading facilities expansion. 4 tabs., 1 fig

  19. Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jiang; Zhou Nan; Levine, Mark; Fridley, David

    2008-01-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20% from 2005 to 2010 [National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), 2006. Overview of the 11th Five Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development. NDRC, Beijing]. This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20% energy-intensity target also translates into an annual reduction of over 1.5 billion tons of CO 2 by 2010, making the Chinese effort one of the most significant carbon mitigation efforts in the world today. While it is still too early to tell whether China will achieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend in energy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options toward meeting the 20% target using a detailed end-use energy model

  20. Land-Use Change and the Billion Ton 2016 Resource Assessment: Understanding the Effects of Land Management on Environmental Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, K. L.; Eaton, L. M.; Efroymson, R.; Davis, M. R.; Dunn, J.; Langholtz, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    The federal government, led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), quantified potential U.S. biomass resources for expanded production of renewable energy and bioproducts in the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy (BT16) (DOE 2016). Volume 1 of the report provides analysis of projected supplies from 2015 to2040. Volume 2 (forthcoming) evaluates changes in environmental indicators for water quality and quantity, carbon, air quality, and biodiversity associated with production scenarios in BT16 volume 1. This presentation will review land-use allocations under the projected biomass production scenarios and the changes in land management that are implied, including drivers of direct and indirect LUC. National and global concerns such as deforestation and displacement of food production are addressed. The choice of reference scenario, input parameters and constraints (e.g., regarding land classes, availability, and productivity) drive LUC results in any model simulation and are reviewed to put BT16 impacts into context. The principal LUC implied in BT16 supply scenarios involves the transition of 25-to-47 million acres (net) from annual crops in 2015 baseline to perennial cover by 2040 under the base case and 3% yield growth case, respectively. We conclude that clear definitions of land parameters and effects are essential to assess LUC. A lack of consistency in parameters and outcomes of historic LUC analysis in the U.S. underscores the need for science-based approaches.

  1. Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Fridley, David

    2007-07-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20% from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20% energy intensity target also translates into an annual reduction of over 1.5 billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making the Chinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in the world today. While it is still too early to tell whether China will achieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend in energy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options toward meeting the 20% target using a detailed end-use energy model.

  2. The Measurement of Co-Circulation of Currencies and Dollarization in the Republic of Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakob Zoryan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to estimate the actual (de facto level of dollarization in Armenia. “Co-circulation” involves the regular use of two or more currencies within an economy. The existence of an unknown amount of foreign currency in circulation makes the outcome of domestic monetary policy uncertain. The volume of foreign currency deposits is easily obtained from the official statistics. However, it is very hard to determine the stock of foreign currency in circulation. The effective money supply may be much larger than the domestic money supply and is subject to behavioral responses which are very different than the movements of the presently measured money supply. The purpose of this paper is to assess the level of dollarization, that is, to evaluate the size and/or proportion of foreign currency in the total money stock of Armenia as a highly dollarized country.

  3. The Consequences of a Strong Depreciation of the U.S. Dollar on Agricultural Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Charlebois, Pierre; Hamann, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    World prices for basic food commodities increased significantly in 2007-2008, triggering a worldwide food crisis. Among all the factors that contributed to the rise in agricultural prices in 2008, the depreciation of the U.S. dollar relative to other major currencies cannot be overlooked. The currencies of the major players in agricultural markets have shown strong appreciation from 2002 to 2008. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of a strong depreciation of the U.S. dollar ...

  4. Interactive (statistical) visualisation and exploration of a billion objects with vaex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breddels, M. A.

    2017-06-01

    With new catalogues arriving such as the Gaia DR1, containing more than a billion objects, new methods of handling and visualizing these data volumes are needed. We show that by calculating statistics on a regular (N-dimensional) grid, visualizations of a billion objects can be done within a second on a modern desktop computer. This is achieved using memory mapping of hdf5 files together with a simple binning algorithm, which are part of a Python library called vaex. This enables efficient exploration or large datasets interactively, making science exploration of large catalogues feasible. Vaex is a Python library and an application, which allows for interactive exploration and visualization. The motivation for developing vaex is the catalogue of the Gaia satellite, however, vaex can also be used on SPH or N-body simulations, any other (future) catalogues such as SDSS, Pan-STARRS, LSST, etc. or other tabular data. The homepage for vaex is http://vaex.astro.rug.nl.

  5. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from Volume 1 (Volume 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langholtz, M. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, K. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stokes, B. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-13

    On behalf of all the authors and contributors, it is a great privilege to present the 2016 Billion-Ton Report (BT16), volume 2: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from volume 1. This report represents the culmination of several years of collaborative effort among national laboratories, government agencies, academic institutions, and industry. BT16 was developed to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s efforts towards national goals of energy security and associated quality of life.

  6. Dongfeng has fixed a sales goal of 80 billion yuan supported by Nissan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    <正> The Nissan and Dongfeng Group-based Dongfeng Automobile Co., Ltd, which has the largest investment in the history of the industry, opened officially for business on July 1. With a total investment of USD 2 billion and 70,000 employees, the company is the first joint venture in China which plans a full range of truck, light commercial and passenger vehicles. According to president Nakamura, the company has established a management

  7. Galaxy growth in a massive halo in the first billion years of cosmic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrone, D. P.; Spilker, J. S.; Hayward, C. C.; Vieira, J. D.; Aravena, M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M. B.; Béthermin, M.; Brodwin, M.; Bothwell, M. S.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chapman, S. C.; Chen, Chian-Chou; Crawford, T. M.; Cunningham, D. J. M.; De Breuck, C.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Greve, T. R.; Hezaveh, Y. D.; Lacaille, K.; Litke, K. C.; Lower, S.; Ma, J.; Malkan, M.; Miller, T. B.; Morningstar, W. R.; Murphy, E. J.; Narayanan, D.; Phadke, K. A.; Rotermund, K. M.; Sreevani, J.; Stalder, B.; Stark, A. A.; Strandet, M. L.; Tang, M.; Weiß, A.

    2018-01-01

    According to the current understanding of cosmic structure formation, the precursors of the most massive structures in the Universe began to form shortly after the Big Bang, in regions corresponding to the largest fluctuations in the cosmic density field. Observing these structures during their period of active growth and assembly—the first few hundred million years of the Universe—is challenging because it requires surveys that are sensitive enough to detect the distant galaxies that act as signposts for these structures and wide enough to capture the rarest objects. As a result, very few such objects have been detected so far. Here we report observations of a far-infrared-luminous object at redshift 6.900 (less than 800 million years after the Big Bang) that was discovered in a wide-field survey. High-resolution imaging shows it to be a pair of extremely massive star-forming galaxies. The larger is forming stars at a rate of 2,900 solar masses per year, contains 270 billion solar masses of gas and 2.5 billion solar masses of dust, and is more massive than any other known object at a redshift of more than 6. Its rapid star formation is probably triggered by its companion galaxy at a projected separation of 8 kiloparsecs. This merging companion hosts 35 billion solar masses of stars and has a star-formation rate of 540 solar masses per year, but has an order of magnitude less gas and dust than its neighbour and physical conditions akin to those observed in lower-metallicity galaxies in the nearby Universe. These objects suggest the presence of a dark-matter halo with a mass of more than 100 billion solar masses, making it among the rarest dark-matter haloes that should exist in the Universe at this epoch.

  8. A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jens; Ma, Chung-Pei; McConnell, Nicholas J; Greene, Jenny E; Blakeslee, John P; Janish, Ryan

    2016-04-21

    Quasars are associated with and powered by the accretion of material onto massive black holes; the detection of highly luminous quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 suggests that black holes of up to ten billion solar masses already existed 13 billion years ago. Two possible present-day 'dormant' descendants of this population of 'active' black holes have been found in the galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 at the centres of the Leo and Coma galaxy clusters, which together form the central region of the Great Wall--the largest local structure of galaxies. The most luminous quasars, however, are not confined to such high-density regions of the early Universe; yet dormant black holes of this high mass have not yet been found outside of modern-day rich clusters. Here we report observations of the stellar velocity distribution in the galaxy NGC 1600--a relatively isolated elliptical galaxy near the centre of a galaxy group at a distance of 64 megaparsecs from Earth. We use orbit superposition models to determine that the black hole at the centre of NGC 1600 has a mass of 17 billion solar masses. The spatial distribution of stars near the centre of NGC 1600 is rather diffuse. We find that the region of depleted stellar density in the cores of massive elliptical galaxies extends over the same radius as the gravitational sphere of influence of the central black holes, and interpret this as the dynamical imprint of the black holes.

  9. BUILDING A BILLION SPATIO-TEMPORAL OBJECT SEARCH AND VISUALIZATION PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kakkar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With funding from the Sloan Foundation and Harvard Dataverse, the Harvard Center for Geographic Analysis (CGA has developed a prototype spatio-temporal visualization platform called the Billion Object Platform or BOP. The goal of the project is to lower barriers for scholars who wish to access large, streaming, spatio-temporal datasets. The BOP is now loaded with the latest billion geo-tweets, and is fed a real-time stream of about 1 million tweets per day. The geo-tweets are enriched with sentiment and census/admin boundary codes when they enter the system. The system is open source and is currently hosted on Massachusetts Open Cloud (MOC, an OpenStack environment with all components deployed in Docker orchestrated by Kontena. This paper will provide an overview of the BOP architecture, which is built on an open source stack consisting of Apache Lucene, Solr, Kafka, Zookeeper, Swagger, scikit-learn, OpenLayers, and AngularJS. The paper will further discuss the approach used for harvesting, enriching, streaming, storing, indexing, visualizing and querying a billion streaming geo-tweets.

  10. Building a Billion Spatio-Temporal Object Search and Visualization Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, D.; Lewis, B.

    2017-10-01

    With funding from the Sloan Foundation and Harvard Dataverse, the Harvard Center for Geographic Analysis (CGA) has developed a prototype spatio-temporal visualization platform called the Billion Object Platform or BOP. The goal of the project is to lower barriers for scholars who wish to access large, streaming, spatio-temporal datasets. The BOP is now loaded with the latest billion geo-tweets, and is fed a real-time stream of about 1 million tweets per day. The geo-tweets are enriched with sentiment and census/admin boundary codes when they enter the system. The system is open source and is currently hosted on Massachusetts Open Cloud (MOC), an OpenStack environment with all components deployed in Docker orchestrated by Kontena. This paper will provide an overview of the BOP architecture, which is built on an open source stack consisting of Apache Lucene, Solr, Kafka, Zookeeper, Swagger, scikit-learn, OpenLayers, and AngularJS. The paper will further discuss the approach used for harvesting, enriching, streaming, storing, indexing, visualizing and querying a billion streaming geo-tweets.

  11. Two ten-billion-solar-mass black holes at the centres of giant elliptical galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Nicholas J; Ma, Chung-Pei; Gebhardt, Karl; Wright, Shelley A; Murphy, Jeremy D; Lauer, Tod R; Graham, James R; Richstone, Douglas O

    2011-12-08

    Observational work conducted over the past few decades indicates that all massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres. Although the luminosities and brightness fluctuations of quasars in the early Universe suggest that some were powered by black holes with masses greater than 10 billion solar masses, the remnants of these objects have not been found in the nearby Universe. The giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 hosts the hitherto most massive known black hole, which has a mass of 6.3 billion solar masses. Here we report that NGC 3842, the brightest galaxy in a cluster at a distance from Earth of 98 megaparsecs, has a central black hole with a mass of 9.7 billion solar masses, and that a black hole of comparable or greater mass is present in NGC 4889, the brightest galaxy in the Coma cluster (at a distance of 103 megaparsecs). These two black holes are significantly more massive than predicted by linearly extrapolating the widely used correlations between black-hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion or bulge luminosity of the host galaxy. Although these correlations remain useful for predicting black-hole masses in less massive elliptical galaxies, our measurements suggest that different evolutionary processes influence the growth of the largest galaxies and their black holes.

  12. Suburb-to-suburb intercity travel: Energy, time and dollar expenditures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fels, M. F.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of adding suburb to terminal and terminal to suburb travel is examined. The energy consumed in entire trips was estimated. The total energy costs are compared with total travel times, and dollar costs to the traveler. Trips between origins in seven suburbs of Newark, New Jersey and destinations in two Washington, D. C. suburbs are analyzed.

  13. Nõrkushoogudes vaevelnud dollar hakkab kosuma / Lauri Matsulevitsh, Liis Kängsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matsulevitsh, Lauri

    2005-01-01

    Viimastel aastatel langustrendis püsinud USA dollar on näitamas tugevnemise märke. Vt. samas: Euroopas jäävad intressid stabiilseks; Bensiin võib kallineda järgmise nädala alguses; Tekstiilitöösturid soovivad nõrka dollarit; Kalatööstused rõõmustavad

  14. Dollar võib põhjustada ootamatuid arenguid / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2004-01-01

    USA dollari jätkuv odavnemine ja jooksevkonto puudujäägist ning eelarvedefitsiidist tingitud ebastabiilne majanduskasv võivad analüütikute hinnangul avaldada negatiivset mõju kogu maailma majandusele. Diagramm: Dollar aastaga kukkunud ligi viiendiku

  15. 26 CFR 1.472-8 - Dollar-value method of pricing LIFO inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... terms of total dollars rather than the quantity and price of specific goods as the unit of measurement... processes, and the maintenance of separate profit and loss records with respect to separate operations are... manufacturer or processor, a natural business unit ordinarily consists of the entire productive activity of the...

  16. Linkage between Ringgit exchange rate and U.S Dollar | Idalisa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaysia, the movement of its currency rate i.e. Ringgit as against to US dollar are unpredictable and unregulated. Therefore, this causes some difficulty to appreciate the movement of macroeconomic analysis and market surveillance purposes. In 1965, Chaos theory was introduced, and it focused on behaviour and ...

  17. Exchange-rate forecasts and asymmetric loss: empirical evidence for the yen/dollar exchange rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Pierdzioch; Rülke

    2012-01-01

    We used the yen/dollar exchange-rate forecasts of the Wall Street Journal (WSJ) poll to analyse whether exchange-rate forecasters have an asymmetric loss function. To this end, we applied an approach recently developed by Elliott et al. (2005). We found that only few forecasters seem to form...

  18. 26 CFR 1.985-3 - United States dollar approximate separate transactions method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...). For all purposes of subtitle A, this method of accounting must be used to compute the gross income... in section 989(a)) that has the dollar as its functional currency pursuant to § 1.985-1(b)(2). (2... currency (as defined in § 1.985-1(b)(2)(ii)(D)); (2) Making the adjustments necessary to conform such...

  19. Comment on 'A Forecasting Equation for the Canada-US Dollar Real Exchange Rate'

    OpenAIRE

    Kollmann, Robert

    1993-01-01

    This paper is a comment on the paper 'A Forecasting Equation for the Canada-US Dollar Exchange Rate' (Robert Amano and Simon van Norden, Bank of Canada). The comment was published in: The Exchange Rate and the Economy, Proceedings of 1992 Bank of Canada Conference; Bank of Canada, 1993, Ottawa (ISBN 0-660-15195-2), pp. 266-271.

  20. Exchange rate of the US dollar and the J curve: the case of oil exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefi, A.; Wirjanto, T.S.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the effects of changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar on the trade balances of three oil-exporting countries, namely Iran, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. An exchange rate pass-through model is applied to allow changes in the exchange rate of the dollar to affect prices of traded goods. Then, the impact of changes in prices on the quantities of imports and exports of these economies is estimated. The results suggest a partial exchange rate pass-through to these countries' import and export prices in terms of the US dollar. While the three countries raise the price of their primary export (namely crude oil) in response to a depreciation of the dollar, Saudi Arabia's long-run pricing strategy in securing a larger market share stands in contrast to that of the two other OPEC members. The sum of the estimated long-run price elasticities of demand for imports and exports is found to exceed unity for Iran and Venezuela, but less than unity for Saudi Arabia. (author)

  1. 48 CFR 201.109 - Statutory acquisition-related dollar thresholds-adjustment for inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory acquisition-related dollar thresholds-adjustment for inflation. 201.109 Section 201.109 Federal Acquisition...-adjustment for inflation. (d) A matrix showing the most recent escalation adjustments of statutory...

  2. Exchange rate of the US dollar and the J curve. The case of oil exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefi, Ayoub; Wirjanto, Tony S.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the effects of changes in the exchange rate of the US dollar on the trade balances of three oil-exporting countries, namely Iran, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. An exchange rate pass-through model is applied to allow changes in the exchange rate of the dollar to affect prices of traded goods. Then, the impact of changes in prices on the quantities of imports and exports of these economies is estimated. The results suggest a partial exchange rate pass-through to these countries' import and export prices in terms of the US dollar. While the three countries raise the price of their primary export (namely crude oil) in response to a depreciation of the dollar, Saudi Arabia's long-run pricing strategy in securing a larger market share stands in contrast to that of the two other OPEC members. The sum of the estimated long-run price elasticities of demand for imports and exports is found to exceed unity for Iran and Venezuela, but less than unity for Saudi Arabia

  3. Talking heads : the effects of ECB statements on the euro-dollar exchange rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, DJ; De Haan, J

    This paper studies the reaction of the conditional mean and volatility of the euro-dollar exchange rate to statements by European Central Bank and national central bank officials. We focus on comments on monetary policy and the external value of the euro. We find that the Bundesbank has dominated

  4. China's Exchange Rate Policy : The Case Against Abandoning the Dollar PEG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurenceson, J.; Qin, F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper critically evaluates the policy literature surrounding China's exchange rate regime.It first discusses several popularly raised contentions in relation to the dollar peg employed by China, which in fact are poorly grounded in evidence.These include notions that the RMB is clearly

  5. Balassa-Samuelson Effect in Won/Dollar and Won/Yen Exchange Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghwan Oh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines, using various models including a non-linear one, that the Balassa-Samuelson (BS effect can account for the persistence of deviations from PPP in the long-run movements of won/dollar and won/yen real exchange rates. In test for PPP hypothesis that incorporates the BS effect, using the generalized Johansen' cointegration method, it is found that a cointegration relationship exists between each of won/dollar and won/yen real exchange rate and the productivity variables of two countries. And in test for PPP hypothesis that incorporates other fundamentals such as cumulative current account balance, foreign exchange reserve, terms of trade as well as productivity differentials, using a behavioral equilibrium exchange rate approach, it is found that a cointegration relationship exists between each of won/dollar and won/yen real exchange rate and all of these fundamentals. However, the plus sign of the estimated coefficient of the productivity differentials variable, which means that domestic productivity improvement produces increase in each of won/dollar and won/yen real exchange rate is not coincident with the result that the BS effect expects theoretically. Finally, in test for PPP hypothesis that incorporates the BS effect, using a non-linear STAR model, it is found that the adjustment process in case of won/dollar real exchange rate from the long-run equilibrium level can be adequately explained by a non-linear LSTAR model. But, the evidence of diagnostic statistics, which shows the existence of autocorrelation of the residuals in most of lags, might suggest the inadequacy of LSTAR model specification.

  6. Areva excellent business volume: backlog as of december 31, 2008: + 21.1% to 48.2 billion euros. 2008 revenue: + 10.4% to 13.2 billion euros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    AREVA's backlog stood at 48.2 billion euros as of December 31, 2008, for 21.1% growth year-on-year, including 21.8% growth in Nuclear and 16.5% growth in Transmission and Distribution. The Nuclear backlog came to 42.5 billion euros at December 31, 2008. The Transmission and Distribution backlog came to 5.7 billion euros at year-end. The group recognized revenue of 13.2 billion euros in 2008, for year-on-year growth of 10.4% (+9.8% like-for-like). Revenue outside France was up 10.5% to 9.5 billion euros, representing 72% of total revenue. Revenue was up 6.5% in the Nuclear businesses (up 6.3% LFL), with strong performance in the Reactors and Services division (+10.9% LFL) and the Front End division (+7.2% LFL). The Transmission and Distribution division recorded growth of 17% (+15.8% LFL). Revenue for the fourth quarter of 2008 rose to 4.1 billion euros, up 5.2% (+1.6% LFL) from that of the fourth quarter of 2007. Revenue for the Front End division rose to 3.363 billion euros in 2008, up 7.1% over 2007 (+7.2% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 53 million euros. Revenue for the Reactors and Services division rose to 3.037 billion euros, up 11.8% over 2007 (+10.9% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 47 million euros. Revenue for the Back End division came to 1.692 billion euros, a drop of 2.7% (-2.5% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 3.5 million euros. Revenue for the Transmission and Distribution division rose to 5.065 billion euros in 2008, up 17.0% (+15.8% LFL)

  7. SKB annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This is the annual report on the activities of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB. It contains in part 1 an overview of SKB activities in different fields. Part 2 gives a description of the research and development work on nuclear waste disposal performed during 1992. Lectures and publications during 1992 as well as reports issued in the SKB technical report series are listed in part 4. Part 5 contains the summaries of all technical reports issued during 1992. SKB is the owner of CLAB, the Central Facility for Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel, located at Oskarshamn. CLAB was taken into operation in July 1985 and to the end of 1992 in total 1684 tonnes of spent fuel (measured as uranium) has been received. Transportation from the nuclear site to CLAB is made by a special ship, M/S Sigyn. At Forsmark the final repository for Radioactive Waste -SFR- was taken in operation in April 1988. At the end of 1992 a total of 11000 m 3 of waste have been deposited in SFR. The total cost for R and D during 1992 was 192.3 MSEK of which 24.8 MSEK came from participants outside Sweden. Some of the main areas for SKB research are: groundwater movements, bedrock stability, groundwater chemistry and nuclide migration, method and instruments for in situ characterization of crystalline bedrock, characterization and leaching of spent nuclear fuel, properties of bentonite for buffer, backfilling and sealing, radionuclide transport in biosphere and dose evaluations, development of performance and safety assessment methodology and assessment models, construction of an underground research laboratory. Cost calculations for the total nuclear waste management system, including decommissioning of all reactors, are updated annually. The total cost is estimated to 55 billion SEK

  8. 2016 Billion-ton report: Advancing domestic resources for a thriving bioeconomy, Volume 1: Economic availability of feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.H. Langholtz; B.J. Stokes; L.M. Eaton

    2016-01-01

    This product builds on previous efforts, namely the 2005 Billion-Ton Study (BTS) and the 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update (BT2).With each report, greater perspective is gained on the potential of biomass resources to contribute to a national energy strategy. Similarly, each successive report introduces new questions regarding commercialization challenges. BTS quantified...

  9. Nexen 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report contains financial information from Nexen Inc., a Calgary-based global energy and chemicals company. A review of strategies and operations was also provided, including details of new exploration and plans for growth development in Canada and internationally. Growth regions included the Athabasca oil sands; Gulf of Mexico, Middle East, offshore West Africa and the North Sea. Nexen share prices at the end of the fourth quarter rested at $58.35, up from $47.03 in 2003. Quarterly dividends increased to $0.10 per share. Net sales for 2004 were $3,176 million compared to $2,844 million in 2003. Cash flow increased 8 per cent from 2003 to $1.9 billion. The report lists major achievements of 2004. Among the achievements were the acquisition of assets in the UK North Sea and the development of the Long Lake Project. New investments in 2004 included $69 million in Offshore West Africa, $175 million in Canada with $148 million in maturing Canadian core assets. Legal proceedings pending against the company were provided. This annual report includes an auditor's report of the company's energy resource activities. An operations review was also presented along with consolidated financial statements, a summarized balance sheet of assets, liabilities/surplus and net assets, and common share information. Revenue and expenditure statements were summarized by source. A summary of government and environmental regulations affecting business was also provided. tabs., figs

  10. 75 FR 62413 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; HUD-Owned Real Estate-Dollar Home...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5380-N-38] Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; HUD- Owned Real Estate--Dollar Home Sales Program AGENCY: Office of... information: Title of Proposal: HUD-Owned Real Estate--Dollar Home Sales Program. OMB Control Number, if...

  11. 26 CFR 1.985-2 - Election to use the United States dollar as the functional currency of a QBU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... functional currency of a QBU. 1.985-2 Section 1.985-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Election to use the United States dollar as the functional currency of a QBU. (a) Background and scope—(1... currency for taxable years beginning on or before August 24, 1994. An election to use a dollar functional...

  12. 77 FR 6865 - Pricing for 2012 Infantry Soldier Silver Dollar and 2012 Star-Spangled Banner Commemorative Coin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2012 Infantry Soldier Silver Dollar and... Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing adjusted pricing for the 2012...-Spangled Banner Bicentennial Silver N/A 53.95 Dollar Set The introductory pricing period for the 2012...

  13. 38 CFR 3.405 - Filipino veterans and their survivors; benefits at the full-dollar rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filipino veterans and... Compensation Effective Dates § 3.405 Filipino veterans and their survivors; benefits at the full-dollar rate... compensation at full-dollar rates to certain Filipino veterans and their survivors, are considered liberalizing...

  14. 1999 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    Numac is one of Canada's top 25 oil and gas producing companies, exploring, developing and producing crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids in Western Canada. During 1999, Numac increased its average daily production from 25,000 BOE/day in the first quarter to 29,000 BOE/day in the fourth quarter, while reducing unit operating, general and administrative and interest costs by more than one dollar per barrel to $6.70 per BOE, a reduction of 14 per cent compared to 1998. Cash flow totalled $137.7 million, or $1.44 per share, a substantial 76 per cent improvement over the previous year. The company had net earnings of $40.4 million, which represents a 20 per cent return on equity. Long-term debt was reduced to $154.4 million at year end, with no further off-balance sheet debt. Following completion of a major non-core property divestiture program, the number of working interest wells was reduced by two thirds to 1,300 wells from 3,900 wells. In 2000, the company intends to evaluate substantial undeveloped land blocks acquired during 1999 by drilling, believing that its bread and butter development and exploitation program in core areas can provide consistent and profitable growth and reach its key objective of 12 per cent after-tax rate of return on capital projects. Approximately $145 million is earmarked for exploration and development , split equally among Numac's three core areas in Alberta. The annual report provides a detailed review of operations, management's discussion and analysis of results, consolidated financial statements and relevant supplementary information. A summary review of operations and finances covering the five year period from 1995 to 1999 is also included

  15. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Annual Report reviews the results of the Agency's programme according to the three 'pillars' of technology, safety and verification. The main part of the report, starting on page 9, generally follows the programme structure as it applied in 2003. The introductory chapter, seeks to provide a thematic analysis, based on the three pillars, of the Agency's activities within the overall context of notable developments during the year. Additional information on specific issues can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review and Technical Co-operation Report. This material is also available on the Agency's WorldAtom web site (http://www.iaea.org/Worldatom/Documents/Anrep/Anrep2003/). All sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The topics covered in the chapter related to Technology are: Nuclear Power; Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Material Technologies; Analysis for Sustainable Energy Development; Nuclear Science; Food and Agriculture; Human Health; Water Resources; Protection of the Marine and Terrestrial Environments; Physical and Chemical Applications. Topics related to safety discussed in this report are: Safety of Nuclear Installations; Radiation Safety; Management of Radioactive Waste; Security of Material. Topics related to Verification are Safeguards and Verification in Iraq Pursuant to UNSC Resolutions. A separate chapter is devoted to Management of Technical Cooperation for Development

  16. 1982 Annual Energy Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    Total energy consumption in the United States equaled 70.9 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) in 1982, a decline of 4.1% compared to 1981. Depressed economic activity was a major factor in reducing total energy demand. However, conservation also played a role as energy consumption per dollar of GNP continued to fall. Most of the decline in energy use involved petroleum and natural gas. Reduced petroleum demand translated into a 21.7% reduction in net petroleum imports. Natural gas demand and production fell, prompted by reduced economic activity and a substantial increase in prices. Crude oil prices fell for the first time in more than a decade. Weakened market conditions adversely affected the rate of domestic oil and gas exploration and development activities. Nonetheless, domestic crude oil production rose 1.2%. International activities were highlighted by a decline in crude oil production, especially by members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), a decrease in crude oil prices, and a substantial increase in electricity production by nuclear-powered utility plants in non-Communist countries. Energy production in the United States in 1982 remained essentially unchanged from that of 1981, as small gains in hydroelectric power and nuclear power production were offset by losses in natural gas production. For the third straight year, energy consumption in the United States declined. Whereas declines in 1980 and 1981 resulted primarily from consumer response to higher prices and conservation, the 1982 decline reflected primarily an economic slowdown, especially in industry. Annual per capita consumption fell to 306 million Btu, the lowest level since 1967. Changes in energy prices in 1982 were mixed. Whereas most petroleum prices declined, prices of natural gas, coal, and electricity rose

  17. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Report reviews the results of the Agency's programme according to the three 'pillars' of technology, safety and verification. The main part of the report, starting on page 13, generally follows the programme structure as it applied in 2005. The introductory chapter, 'The Year in Review', seeks to provide a thematic analysis, based on the three pillars, of the Agency's activities within the overall context of notable developments during the year. Information on specific issues can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review and Technical Cooperation Report. For the convenience of readers, these documents are available on the CD-ROM attached to the inside back cover of this report. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is also provided on the attached CD-ROM, and is also available on the Agency?s iaea.org web site (http://www.iaea.org/Worldatom/Documents/Anrep/Anrep2005/). All sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The topics covered in the chapter related to Technology are: Nuclear Power; Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Technologies; Capacity Building and Nuclear Knowledge Maintenance for Sustainable Energy Development; Nuclear Science; Food and Agriculture; Human Health; Water Resources; Protection of the Marine and Terrestrial Environment; Physical and Chemical Applications. Topics related to Safety and Security discussed in this report are: Safety of Nuclear Installations; Radiation and Transport Safety; Management of Radioactive Waste; Nuclear Security. Topics related to Verification are Safeguards and Verification in Iraq Pursuant to UNSC Resolutions. A separate

  18. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Annual Report reviews the results of the Agency's programme according to the three 'pillars' of technology, safety and verification. The main part of the report, starting on page 9, generally follows the programme structure as it applied in 2003. The introductory chapter, seeks to provide a thematic analysis, based on the three pillars, of the Agency's activities within the overall context of notable developments during the year. Additional information on specific issues can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review and Technical Co-operation Report. This material is also available on the Agency's WorldAtom web site http://www.iaea.org/Worldatom/Documents/Anrep/Anrep2003/). All sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The topics covered in the chapter related to Technology are: Nuclear Power; Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Material Technologies; Analysis for Sustainable Energy Development; Nuclear Science; Food and Agriculture; Human Health; Water Resources; Protection of the Marine and Terrestrial Environments; Physical and Chemical Applications. Topics related to safety discussed in this report are: Safety of Nuclear Installations; Radiation Safety; Management of Radioactive Waste; Security of Material. Topics related to Verification are Safeguards and Verification in Iraq Pursuant to UNSC Resolutions. A separate chapter is devoted to Management of Technical Cooperation for Development

  19. A field like today's? The strength of the geomagnetic field 1.1 billion years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprain, Courtney J.; Swanson-Hysell, Nicholas L.; Fairchild, Luke M.; Gaastra, Kevin

    2018-06-01

    Palaeomagnetic data from ancient rocks are one of the few types of observational data that can be brought to bear on the long-term evolution of Earth's core. A recent compilation of palaeointensity estimates from throughout Earth history has been interpreted to indicate that Earth's magnetic field strength increased in the Mesoproterozoic (between 1.5 and 1.0 billion years ago), with this increase taken to mark the onset of inner core nucleation. However, much of the data within the Precambrian palaeointensity database are from Thellier-style experiments with non-ideal behaviour that manifests in results such as double-slope Arai plots. Choices made when interpreting these data may significantly change conclusions about long-term trends in the intensity of Earth's geomagnetic field. In this study, we present new palaeointensity results from volcanics of the ˜1.1-billion-year-old North American Midcontinent Rift. While most of the results exhibit non-ideal double-slope or sagging behaviour in Arai plots, some flows have more ideal single-slope behaviour leading to palaeointensity estimates that may be some of the best constraints on the strength of Earth's field for this time. Taken together, new and previously published palaeointensity data from the Midcontinent Rift yield a median field strength estimate of 56.0 ZAm2—very similar to the median for the past 300 Myr. These field strength estimates are distinctly higher than those for the preceding billion years (Ga) after excluding ca. 1.3 Ga data that may be biased by non-ideal behaviour—consistent with an increase in field strength in the late Mesoproterozoic. However, given that ˜90 per cent of palaeointensity estimates from 1.1 to 0.5 Ga come from the Midcontinent Rift, it is difficult to evaluate whether these high values relative to those estimated for the preceding billion years are the result of a stepwise, sustained increase in dipole moment. Regardless, palaeointensity estimates from the Midcontinent

  20. Dissimilar Effects of World News Announcements on Euro/Dollar/Yen Exchange Rates: An Econophysics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Matesanz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper revisits the issue of the influence of macro-economic announcements over the exchange rates volatility, but from a different perspective as it is the usual in the econometric literature. By quantifying the impact of world-wide macroeconomic information published in the economic calendar in several recent years we were able to construct long events’ time series with the objective to test whether they influence exchange rate volatilities in several currencies. In order to do that, Granger causality test was employed by using a computational approach. Our results show that announcements from U.S.A are, by far, the most important influence over the three spot forex quotes, Euro/Dollar, Euro/Yen and Dollar/Yen. The method proposed here opens the door to address several open questions until now.

  1. Nonlinearity and fractional integration in the US dollar/euro exchange rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Burcu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the nonlinear behavior and the fractional integration property of the US dollar/euro exchange rate over the period from January 1999 to August 2010 by extending the procedure of Peter M. Robinson (1994 to the case of nonlinearity. First, using the approach developed by Mehmet Caner and Bruce E. Hansen (2001, we investigate the possible presence of nonlinearity in the series through the estimation of a two-regime threshold autoregressive model. After finding nonlinearity, we also allow for disturbances to be fractionally integrated based on the different versions of Robinson (1994 tests. The findings show that the US dollar/euro exchange rate follows a stationary process with a weak evidence for long memory.

  2. Florida hospital saves 5.3 M dollars by adopting principles of lean manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Florida hospital saves 5.3M dollars by adopting principles of lean manufacturing. Surgery cancellations have been slashed from 13% of cases to less than 3%, while emergency department admissions have increased by 20%. Those are just two of the results of a quality improvement project at Lee Memorial Health System in Fort Myers, FL, that focused on using the principles of lean manufacturing to improve patient flow in the five-hospital system

  3. Money Demand and Inflation in Dollarized Economies; The Case of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Franziska L Ohnsorge; Nienke Oomes

    2005-01-01

    Money demand in dollarized economies often appears to be highly unstable, making it difficult to forecast and control inflation. In this paper, we show that a stable money demand function for Russia can be found for "effective broad money," which includes an estimate of foreign cash holdings. Moreover, we find that an excess supply of effective broad money is inflationary, while other excess money measures are not, and that effective broad money growth has the strongest and most persistent ef...

  4. Energy tax price tag for CPI: $1.2 billion, jobs, and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begley, R.

    1993-01-01

    If President Clinton's proposed energy tax had been fully in place last year, it would have cost the US chemical industry an additional $1.2 billion and 9,900 jobs, according to Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA; Washington) estimates. It also would have driven output down 3% and prices up 5%, CMA says. Allen Lenz, CMA director/trade and economics, says the increase in production costs that would accompany the tax will not be shared by foreign competitors, cannot be neutralized with higher border taxes because of existing trade agreements, and provides another reason to move production offshore. Worse, the US chemical industry's generally impressive trade surplus declined by $2.5 billion last year, and a further drop is projected for this year. The margin of error gets thinner all the time as competition increases, Lenz says. We're not concerned only with the chemical industry, but the rest of US-based manufacturing because they taken half our output, he adds. One problem is the energy intensiveness of the chemical process industries-a CMA report says that 55% of the cost of producing ethylene glycol is energy related. And double taxation of such things as coproducts returned for credit to oil refineries could add up to $115 million/year, the report says

  5. A parts-per-billion measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment

    CERN Document Server

    Smorra, C; Borchert, M J; Harrington, J A; Higuchi, T; Nagahama, H; Tanaka, T; Mooser, A; Schneider, G; Blaum, K; Matsuda, Y; Ospelkaus, C; Quint, W; Walz, J; Yamazaki, Y; Ulmer, S

    2017-01-01

    Precise comparisons of the fundamental properties of matter–antimatter conjugates provide sensitive tests of charge–parity–time (CPT) invariance1, which is an important symmetry that rests on basic assumptions of the standard model of particle physics. Experiments on mesons2, leptons3, 4 and baryons5, 6 have compared different properties of matter–antimatter conjugates with fractional uncertainties at the parts-per-billion level or better. One specific quantity, however, has so far only been known to a fractional uncertainty at the parts-per-million level7, 8: the magnetic moment of the antiproton, . The extraordinary difficulty in measuring with high precision is caused by its intrinsic smallness; for example, it is 660 times smaller than the magnetic moment of the positron3. Here we report a high-precision measurement of in units of the nuclear magneton μN with a fractional precision of 1.5 parts per billion (68% confidence level). We use a two-particle spectroscopy method in an advanced cryogenic ...

  6. Plate tectonic influences on Earth's baseline climate: a 2 billion-year record

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, R.; Evans, D. A.; Eglington, B. M.; Planavsky, N.

    2017-12-01

    Plate tectonic processes present strong influences on the long-term carbon cycle, and thus global climate. Here we utilize multiple aspects of the geologic record to assess the role plate tectonics has played in driving major icehouse­-greenhouse transitions for the past 2 billion years. Refined paleogeographic reconstructions allow us to quantitatively assess the area of continents in various latitudinal belts throughout this interval. From these data we are able to test the hypothesis that concentrating continental masses in low-latitudes will drive cooler climates due to increased silicate weathering. We further superimpose records of events that are believed to increase the `weatherability' of the crust, such as large igneous province emplacement, island-arc accretion, and continental collisional belts. Climatic records are then compared with global detrital zircon U-Pb age data as a proxy for continental magmatism. Our results show a consistent relationship between zircon-generating magmatism and icehouse-greenhouse transitions for > 2 billion years, whereas paleogeographic records show no clear consistent relationship between continental configurations and prominent climate transitions. Volcanic outgassing appears to exert a first-order control on major baseline climatic shifts; however, paleogeography likely plays an important role in the magnitude of this change. Notably, climatic extremes, such as the Cryogenian icehouse, occur during a combination of reduce volcanism and end-member concentrations of low-latitudinal continents.

  7. The Allocation of Advertising and Research Dollars in the Florida Orange Juice Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G. Brown

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study considers the allocation of Florida citrus-grower money between advertising and research programs to maximize grower revenue net of program costs. The allocation depends on the impact of advertising on demand and the impacts of research on the cost of production and supply. A number of studies have estimated the impact of advertising on OJ demand, but little is known about the impact of research. Research on citrus greening, a disease that has no known cure, is examined in the present study. There are no past studies to reliably gauge the impact of this research. The approach taken here is to ask if a given amount of research dollars is needed to reduce average production costs by certain amount, then what should be spent on advertising based on past estimates of the elasticity of demand with respect to advertising. The optimal ratio of advertising to research dollars increases with the advertising elasticity and declines with the amount of research money needed to reduce average costs. The results of this study provide a range for this ratio based on different advertising elasticities and amounts of research dollars needed to reduce production costs. The approach provides an indication of the importance of advertising given expectations on the research needed to successfully fight this disease.

  8. NERSC 2001 Annual Report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hules, John

    2001-01-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2001 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects); information about NERSC's current systems and services; descriptions of Berkeley Lab's current research and development projects in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational science; and a brief summary of NERSC's Strategic Plan for 2002-2005

  9. Availability of Foods and Beverages in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Authorized Dollar Stores in a Region of North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Elizabeth F; Batada, Ameena; Solomon, Corliss A; Story, Mary

    2016-10-01

    There are >25,000 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-authorized dollar stores throughout the United States; many are located in lower-income neighborhoods and provide an accessible food and beverage source for area residents. The purpose of this research was to determine the percent of food deserts within 16 counties in North Carolina that include a SNAP dollar store; examine the types of foods and beverages at SNAP dollar stores in these counties; test whether the foods and beverages offered vary by SNAP dollar store chain; and test whether the foods and beverages available differ by rural and urban location. This cross-sectional study used a combination of publicly available data and primary data to investigate the research questions. Secondary data sources were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture's SNAP retailer locator, the US Census, and the US Department of Agriculture's Food Access Research Atlas. Availability of foods and beverages was assessed among a sample of 90 SNAP dollar stores in 16 counties in southern and western sections of North Carolina. Data were collected in June 2014. About half (52%) of the food deserts in the research area included a SNAP dollar store. Most of the sampled stores sold healthier food staples, such as frozen meats, brown rice, 100% whole-wheat bread, and dried beans. None of the stores sold fresh fruits or vegetables. Some of the foods and beverages offered (eg, frozen fruit, frozen unseasoned vegetables, nonfat or low-fat milk, frozen ground beef) varied by SNAP dollar store chain. The foods and beverages offered did not differ by rural or urban county location. SNAP dollar stores offer a number of healthy food staples; however, they do not sell fresh fruits or vegetables. Further food environment research should include dollar stores. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mars’ First Billion Years: Key Findings, Key Unsolved Paradoxes, and Future Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlmann, Bethany

    2017-10-01

    In the evolution of terrestrial planets, the first billion years are the period most shrouded in mystery: How vigorous is early atmospheric loss? How do planetary climates respond to a brightening sun? When and how are plate tectonic recycling processes initiated? How do voluminous volcanism and heavy impact bombardment influence the composition of the atmosphere? Under what conditions might life arise? Looking outward to terrestrial planets around other stars, the record from Venus, Earth and Mars in this solar system is crucial for developing models of physical can chemical processes. Of these three worlds, Mars provides the longest record of planetary evolution from the first billion years, comprising >50% of exposed geologic units, which are only lightly overprinted by later processes.Orbital observations of the last decade have revealed abundant evidence for surface waters in the form of lakes, valley networks, and evidence of chemically open-system near-surface weathering. Groundwaters at temperatures ranging from just above freezing to hydrothermal have also left a rich record of process in the mineralogical record. A rsuite of environments - similar in diversity to Earth’s - has been discovered on Mars with water pH, temperature, redox, and chemistries varying in space and time.Here, I will focus on the consequences of the aqueous alteration of the Martian crust on the composition of the atmosphere based on recent work studying aspects of the volatile budget (Usui et al., 2015; Edwards & Ehlmann, 2015; Hu et al., 2015; Jakosky et al., 2017, Wordsworth et al., 2017, and Ehlmann, in prep.). The solid crust and mantle of Mars act as volatile reservoirs and volatile sources through volcanism, mineral precipitation, and release of gases. We examine the extent to which the budget is understood or ill-understood for hydrogen and carbon, and associated phases H2O, CO2, and CH4. Additionally, I identify some key stratigraphies where a combination of focused in

  11. IRON AND {alpha}-ELEMENT PRODUCTION IN THE FIRST ONE BILLION YEARS AFTER THE BIG BANG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, George D.; Carswell, Robert F. [Kavli Institute for Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Sargent, Wallace L. W. [Palomar Observatory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rauch, Michael, E-mail: gdb@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: acalver@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: wws@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: mr@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    We present measurements of carbon, oxygen, silicon, and iron in quasar absorption systems existing when the universe was roughly one billion years old. We measure column densities in nine low-ionization systems at 4.7 < z < 6.3 using Keck, Magellan, and Very Large Telescope optical and near-infrared spectra with moderate to high resolution. The column density ratios among C II, O I, Si II, and Fe II are nearly identical to sub-damped Ly{alpha} systems (sub-DLAs) and metal-poor ([M/H] {<=} -1) DLAs at lower redshifts, with no significant evolution over 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 6. The estimated intrinsic scatter in the ratio of any two elements is also small, with a typical rms deviation of {approx}< 0.1 dex. These facts suggest that dust depletion and ionization effects are minimal in our z > 4.7 systems, as in the lower-redshift DLAs, and that the column density ratios are close to the intrinsic relative element abundances. The abundances in our z > 4.7 systems are therefore likely to represent the typical integrated yields from stellar populations within the first gigayear of cosmic history. Due to the time limit imposed by the age of the universe at these redshifts, our measurements thus place direct constraints on the metal production of massive stars, including iron yields of prompt supernovae. The lack of redshift evolution further suggests that the metal inventories of most metal-poor absorption systems at z {approx}> 2 are also dominated by massive stars, with minimal contributions from delayed Type Ia supernovae or winds from asymptotic giant branch stars. The relative abundances in our systems broadly agree with those in very metal-poor, non-carbon-enhanced Galactic halo stars. This is consistent with the picture in which present-day metal-poor stars were potentially formed as early as one billion years after the big bang.

  12. Searching for Organics Preserved in 4.5 Billion Year Old Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Fries, M.; Steele, A.; Bodnar, R.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of early solar system fluids took a dramatic turn a decade ago with the discovery of fluid inclusion-bearing halite (NaCl) crystals in the matrix of two freshly fallen brecciated H chondrite falls, Monahans and Zag. Both meteorites are regolith breccias, and contain xenolithic halite (and minor admixed sylvite -- KCl, crystals in their regolith lithologies. The halites are purple to dark blue, due to the presence of color centers (electrons in anion vacancies) which slowly accumulated as 40K (in sylvite) decayed over billions of years. The halites were dated by K-Ar, Rb-Sr and I-Xe systematics to be 4.5 billion years old. The "blue" halites were a fantastic discovery for the following reasons: (1) Halite+sylvite can be dated (K is in sylvite and will substitute for Na in halite, Rb substitutes in halite for Na, and I substitutes for Cl). (2) The blue color is lost if the halite dissolves on Earth and reprecipitates (because the newly-formed halite has no color centers), so the color serves as a "freshness" or pristinity indicator. (3) Halite frequently contains aqueous fluid inclusions. (4) Halite contains no structural oxygen, carbon or hydrogen, making them ideal materials to measure these isotopic systems in any fluid inclusions. (5) It is possible to directly measure fluid inclusion formation temperatures, and thus directly measure the temperature of the mineralizing aqueous fluid. In addition to these two ordinary chondrites halite grains have been reliably reported in several ureilites, an additional ordinary chondrite (Jilin), and in the carbonaceous chondrite (Murchison), although these reports were unfortunately not taken seriously. We have lately found additional fluid inclusions in carbonates in several additional carbonaceous chondrites. Meteoritic aqueous fluid inclusions are apparently relatively widespread in meteorites, though very small and thus difficult to analyze.

  13. ICI bites demerger bullet, Zeneca guns for Brit-pounds 1.3-billion rights issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.; Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-01

    Any lingering doubts as to ICI's (London) intentions to follow through its demerger proposals were dispelled last week. The company will hive off its bioscience business into Zeneca Group plc, which will make a Brit-pounds 1.3-billion ($1.9 billion) rights issue in June 1993. Shareholders, whose approval for the historic move will be sought in late May, will receive one fully paid Zeneca share for each ICI share. Proceeds from the rights issue will be used to reduce Zeneca's indebtedness to ICI by about 70%. Acknowledging that ICI had 'spread the jam too thinly' during its expansion in the 1980s, chief executive Ronnie Hampel says the new ICI will be a cost-conscious, no-frills' organization and that businesses that failed to perform would be restructured or closed. He is 'not expecting any help from the economy' in 1993. Of ICI's remaining petrochemicals and plastics businesses, Hampel says that despite 'stringent measures to reduce the cost base hor-ellipsis it is clear they will not reach a return on capital that will justify reinvestment by ICI.' He does not see them as closure candidates but as 'businesses that will require further restructuring.' Hampel notes 'a dozen clearly identified areas for expansion,' including paints, catalysts, titanium dioxide, and chlorofluorocarbon replacements. Losses in materials, where substantial rationalization has failed to halt the slide, will be reduced on completion of the DuPont deal - expected by midyear. 'Further measures' would be necessary for the 'residual bit of advanced materials in the US,' he says

  14. A parts-per-billion measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorra, C; Sellner, S; Borchert, M J; Harrington, J A; Higuchi, T; Nagahama, H; Tanaka, T; Mooser, A; Schneider, G; Bohman, M; Blaum, K; Matsuda, Y; Ospelkaus, C; Quint, W; Walz, J; Yamazaki, Y; Ulmer, S

    2017-10-18

    Precise comparisons of the fundamental properties of matter-antimatter conjugates provide sensitive tests of charge-parity-time (CPT) invariance, which is an important symmetry that rests on basic assumptions of the standard model of particle physics. Experiments on mesons, leptons and baryons have compared different properties of matter-antimatter conjugates with fractional uncertainties at the parts-per-billion level or better. One specific quantity, however, has so far only been known to a fractional uncertainty at the parts-per-million level: the magnetic moment of the antiproton, . The extraordinary difficulty in measuring with high precision is caused by its intrinsic smallness; for example, it is 660 times smaller than the magnetic moment of the positron. Here we report a high-precision measurement of in units of the nuclear magneton μ N with a fractional precision of 1.5 parts per billion (68% confidence level). We use a two-particle spectroscopy method in an advanced cryogenic multi-Penning trap system. Our result  = -2.7928473441(42)μ N (where the number in parentheses represents the 68% confidence interval on the last digits of the value) improves the precision of the previous best measurement by a factor of approximately 350. The measured value is consistent with the proton magnetic moment, μ p  = 2.792847350(9)μ N , and is in agreement with CPT invariance. Consequently, this measurement constrains the magnitude of certain CPT-violating effects to below 1.8 × 10 -24 gigaelectronvolts, and a possible splitting of the proton-antiproton magnetic moments by CPT-odd dimension-five interactions to below 6 × 10 -12 Bohr magnetons.

  15. Annual report 2011. Results and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-25

    Enova is a state-owned enterprise, owned by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy. Over a period of ten years, the enterprise has worked to trigger energy efficiency measures and renewable energy production by supporting proactive players that have paved the way for others. In the period 2002-2011, Enova has contracted an energy result of 16.6 TWh, Enova's Annual Report 2011 shows. This corresponds to the annual energy end-use of more than 35 per cent of Norways 2.2 million private households. Enova has allocated NOK 9 billion in support over ten years. This has resulted in project owners and other financiers investing about Nok 45 billion in capital for environmentally friendly energy projects in Norway, says Nils Kristian Nakstad, CEO of Enova. In 2011, Enova supported projects with an overall energy result of 1.35 TWh using resources from the Energy Fund, equally distributed between energy efficiency and renewable heating. The greatest contributors in 2011 are within energy conversion to renewable heating and energy efficiency measures in buildings.The climate impact of all of the projects where Enova has entered into contracts corresponds to 9.3 million tonnes in reduced CO2 emissions annually. The latter constitutes 17 per cent of domestic greenhouse gas emissions. (au)

  16. Annual report 2011. Results and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Enova is a state-owned enterprise, owned by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy. Over a period of ten years, the enterprise has worked to trigger energy efficiency measures and renewable energy production by supporting proactive players that have paved the way for others. In the period 2002-2011, Enova has contracted an energy result of 16.6 TWh, Enova's Annual Report 2011 shows. This corresponds to the annual energy end-use of more than 35 per cent of Norways 2.2 million private households. Enova has allocated NOK 9 billion in support over ten years. This has resulted in project owners and other financiers investing about Nok 45 billion in capital for environmentally friendly energy projects in Norway, says Nils Kristian Nakstad, CEO of Enova. In 2011, Enova supported projects with an overall energy result of 1.35 TWh using resources from the Energy Fund, equally distributed between energy efficiency and renewable heating. The greatest contributors in 2011 are within energy conversion to renewable heating and energy efficiency measures in buildings.The climate impact of all of the projects where Enova has entered into contracts corresponds to 9.3 million tonnes in reduced CO2 emissions annually. The latter constitutes 17 per cent of domestic greenhouse gas emissions. (au)

  17. 26 CFR 1.985-6 - Transition rules for a QBU that uses the dollar approximate separate transactions method for its...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section sets forth transition rules for a QBU that used the dollar approximate separate transactions... QBU must determine the dollar and hyperinflationary currency basis of its assets and the dollar and hyperinflationary currency amount of its liabilities that were acquired or incurred in taxable years beginning...

  18. 1999 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    In 1999 Newport Petroleum Corporation boosted its production to 23,400 BOE per day, exceeding 1998 production levels by 16 per cent. Cash flow per share increased by 31 per cent, and earnings per share by 500 per cent. Reserves of natural gas at year-end stood at 412.9 billion cubic feet, natural gas liquids at 37.7 million barrels, and crude oil at 18.9 million barrels. Proved reserve additions of 19.3 BOE represent a replacement ratio of 2.3 times 1999 production. Sixty-nine oil and gas wells were drilled during the year; of these 12 were dry and abandoned. Undeveloped land holdings at year end amounted to 1,04 million acres (632,000 net). At the beginning of the year, the company acquired an interest in a world class producing asset and gas processing facility in the Caroline area during a period of weakening commodity prices. Low crude oil prices forced the company to suspend drilling operations in the first half of the year; however, additional exploration land acquired during this period, and in response to the dramatic increase in crude oil prices, drilling was resumed late in the year. Results from this activity will become apparent some time in the first half of 2000. During 1999 the company sold non-core properties worth $40.2 million. The annual report contains details of all operations, provides fully audited financial statements and a detailed discussion and analysis by management. A five-year summary of operations is also included

  19. Annual Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Suncor is a Canada-based integrated oil company with over $ 5.2 billion in assets. It produces 142,800 barrels of oil equivalent per day. There are four major business areas within Suncor: (1) oil sands - produces and markets custom-blended refinery stocks and transportation fuel from its oil sands mining and upgrading facilities at Fort McMurray, Alberta; (2) the Exploration and Production arm which explores, acquires, develops and produces oil and natural gas in western Canada and markets its production throughout North America; (3) Sunoco, Suncor's refining and marketing operation, with a major refinery in Sarnia, Ontario, and a network of more than 500 retail gasoline outlets throughout the province; and (4) International oil and In-situ operations, which focus on developing heavy oil and oil shale technologies that provide unique strategic advantages to Suncor on a global basis. This report records the company's progress during the 1999 fiscal year in terms of the company's priorities for long-term growth , i.e. to expand the oil sands, transfer expertise and technology from oil sands to new businesses, integrate downstream and upstream businesses, and focus on natural gas and alternative and renewable energy. The company is fully aware of the need for sustainable development and in its oil sands operations has in place a comprehensive Greenhouse Gas Management Plan that in fact affects the entire company. The goal is to remove one tonne of carbon dioxide for every tonne of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere through management of own emissions, pursuing greenhouse gas offsets and supporting education and research. The company has scored some notable successes in all of the target areas, details of which are provided in this annual report. A statement of the company's financial state is also included, along with the company's goals for 2000

  20. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This is the thirty-ninth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The period covered by this report is the year ending March 31, 1986. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) was established in 1946, by the Atomic Energy Control Act (AEC Act), (Revised Statues of Canada (R.S.C.) 1970 cA19). It is a departmental corporation (Schedule B) within the meaning and purpose of the Financial Administration Act. The AECB controls the development, application and use of atomic energy in Canada, and participates on behalf of Canada in international measures of control. The AECB is also repsonsible for the administration of the Nuclear Liability Act, (R.S.C. 1970 c29 1st Supp) as amended, including the designation of nuclear installations and the prescription of basic insurance to be carried by the operators of such nuclear installations. The AECB reports to Parliament through a designated Minister, currently the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources

  1. 77 FR 16224 - Billion Auto, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... Social Security number, date of birth, driver's license number or other state identification number or... information such as costs, sales statistics, inventories, formulas, patterns, devices, manufacturing processes... advertised, the rate be stated as an ``annual percentage rate'' using that term or the abbreviation ``APR...

  2. REGULARITIES OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE DOLLAR IN RUSSIA ON THE WORLD PRICE OF OIL BRENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mazurkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The inverse influence of the dollar in Russia as a major regional economies oil exporters, on the formation of world prices of Brent crude oil. It is shown that for the period from 31.01.2006 on 25.08.2015 this influence is characterized by a model with several wave functions, however, this model has received only average adequacy. With a much smaller error complex is formed and breaking explicitly the nonlinear function in stages three levels of behavior. The selection of stages and levels is on break, so within each stage are considered smooth algebraic functions in the form of asymmetric wavelet signals.

  3. From the million dollar's web, to ‘seriespepito’ Is it a Bubble 2.0?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José García-Ull

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, a 21 years old English student created The Million Dollar Homepage. The idea was simple: he divided the site into 100 blocks of 10x10 pixels each with the aim to sell these spaces to the brands interested in advertising on the website. Each pixel would cost 1 dollar. That apparently naive idea ended reaching notoriety in the newly named Web 2.0 (O'Reilly, 2005. Worldwide online media, many of whom just began their journey through the Web, covered the curious initiative. The online media coverage also jumped to traditional media (crossmedia narrative, Jenkins, 2006 and this issue had a direct influence on the increase of visitors and number of page views in the site. It was, in fact, one of the first examples of a viral message in the Web. Advertising brands were attracted by the media impact of the website, which became a showcase. Companies such as The Times or Yahoo were attracted by the web influence. In a few months, the business student Alex Tew sold every single pixel of his website to advertising brands, amountig to a million dollars. In 2015, according to Alexa Rank, onclickads.net, publited.com, adcash.com, popads.net or adf.ly are among the 150 most visited websites in Spain, competing with companies like facebook.com, wordpress.es, marca.com, rtve.es or bbva.es, to name a few. We present in the following article the reasons why these affiliate advertising networks occupy key positions in the rankings of most visited websites and to this end, we will focus on studying the business model of some of the main links pages, which offer access to download or online viewing of media formats, including series, documentaries and film content. We will focus in particular on the business models like seriespepito.com, closed due to alleged intellectual property crime in 2014. They generated within months, about a million dollars profit. We studied, with this purpose, the role of the affiliate networks, the use of tracking tools such as

  4. Exchange credit risk: Measurement and implications on the stability of partially dollarized financial systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Mordecki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Some emergent economies present a high financial dollarization in loans and deposits, generating a specific risk in the banking activity. We quantify this exchange credit risk as the price of an option equivalent to this loan, and discuss the financial stability implications due to the (implicit issuance of these options. The exchange rate is modeled through a Levy process. The depth of the market depends on the type of the currencies involved. Whenever possible, we depart from option prices to calibrate a model, like in the EUR/USD market. But if the market is not liquid, as the USD/UYU market, we provide alternative pricing methodologies.

  5. The international transmission of monetary shocks in a dollarized economy: The case of USA and Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goux François Jean

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that an American monetary shock wields an influence, though limited, over the Lebanese output in accordance with the literature advances. However, as we are waiting for a stronger transmission of U.S. short-term rates to Lebanese short-term rates, we notice that this transmission is weak in the first year. The result can be explained by the presence of pricing-to-market. After the end of the first year, we find the traditional result where the increase in the American interest rate is transmitted integrally to the Lebanese interest rate. We recognize this phenomenon as the dollarization effect.

  6. The yuan-dollar parity and its effects on Mexico's exports of manufacturing goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Cuevas Ahumada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the impact of Chinese exchange rate policy on Mexican manufacturing exports in the US market. To that end, an amplified export function which combines demandand supply-side variables is estimated. The empirical evidence shows that, in the long run, a real depreciation of the yuan visà- vis the US dollar reduces Mexican manufacturing sales in the US. The econometric work also suggests that lowering unit labor costs, perhaps by means of a comprehensive and coherent training policy package, could serve the purpose of offsetting the negative effects of an undervalued Chinese currency.

  7. Performance of Technical Trading Systems in the Yen/Dollar Market

    OpenAIRE

    Schulmeister, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    The study investigates the profitability of 1,024 moving average and momentum models and their components in the yen/dollar market. It turns out that all models would have been profitable between 1976 and 1999. The pattern of profitability is as follows: the models produce more single losses than single profits, however, the size of the single profits is on average much higher than the size of single losses. Hence, the profitability of technical currency trading is exclusively due to the expl...

  8. Profitability of Technical Currency Speculation. The Case of Yen-Dollar Trading 1976-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Schulmeister, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    The paper investigates the profitability of 1,024 moving average and momentum models and their components in the yen-dollar market. It turns out that all models would have been profitable between 1976 and 2007. The models produce more single losses than single profits. At the same time, the size of the single profits is on average much higher than the size of single losses because profitable positions last two to six times longer than unprofitable positions. Hence, the profitability of techni...

  9. GENDERED DOLLARS: Pin Money, Mad Money, and Changing Notions of a Woman’s Proper Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Traflet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the evolution in the meaning and usage of two types of special currencies: pin money and mad money. At the start of the twentieth century, both currencies were considered a woman’s money. By the end of the century, however, both pin money and mad money had lost a large measure of their original gendered connotations. By situating the evolving meanings of these currencies alongside concepts of domesticity, virtuous womanhood, and a woman’s proper place, this essay strives to illuminate the rise and fall of pin money and mad money as uniquely “women’s dollars." 

  10. De Facto Exchange Rate Regime in Korea: Is It Still A Dollar Peg?

    OpenAIRE

    Han Geun Moon

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to test the common view on the actual exchange rate regime, using very simple but intuitive OLS regression models based on Frankel and Wei's work (1994). The results show that, firstly, East Asian countries including Korea have returned to the dollar peg or managed floating after the restoration from the crisis, as they did during the pre-crisis period. The results also show that Korea has substantially changed her exchange rate regime since January 2001, but othe...

  11. Analysis of the factors contributing to the one trillion dollars wasted on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simnad, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    The impacts of societal and regulatory impediments on the cost of generating electricity from nuclear power plants are addressed in this study. Economic losses are incurred as the result of interest payments for capital and excessive incremental costs for replacement power (resulting from construction delays or from cancellation of partially or completely built reactors). The total costs for these delays or cancellations are estimated to be approximately $500 billion each for the US and non-US countries (including the Eastern Block). (author)

  12. Suncor Energy Inc. seventh annual progress report : Canada's climate change voluntary challenge and registry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    This document detailed the various initiatives implemented by Suncor Energy Inc. in light of Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) Program. Project Millennium, which represents a 3.25 billion dollar expansion expected to lead to an increase production capacity for Oil Sands operations, was consolidated during 2000, along with the completion of restructuring, which led to the divestiture of conventional oil properties and the joint venture interest held by Suncor in the Stuart Oil Shale Project. In addition, there were some improvements made to the greenhouse gas management and reporting systems. Suncor is expected to invest funding in the order of 100 million dollars for the period 2000-2005 in the field of alternative and renewable energy. The reductions in greenhouse gas emissions achieved for the year 2000 were 404,000 tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent. Each of these major endeavours was discussed in the document. tabs

  13. One billion year-old Mid-continent Rift leaves virtually no clues in the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmann, T. A.; Frederiksen, A. W.; van der Lee, S.; Wolin, E.; Revenaugh, J.; Wiens, D.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Wysession, M. E.; Stein, S.; Jurdy, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    We measured the relative arrival times of more than forty-six thousand teleseismic P waves recorded by seismic stations of Earthscope's Superior Province Rifting Earthscope Experiment (SPREE) and combined them with a similar amount of such measurements from other seismic stations in the larger region. SPREE recorded seismic waves for two and a half years around the prominent, one billion year-old Mid-continent Rift structure. The curvilinear Mid-continent Rift (MR) is distinguished by voluminous one billion year-old lava flows, which produce a prominent gravity high along the MR. As for other seismic waves, these lava flows along with their underplated counterpart, slightly slow down the measured teleseismic P waves, on average, compared to P waves that did not traverse structures beneath the Mid-continent Rift. However, the variance in the P wave arrival times in these two groups is nearly ten times higher than their average difference. In a seismic-tomographic inversion, we mapped all measured arrival times into structures deep beneath the crust, in the Earth's mantle. Beneath the crust we generally find relatively high P velocities, indicating relatively cool and undeformable mantle structures. However, the uppermost mantle beneath the MR shows several patches of slightly decreased P velocities. These patches are coincident with where the gravity anomalies peak, in Iowa and along the northern Minnesota/Wisconsin border. We will report on the likelihood that these anomalies are indeed a remaining mantle-lithospheric signature of the MR or whether these patches indirectly reflect the presence of the lava flows and their underplated counterparts at the crust-mantle interface. Other structures of interest and of varying depth extent in our tomographic image locate at 1) the intersection of the Superior Craton with the Penokean Province and the Marshfield Terrane west of the MR in southern Minnesota, 2) the intersection of the Penokean, Yavapai, and Mazatzal Terranes

  14. State Electricity Commission of Victoria annual report 1991/92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The 73rd annual report of the State Electricity Commission (SEC) of Victoria covers the financial year ended 30 June 1992. A total revenue of 3,300 million dollars and a net profit of 155.7 million dollars was recorded. There was continued improvement in employee productivity. Progress was made on the Victorian Power Pool (VicPool) pooling arrangement in anticipation of open access to the power grid. A 3-year business plan was formulated and corporate strategy revised. The Strategic Research Program on brown coal technologies, aimed at reducing costs of electricity and emissions of CO[sub 2], continued. Environmental activities continued in the areas of renewable energy source development, air quality monitoring, acid rain, water management, land rehabilitation and improvements to powerlines. The report includes statistical data on customer statistics, electricity sales, power stations, brown coal and briquette production and financial sales.

  15. The Determinants of won/dollar Exchange Rate Volatility and Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae-Shick Chung

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available This thesis analyzed the feature and different points of the changing of the exchange rate of Korea won against US dollar, then discussed the direction of the completion of Korea exchange rate system. The prediction result of the model GARCH which vividly shows the phenomenon of the auto-regression of the exchange rate has indicated the level of the exchange rate yesterday could explain the circumstance of the change of exchange rate today. Meanwhile, the policy of the US exchange rate will affect the exchange rate of Korea won against US dollar and the volatility of foreign exchange rate. In the present situation of Korean economy in which the liberalization of capital and the independence of the central bank has been established, the choosing range of the exchange system could only be completely changeable exchange rate system or exchange rate system of multilateral arrangement like Europe. However, in terms of the condition of the world economy, the introduction of the latter system is too early. There is an idea that under the changeable exchange rate system which is the only choice, it is the right time to activate the main body of private economy, the financial derivatives market in which the exchange risk could be trade-off. Government should work on and create a policy that would be able to satisfy the expectations of the market participants.

  16. TRIPOLARISATION OF THE CURRENCIES IN THE WORLD ECONOMY: US DOLLAR – EURO – YEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona TOMA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, the world economy is dominated by three poles – the USA, the European Union and Japan – among which there should be real co-operation to ensure the international stability on all levels. The introduction of the euro was perceived by the experts as the beginning of the competition among the currencies on the international financial markets. The European Monetary Union was conceived to cause an internal, not an external change, with an economic and financial purpose and as a further step of the European integration. Moreover, the international monetary system does not allow the European single currency to make gains that might cause losses to the US dollar. Both currencies have room in the world economy, but the euro has been beneficial to both the euro area and the rest of the world. At present, the euro is stronger than the sum of the twelve former national currencies. The consolidation of the national economies of the euro area becomes stronger due to the impact on liquidities, to the various investment opportunities for the entities that manage the financial portfolios and the central banks that manage the foreign currency reserves. The competition among the currencies means more opportunities in the world economy: the euro is an international currency used along with the US dollar and the yen, not against them.

  17. FLUKTUASI KURS RUPIAH TERHADAP DOLLAR AMERIKA SERIKAT PADA PERIODE TAHUN 1997.I – 2004.IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggyatika Mahda Kurnia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the fluctuation of the rupiah against the U.S. dollar. The data used in this study are quarterly time series data between the 1997.I to 2004.IV. Analysis tool used in this study is multiple linear regressions using the Error Correction Model (ECM. The results of this study concluded that variables such as exchange rates, inflation, SBI rate and the value of imports is stationary, only money supply variable that is not stationary. Based on the classical assumption was not found problem. Normality test showed normal distribution of Ut, tests of model specification with the Ramsey Reset test indicates the model used is linear. The coefficient of determination (R2 showed that approximately 90.5813 percent of the value of the rupiah against the U.S. dollar be explained by variables in the model. Result analysis by t test found that a significant variable is the money supply, inflation, and the value of imports.

  18. Application of systems engineering techniques (reliability, availability, maintainability, and dollars) to the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boylan, J.G.; DeLozier, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    The systems engineering function for the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) covers system requirements definition, analyses, verification, technical reviews, and other system efforts necessary to assure good balance of performance, safety, cost, and scheduling. The systems engineering function will support the design, installation, start-up, and operational phases of GCEP. The principal objectives of the systems engineering function are to: assure that the system requirements of the GCEP process are adequately specified and documented and that due consideration and emphasis are given to all aspects of the project; provide system analyses of the designs as they progress to assure that system requirements are met and that GCEP interfaces are compatible; assist in the definition of programs for the necessary and sufficient verification of GCEP systems; and integrate reliability, maintainability, logistics, safety, producibility, and other related specialties into a total system effort. This paper addresses the GCEP reliability, availability, maintainability, and dollars (RAM dollars) analyses which are the primary systems engineering tools for the development and implementation of trade-off studies. These studies are basic to reaching cost-effective project decisions. The steps necessary to achieve optimum cost-effective design are shown

  19. Are electricity prices affected by the US dollar to Euro exchange rate? The Spanish case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, M. Pilar; Dickey, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationships between Spanish electricity spot prices and the US dollar/Euro (USD/Euro) exchange rate during the period 2005-2007, taking into account the study of the association between dollar and oil prices, in order to better understand the evolution of the former over time. The first finding in this study is that Spanish electricity spots prices, the USD/Euro exchange rate and oil prices are cointegrated; therefore there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between the three variables. Short-run relationships have been detected between oil prices and Spanish electricity prices and USD/Euro exchange rate in the sense that Spanish electricity prices and USD/Euro exchange rate are affected by oil prices in the short run. There is a transmission of volatility between USD/Euro exchange rate and oil prices to Spanish electricity prices; so although Spanish electricity prices are not affected in level by the movements of USD/Euro exchange rate, they are in volatility. In this kind of scenario the conclusions confirm that for countries so dependent on external causes as Spain, one possible solution for guarantying the energy security would be the promotion of the renewable energies. Therefore we cannot ignore the impact in the internal expenses of the cost of installation and generation of green energies so there must be a balance between the increase in renewables and the reasonable market price of the electricity. (author)

  20. De Facto Exchange Rate Regime in Korea: Is It Still A Dollar Peg?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Geun Moon

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to test the common view on the actual exchange rate regime, using very simple but intuitive OLS regression models based on Frankel and Wei's work (1994. The results show that, firstly, East Asian countries including Korea have returned to the dollar peg or managed floating after the restoration from the crisis, as they did during the pre-crisis period. The results also show that Korea has substantially changed her exchange rate regime since January 2001, but other countries, even Taiwan and Singapore which had no crisis, are still the same as before. The sensitivity to the dollar has statistically significantly decreased, but sensitivity to the yen is almost twice as much as those in other countries. This result might come from the synchronization of Korean won with Japanese yen from November 2000, the change of the monetary policy framework from monetary targeting to the pure inflation targeting, and the full capital and foreign exchange liberalization since the second stage of foreign exchange liberalization (January 2001. However, 6 months (January 2001-June 15, 2001 is not enough to assess policy changes, and, we continuously need to monitor how the exchange rate policy evolves.

  1. Union Gas Ltd. : 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Consolidated annual financial information from Union Gas Ltd. was presented along with a review of their 1998 operations. On January 1, 1998, Union Gas Ltd. amalgamated with Centra Gas Ontario Inc. Both are wholly-owned subsidiaries of Westcoast Energy Inc., and had operated under a shared services arrangement since 1994. The assets, liabilities and shareholders equity of Union and Centra were combined and accounted for at their carrying amounts. In 1998, the customer base grew by 3.3 per cent. The distribution service area of Union Gas extends across northern Ontario from the Manitoba border to the North Bay/Muskoka area and through certain parts of southern Ontario. The company also provides natural gas storage and transportation services for other utilities and energy market participants in Ontario, Quebec and the United States. This report gives full account of the company's energy resource activities, presents a detailed operations review as well as the company's consolidated financial statements. Revenue for 1998 was $1.6 billion, net income was 109 million, and assets were $4 billion. Total throughput for 1998 was 31.8 billion cubic metres of natural gas. tabs., figs

  2. Prodigious degassing of a billion years of accumulated radiogenic helium at Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Evans, William C.; Bergfeld, D.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents1. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot2. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by α-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude) any conceivable rate of generation within the crust. It seems that helium has accumulated for (at least) many hundreds of millions of years in Archaean (more than 2.5 billion years old) cratonic rocks beneath Yellowstone, only to be liberated over the past two million years by intense crustal metamorphism induced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Our results demonstrate the extremes in variability of crustal helium efflux on geologic timescales and imply crustal-scale open-system behaviour of helium in tectonically and magmatically active regions.

  3. Natural gas. The LNG trade exceeds the 100 billions of m3 limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    1996 has been a particularly favourable year for the international natural gas industry with a 10% increase of the international trade. The worldwide commercialized production of natural gas (2310 billions of m 3 ) has shown a 5% increase with respect to the previous year, with a strong increase in the OECD countries (+15.5%), in particular in the North Sea. High growing rates were recorded also in Latin America (9.5%) and Middle East (8%). Natural gas production in the CIS (Community of Independent States) reached 714 Gm 3 in 1996 with 600 Gm 3 from the Russian federation. The international trade has shown a 10% increase and reached 429.3 Gm 3 . The methane tanker ship trade has shown a 10 Gm 3 increase mainly in the Asian market (Japan and South Korea). Natural gas consumption growth has been high too (+4.9%) and reached 11.6% in Europe due to the climate conditions and to an increasing electric power demand. (J.S.)

  4. Rapid analysis of perchlorate in drinking water at parts per billion levels using microchip electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertsch, Jana C; Noblitt, Scott D; Cropek, Donald M; Henry, Charles S

    2010-05-01

    A microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE) system has been developed for the determination of perchlorate in drinking water. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recently proposed a health advisory limit for perchlorate in drinking water of 15 parts per billion (ppb), a level requiring large, sophisticated instrumentation, such as ion chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (IC-MS), for detection. An inexpensive, portable system is desired for routine online monitoring applications of perchlorate in drinking water. Here, we present an MCE method using contact conductivity detection for perchlorate determination. The method has several advantages, including reduced analysis times relative to IC, inherent portability, high selectivity, and minimal sample pretreatment. Resolution of perchlorate from more abundant ions was achieved using zwitterionic, sulfobetaine surfactants, N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propane sulfonate (HDAPS) and N-tetradecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propane sulfonate (TDAPS). The system performance and the optimization of the separation chemistry, including the use of these surfactants to resolve perchlorate from other anions, are discussed in this work. The system is capable of detection limits of 3.4 +/- 1.8 ppb (n = 6) in standards and 5.6 +/- 1.7 ppb (n = 6) in drinking water.

  5. Billion-scale production of hepatocyte-like cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tomoki; Takayama, Kazuo; Sakurai, Fuminori; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-19

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells are expected to be utilized in drug screening and regenerative medicine. However, hepatocyte-like cells have not been fully used in such applications because it is difficult to produce such cells on a large scale. In this study, we tried to establish a method to mass produce hepatocyte-like cells using a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture bioreactor called the Rotary Cell Culture System (RCCS). RCCS enabled us to obtain homogenous hepatocyte-like cells on a billion scale (>10 9  cells). The gene expression levels of some hepatocyte markers (alpha-1 antitrypsin, cytochrome (CYP) 1A2, CYP2D6, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha) were higher in 3D-cultured hepatocyte-like cells than in 2D-cultured hepatocyte-like cells. This result suggests that RCCS could provide more suitable conditions for hepatocyte maturation than the conventional 2D cell culture conditions. In addition, more than 90% of hepatocyte-like cells were positive for albumin and could uptake low-density lipoprotein in the culture medium. We succeeded in the large-scale production of homogenous and functional hepatocyte-like cells from human iPS cells. This technology will be useful in drug screening and regenerative medicine, which require enormous numbers of hepatocyte-like cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evidence for oxygenic photosynthesis half a billion years before the Great Oxidation Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planavsky, Noah J.; Asael, Dan; Hofmann, Axel; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Knudsen, Andrew; Wang, Xiangli; Ossa Ossa, Frantz; Pecoits, Ernesto; Smith, Albertus J. B.; Beukes, Nicolas J.; Bekker, Andrey; Johnson, Thomas M.; Konhauser, Kurt O.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Rouxel, Olivier J.

    2014-04-01

    The early Earth was characterized by the absence of oxygen in the ocean-atmosphere system, in contrast to the well-oxygenated conditions that prevail today. Atmospheric concentrations first rose to appreciable levels during the Great Oxidation Event, roughly 2.5-2.3 Gyr ago. The evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis is generally accepted to have been the ultimate cause of this rise, but it has proved difficult to constrain the timing of this evolutionary innovation. The oxidation of manganese in the water column requires substantial free oxygen concentrations, and thus any indication that Mn oxides were present in ancient environments would imply that oxygenic photosynthesis was ongoing. Mn oxides are not commonly preserved in ancient rocks, but there is a large fractionation of molybdenum isotopes associated with the sorption of Mo onto the Mn oxides that would be retained. Here we report Mo isotopes from rocks of the Sinqeni Formation, Pongola Supergroup, South Africa. These rocks formed no less than 2.95 Gyr ago in a nearshore setting. The Mo isotopic signature is consistent with interaction with Mn oxides. We therefore infer that oxygen produced through oxygenic photosynthesis began to accumulate in shallow marine settings at least half a billion years before the accumulation of significant levels of atmospheric oxygen.

  7. Biologic agents in rheumatology: unmet issues after 200 trials and $200 billion sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John P A; Karassa, Fotini B; Druyts, Eric; Thorlund, Kristian; Mills, Edward J

    2013-11-01

    Anti-TNF agents and other biologic therapies are widely prescribed for a variety of indications, with total sales that exceed $200 billion to date. In rheumatic diseases, biologic agents have now been studied in more than 200 randomized clinical trials and over 100 subsequent meta-analyses; however, the information obtained does not always meet the needs of patients and clinicians. In this Review, we discuss the current issues concerning the evidence derived from such studies: potential biases favouring positive results; a paucity of head-to-head comparisons between biologically active agents; overwhelming involvement of manufacturer sponsors in trials and in the synthesis of the evidence; the preference for trials with limited follow-up; and the potential for spurious findings on adverse events, leading to endless debates about malignancy risk. We debate the responsibilities of regulatory authorities, the pharmaceutical industry and academia in attempting to solve these shortcomings and challenges. We propose that improvements in the evidence regarding biologic treatments that are continually being added to the therapeutic armamentarium for rheumatic diseases might require revisiting the design and conduct of studies. For example, trials with long-term follow-up that are independent of the pharmaceutical industry, head-to-head comparisons of therapeutic agents and the use of rigorous clinical outcomes should be considered, and public availability of raw data endorsed.

  8. Nordic energy co-operation can save the equivalent of 4 - 10 billion USD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2000-01-01

    Better co-ordination of the energy- and environment policies among the Nordic countries can be very profitable from the socio-economic point of view and facilitate the fulfilment of the Kyoto agreement. A Swedish calculation shows that up to 10 billion USD can be saved by building a trans-nordic gasline and at the same time preparing for a common implementation of the Kyoto agreement, combined with increased electricity trade, improving the efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy sources. The consumption of natural gas must then increase threefold the next 25 years. There is no alternative to natural gas of the same potential if coal and oil are to be replaced to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide. The importance of natural gas is further increased by the phase-out of nuclear energy in Sweden. After 2025 the use of natural gas will be reduced and in 2040 biomass energy, wind energy and solar energy will contribute as much as the natural gas, that is, 250 TWh. Throughout the entire period more than half of the electricity production will be hydropower. It is presupposed that the cogeneration sector and the district heating network are substantially expanded, even in South Norway. The Nordic energy system is quite flexible with respect to fulfilling future CO 2 targets. Although the different Nordic countries have different commitments with respect to the Kyoto agreement, they will profit economically from acting jointly within the sum of their individual emission quotas

  9. Development of multicomponent parts-per-billion-level gas standards of volatile toxic organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoderick, G.C.; Zielinski, W.L. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the demand for stable, low-concentration multicomponent standards of volatile toxic organic compounds for quantifying national and state measurement of ambient air quality and hazardous waste incineration emissions has markedly increased in recent years. In response to this demand, a microgravimetric technique was developed and validated for preparing such standards; these standards ranged in concentration from several parts per million (ppm) down to one part per billion (ppb) and in complexity from one organic up to 17. Studies using the gravimetric procedure to prepare mixtures of different groups of organics. including multi-components mixtures in the 5 to 20 ppb range, revealed a very low imprecision. This procedure is based on the separate gravimetric introduction of individual organics into an evacuated gas cylinder, followed by the pressurized addition of a precalculated amount of pure nitrogen. Additional studies confirmed the long-term stability of these mixtures. The uncertainty of the concentrations of the individual organics at the 95% confidence level ranged from less than 1% relative at 1 ppm to less than 10% relative at 1 ppb. Over 100 primary gravimetric standards have been developed, validated, and used for certifying the concentrations of a variety of mixtures for monitoring studies

  10. A large neutral fraction of cosmic hydrogen a billion years after the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyithe, J Stuart B; Loeb, Abraham

    2004-02-26

    The fraction of ionized hydrogen left over from the Big Bang provides evidence for the time of formation of the first stars and quasar black holes in the early Universe; such objects provide the high-energy photons necessary to ionize hydrogen. Spectra of the two most distant known quasars show nearly complete absorption of photons with wavelengths shorter than the Lyman alpha transition of neutral hydrogen, indicating that hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) had not been completely ionized at a redshift of z approximately 6.3, about one billion years after the Big Bang. Here we show that the IGM surrounding these quasars had a neutral hydrogen fraction of tens of per cent before the quasar activity started, much higher than the previous lower limits of approximately 0.1 per cent. Our results, when combined with the recent inference of a large cumulative optical depth to electron scattering after cosmological recombination therefore suggest the presence of a second peak in the mean ionization history of the Universe.

  11. A Massive Galaxy in Its Core Formation Phase Three Billion Years After the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erica; van Dokkum, Pieter; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Schreiber, Natascha M. Forster; da Cunha, Elisabete; Tacconi, Linda; Bezanson, Rachel; Kirkpatrick, Allison; hide

    2014-01-01

    Most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores at early cosmic epochs. However, cores in their formation phase have not yet been observed. Previous studies have found galaxies with high gas velocity dispersions or small apparent sizes but so far no objects have been identified with both the stellar structure and the gas dynamics of a forming core. Here we present a candidate core in formation 11 billion years ago, at z = 2.3. GOODS-N-774 has a stellar mass of 1.0 × 10 (exp 11) solar mass, a half-light radius of 1.0 kpc, and a star formation rate of 90 (sup +45 / sub -20) solar mass/yr. The star forming gas has a velocity dispersion 317 plus or minus 30 km/s, amongst the highest ever measured. It is similar to the stellar velocity dispersions of the putative descendants of GOODS-N-774, compact quiescent galaxies at z is approximately equal to 2 (exp 8-11) and giant elliptical galaxies in the nearby Universe. Galaxies such as GOODS-N-774 appear to be rare; however, from the star formation rate and size of the galaxy we infer that many star forming cores may be heavily obscured, and could be missed in optical and near-infrared surveys.

  12. Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, Ashok J.; Derby, Elisabeth A.

    2003-06-01

    Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015, the global community will need to provide an additional one billion urban residents and 600 million rural residents with safe water within the next twelve years. This paper examines current water treatment measures and implementation methods for delivery of safe drinking water, and offers suggestions for making progress towards the goal of providing a timely and equitable solution for safe water provision. For water treatment, based on the serious limitations of boiling water and chlorination, we suggest an approach based on filtration coupled with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, combined with public education. Additionally, owing to the capacity limitations for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to take on this task primarily on their own, we suggest a strategy based on financially sustainable models that include the private sector as well as NGOs.

  13. Broadcasts for a billion: the growth of commercial television in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, C

    1987-01-01

    At present, Chinese television reaches 35% of the population (80-90% in urban areas) and is used by the government as a source of education and information. In recognition of the potential market represented by 1.1 billions consumers, Western advertisers have commissioned elaborate market research studies. Drama, sports, news, and movies are consistently identified as the favorite type of programming among Chinese television viewers. About 75% of Beijing adults watch television daily, making the medium both an important target for advertising campaigns and a way for Westerners to influence Chinese business and government leaders. Western advertisers have tended to concentrate their investments in the more urban, affluent regions where products have the greatest likelihood of being sold. There has been a recent trend, however, toward industrial commercials, with British and French companies buying television time to promote their image as partners in China's modernization. Key to the future of commercial advertising on Chinese Television. In many provinces, local television stations have developed a unique character and portray different sociocultural values than the national channel. Outside advertisers have sometimes experienced problems with local networks that substitute local advertising without informing the network. To correct this situation, the government is enacting pro-sponsor regulations that forbid the preemption of the national channel and its advertisements. At the same time, efforts are being made to improve relationships with local television stations by either paying them a fee or airing local commercials on the national network.

  14. Large data analysis: automatic visual personal identification in a demography of 1.2 billion persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugman, John

    2014-05-01

    The largest biometric deployment in history is now underway in India, where the Government is enrolling the iris patterns (among other data) of all 1.2 billion citizens. The purpose of the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) is to ensure fair access to welfare benefits and entitlements, to reduce fraud, and enhance social inclusion. Only a minority of Indian citizens have bank accounts; only 4 percent possess passports; and less than half of all aid money reaches its intended recipients. A person who lacks any means of establishing their identity is excluded from entitlements and does not officially exist; thus the slogan of UIDAI is: To give the poor an identity." This ambitious program enrolls a million people every day, across 36,000 stations run by 83 agencies, with a 3-year completion target for the entire national population. The halfway point was recently passed with more than 600 million persons now enrolled. In order to detect and prevent duplicate identities, every iris pattern that is enrolled is first compared against all others enrolled so far; thus the daily workflow now requires 600 trillion (or 600 million-million) iris cross-comparisons. Avoiding identity collisions (False Matches) requires high biometric entropy, and achieving the tremendous match speed requires phase bit coding. Both of these requirements are being delivered operationally by wavelet methods developed by the author for encoding and comparing iris patterns, which will be the focus of this Large Data Award" presentation.

  15. Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports are periodic reports issued for public release. For the deep set fishery these reports are issued quarterly and anually....

  16. Cancellation of the Annual Facility Grant Creates More Shortfalls for School Districts. BCTF Research Report. Section V. 2009-EF-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The Ministry of Education recently announced the cancellation of the Annual Facility Grant (AFG) for 2009-10, resulting in a loss of $110 million dollars in revenue to school districts. This decision comes after Boards of Education submitted their 2009-10 balanced budgets by June 30, based on expected revenues for the coming school year. Boards of…

  17. AREVA - First quarter 2011 revenue: 2.7% growth like for like to 1.979 billion euros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The group reported consolidated revenue of 1.979 billion euros in the 1. quarter of 2011, for 2.2% growth compared with the 1. quarter of 2010 (+ 2.7% like for like). The increase was driven by the Mining / Front End Business Group (+ 20.8% LFL). Revenue from outside France rose 12.0% to 1.22 billion euros and represented 62% of total revenue. The impacts of foreign exchange and changes in consolidation scope were negligible during the period. The March 11 events in Japan had no significant impact on the group's performance in the 1. quarter of 2011. The group's backlog of 43.5 billion euros at March 31, 2011 was stable in relation to March 31, 2010. The growth in the backlog of the Mining / Front End and Renewable Energies Business Groups offset the partial depletion of the backlog in the Reactors and Services and Back End Business Groups as contracts were completed

  18. Galaxy evolution. Evidence for mature bulges and an inside-out quenching phase 3 billion years after the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacchella, S; Carollo, C M; Renzini, A; Förster Schreiber, N M; Lang, P; Wuyts, S; Cresci, G; Dekel, A; Genzel, R; Lilly, S J; Mancini, C; Newman, S; Onodera, M; Shapley, A; Tacconi, L; Woo, J; Zamorani, G

    2015-04-17

    Most present-day galaxies with stellar masses ≥10(11) solar masses show no ongoing star formation and are dense spheroids. Ten billion years ago, similarly massive galaxies were typically forming stars at rates of hundreds solar masses per year. It is debated how star formation ceased, on which time scales, and how this "quenching" relates to the emergence of dense spheroids. We measured stellar mass and star-formation rate surface density distributions in star-forming galaxies at redshift 2.2 with ~1-kiloparsec resolution. We find that, in the most massive galaxies, star formation is quenched from the inside out, on time scales less than 1 billion years in the inner regions, up to a few billion years in the outer disks. These galaxies sustain high star-formation activity at large radii, while hosting fully grown and already quenched bulges in their cores. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Backlog at December 31, 2007: euro 39,8 billion, up by 55% from year-end 2006. 2007 sales revenue: euro 11.9 billion, up by 9.8% (+10.4% like-for-like)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The AREVA group's backlog reached a record level of euro 39.834 billion as of December 31, 2007, up by 55% from that of year-end 2006. In Nuclear, the backlog was euro 34.927 billion at year-end 2007 (+58%), due in particular to the signature of a contract in a record amount with the Chinese utility CGNPC. The series of agreements concluded provide among other things for the construction of two new-generation EPR nuclear islands and the supply of all of the materials and services needed for their operation through 2027. CGNPC also bought 35% of the production of UraMin, the mining company acquired by AREVA in August 2007. Industrial cooperation in the Back End of the cycle was launched with the signature of an agreement between China and France. In addition, the group signed several long-term contracts in significant amounts, particularly with KHNP of South Korea, EDF and Japanese utilities. The Transmission and Distribution division won several major contracts in Libya and Qatar at the end of the year approaching a total of euro 750 million. For the entire year, new orders grew by 34% to euro 5.816 billion. The backlog, meanwhile, grew by 40% to euro 4.906 billion at year-end. The group cleared sales revenue of euro 11.923 billion in 2007, up by 9.8% (+10.4% like-for-like) in relation to 2006 sales of euro 10.863 billion. Sales revenue for the 4. quarter of 2007 rose to euro 3.858 billion, for growth of 16.7% (+18.8% like-for-like) over one year. Sales revenue for the year was marked by: - Growth of 7.6% (+10.6% like-for-like) in Front End sales revenue, which rose to euro 3.140 billion. The division's Enrichment operations posted strong growth. - Sales were up by 17.5% (+15.2% like-for-like) to euro 2.717 billion in the Reactors and Services division. Sales revenue was driven in particular by the growth of Services operations, after weak demand in 2006, by progress on OL3 construction, and by the start of Flamanville 3, the second EPR. For the Back End division

  20. Tendances Carbone no. 75 'The CDM: let's not discard a tool that raised over US$ 200 billion'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishlov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO 2 allowances. This issue addresses the following points: Everyone wonders which miraculous instrument will enable the Green Climate Fund to mobilize the pledged US$100 billion per year in climate finance by 2020. Developing countries are now asking for interim targets to quench their mounting skepticism that this level of commitment can be reached. In the meantime paradoxically, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) - a tool that managed to leverage over US$200 billion of mostly private investment for climate change mitigation - is left dying without much regret

  1. 1999 Annual report -- Charting a new course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Oil production in 1999 averaged 91,534 barrels per day; the average for natural gas production was 465 million cubic feet per day. Annual totals were 33,410,000 barrels of oil and 160,677,000 cubic feet of natural gas. Proven and probable reserves are estimated at 475 million barrels of oil and 1.7 billion cubic feet of natural gas. The company has 8,639,000 acres of undeveloped land, down from 11,981,000 acres in 1998, due to rationalization and disposition of non-core assets, and the expiry of special exploratory permits in the southern part of Saskatchewan. A total of 743 wells were drilled in 1999, with a success rate of 84 percent, a significant improvement over the 68 per cent success rate realized on 712 wells in 1998. Finding and on-stream costs declined from $8.67 per proven BOE in 1998 to $7.79 per proven BOE in 1999. Production was replaced 1.6 times with the addition of 81 million BOE to oil and gas reserves. Gross operating revenue was $1.09 billion, net earnings were $69 million, compared a $10 million loss in 1998. Outstanding debt was reduced to $ 1.1 billion from $1.4 billion in 1998. The debt reduction is the result on non-core property disposition in the fourth quarter and substantially improved cash flow in the last half of the year. Details of operations and the financial health of the company are provided in management's discussion and analysis which supplements the audited financial statement and supporting documentation

  2. Ontario Hydro 1982 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    Due to the economic recession, primary electrical energy demand for the year failed to exceed that of the previous year for the first time since 1944. Actual demand was 100.8 billion kWh, 0.8 per cent below 1981. However, annual peak demand reached 18.1 million kW on January 18, an all-time high, and 5.4 per cent over January 1981. There were 104.1 billion kWh of electricity generated during the year, nearly equally from nuclear, coal, and water power. Nuclear generating units continued their outstanding performance. Bruce-3 completed a 494-day run at continuous power. NPD Generating Station celebrated 20 years of operation. Pickering B unit 5 started up and produced its first power. At Bruce A, a remote-controlled vehicle was used to remove damaged fuel to a shielded flask, completing the job in a short time with low staff radiation exposure. Bruce B construction progressed on schedule; while at Darlington, design and construction continued at a high level, with 1700 workers on site at year-end. Actual net income was $348 million, $38 million below forecast. Coal deliveries were 13.4 million Mg (23 per cent over 1981). Nuclear fuel deliveries to generating stations were 996 Mg (3 per cent over 1981). Agreements were negotiated for the supply of 5200 Mg of uranium concentrates during 1985-93. Nuclear fuel manufacturing contracts were awarded at lower prices than previously attained. Income totalling $163 million from electricity exports to the U.S.A. reduced overall cost of providing electricity to Ontario customers by 5.1 per cent. The Residential Energy Advisory Program surveyed 16,000 homeowners wishing to improve home energy efficiency. There were 20,000 residential customers who received grants to convert from oil to electric heating. Additional consumption resulting from these conversions is estimated at 280 million kWh

  3. Analysis of precious metals at parts-per-billion levels in industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tickner, James; O'Dwyer, Joel; Roach, Greg; Smith, Michael; Van Haarlem, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Precious metals, including gold and the platinum group metals (notable Pt, Pd and Rh), are mined commercially at concentrations of a few parts-per-million and below. Mining and processing operations demand sensitive and rapid analysis at concentrations down to about 100 parts-per-billion (ppb). In this paper, we discuss two technologies being developed to meet this challenge: X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and gamma-activation analysis (GAA). We have designed on-stream XRF analysers capable of measuring targeted elements in slurries with precisions in the 35–70 ppb range. For the past two years, two on-stream analysers have been in continuous operation at a precious metals concentrator plant. The simultaneous measurement of feed and waste stream grades provides real-time information on metal recovery, allowing changes in operating conditions and plant upsets to be detected and corrected more rapidly. Separately, we have been developing GAA for the measurement of gold as a replacement for the traditional laboratory fire-assay process. High-energy Bremsstrahlung X-rays are used to excite gold via the 197 Au(γ,γ′) 197 Au-M reaction, and the gamma-rays released in the decay of the meta-state are then counted. We report on work to significantly improve accuracy and detection limits. - Highlights: • X-ray fluorescence analysis at sub-parts-per-million concentration in bulk materials. • Gamma activation analysis of gold at high accuracy and low concentrations. • Use of advanced Monte Carlo techniques to optimise radiation-based analysers. • Industrial application of XRF and GAA technologies for minerals processing.

  4. With billions more on earth we should not back the wheel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1999-01-01

    In a lecture give in Nice, Dr. Hans Blix, former Director General of the Vienna International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), warned against turning back the wheel of energy policy development. Blix sees major deficits in information among a number of politicians bearing responsibility in important European states. This was evident not only from the opt-out plans in Sweden and Germany, but also from the request to delete nuclear power from the catalog of safe and sustainable energy sources, which had been rejected in the European Parliament by a very slim majority. Actually, there were indications of the public acceptance of nuclear power being broader - also with a view to problems of climate - than was evident from statements by politicians. Blix accused politicians of being opportunists playing to antinuclear voters. A factor influencing this situation could be the fact that the true consequences of opting out of the use of nuclear power, including higher carbon dioxide emissions, always became apparent long after the next election date. Blix asked what the nuclear industry could do to convince the public that nuclear power, compared with other forms of energy, should be classified as a sustainable energy source not only in terms of its price, but also with respect to its environmental impact. In this connection, the former Director General of IAEA mentioned five areas in which the nuclear industry was required to make progress on its own. These included the need for still more safety in all areas of nuclear technology worldwide, from exploration in the uranium mines to the storage of nuclear waste. In particular, those responsible should seek to attain public acceptance of the need for nuclear waste management and storage strategies as soon as possible. Ultimately, this required nuclear organizations to seek a direct dialog with the public. Blix concluded with the statement that it was simply unconvincing to venture into a future for billions of people on earth

  5. No Photon Left Behind: How Billions of Spectral Lines are Transforming Planetary Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Geronimo L.

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of realistic potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment surface (DMS) descriptions, theoretically computed linelists can now synthesize accurate spectral parameters for billions of spectral lines sampling the untamed high-energy molecular domain. Being the initial driver for these databases the characterization of stellar spectra, these theoretical databases, in combination with decades of precise experimental studies (nicely compiled in community databases such as HITRAN and GEISA), are leading to unprecedented precisions in the characterization of planetary atmospheres. Cometary sciences are among the most affected by this spectroscopic revolution. Even though comets are relatively cold bodies (T˜100 K), their infrared molecular emission is mainly defined by non-LTE solar fluorescence induced by a high-energy source (Sun, T˜5600 K). In order to interpret high-resolution spectra of comets acquired with extremely powerful telescopes (e.g., Keck, VLT, NASA-IRTF), we have developed advanced non-LTE fluorescence models that integrate the high-energy dynamic range of ab-initio databases (e.g., BT2, VTT, HPT2, BYTe, TROVE) and the precision of laboratory and semi-empirical compilations (e.g., HITRAN, GEISA, CDMS, WKMC, SELP, IUPAC). These new models allow us to calculate realistic non-LTE pumps, cascades, branching-ratios, and emission rates for a broad range of excitation regimes for H2O, HDO, HCN, HNC and NH3. We have implemented elements of these compilations to the study of Mars spectra, and we are now exploring its application to modeling non-LTE emission in exoplanets. In this presentation, we present application of these advanced models to interpret highresolution spectra of comets, Mars and exoplanets.

  6. Areva - First quarter 2009 revenue climbs 8.5% to 3.003 billion euros; Areva - Progression du chiffre d'affaires du 1. trimestre 2009: + 8,5% a 3003 millions d'euros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    First quarter 2009 revenue was up 8.5% compared with the same period last year, to 3.003 billion euros. At constant exchange rates and consolidation scope, growth came to 3.9%. Currency translation had a positive impact of 57 million euros over the quarter. Changes in the consolidation scope had an impact of 66 million euros, primarily due to the consolidation of acquisitions made in 2008 in Transmission and Distribution and in Renewable Energies. The growth engines for first quarter revenue were the Reactors and Services division and the Transmission and Distribution division, with growth of 9.2% and 16.1% respectively. Outside France, revenue rose to 2.032 billion euros, compared with 1.857 billion euros in the first quarter of 2008, and represents 68% of total revenue. Orders were steady in the first quarter, particularly in the Front End, which posted several significant contracts with US and Asian utilities, and in Transmission and Distribution, with orders up sharply in Asia and South America. As of March 31, 2009, the group's backlog reached 49.5 billion euros, for 28.3% growth year-on-year, including 31.3% growth in Nuclear and 10.2% in Transmission and Distribution. For the year as a whole, the group confirms its outlook for backlog and revenue growth as well as rising operating income It should be noted that revenue may vary significantly from one quarter to the next in nuclear operations. Accordingly, quarterly data cannot be viewed as a reliable indicator of annual trends.

  7. Annual report 1991 TECO Energy Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Achievements of TECO energy during 1991 are summarized in the annual report which includes financial statements for the year up to 31 December 1991. Methane production from coal seams in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama, by TECO Coalbed Methane, increased to 55 million cubic feet per day. The purchase of Gulf-States Paper's interest in two coalbed methane projects brought TECO's total commitment in coalbed methane to 135 million dollars. TECO Coal acquired additional reserves of low-sulphur coal in bringing total holdings to 175 million tons. Work continued on construction of TECO Power Services' combined cycle power plant. Tampa Electric announced plans to build a power plant in Polk County using the latest coal gasification technology TECO Transport ampersand Trade's shipping and transloading companies performed well during the year

  8. The U.S. dollar value of gasoline: Currency crisis in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The recent currency crisis in Europe puts the possibility of European economic union in further jeopardy after the Maastricht Treaty was not approved by the Netherlands earlier this Summer. The increased value of European currencies relative to the US dollar during the past Summer had little effect upon national currency gasoline prices. However, the recent currency devaluations in Italy, Spain, and Portugal, already struggling with weak economies, definitely reduce consumer buying power. Governments may use the high taxes imposed on gasoline as a buffer against higher prices, but still, consumers may buy less gasoline as their money doesn't go as far as it once did. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of Sept. 25, 1992; and (2) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, Sept. 1992 Edition

  9. Reassessment of NRC's dollar per person-rem conversion factor policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has completed a review and analysis of its dollar per person-rem conversion factor policy. As a result of this review, the NRC has decided to adopt a $2000 per person-rem conversion factor, subject it to present worth considerations, and limit its scope solely to health effects. This is in contrast to the previous policy and staff practice of using an undiscounted $1000 per person-rem conversion factor that served as a surrogate for all offsite consequences (health and offsite property). The policy shift has been incorporated in ''Regulatory Analysis Guidelines of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission,'' NUREG/BR-0058, Revision 2, November 1995

  10. A panel-data analysis of interest rates and dollarization in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar L. Bacha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the role of financial dollarization and systemic risks in the determination of real interest rates in Brazil. In a simple currency-choice portfolio model, we show that a strategy of reducing dollarization, if it fails to address fundamental macroeconomic risks, leads to higher domestic real interest rates. We confirm this prediction in an empirical panel-based model, involving systemic risk variables, but find that the effect is small after controlling for the risks of dilution and default. We apply our empirical estimates to the case of Brazil - a natural case study given its low degree of financial dollarization and very high real interest rates. The estimated model is unable to explain the high interest rate levels in the aftermath of Brazil's 1994 inflation stabilization. However, since the adoption in 1999 of inflation targeting and floating exchange rates, Brazil's real interest rates are found to be gradually converging to the model's predicted values. The estimation also shows that further reductions in Brazil's real interest rates could be achieved through sound fundamentals that led to investment-grade status rather than financial dollarization.Analisamos o papel da dolarização financeira e do risco sistêmico na determinação da taxa real de juros no Brasil. Em um modelo simples de portfólio, nós mostramos que a estratégia de reduzir a dolarização da economia, se ainda persistirem riscos macroeconômicos, leva a uma maior taxa real de juros doméstica. Nós confirmamos essa assertiva a partir de um modelo em painel, envolvendo variáveis de risco sistêmico; contudo, os efeitos são pequenos quando controlados por riscos de inflação e de default. Em seguida, aplicamos nossas estimações para o caso do Brasil - um caso natural dado seu baixo nível de dolarização financeira e altas taxas reais de juros. O modelo estimado é incapaz de explicar os elevados níveis de taxas de juros no Brasil após a

  11. Speculative and Hedging Interaction Model in Oil and U.S. Dollar Markets—Phase Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michael; Carfì, David

    2018-01-01

    We show that there is a phase transition in the bounded rational Carfì-Musolino model, and the possibility of a market crash. This model has two types of operators: a real economic subject (Air) and one or more investment banks (Bank). It also has two markets: oil spot market and US dollar futures. Bank agents react to Air and equilibrate much more quickly than Air. Thus Air is an acting external agent due to its longer-term investing, whereas the action of the banks equilibrates before Air makes its next transaction. This model constitutes a potential game, and agents crowd their preferences into one of the markets at a critical temperature when air makes no purchases of oil futures.

  12. Fingerprint detection on counterfeit US dollar banknotes: the importance of preliminary paper examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoury, Myriam; Cohen, Drorit; Himberg, Kimmo; Qvintus-Leino, Pia; Saari, Terhi; Almog, Joseph

    2004-09-01

    Two seizures of counterfeit 100 US dollar bills related to the same indicative number were submitted for processing of latent fingerprints. On one group of notes, identifiable fingerprints could be detected by the routine application of amino acid reagents. In the second case, this technique gave no results, even on deliberately deposited prints. Fingerprints could be revealed, however, by cyanoacrylate fuming followed by magnetic powder. Comprehensive paper analysis showed that banknotes from both seizures differed remarkably by chemical composition as well as paper macroscopic properties. The difference in surface free energy (related to surface tension) of the banknotes in the two groups seemed to be the major factor responsible for the great variance in fingerprint detectability.

  13. Policy issues related to substitution of the US dollar in oil pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essayyad, Musa; Algahtani, Ibrahim

    2005-01-01

    This policy paper attempts to evaluate the viability of switching from the US dollar to the euro in international oil pricing. If materialised, the switch would not impact only OPEC nations but would also have ramifications for other oil exporting as well as importing nations. It would also have considerable effect on US economy and international financial system. This paper recommends that in deciding which currency to use in oil pricing, OPEC member countries should not allow their positive or negative political rapport with the US Government to distort their rational choice. Switching to euro or any other currency will not eliminate loss of revenue, as the newly adopted currency will not be immune either from the exchange rate gyrations. In fact, there is no guarantee that the euro, yen, sterling pound, or any other major currency will be immune from fluctuations. As a way out, this paper recommends three alternatives. (Author)

  14. Is the Return to the Virtual US Dollar Pegging of East Asian Currencies Correct? : The Impacts of the Yen-Dollar Exchange Rate on the East Asian Currencies in the Post Crisis Period

    OpenAIRE

    金, 炳宣; Byung Sun, Kim; 経済学研究科

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the evolution of the exchange rate regime on East Asian economies between pre- and post-crisis periods, especially with a focus on the impacts of change in yen-dollar rate, using a regression model based on the work by Frankel and Wei (1994). As a result of the study, the following points are understood. Firstly, a greater diversity in exchange rate regime is seen for the post-crisis period than the pre-crisis period. At one extreme, Hong Kong under a stable dollar peg thro...

  15. Annual report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    After receiving a grant of 5.8 million dollars for an energy compressor system, a pulse stretcher ring and a new magnetic spectrometer, the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory devoted itself mainly to an upgrading program in 1984. This report describes the project as well as the physics carried out to maintain contact with experiments

  16. Food and beverage purchases in corner stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin E; Lenk, Kathleen; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Barnes, Timothy L; Harnack, Lisa; Erickson, Darin J; Laska, Melissa N

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about customer purchases of foods and beverages from small and non-traditional food retailers (i.e. corner stores, gas-marts, dollar stores and pharmacies). The present study aimed to: (i) describe customer characteristics, shopping frequency and reasons for shopping at small and non-traditional food retailers; and (ii) describe food/beverage purchases and their nutritional quality, including differences across store type. Data were collected through customer intercept interviews. Nutritional quality of food/beverage purchases was analysed; a Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) score for purchases was created by aggregating participant purchases at each store. Small and non-traditional food stores that were not WIC-authorized in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN, USA. Customers (n 661) from 105 food retailers. Among participants, 29 % shopped at the store at least once daily; an additional 44 % shopped there at least once weekly. Most participants (74 %) cited convenient location as the primary draw to the store. Customers purchased a median of 2262 kJ (540 kcal), which varied by store type (P=0·04). The amount of added sugar far surpassed national dietary recommendations. At dollar stores, participants purchased a median of 5302 kJ (1266 kcal) for a median value of $US 2·89. Sugar-sweetened beverages were the most common purchase. The mean HEI-2010 score across all stores was 36·4. Small and non-traditional food stores contribute to the urban food environment. Given the poor nutritional quality of purchases, findings support the need for interventions that address customer decision making in these stores.

  17. RTE - annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    RTE is the French electricity transmission system operator responsible for operation, maintenance and development, With a system which is the largest in Europe - 100,000 kilometres of high voltage and extra-high voltage circuits and 46 cross-border interconnections, plus a key location at the geographical hub - RTE is playing a key role in the development of the European electricity market. RTE is a public service company guaranteeing the efficient operation and reliability of the French power system, and providing equitable access to all system users. The company is part of the EDF Group, but has totally independent management and administration, as required by law. In 2005, RTE became a limited liability company with an Executive Board and Supervisory Board; this corporate status guarantees due neutrality in providing service to all players on the electricity market. RTE is the Number 1 electricity transmission system in Europe with 8,300 employees and 4 billion euros turnover. This activity report presents: 1 - Background: The RTE Transmission System, Message from the Chairman of the Executive Board; 2 - A High Performance Public Service Company at the Hub of the European Electricity Market: 2006 overview and Highlights, RTE Governance and Organisation; 3 - A Year with Many Developments: Satisfied Customers on a More Efficient Market, Reliable, Upgraded Industrial Facilities, A Commitment to Environmentally Friendly Public Service, New Foundations for Human Resources Policy, International Business on the Move, A Good Improvement in Financial Performance; 4 - Glossary; 5 - Management Report: Financial and Legal Information (Highlights in 2006, Market Trends, Business and Results for 2006, Capital, Financial Structure, Prospects for 2007, Other Financial and Legal Information), Information on the Environment (Environment Policy - Review, Respect for Natural Environments and Landscapes, Consultation and Consideration, Research, Continuing Improvement, Environmental

  18. The Canadian Dollar versus the Collection: How Canadian University Libraries are Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Scott

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Through 2015 and into 2016, Canadian academic libraries’ collections budgets were severely strained due to the steady decline of the CAD/USD exchange rate. As most subscription fees for electronic resources (e-resources are billed in US dollars, the falling value of the Canadian dollar significantly reduced libraries’ purchasing power. This study is based on a survey of the English-speaking member institutions of the Canadian Research Knowledge Network (CRKN, a Canadian collections consortium, carried out to determine the impact of the poor exchange rate on collections development and how libraries are coping with new budgetary pressures. Librarians from 33 universities provided survey responses. Of these, 22 participated in telephone interviews to further discuss concerns and ideas regarding the current crisis. The study finds that all participant libraries have taken actions to address the budgetary shortfall, including cancelling serial and database subscriptions, negotiating lower costs with vendors, purchasing fewer monographs, and soliciting additional funding from their institutions. While the financial strain resulting from exchange rate fluctuations is indeed a significant problem for which solutions should be sought, several respondents stressed that it only exacerbates the ongoing inflation of e-resource subscriptions. This deeper and enduring issue, which is expected to outlast the present exchange rate crisis, is enabled by an inherently flawed scholarly publishing system. Thus, librarians engaged in discussions with their wider academic communities concerning collections budgets should not focus exclusively on the exchange rate but should leverage the opportunity to explore alternatives to the current scholarly communication model. If solutions exist, they will likely only be achieved through the support of faculty and university administrators, as well as cooperation among post-secondary institutions and library consortia. Au

  19. Constraint on a Varying Proton-Electron Mass Ratio 1.5 Billion Years after the Big Bang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagdonaite, J.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Murphy, M.T.; Withmore, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    A molecular hydrogen absorber at a lookback time of 12.4 billion years, corresponding to 10% of the age of the Universe today, is analyzed to put a constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio, μ. A high resolution spectrum of the J1443+2724 quasar, which was observed with the Very Large

  20. Rapid emergence of subaerial landmasses and onset of a modern hydrologic cycle 2.5 billion years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindeman, I N; Zakharov, D O; Palandri, J; Greber, N D; Dauphas, N; Retallack, G J; Hofmann, A; Lackey, J S; Bekker, A

    2018-05-01

    The history of the growth of continental crust is uncertain, and several different models that involve a gradual, decelerating, or stepwise process have been proposed 1-4 . Even more uncertain is the timing and the secular trend of the emergence of most landmasses above the sea (subaerial landmasses), with estimates ranging from about one billion to three billion years ago 5-7 . The area of emerged crust influences global climate feedbacks and the supply of nutrients to the oceans 8 , and therefore connects Earth's crustal evolution to surface environmental conditions 9-11 . Here we use the triple-oxygen-isotope composition of shales from all continents, spanning 3.7 billion years, to provide constraints on the emergence of continents over time. Our measurements show a stepwise total decrease of 0.08 per mille in the average triple-oxygen-isotope value of shales across the Archaean-Proterozoic boundary. We suggest that our data are best explained by a shift in the nature of water-rock interactions, from near-coastal in the Archaean era to predominantly continental in the Proterozoic, accompanied by a decrease in average surface temperatures. We propose that this shift may have coincided with the onset of a modern hydrological cycle owing to the rapid emergence of continental crust with near-modern average elevation and aerial extent roughly 2.5 billion years ago.

  1. Development and validation of a weather-based warning system to advise fungicide applications to control dollar spot on turfgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. L.; Kerns, J. P.; Walker, N. R.; Payne, A. F.; Horvath, B.; Inguagiato, J. C.; Kaminski, J. E.; Tomaso-Peterson, M.

    2018-01-01

    Dollar spot is one of the most common diseases of golf course turfgrass and numerous fungicide applications are often required to provide adequate control. Weather-based disease warning systems have been developed to more accurately time fungicide applications; however, they tend to be ineffective and are not currently in widespread use. The primary objective of this research was to develop a new weather-based disease warning system to more accurately advise fungicide applications to control dollar spot activity across a broad geographic and climactic range. The new dollar spot warning system was developed from data collected at field sites in Madison, WI and Stillwater, OK in 2008 and warning system validation sites were established in Madison, WI, Stillwater, OK, Knoxville, TN, State College, PA, Starkville, MS, and Storrs, CT between 2011 and 2016. A meta-analysis of all site-years was conducted and the most effective warning system for dollar spot development consisted of a five-day moving average of relative humidity and average daily temperature. Using this model the highest effective probability that provided dollar spot control similar to that of a calendar-based program across the numerous sites and years was 20%. Additional analysis found that the 20% spray threshold provided comparable control to the calendar-based program while reducing fungicide usage by up to 30%, though further refinement may be needed as practitioners implement this warning system in a range of environments not tested here. The weather-based dollar spot warning system presented here will likely become an important tool for implementing precision disease management strategies for future turfgrass managers, especially as financial and regulatory pressures increase the need to reduce pesticide usage on golf course turfgrass. PMID:29522560

  2. Strongly baryon-dominated disk galaxies at the peak of galaxy formation ten billion years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzel, R; Schreiber, N M Förster; Übler, H; Lang, P; Naab, T; Bender, R; Tacconi, L J; Wisnioski, E; Wuyts, S; Alexander, T; Beifiori, A; Belli, S; Brammer, G; Burkert, A; Carollo, C M; Chan, J; Davies, R; Fossati, M; Galametz, A; Genel, S; Gerhard, O; Lutz, D; Mendel, J T; Momcheva, I; Nelson, E J; Renzini, A; Saglia, R; Sternberg, A; Tacchella, S; Tadaki, K; Wilman, D

    2017-03-15

    In the cold dark matter cosmology, the baryonic components of galaxies-stars and gas-are thought to be mixed with and embedded in non-baryonic and non-relativistic dark matter, which dominates the total mass of the galaxy and its dark-matter halo. In the local (low-redshift) Universe, the mass of dark matter within a galactic disk increases with disk radius, becoming appreciable and then dominant in the outer, baryonic regions of the disks of star-forming galaxies. This results in rotation velocities of the visible matter within the disk that are constant or increasing with disk radius-a hallmark of the dark-matter model. Comparisons between the dynamical mass, inferred from these velocities in rotational equilibrium, and the sum of the stellar and cold-gas mass at the peak epoch of galaxy formation ten billion years ago, inferred from ancillary data, suggest high baryon fractions in the inner, star-forming regions of the disks. Although this implied baryon fraction may be larger than in the local Universe, the systematic uncertainties (owing to the chosen stellar initial-mass function and the calibration of gas masses) render such comparisons inconclusive in terms of the mass of dark matter. Here we report rotation curves (showing rotation velocity as a function of disk radius) for the outer disks of six massive star-forming galaxies, and find that the rotation velocities are not constant, but decrease with radius. We propose that this trend arises because of a combination of two main factors: first, a large fraction of the massive high-redshift galaxy population was strongly baryon-dominated, with dark matter playing a smaller part than in the local Universe; and second, the large velocity dispersion in high-redshift disks introduces a substantial pressure term that leads to a decrease in rotation velocity with increasing radius. The effect of both factors appears to increase with redshift. Qualitatively, the observations suggest that baryons in the early (high

  3. Four billion years of ophiolites reveal secular trends in oceanic crust formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Furnes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We combine a geological, geochemical and tectonic dataset from 118 ophiolite complexes of the major global Phanerozoic orogenic belts with similar datasets of ophiolites from 111 Precambrian greenstone belts to construct an overview of oceanic crust generation over 4 billion years. Geochemical discrimination systematics built on immobile trace elements reveal that the basaltic units of the Phanerozoic ophiolites are dominantly subduction-related (75%, linked to backarc processes and characterized by a strong MORB component, similar to ophiolites in Precambrian greenstone sequences (85%. The remaining 25% Phanerozoic subduction-unrelated ophiolites are mainly (74% of Mid-Ocean-Ridge type (MORB type, in contrast to the equal proportion of Rift/Continental Margin, Plume, and MORB type ophiolites in the Precambrian greenstone belts. Throughout the Phanerozoic there are large geochemical variations in major and trace elements, but for average element values calculated in 5 bins of 100 million year intervals there are no obvious secular trends. By contrast, basaltic units in the ophiolites of the Precambrian greenstones (calculated in 12 bins of 250 million years intervals, starting in late Paleo- to early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 2.0–1.8 Ga, exhibit an apparent decrease in the average values of incompatible elements such as Ti, P, Zr, Y and Nb, and an increase in the compatible elements Ni and Cr with deeper time to the end of the Archean and into the Hadean. These changes can be attributed to decreasing degrees of partial melting of the upper mantle from Hadean/Archean to Present. The onset of geochemical changes coincide with the timing of detectible changes in the structural architecture of the ophiolites such as greater volumes of gabbro and more common sheeted dyke complexes, and lesser occurrences of ocelli (varioles in the pillow lavas in ophiolites younger than 2 Ga. The global data from the Precambrian ophiolites, representative of nearly 50

  4. Subsampled open-reference clustering creates consistent, comprehensive OTU definitions and scales to billions of sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Jai Ram; He, Yan; Navas-Molina, Jose A; Walters, William A; Ursell, Luke K; Gibbons, Sean M; Chase, John; McDonald, Daniel; Gonzalez, Antonio; Robbins-Pianka, Adam; Clemente, Jose C; Gilbert, Jack A; Huse, Susan M; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Knight, Rob; Caporaso, J Gregory

    2014-01-01

    We present a performance-optimized algorithm, subsampled open-reference OTU picking, for assigning marker gene (e.g., 16S rRNA) sequences generated on next-generation sequencing platforms to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for microbial community analysis. This algorithm provides benefits over de novo OTU picking (clustering can be performed largely in parallel, reducing runtime) and closed-reference OTU picking (all reads are clustered, not only those that match a reference database sequence with high similarity). Because more of our algorithm can be run in parallel relative to "classic" open-reference OTU picking, it makes open-reference OTU picking tractable on massive amplicon sequence data sets (though on smaller data sets, "classic" open-reference OTU clustering is often faster). We illustrate that here by applying it to the first 15,000 samples sequenced for the Earth Microbiome Project (1.3 billion V4 16S rRNA amplicons). To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest OTU picking run ever performed, and we estimate that our new algorithm runs in less than 1/5 the time than would be required of "classic" open reference OTU picking. We show that subsampled open-reference OTU picking yields results that are highly correlated with those generated by "classic" open-reference OTU picking through comparisons on three well-studied datasets. An implementation of this algorithm is provided in the popular QIIME software package, which uses uclust for read clustering. All analyses were performed using QIIME's uclust wrappers, though we provide details (aided by the open-source code in our GitHub repository) that will allow implementation of subsampled open-reference OTU picking independently of QIIME (e.g., in a compiled programming language, where runtimes should be further reduced). Our analyses should generalize to other implementations of these OTU picking algorithms. Finally, we present a comparison of parameter settings in QIIME's OTU picking workflows and

  5. Subsampled open-reference clustering creates consistent, comprehensive OTU definitions and scales to billions of sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Ram Rideout

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a performance-optimized algorithm, subsampled open-reference OTU picking, for assigning marker gene (e.g., 16S rRNA sequences generated on next-generation sequencing platforms to operational taxonomic units (OTUs for microbial community analysis. This algorithm provides benefits over de novo OTU picking (clustering can be performed largely in parallel, reducing runtime and closed-reference OTU picking (all reads are clustered, not only those that match a reference database sequence with high similarity. Because more of our algorithm can be run in parallel relative to “classic” open-reference OTU picking, it makes open-reference OTU picking tractable on massive amplicon sequence data sets (though on smaller data sets, “classic” open-reference OTU clustering is often faster. We illustrate that here by applying it to the first 15,000 samples sequenced for the Earth Microbiome Project (1.3 billion V4 16S rRNA amplicons. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest OTU picking run ever performed, and we estimate that our new algorithm runs in less than 1/5 the time than would be required of “classic” open reference OTU picking. We show that subsampled open-reference OTU picking yields results that are highly correlated with those generated by “classic” open-reference OTU picking through comparisons on three well-studied datasets. An implementation of this algorithm is provided in the popular QIIME software package, which uses uclust for read clustering. All analyses were performed using QIIME’s uclust wrappers, though we provide details (aided by the open-source code in our GitHub repository that will allow implementation of subsampled open-reference OTU picking independently of QIIME (e.g., in a compiled programming language, where runtimes should be further reduced. Our analyses should generalize to other implementations of these OTU picking algorithms. Finally, we present a comparison of parameter settings in

  6. Future fuels: Canada's coast-to-coast network of refineries is emerging from a $3-billion-plus spending binge to take the lead in producing low sulphur gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunan, D.

    2004-01-01

    A series of investments to convert Canada's 22 operating refineries to produce low-sulphur gasoline are discussed. The investment involves more than $3-billion that will transform Canada's portfolio of aging refineries into one of the most efficient in the western world, and in the process reduce sulphur content in Canadian gasoline to 30 ppm. In some cases the refitting will be completed years ahead of the required 2005 deadline. Total refining capacity in Canada is about 2.5 million barrels per day of crude oil, which includes 580,000 barrels per day of capacity that is dedicated to upgrading bitumen into synthetic crude oil. The initiative to update the refineries was led by Irving Oil, which launched a one billion dollar refit of its 250,000 barrels per day Saint John refinery in the year 2000. Irving Oil's efforts were driven by the company's marketing program in the United States where regional fuel quality standards are higher than national standards either in Canada or the United States. Shell Canada and Imperial Oil are also on track to meet the 30 ppm sulphur level ahead of schedule. For example, Shell Canada is cooperating with Suncor Energy Products in the construction of a hydrotreater at Suncor's Sarnia refinery which will be used to reduce sulphur content of diesel from both the Shell and Suncor refineries, while Imperial Oil is investing over $520 million to refit its refineries in Alberta, Ontario and Nova Scotia. Petro-Canada too, has embarked on a $450 million capital program late in 2003 to introduce low sulphur gasoline; this was in addition to the $1.2 billion program to integrate its bitumen production, upgrading and refining operations. Ultramar launched its $300 million desulphurization program in late 2002; the project is now nearing completion. Refit of Ultramar's Jean Gaulin refinery on Quebec's South Shore will also include a 30,000 barrels per day continuous regeneration platformer to provide a second hydrogen source for the

  7. Healthcare Rationing by Proxy: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis and the Misuse of the &dollar;50 000 Threshold in the US

    OpenAIRE

    John F.P. Bridges; Eberechukwu Onukwugha; C. Daniel. Mullins

    2010-01-01

    The application of cost-effectiveness analysis in healthcare has become commonplace in the US, but the validity of this approach is in jeopardy unless the proverbial &dollar;US50 000 per QALY benchmark for determining value for money is updated for the 21st century. While the initial aim of this article was to review the arguments for abandoning the &dollar;US50 000 threshold, it quickly turned to questioning whether we should maintain a fixed threshold at all. Our consideration of the releva...

  8. Terrorism Base Potential in the Tri-Border Area of Latin America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Halaburda, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    .... It has always been considered fertile ground for terrorist groups. Illicit activities are common, generating annually billions of dollars in money laundering, arms and drug trafficking, money and document forgery, and electronic media counterfeiting...

  9. Modularization for ground engineering construction in the Anyue Gasfield, Sichuan Basin, with the designed annual gas processing capacity of six billion m3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoming Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Anyue Gasfield, Sichuan Basin, the Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoir in Moxi Block has enormous natural gas reserves, and it is a typical three-high (high temperature, high pressure, and high flow rate sour gas field. Its ground engineering project (with the designed gas processing capacity of 60 × 108 m3/a is characterized by high processing rate of each unit, complex process control, large construction load, restricted construction site and tight schedule. Based on the traditional engineering construction mode, however, it is difficult to complete the project design and construction within 16 months. In view of this, the design concept of unit large-scale modularization was introduced to implement “normalized design, scale purchase, factory-like prefabrication and modularized construction” and develop the modularization technology of large-scale surface engineering construction. This modularization technology is performed as follows. First, the modularized units are laid out reasonably according to the technological process. Second, the layout of modularized units is usually superimposed in the multi-layer framework. Third, those equipments with the same or similar operational modes, medium properties, functional characteristics and installation requirements are concentrated in the pattern of a module. Fourth, escape passageway is specially set up. Fifth, room for installation, maintenance and repair of large equipments is reserved. And sixth, transportation and hoisting requirements of modules are taken into consideration sufficiently. This technology is contributive to the improvement of design quality, effective shortening of design period, reduction of field working load, decrease of safety management risk of on-site installation, increase of production efficiency, conservation of land occupation and diminishment of construction investment. It plays a reference role in the modularized construction of surface engineering of similar large projects.

  10. Speculazione sulle valute e fluttuazzioni del dollaro. (Currency speculation and dollar fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SCHULMEISTER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In questo studio i motivi dietro le ampie fluttuazioni del tasso di cambio del dollaro a seguito del crollo del sistema di Bretton Woods, per la maggior parte non spiegata dalle teorie prevalenti del tasso di cambio, sono esplorate. L'autore indaga il tasso di cambio tra le due valute più scambiate, il dollaro e il marco tedesco, dal 1973 al 1988. Nella prima parte, il modello dei movimenti dei tassi di cambio quotidiani viene esaminato per dimostrare che una sequenza di rialzo o al ribasso interrotto da movimenti non direzionali è tipico della dinamica dei tassi di cambio nel breve periodo. Questo modello è sistematicamente sfruttata attraverso speculazione monetaria, in particolare attraverso l'uso di "analisi tecnica". Nella seconda parte, l'autore si concentra sul medio termine, sostenendo che le fluttuazioni possono essere spiegati come il risultato di interagire squilibri dei beni e mercati delle attività. Anche se valuta la speculazione è stata sistematicamente redditizio per la maggior parte delle valute, deve essere considerata destabilizzante in quanto la sequenza delle corse dei prezzi ha causato notevoli e persistenti deviazioni dei tassi di cambio dai loro valori di equilibrio (PIL.In this study the reasons behind the wide fluctuations of the dollar exchange rate following the breakdown of the Bretton Woods system, for the most part unexplained by the prevailing exchange rate theories, are explored. The author investigates the exchange rate between the two most traded currencies, the dollar and the deutschemark, from 1973 to 1988. In the first part, the pattern of the daily exchange rate movements is examined to show that a sequence of upward and downward trends interrupted by non-directional movements is typical of exchange rate dynamics in the short run. This pattern is systemically exploited through currency speculation, particularly through the use of “technical analysis”. In the second part, the author focuses on the

  11. PERAMALAN NILAI RUPIAH TERHADAP US DOLLAR UNTUK MEMPERSIAPKAN EKSPOR UNGGULAN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delu Damelia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia merupakan negara kepulauan dan mempunyai bentang laut yang cukup besar sebesar 5,8 juta km2 dan Indonesia sangat memiliki berbagai macam biota laut yang cukup lengkap dan beragam. Salah satu produk perikanan di Indonesia yaitu udang. Terdapat banyak produk turunan udang,   ada   frozen,   fresh   ataupun   jenis   spesies   udangnya.   Bicara   mengenai perdagangan Internasional Indonesia salah satunya yaitu eksport, Udang menjadi komoditi yang merajai ekspor perikanan, dengan nilai yang disumbang sebesar US$ 1,280 juta, disusul tuna US$606 juta, ikan lainnya US$ 700 juta dan hasil perikanan lainnya US$ 746 juta. Ekspor udang merupakan   ekspor terbesar  dalam  penyumbangannya  secara  value.  Ekspor  udang  sendiri  merambah ke berbagai Negara di dunia. Udang sendiri sudah ditetapkan untuk komoditi ekspor unggulan Indonesia. Ekspor udang terbesar Indonesia dengan dasar harga paling besar adalah ke Negara USA atau amerika serikat. Maka dalam penelitian ini meneliti bagaimana kondisi pertukaran atau transaksi Rupiah dengan US Dollar untuk menghadapi kondisi eksport udang yang semakin membesar dan sebagian besarnya ekspor udang merambah ke amerika serikat.  Indonesia is an archipelago and has a fairly large seascape by 5.8 million km2 and Indonesia is to have a wide variety of marine life that is quite complete and diverse. One of fishery products in Indonesia, namely shrimp. There are many products derived shrimp, there are frozen, fresh or shrimp species. Talk about International trade Indonesia one of which is exported, Shrimp become a commodity which dominated the fishery exports, with the value of the contributed amount of US $ 1.280 million, followed by US $ 606 million tuna, other fish US $ 700 million and other fishery products of US $ 746 million. Exports of shrimp is the largest export value in penyumbangannya basis. Shrimp exports alone expanded to various countries in the world. Shrimp itself is

  12. 76 FR 5819 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; HUD-Owned Real Estate-Dollar Home...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Proposed Information Collection to OMB; HUD-Owned Real Estate--Dollar Home Sales Program AGENCY: Office of... organizations, and government entities. The sale of these properties under this program makes it possible for... appropriate automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting...

  13. From Petrodollars to Petroeuros: Are the Dollar’s Days as an International Reserve Currency Drawing to an End?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-03

    price of oil less transparent, require continuous updating to minimize currency arbitrage , and could make the market less liquid as available capital...there are plenty of cheap ways for traders to hedge against currency risk if they are concerned about movements in the dollar. Conclusions

  14. Data from: Clarireedia: A new fungal genus comprising four pathogenic species responsible for dollar spot disease of turfgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollar spot is one of the most destructive globally distributed diseases of turfgrass. The identity of the fungus responsible for the disease has been the subject of debate for more than 75 years. These datasets provide the phylogenetic evidence from three nucleotide sequence markers (CaM, ITS and M...

  15. Twisting the Dollar? On the Consistency of Short-Run and Long-Run Exchange Rate Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Rülke, Jan; Frenkel, Michael

    2012-01-01

    ’ in the dollar/euro expectation formation process, i.e. market participants expect bandwagon effects in the short run, while they have stabilizing expectations in their long-run forecasts. Applying a panel probit analysis we find that this twisting behavior is more likely to occur in periods of excess exchange...

  16. An uncertain dollar: The Wall Street Journal, the New York Times and the monetary crisis of 1971 to 1973

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mata, T.

    2008-01-01

    In August 15, 1971, President Nixon announced the unilateral suspension of the convertibility of the dollar into gold, a foundation of the world monetary system since the Second World War. The media and economic experts were caught by surprise, neither could foresee the immediate consequences of the

  17. 77 FR 840 - Pricing for 2012 America the Beautiful Quarters® Products and American Eagle Silver Dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2012 America the Beautiful Quarters[supreg] Products and American Eagle Silver Dollars AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing 2012 pricing for America the Beautiful...

  18. 77 FR 14600 - Pricing for 2012 Kennedy Half-Dollar Bags and Rolls, Bronze Medals, the First Spouse Bronze Medal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2012 Kennedy Half-Dollar Bags and Rolls, Bronze Medals, the First Spouse Bronze Medal Set and the Birth Set AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing 2012 pricing for...

  19. The 2011-2015 physical and monetary balance for electricity: spending of over euro 50 billion in 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggemos, Fabien; Meilhac, Christophe; Riedinger, Nicolas; Martial, Elodie; Mombel, David; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Lavail, Jennyfer

    2017-09-01

    Electricity consumers (excluding the electricity sector itself) spent euro 52 billion in 2015 to consume 446 TWh. Taxes accounted for 27% of that expenditure (of which around one-half contributed to financing renewable sources of electricity and to geographical price adjustments), the cost of transmission 27%, and that of supply (including production and sales) 46%. Trade with other countries showed a positive balance of euro 2.3 billion. The residential sector was the main consuming sector, accounting for 35% of physical deliveries. Given the transmission and sales costs, higher on average for households than for businesses, the residential sector accounted for a greater proportion of the spending (48%). Conversely, industry accounted for 24% of physical consumption but only 15% of spending. The share of the services sector was around one-third, in both physical-unit and monetary terms

  20. Hazus® estimated annualized earthquake losses for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Bausch, Doug; Rozelle, Jesse; Holub, John; McGowan, Sean

    2017-01-01

    Large earthquakes can cause social and economic disruption that can be unprecedented to any given community, and the full recovery from these impacts may or may not always be achievable. In the United States (U.S.), the 1994 M6.7 Northridge earthquake in California remains the third costliest disaster in U.S. history; and it was one of the most expensive disasters for the federal government. Internationally, earthquakes in the last decade alone have claimed tens of thousands of lives and caused hundreds of billions of dollars of economic impact throughout the globe (~90 billion U.S. dollars (USD) from 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan China, ~20 billion USD from 2010 M8.8 Maule earthquake in Chile, ~220 billion USD from 2011 M9.0 Tohoku Japan earthquake, ~25 billion USD from 2011 M6.3 Christchurch New Zealand, and ~22 billion USD from 2016 M7.0 Kumamoto Japan). Recent earthquakes show a pattern of steadily increasing damages and losses that are primarily due to three key factors: (1) significant growth in earthquake-prone urban areas, (2) vulnerability of the older building stock, including poorly engineered non-ductile concrete buildings, and (3) an increased interdependency in terms of supply and demand for the businesses that operate among different parts of the world. In the United States, earthquake risk continues to grow with increased exposure of population and development even though the earthquake hazard has remained relatively stable except for the regions of induced seismic activity. Understanding the seismic hazard requires studying earthquake characteristics and locales in which they occur, while understanding the risk requires an assessment of the potential damage from earthquake shaking to the built environment and to the welfare of people—especially in high-risk areas. Estimating the varying degree of earthquake risk throughout the United States is critical for informed decision-making on mitigation policies, priorities, strategies, and funding levels in the

  1. $17 billion needed for population programme to year 2000: Dr. Nafis Sadik launches State of World Population Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), in her address on July 11 to the Foreign Press Association in London on the occasion of the release of the "1995 State of the World Population Report," stated that governments needed to invest in people, and that the estimated amount needed to reduce population numbers in developing countries was $17 billion for the year 2000. Two-thirds of the cost would be supplied by the developing countries. She said that coordinating population policies globally through such documents as the Programme of Action from the Cairo Conference would aid in slowing population growth. World population, currently 5.7 billion, is projected to reach 7.1-7.83 billion in 2015 and 7.9-11.9 billion in 2050. She also noted that certain conditions faced by women bear upon unsustainable population growth. The cycle of poverty continues in developing countries because very young mothers, who face higher risks in pregnancy and childbirth than those who delay childbearing until after the age of 20, are less likely to continue their education, more likely to have lower-paying jobs, and have a higher rate of separation and divorce. The isolation of women from widespread political participation and the marginalization of women's concerns from mainstream topics has resulted in ineffective family planning programs, including prevention of illness or impairment related to pregnancy or childbirth. Women, in most societies, cannot fully participate in economic and public life, have limited access to positions of influence and power, have narrower occupational choices and lower earnings than men, and must struggle to reconcile activities outside the home with their traditional roles. Sustainable development can only be achieved when social development expands opportunities for individuals (men and women), and their families, empowering them in the attainment of their social, economic, political, and cultural aspirations.

  2. How Brazil Transferred Billions to Foreign Coffee Importers: The International Coffee Agreement, Rent Seeking and Export Tax Rebates

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Lovell S.

    2003-01-01

    Rent seeking is well known, but empirical evidence of its effects is relatively rare. This paper analyzes how the domestic and international rent seeking caused Brazil to provide coffee export tax rebates that transferred foreign exchange to coffee importers. Although Brazil was the world's largest exporter, it began to pay export tax rebates to selected coffee importers in 1965 and, by 1988, had paid rebates totaling $8 billion. Brazil explained these rebates as a mechanism to price disc...

  3. Taking representation seriously: rethinking bioethics through Clint Eastwood's Million Dollar Baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, Harold

    2011-06-01

    In this article, I propose a new model for understanding the function of representation in bioethics. Bioethicists have traditionally judged representations according to a mimetic paradigm, in which representations of bioethical dilemmas are assessed based on their correspondence to the "reality" of bioethics itself. In this article, I argue that this mimetic paradigm obscures the interaction between representation and reality and diverts bioethicists from analyzing the tensions in the representational object itself. I propose an anti-mimetic model of representation that is attuned to how representations can both maintain and potentially subvert dominant conceptions of bioethics. I illustrate this model through a case study of Clint Eastwood's film Million Dollar Baby. By focusing attention on the film's lack of adherence bioethical procedures and medical science, critics missed how an analysis of its representational logic provides a means of reimagining both bioethics and medical practice. In my conclusion, I build off this case study to assess how an incorporation of representational studies can deepen-and be deepened by-recent calls for interdisciplinarity in bioethics.

  4. Maximizing federal Medicaid dollars: nursing home provider tax adoption, 2000-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edward Alan; Wang, Lili

    2009-12-01

    Since Medicaid is jointly financed by the federal and state governments, state officials have sought to offset state expenditures by maximizing federal contributions. One such strategy is to adopt a provider tax, which enables states to collect revenues from providers; those revenues are then used to pay for services rendered to Medicaid recipients, thereby leveraging federal matching dollars without concomitant increases in state expenditures. The number of states adopting a nursing home tax increased from thirteen to thirty-one between 2000 and 2004. This study seeks to identify the factors that spurred the rapid increase in nursing home provider taxes following implementation of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Results indicate that states with more powerful nursing home lobbies, lower proportions of private pay nursing home residents, worse fiscal health, weaker fiscal capacity, broader Medicaid eligibility, and nursing home supply restrictions were more likely to adopt. This implies that state officials react rationally to prevailing fiscal and programmatic circumstances when formulating policy under Medicaid and that providers seek relief, in part, from the adverse fiscal consequences of federal policy changes by promoting policy change at the state level.

  5. Prediksi Nilai Tukar Rupiah Terhadap US Dollar Menggunakan Metode Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daneswara Jauhari

    2016-12-01

    Exchange currency rate has a wide influence in the economy of a country, both domestically or internationally. The importance of knowing the pattern of exchange rate against the IDR to USD could help the economic growth due to foreign trade involves the use of currencies of different countries. Therefore, we need an application that can predict the value of IDR against the USD in the future. In this research, the authors use genetic programming (GP method which produces solutions (chromosome that obtained from the evaluation of exchange rate and then this solution used as an approximation or prediction of currency exchange rate in the future. These solutions formed from the combination of the set terminal and the set of function that generated randomly. After testing by the number popsize and different iterations, it was found that the GP algorithm can predict the value of the rupiah against the US Dollar with a very good, judging from the value of Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE generated by 0.08%. This research can be developed even better by adding terminal parameters and operating parameters so they can add variation calculation results. Keywords:  prediction, exchange currency rate, genetic programming, MAPE.

  6. Experts: hospitals can improve care, save health care dollars by cracking down on unnecessary blood transfusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Leading health care quality organizations say that blood transfusions are among the most overused treatments. The problem wastes a precious resource as well as health care dollars, continues to stretch what is known to be in short supply in some parts of the country. Part of the problem is continued adherence to an outdated medical practice that calls for transfusions when they are not medically necessary. Also, experts say many guidelines are vague regarding hemoglobin triggers. However, education coupled with IT-driven interventions can help hospitals make dramatic improvements in their blood usage, potentially preserving blood products for patients who really need them. The American Red Cross says that blood use rose by 40% in the United States between 1994 and 2008. Studies show there is wide variation regarding when blood transfusions are called for by practitioners. The latest research suggests hemoglobin thresholds of 7 or 8 grams per deciliter are acceptable, although practitioners often call for transfusions when hemoglobin is at 10 grams per deciliter. Of particular importance to EDs, the lower hemoglobin triggers don't always apply to actively bleeding patients. Through a comprehensive blood conservation program, Eastern Maine Medical Center in Bangor, ME, has been able to nearly halve the number of patients who now receive transfusions without negatively impacting patient care. Also, the program has saved the hospital more than $5 million in blood costs.

  7. Mobile dental units: leasing or buying? A dollar-cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Oscar; Saman, Daniel M; Bonaime, Alice; Skelton, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The decision to acquire a mobile dental unit is based on a standard capital budgeting analysis. The next step is to determine whether to obtain the use of the mobile dental unit by borrowing and purchasing or by leasing. As a financing mechanism, leases are simply another way of borrowing money to pay for the asset. To compare lease vs. debt as financial vehicles to acquiring a mobile dental unit. An estimate for a new mobile unit was obtained. Lease and loan proposals from financial lenders were collected. A cost of capital rate was chosen for comparison. Cash flows associated with borrowing and leasing vs. buying were determined fortwo different scenarios: for profit (FP) vs. not-for-profit (NFP), at 5 years. A dollar-cost analysis was utilized to determine the option with the lowest capitalized value. There was a net advantage to buying vs. leasing for both for FP and NFP organizations. Due to tax advantages, owning and leasing were substantially less expensive for FP than for NFP. Slight decreases in the monthly lease payments would make leasing competitive to the buying approach. Exploring alternative financing vehicles may allow dental programs to expand their services through the acquisition of a mobile unit. Though programs generally own assets, it is the use of the asset which is important rather than the ownership. Dental programs can find leasing an attractive alternative by offering access to capital with cash-flow advantages.

  8. THE SOUTHERN FRAGMENT OF THE SIBERIAN CRATON: “LANDSCAPE” HISTORY OVER TWO BILLION YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkady M. Stanevich

    2010-01-01

    background of sub-continental sedimentation. In the Late Paleozoic, the geologic development was marked by major transformation of the pattern of tectonic structures, that was most likely related to inside-plate extension and thinning of the continental crust. In the Mid and Late Carbon (Fig. 4A, the integrated Tungusskiy sedimentation basin was formed as a result of continuous and uniform bending. In the Early Permian (see Fig. 4Б, positive tectonic movements led to significant dewatering of the Paleozoic basins, so that they turned into a washed-out area. Overall raising of the Siberian Platform preconditioned climate changes, such as aridization and climate cooling. In the Mesozoic, landscapes were presented by a combination of flat uplands, wide river valleys with swampy plains and lakes wherein carbonous sediments were accumulated. Basic volcanism with shield eruptions and sub-volcanic rocks was typical then. In the Jurassic (see Fig. 4B, elements observed in the recent topography of the Siberian Platform were formed. In that period, major structural transformation occurred in association with the largest diastrophic cycles in the territory of the Eastern Asia, including formation of the Baikal rift and its branches.From the analyses of the available data which are briefly presented above, it is obvious that the period of two billion years in the Earth history includes numerous epochs of diastrophic processes of tremendous destructive capacity. Unconformities of formations differing in ages by millions and even hundreds of million years, as those dating back to the Pre-Cambrian, suggest quite realistic yet astounding visions. At the background of scenarios of floods, rock up-thrusts, volcanic explosions and earthquakes evidenced from the very remote past, the current geological and climatic phenomena may seem quite trivial.

  9. Lobbying Semi-Annual Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains Registration and Activity Reporting information lobbyists have provided. The dollar figures in the far right columns are the total of expenses...

  10. Better Buildings Alliance 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-01-31

    We are pleased to share with you a copy of the 2013 Annual Report. Inside, you’ll find significant program accomplishments, profiles on highlighted members, and plans for 2014. With your contributions, support, and leadership over the past 12 months, the program has reached significant milestones, including: Growing membership to over 200 members, to represent over 10 billion square feet of U.S. commercial building space and one-seventh of the market; Increasing participation in the 15 Solutions Teams by 75%; Developing 3 new high-efficiency technology specifications that if widely implemented, could save more than $5 billion in energy costs per year; Launching the Advanced RTU Campaign and Wireless Meter Challenge, and surpassing 100 million sq. ft. in the Lighting Energy Efficiency in Parking (LEEP) Campaign; Welcoming partners in new sectors, including K-12 schools and local governments; The program is a critical element of the Better Buildings Initiative, driving 20% energy savings in the building sector by 2020 through innovation, new technologies, and profiling leadership. Thank you for your ongoing participation, we are looking forward to working with you in the new year on your energy saving targets and advancing technical and market practices that promote energy savings at your organization.

  11. How many cents on the dollar? Women and men in product markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kricheli-Katz, Tamar; Regev, Tali

    2016-02-01

    Gender inequality in contemporary U.S. society is a well-documented, widespread phenomenon. However, little is known about gender disparities in product markets. This study is the first to use actual market data to study the behavior of women and men as sellers and buyers and differences in market outcomes. We analyze a unique and large data set containing all eBay auction transactions of most popular products by private sellers between the years 2009 and 2012. Women sellers received a smaller number of bids and lower final prices than did equally qualified men sellers of the exact same product. On average, women sellers received about 80 cents for every dollar a man received when selling the identical new product and 97 cents when selling the same used product. These findings held even after controlling for the sentiments that appear in the text of the sellers' listings. Nonetheless, it is worth noting that this gap varied by the type of the product being sold. As a policy, eBay does not reveal the gender of users. We attribute the price differences to the ability of buyers to discern the gender of the seller. We present results from an experiment that shows that people accurately identify the gender of sellers on the basis of typical information provided in postings. We supplement the analysis with an additional off-eBay experiment showing that, in a controlled setting, people are willing to pay less for money-value gift cards when they are sold by women rather than men.

  12. Modeling the exchange rate of the euro against the dollar using the ARCH/GARCH models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Radovan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of time series with conditional heteroskedasticity (changeable time variability, conditional variance instability, the phenomenon called volatility is the main task of ARCH and GARCH models. The aim of these models is to calculate some of the volatility indicators needed for financial decisions. This paper examines the performance of generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH model in modeling the daily changes of the log exchange rate of the euro against the dollar. Several GARCH models have been applied for modeling the daily log exchange rate returns of the euro, with a different number of parameters. The characteristic of estimated GARCH models is that the obtained coefficients of lagged squared residuals and the conditional variance parameters in the equation of conditional variance have a strong statistical significance. The sum of these two coefficients' estimates is close to a unit, which is typical for GARCH models that are applied on the data of financial assets returns. This means that the shocks in the conditional variance equation will be long lasting. The great value of the sum of these two coefficients shows that the high rates of positive or negative returns leads to a large forecasted value of the variance in the prolonged period. The asymmetrical EGARCH (1,1 model has showed the best results in modeling the euro exchange rate returns. The asymmetry term in the conditional variance equation of this model is negative and statistically significant. A negative value of this term suggests that the positive shock has less impact on the conditional variance than the negative shocks. The asymmetric EGARCH (1,1 model provides evidence of a leverage effect.

  13. Unlocking the EUR53 billion savings from smart meters in the EU. How increasing the adoption of dynamic tariffs could make or break the EU's smart grid investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruqui, Ahmad; Hledik, Ryan; Harris, Dan

    2010-01-01

    We estimate the cost of installing smart meters in the EU to be EUR51 billion, and that operational savings will be worth between EUR26 and 41 billion, leaving a gap of EUR10-25 billion between benefits and costs. Smart meters can fill this gap because they enable the provision of dynamic pricing, which reduces peak demand and lowers the need for building and running expensive peaking power plants. The present value of savings in peaking infrastructure could be as high as EUR67 billion for the EU if policy-makers can overcome barriers to consumers adopting dynamic tariffs, but only EUR14 billion otherwise. We outline a number of ways to increase the adoption of dynamic tariffs. (author)

  14. Molecular dynamics beyonds the limits: Massive scaling on 72 racks of a BlueGene/P and supercooled glass dynamics of a 1 billion particles system

    KAUST Repository

    Allsopp, Nicholas

    2012-04-01

    We report scaling results on the world\\'s largest supercomputer of our recently developed Billions-Body Molecular Dynamics (BBMD) package, which was especially designed for massively parallel simulations of the short-range atomic dynamics in structural glasses and amorphous materials. The code was able to scale up to 72 racks of an IBM BlueGene/P, with a measured 89% efficiency for a system with 100 billion particles. The code speed, with 0.13. s per iteration in the case of 1 billion particles, paves the way to the study of billion-body structural glasses with a resolution increase of two orders of magnitude with respect to the largest simulation ever reported. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our code by studying the liquid-glass transition of an exceptionally large system made by a binary mixture of 1 billion particles. © 2012.

  15. Operational Efficiencies and Simulated Performance of Big Data Analytics Platform over Billions of Patient Records of a Hospital System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillon Chrimes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Big Data Analytics (BDA is important to utilize data from hospital systems to reduce healthcare costs. BDA enable queries of large volumes of patient data in an interactively dynamic way for healthcare. The study objective was high performance establishment of interactive BDA platform of hospital system. A Hadoop/MapReduce framework was established at University of Victoria (UVic with Compute Canada/Westgrid to form a Healthcare BDA (HBDA platform with HBase (NoSQL database using hospital-specific metadata and file ingestion. Patient data profiles and clinical workflow derived from Vancouver Island Health Authority (VIHA, Victoria, BC, Canada. The proof-of-concept implementation tested patient data representative of the entire Provincial hospital systems. We cross-referenced all data profiles and metadata with real patient data used in clinical reporting. Query performance tested Apache tools in Hadoop’s ecosystem. At optimized iteration, Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS ingestion required three seconds but HBase required four to twelve hours to complete the Reducer of MapReduce. HBase bulkloads took a week for one billion (10TB and over two months for three billion (30TB. Simple and complex query results showed about two seconds for one and three billion, respectively. Apache Drill outperformed Apache Spark. However, it was restricted to running more simplified queries with poor usability for healthcare. Jupyter on Spark offered high performance and customization to run all queries simultaneously with high usability. BDA platform of HBase distributed over Hadoop successfully; however, some inconsistencies of MapReduce limited operational efficiencies. Importance of Hadoop/MapReduce on representation of platform performance discussed.

  16. Hydro-Quebec 2004 annual report : growing strong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a consolidated review of the operations of Hydro-Quebec, with a focus on energy production, energy sales, and environmental commitment. Hydro-Quebec is a major producer, transmission provider and distributor of electricity, conducting research and promotional activities in energy and energy transformation and conservation. The Quebec government is its sole shareholder. The company is divided into six divisions and now competes freely with other power producers, while its transmission and distribution remain regulated. Sales totalled $10.7 billion, up 1.8 per cent over 2003. Net income rose to $2.4 billion, up $497 million over 2003, the increase being largely due to lower financial expenses and the disposal of interests in Noverco. Dividends declared amounted to $1.3 billion, or 55 per cent of net income. Cash from operations totaled $4.0 billion, Sources of revenue also included the sale of interests in Noverco, and investment in Meiya Power Company, with the consequent repayment of nearly $1 billion in debt. Major projects of 2004 included the start of operations at the Rocher-de-Grand-Mere generating station as well as work proceeding on Eastmain-1, Peribonka, Toulnustouc and Mercier. Other projects included a partnership with the Crees of Eeyou and the filing of the Energy Efficiency Plan 2005-2010. This annual report presented the company's financial performance, executive changes and reorganization. Financial statements included a review and analysis of financial transactions, the auditor's report as well as customary notes to the consolidated financial statement including balance sheets, assets, liabilities and capital. tabs., figs

  17. Relative Effects of the Dollar and Yen on East Asian Currency Values: Focusing on the Post-Crisis Period

    OpenAIRE

    Bonghan Kim; Seeun Jeong

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically analyzes the relative effects of the dollar and yen on the value of East Asian currencies. We focus especially on countries that have chosen to adopt floating regimes in the post-financial crisis period, such as South Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand. First, we calculate a exchange rate flexibility index and carry out a regression using Frankel and Wei's (1994) methodology. The results confirm an increase in the coupling of East Asian currencies vi...

  18. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2013. The IAEA Annual Report 2013 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question. The main part of the report, starting on page 15, generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2012-2013 (GC(55)/5). The introductory chapter, 'The Year in Review', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2013 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is available, in electronic form only, on iaea.org, along with the Annual Report. Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the Agency. The term 'non-nuclear-weapon State' is used as in the Final Document of the 1968 Conference of Non-Nuclear- Weapon States (United Nations document A/7277) and in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The term 'nuclear-weapon State' is as used in

  19. International Atomic Energy Agency Annual Report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2012. - The IAEA Annual Report 2012 aims to summarize only the significant activities of the Agency during the year in question. The main part of the report, starting on page 17, generally follows the programme structure as given in The Agency's Programme and Budget 2012-2013 (GC(55)/5). - The introductory chapter, 'Overview', seeks to provide a thematic analysis of the Agency's activities within the context of notable developments during the year. More detailed information can be found in the latest editions of the Agency's Nuclear Safety Review, Nuclear Technology Review, Technical Cooperation Report and the Safeguards Statement for 2012 and Background to the Safeguards Statement. - Additional information covering various aspects of the Agency's programme is available, in electronic form only, on iaea.org, along with the Annual Report. - Except where indicated, all sums of money are expressed in United States dollars. - The designations employed and the presentation of material in this document do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. - The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the Agency. - The term 'non-nuclear-weapon State' is used as in the Final Document of the 1968 Conference of Non- Nuclear-Weapon States (United Nations document A/7277) and in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The term 'nuclear-weapon State' is as used

  20. Annual direct cost of dry eye in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuno Y

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Yoshinobu Mizuno, Masakazu Yamada, Chika ShigeyasuDivision for Vision Research, National Institute of Sensory Organs, National Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo, JapanOn behalf of The Dry Eye Survey Group, National Hospital Organization of JapanBackground: This study was performed to estimate the annual direct cost incurred by dry eye patients, which includes expenses for treatment and drugs, as well as the cost of punctal plugs.Methods: The study group consisted of 118 dry eye patients aged 20 years or older who visited any of the 15 medical care facilities that participated in this prospective cohort dry eye study. We estimated annual direct costs from outpatient medical records and survey questionnaires obtained from patients. Results: Of the total patients enrolled, 10 were men and 108 women, and their average age was 64.1 ± 11.2 years. The number of hospital visits made by patients was 5.8 ± 3.6 per year. Among those who used ophthalmic solutions, the numbers of bottles used per year were as follows: 32.1 ± 20.8 bottles of hyaluronic acid ophthalmic solution (87 patients, 53.1 ± 42.2 bottles of artificial tears (40 patients, and 33.2 ± 23.2 bottles of over-the-counter eyedrops (15 patients. In patients with punctal plugs, 4.1 ± 3.9 plugs were used annually. The annual drug cost was 32,000 ± 21,675 Japanese yen (323 ± 219 US dollars. The clinical cost was 16,318 ± 9961 Japanese yen (165 ± 101 US dollars. The total direct costs including punctal plug treatment amounted to 52,467 ± 38,052 Japanese yen (530 ± 384 US dollars. Conclusion: Although treatment modalities for dry eye in Japan were different from those in the US and in European countries, the direct cost of dry eye patients in Japan was comparable with that reported in those countries. Considering the high prevalence of dry eye, the direct cost of this chronic condition may be significant.Keywords: burden of disease, cost, dry eye, eyedrops, quality of life

  1. An ultraluminous quasar with a twelve-billion-solar-mass black hole at redshift 6.30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Wang, Feige; Fan, Xiaohui; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Thompson, David; Beletsky, Yuri

    2015-02-26

    So far, roughly 40 quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 have been discovered. Each quasar contains a black hole with a mass of about one billion solar masses (10(9) M Sun symbol). The existence of such black holes when the Universe was less than one billion years old presents substantial challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the coevolution of black holes and galaxies. Here we report the discovery of an ultraluminous quasar, SDSS J010013.02+280225.8, at redshift z = 6.30. It has an optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z > 6 quasars. On the basis of the deep absorption trough on the blue side of the Lyman-α emission line in the spectrum, we estimate the proper size of the ionized proximity zone associated with the quasar to be about 26 million light years, larger than found with other z > 6.1 quasars with lower luminosities. We estimate (on the basis of a near-infrared spectrum) that the black hole has a mass of ∼1.2 × 10(10) M Sun symbol, which is consistent with the 1.3 × 10(10) M Sun symbol derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion rate.

  2. White Light Demonstration of One Hundred Parts per Billion Irradiance Suppression in Air by New Starshade Occulters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinton, Douglas B.; Cash, Webster C.; Gleason, Brian; Kaiser, Michael J.; Levine, Sara A.; Lo, Amy S.; Schindhelm, Eric; Shipley, Ann F.

    2007-01-01

    A new mission concept for the direct imaging of exo-solar planets called the New Worlds Observer (NWO) has been proposed. The concept involves flying a meter-class space telescope in formation with a newly-conceived, specially-shaped, deployable star-occulting shade several meters across at a separation of some tens of thousands of kilometers. The telescope would make its observations from behind the starshade in a volume of high suppression of incident irradiance from the star around which planets orbit. The required level of irradiance suppression created by the starshade for an efficacious mission is of order 0.1 to 10 parts per billion in broadband light. This paper discusses the experimental setup developed to accurately measure the suppression ratio of irradiance produced at the null position behind candidate starshade forms to these levels. It also presents results of broadband measurements which demonstrated suppression levels of just under 100 parts per billion in air using the Sun as a light source. Analytical modeling of spatial irradiance distributions surrounding the null are presented and compared with photographs of irradiance captured in situ behind candidate starshades.

  3. New York State Energy Research and Development Authority annual report, 1991--1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    To meet its energy and environmental goals, the Energy Authority faces a number of challenges affecting New York State's citizens. These include: Managing a nationally recognized energy research program of more than 250 ongoing projects located throughout the State that, through cutting-edge, energy-efficient technologies, identifies alternative energy sources; Participating in the joint Federal/State cleanup of a former nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at West Valley, an effort that will cost more than a billion dollars; Cleanup of the Malta Rocket Fuel Area Superfund site and maintenance of the shut-down State Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area at West Valley; Issuing innovative tax-exempt bonds to finance utility projects, with $4.3 billion currently issued saving New York State citizens more than $4 billion; and Designing, building and operating a new low-level radioactive waste disposal facility for the State. In addition to these broad-based programs, the Energy Authority cosponsors the Student Energy Research Competition, a yearly science competition for high school students. Now in its eleventh year, the Competition continues to challenge students to explore solutions to meet our energy needs. This year, some 600 project proposals were submitted by 1217 students representing 85 schools throughout New York State. The Competition is cosponsored by the State Energy Office. Energy Authority programs help to ensure that, as we protect environmental values and promote economic growth, New York State has secure and economical future supplies of energy

  4. Annual report 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The GKSS scientific annual report summarizes the problems and results of the research and development projects of 1973. In contrast to earlier annual reports, a comprehensive description of the research facilities is not included. The annual report was extended by the paragraph 'Financial Report 1973' in the chapter 'Development of Geesthacht Research Centre'. The financial report gives a survey of the financial transactions and the major operations of the year under review. (orig./AK) [de

  5. AREVA 2010 annual results; AREVA resultats annuels 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    (100% of Ausra and the remaining 49% of Multibrid) bring total gross capex to 2.176 billion euros, compared with 1.808 billion euros in 2009. Net capex came to 2.013 million euros in 2010, compared with 1.294 billion euros in 2009, reflecting asset disposals of 163 million euros in 2010 (mainly from the sale of 2% of the Georges Besse II plant), compared with 514 million euros in 2009. Free operating cash flow before tax went from -919 million euros in 2009 to -1.090 billion euros in 2010. Part of the increase in net capex is financed by the improved EBITDA and working capital requirement. The group's net financial debt comes to 3.672 billion euros at December 31, 2010 (based on the 2007 valuation of the debt to Siemens i.e. 2.049 billion euros, plus accrued interest) compared with 6.193 billion euros at December 31, 2009. The 2.521-billion euro reduction is due to the cash generated by the disposal of the Transmission and Distribution business (3.124 billion euros), by the transactions on Safran securities in the amount of 636 million euros, and by the 900-million euro capital increase, which helped largely offset the free operating cash flow described above, as well as the payment of dividends for 2009 to AREVA SA shareholders in the amount of 250 million euros. These amounts should be compared with equity of 9.578 billion euros at December 31, 2010, compared with 7.574 billion at year-end 2009. The group's gearing thus went from 45% in 2009 to 28% in 2010, illustrating the notable strengthening of the group's balance sheet. As part of this process, AREVA's Supervisory Board will not propose to the Annual General Meeting of Shareholders the payment of a dividend for 2010. In addition, the group's liquidity was reinforced in 2010 by a fourth bond issue of 750 million euros. Excluding the debt to Siemens, the group has no major reimbursement due before 2016

  6. 1983 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    During 1983 Ontario Hydro supplied 106.1 billion kilowatt hours of electricity, a 5.2 percent increase over 1982. The year's primary peak demand of 18.8 million kW on December 21 was also a record. Hydro's CANDU nuclear units supplied 38.3 billion kWh, a 10 percent increase over 1982 and 32.5 percent of the total energy generated and purchased. Hydroelectric units supplied 31 percent of total energy made available, and coal-fired plants produced 30.4 percent. Ontario Hydro's total cost of generating one kWh from nuclear stations averaged 1.87 cents in 1983, compared to 3.45 cents for electricity from fossil stations. Providing electricity at a cost of 0.58 cents per kWh, the hydroelectric generating stations remained the least expensive

  7. NUKEM annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of this important undertaking in the German nuclear industry informs about its structure, holdings and activities in 1981. The report of the management is followed by remarks on the annual statement of accounts (annual balance, profit-loss accounting) and the report of the Supervisory Board. In the annex the annual balance of NUKEM GmbH/HOBEG mbH as per December 31, 1981, and the profit-loss accounting of NUKEM GmbH/HOBEG mbH for the business year 1981 are presented. (UA) [de

  8. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  9. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  10. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  11. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  12. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  15. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  16. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  17. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2017 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  18. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  19. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  20. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  1. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  2. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  3. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  4. 1984 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    Ontario Hydro supplied 122.9 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity in 1984 to meet provincial and export demands. Total primary energy demand was 112.3 billion kWh, an increase of 5.9 percent. The year's peak demand of 18.9 kW occurred on January 12. In 1984 nuclear generating stations produced 40.4 billion kWh, 32.8 percent of the total energy supplied by Ontario Hydro. The additional output of two new nuclear units, Pickering-6 and Bruce-6, more than offset the loss of production caused by Pickering units 1 and 2 being out of service all year for retubing. In May, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. removed its Douglas Point nuclear station from service since it was no longer economic to operate the station. Nuclear plants produced electricity at an average cost of 2.2 cents per kWh, compared to 3.4 cents for fossil-fuelled plants

  5. 1999 Annual report -- Generating results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Athabasca Oil Sands Trust was created in 1995 by Athabasca Oil Sand Investments Inc. acquiring the Province of Alberta's 11.74 per cent working interest in the Syncrude Project, providing the first modern day opportunity for direct public investment in Syncrude and oil sands development in northern Alberta. Syncrude operates major oil sands mines, a utilities plant and bitumen extraction and upgrading facilities at Mildred Lake, near Fort McMurray. In 1999, Syncrude produced a record 81.4 million barrels of Syncrude Sweet Blend (SSB), a light 32 degree API sweet crude oil, meeting about 12 per cent of Canada's crude oil requirements. The average 1999 price received by the Trust for Syncrude Sweet Blend was $ 26.04 ber barrel. More robust oil prices, record annual volumes of production averaging 26,000 barrels per day (The Trust's share of Syncrude production) and the lowest ever operating costs ($ 12.55 per barrel) combined to produce record earnings for the Trust of $ 82.6 million, or 60 cents per unit for the year. In 1997, Syncrude owners announced a $ 6.0 billion expansion plan that would double production to more than 150 million barrels per year by 2007. In October 1999, the owners reaffirmed their commitment to continue working toward the four-stage expansion plan and propose to increase production in 2000 to 92 million barrels per year and to 165 million barrels per year by 2008. With the anticipated start-up of the Aurora Mine in late May of 2000, the Trust expects Syncrude volumes in excess of 90 million barrels at an average cost of $12.25 per barrel in 2000. The Trust's share of the projected volume is 10.6 million barrels or 29,000 barrels per day. Based on commitment to continuing the expansion, and assuming that oil prices remain buoyant, the Trust expects to maintain distributions at or above 1999 levels. The annual report contains a detailed discussion of the expansion plans, management's discussion and analysis of operational and financial

  6. CSIR Annual report 1965

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1965.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 48 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1965.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  7. CSIR Annual report 1992

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1992.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 39 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1992.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  8. CSIR Annual report 1979

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info CSIR Annual report_1979.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 86 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name CSIR Annual report_1979.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  9. CSIR Annual report 1976

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_1976.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 75 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_1976.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  10. CSIR Annual report 1978

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_1978.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 78 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_1978.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  11. CSIR Annual report 1991

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Annual Report_ 1991.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 40 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Annual Report_ 1991.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  12. Annual Partnership Report, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. This partnership report fulfills statutory reporting requirement W.S. 21-18-202(e)(iv) which mandates the development of annual reports to the legislature on the outcomes of partnerships between colleges…

  13. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  14. Annual Energy Review, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    The Annual Energy Review (AER) is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) primary report of annual historical energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949. Included are statistics on total energy production, consumption, trade, and energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international energy; financial and environment indicators; and data unit conversions.

  15. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual 1991 provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers Federal and State agencies, and education institutions. This report, the Natural Gas Annual 1991 Supplement: Company Profiles, presents a detailed profile of selected companies

  16. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 2001. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  17. Annual report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This is the ninth Annual Report to Congress of the United States Department of Energy. It covers the activities of all elements of the Department except the independent Federal Regulatory Commission, which issues its own annual report. 88 refs., 43 tabs

  18. Annual Report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, N.; Mika, J.R.; Wieteska, K.

    1998-01-01

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  19. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golnik, N; Mika, J R; Wieteska, K [eds.

    1999-12-31

    This Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research works carried out at the Institute at 1997. As in the preceding years the authors of the individual scientific reports published in this Annual Report are fully responsible for their content and layout. The Report contains the information on other activities of the Institute as well. (author)

  20. Molecular dynamics beyonds the limits: Massive scaling on 72 racks of a BlueGene/P and supercooled glass dynamics of a 1 billion particles system

    KAUST Repository

    Allsopp, Nicholas; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    We report scaling results on the world's largest supercomputer of our recently developed Billions-Body Molecular Dynamics (BBMD) package, which was especially designed for massively parallel simulations of the short-range atomic dynamics

  1. Double-trap measurement of the proton magnetic moment at 0.3 parts per billion precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Georg; Mooser, Andreas; Bohman, Matthew; Schön, Natalie; Harrington, James; Higuchi, Takashi; Nagahama, Hiroki; Sellner, Stefan; Smorra, Christian; Blaum, Klaus; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Quint, Wolfgang; Walz, Jochen; Ulmer, Stefan

    2017-11-24

    Precise knowledge of the fundamental properties of the proton is essential for our understanding of atomic structure as well as for precise tests of fundamental symmetries. We report on a direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment μ p of the proton in units of the nuclear magneton μ N The result, μ p = 2.79284734462 (±0.00000000082) μ N , has a fractional precision of 0.3 parts per billion, improves the previous best measurement by a factor of 11, and is consistent with the currently accepted value. This was achieved with the use of an optimized double-Penning trap technique. Provided a similar measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment can be performed, this result will enable a test of the fundamental symmetry between matter and antimatter in the baryonic sector at the 10 -10 level. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio 1.5 billion years after the big bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdonaite, J; Ubachs, W; Murphy, M T; Whitmore, J B

    2015-02-20

    A molecular hydrogen absorber at a lookback time of 12.4 billion years, corresponding to 10% of the age of the Universe today, is analyzed to put a constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio, μ. A high resolution spectrum of the J1443+2724 quasar, which was observed with the Very Large Telescope, is used to create an accurate model of 89 Lyman and Werner band transitions whose relative frequencies are sensitive to μ, yielding a limit on the relative deviation from the current laboratory value of Δμ/μ=(-9.5 ± 5.4(stat)± 5.3(syst))×10(-6).

  3. Two billion year old natural analogs for nuclear waste disposal: the natural nuclear fission reactors in Gabon (Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier-Lafaye, F.

    2002-01-01

    Two billion years ago, the increase of oxygen in atmosphere and the high 235 U/ 238 U uranium ratio (> 3%) made possible the occurrence of natural nuclear reactors on Earth. These reactors are considered to be a good natural analogue for nuclear waste disposal. Their preservation during such a long period of time is mainly due to the geological stability of the site, the occurrence of clays surrounding the reactors and acting as an impermeable shield, and the occurrence of organic matter that maintained the environment in reducing conditions, favourable for the stability of uraninite. Hydrogeochemical studies and modelling have shown the complexity of the geochemical system at Oklo and Bangombe (Gabon) and the lack of precise data about uranium and fission products retention and migration mechanisms in geological environments. (author)

  4. Monte Carlo Study of Four-Dimensional Self-avoiding Walks of up to One Billion Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clisby, Nathan

    2018-04-01

    We study self-avoiding walks on the four-dimensional hypercubic lattice via Monte Carlo simulations of walks with up to one billion steps. We study the expected logarithmic corrections to scaling, and find convincing evidence in support the scaling form predicted by the renormalization group, with an estimate for the power of the logarithmic factor of 0.2516(14), which is consistent with the predicted value of 1/4. We also characterize the behaviour of the pivot algorithm for sampling four dimensional self-avoiding walks, and conjecture that the probability of a pivot move being successful for an N-step walk is O([ log N ]^{-1/4}).

  5. 100 billion suns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippenhahn, R.

    1983-01-01

    A work on the world of astrophysics primarily for lay readers. The author writes only about the discoveries he ''experienced'' during the past 25 years (before 1979). Illustrated somewhat in color plus a set of superb colar plates. Contents, abridged: The long life of stars. The life story of the sun. The life story of massive stars. The end of stars. How stars are born. Planets and their inhabitants

  6. 47. Annual Report for the year ended March 31, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The annual report of the Manitoba Hydro-Electric Board covers the financial and operational activities of Manitoba Hydro during the fiscal year ending March 31, 1998. During the year under review, Manitoba Hydro, a provincial Crown corporation, served 394,328 customers, generated 34 billion kWh of electricity, of which 19.1 billion kWh were supplied to Manitoba consumers, generated gross revenues of S 1.041 billion, and had a net income of $ 110.5 million. Power generation reached record levels for the fourth year in a row and net income reached record heights for the third consecutive year. Among operational highlights, fighting the Red River Valley 'flood of the century' in Manitoba and providing significant assistance to ice storm-beleaguered utilities in the north-central U.S. and eastern Canada during the January ice storm were highlighted. Another event was implementing the Northern Flood Agreement with the Norway House Cree Nation. Opening up of the Manitoba Hydro transmission system to other utilities as part of Manitoba Hydro becoming a full member of the Mid-Continent Area Power Pool (MAPP) was featured. The adoption by Manitoba Hydro (as a member of the Canadian Electricity Association) of the Environmental Commitment and Responsibility Program, as a sign of commitment to responsible environmental management was particularly noteworthy

  7. Dollar Summary of Prime Contract Awards by State, Place, and Contractor, FY84, Part 3, (Anderson, Indiana-Winona, Mississippi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    FORMING COMPANY 33 33 BONNER SPRINGS STEPHEN R E INC 95 95 BURLINGTON BRECKCO CONSTRUCTION CO INC 430 430 CHANUTE PORTER H K COMPANY INC 1,792 364 1,428...SEP) PAGE 848 MASS (DOLLARS IN THOUSANDS) LOCATION CONTRACTOR DOD AIR NAME NAME TOTAL ARMY NAVY FORCE DLA OCE ODA RANDOLPH MC GRAW -EDISON COMPANY 45...221 221 GENERAL DYNAMICS CORPORATION 2,127- 2,127- GENERAL DYNAMICS LAND SYS 12,866 12,866 MC DONNELL DOUGLAS CORPORATION 3,549 1,022 2.527 NC GRAW

  8. The Australian Dollar's Long-Term Fluctuations and Trend: The Commodity Prices-cum-Economic Cycles Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Sanidas, Elias

    2005-01-01

    The Australian dollar’s exchange rate (mainly in relation to the American dollar) has received a considerable attention in research and several models have been proposed to explain its trend and fluctuations. Thus, as a conclusion of this research we can say that this commodity currency very much depends on the terms of trade which in turn depend on commodity prices. The present paper is based on this conclusion and hence proposes the possibility that the Australian dollar’s behavior is overw...

  9. 76 FR 35072 - Proposed Guidance on Stress Testing for Banking Organizations With More Than $10 Billion in Total...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... framework should be applied at various levels in the banking organization, such as business line, portfolio... a banking organization's overall strategy and annual and planning cycles. Results should be... part of the development and maintenance of a banking organization's contingency funding planning. \\6...

  10. IAEA research contracts. Fourth annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    This volume represents the fourth annual report on the results obtained under the Agency's research contract programme. During the short life of this programme, which is not quite six years old, a total investment of more than three million dollars has been made to support research in selected fields at institutes in 50 Member States. Extensive summaries are presented herein for all final reports relating to contracts which were completed during 1963. As it is the policy of the Agency to encourage publication in the open scientific literature of the results of work done under research contracts, a number of papers have also appeared in the appropriate journals - the Agency having been notified of 75 such publications in 1963. A complete list of references to these is given at the end of this report. The scientific data presented in the summaries of course remain the responsibility of the contractor. The Agency, however, is responsible for any additional observations. The reports presented are related to research in the field of radioactive waste management and environmental sciences; health physics and radiation protection; radiobiology; nuclear reactors physics and nuclear fuels; radioisotope applications in agriculture and medicine

  11. IAEA research contracts. Fourth annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-04-01

    This volume represents the fourth annual report on the results obtained under the Agency's research contract programme. During the short life of this programme, which is not quite six years old, a total investment of more than three million dollars has been made to support research in selected fields at institutes in 50 Member States. Extensive summaries are presented herein for all final reports relating to contracts which were completed during 1963. As it is the policy of the Agency to encourage publication in the open scientific literature of the results of work done under research contracts, a number of papers have also appeared in the appropriate journals - the Agency having been notified of 75 such publications in 1963. A complete list of references to these is given at the end of this report. The scientific data presented in the summaries of course remain the responsibility of the contractor. The Agency, however, is responsible for any additional observations. The reports presented are related to research in the field of radioactive waste management and environmental sciences; health physics and radiation protection; radiobiology; nuclear reactors physics and nuclear fuels; radioisotope applications in agriculture and medicine.

  12. 1997/98 Orphan Well Fund annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    Alberta's Orphan Well Fund (previously referred as the Abandonment Fund) is funded by the oil and gas industry with provincial government support and approval. It was created to enforce and improve regulations regarding orphan wells. 1997/98 marked the year in which Orphan Well Fund activities included pipeline abandonments, facility decommissioning, and well site reclamation. The first part of this report includes the annual report of the Orphan Fund, while the second part includes the report on the Energy and Utilities Board's (EUB's) Liability Management activities which are an important part of enforcing and improving provincial regulations in the prevention of orphan wells. The fund allows liability management to be done with industry's dollars rather than taxpayer's dollars. Highlights for the year include the successful completion on eleven downhole and surface wells. Expanded activities also included the abandonment of eleven pipelines, and facilities decommissioning work at five locations. The report also includes a financial review, and a summary of the future goals of the program. The EUB enforcement activities and operations, as well as the EUB orphan prevention activities are also reviewed. tabs

  13. Il disavanzo pubblico degli stati Uniti, il Dollaro e l'Europa. (U.S. deficits, the dollar and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. BLANCHARD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available L'articolo valuta alcune delle controversie relative al ruolo dei deficit nel recupero , il rapporto tra deficit e tassi di interesse , i costi ei benefici di un dollaro forte degli Stati Uniti , e, infine, la fattibilità e opportunità di miglioramento, di assicurare o accelerare il recupero dell'Europa attraverso mosse di politica attiva . This paper reviews and assesses some of the controversies related to the role of deficits in the recovery, the relation between deficits and interest rates, costs and benefits of a strong US dollar, and finally the feasibility and desirability of enhancing, assuring or accelerating Europe’s recovery through active policy moves. The authors first provide an assessment of the current situation before focusing on the characteristics of a fiscal policy-led recovery. They then turn to the appreciation of the dollar before looking at the policy options open to Europe, arguing that a temporary and modulated fiscal expansion still appears both desirable and feasible.JEL: H62, E43, E62

  14. Relative Effects of the Dollar and Yen on East Asian Currency Values: Focusing on the Post-Crisis Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonghan Kim

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically analyzes the relative effects of the dollar and yen on the value of East Asian currencies. We focus especially on countries that have chosen to adopt floating regimes in the post-financial crisis period, such as South Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand. First, we calculate a exchange rate flexibility index and carry out a regression using Frankel and Wei's (1994 methodology. The results confirm an increase in the coupling of East Asian currencies vis-a-vis the yen since the 1997 financial crisis. In addition to coupling, we calculate using a non-linear unit root test the exchange rates for four currencies vis-a-vis the yen, excluding the Philippine peso, which has a band-reverting tendency. As a second step, we examine the band-reverting tendency in more detail using the Markov-regime switching model and a three-regime threshold vector error correction model. As the results indicate, band-reverting tendencies are verifiable for all currencies, except for the Philippine peso. In particular, symmetrical band-reverting tendencies are observed whether exchange rates are beyond the upper boundary or below the lower boundary of the band. In the case of the Korean won and Taiwanese dollar, when these two currency exchange rates (measured against the yen deviate from a certain band, an adjustment process takes place in order to return toward the band.

  15. Differences in healthy food supply and stocking practices between small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Harnack, Lisa; Erickson, Darin J; Laska, Melissa N

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the practices for stocking and procuring healthy food in non-traditional food retailers (e.g., gas-marts, pharmacies). The present study aimed to: (i) compare availability of healthy food items across small food store types; and (ii) examine owner/manager perceptions and stocking practices for healthy food across store types. Descriptive analyses were conducted among corner/small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores. Data from store inventories were used to examine availability of twelve healthy food types and an overall healthy food supply score. Interviews with managers assessed stocking practices and profitability. Small stores in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN, USA, not participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. One hundred and nineteen small food retailers and seventy-one store managers. Availability of specific items varied across store type. Only corner/small grocery stores commonly sold fresh vegetables (63% v. 8% of gas-marts, 0% of dollar stores and 23% of pharmacies). More than half of managers stocking produce relied on cash-and-carry practices to stock fresh fruit (53%) and vegetables (55%), instead of direct store delivery. Most healthy foods were perceived by managers to have at least average profitability. Interventions to improve healthy food offerings in small stores should consider the diverse environments, stocking practices and supply mechanisms of small stores, particularly non-traditional food retailers. Improvements may require technical support, customer engagement and innovative distribution practices.

  16. CO2 emissions embodied in China-US trade: Input-output analysis based on the emergy/dollar ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Huibin; Guo Jianghong; Mao Guozhu; Smith, Alexander M.; Wang Xuxu; Wang, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight into changes in CO 2 emissions embodied in China-US trade, an input-output analysis based on the emergy/dollar ratio (EDR) is used to estimate embodied CO 2 emissions; a structural decomposition analysis (SDA) is employed to analyze the driving factors for changes in CO 2 emissions embodied in China's exports to the US during 2002-2007. The results of the input-output analysis show that net export of CO 2 emissions increased quickly from 2002 to 2005 but decreased from 2005 to 2007. These trends are due to a reduction in total CO 2 emission intensity, a decrease in the exchange rate, and small imports of embodied CO 2 emissions. The results of the SDA demonstrate that total export volume was the largest driving factor for the increase in embodied CO 2 emissions during 2002-2007, followed by intermediate input structure. Direct CO 2 emissions intensity had a negative effect on changes in embodied CO 2 emissions. The results suggest that China should establish a framework for allocating emission responsibilities, enhance energy efficiency, and improve intermediate input structure. - Highlights: → An input-output analysis based on the emergy/dollar ratio estimated embodied CO 2 . → A structural decomposition analysis analyzed the driving factors. → Net export of CO 2 increased from 2002 to 2005 but decreased from 2005 to 2007. → Total export volume was the largest driving factor. → A framework for allocating emission responsibilities.

  17. Modeling variations in the cedi/dollar exchange rate in Ghana: an autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (ARCH) models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techie Quaicoe, Michael; Twenefour, Frank B K; Baah, Emmanuel M; Nortey, Ezekiel N N

    2015-01-01

    This research article aimed at modeling the variations in the dollar/cedi exchange rate. It examines the applicability of a range of ARCH/GARCH specifications for modeling volatility of the series. The variants considered include the ARMA, GARCH, IGARCH, EGARCH and M-GARCH specifications. The results show that the series was non stationary which resulted from the presence of a unit root in it. The ARMA (1, 1) was found to be the most suitable model for the conditional mean. From the Box-Ljung test statistics x-squared of 1476.338 with p value 0.00217 for squared returns and 16.918 with 0.0153 p values for squared residuals, the null hypothesis of no ARCH effect was rejected at 5% significance level indicating the presence of an ARCH effect in the series. ARMA (1, 1) + GARCH (1, 1) which has all parameters significant was found to be the most suitable model for the conditional mean with conditional variance, thus showing adequacy in describing the conditional mean with variance of the return series at 5% significant level. A 24 months forecast for the mean actual exchange rates and mean returns from January, 2013 to December, 2014 made also showed that the fitted model is appropriate for the data and a depreciating trend of the cedi against the dollar for forecasted period respectively.

  18. NIRE annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The National Institute for Resources and Environment (NIRE) has a R & D concept of 'ecotechnology' that aims to protect the environment from degradation whilst promoting sustainable development. This annual report presents summaries of 32 recent research efforts.

  19. ASIST 2002 annual meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Peek, R

    2003-01-01

    Review of discussions and presentations at the American Society for Information Science and Technology 2002 annual meeting. Topics covered included new models of scholarly publishing and the development of the semantic web (1 page).

  20. SIS - Annual Catch Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Catch Limit (ACL) dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information and data related to management reference points and catch data.

  1. IKO Annual Report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The IKO Annual Report of 1976 relates their progress in different projects and project fields. The fields covered include electron scattering, pion and muon physics, theory, radio- and nuclear chemistry, technical department, MEA, nuclear reactions and nuclear spectroscopy

  2. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  3. 2002 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2002 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2002

  4. Annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains a description of the named institute, the research programm, reports from the scientific establishments, a description of different cooperations, and a list of scientific publications. (HSI) [de

  5. Annual Report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This annual report supersedes the work done in the nuclear physics institute at Lyon. The studied matters are the following: nuclear theory, nuclear reactions, nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear chemistry [fr

  6. 2010 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-01-01

    This annual report includes: an overview of Western; approaches for future hydropower and transmission service; major achievements in FY 2010; FY 2010 customer Integrated Resource Planning, or IRP, survey; and financial data.

  7. Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeggeler, H.W.; Lorenzen, R.

    1991-04-01

    This annual report of the chemistry laboratory gives an overview of research performed during 1990 in the field of geochemistry, trace analysis, aerosol chemistry, heavy elements, cement chemistry and analytical chemistry. figs., tabs., refs

  8. Scientific annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This annual report contains a collection of the abstracts of the publications concerning research and development in the named institute together with a bibliography about further publications, contributions to conferences and speeches. (HSI) [de

  9. Annual report - LNLS - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is the 1990 Annual Report of the LNLS, the upcoming Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source. It discusses its projects, organization as well as the proposed experimental stations. It presents also a list of publications. (A.C.A.S.)

  10. Annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2006-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2005 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  11. Annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2003-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2002 is reported. Structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  12. Annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2005-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2004 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  13. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toncik, M.

    2004-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2003 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  14. Annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-04-01

    In this Annual report the operating of the Slovak Environmental Agency in 2006 is reported. The structure of the Agency, mission, personnel structure, financing, monitoring of the environment, international cooperation and coordination of research programmes are reviewed

  15. Annual Report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The annual report gives the specific scientific results in the fields of nuclear and radiation physics, radiation chemistry, radiochemistry and data processing with a list of publications. (orig.) [de

  16. 2000 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2000 present information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentina during 2000

  17. 2001 Annual report: synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This synthesis of the Annual Report 2001 presents information of the main activities on the scope of the radiation protection and nuclear safety of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentina during 2001

  18. USAID Dollars Obligated and Dollars Spent

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Displays obligations and disbursements by operating unit (OU) and sector, beginning with Fiscal Years 2009. The data was pulled from USAID's financial accounting...

  19. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Delivering products and services to nuclear power plants operators, AREVA operates in every sector of the civilian nuclear power and fuel cycle industry. This annual report 2003 provides, in seven chapters, information on persons responsible for the annual report and for auditing the financial statements, general information on the company and share capital (statute, capital, share trading, dividends), information on company operations, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position and financial performance, corporate governance, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  20. Annual report June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This annual report reviews the activities of the National Accelerator Centre until June 1988. The 200 MeV cyclotron facility, the Pretoria cyclotron facility and the Van De Graaff facility are discussed in detail. Aspects of the 200 MeV cyclotron facility examined are, inter alia: the injector cyclotrons, the separated-sector cyclotron, the control system, the beam transport system and radioisotope production. Separate abstracts were prepared for the various subdivisions contained in this annual report

  1. Natural gas annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  2. Natural gas annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1993 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1989 to 1993 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  3. Natural gas annual 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1991 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. Tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition form 1987 to 1991 are given for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level

  4. Decomposition into Tradables and Nontradables and the Purchasing Power Parity (PPP Hypothesis of the Real Won-dollar Exchange Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deockhyun Ryu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to test the purchasing power parity (PPP hypothesis using the won-dollar real exchange rate and analyze the effect of the decomposition into tradables and non-tradables on the change of the won-dollar real exchange rate. This paper decomposes the CPI-based real exchange rate into two parts according to Engel (1999; one is the relative price of traded goods between the countries, the other is a component that is a weighted difference of the relative price of nontraded-to traded-goods prices in each country. We construct this by comparing the component subsection weights in CPI. The empirical analysis of this paper consists of two parts as follows. First, we conducted a traditional time series analyses of the real exchange rate, tradable and non-tradable parts respectively, thereby testing the PPP hypothesis and other important hypotheses. Secondly, this paper conducted a Mean Squared Error (MSE analysis to evaluate the relative contribution of tradable and non-tradable parts to the change of real exchange rate. From the time series analysis, it is not guaranteed that the PPP hyThe purpose of this paper is to test the purchasing power parity (PPP hypothesis using the won-dollar real exchange rate and analyze the effect of the decomposition into tradables and non-tradables on the change of the won-dollar real exchange rate. This paper decomposes the CPI-based real exchange rate into two parts according to Engel (1999; one is the relative price of traded goods between the countries, the other is a component that is a weighted difference of the relative price of nontraded-to traded-goods prices in each country. We construct this by comparing the component subsection weights in CPI. The empirical analysis of this paper consists of two parts as follows. First, we conducted a traditional time series analyses of the real exchange rate, tradable and non-tradable parts respectively, thereby testing the PPP hypothesis and other

  5. 1999 Annual Report: Delivering energy value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Union Gas Limited, a subsidiary of Westcoast Energy Company, is a major Canadian natural gas utility, providing energy delivery and related services to 1.1 million residential, commercial and industrial customers in over 400 communities in northern, southwestern and eastern Ontario. Union Gas also provides natural gas storage and transportation services for other utilities and energy market participants in Ontario, Quebec and the northeastern United States. In 1999 the Company had revenues of 1.5 billion, net income of $ 95 million, and assets totalling $ 3.8 billion. Net income was down from $ 109 million in 1998, due mainly to the impact of the sale of the Company's retail merchandise program to Union Energy, a lower approved rate of return on common equity. Full-time employees number about 2,500. Total throughput for 1999 was 34.6 billion cubic metres of natural gas, up 8.9 per cent from 1998. The Company undertook significant reorganization and restructuring during 1999, to emphasize critical business processes. The reorganization, which saw the divestiture of the retail merchandise programs to an unregulated affiliate, Union Energy, resulted in a flat, flexible and efficient enterprise, more capable of timely response to changing market opportunities and customer needs. Union Gas also filed application with the Ontario Energy Board for rates for the year 2000 and beyond, using the performance-based regulation framework; completed construction of a $ 16 million, 90 km pipeline to make natural gas service available to Parry Sound; Launched 'enoms' a new Internet-based natural gas nominations system; completed the first phase of the $ 17 million Century Pools storage development project, and applied to build the second phase, comprising a $37 million addition to the storage pools at the Mandasumin, Bluewater and Oil City pools; and completed several smaller projects totalling $ 5.2 million to give access to natural gas to 2,300 new customers at various parts of

  6. Outdoor recreation in shifting societal and natural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda H. Mockrin; J. M.  Bowker; Katherine  Smith; Cindi  West

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor recreation contributes to public health, supports hundreds of thousands of jobs, and  provides billions of dollars annually to rural economies. Visitors to federal lands alone spent $51  billion in 2012 in nearby communities during their trips to recreate on public lands and waters  (Forest Service National Center for Natural Resources Economic Research 2014)....

  7. Spring forward with improved Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus resistant to Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilapia aquaculture worldwide is valued around US $ 7 billion. Tilapia are an important source of protein for domestic (top 5 most consumed seafoods) and global food security. Two gram postitive bacteria, Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae, are responsible for billion dollar losses annually. Gen...

  8. Hanford general employee training: A million dollar cost-beneficial program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    In January, 1990, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implemented an interactive videodisc training program entitled Hanford General Employee Training (HGET). Following an introduction by the course instructor, students begin the interactive video segment of the course by taking a tour of an office building. In fact, this tour is simply a setting in which to give the student a checkout on safety, security, and quality issues. For example, at one point the guide leaves the room and the phone suddenly begins a steady ring. This is a particular alarm at WHC, and the student is challenged to respond correctly. Missed questions flag corresponding tutorials to be delivered either immediately or on completion of the tour. Instructors receive notification of weakoesses left unremedied. Development costs for a sophisticated program such as HGET were high compared to similar costs for developing equivalent traditional training. Hardware and labor totaled $900K. Annual maintenance costs, equipment plus labor, appear to be running about $200K. On the benefit side, by consolidating some seventeen previous WHC courses and more effectively managing the instructional process, HGET reduced the average student training time from over eleven hours to just under four hours. In the development and implementation of HGET a number of issues were resolved, some more successfully than others: (1) what about job security for former instructors? (2) how should the course be run on a daily basis? (we envisioned a combination of instructor and videodisc); (3) how high will the maintenance costs be? (higher than projected); etc. Many obstacles arise, most in connection with the large number of groups and personnel whose efforts had to be coordinated

  9. Annual report, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Operations of Ontario Hydro, one of North America's largest utilities, for the year 1980 are described. A new energy-use strategy was evolved during 1980 which included maximizing use of electricity generated from indigenous sources to substitute for imported fossil fuels. Due to the consistently outstanding performance of the utility's nuclear plants at Pickering and Bruce, nuclear power supplied 34 percent of the total energy generated, up three percent from 1979. This is second only to hyraulic generation. Ontario Hydro's reactors, four of which led the world's power reactors with capacities exceeding 500 MW in overall capacity factor, continued to provide reliable generation. Ontario Hydro is a publicly-owned financially self-supporting utility. During 1980 steps were taken to reduce the difference in rates between rural and urban customers. Average rate increases to be implemented in January 1981 were 9.3 percent for municipal utilities, 9.6 percent to direct industrial customers, and 11.2 percent for direct rural customers. The average revenue from residential users was $0.0364 per kwh. Revenue was $2.8 billion on assets of $15.6 billion. (O.T.)

  10. The economic downturn and its lingering effects reduced medicare spending growth by $4 billion in 2009-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranove, David; Garthwaite, Craig; Ody, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    Previous work has found a strong connection between the most recent economic recession and reductions in private health spending. However, the effect of economic downturns on Medicare spending is less clear. In contrast to studies involving earlier time periods, our study found that when the macroeconomy slowed during the Great Recession of 2007-09, so did Medicare spending growth. A small (14 percent) but significant share of the decline in Medicare spending growth from 2009 to 2012 relative to growth from 2004 to 2009 can be attributed to lingering effects of the recession. Absent the economic downturn, Medicare spending would have been $4 billion higher in 2009-12. A major reason for the relatively small impact of the macroeconomy is the relative lack of labor-force participation among people ages sixty-five and older. We estimate that if they had been working at the same rate as the nonelderly before the recession, the effect of the downturn on Medicare spending growth would have been twice as large. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  11. Impacts of a 32-billion-gallon bioenergy landscape on land and fossil fuel use in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudiburg, Tara W.; Wang, Weiwei; Khanna, Madhu; Long, Stephen P.; Dwivedi, Puneet; Parton, William J.; Hartman, Melannie; Delucia, Evan H.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable transportation biofuels may require considerable changes in land use to meet mandated targets. Understanding the possible impact of different policies on land use and greenhouse gas emissions has typically proceeded by exploring either ecosystem or economic modelling. Here we integrate such models to assess the potential for the US Renewable Fuel Standard to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector through the use of cellulosic biofuels. We find that 2022 US emissions are decreased by 7.0 ± 2.5% largely through gasoline displacement and soil carbon storage by perennial grasses. If the Renewable Fuel Standard is accompanied by a cellulosic biofuel tax credit, these emissions could be reduced by 12.3 ± 3.4%. Our integrated approach indicates that transitioning to cellulosic biofuels can meet a 32-billion-gallon Renewable Fuel Standard target with negligible effects on food crop production, while reducing fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions. However, emissions savings are lower than previous estimates that did not account for economic constraints.

  12. ALMA Shows that Gas Reservoirs of Star-forming Disks over the Past 3 Billion Years Are Not Predominantly Molecular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortese, Luca; Catinella, Barbara; Janowiecki, Steven, E-mail: luca.cortese@uwa.edu.au [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2017-10-10

    Cold hydrogen gas is the raw fuel for star formation in galaxies, and its partition into atomic and molecular phases is a key quantity for galaxy evolution. In this Letter, we combine Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and Arecibo single-dish observations to estimate the molecular-to-atomic hydrogen mass ratio for massive star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 0.2 extracted from the HIGHz survey, i.e., some of the most massive gas-rich systems currently known. We show that the balance between atomic and molecular hydrogen in these galaxies is similar to that of local main-sequence disks, implying that atomic hydrogen has been dominating the cold gas mass budget of star-forming galaxies for at least the past three billion years. In addition, despite harboring gas reservoirs that are more typical of objects at the cosmic noon, HIGHz galaxies host regular rotating disks with low gas velocity dispersions suggesting that high total gas fractions do not necessarily drive high turbulence in the interstellar medium.

  13. Annual report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This annual report is the fifth issued in English from the Tandem Accelerator Laboratory in Uppsala since research was started in November 1970. It covers work performed during the calendar year 1976 and updates information given in earlier annual reports with regard to laboratory facilities such as computer configuration and layout of the experimental area. The descriptions of the research projects are also in general more detailed than usual and may sometime contain results obtained before 1976 in order to avoid too many references to earlier annual reports. It has, for instance, been thought of interest to make the sections on the study of beam foil excitation of atoms and on the measurements of nuclear deformations by the REPREC method quite extensive. (Auth.)

  14. Petroleum supply annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  15. Natural gas annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs

  16. Natural gas annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  17. International energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The International Energy Annual presents an overview of key international energy trends for production, consumption, imports, and exports of primary energy commodities in over 220 countries, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty. Also included are population and gross domestic product data, as well as prices for crude oil and petroleum products in selected countries. Renewable energy reported in the International Energy Annual includes hydroelectric power, geothermal, solar, and wind electric power, biofuels energy for the US, and biofuels electric power for Brazil. New in the 1996 edition are estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum and coal, and the consumption and flaring of natural gas. 72 tabs.

  18. Secondhand smoke exposure at home among one billion children in 21 countries: findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbulo, Lazarous; Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Andes, Linda; Morton, Jeremy; Bashir, Rizwan; Fouad, Heba; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Caixeta, Roberta; Dias, Rula Cavaco; Wijnhoven, Trudy M A; Kashiwabara, Mina; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Tursan d'Espaignet, Edouard

    2016-12-01

    Children are vulnerable to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure because of limited control over their indoor environment. Homes remain the major place where children may be exposed to SHS. Our study examines the magnitude, patterns and determinants of SHS exposure in the home among children in 21 countries (19 low-income and middle-income countries and 2 high-income countries). Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data, a household survey of people 15 years of age or older. Data collected during 2009-2013 were analysed to estimate the proportion of children exposed to SHS in the home. GATS estimates and 2012 United Nations population projections for 2015 were also used to estimate the number of children exposed to SHS in the home. The proportion of children younger than 15 years of age exposed to SHS in the home ranged from 4.5% (Panama) to 79.0% (Indonesia). Of the approximately one billion children younger than 15 years of age living in the 21 countries under study, an estimated 507.74 million were exposed to SHS in the home. China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and the Philippines accounted for almost 84.6% of the children exposed to SHS. The prevalence of SHS exposure was higher in countries with higher adult smoking rates and was also higher in rural areas than in urban areas, in most countries. A large number of children were exposed to SHS in the home. Encouraging of voluntary smoke-free rules in homes and cessation in adults has the potential to reduce SHS exposure among children and prevent SHS-related diseases and deaths. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Billions of basepairs of recently expanded, repetitive sequences are eliminated from the somatic genome during copepod development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng; Wyngaard, Grace; Walton, D Brian; Wichman, Holly A; Mueller, Rachel Lockridge

    2014-03-11

    Chromatin diminution is the programmed deletion of DNA from presomatic cell or nuclear lineages during development, producing single organisms that contain two different nuclear genomes. Phylogenetically diverse taxa undergo chromatin diminution--some ciliates, nematodes, copepods, and vertebrates. In cyclopoid copepods, chromatin diminution occurs in taxa with massively expanded germline genomes; depending on species, germline genome sizes range from 15 - 75 Gb, 12-74 Gb of which are lost from pre-somatic cell lineages at germline--soma differentiation. This is more than an order of magnitude more sequence than is lost from other taxa. To date, the sequences excised from copepods have not been analyzed using large-scale genomic datasets, and the processes underlying germline genomic gigantism in this clade, as well as the functional significance of chromatin diminution, have remained unknown. Here, we used high-throughput genomic sequencing and qPCR to characterize the germline and somatic genomes of Mesocyclops edax, a freshwater cyclopoid copepod with a germline genome of ~15 Gb and a somatic genome of ~3 Gb. We show that most of the excised DNA consists of repetitive sequences that are either 1) verifiable transposable elements (TEs), or 2) non-simple repeats of likely TE origin. Repeat elements in both genomes are skewed towards younger (i.e. less divergent) elements. Excised DNA is a non-random sample of the germline repeat element landscape; younger elements, and high frequency DNA transposons and LINEs, are disproportionately eliminated from the somatic genome. Our results suggest that germline genome expansion in M. edax reflects explosive repeat element proliferation, and that billions of base pairs of such repeats are deleted from the somatic genome every generation. Thus, we hypothesize that chromatin diminution is a mechanism that controls repeat element load, and that this load can evolve to be divergent between tissue types within single organisms.

  20. 6.6-hour inhalation of ozone concentrations from 60 to 87 parts per billion in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelegle, Edward S; Morales, Christopher A; Walby, William F; Marion, Susan; Allen, Roblee P

    2009-08-01

    Identification of the minimal ozone (O(3)) concentration and/or dose that induces measurable lung function decrements in humans is considered in the risk assessment leading to establishing an appropriate National Ambient Air Quality Standard for O(3) that protects public health. To identify and/or predict the minimal mean O(3) concentration that produces a decrement in FEV(1) and symptoms in healthy individuals completing 6.6-hour exposure protocols. Pulmonary function and subjective symptoms were measured in 31 healthy adults (18-25 yr, male and female, nonsmokers) who completed five 6.6-hour chamber exposures: filtered air and four variable hourly patterns with mean O(3) concentrations of 60, 70, 80, and 87 parts per billion (ppb). Compared with filtered air, statistically significant decrements in FEV(1) and increases in total subjective symptoms scores (P < 0.05) were measured after exposure to mean concentrations of 70, 80, and 87 ppb O(3). The mean percent change in FEV(1) (+/-standard error) at the end of each protocol was 0.80 +/- 0.90, -2.72 +/- 1.48, -5.34 +/- 1.42, -7.02 +/- 1.60, and -11.42 +/- 2.20% for exposure to filtered air and 60, 70, 80, and 87 ppb O(3), respectively. Inhalation of 70 ppb O(3) for 6.6 hours, a concentration below the current 8-hour National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 75 ppb, is sufficient to induce statistically significant decrements in FEV(1) in healthy young adults.

  1. Examination of purchasing power parity hypothesis: Evidence from unit root and cointegration analysis of dinar-euro and dinar-dollar exchange rates

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović, Predrag

    2014-01-01

    The paper shows the results of an empirical analysis of the relative variant of purchasing power parity (PPP) for dinar-euro and dinar-dollar ex-change rates. The study was conducted for the period January 2007 - August 2013 and involved testing of the empirical foundation of strong and weak PPP forms. The first part of the strong PPP form testing comes down to examination of non-stationarity of dinar-euro and dinar-dollar real exchange rates by use of standard unit root tests (ADF, PP, KPSS,...

  2. 76 FR 52384 - Indexing the Annual Operating Revenues of Railroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... level for Class I railroads from $50 million (1978 dollars) to $250 million (1991 dollars), effective... Board, William F. Huneke, Director, Office of Economics. Jeffrey Herzig, Clearance Clerk. [FR Doc. 2011...

  3. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    Article VI.J of the Agency's Statute requires the Board of Governors to submit 'an annual report to the General Conference concerning the affairs of the Agency and any projects approved by the Agency'. This report covers the period 1 January to 31 December 2000

  4. IRI annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary reports are presented of current research and teaching activities during 1989 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics, operation and maintenance of, and experiments with the Delft Hoger Onderwijs reactor, nuclear instrumentation projects and supporting services. (H.W.). 299 refs.; 2 figs.; 7 tabs

  5. Annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This annual report contains short descriptions of the work done at the named institute. These concern the study of hyperfine interactions, experiments with synchroton radiation, experiments at storage rings, and experiments at CERN. Furthermore, a list of publications, contributions to conferences and these is presented. (HSI) [de

  6. CSIR Annual report 1966

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty second annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1966, to the 31st December 1966. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  7. Annual Report - ESCELSA - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The annual report of ESCELSA - Brazilian electric power distribution company - introduces the following main topics: state of Espirito Santo; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sales; market overview; market expansion; customers; technological stream; measuring quality; electric system; investments; protecting the environment; and resource allocation

  8. Annual Conference Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Engineering Education, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Includes abstracts of papers presented at the 80th Annual Conference of the American Society for Engineering Education. The broad areas include aerospace, affiliate and associate member council, agricultural engineering, biomedical engineering, continuing engineering studies, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computers, cooperative…

  9. HASYLAB annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed at HASYLAB together with a list of publications, speeches, and theses. The work concerns technical developments, the study of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules, solids, surfaces, and liquids, X-ray structure studies of solids and interfaces, molecular biology, further applications of synchrotron radiation, and experimental developments. (HSI)

  10. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  11. Annual report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  12. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains

  13. CSIR Annual report 1968

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty fourth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1968, to the 31st December 1968. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  14. CSIR Annual report 1971

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty seventh annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1971, to the 31st December 1971. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  15. CSIR Annual report 1970

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty sixth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1970, to the 31st December 1970. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  16. CSIR Annual report 1969

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty fifth annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1969, to the 31st December 1969. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  17. International energy annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules

  18. Uranium industry annual 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry's activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey.'' Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry's activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry's plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey'' is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs

  19. KTA annual report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report gives an overview of the rulemaking work in the individual fields as well as other activities, such as meetings, international codes of rules, and publications. KTA organization, including its administration and funds is listed. (orig./HP) [de

  20. IRI annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In this annual report of the Dutch Interfacultary Reactor Institute, summary reports are presented of current research and teaching activities during 1989 of the departments radiochemistry, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and reactor physics, operation and maintenance of, and experiments with the Delft Hoger Onderwijs reactor, nuclear instrumentation projects and supporting services. (H.W.). 145 refs.; 20 figs.; 4 fotos; 2 tabs

  1. Annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In this annual report the work done at the named Institute is described. This concerns particle and fields in the solar system, infrared astronomy, X-ray astronomy, γ-astronomy, and molecule spectroscopy. A list of publications is added. (HSI)

  2. ANCLI annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The National Association for the Information Local Commissions (ANCLI) was created in september 1999. This association aims to develop an exchange and information network for the information local commissions. In this framework it develops information sheets, Internet site, nuclear centers visits, colloquium and formations organizations. This report presents the annual activities for the year 2003. (A.L.B.)

  3. ANCLI annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The National Association for the Information Local Commissions (ANCLI) was created in september 1999. This association aims to develop an exchange and information network for the information local commissions. In this framework it develops information sheets, Internet site, nuclear centers visits, colloquium and formations organizations. This report presents the annual activities for the year 2004. (A.L.B.)

  4. Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeley, N; Skalski, J [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk-Otwock (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    The ''Annual Report 2008'' describes activities of Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies in 2008. Report consists of two parts. First one consists of general information about location, management, scientific council, personnel, financial support and conferences while the second one describes the scientific activity of Institute. A Foreword to all report written by Director of the Institute prof. Grzegorz Wrochna is also given.

  5. TIARA annual report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshihiro; Arakawa, Kazuo; Tanaka, Shigeru; Narumi, Kazumasa; Yoshida, Masaru; Itoh, Hisayoshi; Yoshikawa, Masato; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Otsubo, Michiro; Yokota, Watalu; Nakamura, Yoshiteru

    2006-01-01

    This annual report describes research and development activities which have been performed with the TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 2004 to March 31, 2005. The 126 of the presented papers are indexed individually. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (J.P.N.)

  6. Annual Report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) is an international research center using neutrons to probe the microscopic structure and dynamics of a broad range of materials. This annual report presents the ILL activities in 2000: the scientific highlights, the Millennium programme and the new developments, the workshops organized by the ILL, the experimental programme and the publications. (A.L.B.)

  7. International Energy Annual, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-14

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules.

  8. ANCLI annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The National Association for the Information Local Commissions (ANCLI) was created in september 1999. This association aims to develop an exchange and information network for the information local commissions. In this framework it develops information sheets, Internet site, nuclear centers visits, colloquium and formations organizations. This report presents the annual activities for the year 2002. (A.L.B.)

  9. Annual General Meetings

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    We have produced this information booklet to explain why companies must – by law – hold an Annual General Meeting (AGM). The laws which cover AGMs are known as the Companies Acts. This guide gives only a summary of the rules for AGMs. If you have a concern about the AGM of a particular company, you should get independent legal advice.

  10. Annual report 1981, annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This volume entitled ''Annex to the annual report'' deals in more detail with the scientific works of the I.L.L.: the scientific activity of theoricians; experimental reports on inelastic scattering in simple solids, crystallographic and magnetic structures, fluids and amorphous substances, imperfections, biology, chemistry

  11. Annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This annual report presents an evaluation of activities of the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf. The major themes of the report include mass rearing and quality control in Tsetse fly and research on Medfly genetic sexing strains.

  12. Annual Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawlikowicz, W.; Pienkowski, L.

    2007-03-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University describes the activities of Laboratory in 2006. The document consist of four parts: 'Laboratory Overview', 'Experiments and Experimental Set-ups', 'Experiments Using the Outside Facilities' and 'General Information on HIL Activities'. An 'Introduction' written by director of the Department prof. J. Jastrzebski is also given

  13. Annual report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The annual report from IKU (Continental Shelf Institute) in Norway deals with the market adjustment of research activities at the institute as a result of offshore cost-cutting policy in the petroleum industry. The market is about to shift focus from volume to competence. In practice, that means buying competence instead of project ideas or proposals

  14. BAM - Annual report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    The annual report contains progress and activity reports of the presidential department, the departments metals and metal construction, civil engineering and building activities, organic matter, chemical safety engineering, special fields of materials testing, techniques independent of the type of material, an index, as well as general and statistic statements. (HK) [de

  15. Annual report - ENERSUL - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The annual report of ENERSUL - Brazilian electric power distribution company - introduces the following main topics: Outlook for the State of Mato Grosso do Sul; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sold; capacity increases; customers; customers; energy balance; performance and quality; electric system; investments; people; human resources; synergies; awards; workplace safety; social balance; and patrimonial balance

  16. 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is the 2001 annual report of the French union of the petroleum industry (UFIP). It summarizes the highlights of the petroleum industry activity in France in 2001 and gives some additional information about the production, refining and distribution of petroleum products in the rest of the world. (J.S.)

  17. Annual Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinska, M.; Gawlikowicz, W.

    2008-03-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University describes the activities of Laboratory in 2007. The document consist of four parts: '' Laboratory Overview '', '' Experiments and Experimental Set-ups '', '' Experiments Using the Outside Facilities '' and '' General Information on HIL Activities ''. An '' Introduction '' written by director of the Department prof. J. Jastrzebski is also given

  18. International Energy Annual, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report is prepared annually and presents the latest information and trends on world energy production and consumption for petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity. Trade and reserves are shown for petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Prices are included for selected petroleum products. Production and consumption data are reported in standard units as well as British thermal units (Btu) and joules

  19. 2010 AAUW Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of University Women, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report highlights some of the outstanding accomplishments of AAUW (American Association of University Women) for fiscal year 2010. This year's annual report also features stories of remarkable women who are leading the charge to break through barriers and ensure that all women have a fair chance. Sharon is working to reduce the pay gap…

  20. Annual report - ESCELSA - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The annual report of 1999 of ESCELSA - Brazilian electric power company - introduces the next main topics: state of Espirito Santo; strategic focus; financial performance; relation with investors; energy sales; customers; quality; electric system; investments; people; resources; synergies; awards; outlook; social balancing; and patrimonial balancing

  1. IKF annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The annual report of 1988 gives a survey of the following category of themes: nuclear physics, atom physics, nuclear methods, nuclear solid-state physics and developments of machines. Apart from the use of its own Van de Graaff accelerators the institute takes part in joint ventures in research, for example with the GSI (Association for Heavy-Ion Research) in Darmstadt. (DG) [de

  2. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinska, M.; Gawlikowicz, W.; Pienkowski, L.

    2006-05-01

    The Annual Report of the Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University describes the activities of Laboratory in 2005. The document consist of four parts: Laboratory Overview, Experiments and Experimental Set-ups, Experiments Using the Outside Facilities and General Information on HIL Activities. An Introduction written by director of the Department prof. J. Jastrzebski is also given

  3. KVI Annual Report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This annual report offers 93 informative descriptions of the current research projects at the KVI cyclotron during 1982. The projects are classed under the following heads: elastic and inelastic scattering; giant resonances; transfer and charge exchange reactions; breakup reactions; heavy ion reactions; electromagnetic and weak interactions; theoretical nuclear physics; atomic physics; nuclear solid state physics; cyclotron, computers and instrumentation; nuclear medicine; environmental studies. (Auth.)

  4. NERSC Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John; Bashor, Jon; Yarris, Lynn; McCullough, Julie; Preuss, Paul; Bethel, Wes

    2005-04-15

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the premier computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report includes summaries of recent significant and representative computational science projects conducted on NERSC systems as well as information about NERSC's current and planned systems and services.

  5. Annual report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    In this annual report the work done at the named institute is described. This concerns experiments with synchrotron radiations, high energy physics experiments at the PETRA and DORIS storage rings, studies of MFS interactions, and some neutrino experiments at CERN. A list of publications is included. (HSI)

  6. Annual Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) is an international research center using neutrons to probe the microscopic structure and dynamics of a broad range of materials. This annual report presents the ILL activities in 2000: the scientific highlights, the Millennium programme and the new developments, the workshops organized by the ILL, the experimental programme and the publications. (A.L.B.)

  7. Total 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  8. NERSC Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules, John

    2003-01-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2002 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects), and information about NERSC's current and planned systems and service

  9. Annual results 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This 2004 annual evaluation of the french RTE company (electric power transport network) provides information on the 2004 results on: institutional information, financial results, customers and market, industrial resources, environment and consultation, human resources and international aspects. (A.L.B.)

  10. Annual report SNET 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the SNET (National Society of Electricity and thermic) presents the society activities and the financial report for the year 2003. The society position in the market, the environmental policy, the performance, the workers and financial data are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  11. Environment annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the 1993 Environment Annual Report for BNFL, data are presented for radioactive discharges to the environment and their associated doses to the criteria group members of the public in the vicinity of Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst. Similarly, data are also presented for non-radioactive discharges to water and air for each site. (UK)

  12. NUFFIC Annual Report, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Co-operation, The Hague.

    The 1977 annual report of the Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Cooperation (NUFFIC) considers the following topics: major developments in work and policy; relationships NUFFIC has with other organizations; University Development Cooperation; developments in international education; the functioning of the Consultative Structure…

  13. CSIR Annual report 1967

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the twenty third annual report of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The report covers the period from the 1st January, 1967, to the 31st December 1967. Balance sheets and statements of income and expenditure...

  14. Annual report 1982. Annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the scientific annual report 1982 of the ILL on R and D activities of the different colleges: fundamental and nuclear physics, inelastic scattering in simple solids, crystallographic and magnetic structures, fluids and amorphous substances, imperfections, biology, chemistry, theory. Abstracts of the publications published during the year are presented

  15. CSIR Annual report 1980

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the thirty-sixth annual report of the CSIR. The report covers the period 1 January, 1980 to 31 December 1980. A balance sheet and statements of income and expenditure for the financial year ended 31st March 1980, certified...

  16. NRCC annual report, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    This annual report of the National Research for Computation in Chemistry (NRCC) Division describes the program of research workshops, software development, and scientific research of the Division in 1979. This year marked the first full calendar year of activity of the Division. Initial staffing in the core scientific areas was completed by the addition of a crystallographer

  17. GKSS annual report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This annual report reviews the structure and activities of the GKSS in 1983. R and D work was done on reactor safety engineering, environmental research/environmental engineering and underwater technology. It also reports on cooperation with outside partners, the organization, financing, and developments in the staff structure as well as on publications, lectures, applications for patents, etc. (UA) [de

  18. NERSC Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hules (Ed.), John

    2006-07-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the premier computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report includes summaries of recent significant and representative computational science projects conducted on NERSC systems as well as information about NERSC's current and planned systems and services.

  19. ELETRONUCLEAR - Annual report - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The annual activities report of 1997 of ELETRONUCLEAR - Brazilian company responsible by the electric power generation from the nuclear technology - introduces the next main topics: company vision and mission; energy production and commercialization; investments in the electric power generation; economic and financial situation; social balancing; and patrimonial balancing

  20. Mail Office annual closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On the occasion of the annual closure of CERN, there will be no mail distributed on Friday 20 December 2013 but mail will be collected in the morning. Nevertheless, you will still be able to bring your outgoing mail to Building 555-R-002 until 12 noon.