WorldWideScience

Sample records for billion cubic meters

  1. What's a billion cubic meters among friends: The impacts of quantile mapping bias correction on climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsugli, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    Consider two views of climate change, the percent change in precipitation from the GCMs and the percent change from the same GCMs as bias-corrected using quantile mapping. There is emerging evidence that quantile mapping, a commonly used bias correction method, can alter the projections of future precipitation in a way that leads to a systematicaly wetter future for the Colorado River than is indicated by the percent-changes in the GCMs. The difference, about 3% in precipitation, when put through hydrology models, amounts to roughly a 6% shift in the average flows at Lees Ferry, or a little over a billion cubic meters (a million acre feet). On the one hand, the quantile mapping does not add any new physics to the GCM water budget, so the shifts in the mean from could be viewed as an unintended statistical artifact. On the other, what is sacrosanct about the percent change in the (biased) GCM water budget as an indicator of the future climate? We investigate the reasons that this shift arises by taking a closer look at quantile mapping in theory and for idealized (Gamma and Weibull) probability distributions. Heuristics are developed to understand when the shift is likely to arise for more realistic distributions, and to connect the idealized statistical examples to hypothetical water budgets.

  2. Theoretical innovation and technical progress will usher in a production period of gas fields with an annual capacity of ten billion cubic meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwei Gan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Challenged by the increasing complexity of targets and the tense situation of turning losses into profits during the 12th Five-Year Plan, by virtue of technological innovation, Sinopec Southwest Oil & Gas Company proposed the theories of gas exploration in continental clastic rock and marine carbonate rock, and developed the development technologies for reef, channel sandstone and tight sandstone reservoirs. Moreover, it innovatively formed a series of engineering technologies, including intelligent sliding sleeve staged fracturing, blasting–packing–fracturing stimulation, impulse fracturing, and drilling, completion and production technologies for ultra-deep horizontal wells with high sulfur contents. With these innovated theories and improved technologies, great discoveries have been made in the continental clastic rocks and marine carbonate rocks in West Sichuan Basin, the marine shale in South Sichuan Basin, and the marine carbonate rocks in Yuanba area of NE Sichuan Basin, and three 100 billion-m3 class commercial gas reserves zones were discovered. Moreover, two medium- and large-sized gas fields were proved, and three medium- and large-sized gas fields were completely constructed. Both reserves and production reached a new record in history. During the 13th Five-Year Plan, Sinopec Southwest Oil & Gas Company will focus on the exploration and development of deep marine carbonate reservoirs, commercial development of deep shale gas, safe development of gas fields with high sulfur, and enhancement of recovery in mature gas fields. By the end of the 13th Five-Year Plan, it is expected that the annual gas production of (10–12 × 109 m3 will be achieved.

  3. Unlocking the EUR53 billion savings from smart meters in the EU. How increasing the adoption of dynamic tariffs could make or break the EU's smart grid investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruqui, Ahmad; Hledik, Ryan; Harris, Dan

    2010-01-01

    We estimate the cost of installing smart meters in the EU to be EUR51 billion, and that operational savings will be worth between EUR26 and 41 billion, leaving a gap of EUR10-25 billion between benefits and costs. Smart meters can fill this gap because they enable the provision of dynamic pricing, which reduces peak demand and lowers the need for building and running expensive peaking power plants. The present value of savings in peaking infrastructure could be as high as EUR67 billion for the EU if policy-makers can overcome barriers to consumers adopting dynamic tariffs, but only EUR14 billion otherwise. We outline a number of ways to increase the adoption of dynamic tariffs. (author)

  4. Missing billions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conly, S

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses funding of population programs that support the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development's Plan of Action. The Plan of Action calls for a quadrupling of annual financial commitments for population programs to $17 billion by the year 2000 and $22 billion by 2015. The increased expenditures would cover the increased demand for services from unmet need and population growth. Donor countries are expected to increase their share from the current 25% to about 33%, or $5.7 billion by the year 2000. The estimates are in 1993 constant dollars. $17 billion is less than the $40 billion that is spent worldwide on playing golf. During 1993-94, general donor support increased to $1.2 billion. Denmark, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States increased their support. The United States doubled its support for population programs during 1992-95 to $583 million. During 1996-97 the US Congress cut funding back to the 1995 level. France, Italy, Spain, Belgium, and Austria have lagged in support for population programs in the present and the past. Equal burden sharing would require the US to increase funding to $1.9 billion. Developed country assistance declined to the lowest share of combined gross national product since 1970. This shifts the burden to multilateral sources. The European Union is committed to increasing its funding, and the World Bank increased funding for population and reproductive health to about $600 million in 1996 from $424 million in 1994. Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa, and Turkey spent 85% of all government expenditures on family planning in developing countries. External donors in Africa are the main support of family planning. Private consumers in Latin America pay most of the costs of family planning. External assistance will be needed for some time.

  5. Six billion and counting

    OpenAIRE

    Leisinger, Klaus M.; Schmitt, Karin M.; Pandya-Lorch, Rajul

    2002-01-01

    In 1999 global population surpassed 6 billion people, and this number rises by about 70-80 million people each year. "Six Billion and Counting" examines the consequences of continuing population growth for the world's resource systems and for national and global food security. Leisinger, Schmitt, and Pandya-Lorch offer here a sober analysis of a complex and alarming situation. They assess the progress the world has made in controlling population growth and point to the areas where future diff...

  6. Connecting the last billion

    OpenAIRE

    Ben David, Yahel

    2015-01-01

    The last billion people to join the online world, are likely to face at least one of two obstacles:Part I: Rural Internet AccessRural, sparsely populated, areas make conventional infrastructure investments unfeasible: Bigcorporations attempt to address this challenge via the launch of Low-Earth-Orbiting (LEO) satelliteconstellations, fleets of high-altitude balloons, and giant solar-powered drones; although thesegrandiose initiatives hold potential, they are costly and risky. At the same time...

  7. When energy grids become intelligent: smart grid standardisation in the starting-blocks; interconnection in Europe: 50 billions Euros to boost all networks; smart electric grids feed new projects; The United States and Europe connect standards on smart electric grids; smart metering: standards place their marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedey, Fabienne; Tourneur, Jean-Claude; Barthet, Marie-Claire

    2012-01-01

    As talking about smart grids has became a leitmotiv, their development appears to be complex as it requires all the actors (carriers, dealers, providers, decentralised producers, consumers, equipment manufacturers, and so on) to share a same transverse vision. A European cooperation group has been set up which gathers representatives of the European electrical and telecommunication industry. Beside, the European Commission has presented a plan which comprises 50 billions Euros of investments to improve all networks in the fields of transports, energy and digital technology. In France, six projects on smart grids gathered 115 millions Euros. At the international level, the NIST and SGCG have been asked to cooperatively elaborate a standard framework for smart grids. But smart metering concerns other fields than electricity...

  8. Feeding six billion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L R

    1989-01-01

    Between 1986-88 drought damage to crops caused the grain supply to decrease and the price of grain worldwide increased 50%. However, in 1989 higher prices and better weather did not result in a rebuilding of reserves lost in previous years. According to the US Agriculture Department, the 1989 harvest will be 13 million tons short of the projected 1684 million tons of consumption. If grain stock cannot be replenished this year, then when will they be replenished? There are a variety of problems causing this situation. Lack of crop land and irrigation water prevent expansion. Diminishing returns from fertilizer inputs, deforestation, soil erosion, and pollution are all decreasing yields. Growth in food production worldwide has stabilized. Between 1950-84 world grain harvest increased 2.6 times or 3%/year. But between 1985-90 that same growth was only 0.2%/year. While this is too short a time to establish a trend, it does suggest a slowdown in worldwide food production. Every year 24 billion tons of topsoil are lost to water and wind erosion, and the world population grows by 88 million annually. Together, these 2 trends indicate a pending disaster. There is no reason to believe that food production is going to continue to grow as fast as the population, thus, population growth must be drastically curtailed. The UN has changes its projected level of population stabilization from 10 billion to 14 billion based on the fact that worldwide population growth has dropped only to 1.7%. Family planning programs have not been as successful as was hoped, partly because the US has withdrawn a large amount of funding due to political pressure from conservatives. The outlook is not good, as the per capita food share shrinks, malnutrition and starvation will continue to grow. Food prices will rise sharply and many more people will be unable to afford food. In many developing countries, people spend 70% of their income on food. This is already occurring as measured by a worldwide

  9. 12 billion DM for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The German atomic industry has achieved the break-through to the world market: Brazil orders eight nuclear electricity generating plants from Siemens-AEG daughter Kraftwerk-Union. US concerns attacked the twelve billion DM deal, the biggest export order in the history of German industry. Without avail - the contract is to be signed in Bonn this week. (orig./LH) [de

  10. Solution of the Cubic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cardano's formula for solving a cubic is the crowning achievement of renaissance mathematics. Yet, it does not receive the same recognition in our curricula as does the quadratic formula, which was discovered long be- fore it. It is rather surprising that there have not been attempts to simplify further the messy formulas of ...

  11. Solution of the Cubic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    But they facilitated great advances in mathematics. Arabs, and the early Europeans who were to take off from where the Arabs had left, did not consider negative coefficients. Thus there were dozens of cases of the cubic equation to be considered. For example, the so-called depressed form alone, with square term absent, ...

  12. of the general cubic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    algebraic solution of the reduced cubic equation x. 3. + px + q = 0. It is indisputable that Geronimus Cardano [1, .... Equation(la) is not suitable for direct manipulation and to simplify the algebra the following alternate reduced forms .... REFERENCES. 1. Smith, D. E. History of Mathematics, vol. II: Special Topics of Elementary ...

  13. Countdown to Six Billion Teaching Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This teaching kit features six activities focused on helping students understand the significance of the world population reaching six billion for our society and our environment. Featured activities include: (1) History of the World: Part Six Billion; (2) A Woman's Place; (3) Baby-O-Matic; (4) Earth: The Apple of Our Eye; (5) Needs vs. Wants; and…

  14. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    terms. CTT provides a computational interpretation of functional extensionality, enjoys canonicity for the natural numbers type, and is conjectured to support decidable type-checking. Our new type theory, guarded cubical type theory (GCTT), provides a computational interpretation of extensionality......This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning...... with coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...

  15. Connected Cubic Network Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan Selçuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypercube is a popular interconnection network. Due to the popularity of hypercube, more researchers pay a great effort to develop the different variants of hypercube. In this paper, we have proposed a variant of hypercube which is called as “Connected Cubic Network Graphs”, and have investigated the Hamilton-like properties of Connected Cubic Network Graphs (CCNG. Firstly, we defined CCNG and showed the characteristic analyses of CCNG. Then, we showed that the CCNG has the properties of Hamilton graph, and can be labeled using a Gray coding based recursive algorithm. Finally, we gave the comparison results, a routing algorithm and a bitonic sort algorithm for CCNG. In case of sparsity and cost, CCNG is better than Hypercube.

  16. The updated billion-ton resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony Turhollow; Robert Perlack; Laurence Eaton; Matthew Langholtz; Craig Brandt; Mark Downing; Lynn Wright; Kenneth Skog; Chad Hellwinckel; Bryce Stokes; Patricia Lebow

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an update to a resource assessment, published in 2005, commonly referred to as the Billion-Ton Study (BTS). The updated results are consistent with the 2005 BTS in terms of overall magnitude. The 2005 BTS projected between 860 and 1240 Tg of biomass available in the 2050 timeframe, while the Billion-Ton Update (BT2), for a price of...

  17. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    types. This further expands the foundations of CTT as a basis for formalisation in mathematics and computer science. We present examples to demonstrate the expressivity of our type theory, all of which have been checked using a prototype type-checker implementation, and present semantics in a presheaf......This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning...... with coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type-checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...

  18. 10 billion years of massive Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, Edward Nairne Cunningham

    2009-01-01

    The most massive galaxies in the local universe are not forming new stars -- but we don’t know why. As a step towards figuring out why big galaxies stop forming stars, we set out to measure when they stop forming stars. By looking at the colors of massive galaxies have changed over 10 billion

  19. Interpolation of natural cubic spline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available From the result in [1] it follows that there is a unique quadratic spline which bounds the same area as that of the function. The matching of the area for the cubic spline does not follow from the corresponding result proved in [2]. We obtain cubic splines which preserve the area of the function.

  20. FY97 nuclear-related budgets total 493 billion yen (4.4 billion dollars)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    On September 13, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan announced the estimated nuclear-related budget requests for FY1997 (April, 1997 - Mach, 1998), giving the breakdowns for eight ministries and agencies. The total amount requested by the government bodies was 493.3 billion yen, 0.8% increase as compared with FY96. this figure includes the budget requests of the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Transport, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the Okinawa Development Agency, and the Ministry of Home Affairs, but excludes the budget request made by the Ministry of Education. The budget requests of STA and MITI are 360 billion yen and 126 billion yen, respectively. On August 29, STA released its estimated FY97 budget request. The nuclear-related 360.4 billion yen is 0.9% more than that in year before. Of this sum, 199.9 billion yen is in the general account, and 160.6 billion yen is in the special account for power source development. The details of the nuclear-related amounts are explained. On August 26, MITI released its estimated budget request for FY97, and of the nuclear-related 125.7 billion yen (0.1% increase from FY96), 200 million yen is in the general account, and 98.9 billion yen and 26.6 billion yen are in the special accounts for power resource development and power source diversification, respectively. (K.I.)

  1. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2016-02-01

    Freshwater scarcity is increasingly perceived as a global systemic risk. Previous global water scarcity assessments, measuring water scarcity annually, have underestimated experienced water scarcity by failing to capture the seasonal fluctuations in water consumption and availability. We assess blue water scarcity globally at a high spatial resolution on a monthly basis. We find that two-thirds of the global population (4.0 billion people) live under conditions of severe water scarcity at least 1 month of the year. Nearly half of those people live in India and China. Half a billion people in the world face severe water scarcity all year round. Putting caps to water consumption by river basin, increasing water-use efficiencies, and better sharing of the limited freshwater resources will be key in reducing the threat posed by water scarcity on biodiversity and human welfare.

  2. Endemic Cardiovascular Diseases of the Poorest Billion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Gene F; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mocumbi, Ana O; Miranda, J Jaime; Ezzati, Majid; Jain, Yogesh; Robles, Gisela; Benjamin, Emelia J; Subramanian, S V; Bukhman, Gene

    2016-06-14

    The poorest billion people are distributed throughout the world, though most are concentrated in rural sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) data can be sparse in low- and middle-income countries beyond urban centers. Despite this urban bias, CVD registries from the poorest countries have long revealed a predominance of nonatherosclerotic stroke, hypertensive heart disease, nonischemic and Chagas cardiomyopathies, rheumatic heart disease, and congenital heart anomalies, among others. Ischemic heart disease has been relatively uncommon. Here, we summarize what is known about the epidemiology of CVDs among the world's poorest people and evaluate the relevance of global targets for CVD control in this population. We assessed both primary data sources, and the 2013 Global Burden of Disease Study modeled estimates in the world's 16 poorest countries where 62% of the population are among the poorest billion. We found that ischemic heart disease accounted for only 12% of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in the poorest countries, compared with 51% of DALYs in high-income countries. We found that as little as 53% of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly burden (1629/3049 DALYs per 100 000) was attributed to behavioral or metabolic risk factors in the poorest countries (eg, in Niger, 82% of the population among the poorest billion) compared with 85% of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly burden (4439/5199 DALYs) in high-income countries. Further, of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly burden, 34% was accrued in people under age 30 years in the poorest countries, while only 3% is accrued under age 30 years in high-income countries. We conclude although the current global targets for noncommunicable disease and CVD control will help diminish premature CVD death in the poorest populations, they are not sufficient. Specifically, the current framework (1) excludes deaths of

  3. Cubic erbium trihydride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.P., E-mail: dpadams@sandia.gov; Rodriguez, M.A.; Romero, J.A.; Kotula, P.G.; Banks, J.

    2012-07-31

    High-purity, erbium hydride thin films have been deposited onto {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and oxidized Si by reactive sputtering methods. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and elastic recoil detection show that films deposited at temperatures of 35, 150 and 275 Degree-Sign C have a composition of 3H:1Er. Erbium trihydride films consist of a face-centered cubic erbium sub-lattice with a lattice parameter in the range of 5.11-5.20 A. The formation of cubic ErH{sub 3} is intriguing, because previous studies demonstrate a single trihydride phase with a hexagonal metal sub-lattice. The formation of a stable, cubic trihydride phase is attributed to a large, in-plane stress resulting from ion beam sputter deposition. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cubic erbium trihydride thin films produced by ion beam sputter deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Face-centered cubic metal sub-lattice verified by X-ray and electron diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composition evaluated using four different techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Film stress monitored during deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of cubic erbium trihydride attributed to a large, in-plane film stress.

  4. Radioisotope conveyor ash meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savelov, V.D.

    1994-01-01

    Radioisotope conveyor ash meter realizes persistent measuring of ashiness of coal and products of its enrichment on the belt conveyor without contact. The principle of ash meter acting is based on functional dependence of the gamma radiation flows backscattering intensity of radioisotope sources from the ash volume content in the controlled fuel. Facility consists from the ashiness transducer and the processing and control device

  5. Oxygen - A Four Billion Year History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    The air we breathe is twenty-one percent oxygen, an amount higher than on any other known world. While we may take our air for granted, Earth was not always an oxygenated planet. How did it become this way? Oxygen is the most current account of the history of atmospheric oxygen on Earth. Donald...... of fields, including geology, paleontology, geochemistry, biochemistry, animal physiology, and microbiology, to explain why our oxygenated Earth became the ideal place for life. Describing which processes, both biological and geological, act to control oxygen levels in the atmosphere, Canfield traces...... the records of oxygen concentrations through time. Readers learn about the great oxidation event, the tipping point 2.3 billion years ago when the oxygen content of the Earth increased dramatically, and Canfield examines how oxygenation created a favorable environment for the evolution of large animals. He...

  6. Origins fourteen billion years of cosmic evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Neil deGrasse

    2004-01-01

    Origins explores cosmic science's stunning new insights into the formation and evolution of our universe--of the cosmos, of galaxies and galaxy clusters, of stars within galaxies, of planets that orbit those stars, and of different forms of life that take us back to the first three seconds and forward through three billion years of life on Earth to today's search for life on other planets. Drawing on the current cross-pollination of geology, biology and astrophysics, Origins explains the thrilling daily breakthroughs in our knowledge of the universe from dark energy to life on Mars to the mysteries of space and time. Distilling complex science in clear and lively prose, co-authors Neil deGrasse Tyson and Donald Goldsmith conduct a galvanising tour of the cosmos revealing what the universe has been up to while turning part of itself into us.

  7. Oxygen - A Four Billion Year History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    The air we breathe is twenty-one percent oxygen, an amount higher than on any other known world. While we may take our air for granted, Earth was not always an oxygenated planet. How did it become this way? Oxygen is the most current account of the history of atmospheric oxygen on Earth. Donald...... Canfield--one of the world's leading authorities on geochemistry, earth history, and the early oceans--covers this vast history, emphasizing its relationship to the evolution of life and the evolving chemistry of the Earth. With an accessible and colorful first-person narrative, he draws from a variety...... the records of oxygen concentrations through time. Readers learn about the great oxidation event, the tipping point 2.3 billion years ago when the oxygen content of the Earth increased dramatically, and Canfield examines how oxygenation created a favorable environment for the evolution of large animals. He...

  8. Smoothing quadratic and cubic splines

    OpenAIRE

    Oukropcová, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Title: Smoothing quadratic and cubic splines Author: Kateřina Oukropcová Department: Department of Numerical Mathematics Supervisor: RNDr. Václav Kučera, Ph.D., Department of Numerical Mathematics Abstract: The aim of this bachelor thesis is to study the topic of smoothing quadratic and cubic splines on uniform partitions. First, we define the basic con- cepts in the field of splines, next we introduce interpolating splines with a focus on their minimizing properties for odd degree and quadra...

  9. The planar cubic Cayley graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Georgakopoulos, Agelos

    2018-01-01

    The author obtains a complete description of the planar cubic Cayley graphs, providing an explicit presentation and embedding for each of them. This turns out to be a rich class, comprising several infinite families. He obtains counterexamples to conjectures of Mohar, Bonnington and Watkins. The author's analysis makes the involved graphs accessible to computation, corroborating a conjecture of Droms.

  10. The planar cubic cayley graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Georgakopoulos, Agelos

    2018-01-01

    The author obtains a complete description of the planar cubic Cayley graphs, providing an explicit presentation and embedding for each of them. This turns out to be a rich class, comprising several infinite families. He obtains counterexamples to conjectures of Mohar, Bonnington and Watkins. The author's analysis makes the involved graphs accessible to computation, corroborating a conjecture of Droms.

  11. How Cubic Can Ice Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Andrew J; Pathak, Harshad; Modak, Viraj P; Laksmono, Hartawan; Loh, N Duane; Sellberg, Jonas A; Sierra, Raymond G; McQueen, Trevor A; Hayes, Matt J; Williams, Garth J; Messerschmidt, Marc; Boutet, Sébastien; Bogan, Michael J; Nilsson, Anders; Stan, Claudiu A; Wyslouzil, Barbara E

    2017-07-20

    Using an X-ray laser, we investigated the crystal structure of ice formed by homogeneous ice nucleation in deeply supercooled water nanodrops (r ≈ 10 nm) at ∼225 K. The nanodrops were formed by condensation of vapor in a supersonic nozzle, and the ice was probed within 100 μs of freezing using femtosecond wide-angle X-ray scattering at the Linac Coherent Light Source free-electron X-ray laser. The X-ray diffraction spectra indicate that this ice has a metastable, predominantly cubic structure; the shape of the first ice diffraction peak suggests stacking-disordered ice with a cubicity value, χ, in the range of 0.78 ± 0.05. The cubicity value determined here is higher than those determined in experiments with micron-sized drops but comparable to those found in molecular dynamics simulations. The high cubicity is most likely caused by the extremely low freezing temperatures and by the rapid freezing, which occurs on a ∼1 μs time scale in single nanodroplets.

  12. Cryptographic Analysis in Cubic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Seidl, H.

    2004-01-01

    The spi-calculus is a variant of the polyadic pi-calculus that admits symmetric cryptography and that admits expressing communication protocols in a precise though still abstract way. This paper shows that context-independent control flow analysis can be calculated in cubic time despite the fact...

  13. Agroecohydrology: Key to Feeding 9 Billion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, J.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural production necessary to feed 9 billion people in 2050 depends on increased production on existing croplands, and expanding onto 'marginal' lands. A high proportion of these lands are marginal because they are too steep or too dry to reliably support crop production. These same characteristics increase their susceptibility to accelerated erosion, leading (for most soil profiles) to further reductions in plant available water as infiltration and soil profile water holding capacity decline. Sustaining production on these marginal lands will require careful land use planning. In this paper, we present a land use planning framework that integrates 4 elements: (1) potential production (based on soil profile characteristics), (2) edaphic, topographic and climatic limitations to production, (3) soil resistance to degradation, and (4) resilience. This framework expands existing land capability classification systems through the integration of biophysical feedbacks and thresholds. State and transition models, similar to those currently applied to rangelands in the United States and other countries, are used to organize and communicate knowledge about the sustainability of different land use changes and management actions at field to regional scales. This framework emphasizes hydrologic characteristics of soil profiles and landscapes over fertility because fertility declines are more easily addressed through increased inputs. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of how research in ecohydrology can be more effectively focused to support sustainable food production in the context of increasingly rapid social and economic changes throughout the world.

  14. Uranium in Canada: Billion-dollar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whillans, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    In 1988, Canada maintained its position as the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium; five primary uranium producers reported concentrate output containing 12,400 MT of uranium, or about one-third of Western production. Uranium shipments made by these producers in 1988 exceeded 13,200 MT, worth Canadian $1.1 billion. Because domestic requirements represent only 15% of current Canadian output, most of Canada's uranium production is available for export. Despite continued market uncertainty in 1988, Canada's uranium producers signed new sales contracts for some 14,000 MT, twice the 1987 level. About 90% of this new volume is with the US, now Canada's major uranium customer. The recent implementation of the Canada/US Free Trade agreement brings benefits to both countries; the uranium industries in each can now develop in an orderly, free market. Canada's uranium industry was restructured and consolidated in 1988 through merger and acquisition; three new uranium projects advanced significantly. Canada's new policy on nonresident ownership in the uranium mining sector, designed to encourage both Canadian and foreign investment, should greatly improve efforts to finance the development of recent Canadian uranium discoveries

  15. Your Glucose Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco ... 164KB) En Español Basic Facts 7 Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter ...

  16. Peak flow meter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A peak flow meter is commonly used by a person with asthma to measure the amount of air that can be ... become narrow or blocked due to asthma, peak flow values will drop because the person cannot blow ...

  17. Too cheap to meter what?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedekind, Lothar

    2004-01-01

    Full text: 50 years ago, at 17:30 hours, 26 June 1954, in the town of Obninsk, near Moscow, the first nuclear power plant sent electricity to residences and businesses. Atomic energy had crossed the divide from military uses to peaceful ones, demonstrating the potential to fuel civilian electric power plants. The milestone is being marked this year at an IAEA international nuclear power conference in Obninsk. Past experience will be reviewed, but the focus is on meeting future challenges. Though it has come a long way in 50 years, nuclear energy today finds itself in a struggle of the fittest to carve a niche over the next fifty - in the marketplace and in the public eye. Cliches and sound bites tell part of the nuclear story. Visionary talk by nuclear proponents in 1954 was about future energy sources that would be 'too cheap to meter', a phrase critics pounced upon. Today in 2004 the 'too cheap to meter' phrase occasionally haunts the atom, but pops up more often than not in promotional ads for anything from wind power to web sites. Talk of nuclear energy now is of a 'renaissance' and 'second wind.' New nuclear plants are most attractive where energy demand is growing and resources are scarce, and where energy security, air pollution and greenhouse gases are priorities, IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei points out. In cities, towns, and villages, reality is different, or too much the same, depending how you see and live it. Cheap or not, nuclear energy today supplies one-sixth of the world's electricity in some 30 countries. Still, it does not produce enough power. Neither does any other energy source. More than 1.5 billion people have no electricity to meter whatsoever - not from renewables, solar, nuclear, biomass, wind, coal, oil, gas, firewood, or hydrogen, the publicized promise of tomorrow. So what will it take? Maybe bigger blackouts or hotter days than the world has seen. Certainly needed are more attention, action, and money. In dollar terms

  18. An Abel type cubic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary R. Nicklason

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider center conditions for plane polynomial systems of Abel type consisting of a linear center perturbed by the sum of 2 homogeneous polynomials of degrees n and 2n-1 where $n \\ge 2$. Using properties of Abel equations we obtain two general systems valid for arbitrary values on n. For the cubic n=2 systems we find several sets of new center conditions, some of which show that the results in a paper by Hill, Lloyd and Pearson which were conjectured to be complete are in fact not complete. We also present a particular system which appears to be a counterexample to a conjecture by Zoladek et al. regarding rational reversibility in cubic polynomial systems.

  19. Numbers for reducible cubic scrolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Vainsencher

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We show how to compute the number of reducible cubic scrolls of codimension 2 in (math blackboard symbol Pn incident to the appropriate number of linear spaces.Mostramos como calcular o número de rolos cúbicos redutíveis de codimensão 2 em (math blackboard symbol Pn incidentes a espaços lineares apropriados.

  20. Randomized Block Cubic Newton Method

    KAUST Repository

    Doikov, Nikita

    2018-02-12

    We study the problem of minimizing the sum of three convex functions: a differentiable, twice-differentiable and a non-smooth term in a high dimensional setting. To this effect we propose and analyze a randomized block cubic Newton (RBCN) method, which in each iteration builds a model of the objective function formed as the sum of the natural models of its three components: a linear model with a quadratic regularizer for the differentiable term, a quadratic model with a cubic regularizer for the twice differentiable term, and perfect (proximal) model for the nonsmooth term. Our method in each iteration minimizes the model over a random subset of blocks of the search variable. RBCN is the first algorithm with these properties, generalizing several existing methods, matching the best known bounds in all special cases. We establish ${\\\\cal O}(1/\\\\epsilon)$, ${\\\\cal O}(1/\\\\sqrt{\\\\epsilon})$ and ${\\\\cal O}(\\\\log (1/\\\\epsilon))$ rates under different assumptions on the component functions. Lastly, we show numerically that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a variety of machine learning problems, including cubically regularized least-squares, logistic regression with constraints, and Poisson regression.

  1. Cubic Matrix, Nambu Mechanics and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiharu, KAWAMURA; Department of Physics, Shinshu University

    2003-01-01

    We propose a generalization of cubic matrix mechanics by introducing a canonical triplet and study its relation to Nambu mechanics. The generalized cubic matrix mechanics we consider can be interpreted as a 'quantum' generalization of Nambu mechanics.

  2. Cubic Matrix, Nambu Mechanics and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamura, Yoshiharu

    2002-01-01

    We propose a generalization of cubic matrix mechanics by introducing a canonical triplet and study its relation to Nambu mechanics. The generalized cubic matrix mechanics we consider can be interpreted as a “quantum” generalization of Nambu mechanics.

  3. Solving Cubic Equations by Polynomial Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Raghavendra G.

    2011-01-01

    Several mathematicians struggled to solve cubic equations, and in 1515 Scipione del Ferro reportedly solved the cubic while participating in a local mathematical contest, but did not bother to publish his method. Then it was Cardano (1539) who first published the solution to the general cubic equation in his book "The Great Art, or, The Rules of…

  4. Cubic colloids : Synthesis, functionalization and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castillo, S.I.R.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is a study on cubic colloids: micron-sized cubic particles with rounded corners (cubic superballs). Owing to their shape, particle packing for cubes is more efficient than for spheres and results in fascinating phase and packing behavior. For our cubes, the particle volume fraction when

  5. Conducted interference on smart meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyer, Cornelis H.A.; Leferink, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The increasing conducted interference caused by modern electronic equipment is causing more problems for electronic, or static, energy meters. These meters are called smart meters when equipped with a communication link, and are replacing the conventional electromechanical meters. It is known that

  6. Carbon activity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.; Krankota, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    A carbon activity meter utilizing an electrochemical carbon cell with gaseous reference electrodes having particular application for measuring carbon activity in liquid sodium for the LMFBR project is described. The electrolyte container is electroplated with a thin gold film on the inside surface thereof, and a reference electrode consisting of CO/CO 2 gas is used. (U.S.)

  7. Sneak Peek to the 2016 Billion-Ton Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    The 2005 Billion-Ton Study became a landmark resource for bioenergy stakeholders, detailing for the first time the potential to produce at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually in a sustainable manner from U.S. agriculture and forest resources. The 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update expanded and updated the analysis, and in 2016, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office plans to release the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy.

  8. Cubical local partial orders on cubically subdivided spaces - existence and construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth

    The geometric models of Higher Dimensional Automata and Dijkstra's PV-model are cubically subdivided topological spaces with a local partial order. If a cubicalization of a topological space is free of immersed cubic Möbius bands, then there are consistent choices of direction in all cubes......, such that any n-cube in the cubic subdivision is dihomeomorphic to [0,1]^n with the induced partial order from R^n. After subdivision once, any cubicalized space has a cubical local partial order. In particular, all triangularized spaces have a cubical local partial order. This implies in particular...

  9. Cubical local partial orders on cubically subdivided spaces - Existence and construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth

    2006-01-01

    The geometric models of higher dimensional automata (HDA) and Dijkstra's PV-model are cubically subdivided topological spaces with a local partial order. If a cubicalization of a topological space is free of immersed cubic Möbius bands, then there are consistent choices of direction in all cubes......, such that any n-cube in the cubic subdivision is dihomeomorphic to [0,1]^n with the induced partial order from R^n. After subdivision once, any cubicalized space has a cubical local partial order. In particular, all triangularized spaces have a cubical local partial order. This implies in particular...

  10. Weighted cubic and biharmonic splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvasov, Boris; Kim, Tae-Wan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the design of algorithms for interpolating discrete data by using weighted cubic and biharmonic splines in such a way that the monotonicity and convexity of the data are preserved. We formulate the problem as a differential multipoint boundary value problem and consider its finite-difference approximation. Two algorithms for automatic selection of shape control parameters (weights) are presented. For weighted biharmonic splines the resulting system of linear equations can be efficiently solved by combining Gaussian elimination with successive over-relaxation method or finite-difference schemes in fractional steps. We consider basic computational aspects and illustrate main features of this original approach.

  11. Proton collider breaks the six-billion-dollar barrier

    CERN Document Server

    Vaughan, C

    1990-01-01

    The SSC will cost at least 1 billion more than its estimated final price of 5.9 billion dollars. Critics in congress believe the final bill could be double that figure. The director of the SSC blames most of the increase in cost on technical problems with developing the superconducting magnets for the SSC (1/2 page).

  12. Digital Capacitance Meter

    OpenAIRE

    Indra Budi Cahya Ardi; Luyung Dinaini Skom, MM

    2002-01-01

    This thesis explores the design, build, analyze the work circuit, and test a series ofDigital Capacitance Meter. It works by using two monostable multivibrator as shownon the input from the output through seven segment indicator. As the source voltageused 9-volt battery.This tool is used to determine condition and capacity of a capacitor in the variousunits, namely: Pikko farad (pF), nano-farad (nF), micro and milli farad farad (MF).

  13. Secure Metering Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundo, Carlo; Cimato, Stelvio; Masucci, Barbara

    The current trend on the Internet suggests that the majority of revenues of web sites come from the advertising potential of the World Wide Web. Advertising is arguably the type of commercial information exchange of the greatest economic importance in the real world. Indeed, advertising is what funds most other forms of information exchange, including radio stations, television stations, cable networks, magazines, and newspapers. According to the figures provided by the Internet Advertising Bureau [24] and Price Waterhouse Coopers [43], advertising revenue results for the first 9 months of 2004 totaled slightly over 7.0 billion dollars.

  14. Influence of the operating pressure in flow metering systems using turbine meters-key factors; Influencia da pressao em sistemas de medicao de gas natural com totalizadores de volume do tipo turbina: fatores a considerar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcek, Alanna; Picanco, Marco Antonio S. [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Flow measurement is a strategic process in the Natural Gas transport and distribution industry. The diary measurement of the 43 million cubic meters consumed in Brazil is made by flow meters certified by the Rede Brasileira de Calibracao (Brazilian Calibration Network) and INMETRO. Turbine flow meters are commonly applied in high flow measurement systems. Some manufactures and authors discuss the sensibility of turbine meters to the operational conditions. The objective of this paper is to establish a discussion about the flow pressure effects in the turbine meter and the influence in measure errors. (author)

  15. Cubical sets and the topological topos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spitters, Bas

    2016-01-01

    Coquand's cubical set model for homotopy type theory provides the basis for a computational interpretation of the univalence axiom and some higher inductive types, as implemented in the cubical proof assistant. This paper contributes to the understanding of this model. We make three contributions......: 1. Johnstone's topological topos was created to present the geometric realization of simplicial sets as a geometric morphism between toposes. Johnstone shows that simplicial sets classify strict linear orders with disjoint endpoints and that (classically) the unit interval is such an order. Here we...... show that it can also be a target for cubical realization by showing that Coquand's cubical sets classify the geometric theory of flat distributive lattices. As a side result, we obtain a simplicial realization of a cubical set. 2. Using the internal `interval' in the topos of cubical sets, we...

  16. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    Today smart meters are increasingly used in worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social-economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, ...

  17. Net metering: zero electricity bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangi, A.; Khan, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide move towards renewable energy sources, environmental concerns and decentralization of the power sector have made net metering an attractive option for power generation at small scale. This paper discusses the net metering, economical issues of renewable sources in Pakistan, technical aspects, installation suitability according to varying terrain, existing utility rules and formulation of legislation for net metering making it economically attractive. (author)

  18. Smart metering design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weranga, K S K; Chandima, D P

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account the present day trends and the requirements, this Brief focuses on smart metering of electricity for next generation energy efficiency and conservation. The contents include discussions on the smart metering concepts and existing technologies and systems as well as design and implementation of smart metering schemes together with detailed examples.

  19. Good standards for smart meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenkamp, R.A.; Huitema, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines what lessons can be learned from the rollout of smart meters in the Netherlands to improve the European smart meter standardization. This study is based on the case of the Dutch meter rollout which preparations started in 2005 but finally was delayed until 2011 by governmental

  20. Peak flow meter use - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100202.htm Peak flow meter use - Series—Peak flow meter use - part one To use the sharing ... slide 7 out of 7 Overview A peak flow meter helps you check how well your asthma ...

  1. God particle disappears down 6 billion pound drain

    CERN Multimedia

    Henderson, M

    2001-01-01

    An estimated 6 billion pounds has been spent looking for the Higgs particle over the last three decades. Recent results from LEP though, are now causing some scientists to doubt that it exists at all (1 page).

  2. Advanced metering techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szydlowski, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to facilitate energy-efficiency improvements at federal facilities. This is accomplished by a balanced program of technology development, facility assessment, and use of cost-sharing procurement mechanisms. Technology development focuses upon the tools and procedures used to identify and evaluate efficiency improvements. For facility assessment, FEMP provides metering equipment and trained analysts to federal agencies exhibiting a commitment to improve energy-use efficiency. To assist in implementing energy-efficiency measures, FEMP helps federal agencies with identifying efficiency opportunities and in implementing energy-efficiency and demand-side management programs at federal sites. As the lead laboratory for FEMP, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provides technical assistance to federal agencies to better understand and characterize energy systems. The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked PNL to provide technical assistance to characterize and modernize energy systems at FORSCOM installations. As part of that technical assistance, PNL performed an in-depth examination of automatic meter-reading system technologies currently available. The operating characteristics and relative merits of all the major systems were reviewed in the context of applicability to federal installations. That review is documented in this report.

  3. Summary and Comparison of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report with the 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    In terms of the magnitude of the resource potential, the results of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report (BT16) are consistent with the original 2005 Billion-Ton Study (BTS) and the 2011 report, U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry (BT2. An effort was made to reevaluate the potential forestland, agricultural, and waste resources at the roadside, then extend the analysis by adding transportation costs to a biorefinery under specified logistics assumptions to major resource fractions.

  4. Interest in smart metering project surprises utility, IBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, D.

    2006-01-01

    This article provided an outline of Hydro Ottawa and IBM's smart metering pilot project, which has resulted in high approval ratings from the public. The project features 375 participants broken down into 3 separate groups to look for potential consumption differences between customers charged according to standard time-of-use pricing; time-of-use with critical peak pricing; and time-of-use with critical peak rebates. The Ontario Smart Price Pilot project will be run for 5 months, and is expected to provide detailed energy information about usage. Past projects have indicated that customers respond quickly to smart metering, as they are able to monitor their energy usage and more effectively manage their energy consumption. Ontario plans to have all homes and small businesses using smart meters by 2010, as high seasonal demand has indicated that conservation and balanced resource use are now top priorities for many utility companies. At least 10 states in the United States have conducted smart metering pilot projects. The California Public Utilities Commissions has recently approved a $1.7 billion statewide plan to replace old meters with smart meters. In Ontario, customers have ordered 10,000 electricity monitors that Hydro One is giving away. It was concluded that research results from an earlier Hydro One demonstration project with 500 Ontario homeowners showed that real time electricity monitors can help homeowners reduce their consumption of electricity by up to 15 per cent. 4 figs

  5. Cubic spline functions for curve fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    FORTRAN cubic spline routine mathematically fits curve through given ordered set of points so that fitted curve nearly approximates curve generated by passing infinite thin spline through set of points. Generalized formulation includes trigonometric, hyperbolic, and damped cubic spline fits of third order.

  6. Topics in Cubic Special Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, Stefano; Roychowdhury, Raju

    2011-01-01

    We reconsider the sub-leading quantum perturbative corrections to N=2 cubic special Kaehler geometries. Imposing the invariance under axion-shifts, all such corrections (but the imaginary constant one) can be introduced or removed through suitable, lower unitriangular symplectic transformations, dubbed Peccei-Quinn (PQ) transformations. Since PQ transformations do not belong to the d=4 U-duality group G4, in symmetric cases they generally have a non-trivial action on the unique quartic invariant polynomial I4 of the charge representation R of G4. This leads to interesting phenomena in relation to theory of extremal black hole attractors; namely, the possibility to make transitions between different charge orbits of R, with corresponding change of the supersymmetry properties of the supported attractor solutions. Furthermore, a suitable action of PQ transformations can also set I4 to zero, or vice versa it can generate a non-vanishing I4: this corresponds to transitions between "large" and "small" charge orbit...

  7. E-meter with PLC-based automated meter reading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, M. [Texas Instruments, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2007-11-15

    Data can be transferred from electronic meters (e-meters) to a concentrator or other device in a variety of ways. However, new ways of communication are needed for automated meter reading (AMR) in order to avoid visits by utility officials to properties where meters are installed. In addition to remote meter reading, e-meters can have functions implemented to lower costs for electricity providers or to provide new features for end customers. This would only be possible if the meter could also receive data via a 2-way communication link. This article presented powerline communication (PLC), a completely different technique for AMR in which the power lines are used as the communication media. The major technologies used in PLC in Europe were discussed along with the challenges of overcoming quality problems. The ability to integrate all required functionality for a complex e-meter with PLC modem into small central processing units (CPUs) was also discussed. Texas Instruments offers a digital signal processor (DSP) that ensures reliable PLC. The way in which these microcomputers process electrical signals was also outlined in this article, with particular reference to how the information is made accessible for the CPUs and for metering devices. 3 figs.

  8. Micro-gen metering solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elland, J.; Dickson, J.; Cranfield, P.

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to investigate the regulation of domestic electricity metering work and identify the most economic options for micro-generator installers to undertake work on electricity meters. A micro-generation unit is defined as an energy conversion system converting non-electrical energy into electrical energy and can include technologies such as photovoltaic systems, small-scale wind turbines, micro-hydroelectric systems, and combined heat and power systems. Details of six tasks are given and cover examination of the existing framework and legal documentation for metering work, the existing technical requirements for meter operators, meter operator personnel accreditation, appraisal of options for meter changes and for micro-generation installation, document change procedures, industry consultation, and a review of the costs implications of the options.

  9. Cubical sets as a classifying topos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spitters, Bas

    Coquand’s cubical set model for homotopy type theory provides the basis for a computational interpretation of the univalence axiom and some higher inductive types, as implemented in the cubical proof assistant. We show that the underlying cube category is the opposite of the Lawvere theory of De...... Morgan algebras. The topos of cubical sets itself classifies the theory of ‘free De Morgan algebras’. This provides us with a topos with an internal ‘interval’. Using this interval we construct a model of type theory following van den Berg and Garner. We are currently investigating the precise relation...

  10. 77 FR 40586 - Draft NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ...-01] Draft NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter... Technology (NIST) seeks comments on Draft NISTIR 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter... (AMI) Smart Meters. The target audience for Draft NISTIR 7823 includes numerous stakeholders in the...

  11. Digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copie, M.; Valantic, B.

    1978-01-01

    Digital reactivity meters (DRM) are mostly used as measuring instruments, e.g. for calibration of control rods, and there are only a few cases of their incorporation into the control systems of the reactors. To move in this direction there is more development work needed. First of all, fast algorithms are needed for inverse kinetics equations to relieve the computer for more important tasks of reactor model solving in real time. The next problem, currently under investigation, is the incorporation of the reactor thermal-hydraulic model into the DRM so that it can be used in the power range. Such an extension of DHM allows presentation not only of the instantaneous reactivity of the system, but also the inserted reactivity can be estimated from the temperature reactivity feed-backs. One of the applications of this concept is the anomalous digital reactivity monitor (ADRN) as part of the reactor protection system. As a solution of the first problem, a fast algorithm for solving the inverse kinetics equations has been implemented in the off-line program RODCAL on CDC 1700 computer and tested for its accuracy by performing different control rod calibrations on the reactor TRIGA

  12. Cosmic rays and the biosphere over 4 billion years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Variations in the flux of cosmic rays (CR) at Earth during the last 4.6 billion years are constructed from information about the star formation rate in the Milky Way and the evolution of the solar activity. The constructed CR signal is compared with variations in the Earths biological productivit...... as recorded in the isotope delta C-13, which spans more than 3 billion years. CR and fluctuations in biological productivity show a remarkable correlation and indicate that the evolution of climate and the biosphere on the Earth is closely linked to the evolution of the Milky Way....

  13. Biomechanical Analysis with Cubic Spline Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Thomas M.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Results of experimentation suggest that the cubic spline is a convenient and consistent method for providing an accurate description of displacement-time data and for obtaining the corresponding time derivatives. (MJB)

  14. Flexible regression models with cubic splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrleman, S; Simon, R

    1989-05-01

    We describe the use of cubic splines in regression models to represent the relationship between the response variable and a vector of covariates. This simple method can help prevent the problems that result from inappropriate linearity assumptions. We compare restricted cubic spline regression to non-parametric procedures for characterizing the relationship between age and survival in the Stanford Heart Transplant data. We also provide an illustrative example in cancer therapeutics.

  15. Working Paper 5: Beyond Collier's Bottom Billion | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-16

    Dec 16, 2010 ... The heart of the narrative presented in the book is that a group of almost 60 countries, with a population of about a billion people, are caught in four main traps. Their prospects for escaping the traps are poor, and they need a set of actions from the international community to achieve the rapid rates of growth ...

  16. Congress OKs $2 Billion Boost for the NIH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    President Donald Trump last week signed a $1.1 trillion spending bill for fiscal year 2017, including a welcome $2 billion boost for the NIH that will support former Vice President Joe Biden's Cancer Moonshot initiative, among other priorities. However, researchers who rely heavily on NIH grant funding remain concerned about proposed cuts for 2018. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Smart Metering System for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacios-Garcia, Emilio; Guan, Yajuan; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Smart meters are the cornerstone in the new conception of the electrical network or Smart Grid (SG), providing detailed information about users' energy consumption and allowing the suppliers to remotely collect data for billing. Nevertheless, their features are not only useful for the energy...... will expose an example of Smart Meters integration in a Microgrid scenario, which is the Intelligent Microgrid Lab of Aalborg University (AAU). To do this, first the installation available in the Microgrid Lab will be introduced. Then, three different test scenarios and their respective results...... will be presented, regarding the capabilities of this system and the advantages of integration the Smart Meters information in the Microgrid control....

  18. Gaia: Science with 1 billion objects in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusti, Timo

    2018-02-01

    Gaia is an operational satellite in the ESA science programme. It is gathering data for more than a billion objects. Gaia measures positions and motions of stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, but captures many asteroids and extragalactic sources as well. The first data release has already been made and exploitation by the world-wide scientific community is underway. Further data releases will be made with further increasing accuracy. Gaia is well underway to provide its promised set of fundamental astronomical data.

  19. Document de travail 5: Beyond Collier's Bottom Billion | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    16 déc. 2010 ... L'ouvrage de Paul Collier, The Bottom Billion, suscite un grand intérêt dans le domaine du développement. Il repose sur la thèse selon laquelle un groupe de près de 60 pays, dont la population totale avoisine un milliard de personnes, sont pris dans quatre pièges principaux.

  20. Ubiquitous Supercritical Wing Design Cuts Billions in Fuel Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A Langley Research Center engineer’s work in the 1960s and ’70s to develop a wing with better performance near the speed of sound resulted in a significant increase in subsonic efficiency. The design was shared with industry. Today, Renton, Washington-based Boeing Commercial Airplanes, as well as most other plane manufacturers, apply it to all their aircraft, saving the airline industry billions of dollars in fuel every year.

  1. Cost of solving mysteries of universe: $6.7 billion

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    "An international consortium of physicists on Thursday released the first detailed design of what they believe will be the next big thing in physics. The machine, 20 miles long, will slam together electrons and their opposites, positrons, to produce fireballs of energy re-creating conditions when the universe was only a trillionth of a second old. It would cost about $6.7 billion." (1 page)

  2. Automated borehole gravity meter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenhiser, Th.V.; Wirtz, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    An automated borehole gravity meter system for measuring gravity within a wellbore. The gravity meter includes leveling devices for leveling the borehole gravity meter, displacement devices for applying forces to a gravity sensing device within the gravity meter to bring the gravity sensing device to a predetermined or null position. Electronic sensing and control devices are provided for (i) activating the displacement devices, (ii) sensing the forces applied to the gravity sensing device, (iii) electronically converting the values of the forces into a representation of the gravity at the location in the wellbore, and (iv) outputting such representation. The system further includes electronic control devices with the capability of correcting the representation of gravity for tidal effects, as well as, calculating and outputting the formation bulk density and/or porosity

  3. Degenerations of cubic fourfolds and holomorphic symplectic geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dries, B.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we study deformations of varieties of lines on smooth cubic hypersurfaces of the 5-dimensional complex projective space. These cubic hypersurfaces are also called cubic fourfolds. Beauville and Donagi proved that the line variety of any cubic fourfold is a polarized holomorphic

  4. Healthcare Energy Metering Guidance (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    This brochure is intended to help facility and energy managers plan and prioritize investments in energy metering. It offers healthcare-specific examples of metering applications, benefits, and steps that other health systems can reproduce. It reflects collaborative input from the U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories and the health system members of the DOE Hospital Energy Alliance's Benchmarking and Measurement Project Team.

  5. Superhard BC(3) in cubic diamond structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao; Liu, Hanyu; Li, Quan; Gao, Bo; Wang, Yanchao; Li, Hongdong; Chen, Changfeng; Ma, Yanming

    2015-01-09

    We solve the crystal structure of recently synthesized cubic BC(3) using an unbiased swarm structure search, which identifies a highly symmetric BC(3) phase in the cubic diamond structure (d-BC(3)) that contains a distinct B-B bonding network along the body diagonals of a large 64-atom unit cell. Simulated x-ray diffraction and Raman peaks of d-BC(3) are in excellent agreement with experimental data. Calculated stress-strain relations of d-BC(3) demonstrate its intrinsic superhard nature and reveal intriguing sequential bond-breaking modes that produce superior ductility and extended elasticity, which are unique among superhard solids. The present results establish the first boron carbide in the cubic diamond structure with remarkable properties, and these new findings also provide insights for exploring other covalent solids with complex bonding configurations.

  6. Purely cubic action for string field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, G. T.; Lykken, J.; Rohm, R.; Strominger, A.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that Witten's (1986) open-bosonic-string field-theory action and a closed-string analog can be written as a purely cubic interaction term. The conventional form of the action arises by expansion around particular solutions of the classical equations of motion. The explicit background dependence of the conventional action via the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operator is eliminated in the cubic formulation. A closed-form expression is found for the full nonlinear gauge-transformation law.

  7. Some elements go cubic under pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Legut, Dominik

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 10 (2007), s. 17-17 ISSN 0031-9228 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : ab initio * polonium * cubic structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.133, year: 2007

  8. The Exact Limit of Some Cubic Towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Beelen, Peter; Nguyen, Nhut

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a new explicit tower of function fields was introduced by Bassa, Beelen, Garcia and Stichtenoth (BBGS). This resulted in currently the best known lower bound for Ihara’s constant in the case of non-prime finite fields. In particular over cubic fields, the tower’s limit is at least as good...

  9. A monotonicity conjecture for real cubic maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, S.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Galeeva, R. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Milnor, J. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Tresser, C. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This will be an outline of work in progress. We study the conjecture that the topological entropy of a real cubic map depends ``monotonely`` on its parameters, in the sense that each locus of constant entropy in parameter space is a connected set. This material will be presented in more detail in a later paper.

  10. Most pressurized elements are not simple cubic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Legut, Dominik; Friák, Martin; Šob, Mojmír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 9 (2008), s. 10-11 ISSN 0031-9228 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 147; GA AV ČR IAA1041302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : electronic structure * simple cubic structure * phase transformations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.674, year: 2008

  11. Squares in arithmetic progression over cubic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Bremner, Andrew; Siksek, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Euler showed that there can be no more than three integer squares in arithmetic progression. In quadratic number fields, Xarles has shown that there can be arithmetic progressions of five squares, but not of six. Here, we prove that there are no cubic number fields which contain five squares in arithmetic progression.

  12. Abelian gauge potentials on cubic lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burrello, M.; Lepori, L.; Paganelli, S.

    2017-01-01

    fields in a system of ultracold atoms in optical lattices. After reviewing two of the main experimental schemes for the physical realization of synthetic gauge potentials in ultracold setups, we study cubic lattice tight-bindingmodels with commensurate flux.We finally discuss applications of gauge...

  13. SHORT COMMUNICATIONA Cubic Power Potential Model for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SHORT COMMUNICATIONA Cubic Power Potential Model for Baryonium. L. K. Sharma. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/dai.v11i1.15528 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for ...

  14. The Exact Limit of Some Cubic Towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Beelen, Peter; Nguyen, Nhut

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a new explicit tower of function fields was introduced by Bassa, Beelen, Garcia and Stichtenoth (BBGS). This resulted in currently the best known lower bound for Ihara’s constant in the case of non-prime finite fields. In particular over cubic fields, the tower’s limit is at least as go...

  15. Developing economic environment: energy for a billion people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethna, H.N.; Chandramouli, R.; Manaktala, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    The ongoing reforms in the Indian economy provide an interesting canvas for optimal development of the energy sector serving the needs for a billion people. It will be necessary in the global interest, to avoid the pitfalls of developing an energy intensive society as in the west and remain within the realms of sustainable development. It also deals with the strategies to be adopted for energy conservation, rehabilitation of existing plants and optimal utilisation of hydro thermal capacities by integrated grid operation on a commercial basis and setting up of pumped storage plants. 9 tabs

  16. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee; Muzakkir, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr −1 ). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr −1 determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr

  17. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd, E-mail: nur-aira@nm.gov.my; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Muzakkir, Amir [Sinaran Utama Teknologi Sdn Bhd, 43650, Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr{sup −1}). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr{sup −1} determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  18. A two-billion-year history for the lunar dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoo, Sonia M; Weiss, Benjamin P; Shuster, David L; Suavet, Clément; Wang, Huapei; Grove, Timothy L

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic studies of lunar rocks indicate that the Moon generated a core dynamo with surface field intensities of ~20 to 110 μT between at least 4.25 and 3.56 billion years ago (Ga). The field subsequently declined to <~4 μT by 3.19 Ga, but it has been unclear whether the dynamo had terminated by this time or just greatly weakened in intensity. We present analyses that demonstrate that the melt glass matrix of a young regolith breccia was magnetized in a ~5 ± 2 μT dynamo field at ~1 to ~2.5 Ga. These data extend the known lifetime of the lunar dynamo by at least 1 billion years. Such a protracted history requires an extraordinarily long-lived power source like core crystallization or precession. No single dynamo mechanism proposed thus far can explain the strong fields inferred for the period before 3.56 Ga while also allowing the dynamo to persist in such a weakened state beyond ~2.5 Ga. Therefore, our results suggest that the dynamo was powered by at least two distinct mechanisms operating during early and late lunar history.

  19. The Boring Billion, a slingshot for Complex Life on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Indrani; Large, Ross R; Corkrey, Ross; Danyushevsky, Leonid V

    2018-03-13

    The period 1800 to 800 Ma ("Boring Billion") is believed to mark a delay in the evolution of complex life, primarily due to low levels of oxygen in the atmosphere. Earlier studies highlight the remarkably flat C, Cr isotopes and low trace element trends during the so-called stasis, caused by prolonged nutrient, climatic, atmospheric and tectonic stability. In contrast, we suggest a first-order variability of bio-essential trace element availability in the oceans by combining systematic sampling of the Proterozoic rock record with sensitive geochemical analyses of marine pyrite by LA-ICP-MS technique. We also recall that several critical biological evolutionary events, such as the appearance of eukaryotes, origin of multicellularity & sexual reproduction, and the first major diversification of eukaryotes (crown group) occurred during this period. Therefore, it appears possible that the period of low nutrient trace elements (1800-1400 Ma) caused evolutionary pressures which became an essential trigger for promoting biological innovations in the eukaryotic domain. Later periods of stress-free conditions, with relatively high nutrient trace element concentration, facilitated diversification. We propose that the "Boring Billion" was a period of sequential stepwise evolution and diversification of complex eukaryotes, triggering evolutionary pathways that made possible the later rise of micro-metazoans and their macroscopic counterparts.

  20. Empowering billions with food safety and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, Suresh D.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: There are virtually millions of people -who die needlessly every year due to contaminated water and food. There are virtually many millions more who are starving due to an inadequate supply of food. Billions of pounds of food are unnecessarily wasted due to insect and other damage. Deaths and illness due to contaminated food or inadequate food are at catastrophic levels in many regions of the world. A majority of the food and water borne illnesses and deaths are preventable. It can be prevented by improved food production methods, improved food processing technologies, improved food distribution systems and improved personal hygiene. Food irradiation technology is over 100 years old. Yet, this technology is poorly understood by governments and corporate decision makers all around the world. Many consumers also are unfortunately misinformed of this technology. There is an urgent need for nations and people around the world to empower themselves with the knowledge and the expertise to harness this powerful technology. Widespread and sensible adoption of this technology can empower billions around the world with clean and abundant food supplies. It is unconscionable in the 21st century for governments to allow people to die or go hungry when the technology to prevent them is readily available

  1. Arrival metering fuel consumption analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Arrival metering is a method of time-based traffic management that is used by the Federal Aviation Administration to plan and manage streams of arrival traffic during periods of : high demand at busy airports. The Traffic Management Advisor is an aut...

  2. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    of the so-called big data possible. This can improve energy management, e.g., help utilities improve the management of energy and services, and help customers save money. As this regard, the paper focuses on building an innovative software solution to streamline smart meter data analytic, aiming at dealing...

  3. Smart metering. Conformance tests for electricity meters; Smart Metering. Konformitaetstests an Stromzaehlern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bormann, Matthias; Pongratz, Siegfried [VDE Pruef- und Zertifizierungsinstitut, Offenbach (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Introduction of communication technologies into today's energy network enables the interworking between the domains of smart metering, smart grid, smart home and e-mobility as well as the creation and provisioning of new innovative services such as efficient load adjustment. Due to this convergence the new energy networks are becoming increasingly complex. Ensuring the interworking between all network elements (e.g. electricity meters, gateways) in these smart energy networks is of utmost importance. To this end conformance and interoperability tests have to be defined to ensure that services work as expected. (orig.)

  4. Piecewise-Cubic Approximation in Autotracking Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Dikoussar, N D

    2004-01-01

    A method for piecewise-cubic approximation within the frame of four-point transforms is proposed. The knots of the segments are detected in autotracking mode using a digitized curve. A three-point cubic parametric spline (TPS) is used as a model of a local approximant. A free parameter $\\theta$ (a coefficient at $x^{3}$) is found in a line following mode, using step-by-step averaging. A formula for expression of the free parameter via a length of the segment and values of a function and derivatives in joining points is received. The $C^{1}$-smoothness depends on the accuracy of the $\\theta$-estimate. The stability of the method w.r.t. input errors is shown as well. The key parameters of the approximation are: the parameters of the basic functions, the variance of the input errors, and a sampling step. The efficiency of the method is shown by numerical calculations on test examples.

  5. Integrable peakon equations with cubic nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hone, Andrew N W; Wang, J P

    2008-01-01

    We present a new integrable partial differential equation found by Vladimir Novikov. Like the Camassa-Holm and Degasperis-Procesi equations, this new equation admits peaked soliton (peakon) solutions, but it has nonlinear terms that are cubic, rather than quadratic. We give a matrix Lax pair for V Novikov's equation, and show how it is related by a reciprocal transformation to a negative flow in the Sawada-Kotera hierarchy. Infinitely many conserved quantities are found, as well as a bi-Hamiltonian structure. The latter is used to obtain the Hamiltonian form of the finite-dimensional system for the interaction of N peakons, and the two-body dynamics (N = 2) is explicitly integrated. Finally, all of this is compared with some analogous results for another cubic peakon equation derived by Zhijun Qiao. (fast track communication)

  6. Electronic levels of cubic quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristone, Flavio [Federal De Mato Grosso Do Sul Univ., Campo Grande (Brazil); Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose [Autonoma De Madrid Univ., Madrid (Spain); Marques, Gilmar E. [Federal De Sao Carlos Univ., Sao Carlos (Brazil)

    2003-09-01

    We introduce an efficient variational method to solve the three-dimensional Schroedinger equation for any arbitrary potential V(x,y,z). The method uses a basis set of localized functions which are build up as products of one-dimensional cubic {beta}-splines. We calculated the energy levels of GaAs/AlGaAs cubic quantum dots and make a comparison with the results from two well-known simplification schemes based on a decomposition of the full potential problem into three separate one-dimensional problems. We show that the scheme making a sequential decomposition gives eigenvalues in better agreement with the ones obtained variationally, but an exact solution is necessary when looking for highly precise values.

  7. HRTEM studies of dislocations in cubic BN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nistor, L.C.; Tendeloo, G. van; Dinca, G.

    2004-01-01

    The atomic structure of dislocations in cubic boron nitride has been investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Most of the perfect dislocations, screw and 60 edge, are dissociated. A 60 dislocation which was undissociated has been analysed. Computer simulation is performed in an attempt to characterise the core structure. Twinning dislocations and dislocations resulting from the intersection of stacking faults are also revealed. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. HRTEM studies of dislocations in cubic BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nistor, L.C. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7 Magurele, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Tendeloo, G. van [University of Antwerp, EMAT, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Dinca, G. [Dacia Synthetic Diamond Factory, Timisoara av. 5, P.O. Box 58-52, 077350 Bucharest (Romania)

    2004-09-01

    The atomic structure of dislocations in cubic boron nitride has been investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Most of the perfect dislocations, screw and 60 edge, are dissociated. A 60 dislocation which was undissociated has been analysed. Computer simulation is performed in an attempt to characterise the core structure. Twinning dislocations and dislocations resulting from the intersection of stacking faults are also revealed. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. WFIRST: Extragalactic Science over Twelve Billion Years of Cosmic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Mark; Robertson, Brant; Ferguson, Henry C.; Furlanetto, Steve; Greene, Jenny; Madau, Piero; Marrone, Dan; Shapley, Alice; Stark, Daniel P.; Wechsler, Risa; Woosley, Stan; WFIRST-EXPO Science Investigation Team

    2018-01-01

    WFIRST’s infrared multiband imaging and spectroscopy from space over thousands of square degrees will revolutionize our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. When combined with unique guest observer programs that provide ultradeep IR imaging and spectroscopy over areas >100x larger than achieved by Hubble Space Telescope, WFIRST will provide the first complete picture of star formation and stellar mass build-up in galaxies over twelve billion years of cosmic history. The WFIRST Extragalactic Potential Observations (WFIRST-EXPO) Science Investigation Team has identified a host of guest observer and archival programs where WFIRST can transform our views of the connections between the star formation, environment, morphology, stellar mass, and dark matter halo properties of galaxies, and determined how WFIRST can singularly probe the connection between early galaxies and the process of cosmic reionization. We present these WFIRST capabilities, and discuss how the science from WFIRST relates to other major forthcoming space- and ground-based facilities.

  10. Use of Pom Pons to Illustrate Cubic Crystal Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Susan G.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a method that uses olefin pom pons to illustrate cubic crystal structure. Facilitates hands-on examination of different packing arrangements such as hexagonal close-packed and cubic close-packed structures. (JRH)

  11. Cubic Polynomials with Rational Roots and Critical Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shiv K.; Szymanski, Waclaw

    2010-01-01

    If you want your students to graph a cubic polynomial, it is best to give them one with rational roots and critical points. In this paper, we describe completely all such cubics and explain how to generate them.

  12. Federal Building Metering Guidance (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(e), Metering of Energy Use)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    Guidance defines which federal buildings are appropriate to meter, provides metering prioritization recommendations for agencies with limited resources, and discusses the requirement for agencies to submit metering implementation plans to the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. On construction of quantum mechanics on cubic forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaleev, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    One of the ways is studied of constructing Quantum Mechanics on cubic forms with a wave function in the field of Greav's numbers. The corresponding cubic forms and transformations such as rotation which remain invariant these cubic forms are determined. The properties of geometric elements on cubic forms and Dicson algebra of the cubic degree are described. We give definitions of triunitary operator, creation operators for trilinear oscillator and operator of trispin. Analogs of the energy operator of Pauli equation and the relativistic relationship between energy, momentum and mass are considered. 10 refs

  14. 77 FR 16224 - Billion Auto, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION [File No. 112 3209] Billion Auto, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent... ``Billion Auto, File No. 112 3209'' on your comment, and file your comment online at https://ftcpublic... April 16, 2012. Write ``Billion Auto, File No. 112 3209'' on your comment. Your comment--including your...

  15. Orbital forcing of climate 1.4 billion years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Hammarlund, Emma U; Wang, Huajian; Costa, M Mafalda; Bjerrum, Christian J; Connelly, James N; Zhang, Baomin; Bian, Lizeng; Canfield, Donald E

    2015-03-24

    Fluctuating climate is a hallmark of Earth. As one transcends deep into Earth time, however, both the evidence for and the causes of climate change become difficult to establish. We report geochemical and sedimentological evidence for repeated, short-term climate fluctuations from the exceptionally well-preserved ∼1.4-billion-year-old Xiamaling Formation of the North China Craton. We observe two patterns of climate fluctuations: On long time scales, over what amounts to tens of millions of years, sediments of the Xiamaling Formation record changes in geochemistry consistent with long-term changes in the location of the Xiamaling relative to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. On shorter time scales, and within a precisely calibrated stratigraphic framework, cyclicity in sediment geochemical dynamics is consistent with orbital control. In particular, sediment geochemical fluctuations reflect what appear to be orbitally forced changes in wind patterns and ocean circulation as they influenced rates of organic carbon flux, trace metal accumulation, and the source of detrital particles to the sediment.

  16. Compilation of temperature factors of cubic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, N.M.; Bashir, J.; Willis, B.T.M.; Khan, M.N.

    1991-11-01

    A compilation of the temperature factors of 52 cubic compounds determined by diffraction methods using X-rays, neutron, and gamma rays is presented. For each compound the recommended temperature factors of cation B/sup +/, anion B/sup -/and B/sup prime/, the mass weighted average of B/sup +/and B/sup -/, along with the Debye temperature phi are given. This represents the second stage of a temperature factor project initiated by the Neutron Diffraction Commission of the International Union of Crystallography. (author)

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis of cubic boron nitride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Meiyan; Cui Deliang; Kai Li; Yin Yansheng; Wang Qilong; Lei Chu

    2005-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride (cBN) crystals have been successfully synthesized by in situ hydrothermal method. In order to obtain cBN pure phase crystals, two comparative experiments were carried out. The experimental results indicated that compared to one-step in situ hydrothermal method, multi-step in situ hydrothermal method was beneficial to the synthesis of cBN. It is believed that the multi-step in situ hydrothermal method is the optimal route to synthesize pure cBN bulk crystals

  18. Net metering in British Columbia : white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, T.

    2003-01-01

    Net metering was described as being the reverse registration of an electricity customer's revenue meter when interconnected with a utility's grid. It is a provincial policy designed to encourage small-distributed renewable power generation such as micro-hydro, solar energy, fuel cells, and larger-scale wind energy. It was noted that interconnection standards for small generation is an important issue that must be addressed. The British Columbia Utilities Commission has asked BC Hydro to prepare a report on the merits of net metering in order to support consultations on a potential net metering tariff application by the utility. This report provides information on net metering with reference to experience in other jurisdictions with net metering, and the possible costs and benefits associated with net metering from both a utility and consumer perspective. Some of the barriers and policy considerations for successful implementation of net metering were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  19. Twin Cities ramp meter evaluation : executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    This report details the results of a study on the traffic flow and safety impacts of ramp metering. The study served two important public purposes. 1. It thoroughly documented the benefits resulting from ramp metering to traffic operations and relate...

  20. Calibration of dose meters used in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This manual is a practical guide, not a comprehensive textbook, to the instrumentation and procedures necessary to calibrate a radiation dose meter used in clinical practice against a secondary standard dose meter

  1. Effects of temperature-gradient-induced damage of zirconia metering nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Xue, Qun-hu

    2017-09-01

    The effects of temperature-gradient-induced damage of zirconia metering nozzles were investigated through analysis of the phase composition and microstructure of nozzle samples. The analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy after the samples were subjected to a heat treatment based on the temperatures of the affected, transition, and original layers of zirconia metering nozzles during the continuous casting of steel. The results showed that, after heat treatment at 1540, 1410, or 1300°C for a dwell time of 5 h, the monoclinic zirconia phase was gradually stabilized with increasing heat-treatment temperature. Moreover, a transformation to the cubic zirconia phase occurred, accompanied by grain growth, which illustrates that the temperature gradient in zirconia metering nozzles affects the mineral composition and microstructure of the nozzles and accelerates damage, thereby deteriorating the quality and service life of the nozzles.

  2. Capacitive level meter for liquid hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Koichi; Sobue, Masamitsu; Asamoto, Kai; Nishimura, Yuta; Abe, Satoshi; Numazawa, Takenori

    2011-01-01

    A capacitive level meter working at low temperatures was made to use in magnetic refrigerator for hydrogen liquefaction. The liquid level was measured from the capacitance between parallel electrodes immersed in the liquid. The meter was tested for liquid nitrogen, hydrogen, and helium. The operation was successful using an AC capacitance bridge. The estimated sensitivity of the meter is better than 0.2 mm for liquid hydrogen. The meter also worked with pressurized hydrogen. © 2010.

  3. Multiply charged monopoles in cubic dimer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh Jaya, Sreejith; Powell, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    The classical cubic dimer model is a 3D statistical mechanical system whose degrees of freedom are dimers that occupy the edges between nearest neighbour vertices of a cubic lattice. Dimer occupancies are subject to the local constraint that every vertex is associated with exactly one dimer. In the presence of an aligning interaction, it is known that the system exhibits an unconventional continuous thermal phase transition from a symmetry broken columnar phase to a Coulomb-phase. The transition is in the NCCP1 universality class, which also describes the Neel-VBS transition in the JQ model and the S =1/2 Heisenberg model with suppression of hedgehog defects. Using Monte-Carlo simulations of a pair of defects in a background of fluctuating dimers, we calculate the scaling exponents for fugacities of monopole defects of charge Q = 2 and 3 at this critical point. Our estimates suggest that Q = 3 monopoles are relevant and could therefore drive the JQ model away from the NCCP1 critical point on a hexagonal lattice.

  4. Scanray radiation meter type 751

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Iles, W.J.; White, D.F.

    1978-04-01

    This instrument is a portable, battery-powered exposure rate meter with a digital display covering the exposure rate range from 0.1 mR h -1 to 1.999 R h -1 . It is designed to measure X- and γ-radiation exposure rates over the energy range from 50 keV to 2.5 MeV. The radiation detector of the instrument is a GM tube. The report falls under the headings: general description, facilities and controls, radiation characteristics, electrical characteristics, environmental characteristics, construction, summary of performance, conclusions, manufacturer's comments. (U.K.)

  5. Vizualization Challenges of a Subduction Simulation Using One Billion Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, M. L.; Gerya, T. V.; Yuen, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    Recent advances in supercomputing technology have permitted us to study the multiscale, multicomponent fluid dynamics of subduction zones at unprecedented resolutions down to about the length of a football field. We have performed numerical simulations using one billion tracers over a grid of about 80 thousand points in two dimensions. These runs have been performed using a thermal-chemical simulation that accounts for hydration and partial melting in the thermal, mechanical, petrological, and rheological domains. From these runs, we have observed several geophysically interesting phenomena including the development of plumes with unmixed mantle composition as well as plumes with mixed mantle/crust components. Unmixed plumes form at depths greater than 100km (5-10 km above the upper interface of subducting slab) and consist of partially molten wet peridotite. Mixed plumes form at lesser depth directly from the subducting slab and contain partially molten hydrated oceanic crust and sediments. These high resolution simulations have also spurred the development of new visualization methods. We have created a new web-based interface to data from our subduction simulation and other high-resolution 2D data that uses an hierarchical data format to achieve response times of less than one second when accessing data files on the order of 3GB. This interface, WEB-IS4, uses a Javascript and HTML frontend coupled with a C and PHP backend and allows the user to perform region of interest zooming, real-time colormap selection, and can return relevant statistics relating to the data in the region of interest.

  6. Oral diseases affect some 3.9 billion people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Medline, Embase, Lilacs. Published and unpublished observational population-based studies presenting information on the prevalence, incidence, case fatality and cause-specific mortality related to untreated caries, severe periodontitis and severe tooth loss between January 1980 and December 2010. There were no language restrictions. Study quality was assessed using the STROBE checklist (http://www.strobe-statement.org/). Prevalence estimates were calculated on the database for all age-gender-country-year groups using a specifically developed Bayesian meta-regression tool. Disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs) metrics were used to quantify the disease burden. Disability weights were calculated based on population-based surveys in five countries (USA, Peru, Tanzania, Bangladesh and Indonesia) and an open Internet survey. Uncertainties in estimates were examined using Monte Carlo simulation techniques with uncertainty levels presented as the 2.5th and 97.5th centiles, which can be interpreted as a 95% UI. Oral diseases remain highly prevalent in 2010 affecting 3.9 billion people. Untreated caries in permanent teeth was the most prevalent condition evaluated for the entire GBD (Global Burden of Disease) 2010 Study with a global prevalence of 35% for all ages combined. Severe periodontitis and untreated caries in deciduous teeth were the 6th and 10th most prevalent conditions, affecting, respectively, 11% and 9% of the global population. Oral conditions combined accounted for 15 million DALYs globally (1.9% of all YLDs and 0.6% of all DALYs), implying an average health loss of 224 years per 100,000 people. DALYs due to oral conditions increased 20.8% between 1990 and 2010, mainly due to population growth and aging. While DALYs due to severe periodontitis and untreated caries increased, those due to severe tooth loss decreased. The findings highlight the challenge in responding to the diversity of urgent oral health needs world

  7. Smart meter status report from Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, D.

    2006-01-01

    An update of Toronto Hydro's smart metering program was presented. Electricity demand is expected to keep increasing, and there is presently insufficient generation to match supply needs in Ontario. The smart metering program was introduced to aid in the Ontario government's energy conservation strategy, as well as to address peak supply problems that have led to power outages. It is expected that the smart metering program will reduce provincial peak supply by 5 per cent, as the meters support both time-of-use rates and critical peak pricing. Over 800,000 smart meters will be supplied to customers by 2007, and all 4.3 million homes in Toronto will have a smart meter by 2010. In order to meet targets for 2010, the utility will continue to install more 15,000 meters each month for the next 4 years. While the Ontario government has planned and coordinated the rollout and developed smart metering specifications and standards, Toronto Hydro is responsible for the purchase, installation, operation and maintenance of the meters. Advance testing of each meter is needed to ensure billing accuracy, and customer education on meter use is also. The complexity of the metering program has led the utility to establish a rigid project management process. Customer education pilot program are currently being conducted. Experience gained during the earlier phases of the program have enabled the utility to select appropriate metering systems based on density, topography and physical conditions. Project expenditures have been within budget due to improved project estimating and planning. The metering program has been conducted in tandem with the utility's peakSAVER program, a residential and small commercial load control program that has been successful in reducing summer peak demand by cycling air conditioners without causing discomfort. It was concluded that the utility will continue with its mass deployment of smart meters, and is currently preparing its call center to handled

  8. Strategy of the spread of automatic meter reading for 10 million customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, H.; Koyanagi, A.

    1997-01-01

    In response to the major changes now taking place in its business environment, Tokyo Gas will restructure its meter-reading operations, including services peripheral thereto, to build a strong corporate structure toward the year 2010. Specifically, Tokyo Gas will proceed to intentional automatic meter reading, making use of the know-how it has accumulated doing so as part of a value-added service it has been marketing since 1988. Tokyo Gas will also use its two-way communication infrastructure to promote improved operational efficiency and labor savings. Intentional automatic meter reading will enable Tokyo Gas, over the 13 years following its commencement, to realize total cost savings of 53.5 billion yen and reassign 776 employers to strategic work. Tokyo Gas will also utilize its two-way communication infrastructure to provide additional services, including value-added services that will generate upwards of 3.7 billion yen margin annually and contracted meter reading services for utilities throughout Japan. Tokyo Gas will thus carry out a business expansion that will enable it to grow limitlessly together with society. (au)

  9. A smoothing algorithm using cubic spline functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. E., Jr.; Price, J. M.; Howser, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    Two algorithms are presented for smoothing arbitrary sets of data. They are the explicit variable algorithm and the parametric variable algorithm. The former would be used where large gradients are not encountered because of the smaller amount of calculation required. The latter would be used if the data being smoothed were double valued or experienced large gradients. Both algorithms use a least-squares technique to obtain a cubic spline fit to the data. The advantage of the spline fit is that the first and second derivatives are continuous. This method is best used in an interactive graphics environment so that the junction values for the spline curve can be manipulated to improve the fit.

  10. Cubic phase control of ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecseki, K.; Erdelyi, M.; Kovacs, A.P.; Szabo, G.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. The temporal shape of an ultrashort laser pulse may change upon propagating through a linear dispersive medium having a phase shift ψω. The change can be characterized by the Taylor-coefficients of the phase shift which are calculated around the central frequency ω 0 of the pulse. Measurements and independent control of the group delay dispersion (GDD, ψ'(ω 0 )) and the third order dispersion (TOD, ψ'(ω 0 )) are important in several research fields, particularly in the generation of ultrashort laser pulses by chirped pulse amplification (CPA) and pulse shaping for molecular control. The GDD and the TOD of an ideal pulse compressor are equal to the negative of the corresponding dispersion coefficients of the medium. However, in the case of prism-pair and grating-pair compressor is different from the ratio of the coefficients of the medium to be compensated for. Therefore it is necessary to develop so-called cubic compressors that are able to control the TOD of the pulse, yet, do not affect the GDD. In this paper a new cubic compressor setup is investigated theoretically and experimentally, which resembles the set-up proposed by White, however, we control the GDD and the TOD by the position of a birefringent, semi-cylinder crystal place around the focal point of an achromatic lens. For the evaluation of the phase shift introduced by the proposed cubic compressor, a ray tracing program was written. The program allows optimizing the compressor parameters, such as the radius of the crystal, magnification of the lens etc. Calcite was applied because it is a strong birefringent material. Calculations showed that there is a trajectory, along which shifting the crystal the TOD can be tuned independently of the GDD. The value of the TOD changed in a relatively wide range between -3.15 x 10 5 fs 3 and -1.67 x 10 5 fs 3 . Although the defocus also affects the angular dispersion of the pulse leaving the compressor, if does not exceed

  11. Shape preserving rational cubic spline for positive and convex data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Zawwar Hussain

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of shape preserving C2 rational cubic spline has been proposed. The shapes of the positive and convex data are under discussion of the proposed spline solutions. A C2 rational cubic function with two families of free parameters has been introduced to attain the C2 positive curves from positive data and C2 convex curves from convex data. Simple data dependent constraints are derived on free parameters in the description of rational cubic function to obtain the desired shape of the data. The rational cubic schemes have unique representations.

  12. Solving Buckmaster equation using cubic B-spline and cubic trigonometric B-spline collocation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthrasuwan, Maveeka; Asri, Nur Asreenawaty Mohd; Hamid, Nur Nadiah Abd; Majid, Ahmad Abd.; Azmi, Amirah

    2017-08-01

    The cubic B-spline and cubic trigonometric B-spline functions are used to set up the collocation in finding solutions for the Buckmaster equation. These splines are applied as interpolating functions in the spatial dimension while the finite difference method (FDM) is used to discretize the time derivative. The Buckmaster equation is linearized using Taylor's expansion and solved using two schemes, namely Crank-Nicolson and fully implicit. The von Neumann stability analysis is carried out on the two schemes and they are shown to be conditionally stable. In order to demonstrate the capability of the schemes, some problems are solved and compared with analytical and FDM solutions. The proposed methods are found to generate more accurate results than the FDM.

  13. Pressure dependence of the refractive index of diamond, cubic silicon carbide and cubic boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzaretti, N. M.; da Jornada, J. A. H.

    1996-09-01

    The pressure dependence of the refractive index of diamond, cubic boron nitride and cubic silicon carbide, was measured up to 9 GPa by an interferometric method using the diamond anvil cell. A least-square fit yields the following values for ( {1}/{n}) ( {dn }/{dP }): - 3.6 × 10 -4GPa -1 for diamond, -3.2 × 10 -4GPa -1 for c-BN and, for 3CSiC, -8.3 × 10 -4GPa -1. These results were used to investigate, for the first time under pressure, general empirical relationships between refractive index and energy gap found in the literature. The volume dependence of the electronic polarizability, α, of these compounds was determined through the Lorentz-Lorenz approach. The obtained linear behavior of α for the three cases was correlated to previous results for the pressure dependence of the transverse effective charge, e T∗.

  14. Off-level corrections for gravity meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebauer, T. M.; Blitz, Thomas; Constantino, Andy

    2016-04-01

    Gravity meters must be aligned with the local gravity at any location on the surface of the earth in order to measure the full amplitude of the gravity vector. The gravitational force on the sensitive component of the gravity meter decreases by the cosine of the angle between the measurement axis and the local gravity vector. Most gravity meters incorporate two horizontal orthogonal levels to orient the gravity meter for a maximum gravity reading. In order to calculate a gravity correction it is often necessary to estimate the overall angular deviation between the gravity meter and the local gravity vector using two measured horizontal tilt meters. Typically this is done assuming that the two horizontal angles are independent and that the product of the cosines of the horizontal tilts is equivalent to the cosine of the overall deviation. These approximations, however, break down at large angles. This paper derives analytic formulae to transform angles measured by two orthogonal tilt meters into the vertical deviation of the third orthogonal axis. The equations can be used to calibrate the tilt sensors attached to the gravity meter or provide a correction for a gravity meter used in an off-of-level condition.

  15. The square of a planar cubic graph is 7-colorable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    We prove the conjecture made by G. Wegner in 1977 that the square of every planar, cubic graph is 7-colorable. Here, 7 cannot be replaced by 6.......We prove the conjecture made by G. Wegner in 1977 that the square of every planar, cubic graph is 7-colorable. Here, 7 cannot be replaced by 6....

  16. Approximate Implicitization of Parametric Curves Using Cubic Algebraic Splines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm to solve the approximate implicitization of planar parametric curves using cubic algebraic splines. It applies piecewise cubic algebraic curves to give a global G2 continuity approximation to planar parametric curves. Approximation error on approximate implicitization of rational curves is given. Several examples are provided to prove that the proposed method is flexible and efficient.

  17. Bifurcation of limit cycles for cubic reversible systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Shao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the bifurcation of limit cycles of a class of cubic reversible system having a center at the origin. We prove that this system has at least four limit cycles produced by the period annulus around the center under cubic perturbations

  18. Rapid hydrothermal route to synthesize cubic-phase gadolinium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    spectrum of a given specimen (pH = 10∙8) has revealed characteristic Fg + Ag modes of cubic phase of .... using the diffraction formula relevant to cubic phase: .... ground state. The energy absorption in Gd is mediated via transition of 4 f electrons to 5d level and then reorganiza- tion of 4 f electrons into various multiplets.

  19. Cubic Polynomials with Real or Complex Coefficients: The Full Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardell, Nicholas S.

    2016-01-01

    The cubic polynomial with real coefficients has a rich and interesting history primarily associated with the endeavours of great mathematicians like del Ferro, Tartaglia, Cardano or Vieta who sought a solution for the roots (Katz, 1998; see Chapter 12.3: The Solution of the Cubic Equation). Suffice it to say that since the times of renaissance…

  20. Topological Oxide Insulator in Cubic Perovskite Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hosub; Rhim, Sonny H.; Im, Jino; Freeman, Arthur J.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of topologically protected conducting states with the chiral spin texture is the most prominent feature at the surface of topological insulators. On the application side, large band gap and high resistivity to distinguish surface from bulk degrees of freedom should be guaranteed for the full usage of the surface states. Here, we suggest that the oxide cubic perovskite YBiO3, more than just an oxide, defines itself as a new three-dimensional topological insulator exhibiting both a large bulk band gap and a high resistivity. Based on first-principles calculations varying the spin-orbit coupling strength, the non-trivial band topology of YBiO3 is investigated, where the spin-orbit coupling of the Bi 6p orbital plays a crucial role. Taking the exquisite synthesis techniques in oxide electronics into account, YBiO3 can also be used to provide various interface configurations hosting exotic topological phenomena combined with other quantum phases. PMID:23575973

  1. Smooth cubic commensurate oxides on gallium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paisley, Elizabeth A.; Gaddy, Benjamin E.; LeBeau, James M.; Shelton, Christopher T.; Losego, Mark D.; Mita, Seiji; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko; Irving, Douglas L.; Maria, Jon-Paul, E-mail: jpmaria@ncsu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Biegalski, Michael D.; Christen, Hans M. [Center for Nanophase Materials Science, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-02-14

    Smooth, commensurate alloys of 〈111〉-oriented Mg{sub 0.52}Ca{sub 0.48}O (MCO) thin films are demonstrated on Ga-polar, c+ [0001]-oriented GaN by surfactant-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and pulsed laser deposition. These are unique examples of coherent cubic oxide|nitride interfaces with structural and morphological perfection. Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor structures were fabricated on n-type GaN. A comparison of leakage current density for conventional and surfactant-assisted growth reveals a nearly 100× reduction in leakage current density for the surfactant-assisted samples. HAADF-STEM images of the MCO|GaN interface show commensurate alignment of atomic planes with minimal defects due to lattice mismatch. STEM and DFT calculations show that GaN c/2 steps create incoherent boundaries in MCO over layers which manifest as two in-plane rotations and determine consequently the density of structural defects in otherwise coherent MCO. This new understanding of interfacial steps between HCP and FCC crystals identifies the steps needed to create globally defect-free heterostructures.

  2. Stabilities of Cubic Mappings in Fuzzy Normed Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaffari Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rassias(2001 introduced the pioneering cubic functional equation in the history of mathematical analysis: and solved the pertinent famous Ulam stability problem for this inspiring equation. This Rassias cubic functional equation was the historic transition from the following famous Euler-Lagrange-Rassias quadratic functional equation: to the cubic functional equations. In this paper, we prove the Ulam-Hyers stability of the cubic functional equation: in fuzzy normed linear spaces. We use the definition of fuzzy normed linear spaces to establish a fuzzy version of a generalized Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability for above equation in the fuzzy normed linear space setting. The fuzzy sequentially continuity of the cubic mappings is discussed.

  3. Rational Cubics and Conics Representation: A Practical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarfraz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A rational cubic spline, with one family of shape parameters, has been discussed with the view to its application in Computer Graphics. It incorporates both conic sections and parametric cubic curves as special cases. The parameters (weights, in the description of the spline curve can be used to modify the shape of the curve, locally and globally, at the knot intervals. The rational cubic spline attains parametric   smoothness whereas the stitching of the conic segments preserves visually reasonable smoothness at the neighboring knots. The curve scheme is interpolatory and can plot parabolic, hyperbolic, elliptic, and circular splines independently as well as bits and pieces of a rational cubic spline.Key Words: Computer Graphics, Interpolation, Spline, Conic, Rational Cubic

  4. Interactive (statistical) visualisation and exploration of a billion objects with vaex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breddels, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    With new catalogues arriving such as the Gaia DR1, containing more than a billion objects, new methods of handling and visualizing these data volumes are needed. We show that by calculating statistics on a regular (N-dimensional) grid, visualizations of a billion objects can be done within a second

  5. Nuclear budget for FY1991 up 3.6% to 409.7 billion yen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A total of yen409.7 billion was approved for the Governmental nuclear energy draft budget for fiscal 1991 on December 28, as the Cabinet gave its approval. The total, the highest ever, was divided into yen182.6 billion for the general account and yen227.1 billion for the special account for power resources development, representing a 3.6% increase over the ongoing fiscal year's level of yen395.5 billion. The draft budget will be examined for approval of the Diet session by the end of March. The nuclear energy budget devoted to research and development projects governed by the Science and Technology Agency amounts yen306.4 billion, up 3.5% exceeding yen300 billion for the first time. The nuclear budget for the Ministry of International Trade and Industry is yen98.1 billion, up 3.5%. For the other ministries, including the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, yen5.1 billion was allotted to nuclear energy-related projects. The Government had decided to raise the unit cost of the power plant siting promotion subsidies in the special account for power resources development by 25% --- from yen600/kw to yen750/kw --- in order to support the siting of plants. Consequently, the power resources siting account of the special accounts for both STA and MITI showed high levels of growth rates: 6.3% and 7.5%, respectively. (N.K.)

  6. Community access networks: how to connect the next billion to the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community access networks: how to connect the next billion to the Internet. Despite recent progress with mobile technology diffusion, more than four billion people worldwide are unconnected and have limited access to global communication infrastructure. The cost of implementing connectivity infrastructure in underserved ...

  7. Diamond's 2-billion-year growth charts tectonic shift in early Earth's carbon cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, G.R.; Gress, M.U.

    2017-01-01

    A study of tiny mineral 'inclusions' within diamonds from Botswana has shown that diamond crystals can take billions of years to grow. One diamond was found to contain silicate material that formed 2.3 billion years ago in its interior and a 250 million-year-old garnet crystal towards its outer rim,

  8. FLOW METERS WITH VERY GOOD PERFORMANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Dimitrie CAZACU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the theoretical calculus of a patented flow meter, concerning such the thermodynamic and aerodynamic calculus, as well as the offered precision to measure the flow of the air in any meteorological conditions. In the same time we remark that the proposed flow meter, by its positioning, has not loss of head.

  9. Simplified Processing Method for Meter Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Kimberly M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Colotelo, Alison H. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Downs, Janelle L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ham, Kenneth D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Montgomery, Sadie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vernon, Christopher R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Parker, Steven A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Simple/Quick metered data processing method that can be used for Army Metered Data Management System (MDMS) and Logistics Innovation Agency data, but may also be useful for other large data sets. Intended for large data sets when analyst has little information about the buildings.

  10. Evaluating Metal Probe Meters for Soil Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Inexpensive metal probe meters that are sold by garden stores can be evaluated by students for their accuracy in measuring soil pH, moisture, fertility, and salinity. The author concludes that the meters are inaccurate and cannot be calibrated in standard units. However, the student evaluations are useful in learning the methods of soil analysis…

  11. Development of a contour meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrada C, F.A.; Sanz, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    The dosimetric calculation in patients that receive radiotherapy treatment it requires the one knowledge of the geometry of some anatomical portions, which differs from a patient to another. Making reference to the specific case of mammary neoplasia, one of the measurements that is carried out on the patient is the acquisition of the contour of the breast, which is determined from a point marked on the breastbone until another point marked on the lateral of the thorax, below the armpit, with the patient located in the irradiation position. This measurement is carried out with the help of a mechanical contour meter that is a device conformed by a series of wires with a polymeric coating, which support on the breast of the patient and it reproduces its form. Then it is transported in the more careful possible form on a paper and the contour is traced with a tracer one. The geometric error associated to this procedure is of ±1 cm, which is sensitive of being reduced. The present work finds its motivation in the patient's radiological protection radiotherapy. The maximum error in dose allowed in radiotherapeutic treatments is 5%. It would be increase the precision and with it to optimize the treatment received by the patient, reducing the error in the acquisition process of the mammary contour. With this objective, a digital device is designed whose operation is based in the application of a spatial transformation on a picture of the mammary contour, which corrects the geometric distortion introduced in the process of the photographic acquisition. An algorithm that allows to obtain a front image (without distortion) of the plane of the contour was developed. A software tool especially developed carries out the processing of the digital images. The maximum geometric error detected in the validation process is 2 mm located on a small portion of the contour. (Author)

  12. Optical characterisation of cubic silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, S.M.

    1998-09-01

    The varied properties of Silicon Carbide (SiC) are helping to launch the material into many new applications, particularly in the field of novel semiconductor devices. In this work, the cubic form of SiC is of interest as a basis for developing integrated optical components. Here, the formation of a suitable SiO 2 buried cladding layer has been achieved by high dose oxygen ion implantation. This layer is necessary for the optical confinement of propagating light, and hence optical waveguide fabrication. Results have shown that optical propagation losses of the order of 20 dB/cm are obtainable. Much of this loss can be attributed to mode leakage and volume scattering. Mode leakage is a function of the effective oxide thickness, and volume scattering related to the surface layer damage. These parameters have been shown to be controllable and so suggests that further reduction in the waveguide loss is feasible. Analysis of the layer growth mechanism by RBS, XTEM and XPS proves that SiO 2 is formed, and that the extent, of formation depends on implant dose and temperature. The excess carbon generated is believed to exit the oxide layer by a number of varying mechanisms. The result of this appears to be a number of stable Si-C-O intermediaries that, form regions to either depth extreme of the SiO 2 layer. Early furnace tests suggest a need to anneal at, temperatures approaching the melting point of the silicon substrate, and that the quality of the virgin material is crucial in controlling the resulting oxide growth. (author)

  13. Bandwidth Analysis of Smart Meter Network Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balachandran, Kardi; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is a net-work infrastructure in Smart Grid, which links the electricity customers to the utility company. This network enables smart services by making it possible for the utility company to get an overview of their customers power consumption and also control...... to utilize smart meters and which existing broadband network technologies can facilitate this smart meter service. Initially, scenarios for smart meter infrastructure are identified. The paper defines abstraction models which cover the AMI scenarios. When the scenario has been identified a general overview...... of the bandwidth requirements are analysed. For this analysis the assumptions and limitations are defined. The results obtained by the analysis show, that the amount of data collected and transferred by a smart meter is very low compared to the available bandwidth of most internet connections. The results show...

  14. Hydro Ottawa achieves Smart Meter milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    As Ontario's second largest municipal electricity company, Hydro Ottawa serves more than 285,000 residential and business customers in the city of Ottawa and the village of Casselman. Since 2006, the utility has installed more than 230,000 Smart Meters throughout its service territory in an effort to provide better services to its customers. This initiative represents the largest operational advanced metering infrastructure network in Canada. This move was necessary before time-of-use rates can be implemented in Ottawa. The Smart Meters deliver data wirelessly to Hydro Ottawa's Customer Information System for billing and eliminating manual readings. The Smart Meters are designed to promote more efficient use of electricity. The Government of Ontario has passed legislation requiring the installation of Smart Meters throughout the province by the end of 2010

  15. Shape Preserving Interpolation Using C2 Rational Cubic Spline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsul Ariffin Abdul Karim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the construction of new C2 rational cubic spline interpolant with cubic numerator and quadratic denominator. The idea has been extended to shape preserving interpolation for positive data using the constructed rational cubic spline interpolation. The rational cubic spline has three parameters αi, βi, and γi. The sufficient conditions for the positivity are derived on one parameter γi while the other two parameters αi and βi are free parameters that can be used to change the final shape of the resulting interpolating curves. This will enable the user to produce many varieties of the positive interpolating curves. Cubic spline interpolation with C2 continuity is not able to preserve the shape of the positive data. Notably our scheme is easy to use and does not require knots insertion and C2 continuity can be achieved by solving tridiagonal systems of linear equations for the unknown first derivatives di, i=1,…,n-1. Comparisons with existing schemes also have been done in detail. From all presented numerical results the new C2 rational cubic spline gives very smooth interpolating curves compared to some established rational cubic schemes. An error analysis when the function to be interpolated is ft∈C3t0,tn is also investigated in detail.

  16. Formation and stability of cubic ice in water droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Benjamin J; Bertram, Allan K

    2006-01-07

    There is growing evidence that a metastable phase of ice, cubic ice, plays an important role in the Earth's troposphere and stratosphere. Cubic ice may also be important in diverse fields such as cryobiology and planetary sciences. Using X-ray diffraction, we studied the formation of cubic ice in pure water droplets suspended in an oil matrix as a function of droplet size. The results show that droplets of volume median diameter 5.6 microm froze dominantly to cubic ice with stacking faults. These results support previous suggestions that cubic ice is the crystalline phase that nucleates when pure water droplets freeze homogeneously at approximately 235 K. It is also shown that as the size of the water droplets increased from 5.6 to 17.0 microm, the formation of the stable phase of ice, hexagonal ice, was favoured. This size dependence can be rationalised with heat transfer calculations. We also investigated the stability of cubic ice that forms in water droplets suspended in an oil matrix. We observe cubic ice up to 243 K, much higher in temperature than observed in many previous studies. This result adds to the existing literature that shows bulk ice I(c) can persist up to approximately 240 K. The transformation of cubic ice to hexagonal ice also showed a complex time and temperature dependence, proceeding rapidly at first and then slowing down and coming to a halt. These combined results help explain why cubic ice forms in some experiments described in the literature and not others.

  17. The compressibility of cubic white and orthorhombic, rhombohedral, and simple cubic black phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Simon M; Zaug, Joseph

    2010-03-10

    The effect of pressure on the crystal structure of white phosphorus has been studied up to 22.4 GPa. The ?alpha phase was found to transform into the alpha' phase at 0.87 +- 0.04 GPa with a volume change of 0.1 +- 0.3 cc/mol. A fit of a second order Birch- Murnaghan equation to the data gave Vo = 16.94 ? 0.08 cc/mol and Ko = 6.7 +- 0.5 GPa for the alpha phase and Vo = 16.4 +- 0.1 cc/mol and Ko = 9.1 +- 0.3 GPa for the alpha' phase. The alpha' phase was found to transform to the A17 phase of black phosphorus at 2.68 +- 0.34 GPa and then with increasing pressure to the A7 and then simple cubic phase of black phosphorus. A fit of a second order Birch-Murnaghan equation to our data combined with previous measurements gave Vo = 11.43 +- 0.05 cc/mol and Ko = 34.7 +- 0.5 GPa for the A17 phase, Vo = 9.62 +- 0.01 cc/mol and Ko = 65.0 +- 0.6 GPa for the A7 phase and , Vo = 9.23 +- 0.01 cc/mol and Ko = 72.5 +- 0.3 GPa for the simple cubic phase.

  18. Hardness and thermal stability of cubic silicon nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Kragh, Flemming; Frost, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    The hardness and thermal stability of cubic spinel silicon nitride (c-Si3N4), synthesized under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions, have been studied by microindentation measurements, and x-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively The phase at ambient...... temperature has an average hardness of 35.31 GPa, slightly larger than SiO2 stishovite, which is often referred to as the third hardest material after diamond and cubic boron nitride. The cubic phase is stable up to 1673 K in air. At 1873 K, alpha -and beta -Si3N4 phases are observed, indicating a phase...

  19. Interaction of dispersed cubic phases with blood components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bode, J C; Kuntsche, Judith; Funari, S S

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of aqueous nanoparticle dispersions, e.g. based on monoolein/poloxamer 407, with blood components is an important topic concerning especially the parenteral way of administration. Therefore, the influence of human and porcine plasma on dispersed cubic phases was investigated....... Several phase transitions with the formation of smaller and sometimes larger particle fractions were observed beside remaining cubic structures. A very low but detectable hemolytic activity was found for the dispersed cubic phases based on monoolein and poloxamer 407, when compared to the hemolytic...

  20. Strain tuning of topological band order in cubic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, wanxiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Zhu, Wenguang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Weitering, Hanno [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Stocks, George Malcolm [ORNL; Yao, yugui [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Xiao, Di [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically explore the possibility of tuning the topological order of cubic diamond/zinc-blende semi- conductors with external strain. Based on a simple tight-binding model, we analyze the evolution of the cubic semiconductor band structure under hydrostatic or biaxial lattice expansion, by which a generic guiding princi- ple is established that biaxial lattice expansion can induce a topological phase transition of small band-gap cubic semiconductors via a band inversion and symmetry breaking at point. Using density functional theory cal- culations, we demonstrate that a prototype topological trivial semiconductor, InSb, is converted to a nontrivial topological semiconductor with a 2% 3% biaxial lattice expansion.

  1. Ternary cubic forms and central simple algebras of degree 3

    OpenAIRE

    Raczek, Mélanie

    2007-01-01

    Fix a ground field F of characteristic neither 2 nor 3 and consider pairs (A,V) consisting of a degree 3 central simple F-algebra A and a 3-dimensional subspace V of the reduced trace zero elements of A which is totally isotropic for the trace quadratic form. Mapping an element of V to its cube defines a cubic form. This thesis is devoted to the classification of such cubic pairs - i.e. the description of a representative of each isomorphism class of cubic pairs - and the study of the associa...

  2. Digital reactivity meter for NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glumac, B.; Vidmar, M.; Ravnik, M.

    1984-01-01

    Digital or analog reactivity meter is needed in order to perform the necessary low power physics tests after core reload in a nuclear power plant. Nuclear power plant Krsko ordered the construction of such digital reactivity meter on the basis of 'mikro-m' modular computer system that has been developed by IJS. Input signal sampling model as well as realtime reactivity calculation on the basis of the reactor inverse kinetic equation have also been developed by IJS. This digital reactivity meter has already been used to perform the start-up tests in NPP Krsko following first reload in fall of 1983. (author)

  3. Hydrogen meter for service in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.

    1983-11-01

    This standard establishes the requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, quality assurance, examination, and acceptance testing of a hydrogen meter and auxiliary equipment for use in radioactive or nonradioactive liquid sodium service. The meter shall provide a continuous and accurate indication of the hydrogen impurity concentration over the range 0.03 to 10 ppM hydrogen in sodium at temperatures between 800 and 1000 0 F (427 and 538 0 C). The meter may also be used to rapidly monitor changes in hydrogen concentration, over the same concentration range, and, therefore can be used as a sensor for sodium-water reactions in LMFBR steam generators

  4. Monotonicity preserving splines using rational cubic Timmer interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Wan Zafira Ezza Wan; Alimin, Nur Safiyah; Ali, Jamaludin Md

    2017-08-01

    In scientific application and Computer Aided Design (CAD), users usually need to generate a spline passing through a given set of data, which preserves certain shape properties of the data such as positivity, monotonicity or convexity. The required curve has to be a smooth shape-preserving interpolant. In this paper a rational cubic spline in Timmer representation is developed to generate interpolant that preserves monotonicity with visually pleasing curve. To control the shape of the interpolant three parameters are introduced. The shape parameters in the description of the rational cubic interpolant are subjected to monotonicity constrained. The necessary and sufficient conditions of the rational cubic interpolant are derived and visually the proposed rational cubic Timmer interpolant gives very pleasing results.

  5. Identification of Hammerstein models with cubic spline nonlinearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Erika J; Westwick, David T

    2004-02-01

    This paper considers the use of cubic splines, instead of polynomials, to represent the static nonlinearities in block structured models. It introduces a system identification algorithm for the Hammerstein structure, a static nonlinearity followed by a linear filter, where cubic splines represent the static nonlinearity and the linear dynamics are modeled using a finite impulse response filter. The algorithm uses a separable least squares Levenberg-Marquardt optimization to identify Hammerstein cascades whose nonlinearities are modeled by either cubic splines or polynomials. These algorithms are compared in simulation, where the effects of variations in the input spectrum and distribution, and those of the measurement noise are examined. The two algorithms are used to fit Hammerstein models to stretch reflex electromyogram (EMG) data recorded from a spinal cord injured patient. The model with the cubic spline nonlinearity provides more accurate predictions of the reflex EMG than the polynomial based model, even in novel data.

  6. Cubic interaction vertices for fermionic and bosonic arbitrary spin fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2012-06-01

    Using the light-cone gauge approach to relativistic field dynamics, we study arbitrary spin fermionic and bosonic fields propagating in flat space of dimension greater than or equal to four. Generating functions of parity invariant cubic interaction vertices for totally symmetric and mixed-symmetry massive and massless fields are obtained. For the case of totally symmetric fields, we derive restrictions on the allowed values of spins and the number of derivatives. These restrictions provide a complete classification of parity invariant cubic interaction vertices for totally symmetric fermionic and bosonic fields. As an example of application of the light-cone formalism, we obtain simple expressions for the Yang-Mills and gravitational interactions of massive arbitrary spin fermionic fields. For some particular cases, using our light-cone cubic vertices, we discuss the corresponding manifestly Lorentz invariant and on-shell gauge invariant cubic vertices.

  7. Net metering study of switching effects on electromechanical meters[Report prepared for the Measurement Canada Electricity Net Metering Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Overberghe, L. [Measurement Canada, London, ON (Canada)

    2006-03-03

    The feasibility of introducing net metering in the electricity sector was evaluated with particular reference to a project administered by Measurement Canada and Electro-Federation Canada (MicroPower Connect) in collaboration with Natural Resources Canada. The objective of the Measurement Canada Electricity Net Metering Project is to identify and eliminate the barriers introduced by the Electricity and Gas Inspection Act regarding the introduction of net metering. The purpose was to design a device that would allow rotation reversal in a residential electromechanical single phase meter. The device should approximate any fluctuations found in a typical net metering system. A series of tests were conducted to understand the influences, on errors, of forward-to-reverse and reverse-to-forward transitions, specifically to find evidence of error migration and mechanical stress. The project was designed to find and measure the effects of forward reverse switching on an electromechanical meter resulting from a change in energy flow. Twenty metres were calibrated in the forward direction in series from light load to high load. Power factor was not adjustable. Test points were then applied in both the forward and reverse directions. The exercise yielded individual errors which were aggregated to show average found errors after 3,000 transitions. Small shifts in errors were apparent and there was no evidence to support a disk flutter theory. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. On the Rank of Elliptic Curves in Elementary Cubic Extensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rintaro Kozuma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a method for explicitly constructing an elementary cubic extension L over which an elliptic curve ED:y2+Dy=x3  (D∈Q∗ has Mordell-Weil rank of at least a given positive integer by finding a close connection between a 3-isogeny of ED and a generic polynomial for cyclic cubic extensions. In our method, the extension degree [L:Q] often becomes small.

  9. Data interpolation using rational cubic Ball spline with three parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul

    2016-11-01

    Data interpolation is an important task for scientific visualization. This research introduces new rational cubic Ball spline scheme with three parameters. The rational cubic Ball will be used for data interpolation with or without true derivative values. Error estimation show that the proposed scheme works well and is a very good interpolant to approximate the function. All graphical examples are presented by using Mathematica software.

  10. Generalized Born--Infeld Actions and Projective Cubic Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, S; Sagnotti, A; Stora, R; Yeranyan, A

    2015-01-01

    We investigate $U(1)^{\\,n}$ supersymmetric Born-Infeld Lagrangians with a second non-linearly realized supersymmetry. The resulting non-linear structure is more complex than the square root present in the standard Born-Infeld action, and nonetheless the quadratic constraints determining these models can be solved exactly in all cases containing three vector multiplets. The corresponding models are classified by cubic holomorphic prepotentials. Their symmetry structures are associated to projective cubic varieties.

  11. The Combinatorial Rigidity Conjecture is False for Cubic Polynomials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Christian

    2003-01-01

    We show that there exist two cubic polynomials with connected Julia sets which are combinatorially equivalent but not topologically conjugate on their Julia sets. This disproves a conjecture by McMullen from 1995.......We show that there exist two cubic polynomials with connected Julia sets which are combinatorially equivalent but not topologically conjugate on their Julia sets. This disproves a conjecture by McMullen from 1995....

  12. Soft-sensing, non-intrusive multiphase flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wrobel, K.; Schiferli, W.

    2009-01-01

    For single phase flow meters more and better non-intrusive or even clamp-on meters become available. This allows for a wider use of meters and for easier flow control. As the demand for multiphase meters is increasing, the current aim is to develop a non-intrusive multiphase flow meter. The

  13. EMMNet: Sensor Networking for Electricity Meter Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ting Lin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters.

  14. EMMNet: sensor networking for electricity meter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhi-Ting; Zheng, Jie; Ji, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Bao-Hua; Qu, Yu-Gui; Huang, Xu-Dong; Jiang, Xiu-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters.

  15. Opportunities for smart meters in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, J.

    2010-10-01

    Germany has the ambitious goal of lowering its CO2 emission with 80 percent until 2050 as compared to 1990. Sustainable energy and the deployment of smart meters are starting to play increasingly important roles. [nl

  16. Image based automatic water meter reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawas, N.; Indrianto

    2018-01-01

    Water meter is used as a tool to calculate water consumption. This tool works by utilizing water flow and shows the calculation result with mechanical digit counter. Practically, in everyday use, an operator will manually check the digit counter periodically. The Operator makes logs of the number shows by water meter to know the water consumption. This manual operation is time consuming and prone to human error. Therefore, in this paper we propose an automatic water meter digit reader from digital image. The digits sequence is detected by utilizing contour information of the water meter front panel.. Then an OCR method is used to get the each digit character. The digit sequence detection is an important part of overall process. It determines the success of overall system. The result shows promising results especially in sequence detection.

  17. VT USGS NED DEM (10 meter) - statewide

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This dataset is derived from the multi-resolution National Elevation Dataset (NED), at resolutions of both 1/3 arc-second (approx. 10 meters) and...

  18. USGS Digital Orthophoto Quad (DOQ) - 3 meter

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — These data files are a collection of the USGS standard DOQs that have been resampled to a 3-meter cell resolution and mosaiced into quad format vs quarter quad...

  19. Informatics Solutions for Smart Metering Systems Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Vasilica OPREA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper different aspects regarding smart metering systems integration have been depicted. Smart metering systems, renewable energy sources integration and advanced tariff systems implementation require informatics solution that could automatically collect and process data, forecast the behavior of electricity consumers, analyze trends regarding electricity prices, optimize the consumption of consumers, provide friendly interfaces, etc. They are advanced technologies that represent solutions for insufficient conventional primary energy sources, gas emissions, dependency on energy sources located outside European Union and issues related to energy efficiency. This paper mainly describes several informatics solutions correlated with operational requirements for smart metering system and our proposal for simplified architecture of smart metering systems, with three distinct levels (base level, middle level and top level and load profile calculation methods.

  20. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Nency Takara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. METHODS: Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (p<0.05, Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman's agreement test. RESULTS: The median and interquartile ranges for the spirometric values and the Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® meters were 428 (263-688 L/min, 450 (350-800 L/min, 420 (310-720 L/min, 380 (300-735 L/min, 400 (310-685 L/min and 415 (335-610 L/min, respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone® (p<0.001 and Galemed ® (p<0.01 meters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed® meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone® meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  1. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Glaucia Nency; Ruas, Gualberto; Pessoa, Bruna Varanda; Jamami, Luciana Kawakami; Di Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires; Jamami, Mauricio

    2010-05-01

    To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF) from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone, Assess, Galemed, Personal Best and Vitalograph peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (p<0.05), Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman's agreement test. The median and interquartile ranges for the spirometric values and the Air Zone, Assess, Galemed, Personal Best and Vitalograph meters were 428 (263-688 L/min), 450 (350-800 L/min), 420 (310-720 L/min), 380 (300-735 L/min), 400 (310-685 L/min) and 415 (335-610 L/min), respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone(R) (p<0.001) and Galemed (p<0.01) meters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  2. The model FT-3106 nuclide activity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jianming

    1999-01-01

    The author describes the important role of the nuclide activity meter in scientific research, production, medicine and health and its general situation of development in the country. The working principle, structure and feature of the new model FT-3106 nuclide activity meter are presented through description of the measures to improve the properties and quality in research and design. Finally the situation of its popularization and application are given

  3. Capacitive level meter for liquid rare gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, R.; Kikuchi, J.; Shibamura, E.; Yamashita, M.; Yoshimura, T.

    2003-08-01

    An international project to search μ→eγ decay includes the use of a liquid xenon gamma ray detector. So, a liquid level meter working at a low temperature with low outgassing is needed and the prototype is constructed. The meter shows the liquid level by measuring the capacitance between electrodes with small intervals immersed in the liquid. The operation was successful with the estimated precision of 1 mm in RMS or better.

  4. Intelligent Metering for Urban Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Stewart

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been driven by the desire for increased data regarding time of use and end-use (such as use by shower, toilet, garden, etc. as well as by the ability of the technology to reduce labour costs for meter reading. Technology development in the water sector generally lags that seen in the electricity sector. In the coming decade, the deployment of intelligent water metering will transition from being predominantly “pilot or demonstration scale” with the occasional city-wide roll-out, to broader mainstream implementation. This means that issues which have hitherto received little focus must now be addressed, namely: the role of real-time data in customer engagement and demand management; data ownership, sharing and privacy; technical data management and infrastructure security, utility workforce skills; and costs and benefits of implementation.

  5. Smart meters. Smart metering. A solution module for a future-oriented energy system; Intelligente Zaehler. Smart Metering. Ein Loesungsbaustein fuer ein zukunftsfaehiges Energiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Nadia; Seidl, Hans (comps.)

    2011-12-15

    The German Energy Agency GmbH (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on smart metering as a solution module for a future-oriented energy system by means of the following contributions: (1) Key role for smart meters; (2) What is smart metering? (3) Implementation of smart metering in Europe; (4) The market development to date in Germany; (5) Practical experiences with smart metering in Germany; (6) Frequently asked questions; (7) Smart metering in intelligent networks; (8) Legal framework conditions; (9) Data security and data protection in the utilisation of smart meters; (10) Ongoing information; (11) Efficient energy systems.

  6. A Light-Weight Metering File System for Sustainable Real-Time Meter Data Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangman Yi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A real-time smart metering system has strict requirements, since every piece of data gathered from various meters every hour is of importance, and each component consisting of metering infrastructure should be sustainable. Therefore, it is necessary to efficiently manage the meter data set in smart metering networks as well as in a server. Therefore, we propose a dedicated file system, a LIght-weight Metering File System (LIMFS, which is capable of not only efficiently storing and searching meter data but also performing distributed fault-tolerant meter data management for real-time smart meter devices. The proposed LIMFS exploits accumulated data sliding storage (ADSS for lost data recovery and latest-first error-ignorant data management (LEDM to reduce memory wastage, coping with dynamic report interval. Experimental results demonstrate that LIMFS has as a small enough overhead to be considered negligible, and provides flexible memory capacity according to dynamic report interval, in spite of lost data recovery functionality.

  7. Multiphase flow metering: 4 years on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcone, G.; Hewitt, G.F.; Alimonti, C.; Harrison, B.

    2005-07-01

    Since the authors' last review in 2001 [1], the use of Multiphase Flow Metering (MFM) within the oil and gas industry continues to grow apace, being more popular in some parts of the world than others. Since the early 1990's, when the first commercial meters started to appear, there have been more than 1,600 field applications of MFM for field allocation, production optimisation and mobile well testing. As the authors predicted, wet gas metering technology has improved to such an extent that its use has rapidly increased worldwide. A ''who's who'' of the MFM sector is provided, which highlights the mergers in the sector and gives an insight into the meters and measurement principles available today. Cost estimates, potential benefits and reliability in the field of the current MFM technologies are revisited and brought up to date. Several measurements technologies have resurfaced, such as passive acoustic energy patterns, infrared wavelengths, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT), and they are becoming commercial. The concept of ''virtual metering'', integrated with ''classical MFM'', is now widely accepted. However, sometimes the principles of the MFM measurements themselves are forgotten, submerged in the sales and marketing hype. (author) (tk)

  8. The 4-meter lunar engineering telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Keith; Giannini, Judith A.; Kilgus, Charles C.; Bely, Pierre Y.; May, B. Scott; Cooper, Shannon A.; Schlimm, Gerard H.; Sounder, Charles; Ormond, Karen; Cheek, Eric

    1991-09-01

    The 16-meter diffraction limited lunar telescope incorporates a primary mirror with 312 one-meter segments; 3 nanometer active optics surface control with laser metrology and hexapod positioners; a space frame structure with one-millimeter stability; and a hexapod mount for pointing. The design data needed to limit risk in this development can be obtained by building a smaller engineering telescope on the moon with all of the features of the 16-meter design. This paper presents a 4.33-meter engineering telescope concept developed by the Summer 1990 Student Program of the NASA/JHU Space Grant Consortium Lunar Telescope Project. The primary mirror, made up of 18 one-meter hexagonal segments, is sized to provide interesting science as well as engineering data. The optics are configured as a Ritchey-Chretien with a coude relay to the focal plane beneath the surface. The optical path is continuously monitored with 3-nanometer precision interferometrically. An active optics processor and piezoelectric actuators operate to maintain the end-to-end optical configuration established by wave front sensing using a guide star. The mirror segments, consisting of a one-centimeter thick faceplate on 30-cm deep ribs, maintain the surface figure to a few nanometers under lunar gravity and thermal environment.

  9. Anti-Theft Automatic Metering Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Das

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Electricity is now more than a necessity and its need is increasing day by day resulting in power theft and power scarcity. The purpose of this project is to provide automatic control and monitoring of the Domestic Energy Meter enabling the Electricity Department to read meter readings without anyone visiting each house and also prevent electricity theft .This can be achieved by the use of a Microcontroller Unit that continuously monitors and records the Energy Meter readings in its permanent memory location. This system also makes use of a GSM module for remote monitoring and control of Energy Meter with the help of an interfacing circuitry. The Microcontroller based system continuously records the readings and the live meter reading can be sent to the Electricity department after a count period or on request. This system also can be used to disconnect the power supply to the house in case of non-payment of electricity bills. The Substation will be the receiving end. The data received is fed to a microcontroller at the Substation which will automatically calculate the bill based on tariff provider and display it.

  10. Regional Feedstock Partnership Summary Report: Enabling the Billion-Ton Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Vance N. [South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States). North Central Sun Grant Center; Karlen, Douglas L. [Dept. of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Ames, IA (United States). National Lab. for Agriculture and the Environment; Lacey, Jeffrey A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Process Science and Technology Division

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Sun Grant Initiative established the Regional Feedstock Partnership (referred to as the Partnership) to address information gaps associated with enabling the vision of a sustainable, reliable, billion-ton U.S. bioenergy industry by the year 2030 (i.e., the Billion-Ton Vision). Over the past 7 years (2008–2014), the Partnership has been successful at advancing the biomass feedstock production industry in the United States, with notable accomplishments. The Billion-Ton Study identifies the technical potential to expand domestic biomass production to offset up to 30% of U.S. petroleum consumption, while continuing to meet demands for food, feed, fiber, and export. This study verifies for the biofuels and chemical industries that a real and substantial resource base could justify the significant investment needed to develop robust conversion technologies and commercial-scale facilities. DOE and the Sun Grant Initiative established the Partnership to demonstrate and validate the underlying assumptions underpinning the Billion-Ton Vision to supply a sustainable and reliable source of lignocellulosic feedstock to a large-scale bioenergy industry. This report discusses the accomplishments of the Partnership, with references to accompanying scientific publications. These accomplishments include advances in sustainable feedstock production, feedstock yield, yield stability and stand persistence, energy crop commercialization readiness, information transfer, assessment of the economic impacts of achieving the Billion-Ton Vision, and the impact of feedstock species and environment conditions on feedstock quality characteristics.

  11. Household Classification Using Smart Meter Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll Paula

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a project conducted in conjunction with the Central Statistics Office of Ireland in response to a planned national rollout of smart electricity metering in Ireland. We investigate how this new data source might be used for the purpose of official statistics production. This study specifically looks at the question of determining household composition from electricity smart meter data using both Neural Networks (a supervised machine learning approach and Elastic Net Logistic regression. An overview of both classification techniques is given. Results for both approaches are presented with analysis. We find that the smart meter data alone is limited in its capability to distinguish between household categories but that it does provide some useful insights.

  12. Implementation plan for smart meters in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents Ontario Energy Board's implementation plan to install 800,000 smart meters by December 31, 2007. The objective is to help consumers control their electricity bills through conservation and demand response. The three conditions that will change power consumption habits are price changes in response to demand and supply forces; the ability of consumers to see and respond to the price signals; and, a measurement of the response so that consumers get credit for their actions. This paper identifies the mandatory technical requirements for smart meters and the support operations of distributors. It sets priorities, identifies barriers and regulatory mechanisms for cost recovery. It also discusses options for ownership of the meters. 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  13. IMPORTANT: Fluke is recalling Digital Clamp Meters

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Fluke is voluntarily recalling four models of Digital Clamp Meters: Fluke 373, 374, 375 and 376. If you own one of these clamp meters, please stop using it and send it back to Fluke for repair even if you have not experienced problems.   Description of the problem: "The printed circuit assembly may not be properly fastened to the test lead input jack. This may result in inaccurate voltage readings, including a low or no-voltage reading on a circuit energised with a hazardous voltage, presenting a shock, electrocution or thermal burn hazard." To determine if your clamp meter is affected by this recall notice, and for more information, click here.

  14. [Multimodal medical image registration using cubic spline interpolation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuanlie; Tian, Lianfang; Chen, Ping; Wang, Lifei; Ye, Guangchun; Mao, Zongyuan

    2007-12-01

    Based on the characteristic of the PET-CT multimodal image series, a novel image registration and fusion method is proposed, in which the cubic spline interpolation method is applied to realize the interpolation of PET-CT image series, then registration is carried out by using mutual information algorithm and finally the improved principal component analysis method is used for the fusion of PET-CT multimodal images to enhance the visual effect of PET image, thus satisfied registration and fusion results are obtained. The cubic spline interpolation method is used for reconstruction to restore the missed information between image slices, which can compensate for the shortage of previous registration methods, improve the accuracy of the registration, and make the fused multimodal images more similar to the real image. Finally, the cubic spline interpolation method has been successfully applied in developing 3D-CRT (3D Conformal Radiation Therapy) system.

  15. Deformation of the cubic open string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Taejin

    2017-01-01

    We study a consistent deformation of the cubic open bosonic string theory in such a way that the non-planar world sheet diagrams of the perturbative string theory are mapped onto their equivalent planar diagrams of the light-cone string field theory with some length parameters fixed. An explicit evaluation of the cubic string vertex in the zero-slope limit yields the correct relationship between the string coupling constant and the Yang–Mills coupling constant. The deformed cubic open string field theory is shown to produce the non-Abelian Yang–Mills action in the zero-slope limit if it is defined on multiple D-branes. Applying the consistent deformation systematically to multi-string world sheet diagrams, we may be able to calculate scattering amplitudes with an arbitrary number of external open strings.

  16. Deformation of the cubic open string field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taejin

    2017-05-01

    We study a consistent deformation of the cubic open bosonic string theory in such a way that the non-planar world sheet diagrams of the perturbative string theory are mapped onto their equivalent planar diagrams of the light-cone string field theory with some length parameters fixed. An explicit evaluation of the cubic string vertex in the zero-slope limit yields the correct relationship between the string coupling constant and the Yang-Mills coupling constant. The deformed cubic open string field theory is shown to produce the non-Abelian Yang-Mills action in the zero-slope limit if it is defined on multiple D-branes. Applying the consistent deformation systematically to multi-string world sheet diagrams, we may be able to calculate scattering amplitudes with an arbitrary number of external open strings.

  17. Deformation of the cubic open string field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taejin Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We study a consistent deformation of the cubic open bosonic string theory in such a way that the non-planar world sheet diagrams of the perturbative string theory are mapped onto their equivalent planar diagrams of the light-cone string field theory with some length parameters fixed. An explicit evaluation of the cubic string vertex in the zero-slope limit yields the correct relationship between the string coupling constant and the Yang–Mills coupling constant. The deformed cubic open string field theory is shown to produce the non-Abelian Yang–Mills action in the zero-slope limit if it is defined on multiple D-branes. Applying the consistent deformation systematically to multi-string world sheet diagrams, we may be able to calculate scattering amplitudes with an arbitrary number of external open strings.

  18. Deformation of the cubic open string field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taejin, E-mail: taejin@kangwon.ac.kr

    2017-05-10

    We study a consistent deformation of the cubic open bosonic string theory in such a way that the non-planar world sheet diagrams of the perturbative string theory are mapped onto their equivalent planar diagrams of the light-cone string field theory with some length parameters fixed. An explicit evaluation of the cubic string vertex in the zero-slope limit yields the correct relationship between the string coupling constant and the Yang–Mills coupling constant. The deformed cubic open string field theory is shown to produce the non-Abelian Yang–Mills action in the zero-slope limit if it is defined on multiple D-branes. Applying the consistent deformation systematically to multi-string world sheet diagrams, we may be able to calculate scattering amplitudes with an arbitrary number of external open strings.

  19. Cubic interactions of Maxwell-like higher spins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francia, Dario [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN,Piazza dei Cavalieri, 7 I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Monaco, Gabriele Lo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa,Piazza Fibonacci, 3, I-56126, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca,Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Mkrtchyan, Karapet [Max Planck Institut für Gravitationsphysik,Am Mühlenberg 1, Potsdam 14476 (Germany)

    2017-04-12

    We study the cubic vertices for Maxwell-like higher-spins in flat and (A)dS background spaces of any dimension. Reducibility of their free spectra implies that a single cubic vertex involving any three fields subsumes a number of couplings among different particles of various spins. The resulting vertices do not involve traces of the fields and in this sense are simpler than their Fronsdal counterparts. We propose an extension of both the free theory and of its cubic deformation to a more general class of partially reducible systems, that one can obtain from the original theory upon imposing trace constraints of various orders. The key to our results is a version of the Noether procedure allowing to systematically account for the deformations of the transversality conditions to be imposed on the gauge parameters at the free level.

  20. Simple meters get smart? Cost benefit analysis of smart metering infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gerwen, R.J.F.; Jaarsma, S.A.; Koenis, F.T.C.

    2005-08-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs requested a cost-benefit analysis of the large scale introduction of a smart meter infrastructure for gas and electricity consumption by small consumers. The questions asked in the study need to be answered in order to enable a well-founded evaluation of the implementation of smart meters. [mk] [nl

  1. Privacy friendly aggregation of smart meter readings, even when meters crash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.H.

    2017-01-01

    A well studied privacy problem in the area of smart grids is the question of how to aggregate the sum of a set of smart meter readings in a privacy friendly manner, i.e., in such a way that individual meter readings are not revealed to the adversary. Much less well studied is how to deal with

  2. Design and construction of portable survey meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singseeta, W.; Thong-aram, D.; Pencharee, S.

    2017-09-01

    This work was aimed to design and construction of portable survey meter for radiation dose measuring. The designed system consists of 4 main parts consisting of low voltage power supply, radiation detection, radiation measurement and data display part on android phone. The test results show that the ripple voltage of low voltage power supply is less than 1%, the maximum integral counts are found to be 104 counts per second and the maximum distance of wireless commination between the server and the client is about 10 meter. It was found that the developed system had small size and light weight for portable instrument.

  3. Development of the impedance void meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Moon Ki; Song, Chul Hwa; Won, Soon Yeon; Kim, Bok Deuk

    1994-06-01

    An impedance void meter is developed to measure the area-averaged void fraction. Its basic principle is based on the difference in the electrical conductivity between phases. Several methods of measuring void fraction are briefly reviewed and the reason why this type of void meter is chosen to develop is discussed. Basic principle of the measurement is thoroughly described and several design parameters to affect the overall function are discussed in detail. As example of applications is given for vertical air-water flow. It is shown that the current design has good dynamic response as well as very fine spatial resolution. (Author) 47 refs., 37 figs

  4. Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.; Hoogendoom, S.; Hudson, B.; Prince, J.; Teichert, K.; Wood, J.; Chase, K.

    2007-01-30

    Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

  5. Regularizing cubic open Neveu-Schwarz string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkovits, Nathan; Siegel, Warren

    2009-01-01

    After introducing non-minimal variables, the midpoint insertion of Y Y-bar in cubic open Neveu-Schwarz string field theory can be replaced with an operator N ρ depending on a constant parameter ρ. As in cubic open superstring field theory using the pure spinor formalism, the operator N ρ is invertible and is equal to 1 up to a BRST-trivial quantity. So unlike the linearized equation of motion Y Y-bar QV = 0 which requires truncation of the Hilbert space in order to imply QV = 0, the linearized equation N ρ QV = 0 directly implies QV = 0.

  6. Interpolation in numerical optimization. [by cubic spline generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, K. R.; Hull, D. G.

    1975-01-01

    The present work discusses the generation of the cubic-spline interpolator in numerical optimization methods which use a variable-step integrator with step size control based on local relative truncation error. An algorithm for generating the cubic spline with successive over-relaxation is presented which represents an improvement over that given by Ralston and Wilf (1967). Rewriting the code reduces the number of N-vectors from eight to one. The algorithm is formulated in such a way that the solution of the linear system set up yields the first derivatives at the nodal points. This method is as accurate as other schemes but requires the minimum amount of storage.

  7. Higher-Order Approximation of Cubic-Quintic Duffing Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganji, S. S.; Barari, Amin; Babazadeh, H.

    2011-01-01

    We apply an Artificial Parameter Lindstedt-Poincaré Method (APL-PM) to find improved approximate solutions for strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillations with cubic-quintic nonlinear restoring force. This approach yields simple linear algebraic equations instead of nonlinear algebraic equations...... without analytical solution which makes it a unique solution. It is demonstrated that this method works very well for the whole range of parameters in the case of the cubic-quintic oscillator, and excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies with the exact one has been observed and discussed...... of nonlinear evolution equations....

  8. Trace spaces in a pre-cubical complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    arc length which moreover is shown to be invariant under directed homotopies. D-paths up to reparametrization (called traces) can thus be represented by arc length parametrized d-paths. Under weak additional conditions,it is shown that trace spaces in a pre-cubical complex are separable metric spaces......In directed algebraic topology, (spaces of) directed irreversible (d)-paths are studied from a topological and from a categorical point of view. Motivated by models for concurrent computation, we study in this paper spaces of d-paths in a pre-cubical complex. Such paths are equipped with a natural...

  9. Structure and bonding in cubic IV-VI crystals. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enders, P.

    1983-01-01

    The inherent instability of the cubic structure of IV-VI compounds is considered. Alternatively to the work of Littlewood, the treatment bases on the LCAO method and relates to Harrison's approach as Littlewood's papers do to Phillips'-Van Vechten's one. First Harrison's polarity is calculated from Slater-Koster parameters due to Volkov and coworkers. It indicates predominantly covalent bonding character for the cubic IV-VI compounds. A comparison is given with Littlewood's treatment. The method of special points is used to calculate integral bonding properties. Chadi and Cohen's two point set is shown to be often equivalent to a ligand-field theoretical treatment. (author)

  10. Trace spaces in a pre-cubical complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In directed algebraic topology, directed irreversible (d)-paths and spaces consisting of d-paths are studied from a topological and from a categorical point of view. Motivated by models for concurrent computation, we study in this paper spaces of d-paths in a pre-cubical complex. Such paths...... are equipped with a natural arc length which moreover is shown to be invariant under directed homotopies. D-paths up to reparametrization (called traces) can thus be represented by arc length parametrized d-paths. Under weak additional conditions, it is shown that trace spaces in a pre-cubical complex...

  11. Development and Testing of Infrared Water Current Meter | Ezenne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The digital water current meter with infrared display velocity readings obtained per second. To confirm the accuracy of the infrared current meter, it was tested alongside with a conventional water current meter. The measurements performed with the infrared current meter compared well with the measurement performed with ...

  12. A Probabilistic Model of Meter Perception: Simulating Enculturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Weij, B.; Pearce, M.T.; Honing, H.

    Enculturation is known to shape the perception of meter in music but this is not explicitly accounted for by current cognitive models of meter perception. We hypothesize that the induction of meter is a result of predictive coding: interpreting onsets in a rhythm relative to a periodic meter

  13. 49 CFR 192.353 - Customer meters and regulators: Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Location. 192.353... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.353 Customer meters and regulators: Location. (a) Each meter and service...

  14. Smart meters and economies in energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelem, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    A central theme promoted by the government for the energy transition, the mastering of energy consumption features notably the setting up of intelligent electricity networks and the installation of what are known as smart meters. Yet will consumers actually be in a position to become proponents of more sober use of energy? (author)

  15. Smart wavelength meter for integrated photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benelajla, Meryem; Taballione, Caterina; Boller, Klaus J.

    2017-01-01

    Thermally tunable SiN waveguide microring resonators in connection with neural network readout algorithms appear promising for use as integrated optical wavelength meters. So far, we have observed long-term reliability and a temperature immunity of the readout across several degrees of ambient

  16. Field test of coordinated ramp metering (CRM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-15

    This project has focused on field implementation and testing of a Coordinated Ramp Metering (CRM) algorithm at California State Route 99 : Northbound corridor in Sacramento between Calvine Road and the SR50 interchange after 12th Ave. It is a 9 mile ...

  17. Meter Designs Reduce Operation Costs for Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center collaborated with Quality Monitoring and Control (QMC) of Humble, Texas, through a Space Act Agreement to design a balanced flow meter for the Space Shuttle Program. QMC founded APlus-QMC LLC to commercialize the technology, which has contributed to 100 new jobs, approximately $250,000 in yearly sales, and saved customers an estimated $10 million.

  18. Weak measurements with a qubit meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Shengjun; Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We derive schemes to measure the so-called weak values of quantum system observables by coupling of the system to a qubit meter system. We highlight, in particular, the meaning of the imaginary part of the weak values, and show how it can be measured directly on equal footing with the real part...

  19. Optical system for a universal luminance meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1965-01-01

    There is a need for luminance meters in various fields of photometry having these characteristics: a- objective method of measurements. b. variable shape and size of measurement area. c- absence of parallax during aiming operations. d- Possibility of observing the part of the field of view to be

  20. C2-rational cubic spline involving tension parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    preferred which preserves some of the characteristics of the function to be interpolated. In order to tackle such ... Shape preserving properties of the rational (cubic/quadratic) spline interpolant have been studied ... tension parameters which is used to interpolate the given monotonic data is described in. [6]. Shape preserving ...

  1. Rigid isotopy classification of real three-dimensional cubics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnov, Vyacheslav A [Yaroslavl Demidov State University (Russian Federation)

    2006-08-31

    We prove that the space of non-singular real three-dimensional cubics has precisely nine connected components. We also study the space of real canonical curves of genus 4 and prove, in particular, that it consists of eight connected components.

  2. Computation of conjugate depths in cubic-shape open channels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determining conjugate depths for a given discharge and initial depth requires the solution of a cubic equation for the conjugate depth and there are currently two approaches to avoiding this difficulty in general. One approach is to iteratively try different depths until one is obtained which gives the same value of the ...

  3. Influence of strontium on the cubic to ordered hexagonal phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 23; Issue 6. Influence of strontium on the cubic to ordered hexagonal phase transformation in barium magnesium niobate. M Thirumal A K Ganguli. Phase Transitions Volume 23 Issue 6 December 2000 pp 495-498 ...

  4. Influence of strontium on the cubic to ordered hexagonal phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 23; Issue 6. Influence of strontium on the cubic to ordered hexagonal phase transformation in barium magnesium niobate. M Thirumal A K Ganguli. Phase Transitions Volume 23 Issue 6 December 2000 pp 495-498 ...

  5. Global Well-Posedness for Cubic NLS with Nonlinear Damping

    KAUST Repository

    Antonelli, Paolo

    2010-11-04

    We study the Cauchy problem for the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, perturbed by (higher order) dissipative nonlinearities. We prove global in-time existence of solutions for general initial data in the energy space. In particular we treat the energy-critical case of a quintic dissipation in three space dimensions. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  6. Cubic spline approximation techniques for parameter estimation in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, H. T.; Crowley, J. M.; Kunisch, K.

    1983-01-01

    Approximation schemes employing cubic splines in the context of a linear semigroup framework are developed for both parabolic and hyperbolic second-order partial differential equation parameter estimation problems. Convergence results are established for problems with linear and nonlinear systems, and a summary of numerical experiments with the techniques proposed is given.

  7. Connecting the Dots Parametrically: An Alternative to Cubic Splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Wilbur J.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses a method of cubic splines to determine a curve through a series of points and a second method for obtaining parametric equations for a smooth curve that passes through a sequence of points. Procedures for determining the curves and results of each of the methods are compared. (YP)

  8. C2-rational cubic spline involving tension parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper, 1-piecewise rational cubic spline function involving tension parameters is considered which produces a monotonic interpolant to a given monotonic data set. It is observed that under certain conditions the interpolant preserves the convexity property of the data set. The existence and uniqueness of a ...

  9. Thermal expansion coefficient and characteristic temperature of cubic dodecaborides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojseenko, L.L.

    1980-01-01

    Temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of cubic dodecaborides was studied within the 77-1200 K range. The Debye characteristic temperatures were determined from the experimental results of the TEC. Application of various ratios to calculate the Debye temperatures is analyzed relative to the ratios validity. These temperatures are compared with characteristic ones determined by X-raying

  10. Phonons in face-centred cubic calcium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.; Rathore, R.P.S.

    1984-01-01

    The axially symmetric and unpaired forces are employed to analyse the phonon dispersion and elastic behaviour of face centred cubic calcium and strontium which have so far not been studied adequately. The model with three parameters predicts the results which agree marvellously with the recently measured data. (author)

  11. Initial post dynamic buckling of a quadratic-cubic column ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this investigation, we determine the dynamic buckling load of an imperfect finite column resting on a mixed quadratic-cubic nonlinear elastic foundation trapped by an explicitly time dependent sinusoidally slowly varying dynamic load .The resultant coefficients are dynamically slowly varying and the formulation contains ...

  12. The traveling salesman problem on cubic and subcubic graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Boyd; R.A. Sitters (René); S.L. van der Ster; L. Stougie (Leen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study the traveling salesman problem (TSP) on the metric completion of cubic and subcubic graphs, which is known to be NP-hard. The problem is of interest because of its relation to the famous 4/3-conjecture for metric TSP, which says that the integrality gap, i.e., the worst case

  13. A Unified Approach to Teaching Quadratic and Cubic Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, A. J. B.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a simple method for teaching the algebraic solution of cubic equations via completion of the cube. Shows that this method is readily accepted by students already familiar with completion of the square as a method for quadratic equations. (Author/KHR)

  14. Tangent Lines without Derivatives for Quadratic and Cubic Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, William J.

    2009-01-01

    In the quadratic equation, y = ax[superscript 2] + bx + c, the equation y = bx + c is identified as the equation of the line tangent to the parabola at its y-intercept. This is extended to give a convenient method of graphing tangent lines at any point on the graph of a quadratic or a cubic equation. (Contains 5 figures.)

  15. Cubic Equations and the Ideal Trisection of the Arbitrary Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Marion B.

    2006-01-01

    In the year 1837 mathematical proof was set forth authoritatively stating that it is impossible to trisect an arbitrary angle with a compass and an unmarked straightedge in the classical sense. The famous proof depends on an incompatible cubic equation having the cosine of an angle of 60 and the cube of the cosine of one-third of an angle of 60 as…

  16. Aspects on mediated glucose oxidation at a supported cubic phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghbolagh, Mahdi Shahmohammadi; Khani Meynaq, Mohammad Yaser; Shimizu, Kenichi; Lindholm-Sethson, Britta

    2017-12-01

    A supported liquid crystalline cubic phase housing glucose oxidase on an electrode surface has been suggested as bio-anode in a biofuel. The purpose of this investigation is to clarify some aspect on the mediated enzymatic oxidation of glucose in such a bio-anode where the mediator ferrocene-carboxylic acid and glucose were dissolved in the solution. The enzyme glucose oxidase was housed in the water channels of the mono-olein cubic phase. The system was investigated with cyclic voltammetry at different scan rates and the temperature was varied between 15°C and 30°C. The diffusion coefficient of the mediator and also the film resistance was estimated showing a large decrease in the mass-transport properties as the temperature was decreased. The current from mediated oxidation of glucose at the electrode surface increased with decreasing film thickness. The transport of the mediator in the cubic phase was the rate-limiting step in the overall reaction, where the oxidation of glucose took place at the outer surface of the cubic phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Trapping of cubic ZnO nanocrystallites at ambient conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decremps, F.; Pellicer-Porres, J.; Datchi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Dense powder of nanocrystalline ZnO has been recovered at ambient conditions in the metastable cubic structure after a heat treatment at high pressure (15 GPa and 550 K). Combined x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments have been performed to probe both long-ra...

  18. Revealing household characteristics from smart meter data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckel, Christian; Sadamori, Leyna; Staake, Thorsten; Santini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Utilities are currently deploying smart electricity meters in millions of households worldwide to collect fine-grained electricity consumption data. We present an approach to automatically analyzing this data to enable personalized and scalable energy efficiency programs for private households. In particular, we develop and evaluate a system that uses supervised machine learning techniques to automatically estimate specific “characteristics” of a household from its electricity consumption. The characteristics are related to a household's socio-economic status, its dwelling, or its appliance stock. We evaluate our approach by analyzing smart meter data collected from 4232 households in Ireland at a 30-min granularity over a period of 1.5 years. Our analysis shows that revealing characteristics from smart meter data is feasible, as our method achieves an accuracy of more than 70% over all households for many of the characteristics and even exceeds 80% for some of the characteristics. The findings are applicable to all smart metering systems without making changes to the measurement infrastructure. The inferred knowledge paves the way for targeted energy efficiency programs and other services that benefit from improved customer insights. On the basis of these promising results, the paper discusses the potential for utilities as well as policy and privacy implications. - Highlights: • Many household characteristics can be automatically inferred from smart meter data. • We develop a system to infer employment status and number of occupants, for instance. • We evaluate our system analyzing data collected from 4232 households in Ireland. • The insights enable personalized and scalable efficiency campaigns for utilities. • Energy efficiency measures must be complemented by privacy protection

  19. Readability of the web: a study on 1 billion web pages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heus, Marije; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    We have performed a readability study on more than 1 billion web pages. The Automated Readability Index was used to determine the average grade level required to easily comprehend a website. Some of the results are that a 16-year-old can easily understand 50% of the web and an 18-year old can easily

  20. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-07-06

    This product builds on previous efforts, namely the 2005 Billion-Ton Study (BTS) and the 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update (BT2).With each report, greater perspective is gained on the potential of biomass resources to contribute to a national energy strategy. Similarly, each successive report introduces new questions regarding commercialization challenges. BTS quantified the broad biophysical potential of biomass nationally, and BT2 elucidated the potential economic availability of these resources. These reports clearly established the potential availability of up to one billion tons of biomass resources nationally. However, many questions remain, including but not limited to crop yields, climate change impacts, logistical operations, and systems integration across production, harvest, and conversion. The present report aims to address many of these questions through empirically modeled energy crop yields, scenario analysis of resources delivered to biorefineries, and the addition of new feedstocks. Volume 2 of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report is expected to be released by the end of 2016. It seeks to evaluate environmental sustainability indicators of select scenarios from volume 1 and potential climate change impacts on future supplies.

  1. Price of next big thing in physics: $6.7 billion

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The price of exploring inner space went up Thursday. The machine discusses in a news conference in Beijing, will be 20 miles long and would cost about $6.7 billion and 13'000 person-years of labor to be built. (1,5 page)

  2. U of M seeking $1.1 billion in projects for Soudan Mine lab.

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The University of Minnesota is hoping that groundbreaking research underway at its labs at the Soudan Underground Mine near Tower will help secure up to $1.1 billion in the next 5 to 20 years to expand its work into particle physics (1 page).

  3. Cubic Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and Their Application in BCK/BCI-Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Bae Jun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a new extension of a cubic set, the notion of a cubic interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set is introduced, and its application in B C K / B C I -algebra is considered. The notions of α -internal, β -internal, α -external and β -external cubic IVIF set are introduced, and the P-union, P-intersection, R-union and R-intersection of α -internal and α -external cubic IVIF sets are discussed. The concepts of cubic IVIF subalgebra and ideal in B C K / B C I -algebra are introduced, and related properties are investigated. Relations between cubic IVIF subalgebra and cubic IVIF ideal are considered, and characterizations of cubic IVIF subalgebra and cubic IVIF ideal are discussed.

  4. Prediction of Gas Injection Effect on Asphaltene Precipitation Onset Using the Cubic and Cubic-Plus-Association Equations of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arya, Alay; Liang, Xiaodong; von Solms, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    precipitation onset condition during gas injection. The modeling approach is used with the Soave Redlich Kwong, Soave Redlich Kwong-Plus-Huron Vidal mixing rule and cubic-plus-association (CPA) equations of state (EoS). Six different reservoir fluids are studied with respect to asphaltene onset precipitation...

  5. Calibration of reference KAP-meters at SSDL and cross calibration of clinical KAP-meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetland, Per O.; Friberg, Eva G.; Oevreboe, Kirsti M.; Bjerke, Hans H.

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2007 the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL) in Norway established a calibration service for reference air-kerma product meter (KAP-meter). The air-kerma area product, PKA, is a dosimetric quantity that can be directly related to the patient dose and used for risk assessment associated with different x-ray examinations. The calibration of reference KAP-meters at the SSDL gives important information on parameters influencing the calibration factor for different types of KAP-meters. The use of reference KAP-meters calibrated at the SSDL is an easy and reliable way to calibrate or verify the PKA indicated by the x-ray equipment out in the clinics. Material and methods. Twelve KAP-meters were calibrated at the SSDL by use of the substitution method at five diagnostic radiation qualities (RQRs). Results. The calibration factors varied from 0.94 to 1.18. The energy response of the individual KAP-meters varied by a total of 20% between the different RQRs and the typical chamber transmission factors ranged from 0.78 to 0.91. Discussion. It is important to use a calibrated reference KAP-meter and a harmonised calibration method in the PKA calibration in hospitals. The obtained uncertainty in the PKA readings is comparable with other calibration methods if the information in the calibration certificate is correct used, corrections are made and proper positioning of the KAP-chamber is performed. This will ensure a reliable estimate of the patient dose and a proper optimisation of conventional x-ray examinations and interventional procedures

  6. Metering error quantification under voltage and current waveform distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Jia; Xie, Zhi; Zhang, Ran

    2017-09-01

    With integration of more and more renewable energies and distortion loads into power grid, the voltage and current waveform distortion results in metering error in the smart meters. Because of the negative effects on the metering accuracy and fairness, it is an important subject to study energy metering combined error. In this paper, after the comparing between metering theoretical value and real recorded value under different meter modes for linear and nonlinear loads, a quantification method of metering mode error is proposed under waveform distortion. Based on the metering and time-division multiplier principles, a quantification method of metering accuracy error is proposed also. Analyzing the mode error and accuracy error, a comprehensive error analysis method is presented which is suitable for new energy and nonlinear loads. The proposed method has been proved by simulation.

  7. Critical Review of Directional Neutron Survey Meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, M.J.I.; Gamage, K.A.A.; Taylor, G.C.

    2013-06-01

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument. (authors)

  8. Gamin partable radiation meter with alarm threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payat, Rene.

    1981-10-01

    The Gamin Radiation meter is a direct reading, portable, battery-powered gamma doserate meter featuring alarm thresholds. Doserate is read on a micro-ammeter with a millirad-per-hour logarithmic scale, covering a range of 0,1 to 1000 millirads/hour. The instrument issues an audible warning signal when dose-rate level exceeds a threshold value, which can be selected. The detector tube is of the Geiger-Muller counter, energy compensated type. Because of its low battery drain, the instrument can be operated continously for 1000 hours. It is powered by four 1.5 volt alcaline batteries of the R6 type. The electronic circuitry is housed in a small lightweight case made of impact resistant plastic. Applications of the Gamin portable radiation monitor are found in health physics, safety departments, medical facilities, teaching, civil defense [fr

  9. Smart data acquisition system for utilities metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ileana, I.; Risteiu, M.; Tulbure, A.; Rusu, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper approaches the task of automatically reading and recognition of registered data on the utility meters of the users and is a part of a more complex project of our team concerning the remote data acquisition from industrial processes. A huge amount of utility meters in our country is of mechanical type without remote acquiring facilities and as an intermediate solution we propose an intelligent optical acquisition system which will store the read values in desktop and mobile devices. The main requirements of such a system are: portability, data reading accuracy, fast processing and energy independence. The paper analyses several solutions (including Artificial Neural Networks approach) tested by our team and present the experimental results and our conclusions.

  10. This is the size of one meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jacob; Ryberg, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In CSCL studies, language is often foregrounded as the primary resource for engaging in collaborative learning, while the body is more often positioned as a secondary resource. There is, however, a growing interest in the body as a resource in learning and collaboration in and outside CSCL......, the pair engages in a discussion regarding the size of one meter through language, gestures and manipulation of the material resources. The analysis shows two distinct ways of understanding the length of one meter, which primarily are visible through the children’s gestures and bodily movements....... In the analysis we show how the children dynamically produce body-material resources for communicative and illustrative purposes; moreover, they use body-material resources as a cognitive tool and as a way of shepherding each other. The study forms part of a body of studies analysing and theorizing the body...

  11. Critical review of directional neutron survey meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Matthew J. I.; Gamage, Kelum A. A.; Taylor, Graeme C.

    2014-01-01

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument.

  12. From Smart Metering to Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuča, Peter; Chrapčiak, Igor

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with evaluation of measurements in electrical distribution systems aimed at better use of data provided by Smart Metering systems. The influence of individual components of apparent power on the power loss is calculated and results of measurements under real conditions are presented. The significance of difference between the traditional and the complex evaluation of the electricity consumption efficiency by means of different definitions of the power factor is illustrated.

  13. Electricity Consumption Clustering Using Smart Meter Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tureczek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Electricity smart meter consumption data is enabling utilities to analyze consumption information at unprecedented granularity. Much focus has been directed towards consumption clustering for diversifying tariffs; through modern clustering methods, cluster analyses have been performed. However, the clusters developed exhibit a large variation with resulting shadow clusters, making it impossible to truly identify the individual clusters. Using clearly defined dwelling types, this paper will present methods to improve clustering by harvesting inherent structure from the smart meter data. This paper clusters domestic electricity consumption using smart meter data from the Danish city of Esbjerg. Methods from time series analysis and wavelets are applied to enable the K-Means clustering method to account for autocorrelation in data and thereby improve the clustering performance. The results show the importance of data knowledge and we identify sub-clusters of consumption within the dwelling types and enable K-Means to produce satisfactory clustering by accounting for a temporal component. Furthermore our study shows that careful preprocessing of the data to account for intrinsic structure enables better clustering performance by the K-Means method.

  14. Topical Metered-dosing Dispenser Performance Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Kupiec, Thomas C; Vu, Nicole T

    2016-01-01

    Topical metered-dosing dispensers are designed for dosing accuracy and ease-of-use by the patients while protecting the packaged products from environmental exposure and contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy, precision, and residual of available topical metered-dosing dispensers with different types of topical cream for practical application. Triplicate samples of five different dispensers were tested. This test was completed using three types of commercial topical cream-bases of dissimilar Total Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Load Percentages, Transdermal Penetration Percentages, and Specific Gravities. The dispensers were evaluated according to specified dose-uniformity criteria for a total dispensing capacity of 30 mL at 0.5 mL per dose for 60 doses. The study shows Topi-CLICK performed with the best precision and accuracy of dosing in comparison to the airless-pump type dispensers. While the dispensing was highly variable with airless pumps and may require calibration for each packaged product, remarkably the performance of Topi-CLICK was not affected by different types of cream-bases and does not require additional metering calibration. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  15. Route Optimization for Offloading Congested Meter Fixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The Optimized Route Capability (ORC) concept proposed by the FAA facilitates traffic managers to identify and resolve arrival flight delays caused by bottlenecks formed at arrival meter fixes when there exists imbalance between arrival fixes and runways. ORC makes use of the prediction capability of existing automation tools, monitors the traffic delays based on these predictions, and searches the best reroutes upstream of the meter fixes based on the predictions and estimated arrival schedules when delays are over a predefined threshold. Initial implementation and evaluation of the ORC concept considered only reroutes available at the time arrival congestion was first predicted. This work extends previous work by introducing an additional dimension in reroute options such that ORC can find the best time to reroute and overcome the 'firstcome- first-reroute' phenomenon. To deal with the enlarged reroute solution space, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this problem. Experiments were conducted using the same traffic scenario used in previous work, when an arrival rush was created for one of the four arrival meter fixes at George Bush Intercontinental Houston Airport. Results showed the new approach further improved delay savings. The suggested route changes from the new approach were on average 30 minutes later than those using other approaches, and fewer numbers of reroutes were required. Fewer numbers of reroutes reduce operational complexity and later reroutes help decision makers deal with uncertain situations.

  16. Critical review of directional neutron survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, Matthew J.I.; Gamage, Kelum A.A.; Taylor, Graeme C.

    2014-01-01

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument. -- Highlights: • We critically review the existing literature into directional survey meters. • Instruments which could be adapted for this purpose are also reviewed. • Investigate the potential of much lighter portable real-time instrument. • Improvements to existing instruments are suggested to improve their design. • Boron-Doped liquid scintillator design is the most promising, but needs further work

  17. A local cubic smoothing in an adaptation mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikoussar, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    A new approach to a local curve approximation and the smoothing is proposed. The relation between curve points is defined using a special cross-ratio weight functions. The coordinates of three curve points are used as parameters for both the weight functions and the tree-point cubic model (TPS). A very simple in computing and stable to random errors cubic smoother in an adaptation mode (LOCUS) is constructed. The free parameter of TPS is estimated independently of the fixed parameters by recursion with the effective error suppression and can be controlled by the cross-ratio parameters. Efficiency and the noise stability of the algorithm are confirmed by examples and by comparison with other known non-parametric smoothers

  18. The Piecewise Cubic Method (PCM) for computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongwook; Faller, Hugues; Reyes, Adam

    2017-07-01

    We present a new high-order finite volume reconstruction method for hyperbolic conservation laws. The method is based on a piecewise cubic polynomial which provides its solutions a fifth-order accuracy in space. The spatially reconstructed solutions are evolved in time with a fourth-order accuracy by tracing the characteristics of the cubic polynomials. As a result, our temporal update scheme provides a significantly simpler and computationally more efficient approach in achieving fourth order accuracy in time, relative to the comparable fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. We demonstrate that the solutions of PCM converges at fifth-order in solving 1D smooth flows described by hyperbolic conservation laws. We test the new scheme on a range of numerical experiments, including both gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics applications in multiple spatial dimensions.

  19. Highly Aminated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles with Cubic Pore Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Suteewong, Teeraporn

    2011-01-19

    Mesoporous silica with cubic symmetry has attracted interest from researchers for some time. Here, we present the room temperature synthesis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles possessing cubic Pm3n symmetry with very high molar ratios (>50%) of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane. The synthesis is robust allowing, for example, co-condensation of organic dyes without loss of structure. By means of pore expander molecules, the pore size can be enlarged from 2.7 to 5 nm, while particle size decreases. Adding pore expander and co-condensing fluorescent dyes in the same synthesis reduces average particle size further down to 100 nm. After PEGylation, such fluorescent aminated mesoporous silica nanoparticles are spontaneously taken up by cells as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy.

  20. Data reduction using cubic rational B-splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Jin J.; Piegl, Les A.

    1992-01-01

    A geometric method is proposed for fitting rational cubic B-spline curves to data that represent smooth curves including intersection or silhouette lines. The algorithm is based on the convex hull and the variation diminishing properties of Bezier/B-spline curves. The algorithm has the following structure: it tries to fit one Bezier segment to the entire data set and if it is impossible it subdivides the data set and reconsiders the subset. After accepting the subset the algorithm tries to find the longest run of points within a tolerance and then approximates this set with a Bezier cubic segment. The algorithm uses this procedure repeatedly to the rest of the data points until all points are fitted. It is concluded that the algorithm delivers fitting curves which approximate the data with high accuracy even in cases with large tolerances.

  1. Plasma simulation with the Differential Algebraic Cubic Interpolated Propagation scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsumi, Takayuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    A computer code based on the Differential Algebraic Cubic Interpolated Propagation scheme has been developed for the numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for a one-dimensional plasma with immobile ions. The scheme advects the distribution function and its first derivatives in the phase space for one time step by using a numerical integration method for ordinary differential equations, and reconstructs the profile in phase space by using a cubic polynomial within a grid cell. The method gives stable and accurate results, and is efficient. It is successfully applied to a number of equations; the Vlasov equation, the Boltzmann equation with the Fokker-Planck or the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) collision term and the relativistic Vlasov equation. The method can be generalized in a straightforward way to treat cases such as problems with nonperiodic boundary conditions and higher dimensional problems. (author)

  2. Global Sufficient Optimality Conditions for a Special Cubic Minimization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present some sufficient global optimality conditions for a special cubic minimization problem with box constraints or binary constraints by extending the global subdifferential approach proposed by V. Jeyakumar et al. (2006. The present conditions generalize the results developed in the work of V. Jeyakumar et al. where a quadratic minimization problem with box constraints or binary constraints was considered. In addition, a special diagonal matrix is constructed, which is used to provide a convenient method for justifying the proposed sufficient conditions. Then, the reformulation of the sufficient conditions follows. It is worth noting that this reformulation is also applicable to the quadratic minimization problem with box or binary constraints considered in the works of V. Jeyakumar et al. (2006 and Y. Wang et al. (2010. Finally some examples demonstrate that our optimality conditions can effectively be used for identifying global minimizers of the certain nonconvex cubic minimization problem.

  3. Twin wall of proper cubic-tetragonal ferroelastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curnoe, S. H.; Jacobs, A. E.

    2000-11-01

    We derive solutions for the twin wall linking two tetragonal variants of proper cubic-tetragonal ferroelastics, including the dilatational and shear energies and strains. Our solutions satisfy the compatibility relations exactly and are obtained at all temperatures. They require four nonvanishing strains except at the Barsch-Krumhansl temperature TBK (where only the two deviatoric strains are needed). Between the critical temperature and TBK, material in the wall region is dilated, while below TBK it is compressed; we estimate a compression of ~1% for Fe-Pd alloys. In agreement with experiment and more general theory, the twin wall lies in a cubic 110-type plane. We obtain the wall energy numerically as a function of temperature and we derive a simple estimate which agrees well with these values.

  4. Anodic etching of p-type cubic silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, G. L.; Fekade, K.; Wongchotigul, K.

    1992-01-01

    p-Type cubic silicon carbide was anodically etched using an electrolyte of HF:HCl:H2O. The etching depth was determined versus time with a fixed current density of 96.4 mA/sq cm. It was found that the etching was very smooth and very uniform. An etch rate of 22.7 nm/s was obtained in a 1:1:50 HF:HCl:H2O electrolyte.

  5. Orientational anharmonicity of interatomic interaction in cubic monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belomestnykh, Vladimir N.; Tesleva, Elena P.

    2010-01-01

    Anharmonicity of interatomic interaction from a position of physical acoustics under the standard conditions is investigated. It is shown that the measure of anharmonicity of interatomic interaction (Grilneisen parameter) is explicitly expressed through velocities of sound. Calculation results of orientation anharmonicity are shown on the example of 116 cubic monocrystals with different lattice structural type and type of chemical bond. Two types of anharmonicity interatomic interaction anisotropy are determined. Keywords: acoustics, orientational anharmonicity, Gruneisen parameter, velocity of sound

  6. Synthesis and Optical Properties of Cubic Gold Nanoframes

    OpenAIRE

    Au, Leslie; Chen, Yeechi; Zhou, Fei; Camargo, Pedro H. C.; Lim, Byungkwon; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Ginger, David S.; Xia, Younan

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a facile method of preparing cubic Au nanoframes with open structures via the galvanic replacement reaction between Ag nanocubes and AuCl2−. A mechanistic study of the reaction revealed that the formation of Au nanoframes relies on the diffusion of both Au and Ag atoms. The effect of the edge length and ridge thickness of the nanoframes on the localized surface plasmon resonance peak was explored by a combination of discrete dipole approximation calculations and single na...

  7. Higher-order numerical solutions using cubic splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, S. G.; Khosla, P. K.

    1976-01-01

    A cubic spline collocation procedure was developed for the numerical solution of partial differential equations. This spline procedure is reformulated so that the accuracy of the second-derivative approximation is improved and parallels that previously obtained for lower derivative terms. The final result is a numerical procedure having overall third-order accuracy of a nonuniform mesh. Solutions using both spline procedures, as well as three-point finite difference methods, are presented for several model problems.

  8. Cubic Splines for Trachea and Bronchial Tubes Grid Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliandro Rodrigues Cirilo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Grid generation plays an important role in the development of efficient numerical techniques for solving complex flows. Therefore, the present work develops a method for bidimensional blocks structured grid generation for geometries such as the trachea and bronchial tubes. A set of 55 blocks completes the geometry, whose contours are defined by cubic splines. Besides, this technique build on early ones because of its simplicity and efficiency in terms of very complex geometry grid generation.

  9. Lipidic cubic phase injector facilitates membrane protein serial femtosecond crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weierstall, Uwe; James, Daniel; Wang, Chong; White, Thomas A; Wang, Dingjie; Liu, Wei; Spence, John C H; Bruce Doak, R; Nelson, Garrett; Fromme, Petra; Fromme, Raimund; Grotjohann, Ingo; Kupitz, Christopher; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Liu, Haiguang; Basu, Shibom; Wacker, Daniel; Han, Gye Won; Katritch, Vsevolod; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J; Koglin, Jason E; Marvin Seibert, M; Klinker, Markus; Gati, Cornelius; Shoeman, Robert L; Barty, Anton; Chapman, Henry N; Kirian, Richard A; Beyerlein, Kenneth R; Stevens, Raymond C; Li, Dianfan; Shah, Syed T A; Howe, Nicole; Caffrey, Martin; Cherezov, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    Lipidic cubic phase (LCP) crystallization has proven successful for high-resolution structure determination of challenging membrane proteins. Here we present a technique for extruding gel-like LCP with embedded membrane protein microcrystals, providing a continuously renewed source of material for serial femtosecond crystallography. Data collected from sub-10-μm-sized crystals produced with less than 0.5 mg of purified protein yield structural insights regarding cyclopamine binding to the Smoothened receptor.

  10. Interactive (statistical) visualisation and exploration of a billion objects with vaex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breddels, M. A.

    2017-06-01

    With new catalogues arriving such as the Gaia DR1, containing more than a billion objects, new methods of handling and visualizing these data volumes are needed. We show that by calculating statistics on a regular (N-dimensional) grid, visualizations of a billion objects can be done within a second on a modern desktop computer. This is achieved using memory mapping of hdf5 files together with a simple binning algorithm, which are part of a Python library called vaex. This enables efficient exploration or large datasets interactively, making science exploration of large catalogues feasible. Vaex is a Python library and an application, which allows for interactive exploration and visualization. The motivation for developing vaex is the catalogue of the Gaia satellite, however, vaex can also be used on SPH or N-body simulations, any other (future) catalogues such as SDSS, Pan-STARRS, LSST, etc. or other tabular data. The homepage for vaex is http://vaex.astro.rug.nl.

  11. Dry Powder Precursors of Cubic Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles (cubosomes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, Patrick T.; Small, William B.; Small, William B.; Lynch, Matthew L.; Burns, Janet L.

    2002-01-01

    Cubosomes are dispersed nanostructured particles of cubic phase liquid crystal that have stimulated significant research interest because of their potential for application in controlled-release and drug delivery. Despite the interest, cubosomes can be difficult to fabricate and stabilize with current methods. Most of the current work is limited to liquid phase processes involving high shear dispersion of bulk cubic liquid crystalline material into sub-micron particles, limiting application flexibility. In this work, two types of dry powder cubosome precursors are produced by spray-drying: (1) starch-encapsulated monoolein is produced by spray-drying a dispersion of cubic liquid crystalline particles in an aqueous starch solution and (2) dextran-encapsulated monoolein is produced by spray-drying an emulsion formed by the ethanol-dextran-monoolein-water system. The encapsulants are used to decrease powder cohesion during drying and to act as a soluble colloidal stabilizer upon hydration of the powders. Both powders are shown to form (on average) 0.6 μm colloidally-stable cubosomes upon addition to water. However, the starch powders have a broader particle size distribution than the dextran powders because of the relative ease of spraying emulsions versus dispersions. The developed processes enable the production of nanostructured cubosomes by end-users rather than just specialized researchers and allow tailoring of the surface state of the cubosomes for broader application

  12. Cubic and hexagonal liquid crystals as drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulin; Ma, Ping; Gui, Shuangying

    2014-01-01

    Lipids have been widely used as main constituents in various drug delivery systems, such as liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, and lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystals. Among them, lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystals have highly ordered, thermodynamically stable internal nanostructure, thereby offering the potential as a sustained drug release matrix. The intricate nanostructures of the cubic phase and hexagonal phase have been shown to provide diffusion controlled release of active pharmaceutical ingredients with a wide range of molecular weights and polarities. In addition, the biodegradable and biocompatible nature of lipids demonstrates the minimum toxicity and thus they are used for various routes of administration. Therefore, the research on lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystalline phases has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. This review will provide an overview of the lipids used to prepare cubic phase and hexagonal phase at physiological temperature, as well as the influencing factors on the phase transition of liquid crystals. In particular, the most current research progresses on cubic and hexagonal phases as drug delivery systems will be discussed.

  13. Cubic and Hexagonal Liquid Crystals as Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipids have been widely used as main constituents in various drug delivery systems, such as liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, and lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystals. Among them, lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystals have highly ordered, thermodynamically stable internal nanostructure, thereby offering the potential as a sustained drug release matrix. The intricate nanostructures of the cubic phase and hexagonal phase have been shown to provide diffusion controlled release of active pharmaceutical ingredients with a wide range of molecular weights and polarities. In addition, the biodegradable and biocompatible nature of lipids demonstrates the minimum toxicity and thus they are used for various routes of administration. Therefore, the research on lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystalline phases has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. This review will provide an overview of the lipids used to prepare cubic phase and hexagonal phase at physiological temperature, as well as the influencing factors on the phase transition of liquid crystals. In particular, the most current research progresses on cubic and hexagonal phases as drug delivery systems will be discussed.

  14. Accomplishing rural electrification for over a billion people: Approaches towards sustainable solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mizanur Md.

    2014-01-01

    Access to electricity appears to be a prerequisite to materialize social, economic, and human development in the underprivileged rural areas. However, 1.1 billion rural people in the world, almost all of them living in developing countries, still do not have access to electricity. Although the rural electrification process poses more challenges than urban electrification, rural areas are blessed with abundant and relatively evenly distributed renewable energy resources. To facilitate electric...

  15. How to Bring Solar Energy to Seven Billion People (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadia, Cyrus

    2009-04-06

    By exploiting the powers of nanotechnology and taking advantage of non-toxic, Earth-abundant materials, Berkeley Lab's Cyrus Wadia has fabricated new solar cell devices that have the potential to be several orders of magnitude less expensive than conventional solar cells. And by mastering the chemistry of these materials-and the economics of solar energy-he envisions bringing electricity to the 1.2 billion people now living without it.

  16. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from Volume 1 (Volume 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langholtz, M. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, K. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stokes, B. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-13

    On behalf of all the authors and contributors, it is a great privilege to present the 2016 Billion-Ton Report (BT16), volume 2: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from volume 1. This report represents the culmination of several years of collaborative effort among national laboratories, government agencies, academic institutions, and industry. BT16 was developed to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s efforts towards national goals of energy security and associated quality of life.

  17. Areva - First quarter 2009 revenue climbs 8.5% to 3.003 billion euros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    First quarter 2009 revenue was up 8.5% compared with the same period last year, to 3.003 billion euros. At constant exchange rates and consolidation scope, growth came to 3.9%. Currency translation had a positive impact of 57 million euros over the quarter. Changes in the consolidation scope had an impact of 66 million euros, primarily due to the consolidation of acquisitions made in 2008 in Transmission and Distribution and in Renewable Energies. The growth engines for first quarter revenue were the Reactors and Services division and the Transmission and Distribution division, with growth of 9.2% and 16.1% respectively. Outside France, revenue rose to 2.032 billion euros, compared with 1.857 billion euros in the first quarter of 2008, and represents 68% of total revenue. Orders were steady in the first quarter, particularly in the Front End, which posted several significant contracts with US and Asian utilities, and in Transmission and Distribution, with orders up sharply in Asia and South America. As of March 31, 2009, the group's backlog reached 49.5 billion euros, for 28.3% growth year-on-year, including 31.3% growth in Nuclear and 10.2% in Transmission and Distribution. For the year as a whole, the group confirms its outlook for backlog and revenue growth as well as rising operating income It should be noted that revenue may vary significantly from one quarter to the next in nuclear operations. Accordingly, quarterly data cannot be viewed as a reliable indicator of annual trends

  18. Iron-substituted cubic silsesquioxane pillared clays : Synthesis, characterization and acid catalytic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potsi, Georgia; Ladavos, Athanasios K.; Petrakis, Dimitrios; Douvalis, Alexios P.; Sanakis, Yiannis; Katsiotis, Marios S.; Papavassiliou, Georgios; Alhassan, Saeed; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2018-01-01

    Novel pillared structures were developed from the intercalation of iron-substituted cubic silsesquioxanes in a sodium and an acid-activated montmorillonite nanoclay and evaluated as acid catalysts. Octameric cubic oligosiloxanes were formed upon controlled hydrolytic polycondensation of the

  19. A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jens; Ma, Chung-Pei; McConnell, Nicholas J; Greene, Jenny E; Blakeslee, John P; Janish, Ryan

    2016-04-21

    Quasars are associated with and powered by the accretion of material onto massive black holes; the detection of highly luminous quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 suggests that black holes of up to ten billion solar masses already existed 13 billion years ago. Two possible present-day 'dormant' descendants of this population of 'active' black holes have been found in the galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 at the centres of the Leo and Coma galaxy clusters, which together form the central region of the Great Wall--the largest local structure of galaxies. The most luminous quasars, however, are not confined to such high-density regions of the early Universe; yet dormant black holes of this high mass have not yet been found outside of modern-day rich clusters. Here we report observations of the stellar velocity distribution in the galaxy NGC 1600--a relatively isolated elliptical galaxy near the centre of a galaxy group at a distance of 64 megaparsecs from Earth. We use orbit superposition models to determine that the black hole at the centre of NGC 1600 has a mass of 17 billion solar masses. The spatial distribution of stars near the centre of NGC 1600 is rather diffuse. We find that the region of depleted stellar density in the cores of massive elliptical galaxies extends over the same radius as the gravitational sphere of influence of the central black holes, and interpret this as the dynamical imprint of the black holes.

  20. Two ten-billion-solar-mass black holes at the centres of giant elliptical galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Nicholas J; Ma, Chung-Pei; Gebhardt, Karl; Wright, Shelley A; Murphy, Jeremy D; Lauer, Tod R; Graham, James R; Richstone, Douglas O

    2011-12-08

    Observational work conducted over the past few decades indicates that all massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres. Although the luminosities and brightness fluctuations of quasars in the early Universe suggest that some were powered by black holes with masses greater than 10 billion solar masses, the remnants of these objects have not been found in the nearby Universe. The giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 hosts the hitherto most massive known black hole, which has a mass of 6.3 billion solar masses. Here we report that NGC 3842, the brightest galaxy in a cluster at a distance from Earth of 98 megaparsecs, has a central black hole with a mass of 9.7 billion solar masses, and that a black hole of comparable or greater mass is present in NGC 4889, the brightest galaxy in the Coma cluster (at a distance of 103 megaparsecs). These two black holes are significantly more massive than predicted by linearly extrapolating the widely used correlations between black-hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion or bulge luminosity of the host galaxy. Although these correlations remain useful for predicting black-hole masses in less massive elliptical galaxies, our measurements suggest that different evolutionary processes influence the growth of the largest galaxies and their black holes.

  1. BUILDING A BILLION SPATIO-TEMPORAL OBJECT SEARCH AND VISUALIZATION PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kakkar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With funding from the Sloan Foundation and Harvard Dataverse, the Harvard Center for Geographic Analysis (CGA has developed a prototype spatio-temporal visualization platform called the Billion Object Platform or BOP. The goal of the project is to lower barriers for scholars who wish to access large, streaming, spatio-temporal datasets. The BOP is now loaded with the latest billion geo-tweets, and is fed a real-time stream of about 1 million tweets per day. The geo-tweets are enriched with sentiment and census/admin boundary codes when they enter the system. The system is open source and is currently hosted on Massachusetts Open Cloud (MOC, an OpenStack environment with all components deployed in Docker orchestrated by Kontena. This paper will provide an overview of the BOP architecture, which is built on an open source stack consisting of Apache Lucene, Solr, Kafka, Zookeeper, Swagger, scikit-learn, OpenLayers, and AngularJS. The paper will further discuss the approach used for harvesting, enriching, streaming, storing, indexing, visualizing and querying a billion streaming geo-tweets.

  2. Building a Billion Spatio-Temporal Object Search and Visualization Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, D.; Lewis, B.

    2017-10-01

    With funding from the Sloan Foundation and Harvard Dataverse, the Harvard Center for Geographic Analysis (CGA) has developed a prototype spatio-temporal visualization platform called the Billion Object Platform or BOP. The goal of the project is to lower barriers for scholars who wish to access large, streaming, spatio-temporal datasets. The BOP is now loaded with the latest billion geo-tweets, and is fed a real-time stream of about 1 million tweets per day. The geo-tweets are enriched with sentiment and census/admin boundary codes when they enter the system. The system is open source and is currently hosted on Massachusetts Open Cloud (MOC), an OpenStack environment with all components deployed in Docker orchestrated by Kontena. This paper will provide an overview of the BOP architecture, which is built on an open source stack consisting of Apache Lucene, Solr, Kafka, Zookeeper, Swagger, scikit-learn, OpenLayers, and AngularJS. The paper will further discuss the approach used for harvesting, enriching, streaming, storing, indexing, visualizing and querying a billion streaming geo-tweets.

  3. 40 CFR 1065.220 - Fuel flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... flow meter that meets the specifications in Table 1 of § 1065.205. We recommend a fuel flow meter that... diameters) or by using specially designed tubing bends, straightening fins, or pneumatic pulsation dampeners...

  4. Solving nonlinear Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation using cubic B-spline and cubic trigonometric B-spline collocation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahan, Nur Nadiah Mohd; Ishak, Siti Noor Shahira; Hamid, Nur Nadiah Abd; Majid, Ahmad Abd.; Azmi, Amirah

    2017-04-01

    In this research, the nonlinear Benjamin-Bona-Mahony (BBM) equation is solved numerically using the cubic B-spline (CuBS) and cubic trigonometric B-spline (CuTBS) collocation methods. The CuBS and CuTBS are utilized as interpolating functions in the spatial dimension while the standard finite difference method (FDM) is applied to discretize the temporal space. In order to solve the nonlinear problem, the BBM equation is linearized using Taylor's expansion. Applying the von-Neumann stability analysis, the proposed techniques are shown to be unconditionally stable under the Crank-Nicolson scheme. Several numerical examples are discussed and compared with exact solutions and results from the FDM.

  5. Integrating an embedded system in a microwave moisture meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conversion of a PC- or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter measures the attenuation and phase shift of low power microwaves traversing the sample, from which the dielectric properties are calculated. T...

  6. Integrating an Embedded System within a Microwave Moisture Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter uses low-power microwaves to measure the attenuation and phase shift of the sample, from which the dielectric properties are cal...

  7. A prepaid meter using mobile communication | Jain | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sophisticated and accurate digital and electronic meters. A high percentage of electricity revenue is lost to power theft, incorrect meter reading and billing, and reluctance of consumers towards paying electricity bills on time. Considerable amount of revenue losses can be reduced by using Prepaid Energy Meters. A prepaid ...

  8. 18 CFR 367.9020 - Account 902, Meter reading expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... clocks, checking seals, and other similar items, when performed by meter readers and the work represents... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 902, Meter... GAS ACT Operation and Maintenance Expense Chart of Accounts § 367.9020 Account 902, Meter reading...

  9. 24 CFR 965.401 - Individually metered utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Individual Metering of Utilities for Existing PHA-Owned Projects § 965.401 Individually metered utilities. (a) All utility service shall be... supplier or through the use of checkmeters, unless: (1) Individual metering is impractical, such as in the...

  10. 7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for moisture meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tolerances for moisture meters. 801.6 Section 801.6... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.6 Tolerances for moisture meters. (a) The maintenance tolerances for Motomco 919 moisture meters used in performing official inspection services shall be: (1...

  11. The disc pasture meter: Possible applications in grazing management.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disc meter is a simple inexpensive instrument which may be used to make rapid yield estimates of standing forage. Linear regression relationships between meter reading and pasture dry matter yield are usually fairly good, but these may be affected by a number of different factors. The meter should therefore be ...

  12. Static energy meter errors caused by conducted electromagnetic interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes; Keyer, Cornelis H.A.; Melentjev, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Static, or electronic, energy meters are replacing the conventional electromechanical meters. Consumers are some-times complaining about higher energy readings and billing after the change to a static meter, but there is not a clear common or root cause at present. Electromagnetic interference has

  13. 49 CFR 192.357 - Customer meters and regulators: Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Installation. 192... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.357 Customer meters and regulators: Installation. (a...

  14. 49 CFR 192.359 - Customer meter installations: Operating pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meter installations: Operating pressure... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.359 Customer meter installations: Operating pressure...

  15. NUCLEAR MIXING METERS FOR CLASSICAL NOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Keegan J.; Iliadis, Christian; Downen, Lori; Champagne, Art; José, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Classical novae are caused by mass transfer episodes from a main-sequence star onto a white dwarf via Roche lobe overflow. This material possesses angular momentum and forms an accretion disk around the white dwarf. Ultimately, a fraction of this material spirals in and piles up on the white dwarf surface under electron-degenerate conditions. The subsequently occurring thermonuclear runaway reaches hundreds of megakelvin and explosively ejects matter into the interstellar medium. The exact peak temperature strongly depends on the underlying white dwarf mass, the accreted mass and metallicity, and the initial white dwarf luminosity. Observations of elemental abundance enrichments in these classical nova events imply that the ejected matter consists not only of processed solar material from the main-sequence partner but also of material from the outer layers of the underlying white dwarf. This indicates that white dwarf and accreted matter mix prior to the thermonuclear runaway. The processes by which this mixing occurs require further investigation to be understood. In this work, we analyze elemental abundances ejected from hydrodynamic nova models in search of elemental abundance ratios that are useful indicators of the total amount of mixing. We identify the abundance ratios ΣCNO/H, Ne/H, Mg/H, Al/H, and Si/H as useful mixing meters in ONe novae. The impact of thermonuclear reaction rate uncertainties on the mixing meters is investigated using Monte Carlo post-processing network calculations with temperature-density evolutions of all mass zones computed by the hydrodynamic models. We find that the current uncertainties in the 30 P(p, γ) 31 S rate influence the Si/H abundance ratio, but overall the mixing meters found here are robust against nuclear physics uncertainties. A comparison of our results with observations of ONe novae provides strong constraints for classical nova models

  16. Digital radioisotope moisture-density meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychvarov, N.; Vankov, I.; Dimitrov, L.

    1982-01-01

    The primary information from the detectors of a combined radioisotope moisture-density meter is obtained as pulses, their counting rate being functionally dependent on the humidity per unit volume and the wet density. However, most practical cases demand information on the moisture per unit weight and the mass density of the dry skeleton. The paper describes how the proposed electronic circuit processes the input primary information to obtain the moisture in weight % and the mass density of the dry skeleton in g/cm 3 . (authors)

  17. Ramp - Metering Algorithms Evaluated within Simplified Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janota, Aleš; Holečko, Peter; Gregor, Michal; Hruboš, Marián

    2017-12-01

    Freeway networks reach their limits, since it is usually impossible to increase traffic volumes by indefinitely extending transport infrastructure through adding new traffic lanes. One of the possible solutions is to use advanced intelligent transport systems, particularly ramp metering systems. The paper shows how two particular algorithms of local and traffic-responsive control (Zone, ALINEA) can be adapted to simplified conditions corresponding to Slovak freeways. Both control strategies are modelled and simulated using PTV Vissim software, including the module VisVAP. Presented results demonstrate the properties of both control strategies, which are compared mutually as well as with the initial situation in which no control strategy is applied

  18. PRESCILA: a new, lightweight neutron rem meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsher, Richard H; Seagraves, David T; Eisele, Shawna L; Bjork, Christopher W; Martinez, William A; Romero, Leonard L; Mallett, Michael W; Duran, Michael A; Hurlbut, Charles R

    2004-06-01

    Conventional neutron rem meters currently in use are based on 1960's technology that relies on a large neutron moderator assembly surrounding a thermal detector to achieve a rem-like response function over a limited energy range. Such rem meters present an ergonomic challenge, being heavy and bulky, and have caused injuries during radiation protection surveys. Another defect of traditional rem meters is a poor high-energy response above 10 MeV, which makes them unsuitable for applications at high-energy accelerator facilities. Proton Recoil Scintillator-Los Alamos (PRESCILA) was developed as a low-weight (2 kg) alternative capable of extended energy response, high sensitivity, and moderate gamma rejection. An array of ZnS(Ag) based scintillators is located inside and around a Lucite light guide, which couples the scintillation light to a sideview bialkali photomultiplier tube. The use of both fast and thermal scintillators allows the energy response function to be optimized for a wide range of operational spectra. The light guide and the borated polyethylene frame provide moderation for the thermal scintillator element. The scintillators represent greatly improved versions of the Hornyak and Stedman designs from the 1950's, and were developed in collaboration with Eljen Technology. The inherent pulse height advantage of proton recoils over electron tracks in the phosphor grains eliminates the need for pulse shape discrimination and makes it possible to use the PRESCILA probe with standard pulse height discrimination provided by off-the-shelf health physics counters. PRESCILA prototype probes have been extensively tested at both Los Alamos and the German Bureau of Standards, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. Test results are presented for energy response, directional dependence, linearity, sensitivity, and gamma rejection. Initial field tests have been conducted at Los Alamos and these results are also given. It is concluded that PRESCILA offers a viable

  19. Fibre optic power meter calibration uncertainties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The method to empirically quantify the effect that flexing (movement) of the fibre has on the output power was determined by connecting an optical fibre to a power meter head and performing controlled movements of the head (displacements and rotations..., and with their optical axes roughly parallel to one another to reduce the effect of fibre flexing when interchanging from one detector head to another. Excessive flexing and moving of the fibre can cause differences in the radiant power emerging from the fibre...

  20. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1.Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model (USGS, 30m) by finding the local average elevation, subtracting the actual elevation from the average, and selecting areas where the actual elevation was below the average. The landscape was sampled at seven scales (circles of 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, and 22 km radius) to take into account the diversity of valley shapes and sizes. Areas selected in at least four scales were designated as valleys.

  1. Areva excellent business volume: backlog as of december 31, 2008: + 21.1% to 48.2 billion euros. 2008 revenue: + 10.4% to 13.2 billion euros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    AREVA's backlog stood at 48.2 billion euros as of December 31, 2008, for 21.1% growth year-on-year, including 21.8% growth in Nuclear and 16.5% growth in Transmission and Distribution. The Nuclear backlog came to 42.5 billion euros at December 31, 2008. The Transmission and Distribution backlog came to 5.7 billion euros at year-end. The group recognized revenue of 13.2 billion euros in 2008, for year-on-year growth of 10.4% (+9.8% like-for-like). Revenue outside France was up 10.5% to 9.5 billion euros, representing 72% of total revenue. Revenue was up 6.5% in the Nuclear businesses (up 6.3% LFL), with strong performance in the Reactors and Services division (+10.9% LFL) and the Front End division (+7.2% LFL). The Transmission and Distribution division recorded growth of 17% (+15.8% LFL). Revenue for the fourth quarter of 2008 rose to 4.1 billion euros, up 5.2% (+1.6% LFL) from that of the fourth quarter of 2007. Revenue for the Front End division rose to 3.363 billion euros in 2008, up 7.1% over 2007 (+7.2% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 53 million euros. Revenue for the Reactors and Services division rose to 3.037 billion euros, up 11.8% over 2007 (+10.9% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 47 million euros. Revenue for the Back End division came to 1.692 billion euros, a drop of 2.7% (-2.5% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 3.5 million euros. Revenue for the Transmission and Distribution division rose to 5.065 billion euros in 2008, up 17.0% (+15.8% LFL)

  2. 2016 Billion-ton report: Advancing domestic resources for a thriving bioeconomy, Volume 1: Economic availability of feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.H. Langholtz; B.J. Stokes; L.M. Eaton

    2016-01-01

    This product builds on previous efforts, namely the 2005 Billion-Ton Study (BTS) and the 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update (BT2).With each report, greater perspective is gained on the potential of biomass resources to contribute to a national energy strategy. Similarly, each successive report introduces new questions regarding commercialization challenges. BTS quantified...

  3. Smart meter users give a thumbs up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, D.

    2007-01-01

    The Ontario Energy Board conducted a pilot study with the support of Hydro Ottawa to better understand how consumers change their electricity consumption behaviour with smart meters and time-of-use (TOU) prices. The project enabled consumers to learn the most cost-effective times to use energy. Results from the Ontario Smart Price Pilot reveal that consumers like to have control over how much and when they use their electricity. Although the savings were only small for some clients involved in the study, they appreciated having their metering bills in greater detail. At the end of the pilot project, participants reduced electricity consumption by 6 per cent. Nearly 90 per cent of the participants paid lower energy bills and nearly 80 per cent indicated they would recommend TOU pricing to their friends because it motivated them to shift some of their electricity use away from peak hours. The average reduction in electricity demand among the two-thirds of participants on critical pricing plans was more than 20 per cent during high demand or critical peak hours in summer. Demand reduction on winter critical peak days was much lower for all participants. 1 fig

  4. The reactor neutron flux and period measure meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Ying

    1997-11-01

    The main performance indexes of developed reactor neutron flux and period measure meter (as an intermediate range measuring instrument of nuclear instrumentation system in nuclear power plant) are introduced. The meter's function, working principle, hardware constitution, application software, and the characteristics of the meter are described. The meter adopts the advanced digital technology, it can do calculating and processing by a microprocessor to get the values of power and period. It also can give the output singles as required. The characters of the meter are high accuracy, good ability to resist disturbance, small temperature coefficient and convenient for operation, etc

  5. A Novel Smart Meter Controlling System with Dynamic IP Addresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manembu, Pinrolinvic; Welang, Brammy; Kalua Lapu, Aditya

    2017-01-01

    Smart meters are the electronic devices for measuring energy consumption in real time. Usually, static public IP addresses are allocated to realize the point-to-point (P2P) communication and remote controlling for smart metering systems. This, however, restricts the wide deployment of smart meters......, due to the deficiency of public IP resources. This paper proposes a novel subscription-based communication architecture for the support of dynamic IP addresses and group controlling of smart meters. The paper evaluates the proposed architecture by comparing the traditional P2P architecture......, and validate its effectiveness to interact with smart meters....

  6. Automatic ranging circuit for a digital panel meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, T.R.; Ross, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a range changing circuit that operates in conjunction with a digital panel meter of fixed sensitivity. The circuit decodes the output of the panel meter and uses that information to change the gain of an input amplifier to the panel meter in order to ensure that the maximum number of significant figures is always displayed in the meter. The circuit monitors five conditions in the meter and responds to any of four combinations of these conditions by means of logic elements to carry out the function of the circuit. The system was designed for readout of a fluorescence analyzer for uranium analysis

  7. Long Island Smart Metering Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-03-30

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) Smart Meter Pilots provided invaluable information and experience for future deployments of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), including the deployment planned as part of LIPA's Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000220). LIPA will incorporate lessons learned from this pilot in future deployments, including lessons relating to equipment performance specifications and testing, as well as equipment deployment and tracking issues. LIPA ultimately deployed three AMI technologies instead of the two that were originally contemplated. This enabled LIPA to evaluate multiple systems in field conditions with a relatively small number of meter installations. LIPA experienced a number of equipment and software issues that it did not anticipate, including issues relating to equipment integration, ability to upgrade firmware and software over the air (as opposed to physically interacting with every meter), and logistical challenges associated with tracking inventory and upgrade status of deployed meters. In addition to evaluating the technology, LIPA also piloted new Time-of-Use (TOU) rates to assess customer acceptance of time-differentiated pricing and to evaluate whether customers would respond by adjusting their activities from peak to non-peak periods. LIPA developed a marketing program to educate customers who received AMI in the pilot areas and to seek voluntary participation in TOU pricing. LIPA also guaranteed participating customers that, for their initial year on the rates, their electricity costs under the TOU rate would not exceed the amount they would have paid under the flat rates they would otherwise enjoy. 62 residential customers chose to participate in the TOU rates, and every one of them saved money during the first year. 61 of them also elected to stay on the TOU rate without the cost guarantee at the end of that year. The customer who chose not to continue on the rate was also the one who achieved the

  8. Cubic Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and Their Application in BCK/BCI-Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Young Bae Jun; Seok-Zun Song; Seon Jeong Kim

    2018-01-01

    As a new extension of a cubic set, the notion of a cubic interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set is introduced, and its application in B C K / B C I -algebra is considered. The notions of α -internal, β -internal, α -external and β -external cubic IVIF set are introduced, and the P-union, P-intersection, R-union and R-intersection of α -internal and α -external cubic IVIF sets are discussed. The concepts of cubic IVIF subalgebra and ideal in B C K / B...

  9. A hybrid ICT-solution for smart meter data analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2016-01-01

    Smart meters are increasingly used worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 min. Smart meter data are typically bundled with social economic data in analytics, such as meter geographic locations, weather...... conditions and user information, which makes the data sets very sizable and the analytics complex. Data mining and emerging cloud computing technologies make collecting, processing, and analyzing the so-called big data possible. This paper proposes an innovative ICT-solution to streamline smart meter data...... analytics. The proposed solution offers an information integration pipeline for ingesting data from smart meters, a scalable platform for processing and mining big data sets, and a web portal for visualizing analytics results. The implemented system has a hybrid architecture of using Spark or Hive for big...

  10. Synthesis and Optical Properties of Cubic Gold Nanoframes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Leslie; Chen, Yeechi; Zhou, Fei; Camargo, Pedro H C; Lim, Byungkwon; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Ginger, David S; Xia, Younan

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes a facile method of preparing cubic Au nanoframes with open structures via the galvanic replacement reaction between Ag nanocubes and AuCl(2) (-). A mechanistic study of the reaction revealed that the formation of Au nanoframes relies on the diffusion of both Au and Ag atoms. The effect of the edge length and ridge thickness of the nanoframes on the localized surface plasmon resonance peak was explored by a combination of discrete dipole approximation calculations and single nanoparticle spectroscopy. With their hollow and open structures, the Au nanoframes represent a novel class of substrates for applications including surface plasmonics and surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

  11. Bistable Helmholtz solitons in cubic-quintic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J. M.; McDonald, G. S.; Chamorro-Posada, P.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a nonlinear Helmholtz equation for modeling the evolution of broad optical beams in media with a cubic-quintic intensity-dependent refractive index. This type of nonlinearity is appropriate for some semiconductor materials, glasses, and polymers. Exact analytical soliton solutions are presented that describe self-trapped nonparaxial beams propagating at any angle with respect to the reference direction. These spatially symmetric solutions are, to the best of our knowledge, the first bistable Helmholtz solitons to be derived. Accompanying conservation laws (both integral and particular forms) are also reported. Numerical simulations investigate the stability of the solitons, which appear to be remarkably robust against perturbations

  12. Cubic Plus Association Equation of State for Flow Assurance Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Santos, Leticia Cotia; Abunahman, Samir Silva; Tavares, Frederico Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    -built model: To validate the implementation, we show calulations for binary systems containing hydrate inhibitors and water or hydrocarbons using the Cubic Plus Association (CPA) and Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of states, also comparing against experimental data. For streams containing natural gas......Thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors such as methanol, ethanol, (mono) ethylene glycol (MEG), and triethylene glycol (TEG) are widely used in the oil and gas industry. On modeling these compounds, we show here how the CPA equation of state was implemented in an in-house process simulator as an in...

  13. Soliton interaction in quadratic and cubic bulk media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steffen Kjær; Bang, Ole

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. The understanding of how and to what extend the cubic nonlinearity affects beam propagation and spatial soliton formation in quadratic media is of vital importance in fundamental and applied nonlinear physics. We consider beam propagation under type-I SHG conditions...... in lossless bulk second order nonlinear optical materials with a nonvanishing third order nonlinearity. It is known that in pure second order systems a single soliton can never collapse whereas in systems with both nonlinearities and that stable single soliton propagation can only in some circumstances...

  14. X-Ray Elastic Constants for Cubic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malen, K.

    1974-10-15

    The stress-strain relation to be used in X-ray stress measurements in anisotropic texture-free media is studied. The method for evaluation of appropriate elastic constants for a cubic medium is described. Some illustrative numerical examples have been worked out including line broadening due to elastic anisotropy. The elastic stress and strain compatibility at grain boundaries is taken into account using Kroner's method. These elastic constants obviously only apply when no internal stresses due to plastic deformation are present. The case of reorientation of free interstitials in the stress field can be taken into account

  15. X-Ray Elastic Constants for Cubic Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malen, K.

    1974-10-01

    The stress-strain relation to be used in X-ray stress measurements in anisotropic texture-free media is studied. The method for evaluation of appropriate elastic constants for a cubic medium is described. Some illustrative numerical examples have been worked out including line broadening due to elastic anisotropy. The elastic stress and strain compatibility at grain boundaries is taken into account using Kroner's method. These elastic constants obviously only apply when no internal stresses due to plastic deformation are present. The case of reorientation of free interstitials in the stress field can be taken into account

  16. Rotary Ultrasonic Machining of Poly-Crystalline Cubic Boron Nitride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuruc Marcel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Poly-crystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN is one of the hardest material. Generally, so hard materials could not be machined by conventional machining methods. Therefore, for this purpose, advanced machining methods have been designed. Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM is included among them. RUM is based on abrasive removing mechanism of ultrasonic vibrating diamond particles, which are bonded on active part of rotating tool. It is suitable especially for machining hard and brittle materials (such as glass and ceramics. This contribution investigates this advanced machining method during machining of PCBN.

  17. The cyclicity of a cubic system with nonradical Bautin ideal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levandovskyy, Viktor; Romanovski, Valery G.; Shafer, Douglas S.

    We present a method for investigating the cyclicity of an elementary focus or center of a polynomial system of differential equations by means of complexification of the system and application of algorithms of computational algebra, showing an approach to treating the case that the Bautin ideal B of focus quantities is not a radical ideal (more precisely, when the ideal B is not radical, where B is the ideal generated by the shortest initial string of focus quantities that, like the Bautin ideal, determines the center variety). We illustrate the method with a family of cubic systems.

  18. Topological Characterization of Carbon Graphite and Crystal Cubic Carbon Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Wei Gao Muhammad Kamran; Naeem, Muhammad; Rehman, Najma Abdul

    2017-09-07

    Graph theory is used for modeling, designing, analysis and understanding chemical structures or chemical networks and their properties. The molecular graph is a graph consisting of atoms called vertices and the chemical bond between atoms called edges. In this article, we study the chemical graphs of carbon graphite and crystal structure of cubic carbon. Moreover, we compute and give closed formulas of degree based additive topological indices, namely hyper-Zagreb index, first multiple and second multiple Zagreb indices, and first and second Zagreb polynomials.

  19. Building a 70 billion word corpus of English from ClueWeb

    OpenAIRE

    Pomikálek Jan; Rychlý Pavel; Jakubíček Miloš

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the process of creation of a 70 billion word text corpus of English. We used an existing language resource, namely the ClueWeb09 dataset, as source for the corpus data. Processing such a vast amount of data presented several challenges, mainly associated with pre-processing (boilerplate cleaning, text de-duplication) and post-processing (indexing for efficient corpus querying using the CQL – Corpus Query Language) steps. In this paper we explain how we tackled them: we des...

  20. A field like today's? The strength of the geomagnetic field 1.1 billion years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprain, Courtney J.; Swanson-Hysell, Nicholas L.; Fairchild, Luke M.; Gaastra, Kevin

    2018-02-01

    Paleomagnetic data from ancient rocks are one of the few types of observational data that can be brought to be bear on the long-term evolution of Earth's core. A recent compilation of paleointensity estimates from throughout Earth history has been interpreted to indicate that Earth's magnetic field strength increased in the Mesoproterozoic (between 1.5 and 1.0 billion years ago), with this increase taken to mark the onset of inner core nucleation. However, much of the data within the Precambrian paleointensity database are from Thellier-style experiments with non-ideal behavior that manifests in results such as double-slope Arai plots. Choices made when interpreting these data may significantly change conclusions about long-term trends in the intensity of Earth's geomagnetic field. In this study, we present new paleointensity results from volcanics of the ˜1.1 billion-year-old North American Midcontinent Rift. While most of the results exhibit non-ideal double-slope or sagging behavior in Arai plots, some flows have more ideal single-slope behavior leading to paleointensity estimates that may be some of the best constraints on the strength of Earth's field for this time. Taken together, new and previously published paleointensity data from the Midcontinent Rift yield a median field strength estimate of 56.0 ZAm2—very similar to the median for the past 300 million years. These field strength estimates are distinctly higher than those for the preceding billion years after excluding ca. 1.3 Ga data that may be biased by non-ideal behavior—consistent with an increase in field strength in the late Mesoproterozoic. However, given that ˜90 per cent of paleointensity estimates from 1.1 to 0.5 Ga come from the Midcontinent Rift, it is difficult to evaluate whether these high values relative to those estimated for the preceding billion years are the result of a stepwise, sustained increase in dipole moment. Regardless, paleointensity estimates from the Midcontinent

  1. Berthold contamination meter type LB1210B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Iles, W.J.

    1981-04-01

    This instrument is a well designed, well constructed contamination monitor that has unusual versatility. Where large surface areas require to be monitored it is particularly useful because of the large area of the detector. It is suitable for monitoring β surface contamination of energy equal to and above that of 14 C, and for X- and low-energy γ-emitting nuclides. It has an adequate battery life, good temperature stability, comprehensive but simple controls, and a clear and accurate meter. A useful check source is provided. The only criticisms of the limitations of the alarm warning, the rather quiet click for each event detected, the rough surface finish, and the effects of high humidity. (author)

  2. Handheld Multi-Gas Meters Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Gustavious [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Wald-Hopkins, Mark David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Obrey, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Akhadov, Valida Dushdurova [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-27

    Handheld multi-gas meters (MGMs) are equipped with sensors to monitor oxygen (O2) levels and additional sensors to detect the presence of combustible or toxic gases in the environment. This report is limited to operational response-type MGMs that include at least four different sensors. These sensors can vary by type and by the monitored chemical. In real time, the sensors report the concentration of monitored gases in the atmosphere near the MGM. In April 2016 the System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program conducted an operationally-oriented assessment of MGMs. Five MGMs were assessed by emergency responders. The criteria and scenarios used in this assessment were derived from the results of a focus group of emergency responders with experience in using MGMs. The assessment addressed 16 evaluation criteria in four SAVER categories: Usability, Capability, Maintainability, and Deployability.

  3. High Cubic-Phase Purity InN on MgO (001) Using Cubic-Phase GaN as a Buffer Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanorpim, S.; Kuntharin, S.; Parinyataramas, J.; Yaguchi, H.; Iwahashi, Y.; Orihara, M.; Hijikata, Y.; Yoshida, S.

    2011-01-01

    High cubic-phase purity InN films were grown on MgO (001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy with a cubic-phase GaN buffer layer. The cubic phase purity of the InN grown layers has been analyzed by high resolution X-ray diffraction, μ-Raman scattering and transmission electron microscopy. It is evidenced that the hexagonal-phase content in the InN overlayer much depends on hexagonal-phase content in the cubic-phase GaN buffer layer and increases with increasing the hexagonal-phase GaN content. From Raman scattering measurements, in addition, the InN layer with lowest hexagonal component (6%), only Raman characteristics of cubic TO InN and LO InN modes were observed, indicating a formation of a small amount of stacking faults, which does not affect on vibrational property.

  4. Analyzing Single Molecule Localization Microscopy Data Using Cubic Splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Hazen P; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2017-04-03

    The resolution of super-resolution microscopy based on single molecule localization is in part determined by the accuracy of the localization algorithm. In most published approaches to date this localization is done by fitting an analytical function that approximates the point spread function (PSF) of the microscope. However, particularly for localization in 3D, analytical functions such as a Gaussian, which are computationally inexpensive, may not accurately capture the PSF shape leading to reduced fitting accuracy. On the other hand, analytical functions that can accurately capture the PSF shape, such as those based on pupil functions, can be computationally expensive. Here we investigate the use of cubic splines as an alternative fitting approach. We demonstrate that cubic splines can capture the shape of any PSF with high accuracy and that they can be used for fitting the PSF with only a 2-3x increase in computation time as compared to Gaussian fitting. We provide an open-source software package that measures the PSF of any microscope and uses the measured PSF to perform 3D single molecule localization microscopy analysis with reasonable accuracy and speed.

  5. Numerical simulation of Burgers' equation using cubic B-splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, C.; Awasthi, Ashish

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a numerical θ scheme is proposed for solving nonlinear Burgers' equation. By employing Hopf-Cole transformation, the nonlinear Burgers' equation is linearized to the linear Heat equation. The resulting Heat equation is further solved by cubic B-splines. The time discretization of linear Heat equation is carried out using Crank-Nicolson scheme (θ = {1 \\over 2}) as well as backward Euler scheme (θ = 1). Accuracy in temporal direction is improved by using Richardson extrapolation. This method hence possesses fourth order accuracy both in space and time. The system of matrix which arises by using cubic splines is always diagonal. Therefore, working with splines has the advantage of reduced computational cost and easy implementation. Stability of the schemes have been discussed in detail and shown to be unconditionally stable. Three examples have been examined and the L2 and L∞ error norms have been calculated to establish the performance of the method. The numerical results obtained on applying this method have shown to give more accurate results than existing works of Kutluay et al. [1], Ozis et al. [2], Dag et al. [3], Salkuyeh et al. [4] and Korkmaz et al. [5].

  6. String scattering amplitudes and deformed cubic string field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hong Lai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We study string scattering amplitudes by using the deformed cubic string field theory which is equivalent to the string field theory in the proper-time gauge. The four-string scattering amplitudes with three tachyons and an arbitrary string state are calculated. The string field theory yields the string scattering amplitudes evaluated on the world sheet of string scattering whereas the conventional method, based on the first quantized theory brings us the string scattering amplitudes defined on the upper half plane. For the highest spin states, generated by the primary operators, both calculations are in perfect agreement. In this case, the string scattering amplitudes are invariant under the conformal transformation, which maps the string world sheet onto the upper half plane. If the external string states are general massive states, generated by non-primary field operators, we need to take into account carefully the conformal transformation between the world sheet and the upper half plane. We show by an explicit calculation that the string scattering amplitudes calculated by using the deformed cubic string field theory transform into those of the first quantized theory on the upper half plane by the conformal transformation, generated by the Schwarz–Christoffel mapping.

  7. Special geometry, cubic polynomials and homogeneous quaternionic spaces

    CERN Document Server

    de Wit, Bernard

    1992-01-01

    The existing classification of homogeneous quaternionic spaces is not complete. We study these spaces in the context of certain $N=2$ supergravity theories, where dimensional reduction induces a mapping between {\\em special} real, K\\"ahler and quaternionic spaces. The geometry of the real spaces is encoded in cubic polynomials, those of the K\\"ahler and quaternionic manifolds in homogeneous holomorphic functions of second degree. We classify all cubic polynomials that have an invariance group that acts transitively on the real manifold. The corresponding K\\"ahler and quaternionic manifolds are then homogeneous. We find that they lead to a well-defined subset of the normal quaternionic spaces classified by \\Al\\ (and the corresponding special K\\"ahler spaces given by Cecotti), but there is a new class of rank-3 spaces of quaternionic dimension larger than 3. We also point out that some of the rank-4 \\Al\\ spaces were not fully specified and correspond to a finite variety of inequivalent spaces. A simpler version...

  8. Parametrization and Classification of 20 Billion LSST Objects: Lessons from SDSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivezic, Z.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Axelrod, T.; /Large Binocular Telescope, Tucson; Becker, A.C.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Becla, J.; /SLAC; Borne, K.; /George Mason U.; Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Claver, C.F.; /NOAO, Tucson; Cook, K.H.; /LLNL, Livermore; Connolly, A.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Gilmore, D.K.; /SLAC; Jones, R.L.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Juric, M.; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study; Kahn, Steven M.; /SLAC; Lim, K-T.; /SLAC; Lupton, R.H.; /Princeton U.; Monet, D.G.; /Naval Observ., Flagstaff; Pinto, P.A.; /Arizona U.; Sesar, B.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Stubbs, Christopher W.; /Harvard U.; Tyson, J.Anthony; /UC, Davis

    2011-11-10

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain, starting in 2015, multiple images of the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg{sup 2} region about 1000 times during the anticipated 10 years of operations (distributed over six bands, ugrizy). Each 30-second long visit will deliver 5{sigma} depth for point sources of r {approx} 24.5 on average. The co-added map will be about 3 magnitudes deeper, and will include 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars. We discuss various measurements that will be automatically performed for these 20 billion sources, and how they can be used for classification and determination of source physical and other properties. We provide a few classification examples based on SDSS data, such as color classification of stars, color-spatial proximity search for wide-angle binary stars, orbital-color classification of asteroid families, and the recognition of main Galaxy components based on the distribution of stars in the position-metallicity-kinematics space. Guided by these examples, we anticipate that two grand classification challenges for LSST will be (1) rapid and robust classification of sources detected in difference images, and (2) simultaneous treatment of diverse astrometric and photometric time series measurements for an unprecedentedly large number of objects.

  9. A parts-per-billion measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment

    CERN Document Server

    Smorra, C; Borchert, M J; Harrington, J A; Higuchi, T; Nagahama, H; Tanaka, T; Mooser, A; Schneider, G; Blaum, K; Matsuda, Y; Ospelkaus, C; Quint, W; Walz, J; Yamazaki, Y; Ulmer, S

    2016-01-01

    Precise comparisons of the fundamental properties of matter–antimatter conjugates provide sensitive tests of charge–parity–time (CPT) invariance1, which is an important symmetry that rests on basic assumptions of the standard model of particle physics. Experiments on mesons2, leptons3, 4 and baryons5, 6 have compared different properties of matter–antimatter conjugates with fractional uncertainties at the parts-per-billion level or better. One specific quantity, however, has so far only been known to a fractional uncertainty at the parts-per-million level7, 8: the magnetic moment of the antiproton, . The extraordinary difficulty in measuring with high precision is caused by its intrinsic smallness; for example, it is 660 times smaller than the magnetic moment of the positron3. Here we report a high-precision measurement of in units of the nuclear magneton μN with a fractional precision of 1.5 parts per billion (68% confidence level). We use a two-particle spectroscopy method in an advanced cryogenic ...

  10. Energy tax price tag for CPI: $1.2 billion, jobs, and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begley, R.

    1993-01-01

    If President Clinton's proposed energy tax had been fully in place last year, it would have cost the US chemical industry an additional $1.2 billion and 9,900 jobs, according to Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA; Washington) estimates. It also would have driven output down 3% and prices up 5%, CMA says. Allen Lenz, CMA director/trade and economics, says the increase in production costs that would accompany the tax will not be shared by foreign competitors, cannot be neutralized with higher border taxes because of existing trade agreements, and provides another reason to move production offshore. Worse, the US chemical industry's generally impressive trade surplus declined by $2.5 billion last year, and a further drop is projected for this year. The margin of error gets thinner all the time as competition increases, Lenz says. We're not concerned only with the chemical industry, but the rest of US-based manufacturing because they taken half our output, he adds. One problem is the energy intensiveness of the chemical process industries-a CMA report says that 55% of the cost of producing ethylene glycol is energy related. And double taxation of such things as coproducts returned for credit to oil refineries could add up to $115 million/year, the report says

  11. Stability of equidimensional pseudo-single-domain magnetite over billion-year timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Lesleis; Williams, Wyn; Muxworthy, Adrian R; Fabian, Karl; Almeida, Trevor P; Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó; Shcherbakov, Valera P

    2017-09-26

    Interpretations of paleomagnetic observations assume that naturally occurring magnetic particles can retain their primary magnetic recording over billions of years. The ability to retain a magnetic recording is inferred from laboratory measurements, where heating causes demagnetization on the order of seconds. The theoretical basis for this inference comes from previous models that assume only the existence of small, uniformly magnetized particles, whereas the carriers of paleomagnetic signals in rocks are usually larger, nonuniformly magnetized particles, for which there is no empirically complete, thermally activated model. This study has developed a thermally activated numerical micromagnetic model that can quantitatively determine the energy barriers between stable states in nonuniform magnetic particles on geological timescales. We examine in detail the thermal stability characteristics of equidimensional cuboctahedral magnetite and find that, contrary to previously published theories, such nonuniformly magnetized particles provide greater magnetic stability than their uniformly magnetized counterparts. Hence, nonuniformly magnetized grains, which are commonly the main remanence carrier in meteorites and rocks, can record and retain high-fidelity magnetic recordings over billions of years.

  12. Plate tectonic influences on Earth's baseline climate: a 2 billion-year record

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, R.; Evans, D. A.; Eglington, B. M.; Planavsky, N.

    2017-12-01

    Plate tectonic processes present strong influences on the long-term carbon cycle, and thus global climate. Here we utilize multiple aspects of the geologic record to assess the role plate tectonics has played in driving major icehouse­-greenhouse transitions for the past 2 billion years. Refined paleogeographic reconstructions allow us to quantitatively assess the area of continents in various latitudinal belts throughout this interval. From these data we are able to test the hypothesis that concentrating continental masses in low-latitudes will drive cooler climates due to increased silicate weathering. We further superimpose records of events that are believed to increase the `weatherability' of the crust, such as large igneous province emplacement, island-arc accretion, and continental collisional belts. Climatic records are then compared with global detrital zircon U-Pb age data as a proxy for continental magmatism. Our results show a consistent relationship between zircon-generating magmatism and icehouse-greenhouse transitions for > 2 billion years, whereas paleogeographic records show no clear consistent relationship between continental configurations and prominent climate transitions. Volcanic outgassing appears to exert a first-order control on major baseline climatic shifts; however, paleogeography likely plays an important role in the magnitude of this change. Notably, climatic extremes, such as the Cryogenian icehouse, occur during a combination of reduce volcanism and end-member concentrations of low-latitudinal continents.

  13. Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerke, H. (ed.) (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, NRPA (Norway)); Sigurdsson, T. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Geislavarnir Rikisins, GR (IS)); Meier Pedersen, K. (National Board of Health, Statens Institut for Straalebeskyttelse (SIS) (Denmark)); Grindborg, J.-E.; Persson, L. (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Straalsaekerhetsmyndigheten (SSM) (Sweden)); Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.; Kosunen, A. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Saeteilyturvakeskus (STUK) (Finland))

    2012-01-15

    The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

  14. Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerke, H.; Sigurdsson, T.; Meier Pedersen, K.; Grindborg, J.-E.; Persson, L.; Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.; Kosunen, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

  15. A Probabilistic Model of Meter Perception: Simulating Enculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weij, Bastiaan; Pearce, Marcus T; Honing, Henkjan

    2017-01-01

    Enculturation is known to shape the perception of meter in music but this is not explicitly accounted for by current cognitive models of meter perception. We hypothesize that the induction of meter is a result of predictive coding: interpreting onsets in a rhythm relative to a periodic meter facilitates prediction of future onsets. Such prediction, we hypothesize, is based on previous exposure to rhythms. As such, predictive coding provides a possible explanation for the way meter perception is shaped by the cultural environment. Based on this hypothesis, we present a probabilistic model of meter perception that uses statistical properties of the relation between rhythm and meter to infer meter from quantized rhythms. We show that our model can successfully predict annotated time signatures from quantized rhythmic patterns derived from folk melodies. Furthermore, we show that by inferring meter, our model improves prediction of the onsets of future events compared to a similar probabilistic model that does not infer meter. Finally, as a proof of concept, we demonstrate how our model can be used in a simulation of enculturation. From the results of this simulation, we derive a class of rhythms that are likely to be interpreted differently by enculturated listeners with different histories of exposure to rhythms.

  16. A Probabilistic Model of Meter Perception: Simulating Enculturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastiaan van der Weij

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Enculturation is known to shape the perception of meter in music but this is not explicitly accounted for by current cognitive models of meter perception. We hypothesize that the induction of meter is a result of predictive coding: interpreting onsets in a rhythm relative to a periodic meter facilitates prediction of future onsets. Such prediction, we hypothesize, is based on previous exposure to rhythms. As such, predictive coding provides a possible explanation for the way meter perception is shaped by the cultural environment. Based on this hypothesis, we present a probabilistic model of meter perception that uses statistical properties of the relation between rhythm and meter to infer meter from quantized rhythms. We show that our model can successfully predict annotated time signatures from quantized rhythmic patterns derived from folk melodies. Furthermore, we show that by inferring meter, our model improves prediction of the onsets of future events compared to a similar probabilistic model that does not infer meter. Finally, as a proof of concept, we demonstrate how our model can be used in a simulation of enculturation. From the results of this simulation, we derive a class of rhythms that are likely to be interpreted differently by enculturated listeners with different histories of exposure to rhythms.

  17. Proceedings of the 2006 smart metering conference and expo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Ontario's smart metering program was launched as part of a general demand response management strategy to improve energy conservation in the province. Smart metering will help consumers to control their electricity bills through conservation and demand response, and will allow consumers to better manage their energy consumption and use it more effectively during cheaper, off-peak times of day. Smart metering systems measure how much electricity a customer uses on an hourly basis, and data is transferred daily to local electricity distributors. Toronto Hydro will have close to 200,000 smart meters installed by the end of 2006. By 2010, Toronto will be North America's largest urban centre to have made the full transition to smart metering technology across its entire base. This conference provided an update of Toronto Hydro's smart metering project, as well as details of their demand response program. Presentations were given by a variety of experts in information technology as well as electric power industry leaders North American demand and response metering strategies were reviewed, as well as various initiatives in advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). Security risks associated with smart metering environments were reviewed. An evaluation of the current regulatory environment was presented along with a discussion of smart metering standards and compatibility issues. New metering technologies were presented as well as various associated demand side management tools. Smart metering pilot programs and initiatives were discussed, and best practices in smart metering were evaluated. Twenty-nine presentations were given at the conference, 13 of which have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  18. Radiofrequency energy exposure from the Trilliant smart meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kenneth R; Tell, Richard A

    2013-08-01

    This paper reviews radiofrequency (RF) field levels produced by electric utility meters equipped with RF transceivers (so-called Smart Meters), focusing on meters from one manufacturer (Trilliant, Redwood City, CA, USA, and Granby, QC, Canada). The RF transmission levels are summarized based on publicly available data submitted to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission supplemented by limited independent measurements. As with other Smart Meters, this meter incorporates a low powered radiofrequency transceiver used for a neighborhood mesh network, in the present case using ZigBee-compliant physical and medium access layers, operating in the 2.45 GHz unlicensed band but with a proprietary network architecture. Simple calculations based on a free space propagation model indicate that peak RF field intensities are in the range of 10 mW m or less at a distance of more than 1-2 m from the meters. However, the duty cycle of transmission from the meters is very low (meter that were consistent with data reported by the vendor to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission. Limited measurements conducted in two houses with the meters were unable to clearly distinguish emissions from the meters from the considerable electromagnetic clutter in the same frequency range from other sources, including Wi-Fi routers and, when it was activated, a microwave oven. These preliminary measurements disclosed the difficulties that would be encountered in characterizing the RF exposures from these meters in homes in the face of background signals from other household devices in the same frequency range. An appendix provides an introduction to Smart Meter technology. The RF transmitters in wireless-equipped Smart Meters operate at similar power levels and in similar frequency ranges as many other digital communications devices in common use, and their exposure levels are very far below U.S. and international exposure limits.

  19. Research on Operation Assessment Method for Energy Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; chen, Hao; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Liu, Mouhai; Xu, Renheng

    2018-03-01

    The existing electric energy meter rotation maintenance strategy regularly checks the electric energy meter and evaluates the state. It only considers the influence of time factors, neglects the influence of other factors, leads to the inaccuracy of the evaluation, and causes the waste of resources. In order to evaluate the running state of the electric energy meter in time, a method of the operation evaluation of the electric energy meter is proposed. The method is based on extracting the existing data acquisition system, marketing business system and metrology production scheduling platform that affect the state of energy meters, and classified into error stability, operational reliability, potential risks and other factors according to the influencing factors, based on the above basic test score, inspecting score, monitoring score, score of family defect detection. Then, according to the evaluation model according to the scoring, we evaluate electric energy meter operating state, and finally put forward the corresponding maintenance strategy of rotation.

  20. Turbine flow meter response in two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, W.J.; Dougherty, T.J.; Cheh, H.Y.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest a simple method of calibrating turbine flow meters to measure the flow rates of each phase in a two-phase flow. The response of two 50.8 mm (2 inch) turbine flow meters to air-water, two-phase mixtures flowing vertically in a 57 mm I.D. (2.25 inch) polycarbonate tube has been investigated for both upflow and downflow. The flow meters were connected in series with an intervening valve to provide an adjustable pressure difference between them. Void fractions were measured by two gamma densitometers, one upstream of the flow meters and the other downstream. The output signal of the turbine flow meters was found to depend only on the actual volumetric flow rate of the gas, F G , and liquid, F L , at the location of the flow meter

  1. De Minimis Thresholds for Federal Building Metering Appropriateness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by statute and Presidential Memorandum to establish guidelines for agencies to meter their Federal buildings for energy (electricity, natural gas, and steam) and water. See 42 U.S.C. § 8253(e). DOE issued guidance in February 2006 on the installation of electric meters in Federal buildings. A recent update to the 2006 guidance accounts for more current metering practices within the Federal Government. The updated metering guidance specifies that all Federal buildings shall be considered “appropriate” for energy or water metering unless identified for potential exclusion. In developing the updated guidance to carry out the statue, Congress also directed DOE to (among other things) establish exclusions from the metering requirements based on the de minimis quantity of energy use of a Federal building, industrial process, or structure. This paper discusses the method used to identify de minimis values.

  2. Advanced Metering Installations – A Perspective from Federal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earni, Shankar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area

    2016-05-02

    This report is intended to provide guidance to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and other federal agencies to highlight some of the existing practices related to advanced building metering systems. This study identified some of the existing actions related to advanced meter data and proposes how advanced metered data can be employed to develop robust cost effective measurement and verification (M&V) strategies. This report proposes an integrated framework on how advanced meter data can be used to identify energy conservation opportunities and to develop proactive M&V strategies to ensure that the savings for energy projects are being realized. This information will help improve metering, feedback, and dashboard implementations for reducing energy use at DOE facilities, based on lessons learned from various advanced metering implementations.

  3. Method and apparatus for reading meters from a video image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Trevor J.; Ferguson, Jeffrey J.

    1997-01-01

    A method and system to enable acquisition of data about an environment from one or more meters using video images. One or more meters are imaged by a video camera and the video signal is digitized. Then, each region of the digital image which corresponds to the indicator of the meter is calibrated and the video signal is analyzed to determine the value indicated by each meter indicator. Finally, from the value indicated by each meter indicator in the calibrated region, a meter reading is generated. The method and system offer the advantages of automatic data collection in a relatively non-intrusive manner without making any complicated or expensive electronic connections, and without requiring intensive manpower.

  4. Mars’ First Billion Years: Key Findings, Key Unsolved Paradoxes, and Future Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlmann, Bethany

    2017-10-01

    In the evolution of terrestrial planets, the first billion years are the period most shrouded in mystery: How vigorous is early atmospheric loss? How do planetary climates respond to a brightening sun? When and how are plate tectonic recycling processes initiated? How do voluminous volcanism and heavy impact bombardment influence the composition of the atmosphere? Under what conditions might life arise? Looking outward to terrestrial planets around other stars, the record from Venus, Earth and Mars in this solar system is crucial for developing models of physical can chemical processes. Of these three worlds, Mars provides the longest record of planetary evolution from the first billion years, comprising >50% of exposed geologic units, which are only lightly overprinted by later processes.Orbital observations of the last decade have revealed abundant evidence for surface waters in the form of lakes, valley networks, and evidence of chemically open-system near-surface weathering. Groundwaters at temperatures ranging from just above freezing to hydrothermal have also left a rich record of process in the mineralogical record. A rsuite of environments - similar in diversity to Earth’s - has been discovered on Mars with water pH, temperature, redox, and chemistries varying in space and time.Here, I will focus on the consequences of the aqueous alteration of the Martian crust on the composition of the atmosphere based on recent work studying aspects of the volatile budget (Usui et al., 2015; Edwards & Ehlmann, 2015; Hu et al., 2015; Jakosky et al., 2017, Wordsworth et al., 2017, and Ehlmann, in prep.). The solid crust and mantle of Mars act as volatile reservoirs and volatile sources through volcanism, mineral precipitation, and release of gases. We examine the extent to which the budget is understood or ill-understood for hydrogen and carbon, and associated phases H2O, CO2, and CH4. Additionally, I identify some key stratigraphies where a combination of focused in

  5. FUSION OF VENTURI AND ULTRASONIC FLOW METER FOR ENHANCED FLOW METER CHARACTERISTICS USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Santhosh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a technique for measurement of liquid flow using venturi and ultrasonic flow meter(UFM to have following objectives a to design a multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF architecture for using both the sensors, b improve sensitivity and linearity of venturi and ultrasonic flow meter, and c detect and diagnosis of faults in sensor if any. Fuzzy logic algorithm is used to fuse outputs of both the sensor and train the fuzzy block to produces output which has an improved characteristics in terms of both sensitivity and linearity. For identification of sensor faults a comparative test algorithm is designed. Once trained proposed technique is tested in real life, results show successful implementation of proposed objectives.

  6. Deducing Energy Consumer Behavior from Smart Meter Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebeid, Emad Samuel Malki; Heick, Rune; Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg

    2017-01-01

    The ongoing upgrade of electricity meters to smart ones has opened a new market of intelligent services to analyze the recorded meter data. This paper introduces an open architecture and a unified framework for deducing user behavior from its smart main electricity meter data and presenting...... the recognized home appliances. The framework uses open standard interfaces for exchanging data. The framework has been validated through comprehensive experiments that are related to an European Smart Grid project....

  7. Calibration of ionization chamber and GM counter survey meters, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingo, Kazuyoshi; Kajimoto, Yoichi; Suga, Shin-ichi

    1978-01-01

    Three types of ionization chamber survey meters and a type of GM counter survey meter were calibrated for measuring the β-ray absorbed dose rate in a working area. To estimate the β-ray absorbed dose rate, a survey meter was used without and with a filter. A reading of survey meter's indicator measured with the filter was subtracted from a reading measured without the filter, and then the absorbed dose rate was obtained by multiplying this remainder by a conversion coefficient. The conversion coefficients were roughly constant with distance more than 8 cm (ionization chamber survey meters) and with distance more than 5 cm (GM counter survey meter). The conversion coefficient was dependent on β-ray energies. In order to measure the absorbed dose rate of tissue whose epidermal thickness is 40 mg/cm 2 , the constant value, 4 (mrad/h)/(mR/h), was chosen independently of β-ray energies as the conversion coefficient of three types of ionization chamber survey meters. The conversion coefficient of the GM counter survey meter was more energy dependent than that of every type of ionization chamber survey meter. (author)

  8. A Scalable Smart Meter Data Generator Using Spark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Danalachi, Sergiu

    2017-01-01

    Today, smart meters are being used worldwide. As a matter of fact smart meters produce large volumes of data. Thus, it is important for smart meter data management and analytics systems to process petabytes of data. Benchmarking and testing of these systems require scalable data, however, it can...... be challenging to get large data sets due to privacy and/or data protection regulations. This paper presents a scalable smart meter data generator using Spark that can generate realistic data sets. The proposed data generator is based on a supervised machine learning method that can generate data of any size...

  9. Collaborative Outbound Taxi Metering for Environmental Benefits, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses the concept of Collaborative Outbound Taxi Metering (COTM), which provides environmental benefits without sacrificing throughput. In current...

  10. Missing billions. How the Australian government's climate policy is penalising farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riguet, T.

    2006-10-01

    The Climate Institute analysis suggests ratifying the Kyoto Protocol and implementing a national emissions trading scheme today could provide Australian farmers with an income of $1.8 billion over the period 2008-2012, due to the emissions saved by limiting land clearing. Separately, a report to the National Farmers Federation by the Allen Consulting Group earlier this year concluded that a carbon emission trading system which recognised Kyoto Protocol rules could create an additional income stream of $0.7-0.9 billion over a five year period from revenue to farmers from forestry sinks. These two studies suggest that ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and the introduction of a national emissions trading scheme could provide farmers an income stream in the order of $2.5 billion. A central tenet of the Federal Government's greenhouse policy for over a decade has been to not ratify Kyoto, but to meet its Kyoto target - a national emissions increase of 8% from 1990 levels, in the period 2008-2012. Australia's National Greenhouse Gas Accounts show that farmers, by reducing land clearing rates since 1990, have offset substantial increases in greenhouse gas emissions from other sectors, mainly energy. Official Federal Government projections show that without land clearing reductions, Australia's greenhouse emissions would be 30% above 1990 levels by 2010. Australia's farmers have been responsible for virtually the entire share of the nation's greenhouse gas emissions reductions, but their efforts, worth around $2 billion, have not been recognised or financially rewarded by the Government. By reducing land clearing, farmers have already reduced greenhouse gas emissions by about 75 million tonnes since 1990. By 2010, the savings are projected to be about 83 million tonnes. This level of emissions reductions is equivalent to eliminating the total annual emissions of New Zealand or Ireland. Over that same period, emissions from energy and transport have and continue to sky

  11. Saving billions of dollars--and physicians' time--by streamlining billing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchfield, Bonnie B; Heffernan, James L; Osgood, Bradford; Sheehan, Rosemary R; Meyer, Gregg S

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. system of billing third parties for health care services is complex, expensive, and inefficient. Physicians end up using nearly 12 percent of their net patient service revenue to cover the costs of excessive administrative complexity. A single transparent set of payment rules for multiple payers, a single claim form, and standard rules of submission, among other innovations, would reduce the burden on the billing offices of physician organizations. On a national scale, our hypothetical modeling of these changes would translate into $7 billion of savings annually for physician and clinical services. Four hours of professional time per physician and five hours of practice support staff time could be saved each week.

  12. Titanium isotopic evidence for felsic crust and plate tectonics 3.5 billion years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greber, Nicolas D; Dauphas, Nicolas; Bekker, Andrey; Ptáček, Matouš P; Bindeman, Ilya N; Hofmann, Axel

    2017-09-22

    Earth exhibits a dichotomy in elevation and chemical composition between the continents and ocean floor. Reconstructing when this dichotomy arose is important for understanding when plate tectonics started and how the supply of nutrients to the oceans changed through time. We measured the titanium isotopic composition of shales to constrain the chemical composition of the continental crust exposed to weathering and found that shales of all ages have a uniform isotopic composition. This can only be explained if the emerged crust was predominantly felsic (silica-rich) since 3.5 billion years ago, requiring an early initiation of plate tectonics. We also observed a change in the abundance of biologically important nutrients phosphorus and nickel across the Archean-Proterozoic boundary, which might have helped trigger the rise in atmospheric oxygen. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  13. Perbaikan Metode Penghitungan Debit Sungai Menggunakan Cubic Spline Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi I. Setiawan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Makalah ini menyajikan perbaikan metode pengukuran debit sungai menggunakan fungsi cubic spline interpolation. Fungi ini digunakan untuk menggambarkan profil sungai secara kontinyu yang terbentuk atas hasil pengukuran jarak dan kedalaman sungai. Dengan metoda baru ini, luas dan perimeter sungai lebih mudah, cepat dan tepat dihitung. Demikian pula, fungsi kebalikannnya (inverse function tersedia menggunakan metode. Newton-Raphson sehingga memudahkan dalam perhitungan luas dan perimeter bila tinggi air sungai diketahui. Metode baru ini dapat langsung menghitung debit sungaimenggunakan formula Manning, dan menghasilkan kurva debit (rating curve. Dalam makalah ini dikemukaan satu canton pengukuran debit sungai Rudeng Aceh. Sungai ini mempunyai lebar sekitar 120 m dan kedalaman 7 m, dan pada saat pengukuran mempunyai debit 41 .3 m3/s, serta kurva debitnya mengikuti formula: Q= 0.1649 x H 2.884 , dimana Q debit (m3/s dan H tinggi air dari dasar sungai (m.

  14. Principal spectra describing magnetooptic permittivity tensor in cubic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrlová, Jana [Nanotechnology Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); IT4Innovations Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Legut, Dominik [IT4Innovations Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Veis, Martin [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, Prague, 121 16 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Pištora, Jaromír [Nanotechnology Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Hamrle, Jaroslav, E-mail: jaroslav.hamrle@vsb.cz [IT4Innovations Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, Prague, 121 16 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic)

    2016-12-15

    We provide unified phenomenological description of magnetooptic effects being linear and quadratic in magnetization. The description is based on few principal spectra, describing elements of permittivity tensor up to the second order in magnetization. Each permittivity tensor element for any magnetization direction and any sample surface orientation is simply determined by weighted summation of the principal spectra, where weights are given by crystallographic and magnetization orientations. The number of principal spectra depends on the symmetry of the crystal. In cubic crystals owning point symmetry we need only four principal spectra. Here, the principal spectra are expressed by ab initio calculations for bcc Fe, fcc Co and fcc Ni in optical range as well as in hard and soft x-ray energy range, i.e. at the 2p- and 3p-edges. We also express principal spectra analytically using modified Kubo formula.

  15. Lipidic cubic phase serial millisecond crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemyslaw Nogly

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipidic cubic phases (LCPs have emerged as successful matrixes for the crystallization of membrane proteins. Moreover, the viscous LCP also provides a highly effective delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs. Here, the adaptation of this technology to perform serial millisecond crystallography (SMX at more widely available synchrotron microfocus beamlines is described. Compared with conventional microcrystallography, LCP-SMX eliminates the need for difficult handling of individual crystals and allows for data collection at room temperature. The technology is demonstrated by solving a structure of the light-driven proton-pump bacteriorhodopsin (bR at a resolution of 2.4 Å. The room-temperature structure of bR is very similar to previous cryogenic structures but shows small yet distinct differences in the retinal ligand and proton-transfer pathway.

  16. Quantum-Carnot engine for particle confined to cubic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka P., E-mail: trengginas.eka@gmail.com; Belfaqih, Idrus H., E-mail: idrushusin21@gmail.com; Prayitno, T. B., E-mail: teguh-budi@unj.ac.id [Department of Physics, State University of Jakarta, Jl. Pemuda No.10, Rawamangun, Jakarta Timur 13220 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Carnot cycle consists of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Using analogy in quantum mechanics, these processes can be well explained by replacing variables in classical process with a quantum system. Quantum system which is shown in this paper is a particle that moves under the influence of a cubic potential which is restricted only to the state of the two energy levels. At the end, the efficiency of the system is shown as a function of the width ratio between the initial conditions and the farthest wall while expanding. Furthermore, the system efficiency will be considered 1D and 2D cases. The providing efficiencies are different due to the influence of the degeneration of energy and the degrees of freedom of the system.

  17. Quantum-Carnot engine for particle confined to cubic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka P.; Belfaqih, Idrus H.; Prayitno, T. B.

    2015-01-01

    Carnot cycle consists of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Using analogy in quantum mechanics, these processes can be well explained by replacing variables in classical process with a quantum system. Quantum system which is shown in this paper is a particle that moves under the influence of a cubic potential which is restricted only to the state of the two energy levels. At the end, the efficiency of the system is shown as a function of the width ratio between the initial conditions and the farthest wall while expanding. Furthermore, the system efficiency will be considered 1D and 2D cases. The providing efficiencies are different due to the influence of the degeneration of energy and the degrees of freedom of the system

  18. Linear electro-optic effect in cubic silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao; Irvine, Kenneth G.; Zhang, Dongping; Spencer, Michael G.

    1991-01-01

    The first observation is reported of the electrooptic effect of cubic silicon carbide (beta-SiC) grown by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor using the hydrogen, silane, and propane gas system. At a wavelength of 633 nm, the value of the electrooptic coefficient r41 in beta-SiC is determined to be 2.7 +/- 0.5 x 10 (exp-12) m/V, which is 1.7 times larger than that in gallium arsenide measured at 10.6 microns. Also, a half-wave voltage of 6.4 kV for beta-SiC is obtained. Because of this favorable value of electrooptic coefficient, it is believed that silicon carbide may be a promising candidate in electrooptic applications for high optical intensity in the visible region.

  19. A cubic spline approximation for problems in fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, S. G.; Graves, R. A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A cubic spline approximation is presented which is suited for many fluid-mechanics problems. This procedure provides a high degree of accuracy, even with a nonuniform mesh, and leads to an accurate treatment of derivative boundary conditions. The truncation errors and stability limitations of several implicit and explicit integration schemes are presented. For two-dimensional flows, a spline-alternating-direction-implicit method is evaluated. The spline procedure is assessed, and results are presented for the one-dimensional nonlinear Burgers' equation, as well as the two-dimensional diffusion equation and the vorticity-stream function system describing the viscous flow in a driven cavity. Comparisons are made with analytic solutions for the first two problems and with finite-difference calculations for the cavity flow.

  20. Genetic and environmental smoothing of lactation curves with cubic splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, I M; Thompson, R; Brotherstone, S

    1999-03-01

    Most approaches to modeling lactation curves involve parametric curves with fixed or random coefficients. In either case, the resulting models require the specification on an underlying parametric curve. The fitting of splines represents a semiparametric approach to the problem. In the context of animal breeding, cubic smoothing splines are particularly convenient because they can be incorporated into a suitably constructed mixed model. The potential for the use of splines in modeling lactation curves is explored with a simple example, and the results are compared with those using a random regression model. The spline model provides greater flexibility at the cost of additional computation. Splines are shown to be capable of picking up features of the lactation curve that are missed by the random regression model.

  1. Testing for cubic smoothing splines under dependent data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummi, Tapio; Pan, Jianxin; Siren, Tarja; Liu, Kun

    2011-09-01

    In most research on smoothing splines the focus has been on estimation, while inference, especially hypothesis testing, has received less attention. By defining design matrices for fixed and random effects and the structure of the covariance matrices of random errors in an appropriate way, the cubic smoothing spline admits a mixed model formulation, which places this nonparametric smoother firmly in a parametric setting. Thus nonlinear curves can be included with random effects and random coefficients. The smoothing parameter is the ratio of the random-coefficient and error variances and tests for linear regression reduce to tests for zero random-coefficient variances. We propose an exact F-test for the situation and investigate its performance in a real pine stem data set and by simulation experiments. Under certain conditions the suggested methods can also be applied when the data are dependent. © 2010, The International Biometric Society.

  2. Viscous flow solutions with a cubic spline approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, S. G.; Graves, R. A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A cubic spline approximation is used for the solution of several problems in fluid mechanics. This procedure provides a high degree of accuracy even with a nonuniform mesh, and leads to a more accurate treatment of derivative boundary conditions. The truncation errors and stability limitations of several typical integration schemes are presented. For two-dimensional flows a spline-alternating-direction-implicit (SADI) method is evaluated. The spline procedure is assessed and results are presented for the one-dimensional nonlinear Burgers' equation, as well as the two-dimensional diffusion equation and the vorticity-stream function system describing the viscous flow in a driven cavity. Comparisons are made with analytic solutions for the first two problems and with finite-difference calculations for the cavity flow.

  3. High-order numerical solutions using cubic splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, S. G.; Khosla, P. K.

    1975-01-01

    The cubic spline collocation procedure for the numerical solution of partial differential equations was reformulated so that the accuracy of the second-derivative approximation is improved and parallels that previously obtained for lower derivative terms. The final result is a numerical procedure having overall third-order accuracy for a nonuniform mesh and overall fourth-order accuracy for a uniform mesh. Application of the technique was made to the Burger's equation, to the flow around a linear corner, to the potential flow over a circular cylinder, and to boundary layer problems. The results confirmed the higher-order accuracy of the spline method and suggest that accurate solutions for more practical flow problems can be obtained with relatively coarse nonuniform meshes.

  4. Bistable dark solitons of a cubic-quintic Helmholtz equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J. M.; McDonald, G. S.; Chamorro-Posada, P.

    2010-01-01

    We provide a report on exact analytical bistable dark spatial solitons of a nonlinear Helmholtz equation with a cubic-quintic refractive-index model. Our analysis begins with an investigation of the modulational instability characteristics of Helmholtz plane waves. We then derive a dark soliton by mapping the desired asymptotic form onto a uniform background field and obtain a more general solution by deploying rotational invariance laws in the laboratory frame. The geometry of the new soliton is explored in detail, and a range of new physical predictions is uncovered. Particular attention is paid to the unified phenomena of arbitrary-angle off-axis propagation and nondegenerate bistability. Crucially, the corresponding solution of paraxial theory emerges in a simultaneous multiple limit. We conclude with a set of computer simulations that examine the role of Helmholtz dark solitons as robust attractors.

  5. Bifurcation diagram of a cubic three-parameter autonomous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Barakova

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the cubic three-parameter autonomous planar system $$displaylines{ dot x_1 = k_1 + k_2x_1 - x_1^3 - x_2,cr dot x_2 = k_3 x_1 - x_2, }$$ where $k_2, k_3$ are greater than 0. Our goal is to obtain a bifurcation diagram; i.e., to divide the parameter space into regions within which the system has topologically equivalent phase portraits and to describe how these portraits are transformed at the bifurcation boundaries. Results may be applied to the macroeconomical model IS-LM with Kaldor's assumptions. In this model existence of a stable limit cycles has already been studied (Andronov-Hopf bifurcation. We present the whole bifurcation diagram and among others, we prove existence of more difficult bifurcations and existence of unstable cycles.

  6. Spatial 't Hooft loop to cubic order in hot QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannangeli, P.

    2002-01-01

    Spatial 't Hooft loops of strength k measure the qualitative change in the behaviour of electric colour flux in confined and deconfined phase of SU (N) gauge theory. They show an area law in the deconfined phase, known analytica lly to two loop order with a ``k-scaling'' law k(N-k). In this paper we comput e the O(g^3) correction to the tension. It is due to neutral gluon fields that get their mass through interaction with the wall. The simple k-scaling is lost in cubic order. The generic problem of non-convexity shows up in this order an d the cure is provided. The result for large N is explicitely given. We show tha t nonperturbative effects appear at O(g^5).

  7. THERMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS OF LEAD SULFIDE CRYSTALS IN THE CUBIC PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Parashchuk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Geometric and thermodynamic parameters of cubic PbS crystals were obtained using the computer calculations of the thermodynamic parameters within density functional theory method DFT. Cluster models for the calculation based on the analysis of the crystal and electronic structure. Temperature dependence of energy ΔE and enthalpy ΔH, Gibbs free energy ΔG, heat capacity at constant pressure CP and constant volume CV, entropy ΔS were determined on the basis of ab initio calculations of the crystal structure of molecular clusters. Analytical expressions of temperature dependences of thermodynamic parameters which were approximated with quantum-chemical calculation points have been presented. Experimental results compared with theoretically calculated data.

  8. Quantum corrections for the cubic Galileon in the covariant language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltas, Ippocratis D. [Institute of Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Campo Grande, PT1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Vitagliano, Vincenzo, E-mail: isaltas@fc.ul.pt, E-mail: vincenzo.vitagliano@ist.utl.pt [Multidisciplinary Center for Astrophysics and Department of Physics, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2017-05-01

    We present for the first time an explicit exposition of quantum corrections within the cubic Galileon theory including the effect of quantum gravity, in a background- and gauge-invariant manner, employing the field-reparametrisation approach of the covariant effective action at 1-loop. We show that the consideration of gravitational effects in combination with the non-linear derivative structure of the theory reveals new interactions at the perturbative level, which manifest themselves as higher-operators in the associated effective action, which' relevance is controlled by appropriate ratios of the cosmological vacuum and the Galileon mass scale. The significance and concept of the covariant approach in this context is discussed, while all calculations are explicitly presented.

  9. The electric field of a uniformly charged cubic shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Kaitlin; Greenside, Henry

    2018-01-01

    As an integrative and insightful example for undergraduates learning about electrostatics, we discuss how to use symmetry, Coulomb's law, superposition, Gauss's law, and visualization to understand the electric field E (x ,y ,z ) produced by a uniformly charged cubic shell. We first discuss how to deduce qualitatively, using freshman-level physics, the perhaps surprising fact that the interior electric field is nonzero and has a complex structure, pointing inwards from the middle of each face of the shell and pointing outwards towards each edge and corner. We then discuss how to understand the quantitative features of the electric field by plotting an analytical expression for E along symmetry lines and on symmetry surfaces of the shell.

  10. Traveling kinks in cubic nonlinear Ginzburg-Landau equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, H C; Cornejo-Pérez, O; Ojeda-May, P

    2012-03-01

    Nonlinear cubic Euler-Lagrange equations of motion in the traveling variable are usually derived from Ginzburg-Landau free energy functionals frequently encountered in several fields of physics. Many authors considered in the past damped versions of such equations, with the damping term added by hand simulating the friction due to the environment. It is known that even in this damped case kink solutions can exist. By means of a factorization method, we provide analytic formulas for several possible kink solutions of such equations of motion in the undriven and constant field driven cases, including the recently introduced Riccati parameter kinks, which were not considered previously in such a context. The latter parameter controls the delay of the switching stage of the kinks. The delay is caused by antikink components that are introduced in the structure of the solution through this parameter.

  11. Scattering of quantized solitary waves in the cubic Schrodinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, L.

    1976-01-01

    The quantum mechanics for N particles interacting via a delta-function potential in one space dimension and one time dimension is known. The second-quantized description of this system has for its Euler-Lagrange equations of motion the cubic Schrodinger equation. This nonlinear differential equation supports solitary wave solutions. A quantization of these solitons reproduces the weak-coupling limit to the known quantum mechanics. The phase shift for two-body scattering and the energy of the N-body bound state is derived in this approximation. The nonlinear Schrodinger equation is contrasted with the sine-Gordon theory in respect to the ideas which the classical solutions play in the description of the quantum states

  12. A cubic autocatalytic reaction in a continuous stirred tank reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakubu, Aisha Aliyu; Yatim, Yazariah Mohd [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2015-10-22

    In the present study, the dynamics of the cubic autocatalytic reaction model in a continuous stirred tank reactor with linear autocatalyst decay is studied. This model describes the behavior of two chemicals (reactant and autocatalyst) flowing into the tank reactor. The behavior of the model is studied analytically and numerically. The steady state solutions are obtained for two cases, i.e. with the presence of an autocatalyst and its absence in the inflow. In the case with an autocatalyst, the model has a stable steady state. While in the case without an autocatalyst, the model exhibits three steady states, where one of the steady state is stable, the second is a saddle point while the last is spiral node. The last steady state losses stability through Hopf bifurcation and the location is determined. The physical interpretations of the results are also presented.

  13. Magnetic properties of Ising thin films with cubic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laosiritaworn, Y.; Poulter, J.; Staunton, J. B.

    2004-09-01

    We have used Monte Carlo simulations and mean-field analysis to observe the magnetic behavior of Ising thin films with cubic lattice structures as a function of temperature and thickness, especially in the critical region. Magnetization and magnetic susceptibility, including layer variation, are investigated. We find that the magnetic behavior changes from two-dimensional to three-dimensional character with increasing film thickness. Both the crossover of the critical temperature from a two-dimensional to a bulk value and the shift exponent are observed. Nevertheless, with support from a scaling function, the simulations show that the effective critical exponents for films with large enough layer extents only vary a little from their two-dimensional values. This, in particular, provides an indication of two-dimensional universality in the thin films.

  14. Preparation of ohmic n-type cubic boron nitride contacts

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Cheng Xin; Li Xun; Zhang Tie Chen; Han Yong; Luo Ji Feng; Shen Cai Xia; Gao Chun Xi; Zou Guang Tian

    2002-01-01

    Ohmic electrodes in the form of n-type (Si-doped) cubic boron nitride (c-BN) bulk crystals were fabricated by utilizing a covering technique, depositing Ti(10 nm)/Mo/(20 nm)/Pt-Au(200 nm) ohmic contact metal on both the sides of the c-BN substrate. The size of the specimen electrode was 100 x 100 mu m sup 2 on one side and 300 x 300 mu m sup 2 on the other side. Measurements on the specimen were made using a specially made device. Linear current-voltage characteristics were obtained. It is considered that the contact between the Ti-and Si-doped c-BN was ohmic.

  15. Bounce universe and black holes from critical Einsteinian cubic gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xing-Hui; Huang, Hyat; Mai, Zhan-Feng; Lü, Hong

    2017-11-01

    We show that there exists a critical point for the coupling constants in Einsteinian cubic gravity in which the linearized equations on the maximally symmetric vacuum vanish identically. We construct an exact isotropic bounce universe in the critical theory in four dimensions. The comoving time runs from minus infinity to plus infinity, yielding a smooth universe bouncing between two de Sitter vacua. In five dimensions, we adopt a numerical approach to construct a bounce solution, in which a singularity occurs before the bounce takes place. We then construct exact anisotropic bounces that connect two isotropic de Sitter spacetimes with flat spatial sections. We further construct exact anti-de Sitter black holes in the critical theory in four and five dimensions and obtain an exact anti-de Sitter worm brane in four dimensions.

  16. The parameter space of Cubic Galileon models for cosmic acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Bellini, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    We use recent measurements of the expansion history of the universe to place constraints on the parameter space of cubic Galileon models. This gives strong constraints on the Lagrangian of these models. Most dynamical terms in the Galileon Lagrangian are constraint to be small and the acceleration is effectively provided by a constant term in the scalar potential, thus reducing, effectively, to a LCDM model for current acceleration. The effective equation of state is indistinguishable from that of a cosmological constant w = -1 and the data constraint it to have no temporal variations of more than at the few % level. The energy density of the Galileon can contribute only to about 10% of the acceleration energy density, being the other 90% a cosmological constant term. This demonstrates how useful direct measurements of the expansion history of the universe are at constraining the dynamical nature of dark energy.

  17. A parts-per-billion measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorra, C.; Sellner, S.; Borchert, M. J.; Harrington, J. A.; Higuchi, T.; Nagahama, H.; Tanaka, T.; Mooser, A.; Schneider, G.; Bohman, M.; Blaum, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Ospelkaus, C.; Quint, W.; Walz, J.; Yamazaki, Y.; Ulmer, S.

    2017-10-01

    Precise comparisons of the fundamental properties of matter–antimatter conjugates provide sensitive tests of charge–parity–time (CPT) invariance, which is an important symmetry that rests on basic assumptions of the standard model of particle physics. Experiments on mesons, leptons and baryons have compared different properties of matter–antimatter conjugates with fractional uncertainties at the parts-per-billion level or better. One specific quantity, however, has so far only been known to a fractional uncertainty at the parts-per-million level: the magnetic moment of the antiproton, . The extraordinary difficulty in measuring with high precision is caused by its intrinsic smallness; for example, it is 660 times smaller than the magnetic moment of the positron. Here we report a high-precision measurement of in units of the nuclear magneton μN with a fractional precision of 1.5 parts per billion (68% confidence level). We use a two-particle spectroscopy method in an advanced cryogenic multi-Penning trap system. Our result  = ‑2.7928473441(42)μN (where the number in parentheses represents the 68% confidence interval on the last digits of the value) improves the precision of the previous best measurement by a factor of approximately 350. The measured value is consistent with the proton magnetic moment, μp = 2.792847350(9)μN, and is in agreement with CPT invariance. Consequently, this measurement constrains the magnitude of certain CPT-violating effects to below 1.8 × 10‑24 gigaelectronvolts, and a possible splitting of the proton–antiproton magnetic moments by CPT-odd dimension-five interactions to below 6 × 10‑12 Bohr magnetons.

  18. China. Country profile. [China's billion consumers are a rapidly changing market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, K

    1984-10-01

    This article provides a summary of demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the People's Republic of China. Chinese leaders project that achievement of the 4 modernizations (agriculture, industry, science, and technology) will double the per capita income level to $800/year by 2000. Although industrial and agricultural growth have outpaced population growth, stringent population control is considered necessary for continued economic development. China's 1982 population was 1.008 billion, with a birth rate of 20.91, a death rate of 6.36, and a 14.55 rate of natural increase. The growth rate declined from 1.3% in 1982 to 1.15% in 1983. To achieve its goal of preventing the population from exceeding 1.2 billion by the year 2000, the government urges couples to have only 1 child. This policy has been successful in the cities but faces opposition in the rural areas. The sex ratio is 106 males to every 100 females, and there is concern about female infanticide. In 1982 the average household size ranged from a high of 5.2 persons in Qinghai and Yunnan to a low of 3.6 persons in Shanghai. 39% of the population lives in nuclear families without relatives. The literacy rate stood at 77% of those over 12 years of age in 1982, but males outnumber females at higher levels of education. China's campaign to improve health has focused on preventive measures, and there are an estimated 3-5 million health care workers. The 1982 labor force participation rate for those 15-64 years of age was 87.7%, with 44% of workers employed in agricculture. 76.6% of women work, primarily in labor-intensive, low-wage occupations.

  19. ICI bites demerger bullet, Zeneca guns for Brit-pounds 1.3-billion rights issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.; Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-01

    Any lingering doubts as to ICI's (London) intentions to follow through its demerger proposals were dispelled last week. The company will hive off its bioscience business into Zeneca Group plc, which will make a Brit-pounds 1.3-billion ($1.9 billion) rights issue in June 1993. Shareholders, whose approval for the historic move will be sought in late May, will receive one fully paid Zeneca share for each ICI share. Proceeds from the rights issue will be used to reduce Zeneca's indebtedness to ICI by about 70%. Acknowledging that ICI had 'spread the jam too thinly' during its expansion in the 1980s, chief executive Ronnie Hampel says the new ICI will be a cost-conscious, no-frills' organization and that businesses that failed to perform would be restructured or closed. He is 'not expecting any help from the economy' in 1993. Of ICI's remaining petrochemicals and plastics businesses, Hampel says that despite 'stringent measures to reduce the cost base hor-ellipsis it is clear they will not reach a return on capital that will justify reinvestment by ICI.' He does not see them as closure candidates but as 'businesses that will require further restructuring.' Hampel notes 'a dozen clearly identified areas for expansion,' including paints, catalysts, titanium dioxide, and chlorofluorocarbon replacements. Losses in materials, where substantial rationalization has failed to halt the slide, will be reduced on completion of the DuPont deal - expected by midyear. 'Further measures' would be necessary for the 'residual bit of advanced materials in the US,' he says

  20. Searching for Organics Preserved in 4.5 Billion Year Old Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Fries, M.; Steele, A.; Bodnar, R.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of early solar system fluids took a dramatic turn a decade ago with the discovery of fluid inclusion-bearing halite (NaCl) crystals in the matrix of two freshly fallen brecciated H chondrite falls, Monahans and Zag. Both meteorites are regolith breccias, and contain xenolithic halite (and minor admixed sylvite -- KCl, crystals in their regolith lithologies. The halites are purple to dark blue, due to the presence of color centers (electrons in anion vacancies) which slowly accumulated as 40K (in sylvite) decayed over billions of years. The halites were dated by K-Ar, Rb-Sr and I-Xe systematics to be 4.5 billion years old. The "blue" halites were a fantastic discovery for the following reasons: (1) Halite+sylvite can be dated (K is in sylvite and will substitute for Na in halite, Rb substitutes in halite for Na, and I substitutes for Cl). (2) The blue color is lost if the halite dissolves on Earth and reprecipitates (because the newly-formed halite has no color centers), so the color serves as a "freshness" or pristinity indicator. (3) Halite frequently contains aqueous fluid inclusions. (4) Halite contains no structural oxygen, carbon or hydrogen, making them ideal materials to measure these isotopic systems in any fluid inclusions. (5) It is possible to directly measure fluid inclusion formation temperatures, and thus directly measure the temperature of the mineralizing aqueous fluid. In addition to these two ordinary chondrites halite grains have been reliably reported in several ureilites, an additional ordinary chondrite (Jilin), and in the carbonaceous chondrite (Murchison), although these reports were unfortunately not taken seriously. We have lately found additional fluid inclusions in carbonates in several additional carbonaceous chondrites. Meteoritic aqueous fluid inclusions are apparently relatively widespread in meteorites, though very small and thus difficult to analyze.

  1. A parts-per-billion measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorra, C; Sellner, S; Borchert, M J; Harrington, J A; Higuchi, T; Nagahama, H; Tanaka, T; Mooser, A; Schneider, G; Bohman, M; Blaum, K; Matsuda, Y; Ospelkaus, C; Quint, W; Walz, J; Yamazaki, Y; Ulmer, S

    2017-10-18

    Precise comparisons of the fundamental properties of matter-antimatter conjugates provide sensitive tests of charge-parity-time (CPT) invariance, which is an important symmetry that rests on basic assumptions of the standard model of particle physics. Experiments on mesons, leptons and baryons have compared different properties of matter-antimatter conjugates with fractional uncertainties at the parts-per-billion level or better. One specific quantity, however, has so far only been known to a fractional uncertainty at the parts-per-million level: the magnetic moment of the antiproton, . The extraordinary difficulty in measuring with high precision is caused by its intrinsic smallness; for example, it is 660 times smaller than the magnetic moment of the positron. Here we report a high-precision measurement of in units of the nuclear magneton μ N with a fractional precision of 1.5 parts per billion (68% confidence level). We use a two-particle spectroscopy method in an advanced cryogenic multi-Penning trap system. Our result  = -2.7928473441(42)μ N (where the number in parentheses represents the 68% confidence interval on the last digits of the value) improves the precision of the previous best measurement by a factor of approximately 350. The measured value is consistent with the proton magnetic moment, μ p  = 2.792847350(9)μ N , and is in agreement with CPT invariance. Consequently, this measurement constrains the magnitude of certain CPT-violating effects to below 1.8 × 10 -24 gigaelectronvolts, and a possible splitting of the proton-antiproton magnetic moments by CPT-odd dimension-five interactions to below 6 × 10 -12 Bohr magnetons.

  2. Cubic phase nanoparticles for sustained release of ibuprofen: formulation, characterization, and enhanced bioavailability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dian, Linghui; Yang, Zhiwen; Li, Feng; Wang, Zhouhua; Pan, Xin; Peng, Xinsheng; Huang, Xintian; Guo, Zhefei; Quan, Guilan; Shi, Xuan; Chen, Bao; Li, Ge; Wu, Chuanbin

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the oral bioavailability of ibuprofen, ibuprofen-loaded cubic nanoparticles were prepared as a delivery system for aqueous formulations. The cubic inner structure was verified by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. With an encapsulation efficiency greater than 85%, the ibuprofen-loaded cubic nanoparticles had a narrow size distribution around a mean size of 238 nm. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction determined that ibuprofen was in an amorphous and molecular form within the lipid matrix. The in vitro release of ibuprofen from cubic nanoparticles was greater than 80% at 24 hours, showing sustained characteristics. The pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs showed improved absorption of ibuprofen from cubic nanoparticles compared to that of pure ibuprofen, with evidence of a longer half-life and a relative oral bioavailability of 222% (P ibuprofen-loaded cubic nanoparticles provide a promising carrier candidate with an efficient drug delivery for therapeutic treatment. PMID:23468008

  3. Cubic nonlinear optical properties of platinum-terminated polyynediyl chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoc, Marek; Dalton, Gulliver T; Gladysz, John A; Zheng, Qinglin; Velkov, Yasen; Agren, Hans; Norman, Patrick; Humphrey, Mark G

    2008-11-03

    The wavelength dependence of the cubic nonlinearity of ligated platinum-terminated polyynes trans, trans-{(p-MeC6H4)3P}2(p-MeC6H4)Pt(C[triple bond]C)n Pt(p-C6H4Me){P(p-C6H4Me)3}2 (n = 3-6, 8, 10, 12) has been examined by femtosecond Z-scan studies in the wavelength range 520-1500 nm and the results rationalized by density functional theory calculations on the model complexes trans, trans-(H3P)2(C6H5)Pt(C[triple bond]C)n Pt(C6H5)(PH3)2 (n = 2-8, 10, 12). Although the final states for one- and two-photon transitions are not the same in these centrosymmetric molecules, the Z-scan studies reveal coincidences in one-photon absorption with features in the frequency dependencies of both real and imaginary parts of the cubic hyperpolarizability, as well as inflections in the frequency dependencies of the real part of gamma that correspond to resonances in the imaginary part of gamma. The theoretical studies suggest that the linear absorption spectra are dominated by X(1)A g --> n(1)B(3u) transitions, with the first state of B(3u) symmetry playing a steadily diminishing role upon oligoyne chain lengthening. The theoretical studies also predict a red-shift of two-photon absorption (TPA) profile with increasing conjugation length, and a significant enhancement on proceeding from the shortest to the longest chromophore, trends that are observed experimentally. The experimental low-energy TPA maxima for these complexes can be approximated by a simple Gaussian profile. The sp-carbon chain-length dependence of linear and nonlinear absorption maxima enable an estimate (neglecting saturation) of 660 and 1000 nm for the infinite carbon chain, carbyne.

  4. On Calibration of pH Meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Ming Zhu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The calibration of pH meters including the pH glass electrode, ISE electrodes,buffers, and the general background for calibration are reviewed. Understanding of basicconcepts of pH, pOH, and electrode mechanism is emphasized. New concepts of pH, pOH,as well as critical examination of activity, and activity coefficients are given. Theemergence of new solid state pH electrodes and replacement of the salt bridge with aconducting wire have opened up a new horizon for pH measurements. A pH buffer solutionwith a conducting wire may be used as a stable reference electrode. The misleadingunlimited linear Nernstian slope should be discarded. Calibration curves with 3 nonlinearportions for the entire 0—14 pH range due to the isoelectric point change effect areexplained. The potential measurement with stirring or unstirring and effects by double layer(DL and triple layer (TL will be discussed.

  5. Two-Phase Quality/Flow Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerk, J. Steven (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Werlink, Rudy J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A quality and/or flow meter employs a capacitance probe assembly for measuring the dielectric constant of flow stream, particularly a two-phase flow stream including liquid and gas components.ne dielectric constant of the flow stream varies depending upon the volume ratios of its liquid and gas components, and capacitance measurements can therefore be employed to calculate the quality of the flow, which is defined as the volume ratio of liquid in the flow to the total volume ratio of gas and liquid in the flow. By using two spaced capacitance sensors, and cross-correlating the time varying capacitance values of each, the velocity of the flow stream can also be determined. A microcontroller-based processing circuit is employed to measure the capacitance of the probe sensors.The circuit employs high speed timer and counter circuits to provide a high resolution measurement of the time interval required to charge each capacitor in the probe assembly. In this manner, a high resolution, noise resistant, digital representation of each of capacitance value is obtained without the need for a high resolution A/D converter, or a high frequency oscillator circuit. One embodiment of the probe assembly employs a capacitor with two ground plates which provide symmetry to insure that accurate measurements are made thereby.

  6. Recent patents in pressurised metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehtezazi, Touraj

    2012-04-01

    In this paper recent patents in pressurised metered dose inhalers have been reviewed. The patents are related to novel valves, dose-counters, formulations, add-on devices, reduction of propellant leakage and inkjet technology. Recently patented dose-counters provide mechanisms that are less susceptible to inaccuracy, and are battery-less electronic dose-counters with the help of miniature electromechanical generators. Regarding the formulation aspect, recent patents provide methods for combinational pMDIs and more stable products. Advantages of recently patented valves are being spring-free and less subject to loss of prime. Recent developments in micromachining have allowed patents that incorporate inkjet technology to develop inhalers that are similar to pMDIs, but produce uniform aerosol droplets. Coating canisters with suitable polymers has reduced need for excipients. Recently patented add-on devices reduce aerosol deposition in the spacer by creating turbulence on the walls of the chamber. Blockage of nozzles in actuators is prevented by providing tapered nozzle channels. In conclusion, these patents show better understanding of pMDIs and provide methods to achieve products with much improved reliability, aerosol performance and stability.

  7. Survey meter using novel inorganic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Akira; Fukuda, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Kamada, Kei; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yokota, Yuui; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Single crystal scintillator materials are widely used for detection of high-energy photons and particles. There is continuous demand for new scintillator materials with higher performance because of increasing number of medical, industrial, security and other applications. This article presents the recent development of three novel inorganic scintillators; Pr-doped Lu 3 Al 5 O 12 (Pr:LuAG), Ce doped Gd 3 (Al, Ga) 5 O 12 (Ce:GAGG) and Ce or Eu-doped 6 LiCaAlF 6 (Ce:LiCAF, Eu:LiCAF). Pr:LuAG shows very interesting scintillation properties including very fast decay time, high light yield and excellent energy resolution. Taking the advantage of these properties, positron emission mammography (PEM) equipped with Pr:LuAG were developed. Ce:GAGG shows very high light yield, which is much higher than that of Ce:LYSO. Survey meter using Ce:GAGG is developed using this scintillator. Ce:LiCAF and Eu:LiCAF were developed for neutron detection. The advantage and disadvantage are discussed comparing with halide scintillators. Eu-doped LiCAF indicated five times higher light yield than that of existing Li-glass. It is expected to be used as the alternative of 3 He. (author)

  8. Non-spherical micelles in an oil-in-water cubic phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leaver, M.; Rajagopalan, V.; Ulf, O.

    2000-01-01

    The cubic phase formed between the microemulsion and hexagonal phases of the ternary pentaethylene glycol dodecyl ether (C12E5)-decane-water system and that doped with small amounts of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) have been investigated. The presence of discrete oil-swollen micelles in the cubic...... scattering experiments indicate that the lattice parameter for the cubic phase is inconsistent with a simple packing of micelles. Whilst insufficient reflections were observed to establish the space group of the cubic phase uniquely, those that were are consistent with two commonly observed space groups...

  9. Prediction of Gas Injection Effect on Asphaltene Precipitation Onset Using the Cubic and Cubic-Plus-Association Equations of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arya, Alay; Liang, Xiaodong; von Solms, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Gas injection is a proven enhanced oil recovery technique. The gas injection changes the reservoir oil composition, temperature, and pressure conditions, which may result in asphaltene precipitation. In this work, we have used a modeling approach from the literature in order to predict asphaltene...... precipitation onset condition during gas injection. The modeling approach is used with the Soave Redlich Kwong, Soave Redlich Kwong-Plus-Huron Vidal mixing rule and cubic-plus-association (CPA) equations of state (EoS). Six different reservoir fluids are studied with respect to asphaltene onset precipitation...... on asphaltene onset conditions. The CPA EoS is more reliable than the other two models, which are sensitive to asphaltene molecular weight and sometimes predict highly nonlinear behavior outside the experimental temperature range used for fitting the model parameters....

  10. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Stokes, Bryce [Navarro Research & Engineering; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL

    2011-08-01

    The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small

  11. Investigating water meter performance in developing countries: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-07

    Oct 7, 2011 ... real losses (leakage) or apparent (commercial) losses. Apparent losses occur due to illegal use, inaccuracies in metering, meter reading errors, data handling and billing errors, and have a negative impact on utility revenue and accuracy of water usage data (AWWA, 2009). One of the tools that has received ...

  12. Attacks and their Defenses for Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lighari, Sheeraz Niaz; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    The smart grid is the digitized, modernized, updated version of archaic traditional electric grid. Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is an imperative part of the smart grid. It has replaced legacy metering, as it reports the energy consumption to the utility automatically through communicati...... (CIA Triad) context and propose countermeasure....

  13. Development of a novel vortex flow meter for downhole use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiferli, W.; Cheng, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    Due to the increasing complexity of oil and gas wells, the demand for instrumentation to measure conditions inside well tubing below the surface is growing rapidly. A robust meter was designed to measure liquid flows at downhole conditions. The meter is based on a specially-designed bluff body to

  14. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunickis M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale.

  15. The Early Development of Electronic pH Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Wallis G.; de Levie, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A 19-year-old undergraduate at the University of Chicago, Kenneth Goode, in 1921 came up with the idea of an electronic pH meter, worked out some of its initial problems, and set in motion an international scientific effort that culminated in the current, wide availability of electronic pH meters. Except for the replacement of vacuum tubes by…

  16. Investigating water meter performance in developing countries: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High levels of water losses in distribution systems are the main challenge that water utilities in developing countries currently face. The water meter is an essential tool for both the utility and the customers to measure and monitor consumption. When metering is inefficient and coupled with low tariffs, the financial ...

  17. Real time Aanderaa current meter data collection system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AshokKumar, K.; Diwan, S.G.

    in laboratory. In this paper a method is described to read the real time current meter data and display/print/store on cartridge. For this, binary coded electrical signal available at the top end plate of the current meter is connectEd. by underwater cable...

  18. Sensitivity curve measurement and application of radioactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Shunhe; Wang Jianqing; Guo Xiaoqing; Yao Yanling; Li Jingxiu

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes the sensitivity curve measurements and applications for radioactivity meter. The energy-dependent sensitivity curve is established with the activity of standard sources and their corresponding current by constructing functions sub-section. Thus the current-activity ratio is acquired from the sensitivity curve and the calibration of radioactivity meter is solved satisfactorily. (authors)

  19. The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT): An International Observatory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be the first truly global ground-based optical/infrared observatory. It will initiate the era of extremely large (30-meter class) telescopes with diffraction limited performance from its vantage point in the northern hemisphere on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA. The astronomy ...

  20. Liquid Flow Meter based on a Thermal Anemometer Microsensor

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg Sazhin

    2016-01-01

    An analytical model of a thermal anemometer sensor is developed. A thermal anemometer microsensor utilizing doped polycrystalline silicon is created. A liquid flow meter prototype based on a thermal anemometer microsensor is designed. Results of the flow meter testing are presented.

  1. A micro-controller based wide range survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhingare, R.R.; Bajaj, K.C.; Kannan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Wide range survey meters (1μSv/h -10 Sv/h) with the detector(s) mounted at the end of a two-to-four meter-long extendable tube are widely used for radiation protection survey of difficult to reach locations and high dose rate areas, The commercially available survey meters of this type use two GM counters to cover a wide range of dose rate measurement. A new micro-controller based wide range survey meter using two Si diode detectors has been developed. The use of solid state detectors in the survey meter has a number of advantages like low power consumption, lighter battery powered detector probe, elimination of high voltage for the operation of the detectors, etc. The design uses infrared communication between the probe and the readout unit through a light-weight collapsible extension tube for high reliability. The design details and features are discussed in detail. (author)

  2. New cubic structure compounds as actinide host phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovsky, S. V.; Yudintsev, S. V.; Livshits, T. S.

    2010-03-01

    Various compounds with fluorite (cubic zirconia) and fluorite-derived (pyrochlore, zirconolite) structures are considered as promising actinide host phases at immobilization of actinide-bearing nuclear wastes. Recently some new cubic compounds — stannate and stannate-zirconate pyrochlores, murataite and related phases, and actinide-bearing garnet structure compounds were proposed as perspective matrices for complex actinide wastes. Zirconate pyrochlore (ideally Gd2Zr2O7) has excellent radiation resistance and high chemical durability but requires high temperatures (at least 1500 °C) to be produced by hot-pressing from sol-gel derived precursor. Partial Sn4+ substitution for Zr4+ reduces production temperature and the compounds REE2ZrSnO7 may be hot-pressed or cold pressed and sintered at ~1400 °C. Pyrochlore, A2B2O7-x (two-fold elementary fluorite unit cell), and murataite, A3B6C2O20-y (three-fold fluorite unit cell), are end-members of the polysomatic series consisting of the phases whose structures are built from alternating pyrochlore and murataite blocks (nano-sized modules) with seven- (2C/3C/2C), five- (2C/3C), eight- (3C/2C/3C) and three-fold (3C — murataite) fluorite unit cells. Actinide content in this series reduces in the row: 2C (pyrochlore) > 7C > 5C > 8C > 3C (murataite). Due to congruent melting murataite-based ceramics may be produced by melting and the firstly segregated phase at melt crystallization is that with the highest fraction of the pyrochlore modules in its structure. The melts containing up to 10 wt. % AnO2 (An = Th, U, Np, Pu) or REE/An fraction of HLW form at crystallization zoned grains composed sequentially of the 5C → 8C → 3C phases with the highest actinide concentration in the core and the lowest — in the rim of the grains. Radiation resistance of the "murataite" is comparable to titanate pyrochlores. One more promising actinide hosts are ferrites with garnet structure. The matrices containing sometime complex fluorite

  3. Characterization, Microstructure, and Dielectric properties of cubic pyrochlore structural ceramics

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yangyang

    2013-05-01

    The (BMN) bulk materials were sintered at 1050°C, 1100°C, 1150°C, 1200°C by the conventional ceramic process, and their microstructure and dielectric properties were investigated by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (including the X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry EDS and high resolution transmission electron microscopy HRTEM) and dielectric impedance analyzer. We systematically investigated the structure, dielectric properties and voltage tunable property of the ceramics prepared at different sintering temperatures. The XRD patterns demonstrated that the synthesized BMN solid solutions had cubic phase pyrochlore-type structure when sintered at 1050°C or higher, and the lattice parameter (a) of the unit cell in BMN solid solution was calculated to be about 10.56Å. The vibrational peaks observed in the Raman spectra of BMN solid solutions also confirmed the cubic phase pyrochlore-type structure of the synthesized BMN. According to the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images, the grain size increased with increasing sintering temperature. Additionally, it was shown that the densities of the BMN ceramic tablets vary with sintering temperature. The calculated theoretical density for the BMN ceramic tablets sintered at different temperatures is about 6.7521 . The density of the respective measured tablets is usually amounting more than 91% and 5 approaching a maximum value of 96.5% for sintering temperature of 1150°C. The microstructure was investigated by using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD). Combined with the results obtained from the STEM and XRD, the impact of sintering temperature on the macroscopic and microscopic structure was discussed. The relative dielectric constant ( ) and dielectric loss ( ) of the BMN solid solutions were measured to be 161-200 and (at room temperature and 100Hz-1MHz), respectively. The BMN solid

  4. Electric quadrupole interaction in cubic BCC α-Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Błachowski, A.; Komędera, K. [Mössbauer Spectroscopy Division, Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorążych 2, PL-30-084 Kraków (Poland); Ruebenbauer, K., E-mail: sfrueben@cyf-kr.edu.pl [Mössbauer Spectroscopy Division, Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorążych 2, PL-30-084 Kraków (Poland); Cios, G.; Żukrowski, J. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Academic Center for Materials and Nanotechnology, Av. A. Mickiewicza 30, PL-30-059 Kraków (Poland); Górnicki, R. [RENON, ul. Gliniana 15/15, PL-30-732 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-07-15

    Mössbauer transmission spectra for the 14.41-keV resonant line in {sup 57}Fe have been collected at room temperature by using {sup 57}Co(Rh) commercial source and α-Fe strain-free single crystal as an absorber. The absorber was magnetized to saturation in the absorber plane perpendicular to the γ-ray beam axis applying small external magnetic field. Spectra were collected for various orientations of the magnetizing field, the latter lying close to the [110] crystal plane. A positive electric quadrupole coupling constant was found practically independent on the field orientation. One obtains the following value V{sub zz} = +1.61(4) × 10{sup 19} Vm{sup −2} for the (average) principal component of the electric field gradient (EFG) tensor under assumption that the EFG tensor is axially symmetric and the principal axis is aligned with the magnetic hyperfine field acting on the {sup 57}Fe nucleus. The nuclear spectroscopic electric quadrupole moment for the first excited state of the {sup 57}Fe nucleus was adopted as +0.17 b. Similar measurement was performed at room temperature using as-rolled polycrystalline α-Fe foil of high purity in the zero external field. Corresponding value for the principal component of the EFG was found as V{sub zz} = +1.92(4) × 10{sup 19} Vm{sup −2}. Hence, it seems that the origin of the EFG is primarily due to the local (atomic) electronic wave function distortion caused by the spin–orbit interaction between effective electronic spin S and incompletely quenched electronic angular momentum L. It seems as well that the lowest order term proportional to the product L·λ·S dominates, as no direction dependence of the EFG principal component is seen. The lowest order term is isotropic for a cubic symmetry as one has λ=λ 1 for cubic systems with the symbol 1 denoting unit operator and λ being the coupling parameter. - Highlights: • Precision of MS the same as MAPON • Real scans versus magnetization direction • A challenge

  5. Nordic energy co-operation can save the equivalent of 4 - 10 billion USD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2000-01-01

    Better co-ordination of the energy- and environment policies among the Nordic countries can be very profitable from the socio-economic point of view and facilitate the fulfilment of the Kyoto agreement. A Swedish calculation shows that up to 10 billion USD can be saved by building a trans-nordic gasline and at the same time preparing for a common implementation of the Kyoto agreement, combined with increased electricity trade, improving the efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy sources. The consumption of natural gas must then increase threefold the next 25 years. There is no alternative to natural gas of the same potential if coal and oil are to be replaced to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide. The importance of natural gas is further increased by the phase-out of nuclear energy in Sweden. After 2025 the use of natural gas will be reduced and in 2040 biomass energy, wind energy and solar energy will contribute as much as the natural gas, that is, 250 TWh. Throughout the entire period more than half of the electricity production will be hydropower. It is presupposed that the cogeneration sector and the district heating network are substantially expanded, even in South Norway. The Nordic energy system is quite flexible with respect to fulfilling future CO 2 targets. Although the different Nordic countries have different commitments with respect to the Kyoto agreement, they will profit economically from acting jointly within the sum of their individual emission quotas

  6. Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, Ashok J.; Derby, Elisabeth A.

    2003-06-01

    Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015, the global community will need to provide an additional one billion urban residents and 600 million rural residents with safe water within the next twelve years. This paper examines current water treatment measures and implementation methods for delivery of safe drinking water, and offers suggestions for making progress towards the goal of providing a timely and equitable solution for safe water provision. For water treatment, based on the serious limitations of boiling water and chlorination, we suggest an approach based on filtration coupled with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, combined with public education. Additionally, owing to the capacity limitations for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to take on this task primarily on their own, we suggest a strategy based on financially sustainable models that include the private sector as well as NGOs.

  7. A Massive Galaxy in Its Core Formation Phase Three Billion Years After the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erica; van Dokkum, Pieter; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Schreiber, Natascha M. Forster; da Cunha, Elisabete; Tacconi, Linda; Bezanson, Rachel; Kirkpatrick, Allison; hide

    2014-01-01

    Most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores at early cosmic epochs. However, cores in their formation phase have not yet been observed. Previous studies have found galaxies with high gas velocity dispersions or small apparent sizes but so far no objects have been identified with both the stellar structure and the gas dynamics of a forming core. Here we present a candidate core in formation 11 billion years ago, at z = 2.3. GOODS-N-774 has a stellar mass of 1.0 × 10 (exp 11) solar mass, a half-light radius of 1.0 kpc, and a star formation rate of 90 (sup +45 / sub -20) solar mass/yr. The star forming gas has a velocity dispersion 317 plus or minus 30 km/s, amongst the highest ever measured. It is similar to the stellar velocity dispersions of the putative descendants of GOODS-N-774, compact quiescent galaxies at z is approximately equal to 2 (exp 8-11) and giant elliptical galaxies in the nearby Universe. Galaxies such as GOODS-N-774 appear to be rare; however, from the star formation rate and size of the galaxy we infer that many star forming cores may be heavily obscured, and could be missed in optical and near-infrared surveys.

  8. A large neutral fraction of cosmic hydrogen a billion years after the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyithe, J Stuart B; Loeb, Abraham

    2004-02-26

    The fraction of ionized hydrogen left over from the Big Bang provides evidence for the time of formation of the first stars and quasar black holes in the early Universe; such objects provide the high-energy photons necessary to ionize hydrogen. Spectra of the two most distant known quasars show nearly complete absorption of photons with wavelengths shorter than the Lyman alpha transition of neutral hydrogen, indicating that hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) had not been completely ionized at a redshift of z approximately 6.3, about one billion years after the Big Bang. Here we show that the IGM surrounding these quasars had a neutral hydrogen fraction of tens of per cent before the quasar activity started, much higher than the previous lower limits of approximately 0.1 per cent. Our results, when combined with the recent inference of a large cumulative optical depth to electron scattering after cosmological recombination therefore suggest the presence of a second peak in the mean ionization history of the Universe.

  9. Development of multicomponent parts-per-billion-level gas standards of volatile toxic organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoderick, G.C.; Zielinski, W.L. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the demand for stable, low-concentration multicomponent standards of volatile toxic organic compounds for quantifying national and state measurement of ambient air quality and hazardous waste incineration emissions has markedly increased in recent years. In response to this demand, a microgravimetric technique was developed and validated for preparing such standards; these standards ranged in concentration from several parts per million (ppm) down to one part per billion (ppb) and in complexity from one organic up to 17. Studies using the gravimetric procedure to prepare mixtures of different groups of organics. including multi-components mixtures in the 5 to 20 ppb range, revealed a very low imprecision. This procedure is based on the separate gravimetric introduction of individual organics into an evacuated gas cylinder, followed by the pressurized addition of a precalculated amount of pure nitrogen. Additional studies confirmed the long-term stability of these mixtures. The uncertainty of the concentrations of the individual organics at the 95% confidence level ranged from less than 1% relative at 1 ppm to less than 10% relative at 1 ppb. Over 100 primary gravimetric standards have been developed, validated, and used for certifying the concentrations of a variety of mixtures for monitoring studies

  10. Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Elizabeth A; Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T Mark; Mao, Wendy L

    2015-11-24

    Evidence of life on Earth is manifestly preserved in the rock record. However, the microfossil record only extends to ∼ 3.5 billion years (Ga), the chemofossil record arguably to ∼ 3.8 Ga, and the rock record to 4.0 Ga. Detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia range in age up to nearly 4.4 Ga. From a population of over 10,000 Jack Hills zircons, we identified one >3.8-Ga zircon that contains primary graphite inclusions. Here, we report carbon isotopic measurements on these inclusions in a concordant, 4.10 ± 0.01-Ga zircon. We interpret these inclusions as primary due to their enclosure in a crack-free host as shown by transmission X-ray microscopy and their crystal habit. Their δ(13)CPDB of -24 ± 5‰ is consistent with a biogenic origin and may be evidence that a terrestrial biosphere had emerged by 4.1 Ga, or ∼ 300 My earlier than has been previously proposed.

  11. The controversial "Cambrian" fossils of the Vindhyan are real but more than a billion years older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Stefan; Belivanova, Veneta; Rasmussen, Birger; Whitehouse, Martin

    2009-05-12

    The age of the Vindhyan sedimentary basin in central India is controversial, because geochronology indicating early Proterozoic ages clashes with reports of Cambrian fossils. We present here an integrated paleontologic-geochronologic investigation to resolve this conundrum. New sampling of Lower Vindhyan phosphoritic stromatolitic dolomites from the northern flank of the Vindhyans confirms the presence of fossils most closely resembling those found elsewhere in Cambrian deposits: annulated tubes, embryo-like globules with polygonal surface pattern, and filamentous and coccoidal microbial fabrics similar to Girvanella and Renalcis. None of the fossils, however, can be ascribed to uniquely Cambrian or Ediacaran taxa. Indeed, the embryo-like globules are not interpreted as fossils at all but as former gas bubbles trapped in mucus-rich cyanobacterial mats. Direct dating of the same fossiliferous phosphorite yielded a Pb-Pb isochron of 1,650 +/- 89 (2sigma) million years ago, confirming the Paleoproterozoic age of the fossils. New U-Pb geochronology of zircons from tuffaceous mudrocks in the Lower Vindhyan Porcellanite Formation on the southern flank of the Vindhyans give comparable ages. The Vindhyan phosphorites provide a window of 3-dimensionally preserved Paleoproterozoic fossils resembling filamentous and coccoidal cyanobacteria and filamentous eukaryotic algae, as well as problematic forms. Like Neoproterozoic phosphorites a billion years later, the Vindhyan deposits offer important new insights into the nature and diversity of life, and in particular, the early evolution of multicellular eukaryotes.

  12. Enhanced cellular preservation by clay minerals in 1 billion-year-old lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacey, David; Saunders, Martin; Roberts, Malcolm; Menon, Sarath; Green, Leonard; Kong, Charlie; Culwick, Timothy; Strother, Paul; Brasier, Martin D

    2014-07-28

    Organic-walled microfossils provide the best insights into the composition and evolution of the biosphere through the first 80 percent of Earth history. The mechanism of microfossil preservation affects the quality of biological information retained and informs understanding of early Earth palaeo-environments. We here show that 1 billion-year-old microfossils from the non-marine Torridon Group are remarkably preserved by a combination of clay minerals and phosphate, with clay minerals providing the highest fidelity of preservation. Fe-rich clay mostly occurs in narrow zones in contact with cellular material and is interpreted as an early microbially-mediated phase enclosing and replacing the most labile biological material. K-rich clay occurs within and exterior to cell envelopes, forming where the supply of Fe had been exhausted. Clay minerals inter-finger with calcium phosphate that co-precipitated with the clays in the sub-oxic zone of the lake sediments. This type of preservation was favoured in sulfate-poor environments where Fe-silicate precipitation could outcompete Fe-sulfide formation. This work shows that clay minerals can provide an exceptionally high fidelity of microfossil preservation and extends the known geological range of this fossilization style by almost 500 Ma. It also suggests that the best-preserved microfossils of this time may be found in low-sulfate environments.

  13. The DECam Plane Survey: Optical Photometry of Two Billion Objects in the Southern Galactic Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlafly, E. F.; Green, G. M.; Lang, D.; Daylan, T.; Finkbeiner, D. P.; Lee, A.; Meisner, A. M.; Schlegel, D.; Valdes, F.

    2018-02-01

    The DECam Plane Survey is a five-band optical and near-infrared survey of the southern Galactic plane with the Dark Energy Camera at Cerro Tololo. The survey is designed to reach past the main-sequence turn-off of old populations at the distance of the Galactic center through a reddening E(B-V) of 1.5 mag. Typical single-exposure depths are 23.7, 22.8, 22.3, 21.9, and 21.0 mag (AB) in the grizY bands, with seeing around 1\\prime\\prime . The footprint covers the Galactic plane with | b| ≲ 4^\\circ , 5^\\circ > l> -120^\\circ . The survey pipeline simultaneously solves for the positions and fluxes of tens of thousands of sources in each image, delivering positions and fluxes of roughly two billion stars with better than 10 mmag precision. Most of these objects are highly reddened and deep in the Galactic disk, probing the structure and properties of the Milky Way and its interstellar medium. The fully-processed images and derived catalogs are publicly available.

  14. Rapid oxygenation of Earth’s atmosphere 2.33 billion years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Genming; Ono, Shuhei; Beukes, Nicolas J.; Wang, David T.; Xie, Shucheng; Summons, Roger E.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular oxygen (O2) is, and has been, a primary driver of biological evolution and shapes the contemporary landscape of Earth’s biogeochemical cycles. Although “whiffs” of oxygen have been documented in the Archean atmosphere, substantial O2 did not accumulate irreversibly until the Early Paleoproterozoic, during what has been termed the Great Oxygenation Event (GOE). The timing of the GOE and the rate at which this oxygenation took place have been poorly constrained until now. We report the transition (that is, from being mass-independent to becoming mass-dependent) in multiple sulfur isotope signals of diagenetic pyrite in a continuous sedimentary sequence in three coeval drill cores in the Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa. These data precisely constrain the GOE to 2.33 billion years ago. The new data suggest that the oxygenation occurred rapidly—within 1 to 10 million years—and was followed by a slower rise in the ocean sulfate inventory. Our data indicate that a climate perturbation predated the GOE, whereas the relationships among GOE, “Snowball Earth” glaciation, and biogeochemical cycling will require further stratigraphic correlation supported with precise chronologies and paleolatitude reconstructions. PMID:27386544

  15. Sharing global CO2 emission reductions among one billion high emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Shoibal; Chikkatur, Ananth; de Coninck, Heleen; Pacala, Stephen; Socolow, Robert; Tavoni, Massimo

    2009-07-21

    We present a framework for allocating a global carbon reduction target among nations, in which the concept of "common but differentiated responsibilities" refers to the emissions of individuals instead of nations. We use the income distribution of a country to estimate how its fossil fuel CO(2) emissions are distributed among its citizens, from which we build up a global CO(2) distribution. We then propose a simple rule to derive a universal cap on global individual emissions and find corresponding limits on national aggregate emissions from this cap. All of the world's high CO(2)-emitting individuals are treated the same, regardless of where they live. Any future global emission goal (target and time frame) can be converted into national reduction targets, which are determined by "Business as Usual" projections of national carbon emissions and in-country income distributions. For example, reducing projected global emissions in 2030 by 13 GtCO(2) would require the engagement of 1.13 billion high emitters, roughly equally distributed in 4 regions: the U.S., the OECD minus the U.S., China, and the non-OECD minus China. We also modify our methodology to place a floor on emissions of the world's lowest CO(2) emitters and demonstrate that climate mitigation and alleviation of extreme poverty are largely decoupled.

  16. Large data analysis: automatic visual personal identification in a demography of 1.2 billion persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugman, John

    2014-05-01

    The largest biometric deployment in history is now underway in India, where the Government is enrolling the iris patterns (among other data) of all 1.2 billion citizens. The purpose of the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) is to ensure fair access to welfare benefits and entitlements, to reduce fraud, and enhance social inclusion. Only a minority of Indian citizens have bank accounts; only 4 percent possess passports; and less than half of all aid money reaches its intended recipients. A person who lacks any means of establishing their identity is excluded from entitlements and does not officially exist; thus the slogan of UIDAI is: To give the poor an identity." This ambitious program enrolls a million people every day, across 36,000 stations run by 83 agencies, with a 3-year completion target for the entire national population. The halfway point was recently passed with more than 600 million persons now enrolled. In order to detect and prevent duplicate identities, every iris pattern that is enrolled is first compared against all others enrolled so far; thus the daily workflow now requires 600 trillion (or 600 million-million) iris cross-comparisons. Avoiding identity collisions (False Matches) requires high biometric entropy, and achieving the tremendous match speed requires phase bit coding. Both of these requirements are being delivered operationally by wavelet methods developed by the author for encoding and comparing iris patterns, which will be the focus of this Large Data Award" presentation.

  17. Cubic crystal protein inclusions in the neodermis of the pancreatic fluke, Eurytrema pancreaticum, and Eurytrema coelomaticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Tsukasa; Oikawa, Tetsuo

    2007-10-01

    Light microscopy of Eurytrema pancreaticum and Eurytrema coelomaticum collected from cattle in Japan, China, Thailand, and Brazil showed many cubic crystal inclusions in the neodermis (tegument) of all flukes. The crystal inclusions were histochemically positive for protein. Scanning electron microscopy showed many cubic protrusions containing cubic crystal protein inclusions on the surface of the neodermis. Transmission electron microscopy showed that cubic crystal protein inclusions appeared in the perikarya of subtegumental parts, passed through the cytoplasmic bridge, moved into the syncytial neodermal cytoplasm, and then protruded from, and finally separated from, the neodermal cytoplasm. Cubic crystal protein inclusions were hexahedral with each side 2-18 microm long. High-resolution microscopy of ultrathin sections of crystal inclusions showed a lattice fringe at spacings of about 0.52 nm by using a filtering processing. Diffractograms were obtained by Fourier transform of the images. The lattice structure of the crystal protein inclusions was shown by inverse Fourier transform, indicating that the cubic crystal protein inclusions were single crystals. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis estimated the molecular weight of protein in the cubic crystal inclusion as 36.6 kDa. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy proved that the cubic crystal protein inclusions were composed of protein and sulfur.

  18. Cubic and quartic anharmonic potential energy functions for octahedral XY6 molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K.; Krohn, B.J.; Shaffer, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    We give the cubic and quartic anharmonic potential energy functions for XY 6 molecules of O/sub h/ symmetry in terms of normal coordinates. The numbers of independent cubic and quartic potential constants are 22 and 92, respectively. A standard form, introduced here, is related to the tensor formalism developed for the potential energy of tetrahedral XY 4 molecules by Hecht

  19. Feasibility Study on the Implementation of Cubic Motion Curve for Vehicle Trajectory Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Mat Ghani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cubic Motion curve has been introduced to integrate the information of path and motion. Since this is a new approach, a feasibility study has been carried out to analyse the practicality of Cubic Motion curves used as the input for the study of vehicle dynamic response. This study requires the development of three modules, namely, the Cubic Motion module, the vehicle dynamic model, the driver model (VDM-DM module, and, lastly, the integrated module. The Cubic Motion module will generate Cubic Motion curve. The VDM-DM module applies the 2 DOF bicycle model and links it with Reński's driver model. Finally, an integrated module will merge both previous modules as a complete system for trajectory and vehicle response as the output. The double lane change and the Slalom test were the case studies used to develop an understanding of the applicability of the three types of Cubic Motion input, namely, natural, adjusted tangent, and additional vertex cubic motion. The finding of this study is that Cubic Motion is in fact a compact representation of curve with motion attributes and can be directly associated with a vehicle dynamic response study.

  20. On the number of longest and almost longest cycles in cubic graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chia, Gek Ling; Thomassen, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    We consider the questions: How many longest cycles must a cubic graph have, and how many may it have? For each k >= 2 there are infinitely many p such that there is a cubic graph with p vertices and precisely one longest cycle of length p-k. On the other hand, if G is a graph with p vertices, all...

  1. On the dynamic buckling of a lightly damped elastic cubic model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... technique to determine the dynamic buckling load of a lightly and viscously damped elastic cubic model structure modulated by a sinusoidally slowly varying dynamic load. The imperfect elastic cubic (nonlinear) structure is itself a generalization of most elastic physical structures that have been investigated over the years.

  2. Cubic Invariant Spherical Surface Harmonics in Conjunction With Diffraction Strain Pole-Figures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Four kinds of cubic invariant spherical surface harmonics are introduced. It has been shown previously that these harmonics occur in the equations relating measured diffraction (line-shift) elastic strain and macro-stresses generating these strains for the case of textured cubic materials. As a

  3. The double-end-pumped cubic Nd:YVO4 laser: Temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Thermal effects of a double-end-pumped cubic Nd:YVO4 laser crystal are investigated in this paper. A detailed analysis of temperature distribution and thermal stress in cubic crystal with circular shape pumping is discussed. It has been shown that by considering the total input powers as constant, the ...

  4. Classifying cubic edge-transitive graphs of order 8p8p8p

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is proved that, every cubic edge-transitive graph of order 8p is symmetric, and then all such graphs are .... The following Corollary gives a classification of all cubic edge-transitive graphs of order 8p. COROLLARY 1.2. Let p be a ..... on the elementary abelian regular covering, Linear Algebra Appl. 373 (2003) 101–119 ...

  5. On orbital topological equivalence of cubic ODEs in two-dimensional algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Balanov, Zolman; Krawcewicz, Wiesław; Zur, Shira

    2005-01-01

    Cubic differential systems in real commutative two-dimensional algebras are classified up to orbital topological equivalence via the solubility of polynomial equations in algebras. As a by-product, existence of bounded solutions in such systems is studied via complex structures in the algebras. Application to the existence of periodic solutions to $n$-dimensional differential systems "cubic at infinity" is given.

  6. Some Curious Properties and Loci Problems Associated with Cubics and Other Polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alwis, Amal

    2012-01-01

    The article begins with a well-known property regarding tangent lines to a cubic polynomial that has distinct, real zeros. We were then able to generalize this property to any polynomial with distinct, real zeros. We also considered a certain family of cubics with two fixed zeros and one variable zero, and explored the loci of centroids of…

  7. Extending a Property of Cubic Polynomials to Higher-Degree Polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A.; Moseley, James

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine a property that holds for all cubic polynomials given two zeros. This property is discovered after reviewing a variety of ways to determine the equation of a cubic polynomial given specific conditions through algebra and calculus. At the end of the article, they will connect the property to a very famous method…

  8. Defect structure of cubic solid solutions of alkaline earth and rare earth fluorides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DenHartog, HW

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we will consider the disorder in some cubic solid solutions consisting of one of the alkaline earth fluorides and one of the rare earth fluorides. This is an attractive group of model materials, because these materials have a rather simple overall cubic structure. We will discuss the

  9. Cubic helimagnets in magnetic field and at pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maleyev, S.V.

    2009-01-01

    Cubic helimagnets with B20 structure display several unusual properties such as anisotropy of the spin-wave spectrum al small momenta q, rotation of the helix vector k in magnetic field and quantum phase transition at pressure. We demonstrate that first two phenomena are a result of umklapp processes mixing excitations with momenta q, q+k and q-k. At very low magnetic field perpendicular to k the helical structure remains stable due to spin-wave gap Δ. Its square is sum of two parts. The first one is a result of the magnon interaction and the second negative part stems from magneto-elastic interaction. It is suggested that competition between these parts leads to the quantum phase transition observed in MnSi and FeGe. For MnSi from rough estimations at ambient pressure was shown that both parts are comparable with the experimentally observed gap. The magneto-elastic interaction is also responsible for 2k modulation of the lattice and contributes to the magnetic anisotropy. Experimental observation by X-ray and neutron scattering of this lattice modulation allows to determine the strength of the magneto-elastic interaction responsible for above phenomena and the lattice helicity

  10. Cubic Phase Formation in Phospholipid and PEG-Lipid Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murley, Kimberly; Cunningham, Beth; Wolfe, David; Williams, Patrick

    2005-03-01

    Lipid systems modeling cell membranes are capable of self-assembling into various liquid crystal mesophases with varying geometry and dimensions. We have suggested that it is possible to engineer the lipid systems through the incorporation of covalently attached polymer lipids to produce unique effects. The results of this engineering process include both the stabilization of lipid phases that normally exist over very limited temperature ranges and the induction of novel phases that are not normally present in the parent lipid. In this study, we used x-ray diffraction and NMR to investigate the phase behavior of the DOPE:PEG:MO and MO:PEG:D2O systems with varying molar ratios and PEG sizes. The phase diagram which we have generated indicates the conditions necessary to induce specific phase structures and sizes into three-dimensional cubic lipid systems. This information may be useful to create nanostructures which will be valuable in applications such as protein crystallization and protein biochip development.

  11. Research of Cubic Bezier Curve NC Interpolation Signal Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Ji

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Interpolation technology is the core of the computer numerical control (CNC system, and the precision and stability of the interpolation algorithm directly affect the machining precision and speed of CNC system. Most of the existing numerical control interpolation technology can only achieve circular arc interpolation, linear interpolation or parabola interpolation, but for the numerical control (NC machining of parts with complicated surface, it needs to establish the mathematical model and generate the curved line and curved surface outline of parts and then discrete the generated parts outline into a large amount of straight line or arc to carry on the processing, which creates the complex program and a large amount of code, so it inevitably introduce into the approximation error. All these factors affect the machining accuracy, surface roughness and machining efficiency. The stepless interpolation of cubic Bezier curve controlled by analog signal is studied in this paper, the tool motion trajectory of Bezier curve can be directly planned out in CNC system by adjusting control points, and then these data were put into the control motor which can complete the precise feeding of Bezier curve. This method realized the improvement of CNC trajectory controlled ability from the simple linear and circular arc to the complex project curve, and it provides a new way for economy realizing the curve surface parts with high quality and high efficiency machining.

  12. Hyperfine interactions in the cubic semiconductor CdO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desimoni, J.; Bibiloni, A.G.; Massolo, C.P.; Renteria, M.

    1990-01-01

    The time-differential perturbed angular correlation technique has been applied using 111 In probes, which decay through electron capture to 111 Cd, to study the hyperfine interaction in cubic cadmium oxide, in the temperature range RT--740 degree C (RT denotes room temperature). The main fraction of probes are located in perfect-lattice sites, with null electric field gradient in agreement with crystalline-structure considerations. Around 25% of the total intensity shows an electric-field-gradient distribution around V zz =0. This corresponds to probes located in sites perturbed by the vicinity of oxygen vacancies in the lattice. The temperature-independent behavior of the measured hyperfine parameters is discussed in terms of conductivity and band-structure properties of the semiconductor. No time-dependent interaction arising from nuclear electron-capture aftereffects are seen in this experiment. This is in agreement with a previously reported model of aftereffect processes which states that only holes trapped in impurity levels inside the band gap of the semiconductor can give rise to detectable fluctuating interactions

  13. Hyperfine interactions in the cubic semiconductor CdO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desimoni, J.; Bibiloni, A.G.; Massolo, C.P.; Renteria, M. (Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Casilla de Correo No. 67, 1900 La Plata, Argentina (AR))

    1990-01-15

    The time-differential perturbed angular correlation technique has been applied using {sup 111}In probes, which decay through electron capture to {sup 111}Cd, to study the hyperfine interaction in cubic cadmium oxide, in the temperature range RT--740 {degree}C (RT denotes room temperature). The main fraction of probes are located in perfect-lattice sites, with null electric field gradient in agreement with crystalline-structure considerations. Around 25% of the total intensity shows an electric-field-gradient distribution around {ital V}{sub {ital zz}}=0. This corresponds to probes located in sites perturbed by the vicinity of oxygen vacancies in the lattice. The temperature-independent behavior of the measured hyperfine parameters is discussed in terms of conductivity and band-structure properties of the semiconductor. No time-dependent interaction arising from nuclear electron-capture aftereffects are seen in this experiment. This is in agreement with a previously reported model of aftereffect processes which states that only holes trapped in impurity levels inside the band gap of the semiconductor can give rise to detectable fluctuating interactions.

  14. Arsenic mediated reconstructions on cubic (001) GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuillet, G.; Hamaguchi, H.; Ohta, K.; Hacke, P.; Okumura, H.; Yoshida, S. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, 1-1-4 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305 (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The 4{times}1 (respectively 1{times}1) (001) GaN surfaces obtained when molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) growth is carried out on (001) cubic SiC were exposed to an As background pressure in the MBE chamber: The reconstructions rapidly and irreversibly changed to 2{times}2 [respectively {ital c}(2{times}2)] as usually observed for GaN growth on (001) GaAs. The usual reversible 2{times}2/{ital c}(2{times}2) transitions were consequently observed when bringing the Ga flux up or down. The respective positions for the 4{times}1/1{times}1 and 2{times}2/{ital c}(2{times}2) transitions were worked out as a function of the growth parameters. These observations indicate that the 2{times}2 and {ital c}(2{times}2) GaN surface reconstructions are mediated by As atoms which we tentatively assign to a surfactant effect. A simple structural model involving As dimers is proposed that accounts for Ga coverages of 0.5 and 1 monolayer for the 2{times}2 and {ital c}(2{times}2) growth regimes, respectively. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Modeling and testing treated tumor growth using cubic smoothing splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Maiying; Yan, Jun

    2011-07-01

    Human tumor xenograft models are often used in preclinical study to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of a certain compound or a combination of certain compounds. In a typical human tumor xenograft model, human carcinoma cells are implanted to subjects such as severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Treatment with test compounds is initiated after tumor nodule has appeared, and continued for a certain time period. Tumor volumes are measured over the duration of the experiment. It is well known that untreated tumor growth may follow certain patterns, which can be described by certain mathematical models. However, the growth patterns of the treated tumors with multiple treatment episodes are quite complex, and the usage of parametric models is limited. We propose using cubic smoothing splines to describe tumor growth for each treatment group and for each subject, respectively. The proposed smoothing splines are quite flexible in modeling different growth patterns. In addition, using this procedure, we can obtain tumor growth and growth rate over time for each treatment group and for each subject, and examine whether tumor growth follows certain growth pattern. To examine the overall treatment effect and group differences, the scaled chi-squared test statistics based on the fitted group-level growth curves are proposed. A case study is provided to illustrate the application of this method, and simulations are carried out to examine the performances of the scaled chi-squared tests. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Characterizing vaccine-associated risks using cubic smoothing splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, M Alan; Walker, Alexander M; Lu, Yun; Polakowski, Laura; Li, Jie; Paeglow, Corrie; Puenpatom, Tosmai; Izurieta, Hector; Daniel, Gregory W

    2012-11-15

    Estimating risks associated with the use of childhood vaccines is challenging. The authors propose a new approach for studying short-term vaccine-related risks. The method uses a cubic smoothing spline to flexibly estimate the daily risk of an event after vaccination. The predicted incidence rates from the spline regression are then compared with the expected rates under a log-linear trend that excludes the days surrounding vaccination. The 2 models are then used to estimate the excess cumulative incidence attributable to the vaccination during the 42-day period after vaccination. Confidence intervals are obtained using a model-based bootstrap procedure. The method is applied to a study of known effects (positive controls) and expected noneffects (negative controls) of the measles, mumps, and rubella and measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccines among children who are 1 year of age. The splines revealed well-resolved spikes in fever, rash, and adenopathy diagnoses, with the maximum incidence occurring between 9 and 11 days after vaccination. For the negative control outcomes, the spline model yielded a predicted incidence more consistent with the modeled day-specific risks, although there was evidence of increased risk of diagnoses of congenital malformations after vaccination, possibly because of a "provider visit effect." The proposed approach may be useful for vaccine safety surveillance.

  17. Liquid water in the domain of cubic crystalline ice Ic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, P; Banham, S F; Blake, D F; McCoustra, M R

    1997-07-22

    Vapor-deposited amorphous water ice when warmed above the glass transition temperature (120-140 K), is a viscous liquid which exhibits a viscosity vs temperature relationship different from that of liquid water at room temperature. New studies of thin water ice films now demonstrate that viscous liquid water persists in the temperature range 140-210 K. where it coexists with cubic crystalline ice. The liquid character of amorphous water above the glass transition is demonstrated by (1) changes in the morphology of water ice films on a nonwetting surface observed in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at around 175 K during slow warming, (2) changes in the binding energy of water molecules measured in temperature programmed desorption (TPD) studies, and (3) changes in the shape of the 3.07 micrometers absorption band observed in grazing angle reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) during annealing at high temperature. whereby the decreased roughness of the water surface is thought to cause changes in the selection rules for the excitation of O-H stretch vibrations. Because it is present over such a wide range of temperatures, we propose that this form of liquid water is a common material in nature. where it is expected to exist in the subsurface layers of comets and on the surfaces of some planets and satellites.

  18. Plasmon polaritons in cubic lattices of spherical metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamowski, Simon; Mann, Charlie-Ray; Hellbach, Felicitas; Mariani, Eros; Weick, Guillaume; Pauly, Fabian

    2018-03-01

    We theoretically investigate plasmon polaritons in cubic lattices of spherical metallic nanoparticles. The nanoparticles, each supporting triply-degenerate localized surface plasmons, couple through the Coulomb dipole-dipole interaction, giving rise to collective plasmons that extend over the whole metamaterial. The latter hybridize with photons forming plasmon polaritons, which are the hybrid light-matter eigenmodes of the system. We derive general analytical expressions to evaluate both plasmon and plasmon-polariton dispersions and the corresponding eigenstates. These are obtained within a Hamiltonian formalism, which takes into account retardation effects in the dipolar interaction between the nanoparticles and considers the dielectric properties of the nanoparticles as well as their surrounding. Within this model we predict polaritonic splittings in the near-infrared to the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum that depend on polarization, lattice symmetry, and wave-vector direction. Finally, we show that the predictions of our model are in excellent quantitative agreement with conventional finite-difference frequency-domain simulations, but with the advantages of analytical insight and significantly reduced computational cost.

  19. Serial femtosecond crystallography of soluble proteins in lipidic cubic phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromme, Raimund; Ishchenko, Andrii; Metz, Markus; Chowdhury, Shatabdi Roy; Basu, Shibom; Boutet, Sébastien; Fromme, Petra; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Spence, John C. H.; Weierstall, Uwe; Liu, Wei; Cherezov, Vadim

    2015-08-04

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) enables high-resolution protein structure determination using micrometre-sized crystals at room temperature with minimal effects from radiation damage. SFX requires a steady supply of microcrystals intersecting the XFEL beam at random orientations. An LCP–SFX method has recently been introduced in which microcrystals of membrane proteins are grown and delivered for SFX data collection inside a gel-like membrane-mimetic matrix, known as lipidic cubic phase (LCP), using a special LCP microextrusion injector. Here, it is demonstrated that LCP can also be used as a suitable carrier medium for microcrystals of soluble proteins, enabling a dramatic reduction in the amount of crystallized protein required for data collection compared with crystals delivered by liquid injectors. High-quality LCP–SFX data sets were collected for two soluble proteins, lysozyme and phycocyanin, using less than 0.1 mg of each protein.

  20. Twinning of cubic diamond explains reported nanodiamond polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Péter; Garvie, Laurence A J; Buseck, Peter R

    2015-12-16

    The unusual physical properties and formation conditions attributed to h-, i-, m-, and n-nanodiamond polymorphs has resulted in their receiving much attention in the materials and planetary science literature. Their identification is based on diffraction features that are absent in ordinary cubic (c-) diamond (space group: Fd-3m). We show, using ultra-high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images of natural and synthetic nanodiamonds, that the diffraction features attributed to the reported polymorphs are consistent with c-diamond containing abundant defects. Combinations of {113} reflection and rotation twins produce HRTEM images and d-spacings that match those attributed to h-, i-, and m-diamond. The diagnostic features of n-diamond in TEM images can arise from thickness effects of c-diamonds. Our data and interpretations strongly suggest that the reported nanodiamond polymorphs are in fact twinned c-diamond. We also report a new type of twin ( rotational), which can give rise to grains with dodecagonal symmetry. Our results show that twins are widespread in diamond nanocrystals. A high density of twins could strongly influence their applications.

  1. Non-spherical micelles in an oil-in-water cubic phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leaver, M.; Rajagopalan, V.; Ulf, O.

    2000-01-01

    The cubic phase formed between the microemulsion and hexagonal phases of the ternary pentaethylene glycol dodecyl ether (C12E5)-decane-water system and that doped with small amounts of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) have been investigated. The presence of discrete oil-swollen micelles in the cubic...... phase, both with and without SDS, was established by NMR self-diffusion. In addition H-2 NMR relaxation experiments have demonstrated that the micelles in the cubic phase are non-spherical, having grown and changed shape upon formation of the cubic phase from the micellar solution. Small angle...... associated with the micellar cubic phase, Pm3n and Fd3m. The micellar volumes calculated for these space groups are similar and are consistent with a change in micellar geometry from spherical to prolate....

  2. Re-sintered boron-rich polycrystalline cubic boron nitride and method for making same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavens, T.R.; Corrigan, F.R.; Shott, R.L.; Bovenkerk, H.P.

    1987-06-16

    A method is described for making re-sintered polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (CBN) which comprises: (a) placing sintered substantially catalyst-free boron-rich polycrystalline cubic boron nitride particles in a high pressure/high temperature apparatus, the particles being substantially free of sintering inhibiting impurities; (b) subjecting the boron-rich cubic boron nitride particles to a pressure and a temperature adequate to re-sinter the particles, the temperature being below the CBN reconversion temperature; (c) maintaining the temperature and pressure for a time sufficient to re-sinter the boron-rich cubic boron nitride particles in the apparatus, and (d) recovering the re-sintered polycrystalline cubic boron nitride from the apparatus.

  3. Investigation and analysis of industrial power meters in industrial plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretorius, J.H.C.; Modipane, K.C.; Dewerajram, H. [Johannesburg Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Science

    2008-07-01

    An increase in the harmonics produced by electrical equipment is having a significant impact on the power quality of electrical networks. An analysis of industrial power meters in the presence of unbalanced 3-phase systems and harmonics was presented. The meters were used to analyze the alternating current systems of 2 networks coupled to the same bus. Measurements were taken at the generator, on the primary side of the 400 V/11 kV step-up, and after the motor-generator set transformer. The active, reactive, and apparent power calculations of a power meter and a reference Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) power meter were presented. Current and voltage waveforms were compared. The evaluation demonstrated a significant difference in reactive power as a result of the different reactive power calculation methods. A further comparison with a different meter demonstrated significant differences in phase value calculations. Results of the study suggested that the accuracy of power meters is influenced by the calculation methods used. Further studies are needed to assess the accuracy of reactive power measurements for power meters. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. Design and Implementation of Enhanced Smart Energy Metering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oday A.L.A Ridha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the design and implementation of a smart energy metering system has been developed. This system consists of two parts: billing center and a set of distributed smart energy meters. The function of smart energy meter is measuring and calculating the cost of consumed energy according to a multi-tariff scheme. This can be effectively solving the problem of stressing the electrical grid and rising consumer awareness. Moreover, smart energy meter decreases technical losses by improving power factor. The function of the billing center is to issue a consumer bill and contributes in locating the irregularities on the electrical grid (non-technical losses. Moreover, it sends the switch off command in case of the consumer bill is not paid. For implementation of smart energy meter, the microcontroller (PIC 18F45K22 is used. For communication between billing center and smart energy meters, ZigBee technology is adopted. The necessary program for smart energy meter is written in MicroC PRO, while the program for billing center is written in visual C#.

  5. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunickis, M.; Dandens, A.; Bariss, U.

    2015-12-01

    Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale. Several pilot projects were implemented to verify the feasibility of smart meters for individual consumer groups. Preliminary calculations indicate that installation of smart meters for approximately 23 % of electricity consumers would be economically viable. Currently, the data for the last two years is available for an in-depth mathematical analysis. The continuous analysis of consumption data would be established, when more measurements from smart meters are available. The extent of introduction of smart meters should be specified during this process in order to gain the maximum benefit for the whole society (consumers, grid companies, state authorities), because there are still many uncertain and variable factors. For example, it is necessary to consider statistical load variations by hour, dependence of electricity consumption on temperature fluctuations, consumer behaviour and demand response to market signals to reduce electricity consumption in the short and long term, consumer's ambitions and capability to install home automation for regulation of electricity consumption. To develop the demand response, it is necessary to analyse the whole array of additional factors, such as expected cost reduction of smart meters, possible extension of their functionality, further development of information exchange systems, as well as standard requirements and different political and regulatory decisions regarding the reduction of electricity consumption and energy efficiency.

  6. Galaxy evolution. Evidence for mature bulges and an inside-out quenching phase 3 billion years after the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacchella, S; Carollo, C M; Renzini, A; Förster Schreiber, N M; Lang, P; Wuyts, S; Cresci, G; Dekel, A; Genzel, R; Lilly, S J; Mancini, C; Newman, S; Onodera, M; Shapley, A; Tacconi, L; Woo, J; Zamorani, G

    2015-04-17

    Most present-day galaxies with stellar masses ≥10(11) solar masses show no ongoing star formation and are dense spheroids. Ten billion years ago, similarly massive galaxies were typically forming stars at rates of hundreds solar masses per year. It is debated how star formation ceased, on which time scales, and how this "quenching" relates to the emergence of dense spheroids. We measured stellar mass and star-formation rate surface density distributions in star-forming galaxies at redshift 2.2 with ~1-kiloparsec resolution. We find that, in the most massive galaxies, star formation is quenched from the inside out, on time scales less than 1 billion years in the inner regions, up to a few billion years in the outer disks. These galaxies sustain high star-formation activity at large radii, while hosting fully grown and already quenched bulges in their cores. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. AREVA - First quarter 2011 revenue: 2.7% growth like for like to 1.979 billion euros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The group reported consolidated revenue of 1.979 billion euros in the 1. quarter of 2011, for 2.2% growth compared with the 1. quarter of 2010 (+ 2.7% like for like). The increase was driven by the Mining / Front End Business Group (+ 20.8% LFL). Revenue from outside France rose 12.0% to 1.22 billion euros and represented 62% of total revenue. The impacts of foreign exchange and changes in consolidation scope were negligible during the period. The March 11 events in Japan had no significant impact on the group's performance in the 1. quarter of 2011. The group's backlog of 43.5 billion euros at March 31, 2011 was stable in relation to March 31, 2010. The growth in the backlog of the Mining / Front End and Renewable Energies Business Groups offset the partial depletion of the backlog in the Reactors and Services and Back End Business Groups as contracts were completed

  8. Backlog at December 31, 2007: euro 39,8 billion, up by 55% from year-end 2006. 2007 sales revenue: euro 11.9 billion, up by 9.8% (+10.4% like-for-like)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The AREVA group's backlog reached a record level of euro 39.834 billion as of December 31, 2007, up by 55% from that of year-end 2006. In Nuclear, the backlog was euro 34.927 billion at year-end 2007 (+58%), due in particular to the signature of a contract in a record amount with the Chinese utility CGNPC. The series of agreements concluded provide among other things for the construction of two new-generation EPR nuclear islands and the supply of all of the materials and services needed for their operation through 2027. CGNPC also bought 35% of the production of UraMin, the mining company acquired by AREVA in August 2007. Industrial cooperation in the Back End of the cycle was launched with the signature of an agreement between China and France. In addition, the group signed several long-term contracts in significant amounts, particularly with KHNP of South Korea, EDF and Japanese utilities. The Transmission and Distribution division won several major contracts in Libya and Qatar at the end of the year approaching a total of euro 750 million. For the entire year, new orders grew by 34% to euro 5.816 billion. The backlog, meanwhile, grew by 40% to euro 4.906 billion at year-end. The group cleared sales revenue of euro 11.923 billion in 2007, up by 9.8% (+10.4% like-for-like) in relation to 2006 sales of euro 10.863 billion. Sales revenue for the 4. quarter of 2007 rose to euro 3.858 billion, for growth of 16.7% (+18.8% like-for-like) over one year. Sales revenue for the year was marked by: - Growth of 7.6% (+10.6% like-for-like) in Front End sales revenue, which rose to euro 3.140 billion. The division's Enrichment operations posted strong growth. - Sales were up by 17.5% (+15.2% like-for-like) to euro 2.717 billion in the Reactors and Services division. Sales revenue was driven in particular by the growth of Services operations, after weak demand in 2006, by progress on OL3 construction, and by the start of Flamanville 3, the second EPR. For the Back End division

  9. Liquid ultrasonic flow meters for crude oil measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalivoda, Raymond J.; Lunde, Per

    2005-07-01

    Liquid ultrasonic flow meters (LUFMs) are gaining popularity for the accurate measurement of petroleum products. In North America the first edition of the API standard ''Measurement of liquid hydrocarbons by ultrasonic flow meters using transit time technology'' was issued in February 2005. It addresses both refined petroleum products and crude oil applications. Its field of application is mainly custody transfer applications but it does provide general guidelines for the installation and operation of LUFM's other applications such as allocation, check meters and leak detection. As with all new technologies performance claims are at times exaggerated or misunderstood and application knowledge is limited. Since ultrasonic meters have no moving parts they appear to have fewer limitations than other liquid flow meters. Liquids ultrasonic flow meters, like turbine meters, are sensitive to fluid properties. It is increasingly more difficult to apply on high viscosity products then on lighter hydrocarbon products. Therefore application data or experience on the measurement of refined or light crude oil may not necessarily be transferred to measuring medium to heavy crude oils. Before better and more quantitative knowledge is available on how LUFMs react on different fluids, the arguments advocating reduced need for in-situ proving and increased dependency on laboratory flow calibration (e.g. using water instead of hydrocarbons) may be questionable. The present paper explores the accurate measurement of crude oil with liquid ultrasonic meters. It defines the unique characteristics of the different API grades of crude oils and how they can affect the accuracy of the liquid ultrasonic measurement. Flow testing results using a new LUFM design are discussed. The paper is intended to provide increased insight into the potentials and limitations of crude oil measurement using ultrasonic flow meters. (author) (tk)

  10. Weather Impact on Airport Arrival Meter Fix Throughput

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Time-based flow management provides arrival aircraft schedules based on arrival airport conditions, airport capacity, required spacing, and weather conditions. In order to meet a scheduled time at which arrival aircraft can cross an airport arrival meter fix prior to entering the airport terminal airspace, air traffic controllers make regulations on air traffic. Severe weather may create an airport arrival bottleneck if one or more of airport arrival meter fixes are partially or completely blocked by the weather and the arrival demand has not been reduced accordingly. Under these conditions, aircraft are frequently being put in holding patterns until they can be rerouted. A model that predicts the weather impacted meter fix throughput may help air traffic controllers direct arrival flows into the airport more efficiently, minimizing arrival meter fix congestion. This paper presents an analysis of air traffic flows across arrival meter fixes at the Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR). Several scenarios of weather impacted EWR arrival fix flows are described. Furthermore, multiple linear regression and regression tree ensemble learning approaches for translating multiple sector Weather Impacted Traffic Indexes (WITI) to EWR arrival meter fix throughputs are examined. These weather translation models are developed and validated using the EWR arrival flight and weather data for the period of April-September in 2014. This study also compares the performance of the regression tree ensemble with traditional multiple linear regression models for estimating the weather impacted throughputs at each of the EWR arrival meter fixes. For all meter fixes investigated, the results from the regression tree ensemble weather translation models show a stronger correlation between model outputs and observed meter fix throughputs than that produced from multiple linear regression method.

  11. Metering: EU policy and implications for fuel poor households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Fuel poverty is a function of household energy consumption, income, and the cost of delivered energy. The paper discusses ways in which current EU policy on the development of ‘smart’ metering could affect fuel poor households. The main focus is on developments in electricity metering and the development of ‘active demand’ and smart grids, so that demand can be matched closely with available supply. Advances in metering and related technologies open the way to time-of-use charging, easier switching between suppliers and between credit payment and prepayment, direct load control of some end-uses by the utility, greater scope for microgeneration, and improved consumption feedback for customers. These options open up both uncertainties and risks. The paper offers definitions and discussion of various functions of smart metering, summarizes the EU policy background, and considers some possible equity implications of rolling out a new generation of meters. There follows an assessment of potential implications to the fuel poor of changes to metering, based on a review of the literature on energy feedback, tariffing, and supplier–customer relationships. Much of the discussion is based on the UK experience, with examples from other EU member states and, where appropriate, from other parts of the world. - Highlights: ► Smart meters are part of general upgrading of electricity and gas networks. ► EU policy is to roll out the meters to 80%+ of the population by 2020. ► Improved feedback and prepayment metering may benefit the fuel poor. ► Remote disconnection and data privacy are issues for all consumers. ► We need careful assessment of potential gains and losses to the fuel poor.

  12. Checking liquid meters. Marketers find ''master meter program'' provides reliable, economical method to check truck meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lady, P.

    1976-08-01

    With LP-gas prices continuing to increase, LP-gas marketers are becoming increasingly aware of the need for testing liquid meters on trucks used for delivering bulk propane. Many large marketers are aware of the need for consistent testing and are establishing periodic programs for their truck fleets. Because the official test equipment--the volumetric meter power--is expensive and requires a highly trained operator, many dealers are seeking simpler, less expensive testing methods to make sure that their meters are dispensing fuel. The more accurate of the two alternative methods is a master meter which has been calibrated against a prover and whose variations are known for different flow rates. The method's main disadvantage is the possibility that the master meter might be in error. The last method, which uses truck scales, is the least expensive and most readily available to all operators but also is the least accurate and is time-consuming, especially in low-flow tests.

  13. Topology-Based Estimation of Missing Smart Meter Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kodaira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart meters often fail to measure or transmit the data they record when measuring energy consumption, known as meter readings, owing to faulty measuring equipment or unreliable communication modules. Existing studies do not address successive and non-periodical missing meter readings. This paper proposes a method whereby missing readings observed at a node are estimated by using circuit theory principles that leverage the voltage and current data from adjacent nodes. A case study is used to demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to successfully estimate the missing readings over an entire day during which outages and unpredictable perturbations occurred.

  14. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  15. Federal metering data analysis needs and existing tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fowler, Kimberly M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Agencies have been working to improve their metering data collection, management, and analysis efforts over the last decade (since EPAct 2005) and will continue to address these challenges as new requirements and data needs come into place. Unfortunately there is no “one-size-fits-all” solution. As agencies continue to expand their capabilities to use metered consumption data to reducing resource use and improve operations, the hope is that shared knowledge will empower others to follow suit. This paper discusses the Federal metering data analysis needs and some existing tools.

  16. Hybrid TLC-pair meter for the Sphinx Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, T.; Yamamoto, I.; Takahashi, N.; Misaki, A.

    1985-01-01

    The chief aims in THE SPHINX PROJECT are research of super lepton physics and new detector experiments. At the second phase of THE SPHINX PROJECT, a hybrid TLC-PAIR METER was designed for measuring high energy neutrino sources (E upsilon * TeV), searching high energy muon sources (E mu TeV) and measuring muon group (E mu 1 TeV). The principle of PAIR METER has been already proposed. In this TLC-PAIR METER, electromagnetic shower induced by cosmic ray muons are detected using TL (Thermoluminescence) sheets with position counters.

  17. Hybrid TLC-pair meter for the Sphinx Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, T.; Yamamoto, I.; Takahashi, N.; Misaki, A.

    1985-01-01

    The chief aims in the Sphinx Project are research on super lepton physics and new detector experiments. In the second phase of the Sphinx Project, a hybrid TLC-pair meter was designed for measuring for high energy neutrino sources (E upsilon * TeV), searching high energy muon sources (E mu TeV), and measuring muon groups (E mu 1 TeV). The principle of the pair meter has been already proposed. In this TLC pair meter, electromagnetic showers induced by cosmic ray muons are detected using thermoluminescene sheets with position counters

  18. X-ray intensifying screen visible light detection meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, D; Eisenhuth, J; Knight, P; Bui, Q

    1997-06-01

    A light meter has been designed and built for the purpose of measuring the light emitted from an intensifying screen during x-ray irradiation. The meter uses a photodiode detector with a minimal drift amplification system. The meter repeatability was better than 0.5% and was found to be linear. A significant x-ray induced signal was recorded during measurement which needed to be subtracted from readings to deduce the intensification screen light output. The energy response of four screen types was subsequently measured.

  19. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decisionmaking......, mainly due to privacy issues. This paper proposes a smart meter data generator that can generate realistic energy consumption data by making use of a small real-world data set as seed. The generator generates data using a prediction-based method that depends on historical energy consumption patterns...

  20. U.S. Air Force Spent Billions on F117 Engine Sustainment Without Knowing What a Fair Price Was

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-11

    reasonable. It states that “the fact that a price is included in a catalog does not, in and of itself, make it fair and reasonable” and further refers ...No. DODIG-2016-059 M A R C H 1 1 , 2 0 1 6 U.S. Air Force Spent Billions on F117 Engine Sustainment Without Knowing What a Fair Price Was FOR...i Results in Brief U.S. Air Force Spent Billions on F117 Engine Sustainment Without Knowing What a Fair Price Was Visit us at www.dodig.mil

  1. Layout finishing of a 28nm, 3 billions transistors, multi-core processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey-Chaisemartin, Philippe; Beisser, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Designing a fully new 256 cores processor is a great challenge for a fabless startup. In addition to all architecture, functionalities and timing issues, the layout by itself is a bottleneck due to all the process constraints of a 28nm technology. As developers of advanced layout finishing solutions, we were involved in the design flow of this huge chip with its 3 billions transistors. We had to face the issue of dummy patterns instantiation with respect to design constraints. All the design rules to generate the "dummies" are clearly defined in the Design Rule Manual, and some automatic procedures are provided by the foundry itself, but these routines don't take care of the designer requests. Such a chip, embeds both digital parts and analog modules for clock and power management. These two different type of designs have each their own set of constraints. In both cases, the insertion of dummies should not introduce unexpected variations leading to malfunctions. For example, on digital parts were signal race conditions are critical on long wires or bus, introduction of uncontrolled parasitic along these nets are highly critical. For analog devices such as high frequency and high sensitivity comparators, the exact symmetry of the two parts of a current mirror generator should be guaranteed. Thanks to the easily customizable features of our dummies insertion tool, we were able to configure it in order to meet all the designer requirements as well as the process constraints. This paper will present all these advanced key features as well as the layout tricks used to fulfill all requirements.

  2. No Photon Left Behind: How Billions of Spectral Lines are Transforming Planetary Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Geronimo L.

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of realistic potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment surface (DMS) descriptions, theoretically computed linelists can now synthesize accurate spectral parameters for billions of spectral lines sampling the untamed high-energy molecular domain. Being the initial driver for these databases the characterization of stellar spectra, these theoretical databases, in combination with decades of precise experimental studies (nicely compiled in community databases such as HITRAN and GEISA), are leading to unprecedented precisions in the characterization of planetary atmospheres. Cometary sciences are among the most affected by this spectroscopic revolution. Even though comets are relatively cold bodies (T˜100 K), their infrared molecular emission is mainly defined by non-LTE solar fluorescence induced by a high-energy source (Sun, T˜5600 K). In order to interpret high-resolution spectra of comets acquired with extremely powerful telescopes (e.g., Keck, VLT, NASA-IRTF), we have developed advanced non-LTE fluorescence models that integrate the high-energy dynamic range of ab-initio databases (e.g., BT2, VTT, HPT2, BYTe, TROVE) and the precision of laboratory and semi-empirical compilations (e.g., HITRAN, GEISA, CDMS, WKMC, SELP, IUPAC). These new models allow us to calculate realistic non-LTE pumps, cascades, branching-ratios, and emission rates for a broad range of excitation regimes for H2O, HDO, HCN, HNC and NH3. We have implemented elements of these compilations to the study of Mars spectra, and we are now exploring its application to modeling non-LTE emission in exoplanets. In this presentation, we present application of these advanced models to interpret highresolution spectra of comets, Mars and exoplanets.

  3. KONDISI PENCEMARAN GAS NITROGEN DIOKSIDA DI UDARA JAKARTA PADA TITIK NOL METER DAN 120 METER DARI JALAN RAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Martono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available On the distance of 0 and 120 meters from main roads, it had been performed a survey to assess the quality of ambient air in Jakarta. Ambient air samples were collected from 21 sampling points with the distance of 0 meter and 120 meters from main roads respectively. The highest average content of N02 gas in ambient air both on 0 meter and 120 meters from the main road was in Central Jakarta. The highest difference ofN02 gas content between the two sampling points was in West Jakarta (28.27 %, and the lowest one was in North Jakarta (11.73 %. In whole areas of Jakarta, the average content of NO2 gas was 18.89 pg/cu.m (0 meter, and 15.44 pg/cu.m (120 meters, so the difference of the gas content between the two sampling points was 18.26 %. The difference of the NO2 gas content means between the two sampling sites was not significant. Controlling the gas pollution should be addressed to mobile and constant sources of the gas emission.

  4. Evaluation of PLC systems for smart metering; Evaluation von PLC-Uebertragungssystemen fuer Smart Metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Michael; Sigle, Martin; Dostert, Klaus [KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Industrielle Informationstechnik

    2010-07-01

    Information and communication technologies are the basis for implementing Smart Grids. Currently, there is great demand for communications solutions that allow for interconnecting smart energy meters in particular. The users' interests focus on Power Line Communication due to economic considerations. Despite a large and even growing number of PLC-based data transmission technology, however, only few reliable information about the system performance is available to potential users. As a first step, it is therefore necessary to identify the actually achievable system performance of different communication systems. In this article, we describe two approaches for evaluating the performance of PLC systems taking into account the unique physical properties of the transmission channel. In addition, we present evaluation results that provide a basis for a realistic assessment of the potential of communication technology based on PLC. (orig.)

  5. Atomistic simulation of fatigue in face centred cubic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Zhengxuan

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the major damage mechanisms of metals. It is characterized by strong environmental effects and wide lifetime dispersions which must be better understood. Different face centred cubic metals, al, Cu, Ni, and Ag are analyzed. The mechanical behaviour of surface steps naturally created by the glide of dislocations subjected to cyclic loading is examined using molecular dynamics simulations in vacuum and in air for Cu and Ni. an atomistic reconstruction phenomenon is observed at these surface steps which can induce strong irreversibility. Three different mechanisms of reconstruction are defined. Surface slip irreversibility under cyclic loading is analyzed. all surface steps are intrinsically irreversible under usual fatigue laboratory loading amplitude without the arrival of opposite sign dislocations on direct neighbor plane.With opposite sign dislocations on non direct neighbour planes, irreversibility cumulates cycle by cycle and a micro-notch is produced whose depth gradually increases.Oxygen environment affects the surface (first stage of oxidation) but does not lead to higher irreversibility as it has no major influence on the different mechanisms linked to surface relief evolution.a rough estimation of surface irreversibility is carried out for pure edge dislocations in persistent slip bands in so-called wavy materials. It gives an irreversibility fraction between 0.5 and 0.75 in copper in vacuum and in air, in agreement with recent atomic force microscopy measurements.Crack propagation mechanisms are simulated in inert environment. Cracks can propagate owing to the irreversibility of generated dislocations because of their mutual interactions up to the formation of dislocation junctions. (author) [fr

  6. Study of nonlinear waves described by the cubic Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walstead, A.E.

    1980-03-12

    The cubic Schroedinger equation (CSE) is ubiquitous as a model equation for the long-time evolution of finite-amplitude near-monochromatic dispersive waves. It incorporates the effects of the radiation field pressure on the constitutive properties of the supporting medium in a self-consistent manner. The properties of the uniformly transiating periodic wave solutions of the one-dimensional CSE are studied here. These (so-called cnoidal) waves are characterized by the values of four parameters. Whitham's averaged variational principle is used to derive a system of quasilinear evolution equations (the modulational equations) for the values of these parameters when they are slowly varying in space and time. Explicit expressions for the characteristic velocities of the modulational equations are obtained for the full set of cnoidal waves. Riemann invariants are obtained for several limits for the stable case, and growth rates are obtained for several limits, including the solitary wave chain, for the unstable case. The results for several nontrivial limiting cases agree with those obtained by independent methods by others. The dynamics of the CSE generalized to two spatial dimensions are studied for the unstable case. A large class of similarity solutions with cylindrical symmetry are obtained systematically using infinitesimal transformation group techniques. The methods are adapted to obtain the symmetries of the action functional of the CSE and to deduce nine integral invariants. A numerical study of the self-similar solutions reveals that they are modulationally unstable and that singularities dominate the dynamics of the CSE in two dimensions. The CSE is derived using perturbation theory for a specific problem in plasma physics: the evolution of the envelope of a near-monochromatic electromagnetic wave in a cold magnetized plasma. 13 figures, 2 tables.

  7. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of cloud computing and In-ternet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decision......-making. Now-a-days, smart meter analytics systems consist of analytical algorithms that process massive amounts of data. These analytics algorithms require ample amounts of realistic data for testing and verification purposes. However, it is usually difficult to obtain adequate amounts of realistic data......, mainly due to privacy issues. This paper proposes a smart meter data generator that can generate realistic energy consumption data by making use of a small real-world dataset as seed. The generator generates data using a prediction-based method that depends on historical energy consumption patterns along...

  8. Radiofrequency fields associated with the Itron smart meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tell, R. A.; Sias, G. G.; Vazquez, A.; Sahl, J.; Turman, J. P.; Kavet, R. I.; Mezei, G.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined radiofrequency (RF) emissions from smart electric power meters deployed in two service territories in California for the purpose of evaluating potential human exposure. These meters included transmitters operating in a local area mesh network (RF LAN, ∼250 mW); a cell relay, which uses a wireless wide area network (WWAN, ∼1 W); and a transmitter serving a home area network (HAN, ∼70 mW). In all instances, RF fields were found to comply by a wide margin with the RF exposure limits established by the US Federal Communications Commission. The study included specialised measurement techniques and reported the spatial distribution of the fields near the meters and their duty cycles (typically <1 %) whose value is crucial to assessing time-averaged exposure levels. This study is the first to characterise smart meters as deployed. However, the results are restricted to a single manufacturer's emitters. (authors)

  9. Radiofrequency fields associated with the Itron smart meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, R A; Sias, G G; Vazquez, A; Sahl, J; Turman, J P; Kavet, R I; Mezei, G

    2012-08-01

    This study examined radiofrequency (RF) emissions from smart electric power meters deployed in two service territories in California for the purpose of evaluating potential human exposure. These meters included transmitters operating in a local area mesh network (RF LAN, ∼250 mW); a cell relay, which uses a wireless wide area network (WWAN, ∼1 W); and a transmitter serving a home area network (HAN, ∼70 mW). In all instances, RF fields were found to comply by a wide margin with the RF exposure limits established by the US Federal Communications Commission. The study included specialised measurement techniques and reported the spatial distribution of the fields near the meters and their duty cycles (typically smart meters as deployed. However, the results are restricted to a single manufacturer's emitters.

  10. Smarter energy from smart metering to the smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Hongjian; Poor, H Vincent; Carpanini, Laurence; Fornié, Miguel Angel Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge perspectives and research results in smart energy spanning multiple disciplines across four main topics: smart metering, smart grid modeling, control and optimisation, and smart grid communications and networking.

  11. Solutions For Smart Metering Under Harsh Environmental Condicions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunicina N.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The described case study concerns application of wireless sensor networks to the smart control of power supply substations. The solution proposed for metering is based on the modular principle and has been tested in the intersystem communication paradigm using selectable interface modules (IEEE 802.3, ISM radio interface, GSM/GPRS. The solution modularity gives 7 % savings of maintenance costs. The developed solution can be applied to the control of different critical infrastructure networks using adapted modules. The proposed smart metering is suitable for outdoor installation, indoor industrial installations, operation under electromagnetic pollution, temperature and humidity impact. The results of tests have shown a good electromagnetic compatibility of the prototype meter with other electronic devices. The metering procedure is exemplified by operation of a testing company's workers under harsh environmental conditions.

  12. Pulse counting period meter output during startup transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, J.D.

    1962-12-01

    The time response of a period meter whose input signal comes from a pulse counting channel may be calculated using a Ferranti Mercury autocode programme details of which are given. The period meter considered is the type for which the logarithmic characteristic is approximated by several diode pump circuits. The input excitation is a terminated ramp of reactivity. Other reactivity inputs may be treated. In particular the step change of reactivity may be used as the input excitation. Allowance is made for the effective time constants of the diode pump circuits and the period meter. The programme may be used for instrument assessment and for safety and operations studies on reactors which use this type of period meter. An example of the use of the programme is given. (author)

  13. Suppression of radiated emission in fiscal taxi meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong; Yang, Pei-pei; Su, Xing; Zhang, Da-jian; Wang, Ke-xi; Hou, Ming-feng

    2011-12-01

    This paper is based upon National Standards for EMC. For the problem that the intensity of electromagnetic radiation in the meter with the THG at 36MHz is seriously more than National Standards, by studying the theory of radiation emission and analyzing the formation mechanism of electromagnetic radiation interference, it proposes three restrain measures: 1.the improvement of the Crystal oscillator's grounding measure; 2.adding a RC filter circuit to the Crystal oscillator circuit; 3.the improvement of the tax's communication cable, solving the problem that radiation harassment the taxi meter seriously exceeds. The experimental result demonstrates that the radiation intensity of tax meter improved with the general measures meet the requirements of the national standard, making more than 32000 taxes in Tianjin install this green meter, protecting the safety of staff and normal operation of the surrounding equipment.

  14. Quantifying uncertainty contributions for fibre optic power meter calibrations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A fibre optic power meter calibration has several uncertainty contributors associated with it. In order to assign a realistic uncertainty to the calibration result it is necessary to realistically estimate the magnitude of each uncertainty...

  15. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset, 100 meter, Binary V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AG100B.003 dataset was decommissioned as of December 14, 2016. Users are encouraged to use the ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset 100-meter (AG100.003 -...

  16. 10 meter Sub-Orbital Large Balloon Reflector (LBR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the lead NIAC Phase II proposal for “10 meter Sub-Orbital Large Balloon Reflector (LBR)” with Christopher K. Walker as PI. We propose to develop and...

  17. Minnesota Digital Elevation Model - Tiled 93 Meter Resolution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) at a resolution of 93 meters. Original data resolution was 3 arc seconds which corresponds (approximately) to a matrix of points at a...

  18. One-Meter Class Drilling for Planetary Exploration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the proposed effort is to understand and characterize the fundamental limitations of drilling one to three meters into challenging materials which may...

  19. Guanabara Bay and Pecem LNG flexible metering systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Vinicus Roberto C.; Carvalho, Gustavo L.A.; Bruel, Edson L.; Santana, Jose P.C. de; Vidal, Lud C.C.N. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    This work presents to the community the metering systems installed in the Liquefied Natural (LNG) Gas Flexible Terminals of the Pecem Port and Guanabara Bay. A brief description of the Terminals facilities and its operation is firstly made to provide a background of the systems discussed. Then, the LNG custody transfer metering system, the operational control metering system, the energy balance of the LNG transferring system and the Natural Gas custody transfer metering system - that are our systems of interest - are described in detail. It is intended to use the philosophy adopted in the Guanabara Bay and Pecem Flexible Terminals design as a standard to future installations, integrated with improvements brought by the operation experience that will be obtained in those terminals. (author)

  20. Cloud-Based Software Platform for Smart Meter Data Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    their knowledge; scalable data analytics platform for data mining over big data sets for energy demand forecasting and consumption discovering; data as the service for other applications using smart meter data; and a portal for visualizing data analytics results. The design will incorporate hybrid clouds...... of the so-called big data possible. This can improve energy management, e.g., help utility companies to forecast energy loads and improve services, and help households to manage energy usage and save money. As this regard, the proposed paper focuses on building an innovative software platform for smart......Today smart meters are increasingly used in the worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time in- terval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizeable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social...

  1. Chlorophyll meter for estimating nitrogen status of irrigated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schepers, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    Chlorophyll-meter readings, generated from the leaves of irrigated wheat at particular growth stages, were normalized to the data obtained with locally recommended rates of fertilizer N, in Chile China, India and Mexico. Normalizing permitted comparisons of crop-N status across growth stages, locations, cultivars, and years. Relative yields and meter readings at growth-stage Z-50 are presented; they revealed similar trends for India, China, and Chile, however, for Mexico, the combination of soil, wheat cultivar, and climate resulted in much less response to N fertilization in the meter data. The implications are discussed. The SPAD meter proved to be a good tool to monitor and evaluate the N status of irrigated wheat. (author)

  2. Electric Power Substitute Meter Management via Mobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson C. Rodelas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available EPSMvMA is composed of Digital Sub-Meter connected to different components namely the GSM module, Bluetooth module, Power Analyzer Module, LCD Module, Relay Module and Main Microcontroller module. The connection via Mobile is made possible by the modules mentioned. The software that the proponents will be dealing with in the study is C++ language, which will be used in programming the Main Microcontroller module and Visual Basic Language for the Android Phones. The Bluetooth module can access the Android Phones and connect to the digital sub-meter in a limited distance. The users will be at ease since a code embedded to the microcontroller will make the utility sub-meter produce the desired value of electricity (KWH and wherein the computed Sub-meter reading can be viewed through the LCD. This project is accommodating to those person that is always on the go and prudent.

  3. Ramp metering with an objective to reduce fuel consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Woldeab, Zeremariam; de Koning, Anne; Bie, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Ramp meters successfully decrease congestion but leave a burden on the traffic situation at on-ramps. Chaotic queuing leads to many stop-and-go movements and causes inefficiency where fuel consumption is concerned. As part of the eCoMove project, complementary strategies are being designed and evaluated to reduce fuel consumption at metered on-ramps, using vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. This paper presents the design of two strategies, as well as their effect as derived from simulat...

  4. Development of an alternative reactivity meter for nuclear reactor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.S.B.

    1991-01-01

    This work describes an alternative version of the IPEN-CNEN/SP reactivity-meter. This new version utilizes a programmable electrometer (to realize the data acquisition) and a IBM-PC microcomputer to process the reactivity calculation. The aim of development of this alternative reactivity-meter is to have available a equipment of measurements of reactivity in the case of the later version show any problem during an experiment. (author)

  5. 77 FR 15052 - Dataset Workshop-U.S. Billion Dollar Disasters Dataset (1980-2011): Assessing Dataset Strengths...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    .... Pathways to overcome accuracy and bias issues will be an important focus. Participants will consider: Historical development and current state of the U.S. Billion Dollar Disasters Report; What additional data... dataset; Examination of unique uncertainties related to the cost of each of the major types of weather and...

  6. Constraint on a Varying Proton-Electron Mass Ratio 1.5 Billion Years after the Big Bang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagdonaite, J.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Murphy, M.T.; Withmore, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    A molecular hydrogen absorber at a lookback time of 12.4 billion years, corresponding to 10% of the age of the Universe today, is analyzed to put a constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio, μ. A high resolution spectrum of the J1443+2724 quasar, which was observed with the Very Large

  7. Characterization of radiofrequency field emissions from smart meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Richard A; Kavet, Robert; Mezei, Gabor

    2013-01-01

    This study presents measurement data that describe radiofrequency emission levels and patterns from smart meters (rated nominally at 1 W) currently deployed in Pacific Gas and Electric Company's service territory in northern California. The smart meters in our investigation could not be set to operate continuously and required a Field Service Unit to induce short periods of emitted fields. To obtain peak field data under both laboratory and ambient conditions, a spectrum analyzer scanned across the 83 transmitting channels between 902 and 928 MHz used by the smart meter on a random frequency-hopping basis. To obtain data describing temporal emission patterns, the analyzer operated in scope mode. Duty cycle was estimated using transmit data acquired by the system operator from over 88,000 m. Instantaneous peak fields at 0.3 m in front of the meters were no more than 15% of the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) exposure limit for the general public, and 99.9% of the meters operated with a duty cycle of 1.12% or less during the sampling period. In a sample of measurements in six single-detached residences equipped with individual smart meters, no interior measurement of peak field exceeded 1% of the FCC's general public exposure limit.

  8. Smart meter data: Balancing consumer privacy concerns with legitimate applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, Eoghan; Richardson, Ian; Thomson, Murray

    2012-01-01

    Smart meters are being rolled out in large numbers throughout the world, with proponents claiming they are a critical step in the transition to a low-carbon economy. Yet there are significant unresolved negative reactions to smart meters, principally based on the concern that smart meters might be used to infer the private activities that occur within a dwelling. Though smart meter data is classified as personal data, and as such protected under existing data protection frameworks in the EU, there are relevant exceptions, notably where the data is required for legitimate applications associated with the performance of 'regulated duties'. This paper contributes to this debate by examining the data requirements for some of the proposed applications of smart meter data within the electricity supply industry, and investigates whether the use of personal data can be minimized or even avoided. The discussion includes system balancing, demand reduction, demand response and distribution network operation and planning, and indicates that, for most of these applications, the requirements for personal data can indeed be minimized. 'Privacy friendly' alternatives are discussed. - Highlights: ▶ Current smart meter systems provide a strong indication of occupancy. ▶ This will have important implications for external and internal home privacy. ▶ Personal data requirements within legitimate applications are discussed. ▶ 'Privacy friendly' techniques are suggested that minimize the use of personal data. ▶ Distribution network operator has strongest claim for data from each household.

  9. Remote calibration system of a smart electrical energy meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakariae Jebroni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to control the power grid in real time has opened a new field of research, today researchers are trying to design electrical meters that are completely remote controlled, to create an advanced metering infrastructure. One of the most important processes in the field of measurement is the calibration of measuring instruments. The calibration process of the electrical meters was performed at laboratories. However, the new directives, now, require a regular test of accuracy. Nevertheless, moving each time on site to check the accuracy of a meter can be annoying. To solve this problem our contribution is to propose a new structure of a smart meter that integrates a calibration card, so that, this process is carried out remotely. To be able to calibrate the meter or test its accuracy, we have included an AC-AC converter powered by the electrical grid and that provides a stable voltage independent of the electrical grid in term of frequency and amplitude. The output voltage of the converter is used as the reference signal during calibration or accuracy testing. In this paper, we will present the structure of the calibration card, the study and dimensioning of the converter, as well as the control technique used to eliminate variations of the input voltage. At the end, we will present the results of simulations and experiments.

  10. Implementing Project-based Learning in making a weight meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muliawan, W.; Nahar, W. S.; Sebastian, C. E.; Yuliza, E.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    Project-based learning (PjBL) is an activity, which can be done individually or in groups, that goes on over a period of time and its objective can be a product, presentation, or performance. It can make students develop their skills and become more engaged in learning because they can solve problems that are met in real life through a project. The project was a weight meter using a d.c. deflection-type bridge circuit and a VU meter, which was realized by a group of three students (the first three authors). We were of the 2nd year of undergraduate physics program that are taking the Measurement and Data Processing Techniques course in the period of January to April 2015. We worked together with our lecturer and tutor as our advisers. In making the weight meter, we have done the following roles in PjBL: 1. Planning the project and setting a timeline, 2. Doing research, 3. Creating first draft, 4. Rewriting the project report, and 5. Submitting the project. Under the guidance of timeline, the project has been completed timely. A force sensing resistor (FSR) sensor was employed to convert a body mass to resistance of the bridge circuit and the VU meter was modified to be a display of the weight meter. The weight meter could be used to measure a body mass up to 5 kg.

  11. Bicontinuous cubic liquid crystals as sustained delivery systems for peptides and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Shakila B; Boyd, Ben J; Rades, Thomas; Hook, Sarah

    2010-10-01

    Self-assembling lipid-based liquid crystalline systems are a broad and active area of research. Of these mesophases, the cubic phase with its highly twisted bilayer and two non-intersecting water channels has been investigated extensively for drug delivery. The cubic phase has been shown to accommodate and control the release of drugs with varying physicochemical properties. Also, the lipids used to prepare these delivery systems are generally cheap, safe and biodegradable, making these systems highly attractive. Early research investigating the potential of cubic phases as delivery systems showed that several peptides or proteins entrapped within these gel-based systems showed retarded release. Furthermore, entrapment within the cubic phase protected the selected peptide or protein from chemical and physical degradation with its native confirmation and bioactivity retained. In this review, the literature pertaining to the delivery of various bioactives from cubic liquid crystalline phases is examined, with a particular focus on peptides and proteins. The scope and limitations of the cubic phases in this respect and the future of cubic liquid crystalline systems as sustained delivery systems are highlighted. The reader will be able to gain an understanding of the properties of the bicontinuous cubic phase and how its structural attributes make these systems desirable for sustained delivery of bioactives, in particular peptides and proteins, but also how these same structural properties have hindered progress towards clinical applications. Current strategies to overcome these issues will also be discussed. The bicontinuous cubic phase offers great potential in the field of peptide and protein delivery, but limited research in this area precludes definite conclusions to its future in this respect.

  12. Analysing Smart Metering Systems from a Consumer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesudas, Rani

    Many countries are deploying smart meters and Advanced Metering Infrastructure systems as part of demand management and grid modernisation efforts. Several of these projects are facing consumer resistance. The advertised benefits to the consumer appear mainly monetary but detailed analysis shows that financial benefits are hard to realise since the fixed services charges are high. Additionally, the data collected from smart meters have security and privacy implications for the consumer. These projects failed to consider end-users as an important stakeholder group during planning stages resulting in the design and roll-out of expensive systems, which do not demonstrate clear consumer benefits. The overall goal of the research reported in this thesis was to improve the smart metering system to deliver consumer benefits that increase confidence and acceptance of these projects. The smart metering system was examined from an end-user perspective for realistic insights into consumer concerns. Processes from Design Science Research methodology were utilised to conduct this research due to the utilitarian nature of the objective. Consumer segmentation was central to the proposed measures. Initially, a consumer-friendly risk analysis framework was devised, and appropriate requirement elicitation techniques were identified. Control options for smart meter data transfer and storage were explored. Various scenarios were analysed to determine consumer-friendly features in the smart metering system, including control options for smart meter data transfer and storage. Proposed functionalities (billing choices, feedback information and specific configurations to match the needs of different user segments) were studied using the Australian smart metering system. Smart meters vary in capabilities depending on the manufacturer, mode and place of deployment. The research showed that features proposed in this thesis are implementable in smart meters, by examining their applicability

  13. Subsampled open-reference clustering creates consistent, comprehensive OTU definitions and scales to billions of sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Ram Rideout

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a performance-optimized algorithm, subsampled open-reference OTU picking, for assigning marker gene (e.g., 16S rRNA sequences generated on next-generation sequencing platforms to operational taxonomic units (OTUs for microbial community analysis. This algorithm provides benefits over de novo OTU picking (clustering can be performed largely in parallel, reducing runtime and closed-reference OTU picking (all reads are clustered, not only those that match a reference database sequence with high similarity. Because more of our algorithm can be run in parallel relative to “classic” open-reference OTU picking, it makes open-reference OTU picking tractable on massive amplicon sequence data sets (though on smaller data sets, “classic” open-reference OTU clustering is often faster. We illustrate that here by applying it to the first 15,000 samples sequenced for the Earth Microbiome Project (1.3 billion V4 16S rRNA amplicons. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest OTU picking run ever performed, and we estimate that our new algorithm runs in less than 1/5 the time than would be required of “classic” open reference OTU picking. We show that subsampled open-reference OTU picking yields results that are highly correlated with those generated by “classic” open-reference OTU picking through comparisons on three well-studied datasets. An implementation of this algorithm is provided in the popular QIIME software package, which uses uclust for read clustering. All analyses were performed using QIIME’s uclust wrappers, though we provide details (aided by the open-source code in our GitHub repository that will allow implementation of subsampled open-reference OTU picking independently of QIIME (e.g., in a compiled programming language, where runtimes should be further reduced. Our analyses should generalize to other implementations of these OTU picking algorithms. Finally, we present a comparison of parameter settings in

  14. The Other Inconvenient Truth: Feeding 9 Billion While Sustaining the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    As the international community focuses on climate change as the great challenge of our era, we have been largely ignoring another looming problem — the global crisis in agriculture, food security and the environment. Our use of land, particularly for agriculture, is absolutely essential to the success of the human race: we depend on agriculture to supply us with food, feed, fiber, and, increasingly, biofuels. Without a highly efficient, productive, and resilient agricultural system, our society would collapse almost overnight. But we are demanding more and more from our global agricultural systems, pushing them to their very limits. Continued population growth (adding more than 70 million people to the world every year), changing dietary preferences (including more meat and dairy consumption), rising energy prices, and increasing needs for bioenergy sources are putting tremendous pressure on the world’s resources. And, if we want any hope of keeping up with these demands, we’ll need to double the agricultural production of the planet in the next 30 to 40 years. Meeting these huge new agricultural demands will be one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. At present, it is completely unclear how (and if) we can do it. If this wasn’t enough, we must also address the massive environmental impacts of our current agricultural practices, which new evidence indicates rival the impacts of climate change. Simply put, providing for the basic needs of 9 billion-plus people, without ruining the biosphere in the process, will be one of the greatest challenges our species has ever faced. In this presentation, I will present a new framework for evaluating and assessing global patterns of agriculture, food / fiber / fuel production, and their relationship to the earth system, particularly in terms of changing stocks and flows of water, nutrients and carbon in our planetary environment. This framework aims to help us manage the challenges of increasing global food

  15. Strongly baryon-dominated disk galaxies at the peak of galaxy formation ten billion years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzel, R; Schreiber, N M Förster; Übler, H; Lang, P; Naab, T; Bender, R; Tacconi, L J; Wisnioski, E; Wuyts, S; Alexander, T; Beifiori, A; Belli, S; Brammer, G; Burkert, A; Carollo, C M; Chan, J; Davies, R; Fossati, M; Galametz, A; Genel, S; Gerhard, O; Lutz, D; Mendel, J T; Momcheva, I; Nelson, E J; Renzini, A; Saglia, R; Sternberg, A; Tacchella, S; Tadaki, K; Wilman, D

    2017-03-15

    In the cold dark matter cosmology, the baryonic components of galaxies-stars and gas-are thought to be mixed with and embedded in non-baryonic and non-relativistic dark matter, which dominates the total mass of the galaxy and its dark-matter halo. In the local (low-redshift) Universe, the mass of dark matter within a galactic disk increases with disk radius, becoming appreciable and then dominant in the outer, baryonic regions of the disks of star-forming galaxies. This results in rotation velocities of the visible matter within the disk that are constant or increasing with disk radius-a hallmark of the dark-matter model. Comparisons between the dynamical mass, inferred from these velocities in rotational equilibrium, and the sum of the stellar and cold-gas mass at the peak epoch of galaxy formation ten billion years ago, inferred from ancillary data, suggest high baryon fractions in the inner, star-forming regions of the disks. Although this implied baryon fraction may be larger than in the local Universe, the systematic uncertainties (owing to the chosen stellar initial-mass function and the calibration of gas masses) render such comparisons inconclusive in terms of the mass of dark matter. Here we report rotation curves (showing rotation velocity as a function of disk radius) for the outer disks of six massive star-forming galaxies, and find that the rotation velocities are not constant, but decrease with radius. We propose that this trend arises because of a combination of two main factors: first, a large fraction of the massive high-redshift galaxy population was strongly baryon-dominated, with dark matter playing a smaller part than in the local Universe; and second, the large velocity dispersion in high-redshift disks introduces a substantial pressure term that leads to a decrease in rotation velocity with increasing radius. The effect of both factors appears to increase with redshift. Qualitatively, the observations suggest that baryons in the early (high

  16. Four billion years of ophiolites reveal secular trends in oceanic crust formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Furnes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We combine a geological, geochemical and tectonic dataset from 118 ophiolite complexes of the major global Phanerozoic orogenic belts with similar datasets of ophiolites from 111 Precambrian greenstone belts to construct an overview of oceanic crust generation over 4 billion years. Geochemical discrimination systematics built on immobile trace elements reveal that the basaltic units of the Phanerozoic ophiolites are dominantly subduction-related (75%, linked to backarc processes and characterized by a strong MORB component, similar to ophiolites in Precambrian greenstone sequences (85%. The remaining 25% Phanerozoic subduction-unrelated ophiolites are mainly (74% of Mid-Ocean-Ridge type (MORB type, in contrast to the equal proportion of Rift/Continental Margin, Plume, and MORB type ophiolites in the Precambrian greenstone belts. Throughout the Phanerozoic there are large geochemical variations in major and trace elements, but for average element values calculated in 5 bins of 100 million year intervals there are no obvious secular trends. By contrast, basaltic units in the ophiolites of the Precambrian greenstones (calculated in 12 bins of 250 million years intervals, starting in late Paleo- to early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 2.0–1.8 Ga, exhibit an apparent decrease in the average values of incompatible elements such as Ti, P, Zr, Y and Nb, and an increase in the compatible elements Ni and Cr with deeper time to the end of the Archean and into the Hadean. These changes can be attributed to decreasing degrees of partial melting of the upper mantle from Hadean/Archean to Present. The onset of geochemical changes coincide with the timing of detectible changes in the structural architecture of the ophiolites such as greater volumes of gabbro and more common sheeted dyke complexes, and lesser occurrences of ocelli (varioles in the pillow lavas in ophiolites younger than 2 Ga. The global data from the Precambrian ophiolites, representative of nearly 50

  17. A cubic-anvil high-pressure device for pulsed neutron powder diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, J; Arakawa, M; Hattori, T; Arima, H; Kagi, H; Komatsu, K; Sano-Furukawa, A; Uwatoko, Y; Matsubayashi, K; Harjo, S; Moriai, A; Ito, T; Aizawa, K; Arai, M; Utsumi, W

    2010-04-01

    A compact cubic-anvil high-pressure device was developed for in situ neutron powder diffraction studies. In this device, a cubic shaped pressure medium is compressed by six anvils, and neutron beams pass through gaps between the anvils. The first high-pressure experiment using this device was conducted at J-PARC and clearly showed the neutron diffraction patterns of Pb. Combining the cubic-anvil high-pressure device with a pulsed neutron source will prove to be a useful tool for neutron diffraction experiments.

  18. Structural study on cubic-tetragonal transition of CH3NH3PbI3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yukihiko; Mashiyama, Hiroyuki; Hasebe, Katsuhiko

    2002-01-01

    The cubic-tetragonal phase transition of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 was investigated by single crystal X-ray diffractometry. The crystal structure was refined at five temperatures in the tetragonal phase. The PbI 6 octahedron rotates around the c-axis alternatively to construct the SrTiO 3 -type tetragonal structure. A methylammonium ion is partially ordered; 24 disordered states in the cubic phase are reduced to 8. With decreasing temperature, the rotation angle of the octahedron increases monotonically, which indicates it is an order parameter of the cubic-tetragonal transition. (author)

  19. d and f electrons in a qp-quantized cubical field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.; Sztucki, J.

    1993-03-01

    A procedure for qp-quantizing a crystal-field potential V with an arbitrary symmetry G is developed. Such a procedure is applied to the case where V involves cubic components (G=0) of the degrees 4 and 6. This case corresponds to d and f electrons in a qp-quantized cubical potential. It is shown that the qp-quantization of the considered cubical potential is equivalent to a symmetry breaking of type O→D 4 . A general conjecture about this symmetry breaking phenomenon is given. (author) 21 refs

  20. Thinking on substitution of 20 meter shuttle running for 1000 meter running in school physical fitness testing project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Xiaoxian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently,the issue about "substitution of 20 meter shuttle running for 1000 meter running" has aroused great concern and intense discussion. It includes some critical voice and misreading of this event. Through combing and rational analysis of the relevant media reports,the author believes that 20 meter shuttle running and 1000 meter running have certain differences in the test objects,methods and indicators.This reference of "substitution" is not reasonable. There are both common value and significance on them,either as a physical fitness test method or as a means of physical exercises. Therefore,it is suggested that exploring the correspondence points between both of them and their application in physical education practice through theoretical and practical study.