WorldWideScience

Sample records for billion cubic feet

  1. What's a billion cubic meters among friends: The impacts of quantile mapping bias correction on climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsugli, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    Consider two views of climate change, the percent change in precipitation from the GCMs and the percent change from the same GCMs as bias-corrected using quantile mapping. There is emerging evidence that quantile mapping, a commonly used bias correction method, can alter the projections of future precipitation in a way that leads to a systematicaly wetter future for the Colorado River than is indicated by the percent-changes in the GCMs. The difference, about 3% in precipitation, when put through hydrology models, amounts to roughly a 6% shift in the average flows at Lees Ferry, or a little over a billion cubic meters (a million acre feet). On the one hand, the quantile mapping does not add any new physics to the GCM water budget, so the shifts in the mean from could be viewed as an unintended statistical artifact. On the other, what is sacrosanct about the percent change in the (biased) GCM water budget as an indicator of the future climate? We investigate the reasons that this shift arises by taking a closer look at quantile mapping in theory and for idealized (Gamma and Weibull) probability distributions. Heuristics are developed to understand when the shift is likely to arise for more realistic distributions, and to connect the idealized statistical examples to hypothetical water budgets.

  2. What will we do with 104,000,000 cubic feet of Fernald waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, G.P.; Krieger, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Fernald Site, a Department of Energy (DOE) uranium metal production facility that ceased production in 1989, is now being remediated by the DOE under terms of a Consent Agreement with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and a Consent Decree with the State of Ohio. It is estimated that the cleanup will generate 104,000,000 cubic feet of low-level radioactive waste including construction debris, pit sludge, radium residue and a huge volume of uranium contaminated soil. The waste handling strategy for this huge volume of waste includes minimizing remedial waste generation, recycling material when economically feasible, free-releasing clean material and volume reduction. It is anticipated that large scale radium residue vitrification and sludge drying equipment/facilities will be constructed onsite for waste treatment prior to off-site disposal. Fernald waste disposition will include both onsite disposal (if approved under CERCLA) and off-site disposal at both commercial and DOE waste disposal facilities. The waste disposition strategy selected reflects a diverse variety of technical, political, regulatory and economic factors. This presentation will describe the current views at Fernald on open-quotes what will we do with 104,000,000 cubic feet of Fernald waste.close quotes

  3. Theoretical innovation and technical progress will usher in a production period of gas fields with an annual capacity of ten billion cubic meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwei Gan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Challenged by the increasing complexity of targets and the tense situation of turning losses into profits during the 12th Five-Year Plan, by virtue of technological innovation, Sinopec Southwest Oil & Gas Company proposed the theories of gas exploration in continental clastic rock and marine carbonate rock, and developed the development technologies for reef, channel sandstone and tight sandstone reservoirs. Moreover, it innovatively formed a series of engineering technologies, including intelligent sliding sleeve staged fracturing, blasting–packing–fracturing stimulation, impulse fracturing, and drilling, completion and production technologies for ultra-deep horizontal wells with high sulfur contents. With these innovated theories and improved technologies, great discoveries have been made in the continental clastic rocks and marine carbonate rocks in West Sichuan Basin, the marine shale in South Sichuan Basin, and the marine carbonate rocks in Yuanba area of NE Sichuan Basin, and three 100 billion-m3 class commercial gas reserves zones were discovered. Moreover, two medium- and large-sized gas fields were proved, and three medium- and large-sized gas fields were completely constructed. Both reserves and production reached a new record in history. During the 13th Five-Year Plan, Sinopec Southwest Oil & Gas Company will focus on the exploration and development of deep marine carbonate reservoirs, commercial development of deep shale gas, safe development of gas fields with high sulfur, and enhancement of recovery in mature gas fields. By the end of the 13th Five-Year Plan, it is expected that the annual gas production of (10–12 × 109 m3 will be achieved.

  4. Missing billions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conly, S

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses funding of population programs that support the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development's Plan of Action. The Plan of Action calls for a quadrupling of annual financial commitments for population programs to $17 billion by the year 2000 and $22 billion by 2015. The increased expenditures would cover the increased demand for services from unmet need and population growth. Donor countries are expected to increase their share from the current 25% to about 33%, or $5.7 billion by the year 2000. The estimates are in 1993 constant dollars. $17 billion is less than the $40 billion that is spent worldwide on playing golf. During 1993-94, general donor support increased to $1.2 billion. Denmark, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States increased their support. The United States doubled its support for population programs during 1992-95 to $583 million. During 1996-97 the US Congress cut funding back to the 1995 level. France, Italy, Spain, Belgium, and Austria have lagged in support for population programs in the present and the past. Equal burden sharing would require the US to increase funding to $1.9 billion. Developed country assistance declined to the lowest share of combined gross national product since 1970. This shifts the burden to multilateral sources. The European Union is committed to increasing its funding, and the World Bank increased funding for population and reproductive health to about $600 million in 1996 from $424 million in 1994. Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa, and Turkey spent 85% of all government expenditures on family planning in developing countries. External donors in Africa are the main support of family planning. Private consumers in Latin America pay most of the costs of family planning. External assistance will be needed for some time.

  5. Burning Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2014. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed Sept. 20, ... http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/burning-feet/basics/definition/SYM-20050809 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  6. Six billion and counting

    OpenAIRE

    Leisinger, Klaus M.; Schmitt, Karin M.; Pandya-Lorch, Rajul

    2002-01-01

    In 1999 global population surpassed 6 billion people, and this number rises by about 70-80 million people each year. "Six Billion and Counting" examines the consequences of continuing population growth for the world's resource systems and for national and global food security. Leisinger, Schmitt, and Pandya-Lorch offer here a sober analysis of a complex and alarming situation. They assess the progress the world has made in controlling population growth and point to the areas where future diff...

  7. Connecting the last billion

    OpenAIRE

    Ben David, Yahel

    2015-01-01

    The last billion people to join the online world, are likely to face at least one of two obstacles:Part I: Rural Internet AccessRural, sparsely populated, areas make conventional infrastructure investments unfeasible: Bigcorporations attempt to address this challenge via the launch of Low-Earth-Orbiting (LEO) satelliteconstellations, fleets of high-altitude balloons, and giant solar-powered drones; although thesegrandiose initiatives hold potential, they are costly and risky. At the same time...

  8. Feeding six billion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L R

    1989-01-01

    Between 1986-88 drought damage to crops caused the grain supply to decrease and the price of grain worldwide increased 50%. However, in 1989 higher prices and better weather did not result in a rebuilding of reserves lost in previous years. According to the US Agriculture Department, the 1989 harvest will be 13 million tons short of the projected 1684 million tons of consumption. If grain stock cannot be replenished this year, then when will they be replenished? There are a variety of problems causing this situation. Lack of crop land and irrigation water prevent expansion. Diminishing returns from fertilizer inputs, deforestation, soil erosion, and pollution are all decreasing yields. Growth in food production worldwide has stabilized. Between 1950-84 world grain harvest increased 2.6 times or 3%/year. But between 1985-90 that same growth was only 0.2%/year. While this is too short a time to establish a trend, it does suggest a slowdown in worldwide food production. Every year 24 billion tons of topsoil are lost to water and wind erosion, and the world population grows by 88 million annually. Together, these 2 trends indicate a pending disaster. There is no reason to believe that food production is going to continue to grow as fast as the population, thus, population growth must be drastically curtailed. The UN has changes its projected level of population stabilization from 10 billion to 14 billion based on the fact that worldwide population growth has dropped only to 1.7%. Family planning programs have not been as successful as was hoped, partly because the US has withdrawn a large amount of funding due to political pressure from conservatives. The outlook is not good, as the per capita food share shrinks, malnutrition and starvation will continue to grow. Food prices will rise sharply and many more people will be unable to afford food. In many developing countries, people spend 70% of their income on food. This is already occurring as measured by a worldwide

  9. ['Tramps feet' in vagrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laere, I R

    1997-12-20

    The lifestyle of the homeless often implies lack of hygiene resulting in - neglected - feet pathology. The Public Health department for the homeless (GG&GD) was visited by a man aged 43 with drug addiction and schizophrenia who suffered from severe 'tramp's feet' complicated by cellulitis of the right lower leg, which had not been diagnosed adequately during a previous visit to an emergency department. Adequate antibiotic treatment improved the condition in a few days. 'Maladjusted' presentation of the homeless may lead to hasty, inadequate judgement and treatment by health care workers. These socially handicapped patients need proper physical examination and efforts to realise shelter, care and indicated treatment.

  10. Earthquake at 40 feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G. J.

    1976-01-01

    The earthquake that struck the island of Guam on November 1, 1975, at 11:17 a.m had many unique aspects-not the least of which was the experience of an earthquake of 6.25 Richter magnitude while at 40 feet. My wife Bonnie, a fellow diver, Greg Guzman, and I were diving at Gabgab Beach in teh outer harbor of Apra Harbor, engaged in underwater phoyography when the earthquake struck. 

  11. Burns of the feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, L S; Heggers, J P; Robson, M C; Smith, D J; Maniker, A A; Sachs, R J

    1987-01-01

    Although they are formally categorized by the ABA as major burns, isolated burns of the feet are often managed on an outpatient basis. This retrospective review evaluates the success of such outpatient management, including the complications encountered. The outcome of the review emphasizes that although isolated burns encompass only a small body surface area, they require careful in-hospital treatment to avoid the complications of cellulitis, subsequent prolonged hospitalization, increased need for skin grafting, and increased incidence of hypertrophic scarring.

  12. 12 billion DM for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The German atomic industry has achieved the break-through to the world market: Brazil orders eight nuclear electricity generating plants from Siemens-AEG daughter Kraftwerk-Union. US concerns attacked the twelve billion DM deal, the biggest export order in the history of German industry. Without avail - the contract is to be signed in Bonn this week. (orig./LH) [de

  13. The South’s timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; James W. Bentley; Mike Howell

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, industrial roundwood output from the South’s forests totaled 6.56 billion cubic feet, 20 percent less than in 2007. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 3.43 billion cubic feet; saw logs ranked second at 2.26 billion cubic feet; veneer logs were third at 384.4 million cubic feet. Total receipts declined 21 percent to 6.55 billion cubic feet. Mill...

  14. Solution of the Cubic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cardano's formula for solving a cubic is the crowning achievement of renaissance mathematics. Yet, it does not receive the same recognition in our curricula as does the quadratic formula, which was discovered long be- fore it. It is rather surprising that there have not been attempts to simplify further the messy formulas of ...

  15. Solution of the Cubic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    But they facilitated great advances in mathematics. Arabs, and the early Europeans who were to take off from where the Arabs had left, did not consider negative coefficients. Thus there were dozens of cases of the cubic equation to be considered. For example, the so-called depressed form alone, with square term absent, ...

  16. of the general cubic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    algebraic solution of the reduced cubic equation x. 3. + px + q = 0. It is indisputable that Geronimus Cardano [1, .... Equation(la) is not suitable for direct manipulation and to simplify the algebra the following alternate reduced forms .... REFERENCES. 1. Smith, D. E. History of Mathematics, vol. II: Special Topics of Elementary ...

  17. Countdown to Six Billion Teaching Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This teaching kit features six activities focused on helping students understand the significance of the world population reaching six billion for our society and our environment. Featured activities include: (1) History of the World: Part Six Billion; (2) A Woman's Place; (3) Baby-O-Matic; (4) Earth: The Apple of Our Eye; (5) Needs vs. Wants; and…

  18. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    terms. CTT provides a computational interpretation of functional extensionality, enjoys canonicity for the natural numbers type, and is conjectured to support decidable type-checking. Our new type theory, guarded cubical type theory (GCTT), provides a computational interpretation of extensionality......This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning...... with coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...

  19. Connected Cubic Network Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan Selçuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypercube is a popular interconnection network. Due to the popularity of hypercube, more researchers pay a great effort to develop the different variants of hypercube. In this paper, we have proposed a variant of hypercube which is called as “Connected Cubic Network Graphs”, and have investigated the Hamilton-like properties of Connected Cubic Network Graphs (CCNG. Firstly, we defined CCNG and showed the characteristic analyses of CCNG. Then, we showed that the CCNG has the properties of Hamilton graph, and can be labeled using a Gray coding based recursive algorithm. Finally, we gave the comparison results, a routing algorithm and a bitonic sort algorithm for CCNG. In case of sparsity and cost, CCNG is better than Hypercube.

  20. The updated billion-ton resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony Turhollow; Robert Perlack; Laurence Eaton; Matthew Langholtz; Craig Brandt; Mark Downing; Lynn Wright; Kenneth Skog; Chad Hellwinckel; Bryce Stokes; Patricia Lebow

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an update to a resource assessment, published in 2005, commonly referred to as the Billion-Ton Study (BTS). The updated results are consistent with the 2005 BTS in terms of overall magnitude. The 2005 BTS projected between 860 and 1240 Tg of biomass available in the 2050 timeframe, while the Billion-Ton Update (BT2), for a price of...

  1. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    types. This further expands the foundations of CTT as a basis for formalisation in mathematics and computer science. We present examples to demonstrate the expressivity of our type theory, all of which have been checked using a prototype type-checker implementation, and present semantics in a presheaf......This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning...... with coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type-checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...

  2. 10 billion years of massive Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, Edward Nairne Cunningham

    2009-01-01

    The most massive galaxies in the local universe are not forming new stars -- but we don’t know why. As a step towards figuring out why big galaxies stop forming stars, we set out to measure when they stop forming stars. By looking at the colors of massive galaxies have changed over 10 billion

  3. Interpolation of natural cubic spline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available From the result in [1] it follows that there is a unique quadratic spline which bounds the same area as that of the function. The matching of the area for the cubic spline does not follow from the corresponding result proved in [2]. We obtain cubic splines which preserve the area of the function.

  4. FY97 nuclear-related budgets total 493 billion yen (4.4 billion dollars)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    On September 13, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan announced the estimated nuclear-related budget requests for FY1997 (April, 1997 - Mach, 1998), giving the breakdowns for eight ministries and agencies. The total amount requested by the government bodies was 493.3 billion yen, 0.8% increase as compared with FY96. this figure includes the budget requests of the Science and Technology Agency (STA), the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Transport, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the Okinawa Development Agency, and the Ministry of Home Affairs, but excludes the budget request made by the Ministry of Education. The budget requests of STA and MITI are 360 billion yen and 126 billion yen, respectively. On August 29, STA released its estimated FY97 budget request. The nuclear-related 360.4 billion yen is 0.9% more than that in year before. Of this sum, 199.9 billion yen is in the general account, and 160.6 billion yen is in the special account for power source development. The details of the nuclear-related amounts are explained. On August 26, MITI released its estimated budget request for FY97, and of the nuclear-related 125.7 billion yen (0.1% increase from FY96), 200 million yen is in the general account, and 98.9 billion yen and 26.6 billion yen are in the special accounts for power resource development and power source diversification, respectively. (K.I.)

  5. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2016-02-01

    Freshwater scarcity is increasingly perceived as a global systemic risk. Previous global water scarcity assessments, measuring water scarcity annually, have underestimated experienced water scarcity by failing to capture the seasonal fluctuations in water consumption and availability. We assess blue water scarcity globally at a high spatial resolution on a monthly basis. We find that two-thirds of the global population (4.0 billion people) live under conditions of severe water scarcity at least 1 month of the year. Nearly half of those people live in India and China. Half a billion people in the world face severe water scarcity all year round. Putting caps to water consumption by river basin, increasing water-use efficiencies, and better sharing of the limited freshwater resources will be key in reducing the threat posed by water scarcity on biodiversity and human welfare.

  6. Endemic Cardiovascular Diseases of the Poorest Billion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Gene F; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mocumbi, Ana O; Miranda, J Jaime; Ezzati, Majid; Jain, Yogesh; Robles, Gisela; Benjamin, Emelia J; Subramanian, S V; Bukhman, Gene

    2016-06-14

    The poorest billion people are distributed throughout the world, though most are concentrated in rural sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) data can be sparse in low- and middle-income countries beyond urban centers. Despite this urban bias, CVD registries from the poorest countries have long revealed a predominance of nonatherosclerotic stroke, hypertensive heart disease, nonischemic and Chagas cardiomyopathies, rheumatic heart disease, and congenital heart anomalies, among others. Ischemic heart disease has been relatively uncommon. Here, we summarize what is known about the epidemiology of CVDs among the world's poorest people and evaluate the relevance of global targets for CVD control in this population. We assessed both primary data sources, and the 2013 Global Burden of Disease Study modeled estimates in the world's 16 poorest countries where 62% of the population are among the poorest billion. We found that ischemic heart disease accounted for only 12% of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in the poorest countries, compared with 51% of DALYs in high-income countries. We found that as little as 53% of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly burden (1629/3049 DALYs per 100 000) was attributed to behavioral or metabolic risk factors in the poorest countries (eg, in Niger, 82% of the population among the poorest billion) compared with 85% of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly burden (4439/5199 DALYs) in high-income countries. Further, of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly burden, 34% was accrued in people under age 30 years in the poorest countries, while only 3% is accrued under age 30 years in high-income countries. We conclude although the current global targets for noncommunicable disease and CVD control will help diminish premature CVD death in the poorest populations, they are not sufficient. Specifically, the current framework (1) excludes deaths of

  7. Cubic erbium trihydride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.P., E-mail: dpadams@sandia.gov; Rodriguez, M.A.; Romero, J.A.; Kotula, P.G.; Banks, J.

    2012-07-31

    High-purity, erbium hydride thin films have been deposited onto {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and oxidized Si by reactive sputtering methods. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and elastic recoil detection show that films deposited at temperatures of 35, 150 and 275 Degree-Sign C have a composition of 3H:1Er. Erbium trihydride films consist of a face-centered cubic erbium sub-lattice with a lattice parameter in the range of 5.11-5.20 A. The formation of cubic ErH{sub 3} is intriguing, because previous studies demonstrate a single trihydride phase with a hexagonal metal sub-lattice. The formation of a stable, cubic trihydride phase is attributed to a large, in-plane stress resulting from ion beam sputter deposition. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cubic erbium trihydride thin films produced by ion beam sputter deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Face-centered cubic metal sub-lattice verified by X-ray and electron diffraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composition evaluated using four different techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Film stress monitored during deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of cubic erbium trihydride attributed to a large, in-plane film stress.

  8. Diabetes - taking care of your feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - foot care - self-care; Diabetic foot ulcer - foot care; Diabetic neuropathy - foot care ... Diabetes can damage the nerves and blood vessels in your feet. This damage can cause numbness and ...

  9. Oxygen - A Four Billion Year History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    The air we breathe is twenty-one percent oxygen, an amount higher than on any other known world. While we may take our air for granted, Earth was not always an oxygenated planet. How did it become this way? Oxygen is the most current account of the history of atmospheric oxygen on Earth. Donald...... of fields, including geology, paleontology, geochemistry, biochemistry, animal physiology, and microbiology, to explain why our oxygenated Earth became the ideal place for life. Describing which processes, both biological and geological, act to control oxygen levels in the atmosphere, Canfield traces...... the records of oxygen concentrations through time. Readers learn about the great oxidation event, the tipping point 2.3 billion years ago when the oxygen content of the Earth increased dramatically, and Canfield examines how oxygenation created a favorable environment for the evolution of large animals. He...

  10. Origins fourteen billion years of cosmic evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Neil deGrasse

    2004-01-01

    Origins explores cosmic science's stunning new insights into the formation and evolution of our universe--of the cosmos, of galaxies and galaxy clusters, of stars within galaxies, of planets that orbit those stars, and of different forms of life that take us back to the first three seconds and forward through three billion years of life on Earth to today's search for life on other planets. Drawing on the current cross-pollination of geology, biology and astrophysics, Origins explains the thrilling daily breakthroughs in our knowledge of the universe from dark energy to life on Mars to the mysteries of space and time. Distilling complex science in clear and lively prose, co-authors Neil deGrasse Tyson and Donald Goldsmith conduct a galvanising tour of the cosmos revealing what the universe has been up to while turning part of itself into us.

  11. Oxygen - A Four Billion Year History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    The air we breathe is twenty-one percent oxygen, an amount higher than on any other known world. While we may take our air for granted, Earth was not always an oxygenated planet. How did it become this way? Oxygen is the most current account of the history of atmospheric oxygen on Earth. Donald...... Canfield--one of the world's leading authorities on geochemistry, earth history, and the early oceans--covers this vast history, emphasizing its relationship to the evolution of life and the evolving chemistry of the Earth. With an accessible and colorful first-person narrative, he draws from a variety...... the records of oxygen concentrations through time. Readers learn about the great oxidation event, the tipping point 2.3 billion years ago when the oxygen content of the Earth increased dramatically, and Canfield examines how oxygenation created a favorable environment for the evolution of large animals. He...

  12. Smoothing quadratic and cubic splines

    OpenAIRE

    Oukropcová, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Title: Smoothing quadratic and cubic splines Author: Kateřina Oukropcová Department: Department of Numerical Mathematics Supervisor: RNDr. Václav Kučera, Ph.D., Department of Numerical Mathematics Abstract: The aim of this bachelor thesis is to study the topic of smoothing quadratic and cubic splines on uniform partitions. First, we define the basic con- cepts in the field of splines, next we introduce interpolating splines with a focus on their minimizing properties for odd degree and quadra...

  13. The planar cubic Cayley graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Georgakopoulos, Agelos

    2018-01-01

    The author obtains a complete description of the planar cubic Cayley graphs, providing an explicit presentation and embedding for each of them. This turns out to be a rich class, comprising several infinite families. He obtains counterexamples to conjectures of Mohar, Bonnington and Watkins. The author's analysis makes the involved graphs accessible to computation, corroborating a conjecture of Droms.

  14. The planar cubic cayley graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Georgakopoulos, Agelos

    2018-01-01

    The author obtains a complete description of the planar cubic Cayley graphs, providing an explicit presentation and embedding for each of them. This turns out to be a rich class, comprising several infinite families. He obtains counterexamples to conjectures of Mohar, Bonnington and Watkins. The author's analysis makes the involved graphs accessible to computation, corroborating a conjecture of Droms.

  15. How Cubic Can Ice Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Andrew J; Pathak, Harshad; Modak, Viraj P; Laksmono, Hartawan; Loh, N Duane; Sellberg, Jonas A; Sierra, Raymond G; McQueen, Trevor A; Hayes, Matt J; Williams, Garth J; Messerschmidt, Marc; Boutet, Sébastien; Bogan, Michael J; Nilsson, Anders; Stan, Claudiu A; Wyslouzil, Barbara E

    2017-07-20

    Using an X-ray laser, we investigated the crystal structure of ice formed by homogeneous ice nucleation in deeply supercooled water nanodrops (r ≈ 10 nm) at ∼225 K. The nanodrops were formed by condensation of vapor in a supersonic nozzle, and the ice was probed within 100 μs of freezing using femtosecond wide-angle X-ray scattering at the Linac Coherent Light Source free-electron X-ray laser. The X-ray diffraction spectra indicate that this ice has a metastable, predominantly cubic structure; the shape of the first ice diffraction peak suggests stacking-disordered ice with a cubicity value, χ, in the range of 0.78 ± 0.05. The cubicity value determined here is higher than those determined in experiments with micron-sized drops but comparable to those found in molecular dynamics simulations. The high cubicity is most likely caused by the extremely low freezing temperatures and by the rapid freezing, which occurs on a ∼1 μs time scale in single nanodroplets.

  16. Cryptographic Analysis in Cubic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Seidl, H.

    2004-01-01

    The spi-calculus is a variant of the polyadic pi-calculus that admits symmetric cryptography and that admits expressing communication protocols in a precise though still abstract way. This paper shows that context-independent control flow analysis can be calculated in cubic time despite the fact...

  17. Agroecohydrology: Key to Feeding 9 Billion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, J.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural production necessary to feed 9 billion people in 2050 depends on increased production on existing croplands, and expanding onto 'marginal' lands. A high proportion of these lands are marginal because they are too steep or too dry to reliably support crop production. These same characteristics increase their susceptibility to accelerated erosion, leading (for most soil profiles) to further reductions in plant available water as infiltration and soil profile water holding capacity decline. Sustaining production on these marginal lands will require careful land use planning. In this paper, we present a land use planning framework that integrates 4 elements: (1) potential production (based on soil profile characteristics), (2) edaphic, topographic and climatic limitations to production, (3) soil resistance to degradation, and (4) resilience. This framework expands existing land capability classification systems through the integration of biophysical feedbacks and thresholds. State and transition models, similar to those currently applied to rangelands in the United States and other countries, are used to organize and communicate knowledge about the sustainability of different land use changes and management actions at field to regional scales. This framework emphasizes hydrologic characteristics of soil profiles and landscapes over fertility because fertility declines are more easily addressed through increased inputs. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of how research in ecohydrology can be more effectively focused to support sustainable food production in the context of increasingly rapid social and economic changes throughout the world.

  18. Uranium in Canada: Billion-dollar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whillans, R.T.

    1989-01-01

    In 1988, Canada maintained its position as the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium; five primary uranium producers reported concentrate output containing 12,400 MT of uranium, or about one-third of Western production. Uranium shipments made by these producers in 1988 exceeded 13,200 MT, worth Canadian $1.1 billion. Because domestic requirements represent only 15% of current Canadian output, most of Canada's uranium production is available for export. Despite continued market uncertainty in 1988, Canada's uranium producers signed new sales contracts for some 14,000 MT, twice the 1987 level. About 90% of this new volume is with the US, now Canada's major uranium customer. The recent implementation of the Canada/US Free Trade agreement brings benefits to both countries; the uranium industries in each can now develop in an orderly, free market. Canada's uranium industry was restructured and consolidated in 1988 through merger and acquisition; three new uranium projects advanced significantly. Canada's new policy on nonresident ownership in the uranium mining sector, designed to encourage both Canadian and foreign investment, should greatly improve efforts to finance the development of recent Canadian uranium discoveries

  19. An Abel type cubic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary R. Nicklason

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider center conditions for plane polynomial systems of Abel type consisting of a linear center perturbed by the sum of 2 homogeneous polynomials of degrees n and 2n-1 where $n \\ge 2$. Using properties of Abel equations we obtain two general systems valid for arbitrary values on n. For the cubic n=2 systems we find several sets of new center conditions, some of which show that the results in a paper by Hill, Lloyd and Pearson which were conjectured to be complete are in fact not complete. We also present a particular system which appears to be a counterexample to a conjecture by Zoladek et al. regarding rational reversibility in cubic polynomial systems.

  20. Numbers for reducible cubic scrolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Vainsencher

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We show how to compute the number of reducible cubic scrolls of codimension 2 in (math blackboard symbol Pn incident to the appropriate number of linear spaces.Mostramos como calcular o número de rolos cúbicos redutíveis de codimensão 2 em (math blackboard symbol Pn incidentes a espaços lineares apropriados.

  1. Randomized Block Cubic Newton Method

    KAUST Repository

    Doikov, Nikita

    2018-02-12

    We study the problem of minimizing the sum of three convex functions: a differentiable, twice-differentiable and a non-smooth term in a high dimensional setting. To this effect we propose and analyze a randomized block cubic Newton (RBCN) method, which in each iteration builds a model of the objective function formed as the sum of the natural models of its three components: a linear model with a quadratic regularizer for the differentiable term, a quadratic model with a cubic regularizer for the twice differentiable term, and perfect (proximal) model for the nonsmooth term. Our method in each iteration minimizes the model over a random subset of blocks of the search variable. RBCN is the first algorithm with these properties, generalizing several existing methods, matching the best known bounds in all special cases. We establish ${\\\\cal O}(1/\\\\epsilon)$, ${\\\\cal O}(1/\\\\sqrt{\\\\epsilon})$ and ${\\\\cal O}(\\\\log (1/\\\\epsilon))$ rates under different assumptions on the component functions. Lastly, we show numerically that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a variety of machine learning problems, including cubically regularized least-squares, logistic regression with constraints, and Poisson regression.

  2. Cubic Matrix, Nambu Mechanics and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiharu, KAWAMURA; Department of Physics, Shinshu University

    2003-01-01

    We propose a generalization of cubic matrix mechanics by introducing a canonical triplet and study its relation to Nambu mechanics. The generalized cubic matrix mechanics we consider can be interpreted as a 'quantum' generalization of Nambu mechanics.

  3. Cubic Matrix, Nambu Mechanics and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamura, Yoshiharu

    2002-01-01

    We propose a generalization of cubic matrix mechanics by introducing a canonical triplet and study its relation to Nambu mechanics. The generalized cubic matrix mechanics we consider can be interpreted as a “quantum” generalization of Nambu mechanics.

  4. Solving Cubic Equations by Polynomial Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Raghavendra G.

    2011-01-01

    Several mathematicians struggled to solve cubic equations, and in 1515 Scipione del Ferro reportedly solved the cubic while participating in a local mathematical contest, but did not bother to publish his method. Then it was Cardano (1539) who first published the solution to the general cubic equation in his book "The Great Art, or, The Rules of…

  5. Cubic colloids : Synthesis, functionalization and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castillo, S.I.R.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is a study on cubic colloids: micron-sized cubic particles with rounded corners (cubic superballs). Owing to their shape, particle packing for cubes is more efficient than for spheres and results in fascinating phase and packing behavior. For our cubes, the particle volume fraction when

  6. Sneak Peek to the 2016 Billion-Ton Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    The 2005 Billion-Ton Study became a landmark resource for bioenergy stakeholders, detailing for the first time the potential to produce at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually in a sustainable manner from U.S. agriculture and forest resources. The 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update expanded and updated the analysis, and in 2016, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office plans to release the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy.

  7. Cubical local partial orders on cubically subdivided spaces - existence and construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth

    The geometric models of Higher Dimensional Automata and Dijkstra's PV-model are cubically subdivided topological spaces with a local partial order. If a cubicalization of a topological space is free of immersed cubic Möbius bands, then there are consistent choices of direction in all cubes......, such that any n-cube in the cubic subdivision is dihomeomorphic to [0,1]^n with the induced partial order from R^n. After subdivision once, any cubicalized space has a cubical local partial order. In particular, all triangularized spaces have a cubical local partial order. This implies in particular...

  8. Cubical local partial orders on cubically subdivided spaces - Existence and construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth

    2006-01-01

    The geometric models of higher dimensional automata (HDA) and Dijkstra's PV-model are cubically subdivided topological spaces with a local partial order. If a cubicalization of a topological space is free of immersed cubic Möbius bands, then there are consistent choices of direction in all cubes......, such that any n-cube in the cubic subdivision is dihomeomorphic to [0,1]^n with the induced partial order from R^n. After subdivision once, any cubicalized space has a cubical local partial order. In particular, all triangularized spaces have a cubical local partial order. This implies in particular...

  9. Weighted cubic and biharmonic splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvasov, Boris; Kim, Tae-Wan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the design of algorithms for interpolating discrete data by using weighted cubic and biharmonic splines in such a way that the monotonicity and convexity of the data are preserved. We formulate the problem as a differential multipoint boundary value problem and consider its finite-difference approximation. Two algorithms for automatic selection of shape control parameters (weights) are presented. For weighted biharmonic splines the resulting system of linear equations can be efficiently solved by combining Gaussian elimination with successive over-relaxation method or finite-difference schemes in fractional steps. We consider basic computational aspects and illustrate main features of this original approach.

  10. Proton collider breaks the six-billion-dollar barrier

    CERN Document Server

    Vaughan, C

    1990-01-01

    The SSC will cost at least 1 billion more than its estimated final price of 5.9 billion dollars. Critics in congress believe the final bill could be double that figure. The director of the SSC blames most of the increase in cost on technical problems with developing the superconducting magnets for the SSC (1/2 page).

  11. Chondroblastoma of the hands and feet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila, Jesse A.; Amrami, Kimberly K.; Sundaram, Murali; Adkins, Mark C. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester (United States); Unni, Krishnan K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Surgical Pathology, Rochester (United States)

    2004-10-01

    To review the imaging findings, age and gender distribution of chondroblastoma of the hands and feet. Twenty-five cases of pathologically proven chondroblastoma of the hands and feet were reviewed. Available imaging modalities included radiographs (n=24), CT (n=3), MRI (n=5), and radionuclide bone scintigraphy (n=1). The following imaging features for each case were tabulated: location, presence of sclerotic margin, calcification, expansion, presence of fluid/fluid levels on cross-sectional imaging and surrounding edema on MRI. The images were evaluated for skeletal maturity using closure of the physeal plate in the region as a standard. The average age at time of diagnosis was 23 years (range 7-57 years). Eighty-four percent (n=21) of the patients were skeletally mature. Males (20 of 25) outnumbered females by a ratio of 5:1. The bones of the foot accounted for 22 cases: calcaneus (n=8), talus (n=8), metatarsals (n=3), and the cuboid (n=3). The bones of the hand accounted for three cases: phalanx (n=1), triquetrum (n=1), and a metacarpal (n=1). Radiographically all lesions were osteolytic with identifiable calcification in 54% (13 of 24). Fluid/fluid levels were seen in four of five cases on MRI. Edema on MR images was seen in 40% (2 of 5). The size of the lesions ranged from 2 to 41 cm{sup 2}. Chondroblastomas of the hands and feet share many of the radiographic characteristics seen in the long bones, but manifest in skeletally mature patients with a higher male to female ratio than in long bone chondroblastoma. Talar and calcaneal lesions were encountered only in males. Chondroblastoma of the wrist and hand appears to be exceptionally rare. (orig.)

  12. Cubical sets and the topological topos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spitters, Bas

    2016-01-01

    Coquand's cubical set model for homotopy type theory provides the basis for a computational interpretation of the univalence axiom and some higher inductive types, as implemented in the cubical proof assistant. This paper contributes to the understanding of this model. We make three contributions......: 1. Johnstone's topological topos was created to present the geometric realization of simplicial sets as a geometric morphism between toposes. Johnstone shows that simplicial sets classify strict linear orders with disjoint endpoints and that (classically) the unit interval is such an order. Here we...... show that it can also be a target for cubical realization by showing that Coquand's cubical sets classify the geometric theory of flat distributive lattices. As a side result, we obtain a simplicial realization of a cubical set. 2. Using the internal `interval' in the topos of cubical sets, we...

  13. God particle disappears down 6 billion pound drain

    CERN Multimedia

    Henderson, M

    2001-01-01

    An estimated 6 billion pounds has been spent looking for the Higgs particle over the last three decades. Recent results from LEP though, are now causing some scientists to doubt that it exists at all (1 page).

  14. Summary and Comparison of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report with the 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    In terms of the magnitude of the resource potential, the results of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report (BT16) are consistent with the original 2005 Billion-Ton Study (BTS) and the 2011 report, U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry (BT2. An effort was made to reevaluate the potential forestland, agricultural, and waste resources at the roadside, then extend the analysis by adding transportation costs to a biorefinery under specified logistics assumptions to major resource fractions.

  15. Cubic spline functions for curve fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    FORTRAN cubic spline routine mathematically fits curve through given ordered set of points so that fitted curve nearly approximates curve generated by passing infinite thin spline through set of points. Generalized formulation includes trigonometric, hyperbolic, and damped cubic spline fits of third order.

  16. Topics in Cubic Special Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, Stefano; Roychowdhury, Raju

    2011-01-01

    We reconsider the sub-leading quantum perturbative corrections to N=2 cubic special Kaehler geometries. Imposing the invariance under axion-shifts, all such corrections (but the imaginary constant one) can be introduced or removed through suitable, lower unitriangular symplectic transformations, dubbed Peccei-Quinn (PQ) transformations. Since PQ transformations do not belong to the d=4 U-duality group G4, in symmetric cases they generally have a non-trivial action on the unique quartic invariant polynomial I4 of the charge representation R of G4. This leads to interesting phenomena in relation to theory of extremal black hole attractors; namely, the possibility to make transitions between different charge orbits of R, with corresponding change of the supersymmetry properties of the supported attractor solutions. Furthermore, a suitable action of PQ transformations can also set I4 to zero, or vice versa it can generate a non-vanishing I4: this corresponds to transitions between "large" and "small" charge orbit...

  17. Cubical sets as a classifying topos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spitters, Bas

    Coquand’s cubical set model for homotopy type theory provides the basis for a computational interpretation of the univalence axiom and some higher inductive types, as implemented in the cubical proof assistant. We show that the underlying cube category is the opposite of the Lawvere theory of De...... Morgan algebras. The topos of cubical sets itself classifies the theory of ‘free De Morgan algebras’. This provides us with a topos with an internal ‘interval’. Using this interval we construct a model of type theory following van den Berg and Garner. We are currently investigating the precise relation...

  18. Cosmic rays and the biosphere over 4 billion years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Variations in the flux of cosmic rays (CR) at Earth during the last 4.6 billion years are constructed from information about the star formation rate in the Milky Way and the evolution of the solar activity. The constructed CR signal is compared with variations in the Earths biological productivit...... as recorded in the isotope delta C-13, which spans more than 3 billion years. CR and fluctuations in biological productivity show a remarkable correlation and indicate that the evolution of climate and the biosphere on the Earth is closely linked to the evolution of the Milky Way....

  19. Instantaneous stiffness and hysteresis of dynamic elastic response prosthetic feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Christina M; Kaufman, Kenton

    2017-10-01

    Dynamic elastic response prosthetic feet are designed to mimic the functional characteristics of the native foot/ankle joint. Numerous designs of dynamic elastic response feet exist which make the prescription process difficult, especially because of the lack of empirical evidence describing the objective performance characteristics of the feet. To quantify the mechanical properties of available dynamic elastic response prosthetic feet, specifically the stiffness and hysteresis. Mechanical testing of dynamic elastic response prosthetic feet. Static Proof Testing in accordance with ISO 10328 was conducted on seven dynamic elastic response prosthetic feet. Load-displacement data were used to calculate the instantaneous stiffness in both the heel and forefoot regions, as well as hysteresis associated with each foot. Heel stiffness was greater than forefoot stiffness for all feet. The heel of the glass composite prosthetic foot was stiffer than the carbon fiber feet and it exhibited less hysteresis. Two different carbon fiber feet had the stiffest forefoot regions. Mechanical testing is a reproducible method that can be used to provide objective evidence about dynamic elastic response prosthetic foot performance and aid in the prescription process. Clinical relevance The quantitative stiffness and hysteresis data from this study can be used by prosthetists to aid the prescription process and make it more objective.

  20. Biomechanical Analysis with Cubic Spline Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Thomas M.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Results of experimentation suggest that the cubic spline is a convenient and consistent method for providing an accurate description of displacement-time data and for obtaining the corresponding time derivatives. (MJB)

  1. Flexible regression models with cubic splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrleman, S; Simon, R

    1989-05-01

    We describe the use of cubic splines in regression models to represent the relationship between the response variable and a vector of covariates. This simple method can help prevent the problems that result from inappropriate linearity assumptions. We compare restricted cubic spline regression to non-parametric procedures for characterizing the relationship between age and survival in the Stanford Heart Transplant data. We also provide an illustrative example in cancer therapeutics.

  2. Working Paper 5: Beyond Collier's Bottom Billion | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-16

    Dec 16, 2010 ... The heart of the narrative presented in the book is that a group of almost 60 countries, with a population of about a billion people, are caught in four main traps. Their prospects for escaping the traps are poor, and they need a set of actions from the international community to achieve the rapid rates of growth ...

  3. Congress OKs $2 Billion Boost for the NIH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    President Donald Trump last week signed a $1.1 trillion spending bill for fiscal year 2017, including a welcome $2 billion boost for the NIH that will support former Vice President Joe Biden's Cancer Moonshot initiative, among other priorities. However, researchers who rely heavily on NIH grant funding remain concerned about proposed cuts for 2018. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Gaia: Science with 1 billion objects in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusti, Timo

    2018-02-01

    Gaia is an operational satellite in the ESA science programme. It is gathering data for more than a billion objects. Gaia measures positions and motions of stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, but captures many asteroids and extragalactic sources as well. The first data release has already been made and exploitation by the world-wide scientific community is underway. Further data releases will be made with further increasing accuracy. Gaia is well underway to provide its promised set of fundamental astronomical data.

  5. Document de travail 5: Beyond Collier's Bottom Billion | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    16 déc. 2010 ... L'ouvrage de Paul Collier, The Bottom Billion, suscite un grand intérêt dans le domaine du développement. Il repose sur la thèse selon laquelle un groupe de près de 60 pays, dont la population totale avoisine un milliard de personnes, sont pris dans quatre pièges principaux.

  6. Ubiquitous Supercritical Wing Design Cuts Billions in Fuel Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A Langley Research Center engineer’s work in the 1960s and ’70s to develop a wing with better performance near the speed of sound resulted in a significant increase in subsonic efficiency. The design was shared with industry. Today, Renton, Washington-based Boeing Commercial Airplanes, as well as most other plane manufacturers, apply it to all their aircraft, saving the airline industry billions of dollars in fuel every year.

  7. Cost of solving mysteries of universe: $6.7 billion

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    "An international consortium of physicists on Thursday released the first detailed design of what they believe will be the next big thing in physics. The machine, 20 miles long, will slam together electrons and their opposites, positrons, to produce fireballs of energy re-creating conditions when the universe was only a trillionth of a second old. It would cost about $6.7 billion." (1 page)

  8. Degenerations of cubic fourfolds and holomorphic symplectic geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dries, B.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we study deformations of varieties of lines on smooth cubic hypersurfaces of the 5-dimensional complex projective space. These cubic hypersurfaces are also called cubic fourfolds. Beauville and Donagi proved that the line variety of any cubic fourfold is a polarized holomorphic

  9. Superhard BC(3) in cubic diamond structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao; Liu, Hanyu; Li, Quan; Gao, Bo; Wang, Yanchao; Li, Hongdong; Chen, Changfeng; Ma, Yanming

    2015-01-09

    We solve the crystal structure of recently synthesized cubic BC(3) using an unbiased swarm structure search, which identifies a highly symmetric BC(3) phase in the cubic diamond structure (d-BC(3)) that contains a distinct B-B bonding network along the body diagonals of a large 64-atom unit cell. Simulated x-ray diffraction and Raman peaks of d-BC(3) are in excellent agreement with experimental data. Calculated stress-strain relations of d-BC(3) demonstrate its intrinsic superhard nature and reveal intriguing sequential bond-breaking modes that produce superior ductility and extended elasticity, which are unique among superhard solids. The present results establish the first boron carbide in the cubic diamond structure with remarkable properties, and these new findings also provide insights for exploring other covalent solids with complex bonding configurations.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Collagen from Chicken Feet

    OpenAIRE

    P. Hashim; M. S. Mohd Ridzwan; J. Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Collagen was isolated from chicken feet by using papain and pepsin enzymes in acetic acid solution at 4°C for 24h with a yield of 18.16% and 22.94% by dry weight, respectively. Chemical composition and characteristics of chicken feet collagen such as amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE patterns, FTIR spectra and thermal properties were evaluated. The chicken feet collagen is rich in the amino acids glycine, glutamic acid, proline and hydroxyproline. Electrophoresis pattern demonstrated two disti...

  11. Purely cubic action for string field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, G. T.; Lykken, J.; Rohm, R.; Strominger, A.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that Witten's (1986) open-bosonic-string field-theory action and a closed-string analog can be written as a purely cubic interaction term. The conventional form of the action arises by expansion around particular solutions of the classical equations of motion. The explicit background dependence of the conventional action via the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operator is eliminated in the cubic formulation. A closed-form expression is found for the full nonlinear gauge-transformation law.

  12. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of isolated arthrogryposis of feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, S; Shapiro, I; Lewinsky, R; Sharf, M

    1989-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of isolated arthrogryposis of the feet at the ankle joint was made by ultrasound and confirmed at birth. The criteria for ruling out joint contracture are absence of fixed limb deformity, and free fetal motion.

  13. Some elements go cubic under pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Legut, Dominik

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 10 (2007), s. 17-17 ISSN 0031-9228 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : ab initio * polonium * cubic structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.133, year: 2007

  14. The Exact Limit of Some Cubic Towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Beelen, Peter; Nguyen, Nhut

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a new explicit tower of function fields was introduced by Bassa, Beelen, Garcia and Stichtenoth (BBGS). This resulted in currently the best known lower bound for Ihara’s constant in the case of non-prime finite fields. In particular over cubic fields, the tower’s limit is at least as good...

  15. A monotonicity conjecture for real cubic maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, S.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Galeeva, R. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Milnor, J. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Tresser, C. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This will be an outline of work in progress. We study the conjecture that the topological entropy of a real cubic map depends ``monotonely`` on its parameters, in the sense that each locus of constant entropy in parameter space is a connected set. This material will be presented in more detail in a later paper.

  16. Most pressurized elements are not simple cubic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Legut, Dominik; Friák, Martin; Šob, Mojmír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 9 (2008), s. 10-11 ISSN 0031-9228 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 147; GA AV ČR IAA1041302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : electronic structure * simple cubic structure * phase transformations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.674, year: 2008

  17. Squares in arithmetic progression over cubic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Bremner, Andrew; Siksek, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Euler showed that there can be no more than three integer squares in arithmetic progression. In quadratic number fields, Xarles has shown that there can be arithmetic progressions of five squares, but not of six. Here, we prove that there are no cubic number fields which contain five squares in arithmetic progression.

  18. Abelian gauge potentials on cubic lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burrello, M.; Lepori, L.; Paganelli, S.

    2017-01-01

    fields in a system of ultracold atoms in optical lattices. After reviewing two of the main experimental schemes for the physical realization of synthetic gauge potentials in ultracold setups, we study cubic lattice tight-bindingmodels with commensurate flux.We finally discuss applications of gauge...

  19. SHORT COMMUNICATIONA Cubic Power Potential Model for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SHORT COMMUNICATIONA Cubic Power Potential Model for Baryonium. L. K. Sharma. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/dai.v11i1.15528 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for ...

  20. The Exact Limit of Some Cubic Towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Beelen, Peter; Nguyen, Nhut

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a new explicit tower of function fields was introduced by Bassa, Beelen, Garcia and Stichtenoth (BBGS). This resulted in currently the best known lower bound for Ihara’s constant in the case of non-prime finite fields. In particular over cubic fields, the tower’s limit is at least as go...

  1. Developing economic environment: energy for a billion people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethna, H.N.; Chandramouli, R.; Manaktala, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    The ongoing reforms in the Indian economy provide an interesting canvas for optimal development of the energy sector serving the needs for a billion people. It will be necessary in the global interest, to avoid the pitfalls of developing an energy intensive society as in the west and remain within the realms of sustainable development. It also deals with the strategies to be adopted for energy conservation, rehabilitation of existing plants and optimal utilisation of hydro thermal capacities by integrated grid operation on a commercial basis and setting up of pumped storage plants. 9 tabs

  2. A two-billion-year history for the lunar dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoo, Sonia M; Weiss, Benjamin P; Shuster, David L; Suavet, Clément; Wang, Huapei; Grove, Timothy L

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic studies of lunar rocks indicate that the Moon generated a core dynamo with surface field intensities of ~20 to 110 μT between at least 4.25 and 3.56 billion years ago (Ga). The field subsequently declined to <~4 μT by 3.19 Ga, but it has been unclear whether the dynamo had terminated by this time or just greatly weakened in intensity. We present analyses that demonstrate that the melt glass matrix of a young regolith breccia was magnetized in a ~5 ± 2 μT dynamo field at ~1 to ~2.5 Ga. These data extend the known lifetime of the lunar dynamo by at least 1 billion years. Such a protracted history requires an extraordinarily long-lived power source like core crystallization or precession. No single dynamo mechanism proposed thus far can explain the strong fields inferred for the period before 3.56 Ga while also allowing the dynamo to persist in such a weakened state beyond ~2.5 Ga. Therefore, our results suggest that the dynamo was powered by at least two distinct mechanisms operating during early and late lunar history.

  3. The Boring Billion, a slingshot for Complex Life on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Indrani; Large, Ross R; Corkrey, Ross; Danyushevsky, Leonid V

    2018-03-13

    The period 1800 to 800 Ma ("Boring Billion") is believed to mark a delay in the evolution of complex life, primarily due to low levels of oxygen in the atmosphere. Earlier studies highlight the remarkably flat C, Cr isotopes and low trace element trends during the so-called stasis, caused by prolonged nutrient, climatic, atmospheric and tectonic stability. In contrast, we suggest a first-order variability of bio-essential trace element availability in the oceans by combining systematic sampling of the Proterozoic rock record with sensitive geochemical analyses of marine pyrite by LA-ICP-MS technique. We also recall that several critical biological evolutionary events, such as the appearance of eukaryotes, origin of multicellularity & sexual reproduction, and the first major diversification of eukaryotes (crown group) occurred during this period. Therefore, it appears possible that the period of low nutrient trace elements (1800-1400 Ma) caused evolutionary pressures which became an essential trigger for promoting biological innovations in the eukaryotic domain. Later periods of stress-free conditions, with relatively high nutrient trace element concentration, facilitated diversification. We propose that the "Boring Billion" was a period of sequential stepwise evolution and diversification of complex eukaryotes, triggering evolutionary pathways that made possible the later rise of micro-metazoans and their macroscopic counterparts.

  4. Empowering billions with food safety and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, Suresh D.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: There are virtually millions of people -who die needlessly every year due to contaminated water and food. There are virtually many millions more who are starving due to an inadequate supply of food. Billions of pounds of food are unnecessarily wasted due to insect and other damage. Deaths and illness due to contaminated food or inadequate food are at catastrophic levels in many regions of the world. A majority of the food and water borne illnesses and deaths are preventable. It can be prevented by improved food production methods, improved food processing technologies, improved food distribution systems and improved personal hygiene. Food irradiation technology is over 100 years old. Yet, this technology is poorly understood by governments and corporate decision makers all around the world. Many consumers also are unfortunately misinformed of this technology. There is an urgent need for nations and people around the world to empower themselves with the knowledge and the expertise to harness this powerful technology. Widespread and sensible adoption of this technology can empower billions around the world with clean and abundant food supplies. It is unconscionable in the 21st century for governments to allow people to die or go hungry when the technology to prevent them is readily available

  5. Piecewise-Cubic Approximation in Autotracking Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Dikoussar, N D

    2004-01-01

    A method for piecewise-cubic approximation within the frame of four-point transforms is proposed. The knots of the segments are detected in autotracking mode using a digitized curve. A three-point cubic parametric spline (TPS) is used as a model of a local approximant. A free parameter $\\theta$ (a coefficient at $x^{3}$) is found in a line following mode, using step-by-step averaging. A formula for expression of the free parameter via a length of the segment and values of a function and derivatives in joining points is received. The $C^{1}$-smoothness depends on the accuracy of the $\\theta$-estimate. The stability of the method w.r.t. input errors is shown as well. The key parameters of the approximation are: the parameters of the basic functions, the variance of the input errors, and a sampling step. The efficiency of the method is shown by numerical calculations on test examples.

  6. Integrable peakon equations with cubic nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hone, Andrew N W; Wang, J P

    2008-01-01

    We present a new integrable partial differential equation found by Vladimir Novikov. Like the Camassa-Holm and Degasperis-Procesi equations, this new equation admits peaked soliton (peakon) solutions, but it has nonlinear terms that are cubic, rather than quadratic. We give a matrix Lax pair for V Novikov's equation, and show how it is related by a reciprocal transformation to a negative flow in the Sawada-Kotera hierarchy. Infinitely many conserved quantities are found, as well as a bi-Hamiltonian structure. The latter is used to obtain the Hamiltonian form of the finite-dimensional system for the interaction of N peakons, and the two-body dynamics (N = 2) is explicitly integrated. Finally, all of this is compared with some analogous results for another cubic peakon equation derived by Zhijun Qiao. (fast track communication)

  7. Electronic levels of cubic quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristone, Flavio [Federal De Mato Grosso Do Sul Univ., Campo Grande (Brazil); Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose [Autonoma De Madrid Univ., Madrid (Spain); Marques, Gilmar E. [Federal De Sao Carlos Univ., Sao Carlos (Brazil)

    2003-09-01

    We introduce an efficient variational method to solve the three-dimensional Schroedinger equation for any arbitrary potential V(x,y,z). The method uses a basis set of localized functions which are build up as products of one-dimensional cubic {beta}-splines. We calculated the energy levels of GaAs/AlGaAs cubic quantum dots and make a comparison with the results from two well-known simplification schemes based on a decomposition of the full potential problem into three separate one-dimensional problems. We show that the scheme making a sequential decomposition gives eigenvalues in better agreement with the ones obtained variationally, but an exact solution is necessary when looking for highly precise values.

  8. HRTEM studies of dislocations in cubic BN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nistor, L.C.; Tendeloo, G. van; Dinca, G.

    2004-01-01

    The atomic structure of dislocations in cubic boron nitride has been investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Most of the perfect dislocations, screw and 60 edge, are dissociated. A 60 dislocation which was undissociated has been analysed. Computer simulation is performed in an attempt to characterise the core structure. Twinning dislocations and dislocations resulting from the intersection of stacking faults are also revealed. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. HRTEM studies of dislocations in cubic BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nistor, L.C. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7 Magurele, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Tendeloo, G. van [University of Antwerp, EMAT, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Dinca, G. [Dacia Synthetic Diamond Factory, Timisoara av. 5, P.O. Box 58-52, 077350 Bucharest (Romania)

    2004-09-01

    The atomic structure of dislocations in cubic boron nitride has been investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Most of the perfect dislocations, screw and 60 edge, are dissociated. A 60 dislocation which was undissociated has been analysed. Computer simulation is performed in an attempt to characterise the core structure. Twinning dislocations and dislocations resulting from the intersection of stacking faults are also revealed. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. WFIRST: Extragalactic Science over Twelve Billion Years of Cosmic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Mark; Robertson, Brant; Ferguson, Henry C.; Furlanetto, Steve; Greene, Jenny; Madau, Piero; Marrone, Dan; Shapley, Alice; Stark, Daniel P.; Wechsler, Risa; Woosley, Stan; WFIRST-EXPO Science Investigation Team

    2018-01-01

    WFIRST’s infrared multiband imaging and spectroscopy from space over thousands of square degrees will revolutionize our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. When combined with unique guest observer programs that provide ultradeep IR imaging and spectroscopy over areas >100x larger than achieved by Hubble Space Telescope, WFIRST will provide the first complete picture of star formation and stellar mass build-up in galaxies over twelve billion years of cosmic history. The WFIRST Extragalactic Potential Observations (WFIRST-EXPO) Science Investigation Team has identified a host of guest observer and archival programs where WFIRST can transform our views of the connections between the star formation, environment, morphology, stellar mass, and dark matter halo properties of galaxies, and determined how WFIRST can singularly probe the connection between early galaxies and the process of cosmic reionization. We present these WFIRST capabilities, and discuss how the science from WFIRST relates to other major forthcoming space- and ground-based facilities.

  11. Use of Pom Pons to Illustrate Cubic Crystal Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Susan G.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a method that uses olefin pom pons to illustrate cubic crystal structure. Facilitates hands-on examination of different packing arrangements such as hexagonal close-packed and cubic close-packed structures. (JRH)

  12. Cubic Polynomials with Rational Roots and Critical Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shiv K.; Szymanski, Waclaw

    2010-01-01

    If you want your students to graph a cubic polynomial, it is best to give them one with rational roots and critical points. In this paper, we describe completely all such cubics and explain how to generate them.

  13. Fibromatosis over the dorsa of both feet: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Hari Kishan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromatosis is benign fibrous tissue condition intermediate between benign fibroma and metastasizing fibrosarcoma. The lesion tends to infiltrate and recur when removed, but do not metastasize. The lesion may be single or multiple, and the likelihood of recurrence after surgical removal varies with location of the lesion and age. A 40-year-old female presented with multiple raised lesions over both feet since 4 years, they were multiple well-defined firm nodules coalescing to form lobulated plaques distributed in a symmetrical pattern over the dorsum of both feet. Histopathology of skin showed epidermis with hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, mild parakeratosis, and prominent granular layer. Superficial dermis was unremarkable and deep dermis showed thick bundles of irregular collagen and fibroblastic proliferation, suggestive of fibromatosis. This case is being reported for its unusual presentation of fibromatosis over the dorsum of both feet.

  14. 'False feet': an alternative to expensive surgical shoes.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, I. W.; Walker, G.

    1987-01-01

    A method of 'equalising' unequal sized and shaped feet to allow the use of normal shoes of equal size, and permit the purchase of a 'pair' of shoes is described. This makes available a greater choice of normal styles and colours for patients with deformed and unequal feet. It is contrasted with the provision of custom-made surgical shoes and the purchase of two pairs of unequal size shop shoes. The patients and their parents were pleased with the results and the cost savings were considerable.

  15. 'False feet': an alternative to expensive surgical shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I W; Walker, G

    1987-09-01

    A method of 'equalising' unequal sized and shaped feet to allow the use of normal shoes of equal size, and permit the purchase of a 'pair' of shoes is described. This makes available a greater choice of normal styles and colours for patients with deformed and unequal feet. It is contrasted with the provision of custom-made surgical shoes and the purchase of two pairs of unequal size shop shoes. The patients and their parents were pleased with the results and the cost savings were considerable.

  16. [A girl with desquamation of hands and feet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Pui Khi; Vergunst, Clarissa E; van der Kuip, Martijn

    2014-01-01

    A 3-year-old girl presented with desquamation of hands and feet, preceded by sore throat and subfebrile temperature. She developed exanthema with typical skip lesions and orange hyperkeratosis. The diagnosis 'classic juvenile pityriasis rubra pilaris' was made. The girl was successfully treated with acitretin.

  17. Comparative roll-over analysis of prosthetic feet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtze, Carolin; Hof, At L.; van Keeken, Helco G.; Halbertsma, Jan P. K.; Postema, Klaas; Otten, Bert

    2009-01-01

    A prosthetic foot is a key element of a prosthetic leg, literally forming the basis for a stable and efficient amputee gait. We determined the roll-over characteristics of a broad range of prosthetic feet and examined the effect of a variety of shoes on these characteristics. The body weight of a

  18. Advances in Propulsive Bionic Feet and Their Actuation Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Cherelle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, researchers have deeply studied pathological and nonpathological gait to understand the human ankle function during walking. These efforts resulted in the development of new lower limb prosthetic devices aiming at raising the 3C-level (control, comfort, and cosmetics of amputees. Thanks to the technological advances in engineering and mechatronics, challenges in the field of prosthetics have become an important source of interest for roboticists. Currently, most of the bionic feet are still on a research level but show promising results and a preview of tomorrow's commercial prosthetic devices. In this paper, the authors present the current state-of-the-art and the latest advances in propulsive bionic feet with its actuation principles. The context of this review study is outlined followed by a brief description of the basics in human biomechanics and criteria for new prosthetic designs. A new categorization based on the actuation principle of propulsive ankle-foot prostheses is proposed. Based on simulations, the general principles and benefits of each actuation method are explained. The corresponding latest advances in propulsive bionic feet are presented together with their main characteristics and scientific outcomes. The authors also propose to the reader a comparison analysis of the presented devices with a discussion of the general tendencies in new prosthetic feet.

  19. On construction of quantum mechanics on cubic forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaleev, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    One of the ways is studied of constructing Quantum Mechanics on cubic forms with a wave function in the field of Greav's numbers. The corresponding cubic forms and transformations such as rotation which remain invariant these cubic forms are determined. The properties of geometric elements on cubic forms and Dicson algebra of the cubic degree are described. We give definitions of triunitary operator, creation operators for trilinear oscillator and operator of trispin. Analogs of the energy operator of Pauli equation and the relativistic relationship between energy, momentum and mass are considered. 10 refs

  20. 77 FR 16224 - Billion Auto, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION [File No. 112 3209] Billion Auto, Inc.; Analysis of Proposed Consent... ``Billion Auto, File No. 112 3209'' on your comment, and file your comment online at https://ftcpublic... April 16, 2012. Write ``Billion Auto, File No. 112 3209'' on your comment. Your comment--including your...

  1. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Paris Basin, France, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phoung A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 222 million barrels of unconventional oil; 2,092 billion cubic feet of unconventional gas; 18 million barrels of conventional oil; and 47 billion cubic feet of conventional gas resources in the Paris Basin of France.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Taoudeni Basin Province, Mali and Mauritania, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.

    2016-03-31

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 160 million barrels of conventional oil, 1,880 billion cubic feet of conventional gas, 602 million barrels of shale oil, and 6,395 billion cubic feet of shale gas in the Taoudeni Basin Province in Mali and Mauritania.

  3. Criterion 6, indicator 28 : total and per capita consumption of wood and wood products in round wood equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Howard; Rebecca Westby; Kenneth E. Skog

    2010-01-01

    Total consumption of wood and paper products and fuelwood, in roundwood equivalents, increased between 1965 and 1988 from 13.2 to 18.9 billion cubic feet. Since 1988, it has been about 20 billion cubic feet per year. Total per capita consumption increased between 1965 and 1987, from 68 to 83 ft3 per year. Since 1987 through 2006, per capita...

  4. Assessment of undiscovered gas resources of the Thrace Basin, Turkey, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2016-01-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 787 billion cubic feet of conventional gas and 1,630 billion cubic feet of unconventional gas in the Thrace Basin, Turkey.

  5. Orbital forcing of climate 1.4 billion years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Hammarlund, Emma U; Wang, Huajian; Costa, M Mafalda; Bjerrum, Christian J; Connelly, James N; Zhang, Baomin; Bian, Lizeng; Canfield, Donald E

    2015-03-24

    Fluctuating climate is a hallmark of Earth. As one transcends deep into Earth time, however, both the evidence for and the causes of climate change become difficult to establish. We report geochemical and sedimentological evidence for repeated, short-term climate fluctuations from the exceptionally well-preserved ∼1.4-billion-year-old Xiamaling Formation of the North China Craton. We observe two patterns of climate fluctuations: On long time scales, over what amounts to tens of millions of years, sediments of the Xiamaling Formation record changes in geochemistry consistent with long-term changes in the location of the Xiamaling relative to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. On shorter time scales, and within a precisely calibrated stratigraphic framework, cyclicity in sediment geochemical dynamics is consistent with orbital control. In particular, sediment geochemical fluctuations reflect what appear to be orbitally forced changes in wind patterns and ocean circulation as they influenced rates of organic carbon flux, trace metal accumulation, and the source of detrital particles to the sediment.

  6. Compilation of temperature factors of cubic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, N.M.; Bashir, J.; Willis, B.T.M.; Khan, M.N.

    1991-11-01

    A compilation of the temperature factors of 52 cubic compounds determined by diffraction methods using X-rays, neutron, and gamma rays is presented. For each compound the recommended temperature factors of cation B/sup +/, anion B/sup -/and B/sup prime/, the mass weighted average of B/sup +/and B/sup -/, along with the Debye temperature phi are given. This represents the second stage of a temperature factor project initiated by the Neutron Diffraction Commission of the International Union of Crystallography. (author)

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis of cubic boron nitride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Meiyan; Cui Deliang; Kai Li; Yin Yansheng; Wang Qilong; Lei Chu

    2005-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride (cBN) crystals have been successfully synthesized by in situ hydrothermal method. In order to obtain cBN pure phase crystals, two comparative experiments were carried out. The experimental results indicated that compared to one-step in situ hydrothermal method, multi-step in situ hydrothermal method was beneficial to the synthesis of cBN. It is believed that the multi-step in situ hydrothermal method is the optimal route to synthesize pure cBN bulk crystals

  8. Comparing Arc-shaped Feet and Rigid Ankles with Flat Feet and Compliant Ankles for a Dynamic Walker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlemann, Ilyas; Matthias Braun, Jan; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2014-01-01

    walking robot RunBot, controlled by an reflexive neural network, uses only few sensors for generating its stable gait. The results show that at feet and compliant ankles extend RunBot's parameter range especially to more leaning back postures. They also allow the robot to stably walk over obstacles...

  9. Multiply charged monopoles in cubic dimer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh Jaya, Sreejith; Powell, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    The classical cubic dimer model is a 3D statistical mechanical system whose degrees of freedom are dimers that occupy the edges between nearest neighbour vertices of a cubic lattice. Dimer occupancies are subject to the local constraint that every vertex is associated with exactly one dimer. In the presence of an aligning interaction, it is known that the system exhibits an unconventional continuous thermal phase transition from a symmetry broken columnar phase to a Coulomb-phase. The transition is in the NCCP1 universality class, which also describes the Neel-VBS transition in the JQ model and the S =1/2 Heisenberg model with suppression of hedgehog defects. Using Monte-Carlo simulations of a pair of defects in a background of fluctuating dimers, we calculate the scaling exponents for fugacities of monopole defects of charge Q = 2 and 3 at this critical point. Our estimates suggest that Q = 3 monopoles are relevant and could therefore drive the JQ model away from the NCCP1 critical point on a hexagonal lattice.

  10. Vizualization Challenges of a Subduction Simulation Using One Billion Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, M. L.; Gerya, T. V.; Yuen, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    Recent advances in supercomputing technology have permitted us to study the multiscale, multicomponent fluid dynamics of subduction zones at unprecedented resolutions down to about the length of a football field. We have performed numerical simulations using one billion tracers over a grid of about 80 thousand points in two dimensions. These runs have been performed using a thermal-chemical simulation that accounts for hydration and partial melting in the thermal, mechanical, petrological, and rheological domains. From these runs, we have observed several geophysically interesting phenomena including the development of plumes with unmixed mantle composition as well as plumes with mixed mantle/crust components. Unmixed plumes form at depths greater than 100km (5-10 km above the upper interface of subducting slab) and consist of partially molten wet peridotite. Mixed plumes form at lesser depth directly from the subducting slab and contain partially molten hydrated oceanic crust and sediments. These high resolution simulations have also spurred the development of new visualization methods. We have created a new web-based interface to data from our subduction simulation and other high-resolution 2D data that uses an hierarchical data format to achieve response times of less than one second when accessing data files on the order of 3GB. This interface, WEB-IS4, uses a Javascript and HTML frontend coupled with a C and PHP backend and allows the user to perform region of interest zooming, real-time colormap selection, and can return relevant statistics relating to the data in the region of interest.

  11. Oral diseases affect some 3.9 billion people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Medline, Embase, Lilacs. Published and unpublished observational population-based studies presenting information on the prevalence, incidence, case fatality and cause-specific mortality related to untreated caries, severe periodontitis and severe tooth loss between January 1980 and December 2010. There were no language restrictions. Study quality was assessed using the STROBE checklist (http://www.strobe-statement.org/). Prevalence estimates were calculated on the database for all age-gender-country-year groups using a specifically developed Bayesian meta-regression tool. Disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs) metrics were used to quantify the disease burden. Disability weights were calculated based on population-based surveys in five countries (USA, Peru, Tanzania, Bangladesh and Indonesia) and an open Internet survey. Uncertainties in estimates were examined using Monte Carlo simulation techniques with uncertainty levels presented as the 2.5th and 97.5th centiles, which can be interpreted as a 95% UI. Oral diseases remain highly prevalent in 2010 affecting 3.9 billion people. Untreated caries in permanent teeth was the most prevalent condition evaluated for the entire GBD (Global Burden of Disease) 2010 Study with a global prevalence of 35% for all ages combined. Severe periodontitis and untreated caries in deciduous teeth were the 6th and 10th most prevalent conditions, affecting, respectively, 11% and 9% of the global population. Oral conditions combined accounted for 15 million DALYs globally (1.9% of all YLDs and 0.6% of all DALYs), implying an average health loss of 224 years per 100,000 people. DALYs due to oral conditions increased 20.8% between 1990 and 2010, mainly due to population growth and aging. While DALYs due to severe periodontitis and untreated caries increased, those due to severe tooth loss decreased. The findings highlight the challenge in responding to the diversity of urgent oral health needs world

  12. Mississippi's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Michael Howell; Tony G. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, industrial roundwood output from Mississippi's forests totaled 1.03 billion cubic feet, 11 percent more than in 2002. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers decreased 1 percent to 385 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 543 million cubic...

  13. Burning feet syndrome: An old tropical syndrome revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen Welch; Nowell Peach; Meg Parkes; Geoffrey V Gill

    2013-01-01

    Background: Burning feet syndrome (BFS) has been described anecdotally in the literature for over 200 years. Described subjectively by patients as burning, prickling and unremitting with nocturnal exacerbations, the condition draws parallels with the burning dysaesthesia found in diabetic peripheral neuropathy, and appears to display a similar chronicity. Despite being a common symptom, especially among the elderly, its etiology in non-specific and often marked by a lack of objective clinical...

  14. Heel-region properties of prosthetic feet and shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klute, Glenn K; Berge, Jocelyn S; Segal, Ava D

    2004-07-01

    The properties of the prosthetic components prescribed to amputees have the potential to ameliorate or exacerbate their comfort, mobility, and health. To measure the difference in heel-region structural properties of currently available prosthetic feet and shoes, we simulated the period of initial heel-ground contact with a pendulum apparatus. The energy dissipation capacity of the various prosthetic feet ranged from 33.6% to 52.6% of the input energy. Donning a shoe had a large effect. Energy dissipation of a Seattle Lightfoot 2 prosthetic foot was 45.3%, while addition of a walking, running, and orthopedic shoe increased energy dissipation to 63.0%, 73.0%, and 82.4%, respectively. The force versus deformation response to impact was modeled as a hardening spring in parallel with a position-dependent damping element. A nonlinear least-squares curve fit produced model coefficients useful for predicting the heel-region impact response of both prosthetic feet and shoes.

  15. A smoothing algorithm using cubic spline functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. E., Jr.; Price, J. M.; Howser, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    Two algorithms are presented for smoothing arbitrary sets of data. They are the explicit variable algorithm and the parametric variable algorithm. The former would be used where large gradients are not encountered because of the smaller amount of calculation required. The latter would be used if the data being smoothed were double valued or experienced large gradients. Both algorithms use a least-squares technique to obtain a cubic spline fit to the data. The advantage of the spline fit is that the first and second derivatives are continuous. This method is best used in an interactive graphics environment so that the junction values for the spline curve can be manipulated to improve the fit.

  16. Cubic phase control of ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecseki, K.; Erdelyi, M.; Kovacs, A.P.; Szabo, G.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. The temporal shape of an ultrashort laser pulse may change upon propagating through a linear dispersive medium having a phase shift ψω. The change can be characterized by the Taylor-coefficients of the phase shift which are calculated around the central frequency ω 0 of the pulse. Measurements and independent control of the group delay dispersion (GDD, ψ'(ω 0 )) and the third order dispersion (TOD, ψ'(ω 0 )) are important in several research fields, particularly in the generation of ultrashort laser pulses by chirped pulse amplification (CPA) and pulse shaping for molecular control. The GDD and the TOD of an ideal pulse compressor are equal to the negative of the corresponding dispersion coefficients of the medium. However, in the case of prism-pair and grating-pair compressor is different from the ratio of the coefficients of the medium to be compensated for. Therefore it is necessary to develop so-called cubic compressors that are able to control the TOD of the pulse, yet, do not affect the GDD. In this paper a new cubic compressor setup is investigated theoretically and experimentally, which resembles the set-up proposed by White, however, we control the GDD and the TOD by the position of a birefringent, semi-cylinder crystal place around the focal point of an achromatic lens. For the evaluation of the phase shift introduced by the proposed cubic compressor, a ray tracing program was written. The program allows optimizing the compressor parameters, such as the radius of the crystal, magnification of the lens etc. Calcite was applied because it is a strong birefringent material. Calculations showed that there is a trajectory, along which shifting the crystal the TOD can be tuned independently of the GDD. The value of the TOD changed in a relatively wide range between -3.15 x 10 5 fs 3 and -1.67 x 10 5 fs 3 . Although the defocus also affects the angular dispersion of the pulse leaving the compressor, if does not exceed

  17. Shape preserving rational cubic spline for positive and convex data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Zawwar Hussain

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of shape preserving C2 rational cubic spline has been proposed. The shapes of the positive and convex data are under discussion of the proposed spline solutions. A C2 rational cubic function with two families of free parameters has been introduced to attain the C2 positive curves from positive data and C2 convex curves from convex data. Simple data dependent constraints are derived on free parameters in the description of rational cubic function to obtain the desired shape of the data. The rational cubic schemes have unique representations.

  18. Solving Buckmaster equation using cubic B-spline and cubic trigonometric B-spline collocation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthrasuwan, Maveeka; Asri, Nur Asreenawaty Mohd; Hamid, Nur Nadiah Abd; Majid, Ahmad Abd.; Azmi, Amirah

    2017-08-01

    The cubic B-spline and cubic trigonometric B-spline functions are used to set up the collocation in finding solutions for the Buckmaster equation. These splines are applied as interpolating functions in the spatial dimension while the finite difference method (FDM) is used to discretize the time derivative. The Buckmaster equation is linearized using Taylor's expansion and solved using two schemes, namely Crank-Nicolson and fully implicit. The von Neumann stability analysis is carried out on the two schemes and they are shown to be conditionally stable. In order to demonstrate the capability of the schemes, some problems are solved and compared with analytical and FDM solutions. The proposed methods are found to generate more accurate results than the FDM.

  19. Pressure dependence of the refractive index of diamond, cubic silicon carbide and cubic boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzaretti, N. M.; da Jornada, J. A. H.

    1996-09-01

    The pressure dependence of the refractive index of diamond, cubic boron nitride and cubic silicon carbide, was measured up to 9 GPa by an interferometric method using the diamond anvil cell. A least-square fit yields the following values for ( {1}/{n}) ( {dn }/{dP }): - 3.6 × 10 -4GPa -1 for diamond, -3.2 × 10 -4GPa -1 for c-BN and, for 3CSiC, -8.3 × 10 -4GPa -1. These results were used to investigate, for the first time under pressure, general empirical relationships between refractive index and energy gap found in the literature. The volume dependence of the electronic polarizability, α, of these compounds was determined through the Lorentz-Lorenz approach. The obtained linear behavior of α for the three cases was correlated to previous results for the pressure dependence of the transverse effective charge, e T∗.

  20. Iambic Feet in Paumari and the Theory of Foot Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Everett

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes stress and moraic constituencies in Paumari, an endangered language of the Arawan family of the Brazilian Amazon. It argues that Paumari feet are quantity-insensitive iambs, built from right-to-left within the prosodic word. Both of these latter claims are theoretically important because they violate some proposed universals of foot structure. The paper also discusses more general implications of the Paumari data for theories of foot size and shape, proposing two constraints on foot size, Foot Maximality and Foot Minimality, to replace the less fine-tuned constraint Foot Binarity.

  1. The feet in diabetes. Roentgenologic observation in 1501 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, J; Hoeffel, J C; Pointel, J P; Drouin, P; Debry, G; Martin, R

    1979-01-01

    The manifestations of diabetic osteoarthropathy are described. Computerized analysis of the films of the feet of 1501 diabetic patients showed one or more lesions in 55% of patients. Exostosis (36%), vascular calcifications (25%) and osteoporosis (12.2%) are by far the most frequent symptoms. Geodes (3.7%), destructive lesions (3.9%), sclerosis (4%) and articular lesions (5.1%) are second in frequency. Osteolytic lesions and reconstruction showed a high female predominance, whereas sclerosis is predominant in males (61.6--38.4%).

  2. Fabrication of duck's feet collagen-silk hybrid biomaterial for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Hyeon; Park, Hae Sang; Lee, Ok Joo; Chao, Janet Ren; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Jung Min; Ju, Hyung Woo; Moon, Bo Mi; Park, Ye Ri; Song, Jeong Eun; Khang, Gilson; Park, Chan Hum

    2016-04-01

    Collagen constituting the extracellular matrix has been widely used as biocompatible material for human use. In this study, we have selected duck's feet for extracting collagen. A simple method not utilizing harsh chemical had been employed to extract collagen from duck's feet. We fabricated duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold for the purpose of modifying the degradation rate of duck's feet collagen. This study suggests that extracted collagen from duck's feet is biocompatible and resembles collagen extracted from porcine which is commercially used. Duck's feet collagen is also economically feasible and it could therefore be a good candidate as a tissue engineering material. Further, addition of silk to fabricate a duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold could enhance the biostability of duck's feet collagen scaffold. Duck's feet collagen/silk scaffold increased the cell viability compared to silk alone. Animal studies also showed that duck's feet collagen/silk scaffold was more biocompatible than silk alone and more biostable than duck's feet or porcine collagen alone. Additionally, the results revealed that duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold had high porosity, cell infiltration and proliferation. We suggest that duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold could be used as a dermal substitution for full thickness skin defects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The square of a planar cubic graph is 7-colorable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    We prove the conjecture made by G. Wegner in 1977 that the square of every planar, cubic graph is 7-colorable. Here, 7 cannot be replaced by 6.......We prove the conjecture made by G. Wegner in 1977 that the square of every planar, cubic graph is 7-colorable. Here, 7 cannot be replaced by 6....

  4. Approximate Implicitization of Parametric Curves Using Cubic Algebraic Splines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm to solve the approximate implicitization of planar parametric curves using cubic algebraic splines. It applies piecewise cubic algebraic curves to give a global G2 continuity approximation to planar parametric curves. Approximation error on approximate implicitization of rational curves is given. Several examples are provided to prove that the proposed method is flexible and efficient.

  5. Bifurcation of limit cycles for cubic reversible systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Shao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the bifurcation of limit cycles of a class of cubic reversible system having a center at the origin. We prove that this system has at least four limit cycles produced by the period annulus around the center under cubic perturbations

  6. Rapid hydrothermal route to synthesize cubic-phase gadolinium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    spectrum of a given specimen (pH = 10∙8) has revealed characteristic Fg + Ag modes of cubic phase of .... using the diffraction formula relevant to cubic phase: .... ground state. The energy absorption in Gd is mediated via transition of 4 f electrons to 5d level and then reorganiza- tion of 4 f electrons into various multiplets.

  7. Cubic Polynomials with Real or Complex Coefficients: The Full Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardell, Nicholas S.

    2016-01-01

    The cubic polynomial with real coefficients has a rich and interesting history primarily associated with the endeavours of great mathematicians like del Ferro, Tartaglia, Cardano or Vieta who sought a solution for the roots (Katz, 1998; see Chapter 12.3: The Solution of the Cubic Equation). Suffice it to say that since the times of renaissance…

  8. Topological Oxide Insulator in Cubic Perovskite Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hosub; Rhim, Sonny H.; Im, Jino; Freeman, Arthur J.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of topologically protected conducting states with the chiral spin texture is the most prominent feature at the surface of topological insulators. On the application side, large band gap and high resistivity to distinguish surface from bulk degrees of freedom should be guaranteed for the full usage of the surface states. Here, we suggest that the oxide cubic perovskite YBiO3, more than just an oxide, defines itself as a new three-dimensional topological insulator exhibiting both a large bulk band gap and a high resistivity. Based on first-principles calculations varying the spin-orbit coupling strength, the non-trivial band topology of YBiO3 is investigated, where the spin-orbit coupling of the Bi 6p orbital plays a crucial role. Taking the exquisite synthesis techniques in oxide electronics into account, YBiO3 can also be used to provide various interface configurations hosting exotic topological phenomena combined with other quantum phases. PMID:23575973

  9. Smooth cubic commensurate oxides on gallium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paisley, Elizabeth A.; Gaddy, Benjamin E.; LeBeau, James M.; Shelton, Christopher T.; Losego, Mark D.; Mita, Seiji; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko; Irving, Douglas L.; Maria, Jon-Paul, E-mail: jpmaria@ncsu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Biegalski, Michael D.; Christen, Hans M. [Center for Nanophase Materials Science, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-02-14

    Smooth, commensurate alloys of 〈111〉-oriented Mg{sub 0.52}Ca{sub 0.48}O (MCO) thin films are demonstrated on Ga-polar, c+ [0001]-oriented GaN by surfactant-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and pulsed laser deposition. These are unique examples of coherent cubic oxide|nitride interfaces with structural and morphological perfection. Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor structures were fabricated on n-type GaN. A comparison of leakage current density for conventional and surfactant-assisted growth reveals a nearly 100× reduction in leakage current density for the surfactant-assisted samples. HAADF-STEM images of the MCO|GaN interface show commensurate alignment of atomic planes with minimal defects due to lattice mismatch. STEM and DFT calculations show that GaN c/2 steps create incoherent boundaries in MCO over layers which manifest as two in-plane rotations and determine consequently the density of structural defects in otherwise coherent MCO. This new understanding of interfacial steps between HCP and FCC crystals identifies the steps needed to create globally defect-free heterostructures.

  10. Stabilities of Cubic Mappings in Fuzzy Normed Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaffari Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rassias(2001 introduced the pioneering cubic functional equation in the history of mathematical analysis: and solved the pertinent famous Ulam stability problem for this inspiring equation. This Rassias cubic functional equation was the historic transition from the following famous Euler-Lagrange-Rassias quadratic functional equation: to the cubic functional equations. In this paper, we prove the Ulam-Hyers stability of the cubic functional equation: in fuzzy normed linear spaces. We use the definition of fuzzy normed linear spaces to establish a fuzzy version of a generalized Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability for above equation in the fuzzy normed linear space setting. The fuzzy sequentially continuity of the cubic mappings is discussed.

  11. Rational Cubics and Conics Representation: A Practical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarfraz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A rational cubic spline, with one family of shape parameters, has been discussed with the view to its application in Computer Graphics. It incorporates both conic sections and parametric cubic curves as special cases. The parameters (weights, in the description of the spline curve can be used to modify the shape of the curve, locally and globally, at the knot intervals. The rational cubic spline attains parametric   smoothness whereas the stitching of the conic segments preserves visually reasonable smoothness at the neighboring knots. The curve scheme is interpolatory and can plot parabolic, hyperbolic, elliptic, and circular splines independently as well as bits and pieces of a rational cubic spline.Key Words: Computer Graphics, Interpolation, Spline, Conic, Rational Cubic

  12. Interactive (statistical) visualisation and exploration of a billion objects with vaex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breddels, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    With new catalogues arriving such as the Gaia DR1, containing more than a billion objects, new methods of handling and visualizing these data volumes are needed. We show that by calculating statistics on a regular (N-dimensional) grid, visualizations of a billion objects can be done within a second

  13. Nuclear budget for FY1991 up 3.6% to 409.7 billion yen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A total of yen409.7 billion was approved for the Governmental nuclear energy draft budget for fiscal 1991 on December 28, as the Cabinet gave its approval. The total, the highest ever, was divided into yen182.6 billion for the general account and yen227.1 billion for the special account for power resources development, representing a 3.6% increase over the ongoing fiscal year's level of yen395.5 billion. The draft budget will be examined for approval of the Diet session by the end of March. The nuclear energy budget devoted to research and development projects governed by the Science and Technology Agency amounts yen306.4 billion, up 3.5% exceeding yen300 billion for the first time. The nuclear budget for the Ministry of International Trade and Industry is yen98.1 billion, up 3.5%. For the other ministries, including the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, yen5.1 billion was allotted to nuclear energy-related projects. The Government had decided to raise the unit cost of the power plant siting promotion subsidies in the special account for power resources development by 25% --- from yen600/kw to yen750/kw --- in order to support the siting of plants. Consequently, the power resources siting account of the special accounts for both STA and MITI showed high levels of growth rates: 6.3% and 7.5%, respectively. (N.K.)

  14. Community access networks: how to connect the next billion to the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Community access networks: how to connect the next billion to the Internet. Despite recent progress with mobile technology diffusion, more than four billion people worldwide are unconnected and have limited access to global communication infrastructure. The cost of implementing connectivity infrastructure in underserved ...

  15. Diamond's 2-billion-year growth charts tectonic shift in early Earth's carbon cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, G.R.; Gress, M.U.

    2017-01-01

    A study of tiny mineral 'inclusions' within diamonds from Botswana has shown that diamond crystals can take billions of years to grow. One diamond was found to contain silicate material that formed 2.3 billion years ago in its interior and a 250 million-year-old garnet crystal towards its outer rim,

  16. Optical characterisation of cubic silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, S.M.

    1998-09-01

    The varied properties of Silicon Carbide (SiC) are helping to launch the material into many new applications, particularly in the field of novel semiconductor devices. In this work, the cubic form of SiC is of interest as a basis for developing integrated optical components. Here, the formation of a suitable SiO 2 buried cladding layer has been achieved by high dose oxygen ion implantation. This layer is necessary for the optical confinement of propagating light, and hence optical waveguide fabrication. Results have shown that optical propagation losses of the order of 20 dB/cm are obtainable. Much of this loss can be attributed to mode leakage and volume scattering. Mode leakage is a function of the effective oxide thickness, and volume scattering related to the surface layer damage. These parameters have been shown to be controllable and so suggests that further reduction in the waveguide loss is feasible. Analysis of the layer growth mechanism by RBS, XTEM and XPS proves that SiO 2 is formed, and that the extent, of formation depends on implant dose and temperature. The excess carbon generated is believed to exit the oxide layer by a number of varying mechanisms. The result of this appears to be a number of stable Si-C-O intermediaries that, form regions to either depth extreme of the SiO 2 layer. Early furnace tests suggest a need to anneal at, temperatures approaching the melting point of the silicon substrate, and that the quality of the virgin material is crucial in controlling the resulting oxide growth. (author)

  17. Shape Preserving Interpolation Using C2 Rational Cubic Spline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsul Ariffin Abdul Karim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the construction of new C2 rational cubic spline interpolant with cubic numerator and quadratic denominator. The idea has been extended to shape preserving interpolation for positive data using the constructed rational cubic spline interpolation. The rational cubic spline has three parameters αi, βi, and γi. The sufficient conditions for the positivity are derived on one parameter γi while the other two parameters αi and βi are free parameters that can be used to change the final shape of the resulting interpolating curves. This will enable the user to produce many varieties of the positive interpolating curves. Cubic spline interpolation with C2 continuity is not able to preserve the shape of the positive data. Notably our scheme is easy to use and does not require knots insertion and C2 continuity can be achieved by solving tridiagonal systems of linear equations for the unknown first derivatives di, i=1,…,n-1. Comparisons with existing schemes also have been done in detail. From all presented numerical results the new C2 rational cubic spline gives very smooth interpolating curves compared to some established rational cubic schemes. An error analysis when the function to be interpolated is ft∈C3t0,tn is also investigated in detail.

  18. Formation and stability of cubic ice in water droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Benjamin J; Bertram, Allan K

    2006-01-07

    There is growing evidence that a metastable phase of ice, cubic ice, plays an important role in the Earth's troposphere and stratosphere. Cubic ice may also be important in diverse fields such as cryobiology and planetary sciences. Using X-ray diffraction, we studied the formation of cubic ice in pure water droplets suspended in an oil matrix as a function of droplet size. The results show that droplets of volume median diameter 5.6 microm froze dominantly to cubic ice with stacking faults. These results support previous suggestions that cubic ice is the crystalline phase that nucleates when pure water droplets freeze homogeneously at approximately 235 K. It is also shown that as the size of the water droplets increased from 5.6 to 17.0 microm, the formation of the stable phase of ice, hexagonal ice, was favoured. This size dependence can be rationalised with heat transfer calculations. We also investigated the stability of cubic ice that forms in water droplets suspended in an oil matrix. We observe cubic ice up to 243 K, much higher in temperature than observed in many previous studies. This result adds to the existing literature that shows bulk ice I(c) can persist up to approximately 240 K. The transformation of cubic ice to hexagonal ice also showed a complex time and temperature dependence, proceeding rapidly at first and then slowing down and coming to a halt. These combined results help explain why cubic ice forms in some experiments described in the literature and not others.

  19. The compressibility of cubic white and orthorhombic, rhombohedral, and simple cubic black phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Simon M; Zaug, Joseph

    2010-03-10

    The effect of pressure on the crystal structure of white phosphorus has been studied up to 22.4 GPa. The ?alpha phase was found to transform into the alpha' phase at 0.87 +- 0.04 GPa with a volume change of 0.1 +- 0.3 cc/mol. A fit of a second order Birch- Murnaghan equation to the data gave Vo = 16.94 ? 0.08 cc/mol and Ko = 6.7 +- 0.5 GPa for the alpha phase and Vo = 16.4 +- 0.1 cc/mol and Ko = 9.1 +- 0.3 GPa for the alpha' phase. The alpha' phase was found to transform to the A17 phase of black phosphorus at 2.68 +- 0.34 GPa and then with increasing pressure to the A7 and then simple cubic phase of black phosphorus. A fit of a second order Birch-Murnaghan equation to our data combined with previous measurements gave Vo = 11.43 +- 0.05 cc/mol and Ko = 34.7 +- 0.5 GPa for the A17 phase, Vo = 9.62 +- 0.01 cc/mol and Ko = 65.0 +- 0.6 GPa for the A7 phase and , Vo = 9.23 +- 0.01 cc/mol and Ko = 72.5 +- 0.3 GPa for the simple cubic phase.

  20. Hardness and thermal stability of cubic silicon nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Kragh, Flemming; Frost, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    The hardness and thermal stability of cubic spinel silicon nitride (c-Si3N4), synthesized under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions, have been studied by microindentation measurements, and x-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively The phase at ambient...... temperature has an average hardness of 35.31 GPa, slightly larger than SiO2 stishovite, which is often referred to as the third hardest material after diamond and cubic boron nitride. The cubic phase is stable up to 1673 K in air. At 1873 K, alpha -and beta -Si3N4 phases are observed, indicating a phase...

  1. Interaction of dispersed cubic phases with blood components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bode, J C; Kuntsche, Judith; Funari, S S

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of aqueous nanoparticle dispersions, e.g. based on monoolein/poloxamer 407, with blood components is an important topic concerning especially the parenteral way of administration. Therefore, the influence of human and porcine plasma on dispersed cubic phases was investigated....... Several phase transitions with the formation of smaller and sometimes larger particle fractions were observed beside remaining cubic structures. A very low but detectable hemolytic activity was found for the dispersed cubic phases based on monoolein and poloxamer 407, when compared to the hemolytic...

  2. Strain tuning of topological band order in cubic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, wanxiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Zhu, Wenguang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Weitering, Hanno [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Stocks, George Malcolm [ORNL; Yao, yugui [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Xiao, Di [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically explore the possibility of tuning the topological order of cubic diamond/zinc-blende semi- conductors with external strain. Based on a simple tight-binding model, we analyze the evolution of the cubic semiconductor band structure under hydrostatic or biaxial lattice expansion, by which a generic guiding princi- ple is established that biaxial lattice expansion can induce a topological phase transition of small band-gap cubic semiconductors via a band inversion and symmetry breaking at point. Using density functional theory cal- culations, we demonstrate that a prototype topological trivial semiconductor, InSb, is converted to a nontrivial topological semiconductor with a 2% 3% biaxial lattice expansion.

  3. Ternary cubic forms and central simple algebras of degree 3

    OpenAIRE

    Raczek, Mélanie

    2007-01-01

    Fix a ground field F of characteristic neither 2 nor 3 and consider pairs (A,V) consisting of a degree 3 central simple F-algebra A and a 3-dimensional subspace V of the reduced trace zero elements of A which is totally isotropic for the trace quadratic form. Mapping an element of V to its cube defines a cubic form. This thesis is devoted to the classification of such cubic pairs - i.e. the description of a representative of each isomorphism class of cubic pairs - and the study of the associa...

  4. Monotonicity preserving splines using rational cubic Timmer interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Wan Zafira Ezza Wan; Alimin, Nur Safiyah; Ali, Jamaludin Md

    2017-08-01

    In scientific application and Computer Aided Design (CAD), users usually need to generate a spline passing through a given set of data, which preserves certain shape properties of the data such as positivity, monotonicity or convexity. The required curve has to be a smooth shape-preserving interpolant. In this paper a rational cubic spline in Timmer representation is developed to generate interpolant that preserves monotonicity with visually pleasing curve. To control the shape of the interpolant three parameters are introduced. The shape parameters in the description of the rational cubic interpolant are subjected to monotonicity constrained. The necessary and sufficient conditions of the rational cubic interpolant are derived and visually the proposed rational cubic Timmer interpolant gives very pleasing results.

  5. Identification of Hammerstein models with cubic spline nonlinearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Erika J; Westwick, David T

    2004-02-01

    This paper considers the use of cubic splines, instead of polynomials, to represent the static nonlinearities in block structured models. It introduces a system identification algorithm for the Hammerstein structure, a static nonlinearity followed by a linear filter, where cubic splines represent the static nonlinearity and the linear dynamics are modeled using a finite impulse response filter. The algorithm uses a separable least squares Levenberg-Marquardt optimization to identify Hammerstein cascades whose nonlinearities are modeled by either cubic splines or polynomials. These algorithms are compared in simulation, where the effects of variations in the input spectrum and distribution, and those of the measurement noise are examined. The two algorithms are used to fit Hammerstein models to stretch reflex electromyogram (EMG) data recorded from a spinal cord injured patient. The model with the cubic spline nonlinearity provides more accurate predictions of the reflex EMG than the polynomial based model, even in novel data.

  6. Cubic interaction vertices for fermionic and bosonic arbitrary spin fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2012-06-01

    Using the light-cone gauge approach to relativistic field dynamics, we study arbitrary spin fermionic and bosonic fields propagating in flat space of dimension greater than or equal to four. Generating functions of parity invariant cubic interaction vertices for totally symmetric and mixed-symmetry massive and massless fields are obtained. For the case of totally symmetric fields, we derive restrictions on the allowed values of spins and the number of derivatives. These restrictions provide a complete classification of parity invariant cubic interaction vertices for totally symmetric fermionic and bosonic fields. As an example of application of the light-cone formalism, we obtain simple expressions for the Yang-Mills and gravitational interactions of massive arbitrary spin fermionic fields. For some particular cases, using our light-cone cubic vertices, we discuss the corresponding manifestly Lorentz invariant and on-shell gauge invariant cubic vertices.

  7. On the Rank of Elliptic Curves in Elementary Cubic Extensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rintaro Kozuma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a method for explicitly constructing an elementary cubic extension L over which an elliptic curve ED:y2+Dy=x3  (D∈Q∗ has Mordell-Weil rank of at least a given positive integer by finding a close connection between a 3-isogeny of ED and a generic polynomial for cyclic cubic extensions. In our method, the extension degree [L:Q] often becomes small.

  8. Data interpolation using rational cubic Ball spline with three parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul

    2016-11-01

    Data interpolation is an important task for scientific visualization. This research introduces new rational cubic Ball spline scheme with three parameters. The rational cubic Ball will be used for data interpolation with or without true derivative values. Error estimation show that the proposed scheme works well and is a very good interpolant to approximate the function. All graphical examples are presented by using Mathematica software.

  9. Generalized Born--Infeld Actions and Projective Cubic Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, S; Sagnotti, A; Stora, R; Yeranyan, A

    2015-01-01

    We investigate $U(1)^{\\,n}$ supersymmetric Born-Infeld Lagrangians with a second non-linearly realized supersymmetry. The resulting non-linear structure is more complex than the square root present in the standard Born-Infeld action, and nonetheless the quadratic constraints determining these models can be solved exactly in all cases containing three vector multiplets. The corresponding models are classified by cubic holomorphic prepotentials. Their symmetry structures are associated to projective cubic varieties.

  10. The Combinatorial Rigidity Conjecture is False for Cubic Polynomials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Christian

    2003-01-01

    We show that there exist two cubic polynomials with connected Julia sets which are combinatorially equivalent but not topologically conjugate on their Julia sets. This disproves a conjecture by McMullen from 1995.......We show that there exist two cubic polynomials with connected Julia sets which are combinatorially equivalent but not topologically conjugate on their Julia sets. This disproves a conjecture by McMullen from 1995....

  11. Comparison of foot muscle morphology and foot kinematics between recreational runners with normal feet and with asymptomatic over-pronated feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianyi; Aeles, Jeroen; Vanwanseele, Benedicte

    2017-05-01

    Over-pronated feet are common in adults and are associated with lower limb injuries. Studying the foot muscle morphology and foot kinematic patterns is important for understanding the mechanism of over-pronation related injuries. The aim of this study is to compare the foot muscle morphology and foot inter-segmental kinematics between recreational runners with normal feet and those with asymptomatic over-pronated feet. A total of 26 recreational runners (17 had normal feet and 9 had over-pronated feet) participated in this study and their foot type was assessed using the 6-item Foot Posture Index. Selected foot muscles were scanned using an ultrasound device and the scanned images were processed to measure the thickness and cross-sectional area of the muscles. Muscles of interest include abductor hallucis, abductor digiti minimi, flexor digitorum brevis and longus, tibialis anterior and peroneus muscles. Foot kinematic data during walking was collected using a 3D motion capture system incorporating the Oxford Foot Model. The results show that individuals with over-pronated feet have larger size of abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis and longus and smaller abductor digiti minimi than controls. Higher rearfoot peak eversion and forefoot peak supination during walking were observed in individuals with over-pronated feet. However, during gait the forefoot peak abduction was comparable. These findings indicate that in active asymptomatic individuals with over-pronated feet, the foot muscle morphology is adapted to increase control of the foot motion. The morphological characteristics of the foot muscles in asymptomatic individuals with over-pronated feet may affect their foot kinematics and benefit prevention from injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Accessory bones of the feet: Radiological analysis of frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Vladica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Accessory bones are most commonly found on the feet and they represent an anatomic variant. They occur when there is a failure in the formation of a unique bone from separated centre of ossification. The aim of this study was to establish their frequency and medical significance. Methods. Anteroposterior and lateral foot radiography was performed in 270 patients aged of 20-80 years with a history of trauma (180 and rheumatology disease (90. The presence and distribution of accessory bones was analysed in relation to the total number of patients and their gender. The results are expressed in numeric values and in terms of percentage. Results. Accessory bones were identified in 62 (22.96% patients: 29 (10.74% of them were found in female patients and 33 (12.22% in males. The most common accessory bones were as follows: os tibiale externum 50%, os peroneum 29.03%, ostrigonum 11.29%, os vaselianum 9.68%. Conclusion. Accessory bones found in 23% of patients with trauma and some of rheumatological diseases. Their significance is demonstrated in the differential diagnosis among degenerative diseases, avulsion fractures, muscle and tendon trauma and other types of injuries which can cause painful affection of the foot, as well as in forensic practice.

  13. Assessment of morphological architecture of feet in rock-climbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Demczuk-Włodarczyk

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available It was hypothetically assumed that rock-climbers have normal foot structure. The aim of this study was to assess the structure of all the foot segments. Materials and methods: This study embraced 43 rock-climbers, who had been training for 3 to 7 years. The research group included 17 women and 26 men, aged from 18 to 24 years (mean age – 24.3. The control group consisted of 31 students of the University of Wrocław, aged from 19 to 23 years (mean age – 22.7. Photometric method was used to examine the morphological structure of the feet Results Results of the examinations show that all the rock-climbers had normal structure of the longitudinal arch, while various types of the longitudinal arch structure were observed in the students. The analysis of the transversal arch structure showed that disorders were more frequent in the rock-climbers.Conclusions. 1 Rock-climbing has a beneficial influence on the structure of the longitudinal arch, yet it is the factor facilitating disturbances of the frontal foot segments. 2 Deformations of the transversal arch structure and the toes arrangement do not coexist with the longitudinal platypodia.

  14. Non-contrast MRI perfusion angiosome in diabetic feet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jie [Cardiovascular Imaging Lab, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hastings, Mary K.; Mueller, Michael J. [Washington University School of Medicine, The Program in Physical Therapy, St. Louis, MO (United States); Muccigross, David; Hildebolt, Charles F. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Fan, Zhaoyang [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gao, Fabao [West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Department of Radiology, Chengdu (China); Curci, John [Washington University School of Medicine, The Department of Surgery, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop a non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to evaluate skeletal muscle perfusion in the diabetic foot based on the concept of angiosomes of the foot. Five healthy volunteers and five participants with diabetes (HbA1c = 7.2 ± 1.8 %) without a history of peripheral artery disease were examined. The non-contrast perfusion measurements were performed during a toe flexion challenge. Absolute perfusion maps were created and two regions (medial and lateral) on the maps were segmented based on angiosomes. Regional difference in the perfusion of foot muscle was readily visualized in the MRI perfusion angiosomes during the challenge. In the participants with diabetes, the perfusion during toe flexion challenge was significantly lower than in healthy volunteers (P < 0.01). The average perfusion for the medial plantar region of the right foot was lower in subjects with diabetes (38 ± 9 ml/min/100 g) than in healthy subjects (93 ± 33 ml/min/100 g). Non-contrast MRI perfusion angiosome maps demonstrate the feasibility of determining regional perfusion in foot muscles during toe challenge and may facilitate evaluation of muscle perfusion in diabetic feet. (orig.)

  15. Frequency of Feet Deformities in Pupils Attending Junior Grades of Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulejman Kendić

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The examination of feet by plantograph was performed in 552 pupils of first, second and fourth grades of elementary school “Harmani II” in Bihać. Examination revealed 201 children (36,42% with satisfactory condition (pedes recti while 351 pupils were diagnosed with certain form of feet deformity. Frequencies of feet deformities in girls are 60,00% in first, 65,19% in second and 66,30% in fourth grade. Average frequency of feet deformities in the examined girls is 64,90%. Pedes plani was found in 24,91% pupils. Fequencies of feet deformities in boys are 61,29% in first, 65,54% in second and 52,54% in fourth grade. Average frequency of feet deformities in the examined boys is 62,17%. Pedes plani is the most frequent deformity (23,83%.

  16. The selection of the types of shoes and its impact on the skin of the feet

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Al Aboud

    2012-01-01

    The shoes are important for the skin of our feet. It is protecting feet from injurious things in the ground. Some of the dermatoses of the feet are greatly affected by the type of the shoes a patient is wearing. However, little attention is made on the value and functions of the shoes and its impact on our skin. This manuscript provides some details on this topic.

  17. The selection of the types of shoes and its impact on the skin of the feet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al Aboud

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The shoes are important for the skin of our feet. It is protecting feet from injurious things in the ground. Some of the dermatoses of the feet are greatly affected by the type of the shoes a patient is wearing. However, little attention is made on the value and functions of the shoes and its impact on our skin. This manuscript provides some details on this topic.

  18. Analysis of experience of feet functions perfection in rhythmic gymnastic exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Nesterova T.V.; Makarova O.V.

    2009-01-01

    Trainers and gymnasts take the problem of the special preparation feet and developments of method of its perfection to the number of the actual. The results of the pedagogical testing are shown that basic (basic, pushed, amortisation) and specific (aesthetic, manipulation, integral) functions feet have a different degree of display. They will be realized in exercises on all of the stages of long-term preparation of sportswomen. Most dynamic perfection of functions feet gymnasts take place on ...

  19. Unique system of photoreceptors in sea urchin tube feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich-Lüter, Esther M; Dupont, Sam; Arboleda, Enrique; Hausen, Harald; Arnone, Maria Ina

    2011-01-01

    Different sea urchin species show a vast variety of responses to variations in light intensity; however, despite this behavioral evidence for photosensitivity, light sensing in these animals has remained an enigma. Genome information of the recently sequenced purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) allowed us to address this question from a previously unexplored molecular perspective by localizing expression of the rhabdomeric opsin Sp-opsin4 and Sp-pax6, two genes essential for photoreceptor function and development, respectively. Using a specifically designed antibody against Sp-Opsin4 and in situ hybridization for both genes, we detected expression in two distinct groups of photoreceptor cells (PRCs) located in the animal's numerous tube feet. Specific reactivity of the Sp-Opsin4 antibody with sea star optic cushions, which regulate phototaxis, suggests a similar visual function in sea urchins. Ultrastructural characterization of the sea urchin PRCs revealed them to be of a microvillar receptor type. Our data suggest that echinoderms, in contrast to chordates, deploy a microvillar, r-opsin–expressing PRC type for vision, a feature that has been so far documented only in protostome animals. Surprisingly, sea urchin PRCs lack any associated screening pigment. Indeed, one of the tube foot PRC clusters may account for directional vision by being shaded through the opaque calcite skeleton. The PRC axons connect to the animal internal nervous system, suggesting an integrative function beyond local short circuits. Because juveniles display no phototaxis until skeleton completion, we suggest a model in which the entire sea urchin, deploying its skeleton as PRC screening device, functions as a huge compound eye. PMID:21536888

  20. Regional Feedstock Partnership Summary Report: Enabling the Billion-Ton Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Vance N. [South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States). North Central Sun Grant Center; Karlen, Douglas L. [Dept. of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service, Ames, IA (United States). National Lab. for Agriculture and the Environment; Lacey, Jeffrey A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Process Science and Technology Division

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Sun Grant Initiative established the Regional Feedstock Partnership (referred to as the Partnership) to address information gaps associated with enabling the vision of a sustainable, reliable, billion-ton U.S. bioenergy industry by the year 2030 (i.e., the Billion-Ton Vision). Over the past 7 years (2008–2014), the Partnership has been successful at advancing the biomass feedstock production industry in the United States, with notable accomplishments. The Billion-Ton Study identifies the technical potential to expand domestic biomass production to offset up to 30% of U.S. petroleum consumption, while continuing to meet demands for food, feed, fiber, and export. This study verifies for the biofuels and chemical industries that a real and substantial resource base could justify the significant investment needed to develop robust conversion technologies and commercial-scale facilities. DOE and the Sun Grant Initiative established the Partnership to demonstrate and validate the underlying assumptions underpinning the Billion-Ton Vision to supply a sustainable and reliable source of lignocellulosic feedstock to a large-scale bioenergy industry. This report discusses the accomplishments of the Partnership, with references to accompanying scientific publications. These accomplishments include advances in sustainable feedstock production, feedstock yield, yield stability and stand persistence, energy crop commercialization readiness, information transfer, assessment of the economic impacts of achieving the Billion-Ton Vision, and the impact of feedstock species and environment conditions on feedstock quality characteristics.

  1. [Multimodal medical image registration using cubic spline interpolation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuanlie; Tian, Lianfang; Chen, Ping; Wang, Lifei; Ye, Guangchun; Mao, Zongyuan

    2007-12-01

    Based on the characteristic of the PET-CT multimodal image series, a novel image registration and fusion method is proposed, in which the cubic spline interpolation method is applied to realize the interpolation of PET-CT image series, then registration is carried out by using mutual information algorithm and finally the improved principal component analysis method is used for the fusion of PET-CT multimodal images to enhance the visual effect of PET image, thus satisfied registration and fusion results are obtained. The cubic spline interpolation method is used for reconstruction to restore the missed information between image slices, which can compensate for the shortage of previous registration methods, improve the accuracy of the registration, and make the fused multimodal images more similar to the real image. Finally, the cubic spline interpolation method has been successfully applied in developing 3D-CRT (3D Conformal Radiation Therapy) system.

  2. Deformation of the cubic open string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Taejin

    2017-01-01

    We study a consistent deformation of the cubic open bosonic string theory in such a way that the non-planar world sheet diagrams of the perturbative string theory are mapped onto their equivalent planar diagrams of the light-cone string field theory with some length parameters fixed. An explicit evaluation of the cubic string vertex in the zero-slope limit yields the correct relationship between the string coupling constant and the Yang–Mills coupling constant. The deformed cubic open string field theory is shown to produce the non-Abelian Yang–Mills action in the zero-slope limit if it is defined on multiple D-branes. Applying the consistent deformation systematically to multi-string world sheet diagrams, we may be able to calculate scattering amplitudes with an arbitrary number of external open strings.

  3. Deformation of the cubic open string field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taejin

    2017-05-01

    We study a consistent deformation of the cubic open bosonic string theory in such a way that the non-planar world sheet diagrams of the perturbative string theory are mapped onto their equivalent planar diagrams of the light-cone string field theory with some length parameters fixed. An explicit evaluation of the cubic string vertex in the zero-slope limit yields the correct relationship between the string coupling constant and the Yang-Mills coupling constant. The deformed cubic open string field theory is shown to produce the non-Abelian Yang-Mills action in the zero-slope limit if it is defined on multiple D-branes. Applying the consistent deformation systematically to multi-string world sheet diagrams, we may be able to calculate scattering amplitudes with an arbitrary number of external open strings.

  4. Deformation of the cubic open string field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taejin Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We study a consistent deformation of the cubic open bosonic string theory in such a way that the non-planar world sheet diagrams of the perturbative string theory are mapped onto their equivalent planar diagrams of the light-cone string field theory with some length parameters fixed. An explicit evaluation of the cubic string vertex in the zero-slope limit yields the correct relationship between the string coupling constant and the Yang–Mills coupling constant. The deformed cubic open string field theory is shown to produce the non-Abelian Yang–Mills action in the zero-slope limit if it is defined on multiple D-branes. Applying the consistent deformation systematically to multi-string world sheet diagrams, we may be able to calculate scattering amplitudes with an arbitrary number of external open strings.

  5. Deformation of the cubic open string field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taejin, E-mail: taejin@kangwon.ac.kr

    2017-05-10

    We study a consistent deformation of the cubic open bosonic string theory in such a way that the non-planar world sheet diagrams of the perturbative string theory are mapped onto their equivalent planar diagrams of the light-cone string field theory with some length parameters fixed. An explicit evaluation of the cubic string vertex in the zero-slope limit yields the correct relationship between the string coupling constant and the Yang–Mills coupling constant. The deformed cubic open string field theory is shown to produce the non-Abelian Yang–Mills action in the zero-slope limit if it is defined on multiple D-branes. Applying the consistent deformation systematically to multi-string world sheet diagrams, we may be able to calculate scattering amplitudes with an arbitrary number of external open strings.

  6. Cubic interactions of Maxwell-like higher spins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francia, Dario [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN,Piazza dei Cavalieri, 7 I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Monaco, Gabriele Lo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa,Piazza Fibonacci, 3, I-56126, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca,Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Mkrtchyan, Karapet [Max Planck Institut für Gravitationsphysik,Am Mühlenberg 1, Potsdam 14476 (Germany)

    2017-04-12

    We study the cubic vertices for Maxwell-like higher-spins in flat and (A)dS background spaces of any dimension. Reducibility of their free spectra implies that a single cubic vertex involving any three fields subsumes a number of couplings among different particles of various spins. The resulting vertices do not involve traces of the fields and in this sense are simpler than their Fronsdal counterparts. We propose an extension of both the free theory and of its cubic deformation to a more general class of partially reducible systems, that one can obtain from the original theory upon imposing trace constraints of various orders. The key to our results is a version of the Noether procedure allowing to systematically account for the deformations of the transversality conditions to be imposed on the gauge parameters at the free level.

  7. Regularizing cubic open Neveu-Schwarz string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkovits, Nathan; Siegel, Warren

    2009-01-01

    After introducing non-minimal variables, the midpoint insertion of Y Y-bar in cubic open Neveu-Schwarz string field theory can be replaced with an operator N ρ depending on a constant parameter ρ. As in cubic open superstring field theory using the pure spinor formalism, the operator N ρ is invertible and is equal to 1 up to a BRST-trivial quantity. So unlike the linearized equation of motion Y Y-bar QV = 0 which requires truncation of the Hilbert space in order to imply QV = 0, the linearized equation N ρ QV = 0 directly implies QV = 0.

  8. Interpolation in numerical optimization. [by cubic spline generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, K. R.; Hull, D. G.

    1975-01-01

    The present work discusses the generation of the cubic-spline interpolator in numerical optimization methods which use a variable-step integrator with step size control based on local relative truncation error. An algorithm for generating the cubic spline with successive over-relaxation is presented which represents an improvement over that given by Ralston and Wilf (1967). Rewriting the code reduces the number of N-vectors from eight to one. The algorithm is formulated in such a way that the solution of the linear system set up yields the first derivatives at the nodal points. This method is as accurate as other schemes but requires the minimum amount of storage.

  9. Higher-Order Approximation of Cubic-Quintic Duffing Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganji, S. S.; Barari, Amin; Babazadeh, H.

    2011-01-01

    We apply an Artificial Parameter Lindstedt-Poincaré Method (APL-PM) to find improved approximate solutions for strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillations with cubic-quintic nonlinear restoring force. This approach yields simple linear algebraic equations instead of nonlinear algebraic equations...... without analytical solution which makes it a unique solution. It is demonstrated that this method works very well for the whole range of parameters in the case of the cubic-quintic oscillator, and excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies with the exact one has been observed and discussed...... of nonlinear evolution equations....

  10. Trace spaces in a pre-cubical complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    arc length which moreover is shown to be invariant under directed homotopies. D-paths up to reparametrization (called traces) can thus be represented by arc length parametrized d-paths. Under weak additional conditions,it is shown that trace spaces in a pre-cubical complex are separable metric spaces......In directed algebraic topology, (spaces of) directed irreversible (d)-paths are studied from a topological and from a categorical point of view. Motivated by models for concurrent computation, we study in this paper spaces of d-paths in a pre-cubical complex. Such paths are equipped with a natural...

  11. Structure and bonding in cubic IV-VI crystals. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enders, P.

    1983-01-01

    The inherent instability of the cubic structure of IV-VI compounds is considered. Alternatively to the work of Littlewood, the treatment bases on the LCAO method and relates to Harrison's approach as Littlewood's papers do to Phillips'-Van Vechten's one. First Harrison's polarity is calculated from Slater-Koster parameters due to Volkov and coworkers. It indicates predominantly covalent bonding character for the cubic IV-VI compounds. A comparison is given with Littlewood's treatment. The method of special points is used to calculate integral bonding properties. Chadi and Cohen's two point set is shown to be often equivalent to a ligand-field theoretical treatment. (author)

  12. Trace spaces in a pre-cubical complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In directed algebraic topology, directed irreversible (d)-paths and spaces consisting of d-paths are studied from a topological and from a categorical point of view. Motivated by models for concurrent computation, we study in this paper spaces of d-paths in a pre-cubical complex. Such paths...... are equipped with a natural arc length which moreover is shown to be invariant under directed homotopies. D-paths up to reparametrization (called traces) can thus be represented by arc length parametrized d-paths. Under weak additional conditions, it is shown that trace spaces in a pre-cubical complex...

  13. Effect of Reaction Developing Training on Audio-Visual Feet Reaction Time in Wrestlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Reaction time is one of the most determinative elements for a successful sports performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 12-week feet reaction developing trainings upon feet reaction time of females at 11-13 age interval. Volunteer sportsmen between 11 and 13 age interval who were active in Tokat Provincial…

  14. Effect of functional fatigue on vertical ground-reaction force in individuals with flat feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozari, Sahar; Jamshidi, Ali Ashraf; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali; Jafari, Hassan

    2013-08-01

    Flat foot is one of the lower extremity deformities that might change kinetic variables of gait. Fatigue is one of the factors that can alter the vertical ground-reaction force (GRF). The effect of a fatiguing condition on vertical GRF has not been documented in individuals with flat feet. To examine the fatigue effect on vertical GRF in individuals with flat feet compared with a normal group during barefoot walking. Repeated-measure ANOVA for the effects of fatigue on individuals with flat feet and normal feet. Biomechanics laboratory. 17 subjects with flat feet and 17 normal subjects (recruited according to their arch-height ratio). Three vertical GRF measures (F1, the first peak force; F2, minimum force; and F3, the second peak force) were extracted before and after a functional fatigue protocol. No significant interaction between fatigue and group was observed for the 3 vertical GRF measures. For F2, fatigue and group effects were significant (P = .001 and P = .02, respectively). Furthermore, F2 was higher in the flat-feet group than in the normal group; F2 also increased after fatigue. For F3, only a significant fatigue effect was observed (P = .004). F3 decreased after fatigue in both groups. In the flat-feet group, a decrease in the variation of vertical GRF might be due to more flexible foot joints. After fatigue, muscles might lose their ability to control the foot joints and cause higher F2 in the flat-feet group.

  15. Comparison of plantar pressure between flat and normal feet when crossing an obstacle at different heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Tae; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Eun-Ju; Lim, Chang-Hun; Kim, Won-Bok

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the plantar foot pressure and the center of pressure (COP) pathway of normal and flat feet while crossing an obstacle at different heights. Nineteen subjects (10 normal feet, 9 flat feet) participated in this study. The plantar foot surface was divided into the following seven regions for pressure measurement: two toe regions, three forefoot regions, one midfoot region, and one heel region. A one-way ANOVA with repeated measurements was used to compare the plantar foot pressure of normal and flat feet according to the obstacle height. The trend analysis showed a quadratic trend during level walking for the normal foot group, but a linear trend appeared as the obstacle height increased. In the flat foot group, the trend analysis showed a linear trend regardless of the obstacle height. In the 2nd-3rd metatarsal head region, the plantar pressure of the flat foot group increased more than the normal foot group as the obstacle height increased; however, in the 4th-5th metatarsal head region, the plantar pressure in flat feet was lower than in normal feet. In the heel region, the plantar pressure in both groups generally increased as the obstacle height increased, but the plantar pressure in the flat foot group was lower than in the normal foot group. We believe that, due to a loss of longitudinal arch, the COP path and plantar pressure of flat feet may be different from normal feet when crossing obstacles of different heights.

  16. Energy storage and release of prosthetic feet. Part 1: biomechanical analysis related to user benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, K.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; de Vries, J.; de Vries, J.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Eisma, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    The energy storing and releasing behaviour of 2 energy storing feet (ESF) and 2 conventional prosthetic feet (CF) were compared (ESF: Otto Bock Dynamic Pro and Hanger Quantum; CF: Otto Bock Multi Axial and Otto Bock Lager). Ten trans-tibial amputees were selected. The study was designed as a

  17. C2-rational cubic spline involving tension parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    preferred which preserves some of the characteristics of the function to be interpolated. In order to tackle such ... Shape preserving properties of the rational (cubic/quadratic) spline interpolant have been studied ... tension parameters which is used to interpolate the given monotonic data is described in. [6]. Shape preserving ...

  18. Rigid isotopy classification of real three-dimensional cubics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnov, Vyacheslav A [Yaroslavl Demidov State University (Russian Federation)

    2006-08-31

    We prove that the space of non-singular real three-dimensional cubics has precisely nine connected components. We also study the space of real canonical curves of genus 4 and prove, in particular, that it consists of eight connected components.

  19. Computation of conjugate depths in cubic-shape open channels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determining conjugate depths for a given discharge and initial depth requires the solution of a cubic equation for the conjugate depth and there are currently two approaches to avoiding this difficulty in general. One approach is to iteratively try different depths until one is obtained which gives the same value of the ...

  20. Influence of strontium on the cubic to ordered hexagonal phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 23; Issue 6. Influence of strontium on the cubic to ordered hexagonal phase transformation in barium magnesium niobate. M Thirumal A K Ganguli. Phase Transitions Volume 23 Issue 6 December 2000 pp 495-498 ...

  1. Influence of strontium on the cubic to ordered hexagonal phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 23; Issue 6. Influence of strontium on the cubic to ordered hexagonal phase transformation in barium magnesium niobate. M Thirumal A K Ganguli. Phase Transitions Volume 23 Issue 6 December 2000 pp 495-498 ...

  2. Global Well-Posedness for Cubic NLS with Nonlinear Damping

    KAUST Repository

    Antonelli, Paolo

    2010-11-04

    We study the Cauchy problem for the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, perturbed by (higher order) dissipative nonlinearities. We prove global in-time existence of solutions for general initial data in the energy space. In particular we treat the energy-critical case of a quintic dissipation in three space dimensions. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  3. Cubic spline approximation techniques for parameter estimation in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, H. T.; Crowley, J. M.; Kunisch, K.

    1983-01-01

    Approximation schemes employing cubic splines in the context of a linear semigroup framework are developed for both parabolic and hyperbolic second-order partial differential equation parameter estimation problems. Convergence results are established for problems with linear and nonlinear systems, and a summary of numerical experiments with the techniques proposed is given.

  4. Connecting the Dots Parametrically: An Alternative to Cubic Splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Wilbur J.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses a method of cubic splines to determine a curve through a series of points and a second method for obtaining parametric equations for a smooth curve that passes through a sequence of points. Procedures for determining the curves and results of each of the methods are compared. (YP)

  5. C2-rational cubic spline involving tension parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper, 1-piecewise rational cubic spline function involving tension parameters is considered which produces a monotonic interpolant to a given monotonic data set. It is observed that under certain conditions the interpolant preserves the convexity property of the data set. The existence and uniqueness of a ...

  6. Thermal expansion coefficient and characteristic temperature of cubic dodecaborides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojseenko, L.L.

    1980-01-01

    Temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of cubic dodecaborides was studied within the 77-1200 K range. The Debye characteristic temperatures were determined from the experimental results of the TEC. Application of various ratios to calculate the Debye temperatures is analyzed relative to the ratios validity. These temperatures are compared with characteristic ones determined by X-raying

  7. Phonons in face-centred cubic calcium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.; Rathore, R.P.S.

    1984-01-01

    The axially symmetric and unpaired forces are employed to analyse the phonon dispersion and elastic behaviour of face centred cubic calcium and strontium which have so far not been studied adequately. The model with three parameters predicts the results which agree marvellously with the recently measured data. (author)

  8. Initial post dynamic buckling of a quadratic-cubic column ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this investigation, we determine the dynamic buckling load of an imperfect finite column resting on a mixed quadratic-cubic nonlinear elastic foundation trapped by an explicitly time dependent sinusoidally slowly varying dynamic load .The resultant coefficients are dynamically slowly varying and the formulation contains ...

  9. The traveling salesman problem on cubic and subcubic graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Boyd; R.A. Sitters (René); S.L. van der Ster; L. Stougie (Leen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study the traveling salesman problem (TSP) on the metric completion of cubic and subcubic graphs, which is known to be NP-hard. The problem is of interest because of its relation to the famous 4/3-conjecture for metric TSP, which says that the integrality gap, i.e., the worst case

  10. A Unified Approach to Teaching Quadratic and Cubic Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, A. J. B.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a simple method for teaching the algebraic solution of cubic equations via completion of the cube. Shows that this method is readily accepted by students already familiar with completion of the square as a method for quadratic equations. (Author/KHR)

  11. Tangent Lines without Derivatives for Quadratic and Cubic Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, William J.

    2009-01-01

    In the quadratic equation, y = ax[superscript 2] + bx + c, the equation y = bx + c is identified as the equation of the line tangent to the parabola at its y-intercept. This is extended to give a convenient method of graphing tangent lines at any point on the graph of a quadratic or a cubic equation. (Contains 5 figures.)

  12. Cubic Equations and the Ideal Trisection of the Arbitrary Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Marion B.

    2006-01-01

    In the year 1837 mathematical proof was set forth authoritatively stating that it is impossible to trisect an arbitrary angle with a compass and an unmarked straightedge in the classical sense. The famous proof depends on an incompatible cubic equation having the cosine of an angle of 60 and the cube of the cosine of one-third of an angle of 60 as…

  13. Aspects on mediated glucose oxidation at a supported cubic phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghbolagh, Mahdi Shahmohammadi; Khani Meynaq, Mohammad Yaser; Shimizu, Kenichi; Lindholm-Sethson, Britta

    2017-12-01

    A supported liquid crystalline cubic phase housing glucose oxidase on an electrode surface has been suggested as bio-anode in a biofuel. The purpose of this investigation is to clarify some aspect on the mediated enzymatic oxidation of glucose in such a bio-anode where the mediator ferrocene-carboxylic acid and glucose were dissolved in the solution. The enzyme glucose oxidase was housed in the water channels of the mono-olein cubic phase. The system was investigated with cyclic voltammetry at different scan rates and the temperature was varied between 15°C and 30°C. The diffusion coefficient of the mediator and also the film resistance was estimated showing a large decrease in the mass-transport properties as the temperature was decreased. The current from mediated oxidation of glucose at the electrode surface increased with decreasing film thickness. The transport of the mediator in the cubic phase was the rate-limiting step in the overall reaction, where the oxidation of glucose took place at the outer surface of the cubic phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Trapping of cubic ZnO nanocrystallites at ambient conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decremps, F.; Pellicer-Porres, J.; Datchi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Dense powder of nanocrystalline ZnO has been recovered at ambient conditions in the metastable cubic structure after a heat treatment at high pressure (15 GPa and 550 K). Combined x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments have been performed to probe both long-ra...

  15. Readability of the web: a study on 1 billion web pages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heus, Marije; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    We have performed a readability study on more than 1 billion web pages. The Automated Readability Index was used to determine the average grade level required to easily comprehend a website. Some of the results are that a 16-year-old can easily understand 50% of the web and an 18-year old can easily

  16. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-07-06

    This product builds on previous efforts, namely the 2005 Billion-Ton Study (BTS) and the 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update (BT2).With each report, greater perspective is gained on the potential of biomass resources to contribute to a national energy strategy. Similarly, each successive report introduces new questions regarding commercialization challenges. BTS quantified the broad biophysical potential of biomass nationally, and BT2 elucidated the potential economic availability of these resources. These reports clearly established the potential availability of up to one billion tons of biomass resources nationally. However, many questions remain, including but not limited to crop yields, climate change impacts, logistical operations, and systems integration across production, harvest, and conversion. The present report aims to address many of these questions through empirically modeled energy crop yields, scenario analysis of resources delivered to biorefineries, and the addition of new feedstocks. Volume 2 of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report is expected to be released by the end of 2016. It seeks to evaluate environmental sustainability indicators of select scenarios from volume 1 and potential climate change impacts on future supplies.

  17. Price of next big thing in physics: $6.7 billion

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The price of exploring inner space went up Thursday. The machine discusses in a news conference in Beijing, will be 20 miles long and would cost about $6.7 billion and 13'000 person-years of labor to be built. (1,5 page)

  18. U of M seeking $1.1 billion in projects for Soudan Mine lab.

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The University of Minnesota is hoping that groundbreaking research underway at its labs at the Soudan Underground Mine near Tower will help secure up to $1.1 billion in the next 5 to 20 years to expand its work into particle physics (1 page).

  19. Cubic Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and Their Application in BCK/BCI-Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Bae Jun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a new extension of a cubic set, the notion of a cubic interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set is introduced, and its application in B C K / B C I -algebra is considered. The notions of α -internal, β -internal, α -external and β -external cubic IVIF set are introduced, and the P-union, P-intersection, R-union and R-intersection of α -internal and α -external cubic IVIF sets are discussed. The concepts of cubic IVIF subalgebra and ideal in B C K / B C I -algebra are introduced, and related properties are investigated. Relations between cubic IVIF subalgebra and cubic IVIF ideal are considered, and characterizations of cubic IVIF subalgebra and cubic IVIF ideal are discussed.

  20. Feet kinematics upon slipping discriminate between recoveries and three types of slip-induced falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, Leigh J; Nussbaum, Maury A; Madigan, Michael L

    2018-01-03

    This study investigated the relationship between feet kinematics upon slipping while walking and the outcome of the slip. Seventy-one slips (induced by walking over an unexpectedly slippery surface) were analysed, which included 37 recoveries, 16 feet-split falls, 11 feet-forward falls and seven lateral falls. Feet kinematics differed between recoveries and three types of slip-induced falls, and a discriminant model including six measures of feet kinematics correctly predicted 87% of slip outcomes. Two potentially modifiable characteristics of the feet kinematics upon slipping that can improve the likelihood of successfully averting a fall were identified: (1) quickly arresting the motion of the slipping foot and (2) a recovery step that places the trailing toe approximately 0-10% body height anterior to the sacrum. These results may inform the development of task-specific balance training interventions that promote favourable recovery responses to slipping. Practitioner Summary: This study investigated the relationship between feet movements upon slipping and outcomes of the slip. Potentially modifiable characteristics that can reduce the likelihood of falling were: (1) quickly arresting slipping foot motion and (2) a recovery step that places the trailing toe approximately 0-10% body height anterior to the sacrum.

  1. Prediction of Gas Injection Effect on Asphaltene Precipitation Onset Using the Cubic and Cubic-Plus-Association Equations of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arya, Alay; Liang, Xiaodong; von Solms, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    precipitation onset condition during gas injection. The modeling approach is used with the Soave Redlich Kwong, Soave Redlich Kwong-Plus-Huron Vidal mixing rule and cubic-plus-association (CPA) equations of state (EoS). Six different reservoir fluids are studied with respect to asphaltene onset precipitation...

  2. Assessment of potential shale-oil and shale-gas resources in Silurian shales of Jordan, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Nelson, Philip H.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Wandrey, Craig J.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 11 million barrels of potential shale-oil and 320 billion cubic feet of shale-gas resources in Silurian shales of Jordan.

  3. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Levant Basin Province, Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 1.7 billion barrels of recoverable oil and a mean of 122 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas in the Levant Basin Province using a geology based assessment methodology.

  4. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lusitanian Basin Province, Portugal, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Paxton, Stanley T.

    2016-11-04

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 121 million barrels of oil and 212 billion cubic feet of gas in the Lusitanian Basin Province, Portugal.

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Cuyo Basin Province, Argentina, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-18

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 236 million barrels of oil and 112 billion cubic feet of associated gas in the Cuyo Basin Province, Argentina.

  6. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the North-Central Montana Province, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Finn, Thomas M.; Pitman, Janet K.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2018-02-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 55 million barrels of oil and 846 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana Province.

  7. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Hanoi Trough, Vietnam, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.

    2018-02-13

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 52 million barrels of oil and 591 billion cubic feet of gas in the Hanoi Trough of Vietnam.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered, conventional oil and gas resources of Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 19 billion barrels of oil and 83 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas resources in 10 geologic provinces of Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize.

  9. Assessment of potential unconventional lacustrine shale-oil and shale-gas resources, Phitsanulok Basin, Thailand, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed potential technically recoverable mean resources of 53 million barrels of shale oil and 320 billion cubic feet of shale gas in the Phitsanulok Basin, onshore Thailand.

  10. Analysis of experience of feet functions perfection in rhythmic gymnastic exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesterova T.V.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Trainers and gymnasts take the problem of the special preparation feet and developments of method of its perfection to the number of the actual. The results of the pedagogical testing are shown that basic (basic, pushed, amortisation and specific (aesthetic, manipulation, integral functions feet have a different degree of display. They will be realized in exercises on all of the stages of long-term preparation of sportswomen. Most dynamic perfection of functions feet gymnasts take place on the stages of initial and preliminary base preparation.

  11. Nebraska's forest resources in 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine P. O' Neill; Earl C. Leatherberry; William R. Lovett

    2004-01-01

    Results of the 2002 annual inventory of Nebraska show an estimated 1,346.5 thousand acres of forest land in the State. The estimated total volume of all live trees on forest land is 1.9 billion cubic feet. An estimated 1,297.4 thousand acres of forest land are classified as timberland. The estimate of growing-stock volume on timberland is 1.6 billion cubic feet. All...

  12. Illinois's Forest Resources in 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl C. Leatherberry; Gary J Brand; Dick C Little

    2004-01-01

    Results of the 2002 annual inventory of Illinois shows an estimated 4.3 million acres of forest land. The estimate of total volume of all live trees on forest land is 7.5 billion cubic feet. Nearly 4.1 million acres of forest land are classified as timberland. The estimate of growing-stock volume on timberland is 6.3 billion cubic feet. All live aboveground tree...

  13. Iowa's forest resources in 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl C. Leatherberry; Steve Pennington; Gary J. Brand

    2003-01-01

    Results of the 2001 annual inventory of Iowa show an estimated 2.6 million acres of forest land in the State. The estimate of total all live tree volume on forest land is 3.6 billion cubic feet. Nearly 2.5 million acres of forest land in Iowa are classified as timberland. The estimate of growing-stock volume on timberland is 2.7 billion cubic feet. All live aboveground...

  14. Iowa's forest resources in 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl C Leatherberry; Gary J. Brand

    2004-01-01

    Results of the 2002 annual inventory of Iowa show an estimated 2.7 million acres of forest land. The estimate of total all live tree volume on forest land is 3.9 billion cubic feet. Nearly 2.6 million acres of forest land in Iowa are classified as timberland. The estimate of growing-stock volume on timberland is 3.0 billion cubic feet. All live aboveground tree biomass...

  15. Forest statistics for the Northern Coastal Plain of North Carolina, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael T. Thompson

    1990-01-01

    Since 1984, area of timberland in the Northern Coastal Plain of North Carolina has remained stable at 3.8 million acres. Nonindustrial private owners control two-thirds of the region's timberland. Volume of softwood growing stock increased by 6 percent to 3.1 billion cubic feet, while hardwood growing-stock volume dropped 2 percent to 3.7 billion cubic feet. Net...

  16. Do foot orthoses change lower limb muscle activity in flat-arched feet towards a pattern observed in normal-arched feet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murley, George S; Landorf, Karl B; Menz, Hylton B

    2010-08-01

    One of the hypothesised mechanisms by which foot orthoses obtain their clinical effect is by influencing muscle activity, however previous studies have reported highly variable findings. The aim of this study was to determine whether orthoses change muscle activity in people with flat-arched feet towards a pattern observed in people with normal-arched feet. Thirty young asymptomatic adults with flat-arched feet were recruited. Foot posture was classified using two clinical measurements and four skeletal alignment measurements from weight-bearing foot x-rays. Electromyographic activity was recorded while walking from tibialis posterior and peroneus longus via in-dwelling wire electrodes, and from tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius via surface electrodes. Four experimental conditions were assessed: (i) barefoot, (ii) shoe only, (iii) a heat-moulded (modified) prefabricated foot orthosis, and (iv) a 20-degree inverted-style customised foot orthosis. During the contact phase of gait, tibialis posterior electromyographic amplitude decreased significantly with the prefabricated orthosis (peak amplitude - 19% decrease, P=0.007; RMS amplitude--22% decrease, P=0.002) and the customised orthosis (peak amplitude--12% decrease, Pfoot orthoses significantly altered tibialis posterior and peroneus longus electromyographic amplitude. However, only the modified prefabricated orthosis changed peroneus longus electromyographic amplitude towards a pattern observed with normal-arched feet. Otherwise, few differences were found between the modified prefabricated and customised orthoses. Further research is required to determine whether these changes in muscle function are associated with clinical outcomes. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of caudal epidural anesthesia efficacy by measurement of feet skin temperature in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Kurochkin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Caudal epidural anesthesia in children is not performed in pure form, but only in combination with superficial general anesthesia. Therefore, a search for reliable evaluation criteria of the caudal epidural block onset in children remains actual. Aim. To evaluate effectiveness of caudal epidural anesthesia efficacy by measurement of feet skin temperature in children. Methods and results. We investigated feet skin temperature before the caudal blockade by bupivacaine and after 15–20 minutes in 30 children. The control group included 20 children who underwent total intravenous anesthesia. The study showed that feet skin temperature after caudal blockade significantly increased from 30,1±0,15°C to 33,0±0,1°C (10% and in the control group it did not change significantly. Conclusion. Thus, feet skin thermometry may be considered to be a reliable non-invasive method for assessing the onset of the caudal block.

  18. Healing of ulcers on the feet correlated with distal blood pressure measurements in occlusive arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P; Lassen, N A

    1980-01-01

    The frequency of healing in subchronic ulcers in 66 feet in 62 patients with arterial occlusive disease was correlated with the systolic digital blood pressure (SDBP) and the systolic ankle blood pressure (SABP), both measured with a strain gauge, and with the skin perfusion pressure on the heel...... (SPPH) as measured with a photocell. Thirty-two patients (35 feet with ulcerations) had diabetes mellitus. The treatment was conservative. In 42 feet the ulcers healed after an average period of 5.8 months; in 24 feet major amputation became necessary after an average of 4.3 months. The frequency...... of healing correlated significantly with the three distal blood pressure parameters investigated, the closest correlation being with the SDBP measured at the final examination, i.e. just after healing of the ulcer or just before an inevitable major amputation. Of the 22 cases with SDBP below 20 mmHg only two...

  19. Thermal Imaging of Skin Changes on the Feet of Type II Diabetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ammer, K

    2001-01-01

    .... Increased temperature of the feet of diabetics is another frequent finding. We investigated the relationship between skin changes and areas of increased skin temperature recorded with an Infrared Scanner ACEMA 870...

  20. A local cubic smoothing in an adaptation mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikoussar, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    A new approach to a local curve approximation and the smoothing is proposed. The relation between curve points is defined using a special cross-ratio weight functions. The coordinates of three curve points are used as parameters for both the weight functions and the tree-point cubic model (TPS). A very simple in computing and stable to random errors cubic smoother in an adaptation mode (LOCUS) is constructed. The free parameter of TPS is estimated independently of the fixed parameters by recursion with the effective error suppression and can be controlled by the cross-ratio parameters. Efficiency and the noise stability of the algorithm are confirmed by examples and by comparison with other known non-parametric smoothers

  1. The Piecewise Cubic Method (PCM) for computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongwook; Faller, Hugues; Reyes, Adam

    2017-07-01

    We present a new high-order finite volume reconstruction method for hyperbolic conservation laws. The method is based on a piecewise cubic polynomial which provides its solutions a fifth-order accuracy in space. The spatially reconstructed solutions are evolved in time with a fourth-order accuracy by tracing the characteristics of the cubic polynomials. As a result, our temporal update scheme provides a significantly simpler and computationally more efficient approach in achieving fourth order accuracy in time, relative to the comparable fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. We demonstrate that the solutions of PCM converges at fifth-order in solving 1D smooth flows described by hyperbolic conservation laws. We test the new scheme on a range of numerical experiments, including both gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics applications in multiple spatial dimensions.

  2. Highly Aminated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles with Cubic Pore Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Suteewong, Teeraporn

    2011-01-19

    Mesoporous silica with cubic symmetry has attracted interest from researchers for some time. Here, we present the room temperature synthesis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles possessing cubic Pm3n symmetry with very high molar ratios (>50%) of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane. The synthesis is robust allowing, for example, co-condensation of organic dyes without loss of structure. By means of pore expander molecules, the pore size can be enlarged from 2.7 to 5 nm, while particle size decreases. Adding pore expander and co-condensing fluorescent dyes in the same synthesis reduces average particle size further down to 100 nm. After PEGylation, such fluorescent aminated mesoporous silica nanoparticles are spontaneously taken up by cells as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy.

  3. Data reduction using cubic rational B-splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Jin J.; Piegl, Les A.

    1992-01-01

    A geometric method is proposed for fitting rational cubic B-spline curves to data that represent smooth curves including intersection or silhouette lines. The algorithm is based on the convex hull and the variation diminishing properties of Bezier/B-spline curves. The algorithm has the following structure: it tries to fit one Bezier segment to the entire data set and if it is impossible it subdivides the data set and reconsiders the subset. After accepting the subset the algorithm tries to find the longest run of points within a tolerance and then approximates this set with a Bezier cubic segment. The algorithm uses this procedure repeatedly to the rest of the data points until all points are fitted. It is concluded that the algorithm delivers fitting curves which approximate the data with high accuracy even in cases with large tolerances.

  4. Plasma simulation with the Differential Algebraic Cubic Interpolated Propagation scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsumi, Takayuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    A computer code based on the Differential Algebraic Cubic Interpolated Propagation scheme has been developed for the numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for a one-dimensional plasma with immobile ions. The scheme advects the distribution function and its first derivatives in the phase space for one time step by using a numerical integration method for ordinary differential equations, and reconstructs the profile in phase space by using a cubic polynomial within a grid cell. The method gives stable and accurate results, and is efficient. It is successfully applied to a number of equations; the Vlasov equation, the Boltzmann equation with the Fokker-Planck or the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) collision term and the relativistic Vlasov equation. The method can be generalized in a straightforward way to treat cases such as problems with nonperiodic boundary conditions and higher dimensional problems. (author)

  5. Global Sufficient Optimality Conditions for a Special Cubic Minimization Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present some sufficient global optimality conditions for a special cubic minimization problem with box constraints or binary constraints by extending the global subdifferential approach proposed by V. Jeyakumar et al. (2006. The present conditions generalize the results developed in the work of V. Jeyakumar et al. where a quadratic minimization problem with box constraints or binary constraints was considered. In addition, a special diagonal matrix is constructed, which is used to provide a convenient method for justifying the proposed sufficient conditions. Then, the reformulation of the sufficient conditions follows. It is worth noting that this reformulation is also applicable to the quadratic minimization problem with box or binary constraints considered in the works of V. Jeyakumar et al. (2006 and Y. Wang et al. (2010. Finally some examples demonstrate that our optimality conditions can effectively be used for identifying global minimizers of the certain nonconvex cubic minimization problem.

  6. Twin wall of proper cubic-tetragonal ferroelastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curnoe, S. H.; Jacobs, A. E.

    2000-11-01

    We derive solutions for the twin wall linking two tetragonal variants of proper cubic-tetragonal ferroelastics, including the dilatational and shear energies and strains. Our solutions satisfy the compatibility relations exactly and are obtained at all temperatures. They require four nonvanishing strains except at the Barsch-Krumhansl temperature TBK (where only the two deviatoric strains are needed). Between the critical temperature and TBK, material in the wall region is dilated, while below TBK it is compressed; we estimate a compression of ~1% for Fe-Pd alloys. In agreement with experiment and more general theory, the twin wall lies in a cubic 110-type plane. We obtain the wall energy numerically as a function of temperature and we derive a simple estimate which agrees well with these values.

  7. Anodic etching of p-type cubic silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, G. L.; Fekade, K.; Wongchotigul, K.

    1992-01-01

    p-Type cubic silicon carbide was anodically etched using an electrolyte of HF:HCl:H2O. The etching depth was determined versus time with a fixed current density of 96.4 mA/sq cm. It was found that the etching was very smooth and very uniform. An etch rate of 22.7 nm/s was obtained in a 1:1:50 HF:HCl:H2O electrolyte.

  8. Orientational anharmonicity of interatomic interaction in cubic monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belomestnykh, Vladimir N.; Tesleva, Elena P.

    2010-01-01

    Anharmonicity of interatomic interaction from a position of physical acoustics under the standard conditions is investigated. It is shown that the measure of anharmonicity of interatomic interaction (Grilneisen parameter) is explicitly expressed through velocities of sound. Calculation results of orientation anharmonicity are shown on the example of 116 cubic monocrystals with different lattice structural type and type of chemical bond. Two types of anharmonicity interatomic interaction anisotropy are determined. Keywords: acoustics, orientational anharmonicity, Gruneisen parameter, velocity of sound

  9. Synthesis and Optical Properties of Cubic Gold Nanoframes

    OpenAIRE

    Au, Leslie; Chen, Yeechi; Zhou, Fei; Camargo, Pedro H. C.; Lim, Byungkwon; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Ginger, David S.; Xia, Younan

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a facile method of preparing cubic Au nanoframes with open structures via the galvanic replacement reaction between Ag nanocubes and AuCl2−. A mechanistic study of the reaction revealed that the formation of Au nanoframes relies on the diffusion of both Au and Ag atoms. The effect of the edge length and ridge thickness of the nanoframes on the localized surface plasmon resonance peak was explored by a combination of discrete dipole approximation calculations and single na...

  10. Higher-order numerical solutions using cubic splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, S. G.; Khosla, P. K.

    1976-01-01

    A cubic spline collocation procedure was developed for the numerical solution of partial differential equations. This spline procedure is reformulated so that the accuracy of the second-derivative approximation is improved and parallels that previously obtained for lower derivative terms. The final result is a numerical procedure having overall third-order accuracy of a nonuniform mesh. Solutions using both spline procedures, as well as three-point finite difference methods, are presented for several model problems.

  11. Cubic Splines for Trachea and Bronchial Tubes Grid Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliandro Rodrigues Cirilo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Grid generation plays an important role in the development of efficient numerical techniques for solving complex flows. Therefore, the present work develops a method for bidimensional blocks structured grid generation for geometries such as the trachea and bronchial tubes. A set of 55 blocks completes the geometry, whose contours are defined by cubic splines. Besides, this technique build on early ones because of its simplicity and efficiency in terms of very complex geometry grid generation.

  12. Lipidic cubic phase injector facilitates membrane protein serial femtosecond crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weierstall, Uwe; James, Daniel; Wang, Chong; White, Thomas A; Wang, Dingjie; Liu, Wei; Spence, John C H; Bruce Doak, R; Nelson, Garrett; Fromme, Petra; Fromme, Raimund; Grotjohann, Ingo; Kupitz, Christopher; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Liu, Haiguang; Basu, Shibom; Wacker, Daniel; Han, Gye Won; Katritch, Vsevolod; Boutet, Sébastien; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J; Koglin, Jason E; Marvin Seibert, M; Klinker, Markus; Gati, Cornelius; Shoeman, Robert L; Barty, Anton; Chapman, Henry N; Kirian, Richard A; Beyerlein, Kenneth R; Stevens, Raymond C; Li, Dianfan; Shah, Syed T A; Howe, Nicole; Caffrey, Martin; Cherezov, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    Lipidic cubic phase (LCP) crystallization has proven successful for high-resolution structure determination of challenging membrane proteins. Here we present a technique for extruding gel-like LCP with embedded membrane protein microcrystals, providing a continuously renewed source of material for serial femtosecond crystallography. Data collected from sub-10-μm-sized crystals produced with less than 0.5 mg of purified protein yield structural insights regarding cyclopamine binding to the Smoothened receptor.

  13. Interactive (statistical) visualisation and exploration of a billion objects with vaex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breddels, M. A.

    2017-06-01

    With new catalogues arriving such as the Gaia DR1, containing more than a billion objects, new methods of handling and visualizing these data volumes are needed. We show that by calculating statistics on a regular (N-dimensional) grid, visualizations of a billion objects can be done within a second on a modern desktop computer. This is achieved using memory mapping of hdf5 files together with a simple binning algorithm, which are part of a Python library called vaex. This enables efficient exploration or large datasets interactively, making science exploration of large catalogues feasible. Vaex is a Python library and an application, which allows for interactive exploration and visualization. The motivation for developing vaex is the catalogue of the Gaia satellite, however, vaex can also be used on SPH or N-body simulations, any other (future) catalogues such as SDSS, Pan-STARRS, LSST, etc. or other tabular data. The homepage for vaex is http://vaex.astro.rug.nl.

  14. Syndactyly type IV/hexadactyly of feet associated with unilateral absence of the tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambaud-Cousson, A; Dudin, A A; Zuaiter, A S; Thalji, A

    1991-08-01

    We report on a newborn girl with syndactyly type IV, hexadactyly of feet, and right tibial hemimelia. She has 5 other relatives with identical anomalies of the hands and feet transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Syndactyly type IV is rare as is absence of the tibia. We suggest the possibility that syndactyly type IV may be a more complex entity, including lower limb malformations, and transmitted as autosomal dominant with variable expressivity.

  15. Dry Powder Precursors of Cubic Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles (cubosomes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, Patrick T.; Small, William B.; Small, William B.; Lynch, Matthew L.; Burns, Janet L.

    2002-01-01

    Cubosomes are dispersed nanostructured particles of cubic phase liquid crystal that have stimulated significant research interest because of their potential for application in controlled-release and drug delivery. Despite the interest, cubosomes can be difficult to fabricate and stabilize with current methods. Most of the current work is limited to liquid phase processes involving high shear dispersion of bulk cubic liquid crystalline material into sub-micron particles, limiting application flexibility. In this work, two types of dry powder cubosome precursors are produced by spray-drying: (1) starch-encapsulated monoolein is produced by spray-drying a dispersion of cubic liquid crystalline particles in an aqueous starch solution and (2) dextran-encapsulated monoolein is produced by spray-drying an emulsion formed by the ethanol-dextran-monoolein-water system. The encapsulants are used to decrease powder cohesion during drying and to act as a soluble colloidal stabilizer upon hydration of the powders. Both powders are shown to form (on average) 0.6 μm colloidally-stable cubosomes upon addition to water. However, the starch powders have a broader particle size distribution than the dextran powders because of the relative ease of spraying emulsions versus dispersions. The developed processes enable the production of nanostructured cubosomes by end-users rather than just specialized researchers and allow tailoring of the surface state of the cubosomes for broader application

  16. Cubic and hexagonal liquid crystals as drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulin; Ma, Ping; Gui, Shuangying

    2014-01-01

    Lipids have been widely used as main constituents in various drug delivery systems, such as liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, and lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystals. Among them, lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystals have highly ordered, thermodynamically stable internal nanostructure, thereby offering the potential as a sustained drug release matrix. The intricate nanostructures of the cubic phase and hexagonal phase have been shown to provide diffusion controlled release of active pharmaceutical ingredients with a wide range of molecular weights and polarities. In addition, the biodegradable and biocompatible nature of lipids demonstrates the minimum toxicity and thus they are used for various routes of administration. Therefore, the research on lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystalline phases has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. This review will provide an overview of the lipids used to prepare cubic phase and hexagonal phase at physiological temperature, as well as the influencing factors on the phase transition of liquid crystals. In particular, the most current research progresses on cubic and hexagonal phases as drug delivery systems will be discussed.

  17. Cubic and Hexagonal Liquid Crystals as Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipids have been widely used as main constituents in various drug delivery systems, such as liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, and lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystals. Among them, lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystals have highly ordered, thermodynamically stable internal nanostructure, thereby offering the potential as a sustained drug release matrix. The intricate nanostructures of the cubic phase and hexagonal phase have been shown to provide diffusion controlled release of active pharmaceutical ingredients with a wide range of molecular weights and polarities. In addition, the biodegradable and biocompatible nature of lipids demonstrates the minimum toxicity and thus they are used for various routes of administration. Therefore, the research on lipid-based lyotropic liquid crystalline phases has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. This review will provide an overview of the lipids used to prepare cubic phase and hexagonal phase at physiological temperature, as well as the influencing factors on the phase transition of liquid crystals. In particular, the most current research progresses on cubic and hexagonal phases as drug delivery systems will be discussed.

  18. Accomplishing rural electrification for over a billion people: Approaches towards sustainable solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mizanur Md.

    2014-01-01

    Access to electricity appears to be a prerequisite to materialize social, economic, and human development in the underprivileged rural areas. However, 1.1 billion rural people in the world, almost all of them living in developing countries, still do not have access to electricity. Although the rural electrification process poses more challenges than urban electrification, rural areas are blessed with abundant and relatively evenly distributed renewable energy resources. To facilitate electric...

  19. How to Bring Solar Energy to Seven Billion People (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadia, Cyrus

    2009-04-06

    By exploiting the powers of nanotechnology and taking advantage of non-toxic, Earth-abundant materials, Berkeley Lab's Cyrus Wadia has fabricated new solar cell devices that have the potential to be several orders of magnitude less expensive than conventional solar cells. And by mastering the chemistry of these materials-and the economics of solar energy-he envisions bringing electricity to the 1.2 billion people now living without it.

  20. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from Volume 1 (Volume 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langholtz, M. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, K. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stokes, B. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-13

    On behalf of all the authors and contributors, it is a great privilege to present the 2016 Billion-Ton Report (BT16), volume 2: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from volume 1. This report represents the culmination of several years of collaborative effort among national laboratories, government agencies, academic institutions, and industry. BT16 was developed to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s efforts towards national goals of energy security and associated quality of life.

  1. Areva - First quarter 2009 revenue climbs 8.5% to 3.003 billion euros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    First quarter 2009 revenue was up 8.5% compared with the same period last year, to 3.003 billion euros. At constant exchange rates and consolidation scope, growth came to 3.9%. Currency translation had a positive impact of 57 million euros over the quarter. Changes in the consolidation scope had an impact of 66 million euros, primarily due to the consolidation of acquisitions made in 2008 in Transmission and Distribution and in Renewable Energies. The growth engines for first quarter revenue were the Reactors and Services division and the Transmission and Distribution division, with growth of 9.2% and 16.1% respectively. Outside France, revenue rose to 2.032 billion euros, compared with 1.857 billion euros in the first quarter of 2008, and represents 68% of total revenue. Orders were steady in the first quarter, particularly in the Front End, which posted several significant contracts with US and Asian utilities, and in Transmission and Distribution, with orders up sharply in Asia and South America. As of March 31, 2009, the group's backlog reached 49.5 billion euros, for 28.3% growth year-on-year, including 31.3% growth in Nuclear and 10.2% in Transmission and Distribution. For the year as a whole, the group confirms its outlook for backlog and revenue growth as well as rising operating income It should be noted that revenue may vary significantly from one quarter to the next in nuclear operations. Accordingly, quarterly data cannot be viewed as a reliable indicator of annual trends

  2. Iron-substituted cubic silsesquioxane pillared clays : Synthesis, characterization and acid catalytic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potsi, Georgia; Ladavos, Athanasios K.; Petrakis, Dimitrios; Douvalis, Alexios P.; Sanakis, Yiannis; Katsiotis, Marios S.; Papavassiliou, Georgios; Alhassan, Saeed; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2018-01-01

    Novel pillared structures were developed from the intercalation of iron-substituted cubic silsesquioxanes in a sodium and an acid-activated montmorillonite nanoclay and evaluated as acid catalysts. Octameric cubic oligosiloxanes were formed upon controlled hydrolytic polycondensation of the

  3. Patterns of radiographic changes in hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Arfaj, Abdurhman S.; Al-Boukai, Ahmad A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the pattern of radiographic changes in the hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi patients. The radiographs of hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis patients attending rheumatology outpatient clinics of King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, over the period extending from March to June 2001, were examined and reported for the presence of osteopenia, joint space narrowing, and erosions. Fifty-six rheumatoid arthritis patients were studied. Their mean age was 50 + 1.9 years, and mean disease duration was 9.07 + 0.84 years. Generalized osteopenia was seen in 16/56 (29%) and periarticular osteopenia in 38/56 (68%). Joint space narrowing was present in 9/56 (16%) of feet and 35/56 (63%) of hand x-rays. Erosions were seen in 3/56 (6%) of feet and in 22/56 (39%) of hand x-rays. Significant correlation was seen between joints space narrowing, joint erosions, and disease duration. Radiographic changes in hands and feet of Saudi rheumatoid arthritis patients are less severe than those reported from the West, and the pattern is also different with less affection of the feet. (author)

  4. A Study on Stability of Limit Cycle Walking Model with Feet: Parameter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggwon Jeon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two kinds of feet, namely, curved and flat feet, are added to limit cycle walking model to investigate its stability properties. Although both models are already proposed and are investigated, most previous works are focused on efficiency and gait behaviors. Only the stability properties of the simplest walking model conceived Garcia et al. are well defined. Therefore, there is still a need for a precise research on the effect of feet, especially in the view of local stability, bifurcation route to chaos, global stability, falling boundary and energy balance line. Therefore, this article revisits the stability analysis of limit cycle walking model with various foot shape. To analyze the effects of feet, we re-derive the equation of motion of modified models by adding one more parameter of foot shape than the simplest walking model. Also, the falling boundary and energy balance line of modified models are derived to get proper initial conditions for stable walking and to explain global stability. Simulation results show us that the curved feet can enlarge both stable walking range and area of basin of attraction while the case of flat feet depends on foot shape parameter.

  5. A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jens; Ma, Chung-Pei; McConnell, Nicholas J; Greene, Jenny E; Blakeslee, John P; Janish, Ryan

    2016-04-21

    Quasars are associated with and powered by the accretion of material onto massive black holes; the detection of highly luminous quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 suggests that black holes of up to ten billion solar masses already existed 13 billion years ago. Two possible present-day 'dormant' descendants of this population of 'active' black holes have been found in the galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 at the centres of the Leo and Coma galaxy clusters, which together form the central region of the Great Wall--the largest local structure of galaxies. The most luminous quasars, however, are not confined to such high-density regions of the early Universe; yet dormant black holes of this high mass have not yet been found outside of modern-day rich clusters. Here we report observations of the stellar velocity distribution in the galaxy NGC 1600--a relatively isolated elliptical galaxy near the centre of a galaxy group at a distance of 64 megaparsecs from Earth. We use orbit superposition models to determine that the black hole at the centre of NGC 1600 has a mass of 17 billion solar masses. The spatial distribution of stars near the centre of NGC 1600 is rather diffuse. We find that the region of depleted stellar density in the cores of massive elliptical galaxies extends over the same radius as the gravitational sphere of influence of the central black holes, and interpret this as the dynamical imprint of the black holes.

  6. Two ten-billion-solar-mass black holes at the centres of giant elliptical galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Nicholas J; Ma, Chung-Pei; Gebhardt, Karl; Wright, Shelley A; Murphy, Jeremy D; Lauer, Tod R; Graham, James R; Richstone, Douglas O

    2011-12-08

    Observational work conducted over the past few decades indicates that all massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres. Although the luminosities and brightness fluctuations of quasars in the early Universe suggest that some were powered by black holes with masses greater than 10 billion solar masses, the remnants of these objects have not been found in the nearby Universe. The giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 hosts the hitherto most massive known black hole, which has a mass of 6.3 billion solar masses. Here we report that NGC 3842, the brightest galaxy in a cluster at a distance from Earth of 98 megaparsecs, has a central black hole with a mass of 9.7 billion solar masses, and that a black hole of comparable or greater mass is present in NGC 4889, the brightest galaxy in the Coma cluster (at a distance of 103 megaparsecs). These two black holes are significantly more massive than predicted by linearly extrapolating the widely used correlations between black-hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion or bulge luminosity of the host galaxy. Although these correlations remain useful for predicting black-hole masses in less massive elliptical galaxies, our measurements suggest that different evolutionary processes influence the growth of the largest galaxies and their black holes.

  7. BUILDING A BILLION SPATIO-TEMPORAL OBJECT SEARCH AND VISUALIZATION PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kakkar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With funding from the Sloan Foundation and Harvard Dataverse, the Harvard Center for Geographic Analysis (CGA has developed a prototype spatio-temporal visualization platform called the Billion Object Platform or BOP. The goal of the project is to lower barriers for scholars who wish to access large, streaming, spatio-temporal datasets. The BOP is now loaded with the latest billion geo-tweets, and is fed a real-time stream of about 1 million tweets per day. The geo-tweets are enriched with sentiment and census/admin boundary codes when they enter the system. The system is open source and is currently hosted on Massachusetts Open Cloud (MOC, an OpenStack environment with all components deployed in Docker orchestrated by Kontena. This paper will provide an overview of the BOP architecture, which is built on an open source stack consisting of Apache Lucene, Solr, Kafka, Zookeeper, Swagger, scikit-learn, OpenLayers, and AngularJS. The paper will further discuss the approach used for harvesting, enriching, streaming, storing, indexing, visualizing and querying a billion streaming geo-tweets.

  8. Building a Billion Spatio-Temporal Object Search and Visualization Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, D.; Lewis, B.

    2017-10-01

    With funding from the Sloan Foundation and Harvard Dataverse, the Harvard Center for Geographic Analysis (CGA) has developed a prototype spatio-temporal visualization platform called the Billion Object Platform or BOP. The goal of the project is to lower barriers for scholars who wish to access large, streaming, spatio-temporal datasets. The BOP is now loaded with the latest billion geo-tweets, and is fed a real-time stream of about 1 million tweets per day. The geo-tweets are enriched with sentiment and census/admin boundary codes when they enter the system. The system is open source and is currently hosted on Massachusetts Open Cloud (MOC), an OpenStack environment with all components deployed in Docker orchestrated by Kontena. This paper will provide an overview of the BOP architecture, which is built on an open source stack consisting of Apache Lucene, Solr, Kafka, Zookeeper, Swagger, scikit-learn, OpenLayers, and AngularJS. The paper will further discuss the approach used for harvesting, enriching, streaming, storing, indexing, visualizing and querying a billion streaming geo-tweets.

  9. Solving nonlinear Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation using cubic B-spline and cubic trigonometric B-spline collocation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahan, Nur Nadiah Mohd; Ishak, Siti Noor Shahira; Hamid, Nur Nadiah Abd; Majid, Ahmad Abd.; Azmi, Amirah

    2017-04-01

    In this research, the nonlinear Benjamin-Bona-Mahony (BBM) equation is solved numerically using the cubic B-spline (CuBS) and cubic trigonometric B-spline (CuTBS) collocation methods. The CuBS and CuTBS are utilized as interpolating functions in the spatial dimension while the standard finite difference method (FDM) is applied to discretize the temporal space. In order to solve the nonlinear problem, the BBM equation is linearized using Taylor's expansion. Applying the von-Neumann stability analysis, the proposed techniques are shown to be unconditionally stable under the Crank-Nicolson scheme. Several numerical examples are discussed and compared with exact solutions and results from the FDM.

  10. Genetic correlations between claw health and feet and leg conformation in Norwegian Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ødegård, C; Svendsen, M; Heringstad, B

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations between claw disorders and feet and leg conformation traits in Norwegian Red cows. A total of 188,928 cows with claw health status recorded at claw trimming from 2004 to September 2013 and 210,789 first-lactation cows with feet and leg conformation scores from 2001 to September 2013 were included in the analyses. Traits describing claw health were corkscrew claw, infectious claw disorders (dermatitis, heel horn erosion, and interdigital phlegmon), and laminitis-related claw disorders (sole ulcer, white line disorder, and hemorrhage of sole and white line). The feet and leg conformation traits were rear leg rear view (new and old definition), rear leg side view, foot angle, and hoof quality. Feet and leg conformation traits were scored linearly from 1 to 9, with optimum scores depending on the trait. Claw disorders were defined as binary (0/1) traits for each lactation. Threshold sire models were used to model claw disorders, whereas the feet and leg conformation traits were described by linear sire models. Three multivariate analyses were performed, each including the 5 feet and leg conformation traits and 1 of the 3 claw disorders at a time. Posterior means of heritability of liability of claw disorders ranged from 0.10 to 0.20 and heritabilities of feet and leg conformation traits ranged from 0.04 to 0.11. Posterior standard deviation of heritability was ≤0.01 for all traits. Genetic correlations between claw disorders and feet and leg conformation traits were all low or moderate, except between corkscrew claw and hoof quality (-0.86), which are supposed to measure the same trait. The genetic correlations between rear leg rear view (new) and infectious claw disorders (-0.20) and laminitis-related claw disorders (0.26), and between hoof quality and laminitis-related claw disorders (-0.33) were moderate. Eight of the 15 genetic correlations between claw disorders and feet and leg conformation traits had 0

  11. Areva excellent business volume: backlog as of december 31, 2008: + 21.1% to 48.2 billion euros. 2008 revenue: + 10.4% to 13.2 billion euros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    AREVA's backlog stood at 48.2 billion euros as of December 31, 2008, for 21.1% growth year-on-year, including 21.8% growth in Nuclear and 16.5% growth in Transmission and Distribution. The Nuclear backlog came to 42.5 billion euros at December 31, 2008. The Transmission and Distribution backlog came to 5.7 billion euros at year-end. The group recognized revenue of 13.2 billion euros in 2008, for year-on-year growth of 10.4% (+9.8% like-for-like). Revenue outside France was up 10.5% to 9.5 billion euros, representing 72% of total revenue. Revenue was up 6.5% in the Nuclear businesses (up 6.3% LFL), with strong performance in the Reactors and Services division (+10.9% LFL) and the Front End division (+7.2% LFL). The Transmission and Distribution division recorded growth of 17% (+15.8% LFL). Revenue for the fourth quarter of 2008 rose to 4.1 billion euros, up 5.2% (+1.6% LFL) from that of the fourth quarter of 2007. Revenue for the Front End division rose to 3.363 billion euros in 2008, up 7.1% over 2007 (+7.2% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 53 million euros. Revenue for the Reactors and Services division rose to 3.037 billion euros, up 11.8% over 2007 (+10.9% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 47 million euros. Revenue for the Back End division came to 1.692 billion euros, a drop of 2.7% (-2.5% LFL). Foreign exchange (currency translations) had a negative impact of 3.5 million euros. Revenue for the Transmission and Distribution division rose to 5.065 billion euros in 2008, up 17.0% (+15.8% LFL)

  12. 2016 Billion-ton report: Advancing domestic resources for a thriving bioeconomy, Volume 1: Economic availability of feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.H. Langholtz; B.J. Stokes; L.M. Eaton

    2016-01-01

    This product builds on previous efforts, namely the 2005 Billion-Ton Study (BTS) and the 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update (BT2).With each report, greater perspective is gained on the potential of biomass resources to contribute to a national energy strategy. Similarly, each successive report introduces new questions regarding commercialization challenges. BTS quantified...

  13. Cubic Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and Their Application in BCK/BCI-Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Young Bae Jun; Seok-Zun Song; Seon Jeong Kim

    2018-01-01

    As a new extension of a cubic set, the notion of a cubic interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set is introduced, and its application in B C K / B C I -algebra is considered. The notions of α -internal, β -internal, α -external and β -external cubic IVIF set are introduced, and the P-union, P-intersection, R-union and R-intersection of α -internal and α -external cubic IVIF sets are discussed. The concepts of cubic IVIF subalgebra and ideal in B C K / B...

  14. Kinematic differences between normal and low arched feet in children using the Heidelberg foot measurement method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, D; McIntosh, A S; Simon, J; Lowe, K; Wolf, S I

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the kinematics of normal arched and low arched feet in children and use this data to quantify the differences between the two foot types during walking gait. Multi-segment foot motion was measured, using the Heidelberg foot measurement method (HFMM), for 25 normal arched feet and 27 low arched feet in 9-12-year-old children. The kinematic differences in the foot between the two groups during walking were relatively small, except for the medial arch and forefoot supination angles. The magnitude of the medial arch angle was approximately 10 degrees greater in the low arched group than the normal arched group throughout the gait cycle. There was a significant difference found in the forefoot supination angle (ptypes. The results of this study provide normative values for children's feet and highlight the mechanical differences in flexible flat feet in this age group. This data contributes to knowledge on foot kinematics in children and will be valuable for future research on the structure, function and potential treatment of the flexible flat foot. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative histological and immunohistochemical study of sea star tube feet (Echinodermata, Asteroidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Romana; Haesaerts, Delphine; Jangoux, Michel; Flammang, Patrick

    2005-03-01

    Adhesion in sea stars is the function of specialized structures, the tube feet or podia, which are the external appendages of the water-vascular system. Adhesive secretions allow asteroid tube feet to perform multiple functions. Indeed, according to the sea star species considered, the tube feet may be involved in locomotion, fixation, or burrowing. Different tube foot shapes usually correspond to this variety of function. In this study, we investigated the variability of the morphology of sea star tube feet as well as the variability of the composition of their adhesive secretions. This second aspect was addressed by a comparative immunohistochemical study using antibodies raised against the adhesive material of the forcipulatid Asterias rubens. The tube feet from 14 sea star species representing five orders and 10 families of the Class Asteroidea were examined. The histological study revealed three main tube foot morphotypes, i.e., knob-ending, simple disc-ending, and reinforced disc-ending. Analysis of the results suggests that tube foot morphology is influenced by species habitat, but within limits imposed by the evolutionary lineage. In immunohistochemistry, on the other hand, the results were very homogeneous. In every species investigated there was a very strong immunolabeling of the adhesive cells, independently of the taxon considered, of the tube foot morphotype or function, or of the species habitat. This indicates that the adhesives in all the species considered are closely related, probably sharing many identical molecules or, at least, many identical epitopes on their constituents.

  16. Effect of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty on tissue oxygenation in ischemic diabetic feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong-Ryul; Han, Seung-Kyu; Rha, Seung-Woon; Kim, Hyun-Surk; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2011-01-01

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) has been performed as an alternative to bypass surgery for improving tissue oxygenation in ischemic diabetic feet because the former is less invasive than the latter. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of PTA on tissue oxygenation in ischemic diabetic feet. This study included 29 ischemic diabetic feet, as determined by a transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO(2) )50%, respectively. For evaluation of tissue oxygenation, the foot TcPO(2) was measured before PTA and weekly for 6 weeks after PTA. Immediately after PTA, 26 feet were evaluated as being successful and the remaining three as acceptable. Before PTA, the average foot TcPO(2) was 12.7 ± 8.9 mmHg. The TcPO(2) values were increased to 43.6 ± 24.1, 51.0 ± 22.6, 58.3 ± 23.0, 61.3 ± 24.2, 59.0 ± 22.2, and 53.8 ± 21.0 mmHg 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks after PTA, respectively (pdiabetic feet. The maximal level of tissue oxygenation was measured on the fourth week following PTA. © 2010 by the Wound Healing Society.

  17. Backstroke start kinematic and kinetic changes due to different feet positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Karla; de Jesus, Kelly; Figueiredo, Pedro; Gonçalves, Pedro; Pereira, Suzana Matheus; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The backstroke swimming start international rules changed in 2005. This study compared two backstroke start variants, both with feet parallel to each other but in complete immersion and emersion. Six elite swimmers performed two sets of 4 maximal 15 m bouts, each set using one of the variants. The starts were videotaped in the sagittal plane with two cameras, providing bi-dimensional dual-media kinematic evaluation, and an underwater force plate and a handgrip instrumented with a load cell collected kinetic data. Backstroke start with feet immerged displayed greater centre-of-mass horizontal starting position, centre-of-mass horizontal velocity at hands-off and take-off angle. Backstroke start with feet emerged showed greater wall contact time, centre-of-mass horizontal and downward vertical velocity at take-off, lower limbs horizontal impulse, and centre-of-mass downward vertical velocity during flight phase. Backstroke start with feet immerged and emerged displayed similar centre-of-mass horizontal water reach, back arc angle and 5 m starting time. Irrespective of the swimmer's feet positioning, coaches should emphasise each variant's mechanical advantages during the wall contact phases. Furthermore, the maintenance of those advantages throughout the flight should be stressed for better backstroke start performance.

  18. Synthesis and Optical Properties of Cubic Gold Nanoframes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Leslie; Chen, Yeechi; Zhou, Fei; Camargo, Pedro H C; Lim, Byungkwon; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Ginger, David S; Xia, Younan

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes a facile method of preparing cubic Au nanoframes with open structures via the galvanic replacement reaction between Ag nanocubes and AuCl(2) (-). A mechanistic study of the reaction revealed that the formation of Au nanoframes relies on the diffusion of both Au and Ag atoms. The effect of the edge length and ridge thickness of the nanoframes on the localized surface plasmon resonance peak was explored by a combination of discrete dipole approximation calculations and single nanoparticle spectroscopy. With their hollow and open structures, the Au nanoframes represent a novel class of substrates for applications including surface plasmonics and surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

  19. Bistable Helmholtz solitons in cubic-quintic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J. M.; McDonald, G. S.; Chamorro-Posada, P.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a nonlinear Helmholtz equation for modeling the evolution of broad optical beams in media with a cubic-quintic intensity-dependent refractive index. This type of nonlinearity is appropriate for some semiconductor materials, glasses, and polymers. Exact analytical soliton solutions are presented that describe self-trapped nonparaxial beams propagating at any angle with respect to the reference direction. These spatially symmetric solutions are, to the best of our knowledge, the first bistable Helmholtz solitons to be derived. Accompanying conservation laws (both integral and particular forms) are also reported. Numerical simulations investigate the stability of the solitons, which appear to be remarkably robust against perturbations

  20. Cubic Plus Association Equation of State for Flow Assurance Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Santos, Leticia Cotia; Abunahman, Samir Silva; Tavares, Frederico Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    -built model: To validate the implementation, we show calulations for binary systems containing hydrate inhibitors and water or hydrocarbons using the Cubic Plus Association (CPA) and Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of states, also comparing against experimental data. For streams containing natural gas......Thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors such as methanol, ethanol, (mono) ethylene glycol (MEG), and triethylene glycol (TEG) are widely used in the oil and gas industry. On modeling these compounds, we show here how the CPA equation of state was implemented in an in-house process simulator as an in...

  1. Soliton interaction in quadratic and cubic bulk media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steffen Kjær; Bang, Ole

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. The understanding of how and to what extend the cubic nonlinearity affects beam propagation and spatial soliton formation in quadratic media is of vital importance in fundamental and applied nonlinear physics. We consider beam propagation under type-I SHG conditions...... in lossless bulk second order nonlinear optical materials with a nonvanishing third order nonlinearity. It is known that in pure second order systems a single soliton can never collapse whereas in systems with both nonlinearities and that stable single soliton propagation can only in some circumstances...

  2. X-Ray Elastic Constants for Cubic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malen, K.

    1974-10-15

    The stress-strain relation to be used in X-ray stress measurements in anisotropic texture-free media is studied. The method for evaluation of appropriate elastic constants for a cubic medium is described. Some illustrative numerical examples have been worked out including line broadening due to elastic anisotropy. The elastic stress and strain compatibility at grain boundaries is taken into account using Kroner's method. These elastic constants obviously only apply when no internal stresses due to plastic deformation are present. The case of reorientation of free interstitials in the stress field can be taken into account

  3. X-Ray Elastic Constants for Cubic Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malen, K.

    1974-10-01

    The stress-strain relation to be used in X-ray stress measurements in anisotropic texture-free media is studied. The method for evaluation of appropriate elastic constants for a cubic medium is described. Some illustrative numerical examples have been worked out including line broadening due to elastic anisotropy. The elastic stress and strain compatibility at grain boundaries is taken into account using Kroner's method. These elastic constants obviously only apply when no internal stresses due to plastic deformation are present. The case of reorientation of free interstitials in the stress field can be taken into account

  4. Rotary Ultrasonic Machining of Poly-Crystalline Cubic Boron Nitride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuruc Marcel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Poly-crystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN is one of the hardest material. Generally, so hard materials could not be machined by conventional machining methods. Therefore, for this purpose, advanced machining methods have been designed. Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM is included among them. RUM is based on abrasive removing mechanism of ultrasonic vibrating diamond particles, which are bonded on active part of rotating tool. It is suitable especially for machining hard and brittle materials (such as glass and ceramics. This contribution investigates this advanced machining method during machining of PCBN.

  5. The cyclicity of a cubic system with nonradical Bautin ideal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levandovskyy, Viktor; Romanovski, Valery G.; Shafer, Douglas S.

    We present a method for investigating the cyclicity of an elementary focus or center of a polynomial system of differential equations by means of complexification of the system and application of algorithms of computational algebra, showing an approach to treating the case that the Bautin ideal B of focus quantities is not a radical ideal (more precisely, when the ideal B is not radical, where B is the ideal generated by the shortest initial string of focus quantities that, like the Bautin ideal, determines the center variety). We illustrate the method with a family of cubic systems.

  6. Topological Characterization of Carbon Graphite and Crystal Cubic Carbon Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Wei Gao Muhammad Kamran; Naeem, Muhammad; Rehman, Najma Abdul

    2017-09-07

    Graph theory is used for modeling, designing, analysis and understanding chemical structures or chemical networks and their properties. The molecular graph is a graph consisting of atoms called vertices and the chemical bond between atoms called edges. In this article, we study the chemical graphs of carbon graphite and crystal structure of cubic carbon. Moreover, we compute and give closed formulas of degree based additive topological indices, namely hyper-Zagreb index, first multiple and second multiple Zagreb indices, and first and second Zagreb polynomials.

  7. Building a 70 billion word corpus of English from ClueWeb

    OpenAIRE

    Pomikálek Jan; Rychlý Pavel; Jakubíček Miloš

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the process of creation of a 70 billion word text corpus of English. We used an existing language resource, namely the ClueWeb09 dataset, as source for the corpus data. Processing such a vast amount of data presented several challenges, mainly associated with pre-processing (boilerplate cleaning, text de-duplication) and post-processing (indexing for efficient corpus querying using the CQL – Corpus Query Language) steps. In this paper we explain how we tackled them: we des...

  8. A field like today's? The strength of the geomagnetic field 1.1 billion years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprain, Courtney J.; Swanson-Hysell, Nicholas L.; Fairchild, Luke M.; Gaastra, Kevin

    2018-02-01

    Paleomagnetic data from ancient rocks are one of the few types of observational data that can be brought to be bear on the long-term evolution of Earth's core. A recent compilation of paleointensity estimates from throughout Earth history has been interpreted to indicate that Earth's magnetic field strength increased in the Mesoproterozoic (between 1.5 and 1.0 billion years ago), with this increase taken to mark the onset of inner core nucleation. However, much of the data within the Precambrian paleointensity database are from Thellier-style experiments with non-ideal behavior that manifests in results such as double-slope Arai plots. Choices made when interpreting these data may significantly change conclusions about long-term trends in the intensity of Earth's geomagnetic field. In this study, we present new paleointensity results from volcanics of the ˜1.1 billion-year-old North American Midcontinent Rift. While most of the results exhibit non-ideal double-slope or sagging behavior in Arai plots, some flows have more ideal single-slope behavior leading to paleointensity estimates that may be some of the best constraints on the strength of Earth's field for this time. Taken together, new and previously published paleointensity data from the Midcontinent Rift yield a median field strength estimate of 56.0 ZAm2—very similar to the median for the past 300 million years. These field strength estimates are distinctly higher than those for the preceding billion years after excluding ca. 1.3 Ga data that may be biased by non-ideal behavior—consistent with an increase in field strength in the late Mesoproterozoic. However, given that ˜90 per cent of paleointensity estimates from 1.1 to 0.5 Ga come from the Midcontinent Rift, it is difficult to evaluate whether these high values relative to those estimated for the preceding billion years are the result of a stepwise, sustained increase in dipole moment. Regardless, paleointensity estimates from the Midcontinent

  9. Terrain Adaptability Mechanism of Large Ruminants' Feet on the Kinematics View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qun; Ding, Xilun; Xu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Ruminants live in various parts of land. Similar cloven hooves assist ruminants in adapting to different ground environment during locomotion. This paper analyzes the general terrain adaptability of the feet of ruminants using kinematics of the equivalent mechanism model based on screw theory. Cloven hooves could adjust attitude by changing relative positions between two digits in swing phase. This function helps to choose better landing orientation. "Grasping" or "holding" a rock or other object on the ground passively provides extra adhesion force in stance phase. Ruminants could adjust the position of the metacarpophalangeal joint or metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP or MCP) with no relative motion between the tip of feet and the ground, which ensures the adhesion and dexterity in stance phase. These functions are derived from an example from chamois' feet and several assumptions, which are believed to demonstrate the foundation of adaptation of ruminants and ensure a stable and continuous movement.

  10. High Cubic-Phase Purity InN on MgO (001) Using Cubic-Phase GaN as a Buffer Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanorpim, S.; Kuntharin, S.; Parinyataramas, J.; Yaguchi, H.; Iwahashi, Y.; Orihara, M.; Hijikata, Y.; Yoshida, S.

    2011-01-01

    High cubic-phase purity InN films were grown on MgO (001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy with a cubic-phase GaN buffer layer. The cubic phase purity of the InN grown layers has been analyzed by high resolution X-ray diffraction, μ-Raman scattering and transmission electron microscopy. It is evidenced that the hexagonal-phase content in the InN overlayer much depends on hexagonal-phase content in the cubic-phase GaN buffer layer and increases with increasing the hexagonal-phase GaN content. From Raman scattering measurements, in addition, the InN layer with lowest hexagonal component (6%), only Raman characteristics of cubic TO InN and LO InN modes were observed, indicating a formation of a small amount of stacking faults, which does not affect on vibrational property.

  11. Analyzing Single Molecule Localization Microscopy Data Using Cubic Splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Hazen P; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2017-04-03

    The resolution of super-resolution microscopy based on single molecule localization is in part determined by the accuracy of the localization algorithm. In most published approaches to date this localization is done by fitting an analytical function that approximates the point spread function (PSF) of the microscope. However, particularly for localization in 3D, analytical functions such as a Gaussian, which are computationally inexpensive, may not accurately capture the PSF shape leading to reduced fitting accuracy. On the other hand, analytical functions that can accurately capture the PSF shape, such as those based on pupil functions, can be computationally expensive. Here we investigate the use of cubic splines as an alternative fitting approach. We demonstrate that cubic splines can capture the shape of any PSF with high accuracy and that they can be used for fitting the PSF with only a 2-3x increase in computation time as compared to Gaussian fitting. We provide an open-source software package that measures the PSF of any microscope and uses the measured PSF to perform 3D single molecule localization microscopy analysis with reasonable accuracy and speed.

  12. Numerical simulation of Burgers' equation using cubic B-splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, C.; Awasthi, Ashish

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a numerical θ scheme is proposed for solving nonlinear Burgers' equation. By employing Hopf-Cole transformation, the nonlinear Burgers' equation is linearized to the linear Heat equation. The resulting Heat equation is further solved by cubic B-splines. The time discretization of linear Heat equation is carried out using Crank-Nicolson scheme (θ = {1 \\over 2}) as well as backward Euler scheme (θ = 1). Accuracy in temporal direction is improved by using Richardson extrapolation. This method hence possesses fourth order accuracy both in space and time. The system of matrix which arises by using cubic splines is always diagonal. Therefore, working with splines has the advantage of reduced computational cost and easy implementation. Stability of the schemes have been discussed in detail and shown to be unconditionally stable. Three examples have been examined and the L2 and L∞ error norms have been calculated to establish the performance of the method. The numerical results obtained on applying this method have shown to give more accurate results than existing works of Kutluay et al. [1], Ozis et al. [2], Dag et al. [3], Salkuyeh et al. [4] and Korkmaz et al. [5].

  13. String scattering amplitudes and deformed cubic string field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hong Lai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We study string scattering amplitudes by using the deformed cubic string field theory which is equivalent to the string field theory in the proper-time gauge. The four-string scattering amplitudes with three tachyons and an arbitrary string state are calculated. The string field theory yields the string scattering amplitudes evaluated on the world sheet of string scattering whereas the conventional method, based on the first quantized theory brings us the string scattering amplitudes defined on the upper half plane. For the highest spin states, generated by the primary operators, both calculations are in perfect agreement. In this case, the string scattering amplitudes are invariant under the conformal transformation, which maps the string world sheet onto the upper half plane. If the external string states are general massive states, generated by non-primary field operators, we need to take into account carefully the conformal transformation between the world sheet and the upper half plane. We show by an explicit calculation that the string scattering amplitudes calculated by using the deformed cubic string field theory transform into those of the first quantized theory on the upper half plane by the conformal transformation, generated by the Schwarz–Christoffel mapping.

  14. Special geometry, cubic polynomials and homogeneous quaternionic spaces

    CERN Document Server

    de Wit, Bernard

    1992-01-01

    The existing classification of homogeneous quaternionic spaces is not complete. We study these spaces in the context of certain $N=2$ supergravity theories, where dimensional reduction induces a mapping between {\\em special} real, K\\"ahler and quaternionic spaces. The geometry of the real spaces is encoded in cubic polynomials, those of the K\\"ahler and quaternionic manifolds in homogeneous holomorphic functions of second degree. We classify all cubic polynomials that have an invariance group that acts transitively on the real manifold. The corresponding K\\"ahler and quaternionic manifolds are then homogeneous. We find that they lead to a well-defined subset of the normal quaternionic spaces classified by \\Al\\ (and the corresponding special K\\"ahler spaces given by Cecotti), but there is a new class of rank-3 spaces of quaternionic dimension larger than 3. We also point out that some of the rank-4 \\Al\\ spaces were not fully specified and correspond to a finite variety of inequivalent spaces. A simpler version...

  15. Parametrization and Classification of 20 Billion LSST Objects: Lessons from SDSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivezic, Z.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Axelrod, T.; /Large Binocular Telescope, Tucson; Becker, A.C.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Becla, J.; /SLAC; Borne, K.; /George Mason U.; Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Claver, C.F.; /NOAO, Tucson; Cook, K.H.; /LLNL, Livermore; Connolly, A.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Gilmore, D.K.; /SLAC; Jones, R.L.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Juric, M.; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study; Kahn, Steven M.; /SLAC; Lim, K-T.; /SLAC; Lupton, R.H.; /Princeton U.; Monet, D.G.; /Naval Observ., Flagstaff; Pinto, P.A.; /Arizona U.; Sesar, B.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Stubbs, Christopher W.; /Harvard U.; Tyson, J.Anthony; /UC, Davis

    2011-11-10

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain, starting in 2015, multiple images of the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg{sup 2} region about 1000 times during the anticipated 10 years of operations (distributed over six bands, ugrizy). Each 30-second long visit will deliver 5{sigma} depth for point sources of r {approx} 24.5 on average. The co-added map will be about 3 magnitudes deeper, and will include 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars. We discuss various measurements that will be automatically performed for these 20 billion sources, and how they can be used for classification and determination of source physical and other properties. We provide a few classification examples based on SDSS data, such as color classification of stars, color-spatial proximity search for wide-angle binary stars, orbital-color classification of asteroid families, and the recognition of main Galaxy components based on the distribution of stars in the position-metallicity-kinematics space. Guided by these examples, we anticipate that two grand classification challenges for LSST will be (1) rapid and robust classification of sources detected in difference images, and (2) simultaneous treatment of diverse astrometric and photometric time series measurements for an unprecedentedly large number of objects.

  16. A parts-per-billion measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment

    CERN Document Server

    Smorra, C; Borchert, M J; Harrington, J A; Higuchi, T; Nagahama, H; Tanaka, T; Mooser, A; Schneider, G; Blaum, K; Matsuda, Y; Ospelkaus, C; Quint, W; Walz, J; Yamazaki, Y; Ulmer, S

    2016-01-01

    Precise comparisons of the fundamental properties of matter–antimatter conjugates provide sensitive tests of charge–parity–time (CPT) invariance1, which is an important symmetry that rests on basic assumptions of the standard model of particle physics. Experiments on mesons2, leptons3, 4 and baryons5, 6 have compared different properties of matter–antimatter conjugates with fractional uncertainties at the parts-per-billion level or better. One specific quantity, however, has so far only been known to a fractional uncertainty at the parts-per-million level7, 8: the magnetic moment of the antiproton, . The extraordinary difficulty in measuring with high precision is caused by its intrinsic smallness; for example, it is 660 times smaller than the magnetic moment of the positron3. Here we report a high-precision measurement of in units of the nuclear magneton μN with a fractional precision of 1.5 parts per billion (68% confidence level). We use a two-particle spectroscopy method in an advanced cryogenic ...

  17. Energy tax price tag for CPI: $1.2 billion, jobs, and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begley, R.

    1993-01-01

    If President Clinton's proposed energy tax had been fully in place last year, it would have cost the US chemical industry an additional $1.2 billion and 9,900 jobs, according to Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA; Washington) estimates. It also would have driven output down 3% and prices up 5%, CMA says. Allen Lenz, CMA director/trade and economics, says the increase in production costs that would accompany the tax will not be shared by foreign competitors, cannot be neutralized with higher border taxes because of existing trade agreements, and provides another reason to move production offshore. Worse, the US chemical industry's generally impressive trade surplus declined by $2.5 billion last year, and a further drop is projected for this year. The margin of error gets thinner all the time as competition increases, Lenz says. We're not concerned only with the chemical industry, but the rest of US-based manufacturing because they taken half our output, he adds. One problem is the energy intensiveness of the chemical process industries-a CMA report says that 55% of the cost of producing ethylene glycol is energy related. And double taxation of such things as coproducts returned for credit to oil refineries could add up to $115 million/year, the report says

  18. Stability of equidimensional pseudo-single-domain magnetite over billion-year timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Lesleis; Williams, Wyn; Muxworthy, Adrian R; Fabian, Karl; Almeida, Trevor P; Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó; Shcherbakov, Valera P

    2017-09-26

    Interpretations of paleomagnetic observations assume that naturally occurring magnetic particles can retain their primary magnetic recording over billions of years. The ability to retain a magnetic recording is inferred from laboratory measurements, where heating causes demagnetization on the order of seconds. The theoretical basis for this inference comes from previous models that assume only the existence of small, uniformly magnetized particles, whereas the carriers of paleomagnetic signals in rocks are usually larger, nonuniformly magnetized particles, for which there is no empirically complete, thermally activated model. This study has developed a thermally activated numerical micromagnetic model that can quantitatively determine the energy barriers between stable states in nonuniform magnetic particles on geological timescales. We examine in detail the thermal stability characteristics of equidimensional cuboctahedral magnetite and find that, contrary to previously published theories, such nonuniformly magnetized particles provide greater magnetic stability than their uniformly magnetized counterparts. Hence, nonuniformly magnetized grains, which are commonly the main remanence carrier in meteorites and rocks, can record and retain high-fidelity magnetic recordings over billions of years.

  19. Plate tectonic influences on Earth's baseline climate: a 2 billion-year record

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, R.; Evans, D. A.; Eglington, B. M.; Planavsky, N.

    2017-12-01

    Plate tectonic processes present strong influences on the long-term carbon cycle, and thus global climate. Here we utilize multiple aspects of the geologic record to assess the role plate tectonics has played in driving major icehouse­-greenhouse transitions for the past 2 billion years. Refined paleogeographic reconstructions allow us to quantitatively assess the area of continents in various latitudinal belts throughout this interval. From these data we are able to test the hypothesis that concentrating continental masses in low-latitudes will drive cooler climates due to increased silicate weathering. We further superimpose records of events that are believed to increase the `weatherability' of the crust, such as large igneous province emplacement, island-arc accretion, and continental collisional belts. Climatic records are then compared with global detrital zircon U-Pb age data as a proxy for continental magmatism. Our results show a consistent relationship between zircon-generating magmatism and icehouse-greenhouse transitions for > 2 billion years, whereas paleogeographic records show no clear consistent relationship between continental configurations and prominent climate transitions. Volcanic outgassing appears to exert a first-order control on major baseline climatic shifts; however, paleogeography likely plays an important role in the magnitude of this change. Notably, climatic extremes, such as the Cryogenian icehouse, occur during a combination of reduce volcanism and end-member concentrations of low-latitudinal continents.

  20. A novel aromatic oil compound inhibits microbial overgrowth on feet: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misner Bill D

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Athlete's Foot (Tinea pedis is a form of ringworm associated with highly contagious yeast-fungi colonies, although they look like bacteria. Foot bacteria overgrowth produces a harmless pungent odor, however, uncontrolled proliferation of yeast-fungi produces small vesicles, fissures, scaling, and maceration with eroded areas between the toes and the plantar surface of the foot, resulting in intense itching, blisters, and cracking. Painful microbial foot infection may prevent athletic participation. Keeping the feet clean and dry with the toenails trimmed reduces the incidence of skin disease of the feet. Wearing sandals in locker and shower rooms prevents intimate contact with the infecting organisms and alleviates most foot-sensitive infections. Enclosing feet in socks and shoes generates a moisture-rich environment that stimulates overgrowth of pungent both aerobic bacteria and infectious yeast-fungi. Suppression of microbial growth may be accomplished by exposing the feet to air to enhance evaporation to reduce moistures' growth-stimulating effect and is often neglected. There is an association between yeast-fungi overgrowths and disabling foot infections. Potent agents virtually exterminate some microbial growth, but the inevitable presence of infection under the nails predicts future infection. Topical antibiotics present a potent approach with the ideal agent being one that removes moisture producing antibacterial-antifungal activity. Severe infection may require costly prescription drugs, salves, and repeated treatment. Methods A 63-y female volunteered to enclose feet in shoes and socks for 48 hours. Aerobic bacteria and yeast-fungi counts were determined by swab sample incubation technique (1 after 48-hours feet enclosure, (2 after washing feet, and (3 after 8-hours socks-shoes exposure to a aromatic oil powder-compound consisting of arrowroot, baking soda, basil oil, tea tree oil, sage oil, and clove oil. Conclusion

  1. Mars’ First Billion Years: Key Findings, Key Unsolved Paradoxes, and Future Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlmann, Bethany

    2017-10-01

    In the evolution of terrestrial planets, the first billion years are the period most shrouded in mystery: How vigorous is early atmospheric loss? How do planetary climates respond to a brightening sun? When and how are plate tectonic recycling processes initiated? How do voluminous volcanism and heavy impact bombardment influence the composition of the atmosphere? Under what conditions might life arise? Looking outward to terrestrial planets around other stars, the record from Venus, Earth and Mars in this solar system is crucial for developing models of physical can chemical processes. Of these three worlds, Mars provides the longest record of planetary evolution from the first billion years, comprising >50% of exposed geologic units, which are only lightly overprinted by later processes.Orbital observations of the last decade have revealed abundant evidence for surface waters in the form of lakes, valley networks, and evidence of chemically open-system near-surface weathering. Groundwaters at temperatures ranging from just above freezing to hydrothermal have also left a rich record of process in the mineralogical record. A rsuite of environments - similar in diversity to Earth’s - has been discovered on Mars with water pH, temperature, redox, and chemistries varying in space and time.Here, I will focus on the consequences of the aqueous alteration of the Martian crust on the composition of the atmosphere based on recent work studying aspects of the volatile budget (Usui et al., 2015; Edwards & Ehlmann, 2015; Hu et al., 2015; Jakosky et al., 2017, Wordsworth et al., 2017, and Ehlmann, in prep.). The solid crust and mantle of Mars act as volatile reservoirs and volatile sources through volcanism, mineral precipitation, and release of gases. We examine the extent to which the budget is understood or ill-understood for hydrogen and carbon, and associated phases H2O, CO2, and CH4. Additionally, I identify some key stratigraphies where a combination of focused in

  2. Healthy Feet are Happy Feet

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-10-05

    This podcast offers tips for people with diabetes on foot care to prevent complications, such as foot ulcers and amputation.  Created: 10/5/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 12/2/2007.

  3. A study of anatomy and biomechanics of the ankle region in normal and club feet (talipes equino varus) of infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, S W; Scott, W

    1982-03-01

    Three normal feet and three feet exhibiting talipes equino varus from infants were dissected and their anatomy studied and compared. The tibiae were immobilised in plaster and held in a bench clamp while the range of dorsiflexion (extension) was studied before and after immobilisation of either the medial or lateral, or of both groups of tendons. Movements at the subtalar and ankle joints were studied as well as factors controlling movements at the subtalar joint. There was minimal subtalar movement in normal feet during dorsiflexion (extention) but for the clubbed feet the joint showed far greater movement. Tethering of the lateral malleolus to the calcaneum by a suture, in normal feet, caused similar biomechanical behaviour to that seen in clubbed feet.

  4. Foot Placement Modification for a Biped Humanoid Robot with Narrow Feet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Hashimoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a walking stabilization control for a biped humanoid robot with narrow feet. Most humanoid robots have larger feet than human beings to maintain their stability during walking. If robot’s feet are as narrow as humans, it is difficult to realize a stable walk by using conventional stabilization controls. The proposed control modifies a foot placement according to the robot's attitude angle. If a robot tends to fall down, a foot angle is modified about the roll axis so that a swing foot contacts the ground horizontally. And a foot-landing point is also changed laterally to inhibit the robot from falling to the outside. To reduce a foot-landing impact, a virtual compliance control is applied to the vertical axis and the roll and pitch axes of the foot. Verification of the proposed method is conducted through experiments with a biped humanoid robot WABIAN-2R. WABIAN-2R realized a knee-bended walking with 30 mm breadth feet. Moreover, WABIAN-2R mounted on a human-like foot mechanism mimicking a human's foot arch structure realized a stable walking with the knee-stretched, heel-contact, and toe-off motion.

  5. Development of inexpensive prosthetic feet for high-heeled shoes using simple shoe insole model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Margrit R; Tucker, Kerice A; Hansen, Andrew H

    2014-01-01

    The large majority of prosthetic feet are aimed at low-heeled shoes, with a few models allowing a heel height of up to 5 cm. However, a survey by the American Podiatric Medical Association indicates that most women wear heels over 5 cm; thus, current prosthetic feet limit most female prosthesis users in their choice. Some prosthetic foot components are heel-height adjustable; however, their plantar surface shapes do not change to match the insole shapes of the shoes with different heel heights. The aims of the study were therefore (1) to develop a model that allows prediction of insole shape for various heel height shoes in combination with different shoe sizes and (2) to develop and field-test low-cost prototypes of prosthetic feet whose insole shapes were based on the new model. An equation was developed to calculate insole shapes independent of shoe size. Field testing of prototype prosthetic feet fabricated based on the equation was successful and demonstrated the utility of the equation.

  6. Hemimegalencephaly associated with somatic hemihypertrophy and a malformation of the feet: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolari, F; Chirico, M; Tamisari, L; Di Rocco, C

    1996-05-01

    Hemimegalencephaly (HME) is a rare neuronal migration anomaly, rarely associated with hemihypertrophy or some other somatic malformation; it can coexist with intracranial arteriovenous shunts which cause cardiac failure. We report a rare case associated with hemihypertrophy of the face, trunk and limbs and malformation of the feet. The neuroradiological findings are underlined and the differential diagnoses discussed.

  7. Reliability of the Semmes Weinstein Monofilaments to measure coetaneous sensibility in the feet of healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, S.; Visscher, P.; de Vet, H.C.W.; Zuurmond, W.W.A.; Perez, R.S.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the intrarater-reliability, interrater-reliability and normal reference scores of the Semmes Weinstein Monofilament test (SWM) of the feet of healthy subjects. In addition, the stability of the SWM for prospective use was assessed by determining systematic changes in sensory

  8. Effects of lower limb amputation on the mental rotation of feet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtze, Carolin; Otten, Bert; Postema, Klaas

    What happens to the mental representation of our body when the actual anatomy of our body changes? We asked 18 able-bodied controls, 18 patients with a lower limb amputation and a patient with rotationplasty to perform a laterality judgment task. They were shown illustrations of feet in different

  9. Happy@feet application for the management of diabetic foot osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiquet, S; Desbiez, F; Tauveron, I; Mrozek, N; Vidal, M; Lesens, O

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to develop and implement an application that could improve the management of patients presenting with diabetic foot osteomyelitis. Physicians from the multidisciplinary diabetic foot infection team and a software engineer first assessed the needs required for the infection management and application. An experimental version was then designed and progressively improved. A final version was implemented in clinical practice in 2013 by the multidisciplinary diabetic foot infection team of our university hospital. The application, known as Happy@feet, helps gather and allows access to all required data for patient management, dispenses prescriptions (antibiotics, nursing care, blood tests), and helps follow the evolution of the wound. At the end of the consultation, a customizable letter is generated and may be directly sent to the persons concerned. This application also facilitates clinical and economic research. In 2014, Happy@feet was used to follow 83 patients during 271 consultations, 88 of which were day care hospitalizations. The Happy@feet application is useful to manage these complex patients. Once the learning period is over, the time required for data collection is compensated by the rapid dispense of prescriptions and letters. Happy@feet can be used for research projects and will be used in a remote patient management project. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  10. A ring-type multi-DOF ultrasonic motor with four feet driving consistently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shengjun; Xiong, Huaiyin; Liu, Yingxiang; Chen, Weishan; Liu, Junkao

    2017-04-01

    A new type of multiple-degree-of-freedom (multi-DOF) ultrasonic motor was developed aiming at high output torque and compact structure. To reach this purpose, a ring type composite stator was proposed with four driving feet uniformly arranged in the inner circumference of the ring stator. The stator employs two orthogonal axial bending modes and a radial bending mode, by exciting two of them simultaneously, to generate elliptic trajectories on driving feet tips and to push sphere rotor around x, y and z axis respectively. Based on the deduced criteria, a specific combination of the A(0,5) axial bending modes and R(0,2) radial bending mode were chosen to realize that the rotating directions of the elliptical driving trajectories on four feet tips can push the sphere rotor to spin in the same direction consistently, thus the efficiency and output performance will be improved by decreasing the slip between feet and rotor. FEM was used to design the motor including selecting key parameters to tune the resonant frequencies by sensitivity analysis, and a prototype was fabricated and tested. The experiment results showed that the maximum output torque of the motor is 0.118Nm and the maximum speed is 55r/min. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bilateral absence of fifth ray in feet, cleft palate, malformed ears, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2014-01-04

    Jan 4, 2014 ... Bilateral absence of fifth ray in feet, cleft palate, malformed ears, and corneal opacity in a patient with Miller syndrome. Rabah M. Shawky a,. *, Nermine Amr b. , Heba Salah a. , Shaimaa Gad a a Pediatric Department, Genetics Unit, Ain Shams University, Egypt b Pediatric Department, Endocrinology Unit, ...

  12. DISABILITIES OF HANDS, FEET AND EYES IN NEWLY-DIAGNOSED LEPROSY PATIENTS IN EASTERN NEPAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHIPPER, A; LUBBERS, WJ; HOGEWEG, M; DESOLDENHOFF, R

    The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude of hand/feet/eye disabilities in newly diagnosed leprosy patients by examining all newly diagnosed leprosy patients who presented at the Eastern Leprosy Control Project (supported by The Netherlands Leprosy Relief Association), made up of a

  13. Foot placement modification for a biped humanoid robot with narrow feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Kenji; Hattori, Kentaro; Otani, Takuya; Lim, Hun-Ok; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a walking stabilization control for a biped humanoid robot with narrow feet. Most humanoid robots have larger feet than human beings to maintain their stability during walking. If robot's feet are as narrow as humans, it is difficult to realize a stable walk by using conventional stabilization controls. The proposed control modifies a foot placement according to the robot's attitude angle. If a robot tends to fall down, a foot angle is modified about the roll axis so that a swing foot contacts the ground horizontally. And a foot-landing point is also changed laterally to inhibit the robot from falling to the outside. To reduce a foot-landing impact, a virtual compliance control is applied to the vertical axis and the roll and pitch axes of the foot. Verification of the proposed method is conducted through experiments with a biped humanoid robot WABIAN-2R. WABIAN-2R realized a knee-bended walking with 30 mm breadth feet. Moreover, WABIAN-2R mounted on a human-like foot mechanism mimicking a human's foot arch structure realized a stable walking with the knee-stretched, heel-contact, and toe-off motion.

  14. Is Epenthesis a Means to Optimize Feet? A Reanalysis of the CLPF Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taelman, Helena; Gillis, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Fikkert (1994) analyzed a large corpus of Dutch children's early language production, and found that they often add targetless syllables to their words in order to create bisyllabic feet. In this note we point out a methodological problem with that analysis: in an important number of cases, epenthetic vowels occur at places where grammatical…

  15. Missing billions. How the Australian government's climate policy is penalising farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riguet, T.

    2006-10-01

    The Climate Institute analysis suggests ratifying the Kyoto Protocol and implementing a national emissions trading scheme today could provide Australian farmers with an income of $1.8 billion over the period 2008-2012, due to the emissions saved by limiting land clearing. Separately, a report to the National Farmers Federation by the Allen Consulting Group earlier this year concluded that a carbon emission trading system which recognised Kyoto Protocol rules could create an additional income stream of $0.7-0.9 billion over a five year period from revenue to farmers from forestry sinks. These two studies suggest that ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and the introduction of a national emissions trading scheme could provide farmers an income stream in the order of $2.5 billion. A central tenet of the Federal Government's greenhouse policy for over a decade has been to not ratify Kyoto, but to meet its Kyoto target - a national emissions increase of 8% from 1990 levels, in the period 2008-2012. Australia's National Greenhouse Gas Accounts show that farmers, by reducing land clearing rates since 1990, have offset substantial increases in greenhouse gas emissions from other sectors, mainly energy. Official Federal Government projections show that without land clearing reductions, Australia's greenhouse emissions would be 30% above 1990 levels by 2010. Australia's farmers have been responsible for virtually the entire share of the nation's greenhouse gas emissions reductions, but their efforts, worth around $2 billion, have not been recognised or financially rewarded by the Government. By reducing land clearing, farmers have already reduced greenhouse gas emissions by about 75 million tonnes since 1990. By 2010, the savings are projected to be about 83 million tonnes. This level of emissions reductions is equivalent to eliminating the total annual emissions of New Zealand or Ireland. Over that same period, emissions from energy and transport have and continue to sky

  16. Saving billions of dollars--and physicians' time--by streamlining billing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchfield, Bonnie B; Heffernan, James L; Osgood, Bradford; Sheehan, Rosemary R; Meyer, Gregg S

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. system of billing third parties for health care services is complex, expensive, and inefficient. Physicians end up using nearly 12 percent of their net patient service revenue to cover the costs of excessive administrative complexity. A single transparent set of payment rules for multiple payers, a single claim form, and standard rules of submission, among other innovations, would reduce the burden on the billing offices of physician organizations. On a national scale, our hypothetical modeling of these changes would translate into $7 billion of savings annually for physician and clinical services. Four hours of professional time per physician and five hours of practice support staff time could be saved each week.

  17. Titanium isotopic evidence for felsic crust and plate tectonics 3.5 billion years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greber, Nicolas D; Dauphas, Nicolas; Bekker, Andrey; Ptáček, Matouš P; Bindeman, Ilya N; Hofmann, Axel

    2017-09-22

    Earth exhibits a dichotomy in elevation and chemical composition between the continents and ocean floor. Reconstructing when this dichotomy arose is important for understanding when plate tectonics started and how the supply of nutrients to the oceans changed through time. We measured the titanium isotopic composition of shales to constrain the chemical composition of the continental crust exposed to weathering and found that shales of all ages have a uniform isotopic composition. This can only be explained if the emerged crust was predominantly felsic (silica-rich) since 3.5 billion years ago, requiring an early initiation of plate tectonics. We also observed a change in the abundance of biologically important nutrients phosphorus and nickel across the Archean-Proterozoic boundary, which might have helped trigger the rise in atmospheric oxygen. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  18. Perbaikan Metode Penghitungan Debit Sungai Menggunakan Cubic Spline Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi I. Setiawan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Makalah ini menyajikan perbaikan metode pengukuran debit sungai menggunakan fungsi cubic spline interpolation. Fungi ini digunakan untuk menggambarkan profil sungai secara kontinyu yang terbentuk atas hasil pengukuran jarak dan kedalaman sungai. Dengan metoda baru ini, luas dan perimeter sungai lebih mudah, cepat dan tepat dihitung. Demikian pula, fungsi kebalikannnya (inverse function tersedia menggunakan metode. Newton-Raphson sehingga memudahkan dalam perhitungan luas dan perimeter bila tinggi air sungai diketahui. Metode baru ini dapat langsung menghitung debit sungaimenggunakan formula Manning, dan menghasilkan kurva debit (rating curve. Dalam makalah ini dikemukaan satu canton pengukuran debit sungai Rudeng Aceh. Sungai ini mempunyai lebar sekitar 120 m dan kedalaman 7 m, dan pada saat pengukuran mempunyai debit 41 .3 m3/s, serta kurva debitnya mengikuti formula: Q= 0.1649 x H 2.884 , dimana Q debit (m3/s dan H tinggi air dari dasar sungai (m.

  19. Principal spectra describing magnetooptic permittivity tensor in cubic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrlová, Jana [Nanotechnology Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); IT4Innovations Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Legut, Dominik [IT4Innovations Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Veis, Martin [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, Prague, 121 16 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Pištora, Jaromír [Nanotechnology Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Hamrle, Jaroslav, E-mail: jaroslav.hamrle@vsb.cz [IT4Innovations Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, Prague, 121 16 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic)

    2016-12-15

    We provide unified phenomenological description of magnetooptic effects being linear and quadratic in magnetization. The description is based on few principal spectra, describing elements of permittivity tensor up to the second order in magnetization. Each permittivity tensor element for any magnetization direction and any sample surface orientation is simply determined by weighted summation of the principal spectra, where weights are given by crystallographic and magnetization orientations. The number of principal spectra depends on the symmetry of the crystal. In cubic crystals owning point symmetry we need only four principal spectra. Here, the principal spectra are expressed by ab initio calculations for bcc Fe, fcc Co and fcc Ni in optical range as well as in hard and soft x-ray energy range, i.e. at the 2p- and 3p-edges. We also express principal spectra analytically using modified Kubo formula.

  20. Lipidic cubic phase serial millisecond crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemyslaw Nogly

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipidic cubic phases (LCPs have emerged as successful matrixes for the crystallization of membrane proteins. Moreover, the viscous LCP also provides a highly effective delivery medium for serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs. Here, the adaptation of this technology to perform serial millisecond crystallography (SMX at more widely available synchrotron microfocus beamlines is described. Compared with conventional microcrystallography, LCP-SMX eliminates the need for difficult handling of individual crystals and allows for data collection at room temperature. The technology is demonstrated by solving a structure of the light-driven proton-pump bacteriorhodopsin (bR at a resolution of 2.4 Å. The room-temperature structure of bR is very similar to previous cryogenic structures but shows small yet distinct differences in the retinal ligand and proton-transfer pathway.

  1. Quantum-Carnot engine for particle confined to cubic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka P., E-mail: trengginas.eka@gmail.com; Belfaqih, Idrus H., E-mail: idrushusin21@gmail.com; Prayitno, T. B., E-mail: teguh-budi@unj.ac.id [Department of Physics, State University of Jakarta, Jl. Pemuda No.10, Rawamangun, Jakarta Timur 13220 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Carnot cycle consists of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Using analogy in quantum mechanics, these processes can be well explained by replacing variables in classical process with a quantum system. Quantum system which is shown in this paper is a particle that moves under the influence of a cubic potential which is restricted only to the state of the two energy levels. At the end, the efficiency of the system is shown as a function of the width ratio between the initial conditions and the farthest wall while expanding. Furthermore, the system efficiency will be considered 1D and 2D cases. The providing efficiencies are different due to the influence of the degeneration of energy and the degrees of freedom of the system.

  2. Quantum-Carnot engine for particle confined to cubic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka P.; Belfaqih, Idrus H.; Prayitno, T. B.

    2015-01-01

    Carnot cycle consists of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Using analogy in quantum mechanics, these processes can be well explained by replacing variables in classical process with a quantum system. Quantum system which is shown in this paper is a particle that moves under the influence of a cubic potential which is restricted only to the state of the two energy levels. At the end, the efficiency of the system is shown as a function of the width ratio between the initial conditions and the farthest wall while expanding. Furthermore, the system efficiency will be considered 1D and 2D cases. The providing efficiencies are different due to the influence of the degeneration of energy and the degrees of freedom of the system

  3. Linear electro-optic effect in cubic silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao; Irvine, Kenneth G.; Zhang, Dongping; Spencer, Michael G.

    1991-01-01

    The first observation is reported of the electrooptic effect of cubic silicon carbide (beta-SiC) grown by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor using the hydrogen, silane, and propane gas system. At a wavelength of 633 nm, the value of the electrooptic coefficient r41 in beta-SiC is determined to be 2.7 +/- 0.5 x 10 (exp-12) m/V, which is 1.7 times larger than that in gallium arsenide measured at 10.6 microns. Also, a half-wave voltage of 6.4 kV for beta-SiC is obtained. Because of this favorable value of electrooptic coefficient, it is believed that silicon carbide may be a promising candidate in electrooptic applications for high optical intensity in the visible region.

  4. A cubic spline approximation for problems in fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, S. G.; Graves, R. A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A cubic spline approximation is presented which is suited for many fluid-mechanics problems. This procedure provides a high degree of accuracy, even with a nonuniform mesh, and leads to an accurate treatment of derivative boundary conditions. The truncation errors and stability limitations of several implicit and explicit integration schemes are presented. For two-dimensional flows, a spline-alternating-direction-implicit method is evaluated. The spline procedure is assessed, and results are presented for the one-dimensional nonlinear Burgers' equation, as well as the two-dimensional diffusion equation and the vorticity-stream function system describing the viscous flow in a driven cavity. Comparisons are made with analytic solutions for the first two problems and with finite-difference calculations for the cavity flow.

  5. Genetic and environmental smoothing of lactation curves with cubic splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, I M; Thompson, R; Brotherstone, S

    1999-03-01

    Most approaches to modeling lactation curves involve parametric curves with fixed or random coefficients. In either case, the resulting models require the specification on an underlying parametric curve. The fitting of splines represents a semiparametric approach to the problem. In the context of animal breeding, cubic smoothing splines are particularly convenient because they can be incorporated into a suitably constructed mixed model. The potential for the use of splines in modeling lactation curves is explored with a simple example, and the results are compared with those using a random regression model. The spline model provides greater flexibility at the cost of additional computation. Splines are shown to be capable of picking up features of the lactation curve that are missed by the random regression model.

  6. Testing for cubic smoothing splines under dependent data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummi, Tapio; Pan, Jianxin; Siren, Tarja; Liu, Kun

    2011-09-01

    In most research on smoothing splines the focus has been on estimation, while inference, especially hypothesis testing, has received less attention. By defining design matrices for fixed and random effects and the structure of the covariance matrices of random errors in an appropriate way, the cubic smoothing spline admits a mixed model formulation, which places this nonparametric smoother firmly in a parametric setting. Thus nonlinear curves can be included with random effects and random coefficients. The smoothing parameter is the ratio of the random-coefficient and error variances and tests for linear regression reduce to tests for zero random-coefficient variances. We propose an exact F-test for the situation and investigate its performance in a real pine stem data set and by simulation experiments. Under certain conditions the suggested methods can also be applied when the data are dependent. © 2010, The International Biometric Society.

  7. Viscous flow solutions with a cubic spline approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, S. G.; Graves, R. A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A cubic spline approximation is used for the solution of several problems in fluid mechanics. This procedure provides a high degree of accuracy even with a nonuniform mesh, and leads to a more accurate treatment of derivative boundary conditions. The truncation errors and stability limitations of several typical integration schemes are presented. For two-dimensional flows a spline-alternating-direction-implicit (SADI) method is evaluated. The spline procedure is assessed and results are presented for the one-dimensional nonlinear Burgers' equation, as well as the two-dimensional diffusion equation and the vorticity-stream function system describing the viscous flow in a driven cavity. Comparisons are made with analytic solutions for the first two problems and with finite-difference calculations for the cavity flow.

  8. High-order numerical solutions using cubic splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, S. G.; Khosla, P. K.

    1975-01-01

    The cubic spline collocation procedure for the numerical solution of partial differential equations was reformulated so that the accuracy of the second-derivative approximation is improved and parallels that previously obtained for lower derivative terms. The final result is a numerical procedure having overall third-order accuracy for a nonuniform mesh and overall fourth-order accuracy for a uniform mesh. Application of the technique was made to the Burger's equation, to the flow around a linear corner, to the potential flow over a circular cylinder, and to boundary layer problems. The results confirmed the higher-order accuracy of the spline method and suggest that accurate solutions for more practical flow problems can be obtained with relatively coarse nonuniform meshes.

  9. Bistable dark solitons of a cubic-quintic Helmholtz equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J. M.; McDonald, G. S.; Chamorro-Posada, P.

    2010-01-01

    We provide a report on exact analytical bistable dark spatial solitons of a nonlinear Helmholtz equation with a cubic-quintic refractive-index model. Our analysis begins with an investigation of the modulational instability characteristics of Helmholtz plane waves. We then derive a dark soliton by mapping the desired asymptotic form onto a uniform background field and obtain a more general solution by deploying rotational invariance laws in the laboratory frame. The geometry of the new soliton is explored in detail, and a range of new physical predictions is uncovered. Particular attention is paid to the unified phenomena of arbitrary-angle off-axis propagation and nondegenerate bistability. Crucially, the corresponding solution of paraxial theory emerges in a simultaneous multiple limit. We conclude with a set of computer simulations that examine the role of Helmholtz dark solitons as robust attractors.

  10. Bifurcation diagram of a cubic three-parameter autonomous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Barakova

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the cubic three-parameter autonomous planar system $$displaylines{ dot x_1 = k_1 + k_2x_1 - x_1^3 - x_2,cr dot x_2 = k_3 x_1 - x_2, }$$ where $k_2, k_3$ are greater than 0. Our goal is to obtain a bifurcation diagram; i.e., to divide the parameter space into regions within which the system has topologically equivalent phase portraits and to describe how these portraits are transformed at the bifurcation boundaries. Results may be applied to the macroeconomical model IS-LM with Kaldor's assumptions. In this model existence of a stable limit cycles has already been studied (Andronov-Hopf bifurcation. We present the whole bifurcation diagram and among others, we prove existence of more difficult bifurcations and existence of unstable cycles.

  11. Spatial 't Hooft loop to cubic order in hot QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannangeli, P.

    2002-01-01

    Spatial 't Hooft loops of strength k measure the qualitative change in the behaviour of electric colour flux in confined and deconfined phase of SU (N) gauge theory. They show an area law in the deconfined phase, known analytica lly to two loop order with a ``k-scaling'' law k(N-k). In this paper we comput e the O(g^3) correction to the tension. It is due to neutral gluon fields that get their mass through interaction with the wall. The simple k-scaling is lost in cubic order. The generic problem of non-convexity shows up in this order an d the cure is provided. The result for large N is explicitely given. We show tha t nonperturbative effects appear at O(g^5).

  12. THERMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS OF LEAD SULFIDE CRYSTALS IN THE CUBIC PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Parashchuk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Geometric and thermodynamic parameters of cubic PbS crystals were obtained using the computer calculations of the thermodynamic parameters within density functional theory method DFT. Cluster models for the calculation based on the analysis of the crystal and electronic structure. Temperature dependence of energy ΔE and enthalpy ΔH, Gibbs free energy ΔG, heat capacity at constant pressure CP and constant volume CV, entropy ΔS were determined on the basis of ab initio calculations of the crystal structure of molecular clusters. Analytical expressions of temperature dependences of thermodynamic parameters which were approximated with quantum-chemical calculation points have been presented. Experimental results compared with theoretically calculated data.

  13. Quantum corrections for the cubic Galileon in the covariant language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltas, Ippocratis D. [Institute of Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Campo Grande, PT1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Vitagliano, Vincenzo, E-mail: isaltas@fc.ul.pt, E-mail: vincenzo.vitagliano@ist.utl.pt [Multidisciplinary Center for Astrophysics and Department of Physics, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2017-05-01

    We present for the first time an explicit exposition of quantum corrections within the cubic Galileon theory including the effect of quantum gravity, in a background- and gauge-invariant manner, employing the field-reparametrisation approach of the covariant effective action at 1-loop. We show that the consideration of gravitational effects in combination with the non-linear derivative structure of the theory reveals new interactions at the perturbative level, which manifest themselves as higher-operators in the associated effective action, which' relevance is controlled by appropriate ratios of the cosmological vacuum and the Galileon mass scale. The significance and concept of the covariant approach in this context is discussed, while all calculations are explicitly presented.

  14. The electric field of a uniformly charged cubic shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Kaitlin; Greenside, Henry

    2018-01-01

    As an integrative and insightful example for undergraduates learning about electrostatics, we discuss how to use symmetry, Coulomb's law, superposition, Gauss's law, and visualization to understand the electric field E (x ,y ,z ) produced by a uniformly charged cubic shell. We first discuss how to deduce qualitatively, using freshman-level physics, the perhaps surprising fact that the interior electric field is nonzero and has a complex structure, pointing inwards from the middle of each face of the shell and pointing outwards towards each edge and corner. We then discuss how to understand the quantitative features of the electric field by plotting an analytical expression for E along symmetry lines and on symmetry surfaces of the shell.

  15. Traveling kinks in cubic nonlinear Ginzburg-Landau equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, H C; Cornejo-Pérez, O; Ojeda-May, P

    2012-03-01

    Nonlinear cubic Euler-Lagrange equations of motion in the traveling variable are usually derived from Ginzburg-Landau free energy functionals frequently encountered in several fields of physics. Many authors considered in the past damped versions of such equations, with the damping term added by hand simulating the friction due to the environment. It is known that even in this damped case kink solutions can exist. By means of a factorization method, we provide analytic formulas for several possible kink solutions of such equations of motion in the undriven and constant field driven cases, including the recently introduced Riccati parameter kinks, which were not considered previously in such a context. The latter parameter controls the delay of the switching stage of the kinks. The delay is caused by antikink components that are introduced in the structure of the solution through this parameter.

  16. Scattering of quantized solitary waves in the cubic Schrodinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, L.

    1976-01-01

    The quantum mechanics for N particles interacting via a delta-function potential in one space dimension and one time dimension is known. The second-quantized description of this system has for its Euler-Lagrange equations of motion the cubic Schrodinger equation. This nonlinear differential equation supports solitary wave solutions. A quantization of these solitons reproduces the weak-coupling limit to the known quantum mechanics. The phase shift for two-body scattering and the energy of the N-body bound state is derived in this approximation. The nonlinear Schrodinger equation is contrasted with the sine-Gordon theory in respect to the ideas which the classical solutions play in the description of the quantum states

  17. A cubic autocatalytic reaction in a continuous stirred tank reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakubu, Aisha Aliyu; Yatim, Yazariah Mohd [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2015-10-22

    In the present study, the dynamics of the cubic autocatalytic reaction model in a continuous stirred tank reactor with linear autocatalyst decay is studied. This model describes the behavior of two chemicals (reactant and autocatalyst) flowing into the tank reactor. The behavior of the model is studied analytically and numerically. The steady state solutions are obtained for two cases, i.e. with the presence of an autocatalyst and its absence in the inflow. In the case with an autocatalyst, the model has a stable steady state. While in the case without an autocatalyst, the model exhibits three steady states, where one of the steady state is stable, the second is a saddle point while the last is spiral node. The last steady state losses stability through Hopf bifurcation and the location is determined. The physical interpretations of the results are also presented.

  18. Magnetic properties of Ising thin films with cubic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laosiritaworn, Y.; Poulter, J.; Staunton, J. B.

    2004-09-01

    We have used Monte Carlo simulations and mean-field analysis to observe the magnetic behavior of Ising thin films with cubic lattice structures as a function of temperature and thickness, especially in the critical region. Magnetization and magnetic susceptibility, including layer variation, are investigated. We find that the magnetic behavior changes from two-dimensional to three-dimensional character with increasing film thickness. Both the crossover of the critical temperature from a two-dimensional to a bulk value and the shift exponent are observed. Nevertheless, with support from a scaling function, the simulations show that the effective critical exponents for films with large enough layer extents only vary a little from their two-dimensional values. This, in particular, provides an indication of two-dimensional universality in the thin films.

  19. Preparation of ohmic n-type cubic boron nitride contacts

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Cheng Xin; Li Xun; Zhang Tie Chen; Han Yong; Luo Ji Feng; Shen Cai Xia; Gao Chun Xi; Zou Guang Tian

    2002-01-01

    Ohmic electrodes in the form of n-type (Si-doped) cubic boron nitride (c-BN) bulk crystals were fabricated by utilizing a covering technique, depositing Ti(10 nm)/Mo/(20 nm)/Pt-Au(200 nm) ohmic contact metal on both the sides of the c-BN substrate. The size of the specimen electrode was 100 x 100 mu m sup 2 on one side and 300 x 300 mu m sup 2 on the other side. Measurements on the specimen were made using a specially made device. Linear current-voltage characteristics were obtained. It is considered that the contact between the Ti-and Si-doped c-BN was ohmic.

  20. Bounce universe and black holes from critical Einsteinian cubic gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xing-Hui; Huang, Hyat; Mai, Zhan-Feng; Lü, Hong

    2017-11-01

    We show that there exists a critical point for the coupling constants in Einsteinian cubic gravity in which the linearized equations on the maximally symmetric vacuum vanish identically. We construct an exact isotropic bounce universe in the critical theory in four dimensions. The comoving time runs from minus infinity to plus infinity, yielding a smooth universe bouncing between two de Sitter vacua. In five dimensions, we adopt a numerical approach to construct a bounce solution, in which a singularity occurs before the bounce takes place. We then construct exact anisotropic bounces that connect two isotropic de Sitter spacetimes with flat spatial sections. We further construct exact anti-de Sitter black holes in the critical theory in four and five dimensions and obtain an exact anti-de Sitter worm brane in four dimensions.

  1. The parameter space of Cubic Galileon models for cosmic acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Bellini, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    We use recent measurements of the expansion history of the universe to place constraints on the parameter space of cubic Galileon models. This gives strong constraints on the Lagrangian of these models. Most dynamical terms in the Galileon Lagrangian are constraint to be small and the acceleration is effectively provided by a constant term in the scalar potential, thus reducing, effectively, to a LCDM model for current acceleration. The effective equation of state is indistinguishable from that of a cosmological constant w = -1 and the data constraint it to have no temporal variations of more than at the few % level. The energy density of the Galileon can contribute only to about 10% of the acceleration energy density, being the other 90% a cosmological constant term. This demonstrates how useful direct measurements of the expansion history of the universe are at constraining the dynamical nature of dark energy.

  2. A parts-per-billion measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorra, C.; Sellner, S.; Borchert, M. J.; Harrington, J. A.; Higuchi, T.; Nagahama, H.; Tanaka, T.; Mooser, A.; Schneider, G.; Bohman, M.; Blaum, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Ospelkaus, C.; Quint, W.; Walz, J.; Yamazaki, Y.; Ulmer, S.

    2017-10-01

    Precise comparisons of the fundamental properties of matter–antimatter conjugates provide sensitive tests of charge–parity–time (CPT) invariance, which is an important symmetry that rests on basic assumptions of the standard model of particle physics. Experiments on mesons, leptons and baryons have compared different properties of matter–antimatter conjugates with fractional uncertainties at the parts-per-billion level or better. One specific quantity, however, has so far only been known to a fractional uncertainty at the parts-per-million level: the magnetic moment of the antiproton, . The extraordinary difficulty in measuring with high precision is caused by its intrinsic smallness; for example, it is 660 times smaller than the magnetic moment of the positron. Here we report a high-precision measurement of in units of the nuclear magneton μN with a fractional precision of 1.5 parts per billion (68% confidence level). We use a two-particle spectroscopy method in an advanced cryogenic multi-Penning trap system. Our result  = ‑2.7928473441(42)μN (where the number in parentheses represents the 68% confidence interval on the last digits of the value) improves the precision of the previous best measurement by a factor of approximately 350. The measured value is consistent with the proton magnetic moment, μp = 2.792847350(9)μN, and is in agreement with CPT invariance. Consequently, this measurement constrains the magnitude of certain CPT-violating effects to below 1.8 × 10‑24 gigaelectronvolts, and a possible splitting of the proton–antiproton magnetic moments by CPT-odd dimension-five interactions to below 6 × 10‑12 Bohr magnetons.

  3. China. Country profile. [China's billion consumers are a rapidly changing market].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, K

    1984-10-01

    This article provides a summary of demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the People's Republic of China. Chinese leaders project that achievement of the 4 modernizations (agriculture, industry, science, and technology) will double the per capita income level to $800/year by 2000. Although industrial and agricultural growth have outpaced population growth, stringent population control is considered necessary for continued economic development. China's 1982 population was 1.008 billion, with a birth rate of 20.91, a death rate of 6.36, and a 14.55 rate of natural increase. The growth rate declined from 1.3% in 1982 to 1.15% in 1983. To achieve its goal of preventing the population from exceeding 1.2 billion by the year 2000, the government urges couples to have only 1 child. This policy has been successful in the cities but faces opposition in the rural areas. The sex ratio is 106 males to every 100 females, and there is concern about female infanticide. In 1982 the average household size ranged from a high of 5.2 persons in Qinghai and Yunnan to a low of 3.6 persons in Shanghai. 39% of the population lives in nuclear families without relatives. The literacy rate stood at 77% of those over 12 years of age in 1982, but males outnumber females at higher levels of education. China's campaign to improve health has focused on preventive measures, and there are an estimated 3-5 million health care workers. The 1982 labor force participation rate for those 15-64 years of age was 87.7%, with 44% of workers employed in agricculture. 76.6% of women work, primarily in labor-intensive, low-wage occupations.

  4. ICI bites demerger bullet, Zeneca guns for Brit-pounds 1.3-billion rights issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.; Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-01

    Any lingering doubts as to ICI's (London) intentions to follow through its demerger proposals were dispelled last week. The company will hive off its bioscience business into Zeneca Group plc, which will make a Brit-pounds 1.3-billion ($1.9 billion) rights issue in June 1993. Shareholders, whose approval for the historic move will be sought in late May, will receive one fully paid Zeneca share for each ICI share. Proceeds from the rights issue will be used to reduce Zeneca's indebtedness to ICI by about 70%. Acknowledging that ICI had 'spread the jam too thinly' during its expansion in the 1980s, chief executive Ronnie Hampel says the new ICI will be a cost-conscious, no-frills' organization and that businesses that failed to perform would be restructured or closed. He is 'not expecting any help from the economy' in 1993. Of ICI's remaining petrochemicals and plastics businesses, Hampel says that despite 'stringent measures to reduce the cost base hor-ellipsis it is clear they will not reach a return on capital that will justify reinvestment by ICI.' He does not see them as closure candidates but as 'businesses that will require further restructuring.' Hampel notes 'a dozen clearly identified areas for expansion,' including paints, catalysts, titanium dioxide, and chlorofluorocarbon replacements. Losses in materials, where substantial rationalization has failed to halt the slide, will be reduced on completion of the DuPont deal - expected by midyear. 'Further measures' would be necessary for the 'residual bit of advanced materials in the US,' he says

  5. Searching for Organics Preserved in 4.5 Billion Year Old Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Fries, M.; Steele, A.; Bodnar, R.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of early solar system fluids took a dramatic turn a decade ago with the discovery of fluid inclusion-bearing halite (NaCl) crystals in the matrix of two freshly fallen brecciated H chondrite falls, Monahans and Zag. Both meteorites are regolith breccias, and contain xenolithic halite (and minor admixed sylvite -- KCl, crystals in their regolith lithologies. The halites are purple to dark blue, due to the presence of color centers (electrons in anion vacancies) which slowly accumulated as 40K (in sylvite) decayed over billions of years. The halites were dated by K-Ar, Rb-Sr and I-Xe systematics to be 4.5 billion years old. The "blue" halites were a fantastic discovery for the following reasons: (1) Halite+sylvite can be dated (K is in sylvite and will substitute for Na in halite, Rb substitutes in halite for Na, and I substitutes for Cl). (2) The blue color is lost if the halite dissolves on Earth and reprecipitates (because the newly-formed halite has no color centers), so the color serves as a "freshness" or pristinity indicator. (3) Halite frequently contains aqueous fluid inclusions. (4) Halite contains no structural oxygen, carbon or hydrogen, making them ideal materials to measure these isotopic systems in any fluid inclusions. (5) It is possible to directly measure fluid inclusion formation temperatures, and thus directly measure the temperature of the mineralizing aqueous fluid. In addition to these two ordinary chondrites halite grains have been reliably reported in several ureilites, an additional ordinary chondrite (Jilin), and in the carbonaceous chondrite (Murchison), although these reports were unfortunately not taken seriously. We have lately found additional fluid inclusions in carbonates in several additional carbonaceous chondrites. Meteoritic aqueous fluid inclusions are apparently relatively widespread in meteorites, though very small and thus difficult to analyze.

  6. A parts-per-billion measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorra, C; Sellner, S; Borchert, M J; Harrington, J A; Higuchi, T; Nagahama, H; Tanaka, T; Mooser, A; Schneider, G; Bohman, M; Blaum, K; Matsuda, Y; Ospelkaus, C; Quint, W; Walz, J; Yamazaki, Y; Ulmer, S

    2017-10-18

    Precise comparisons of the fundamental properties of matter-antimatter conjugates provide sensitive tests of charge-parity-time (CPT) invariance, which is an important symmetry that rests on basic assumptions of the standard model of particle physics. Experiments on mesons, leptons and baryons have compared different properties of matter-antimatter conjugates with fractional uncertainties at the parts-per-billion level or better. One specific quantity, however, has so far only been known to a fractional uncertainty at the parts-per-million level: the magnetic moment of the antiproton, . The extraordinary difficulty in measuring with high precision is caused by its intrinsic smallness; for example, it is 660 times smaller than the magnetic moment of the positron. Here we report a high-precision measurement of in units of the nuclear magneton μ N with a fractional precision of 1.5 parts per billion (68% confidence level). We use a two-particle spectroscopy method in an advanced cryogenic multi-Penning trap system. Our result  = -2.7928473441(42)μ N (where the number in parentheses represents the 68% confidence interval on the last digits of the value) improves the precision of the previous best measurement by a factor of approximately 350. The measured value is consistent with the proton magnetic moment, μ p  = 2.792847350(9)μ N , and is in agreement with CPT invariance. Consequently, this measurement constrains the magnitude of certain CPT-violating effects to below 1.8 × 10 -24 gigaelectronvolts, and a possible splitting of the proton-antiproton magnetic moments by CPT-odd dimension-five interactions to below 6 × 10 -12 Bohr magnetons.

  7. Cubic phase nanoparticles for sustained release of ibuprofen: formulation, characterization, and enhanced bioavailability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dian, Linghui; Yang, Zhiwen; Li, Feng; Wang, Zhouhua; Pan, Xin; Peng, Xinsheng; Huang, Xintian; Guo, Zhefei; Quan, Guilan; Shi, Xuan; Chen, Bao; Li, Ge; Wu, Chuanbin

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the oral bioavailability of ibuprofen, ibuprofen-loaded cubic nanoparticles were prepared as a delivery system for aqueous formulations. The cubic inner structure was verified by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. With an encapsulation efficiency greater than 85%, the ibuprofen-loaded cubic nanoparticles had a narrow size distribution around a mean size of 238 nm. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction determined that ibuprofen was in an amorphous and molecular form within the lipid matrix. The in vitro release of ibuprofen from cubic nanoparticles was greater than 80% at 24 hours, showing sustained characteristics. The pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs showed improved absorption of ibuprofen from cubic nanoparticles compared to that of pure ibuprofen, with evidence of a longer half-life and a relative oral bioavailability of 222% (P ibuprofen-loaded cubic nanoparticles provide a promising carrier candidate with an efficient drug delivery for therapeutic treatment. PMID:23468008

  8. Design of a reliable processing pipeline for the non-intrusive measurement of feet trajectories with lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Pierard, Sébastien; Azrour, Samir; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Reliable measurements of feet trajectories are needed in some applications, such as biomedical applications. This paper describes the data processing pipeline used in GAIMS, which is a non-intrusive system that measures feet trajectories based on multiple range laser scanners. Our processing pipeline relies on a new tracking paradigm, and it is based on two innovative algorithms: the first algorithm localizes the feet directly from the observed point cloud without any clustering, and the othe...

  9. Cubic nonlinear optical properties of platinum-terminated polyynediyl chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoc, Marek; Dalton, Gulliver T; Gladysz, John A; Zheng, Qinglin; Velkov, Yasen; Agren, Hans; Norman, Patrick; Humphrey, Mark G

    2008-11-03

    The wavelength dependence of the cubic nonlinearity of ligated platinum-terminated polyynes trans, trans-{(p-MeC6H4)3P}2(p-MeC6H4)Pt(C[triple bond]C)n Pt(p-C6H4Me){P(p-C6H4Me)3}2 (n = 3-6, 8, 10, 12) has been examined by femtosecond Z-scan studies in the wavelength range 520-1500 nm and the results rationalized by density functional theory calculations on the model complexes trans, trans-(H3P)2(C6H5)Pt(C[triple bond]C)n Pt(C6H5)(PH3)2 (n = 2-8, 10, 12). Although the final states for one- and two-photon transitions are not the same in these centrosymmetric molecules, the Z-scan studies reveal coincidences in one-photon absorption with features in the frequency dependencies of both real and imaginary parts of the cubic hyperpolarizability, as well as inflections in the frequency dependencies of the real part of gamma that correspond to resonances in the imaginary part of gamma. The theoretical studies suggest that the linear absorption spectra are dominated by X(1)A g --> n(1)B(3u) transitions, with the first state of B(3u) symmetry playing a steadily diminishing role upon oligoyne chain lengthening. The theoretical studies also predict a red-shift of two-photon absorption (TPA) profile with increasing conjugation length, and a significant enhancement on proceeding from the shortest to the longest chromophore, trends that are observed experimentally. The experimental low-energy TPA maxima for these complexes can be approximated by a simple Gaussian profile. The sp-carbon chain-length dependence of linear and nonlinear absorption maxima enable an estimate (neglecting saturation) of 660 and 1000 nm for the infinite carbon chain, carbyne.

  10. Extraction of Collagen from Chicken Feet with Various Acidic Solutions and Soaking Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayitno Prayitno

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to know the ability of various acidic solutions on dissolving collagen  chicken feet, with different soaked time.  Each acid 5 percent (v/v, collagen extraction was done by washing chicken feet and then cutted into small pieces and finally grinded.  Every 100 gram treatment was soaked in acetic acid (a1, citric acid (a2, lactic acid (a3 and hydrochloric acid (a4, for 12, 24 and 36 hours.  Precipitated collagen in the filtrate was 5 percent NaOH to reach the neutral pH (pH 7.  Collagen precipitate was separated by filtration usingfilter paper and then  rendement was calculated, HPLC was used to determin amino acid composition, and SDS-PAGE was use determin the type of collagen.  This experiment use factorial completely randomized design (CRD 4 x 3 and three time replication.   Result showed that lactic acid has highest capability to dissolve collagen, while citric acid the lowest.  Combination of acid solution and soaking time had significant (P<0.01 effect on dissolving collagen of chicken feet.  Extracted collagen in all acid solution, hassame amino acid, composition but different in percentage of amino acid molecules.  Collagen type in treatment combination was the same, but for soaking time of 36 hours revealed some peptide band.  Lactic acid had highest capability of collagen extraction in chicken feet than citric acid, acetic acid and hydrochloric acid with soaking time of 12, 24 and 36 hours.  It was estimated that extracted collagen can be grouped to type I consisted of two chain of a1. (Animal Production 9(2: 99-104 (2007   Key Words : Chicken feet, acids, soaking time, collagen

  11. Non-spherical micelles in an oil-in-water cubic phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leaver, M.; Rajagopalan, V.; Ulf, O.

    2000-01-01

    The cubic phase formed between the microemulsion and hexagonal phases of the ternary pentaethylene glycol dodecyl ether (C12E5)-decane-water system and that doped with small amounts of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) have been investigated. The presence of discrete oil-swollen micelles in the cubic...... scattering experiments indicate that the lattice parameter for the cubic phase is inconsistent with a simple packing of micelles. Whilst insufficient reflections were observed to establish the space group of the cubic phase uniquely, those that were are consistent with two commonly observed space groups...

  12. Prediction of Gas Injection Effect on Asphaltene Precipitation Onset Using the Cubic and Cubic-Plus-Association Equations of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arya, Alay; Liang, Xiaodong; von Solms, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Gas injection is a proven enhanced oil recovery technique. The gas injection changes the reservoir oil composition, temperature, and pressure conditions, which may result in asphaltene precipitation. In this work, we have used a modeling approach from the literature in order to predict asphaltene...... precipitation onset condition during gas injection. The modeling approach is used with the Soave Redlich Kwong, Soave Redlich Kwong-Plus-Huron Vidal mixing rule and cubic-plus-association (CPA) equations of state (EoS). Six different reservoir fluids are studied with respect to asphaltene onset precipitation...... on asphaltene onset conditions. The CPA EoS is more reliable than the other two models, which are sensitive to asphaltene molecular weight and sometimes predict highly nonlinear behavior outside the experimental temperature range used for fitting the model parameters....

  13. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Stokes, Bryce [Navarro Research & Engineering; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL

    2011-08-01

    The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small

  14. Association of bilateral flat feet with knee pain and disability in patients with knee osteoarthritis: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Hirotaka; Ohi, Hiroshi; Isho, Takuya; Aoyama, Tomoki; Fukutani, Naoto; Kaneda, Eishi; Ohi, Kazuko; Abe, Kaoru; Kuroki, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2017-11-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationship of flat feet with knee pain, disability, and physical performance in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Orthopedic clinic participants (n = 95; age 61-91 years; 68.4% women) with Kellgren-Lawrence (K/L) grade ≥1 in the medial compartment underwent evaluation of navicular height and foot length for flat feet. Knee pain intensity, disability, and physical performance were evaluated using the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure, 10-m walk, timed up and go, and five-repetition chair stand tests. Of the 95 enrolled patients, 24 (25.3%) had bilateral flat feet, and significantly higher knee pain compared to patients with no flat feet (11.3 ± 8.23 points vs. 6.58 ± 6.37 points; p = 0.043). A ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that bilateral flat feet were significantly associated with increased knee pain (proportional odds ratio: 5.48, 95% confidence interval: 1.96, 15.3; p = 0.001) compared with no flat feet, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and tibiofemoral joint K/L grade, which is consistent across various different cutoffs of the definition of flat feet. Physical performance was similar between patients with and without bilateral flat feet. The presence of unilateral flat feet was not significantly associated with any outcome measures. These findings indicate that bilateral, but not unilateral, flat feet are associated with worse knee pain. A prospective study investigating a causal relationship between bilateral flat feet posture and knee pain as well as disability would be of particular interest to verify the potential adverse effect of altered foot posture. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2490-2498, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Assessment of cryotherapy by liquid nitrogen in the treatment of hand and feet warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Aida; Ben Romdhane, Salma; Kharfi, Monia; Zeglaoui, Faten; Fazaa, Becima; Kamoun, Mohamed Ridha

    2009-10-01

    Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen is the most widely used method to treat hand and feet warts. Therapeutic response to this method depends on many factors related to warts and to the patient. The aim of this study is to determine factors influencing therapeutic response of warts to cryotherapy by liquid nitrogen. It was a prospective transversal study including 100 patients with warts of the hands and/or feet treated by cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen (cotton wool bud) and referred to Dermatology Department of Charles Nicolle Hospital of Tunis. Demographic data, so as characteristics of warts were recorded. Patients received one treatment/week with a maximum of 4 sessions. Patients whose warts were seen to be resolved were classified as cured. Cure-predictive factors were studied with a multi varied study with logistic regression. Of the 100 patients (56 females/44 males, Mean age: 22 years), ten were withdrawn. In 89 patients, warts were present on hands, whereas 23 had warts on feet and 12 had warts on both hands and feet. The mean number of warts per patient was 7. The total cure rate was of 64.4% and was more elevated in hands compared to feet (70.8% versus 10.5%). There was no difference between mean ages of cured group and not cured one (22.2 years versus 21 years). The mean duration of warts in cured patients was lower than that of not cured patients. The mean number of warts before treatment was 4.3 in cured patients and 12.3 warts in not cured patients. The mean number of treatments was 2.3 in cured patients and 4 treatments in not cured patients. The difference between these factors into cured and not cured groups was statistically significant in uni-varied study but not significant in multi-varied one. The effectiveness of liquid nitrogen used by traditional method in the treatment of hand and feet warts seems to depend on multiple factors: wart's duration, number of warts and number of treatments. These factors depend on each other.

  16. New cubic structure compounds as actinide host phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovsky, S. V.; Yudintsev, S. V.; Livshits, T. S.

    2010-03-01

    Various compounds with fluorite (cubic zirconia) and fluorite-derived (pyrochlore, zirconolite) structures are considered as promising actinide host phases at immobilization of actinide-bearing nuclear wastes. Recently some new cubic compounds — stannate and stannate-zirconate pyrochlores, murataite and related phases, and actinide-bearing garnet structure compounds were proposed as perspective matrices for complex actinide wastes. Zirconate pyrochlore (ideally Gd2Zr2O7) has excellent radiation resistance and high chemical durability but requires high temperatures (at least 1500 °C) to be produced by hot-pressing from sol-gel derived precursor. Partial Sn4+ substitution for Zr4+ reduces production temperature and the compounds REE2ZrSnO7 may be hot-pressed or cold pressed and sintered at ~1400 °C. Pyrochlore, A2B2O7-x (two-fold elementary fluorite unit cell), and murataite, A3B6C2O20-y (three-fold fluorite unit cell), are end-members of the polysomatic series consisting of the phases whose structures are built from alternating pyrochlore and murataite blocks (nano-sized modules) with seven- (2C/3C/2C), five- (2C/3C), eight- (3C/2C/3C) and three-fold (3C — murataite) fluorite unit cells. Actinide content in this series reduces in the row: 2C (pyrochlore) > 7C > 5C > 8C > 3C (murataite). Due to congruent melting murataite-based ceramics may be produced by melting and the firstly segregated phase at melt crystallization is that with the highest fraction of the pyrochlore modules in its structure. The melts containing up to 10 wt. % AnO2 (An = Th, U, Np, Pu) or REE/An fraction of HLW form at crystallization zoned grains composed sequentially of the 5C → 8C → 3C phases with the highest actinide concentration in the core and the lowest — in the rim of the grains. Radiation resistance of the "murataite" is comparable to titanate pyrochlores. One more promising actinide hosts are ferrites with garnet structure. The matrices containing sometime complex fluorite

  17. Characterization, Microstructure, and Dielectric properties of cubic pyrochlore structural ceramics

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yangyang

    2013-05-01

    The (BMN) bulk materials were sintered at 1050°C, 1100°C, 1150°C, 1200°C by the conventional ceramic process, and their microstructure and dielectric properties were investigated by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (including the X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry EDS and high resolution transmission electron microscopy HRTEM) and dielectric impedance analyzer. We systematically investigated the structure, dielectric properties and voltage tunable property of the ceramics prepared at different sintering temperatures. The XRD patterns demonstrated that the synthesized BMN solid solutions had cubic phase pyrochlore-type structure when sintered at 1050°C or higher, and the lattice parameter (a) of the unit cell in BMN solid solution was calculated to be about 10.56Å. The vibrational peaks observed in the Raman spectra of BMN solid solutions also confirmed the cubic phase pyrochlore-type structure of the synthesized BMN. According to the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images, the grain size increased with increasing sintering temperature. Additionally, it was shown that the densities of the BMN ceramic tablets vary with sintering temperature. The calculated theoretical density for the BMN ceramic tablets sintered at different temperatures is about 6.7521 . The density of the respective measured tablets is usually amounting more than 91% and 5 approaching a maximum value of 96.5% for sintering temperature of 1150°C. The microstructure was investigated by using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD). Combined with the results obtained from the STEM and XRD, the impact of sintering temperature on the macroscopic and microscopic structure was discussed. The relative dielectric constant ( ) and dielectric loss ( ) of the BMN solid solutions were measured to be 161-200 and (at room temperature and 100Hz-1MHz), respectively. The BMN solid

  18. Electric quadrupole interaction in cubic BCC α-Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Błachowski, A.; Komędera, K. [Mössbauer Spectroscopy Division, Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorążych 2, PL-30-084 Kraków (Poland); Ruebenbauer, K., E-mail: sfrueben@cyf-kr.edu.pl [Mössbauer Spectroscopy Division, Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorążych 2, PL-30-084 Kraków (Poland); Cios, G.; Żukrowski, J. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Academic Center for Materials and Nanotechnology, Av. A. Mickiewicza 30, PL-30-059 Kraków (Poland); Górnicki, R. [RENON, ul. Gliniana 15/15, PL-30-732 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-07-15

    Mössbauer transmission spectra for the 14.41-keV resonant line in {sup 57}Fe have been collected at room temperature by using {sup 57}Co(Rh) commercial source and α-Fe strain-free single crystal as an absorber. The absorber was magnetized to saturation in the absorber plane perpendicular to the γ-ray beam axis applying small external magnetic field. Spectra were collected for various orientations of the magnetizing field, the latter lying close to the [110] crystal plane. A positive electric quadrupole coupling constant was found practically independent on the field orientation. One obtains the following value V{sub zz} = +1.61(4) × 10{sup 19} Vm{sup −2} for the (average) principal component of the electric field gradient (EFG) tensor under assumption that the EFG tensor is axially symmetric and the principal axis is aligned with the magnetic hyperfine field acting on the {sup 57}Fe nucleus. The nuclear spectroscopic electric quadrupole moment for the first excited state of the {sup 57}Fe nucleus was adopted as +0.17 b. Similar measurement was performed at room temperature using as-rolled polycrystalline α-Fe foil of high purity in the zero external field. Corresponding value for the principal component of the EFG was found as V{sub zz} = +1.92(4) × 10{sup 19} Vm{sup −2}. Hence, it seems that the origin of the EFG is primarily due to the local (atomic) electronic wave function distortion caused by the spin–orbit interaction between effective electronic spin S and incompletely quenched electronic angular momentum L. It seems as well that the lowest order term proportional to the product L·λ·S dominates, as no direction dependence of the EFG principal component is seen. The lowest order term is isotropic for a cubic symmetry as one has λ=λ 1 for cubic systems with the symbol 1 denoting unit operator and λ being the coupling parameter. - Highlights: • Precision of MS the same as MAPON • Real scans versus magnetization direction • A challenge

  19. Dynamics and Optimal Feet Force Distributions of a Realistic Four-legged Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurav Agarwal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed dynamic modeling of realistic four-legged robot. The direct and inverse kinematic analysis for each leg has been considered in order to develop an overall kinematic model of the robot, when it follows a straight path. This study also aims to estimate optimal feet force distributions of the said robot, which is necessary for its real-time control. Three different approaches namely, minimization of norm of feet forces (approach 1, minimization of norm of joint torques (approach 2 and minimization of norm of joint power (approach 3 have been developed. Simulation result shows that approach 3 is more energy efficient foot force formulation than other two approaches. Lagrange-Euler formulation has been utilized to determine the joint torques. The developed dynamic models have been examined through computer simulation of continuous gait of the four-legged robot.

  20. Biped 4R2C six-bar mechanism with inner and outer feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Wang, Hao; Yao, Yan-an

    2016-01-01

    Most current biped robots are equipped with two feet arranged in the right and left which inspired by the human body system. Different from the existing configurations, a novel biped robot with inner and outer feet based on a spatial six-bar 4R2C(R and C denote revolute and cylindric joints, respectively) mechanism is proposed. It can move along a line or a curve by three walking modes that are dwell adjustment mode, limit position adjustment mode and any position adjustment mode. Kinematic, gait planning and stability analyses are performed respectively, and a prototype is developed. Lastly, a potential application is considered and two manipulating modes(sphere and cylinder manipulating modes) are carried out. This interesting mechanism feathering its single closed-chain structure and unique work performance is expected to motivate the configuration creation of biped robots.

  1. Foot Placement Indicator for Balance of Planar Bipeds with Point Feet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter van Zutven

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract If humanoid robots are to be used in society, they should be able to maintain their balance. Knowing where to step is crucially important. In this paper we contribute an algorithm that can compute the foot step location such that bipedal balance is maintained for planar bipeds with point feet and an arbitrary number of non-massless links on a horizontal and flat ground. The algorithm is called the foot placement indicator (FPI and it extends the foot placement estimator (FPE. The FPE uses an inverted pendulum model to capture the dynamics of a humanoid robot, whereas the FPI deals with multi-body models with distributed masses. This paper analyses equilibrium sets and the stability of planar bipeds with point feet. The algorithm uses conservation of energy throughout the step, taking into account the instantaneous impact dynamics at foot strike. A simulation case study on a five-link planar biped shows the effectiveness of the FPI.

  2. Subdigital setae of chameleon feet: friction-enhancing microstructures for a wide range of substrate roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Marlene; Westhoff, Guido; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-06-27

    Hairy adhesive systems of microscopic setae with triangular flattened tips have evolved convergently in spiders, insects and arboreal lizards. The ventral sides of the feet and tails in chameleons are also covered with setae. However, chameleon setae feature strongly elongated narrow spatulae or fibrous tips. The friction enhancing function of these microstructures has so far only been demonstrated in contact with glass spheres. In the present study, the frictional properties of subdigital setae of Chamaeleo calyptratus were measured under normal forces in the physical range on plane substrates having different roughness. We showed that chameleon setae maximize friction on a wide range of substrate roughness. The highest friction was measured on asperities of 1 μm. However, our observations of the climbing ability of Ch. calyptratus on rods of different diameters revealed that also claws and grasping feet are additionally responsible for the force generation on various substrates during locomotion.

  3. A case study of Chinese bound feet: application of footprint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reischl, Uwe; Nandikolla, Vidja; Colby, Conrad; Mijović, Budimir; Wei, Hsian-Chuen

    2008-06-01

    Foot print patterns of the bound feet of a 90-year-old Chinese female were made to obtain insight into the ergonomic consequences of a Chinese custom that caused significant disabilities for many women throughout history. Pressure patterns were evaluated using the techniques applied to standard thumb print analsyis. A digital summary of the pressure patterns were compared to the patterns obtained from a normal subject. The outcomes indicated that the bound foot produced greater plantar tissue pressures than the non-bound foot. These observations help explain the discomfort, gait abnormalities, and disabilities exhibited by many older women with bound feet living in China today. Although foot-binding is no longer practiced, this study offers an ergonomic perspective on a custom practiced in China for centuries.

  4. Persistent and late occurring lesions in irradiated feet of rats: their clinical relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopewell, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation-induced deformity, as characterized by tissue loss, has been investigated in rat feet. The acute epithelial response and the loss of deeper tissues occur concomitantly after irradiation. The greatest loss of tissue (severe deformity) was produced in feet where the healing of the epithelial reaction was greatly delayed. While deformity will clearly continue to ''persist'' after the acute reaction has healed it is misleading to refer to this lesion as ''late'' damage. A late-occurring lesion, not previously described in the literature, can be produced in the rat foot by high doses of radiation delivered in such a way that moist desquamation is avoided, i.e. by extending the total treatment time. Parallels are drawn between reactions in rodents and those in the skin of pig and man. (author)

  5. Testing the validity of the Danish urban myth that alcohol can be absorbed through feet: open labelled self experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Stevns; Færch, Louise; Kristensen, Peter Lommer

    2010-01-01

    To determine the validity of the Danish urban myth that it is possible to get drunk by submerging feet in alcohol.......To determine the validity of the Danish urban myth that it is possible to get drunk by submerging feet in alcohol....

  6. Foot reflexology in feet impairment of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Natália Chantal Magalhães da; Chaves, Érika de Cássia Lopes; Carvalho, Emilia Campos de; Carvalho, Leonardo César; Iunes, Denise Hollanda

    2015-01-01

    AbstractObjective: to evaluate the effect of foot reflexology on feet impairment of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Method: this is a randomized, controlled and blind clinical trial. The sample was comprised by people with type 2 diabetes mellitus who, after being randomized into Treated group (n = 21) and Control group (n = 24), received guidelines on foot self-care. To the Treated Group it was also provided 12 sessions of foot reflexology. The scores of impairment indicators related to...

  7. Poly-syndactyly of hands and feet with talipes equino-varus. An unusual combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadegone, W M; Kumar, K

    1984-06-01

    A case of a fifteen year old male with unusual congenital anomalies of hands and feet (Poly-syndactyly) is presented. There was associated talipes equino-varus deformity of the left foot with bilateral duplication of great toes. Both hands appeared like a cup but the patient was able to carry out his routine activities. The purpose of this report is to document a unique 'isolated' congenital anomaly.

  8. Infrared dermal thermography on diabetic feet soles to predict ulcerations: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; Klein, Marvin E.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Bus, Sicco A.; van Netten, Jaap J.

    2013-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a major complication for patients with diabetes mellitus. If not adequately treated, these ulcers may lead to foot infection, and ultimately to lower extremity amputation, which imposes a major burden to society and great loss in health-related quality of life for patients. Early identification and subsequent preventive treatment have proven useful to limit the incidence of foot ulcers and lower extremity amputation. Thus, the development of new diagnosis tools has become an attractive option. The ultimate objective of our project is to develop an intelligent telemedicine monitoring system for frequent examination on patients' feet, to timely detect pre-signs of ulceration. Inflammation in diabetic feet can be an early and predictive warning sign for ulceration, and temperature has been proven to be a vicarious marker for inflammation. Studies have indicated that infrared dermal thermography of foot soles can be one of the important parameters for assessing the risk of diabetic foot ulceration. This paper covers the feasibility study of using an infrared camera, FLIR SC305, in our setup, to acquire the spatial thermal distribution on the feet soles. With the obtained thermal images, automated detection through image analysis was performed to identify the abnormal increased/decreased temperature and assess the risk for ulceration. The thermography for feet soles of patients with diagnosed diabetic foot complications were acquired before the ordinary foot examinations. Assessment from clinicians and thermography were compared and follow-up measurements were performed to investigate the prediction. A preliminary case study will be presented, indicating that dermal thermography in our proposed setup can be a screening modality to timely detect pre-signs of ulceration.

  9. HFS-II hands and feet contamination monitor for α, β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiangyang; Han Shuping; Wang Xiaodong; Fan Liya; Zhang Yong; Rao Xianming; Fang Jintu

    1999-11-01

    HFS-II Hands and Feet Contamination Monitor for α, β is a necessary device which monitors the entrance of controlling area of nuclear power plant and nuclear facility, and it consists of nuclear detector, nuclear electronic circuit, computer data processing and controlling divisions, input/output controlling etc. Physical indicators conform to the requirements of relative national standard GB8703-87 and department standard EJ/T586

  10. Radiographic appearance of the feet of mammoth donkeys and the finding of subclinical laminitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.; Taylor, T.; Slater, M.; Hood, D.; Weir, V.; Elslander, J.

    1995-01-01

    All feet of 10 clinically sound mammoth donkeys (Group I) were radiographed to determine the appearance of the distal phalanx. The distal phalanges had blunted to concave-shaped dorsal solar margins which varied in appearance from slight to pronounced. The distal phalanges of the forefeet were wider than those of the hindfeet, and also were positioned a greater distance from the dorsal aspect of the hoof wall. The greater distance between the dorsal aspect of the hoof wall and the distal phalanges seemed related to the presence of a periosteal-like bony proliferation on the dorsum of the distal phalanx. This bony proliferation occurred in those distal phalanges which also had radiographic findings consistent with pedal osteitis. Next, all feet of 5 additional mammoth donkeys (Group II) that were to be necropsied for various reasons, were examined similarly to Group I, necropsied and found to have laminitis. Only 2 of these 5 donkeys had been lame; only one had rotation of the distal phalanges (in the forefeet). Radiographic data from the 4 donkeys without rotation seemed most similar to that found in those Group I donkeys which had periosteal reactions on their distal phalanges. Conclusions from this study were that: 1) feet of mammoth donkeys have some anatomic differences from those of domestic horses, 2) subclinical laminitis and pedal osteitis can occur in mammoth donkeys, 3) rotation of the distal phalanx occurs in some, but not all laminitic donkeys, 4) laminitic changes may be more pronounced in their fore than in their hindfeet, and 5) additional studies of donkeys need to be done, examining both proven normal and confirmed laminitic feet

  11. Six Feet Under o la muerte nuestra de cada día

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Guillermo Medina Montaño

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir del modelo de análisis ADN de las series televisivas, los autores abordan la serie Six Feet Under, su estructura narrativa, su lenguaje audiovisual, así como la construcción psicológica y moral de los personajes que en ella convergen para así escudriñar los mensajes y valores de una de las obras más vistas en su tipo y en su tiempo.

  12. Variations in daily quality assurance dosimetry from device levelling, feet position and backscatter material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceylan, Abdurrahman; Cullen, Ashley; Butson, Martin; Yu, Peter K.N.; Alnawaf, Hani

    2012-01-01

    Daily quality assurance procedures are an essential part of radiotherapy medical physics. Devices such as the Sun Nuclear, DQA3 are effective tools for analysis of daily dosimetry including flatness, symmetry, energy, field size and central axis radiation dose measurement. The DQA3 can be used on the treatment couch of the linear accelerator or on a dedicated table/bed for superficial and orthovoltage x-ray machines. This device is levelled using its dedicated feet. This work has shown that depending on the quantity of backscatter material behind the DQA3 device, the position of the levelling feet can affect the measured central axis dose by up to 1.8 % (250 kVp and 6 MV) and that the introduction of more backscatter material behind the DQA3 can lead to up to 7.2 % (6 MV) variations in measured central axis dose. In conditions where no backscatter material is present, dose measurements can vary up to 1 %. As such this work has highlighted the need to keep the material behind the DQA3 device constant as well as maintaining the accuracy of the feet position on the device to effectively measure the most accurate daily constancy achievable. Results have also shown that variations in symmetry and energy calculations of up to 1 % can occur if the device is not levelled appropriately. As such, we recommend the position of the levelling feet on the device be as close as possible to the device so that a constant distance is kept between the DQA3 and the treatment couch and thus minimal levelling variations also occur. We would also recommend having no extra backscattering material behind the DQA3 device during use to minimise any variations which might occur from these backscattering effects.

  13. Effect of Internet technology on extended care in elderly patients with diabetic feet

    OpenAIRE

    Xian Zang; Jiao-Jiao Bai; Jiao Sun; Yue Ming; Li Ji

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of Internet technology on continuing nursing in elderly patients with diabetic feet. Method: From January 2015 to July 2016, 12 elderly patients with diabetic foot ulcers were enrolled from the Endocrinology Department in our hospital. We used “WeChat”, “E nursing” and other Internet technologies to perform remote extended care and to observe the foot ulcer outcomes. Results: All foot ulcers healed with a wound healing time between 38 and 73 days (avera...

  14. Towards surface analysis on diabetic feet soles to predict ulcerations using photometric stereo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; van Netten, Jaap J.

    2012-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a major complication for patients with diabetes mellitus. Approximately 15% to 25% of patients with Type I and Type II diabetes eventually develop feet ulcers. If not adequately treated, these ulcers may lead to foot infection, and ultimately to total (or partial) lower extremity amputation, which means a great loss in health-related quality of life. The incidence of foot ulcers may be prevented by early identification and subsequent treatment of pre-signs of ulceration, such as callus formation, redness, fissures, and blisters. Therefore, frequent examination of the feet is necessary, preferably on a daily basis. However, self-examination is difficult or impossible due to consequences of the diabetes. Moreover, frequent examination by health care professionals is costly and not feasible. The objective of our project is to develop an intelligent telemedicine monitoring system that can be deployed at the patients' home environment for frequent examination of patients feet, to timely detect pre-signs of ulceration. The current paper reports the preliminary results of an implementation of a photometric stereo imaging system to detect 3D geometric abnormalities of the skin surfaces of foot soles. Using a flexible experimental setup, the system parameters such as number and positions of the illuminators have been selected so as to optimize the performance with respect to reconstructed surface. The system has been applied to a dummy foot sole. Finally, the curvature on the resulting 3D topography of the foot sole is implemented to show the feasibility of detecting the pre-signs of ulceration using photometric stereo imaging. The obtained results indicate clinical potential of this technology for detecting the pre-signs of ulceration on diabetic feet soles.

  15. Right and left support feet of the Central Barrel Yoke of the CMS Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Franz Leher, DWE

    2000-01-01

    Fully loaded the Central Barrel will weigh 3000 tonnes. Those feet have tosupport this weight. Therefore they are made of 120 mm thick steel plates.To guarantee a maximum coverage for the muon detctor they will house a muon detector just benaeth the top plate. Weight of 1 foot is 35 tonnes.Its height is 3.5 m and it is 2.5 m large

  16. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF GIRLS FEET AGED 17-19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Konnova

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available During examination of plantograms of the girls (n = 242 three forms of feet: egiptal, rectangular and greek have been distinguished, statistically characterized by reliable distinctions of separate linear and angular parameters and coefficient of the anterior part of the foot. Coefficients used for examination of the pathology of the foot fornix do not possess sufficient information and need additional examination of the dimensions of the angels of ankle-bone, calcaneal and navicular bones.

  17. Nordic energy co-operation can save the equivalent of 4 - 10 billion USD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2000-01-01

    Better co-ordination of the energy- and environment policies among the Nordic countries can be very profitable from the socio-economic point of view and facilitate the fulfilment of the Kyoto agreement. A Swedish calculation shows that up to 10 billion USD can be saved by building a trans-nordic gasline and at the same time preparing for a common implementation of the Kyoto agreement, combined with increased electricity trade, improving the efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy sources. The consumption of natural gas must then increase threefold the next 25 years. There is no alternative to natural gas of the same potential if coal and oil are to be replaced to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide. The importance of natural gas is further increased by the phase-out of nuclear energy in Sweden. After 2025 the use of natural gas will be reduced and in 2040 biomass energy, wind energy and solar energy will contribute as much as the natural gas, that is, 250 TWh. Throughout the entire period more than half of the electricity production will be hydropower. It is presupposed that the cogeneration sector and the district heating network are substantially expanded, even in South Norway. The Nordic energy system is quite flexible with respect to fulfilling future CO 2 targets. Although the different Nordic countries have different commitments with respect to the Kyoto agreement, they will profit economically from acting jointly within the sum of their individual emission quotas

  18. Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, Ashok J.; Derby, Elisabeth A.

    2003-06-01

    Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015, the global community will need to provide an additional one billion urban residents and 600 million rural residents with safe water within the next twelve years. This paper examines current water treatment measures and implementation methods for delivery of safe drinking water, and offers suggestions for making progress towards the goal of providing a timely and equitable solution for safe water provision. For water treatment, based on the serious limitations of boiling water and chlorination, we suggest an approach based on filtration coupled with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, combined with public education. Additionally, owing to the capacity limitations for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to take on this task primarily on their own, we suggest a strategy based on financially sustainable models that include the private sector as well as NGOs.

  19. A Massive Galaxy in Its Core Formation Phase Three Billion Years After the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erica; van Dokkum, Pieter; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Schreiber, Natascha M. Forster; da Cunha, Elisabete; Tacconi, Linda; Bezanson, Rachel; Kirkpatrick, Allison; hide

    2014-01-01

    Most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores at early cosmic epochs. However, cores in their formation phase have not yet been observed. Previous studies have found galaxies with high gas velocity dispersions or small apparent sizes but so far no objects have been identified with both the stellar structure and the gas dynamics of a forming core. Here we present a candidate core in formation 11 billion years ago, at z = 2.3. GOODS-N-774 has a stellar mass of 1.0 × 10 (exp 11) solar mass, a half-light radius of 1.0 kpc, and a star formation rate of 90 (sup +45 / sub -20) solar mass/yr. The star forming gas has a velocity dispersion 317 plus or minus 30 km/s, amongst the highest ever measured. It is similar to the stellar velocity dispersions of the putative descendants of GOODS-N-774, compact quiescent galaxies at z is approximately equal to 2 (exp 8-11) and giant elliptical galaxies in the nearby Universe. Galaxies such as GOODS-N-774 appear to be rare; however, from the star formation rate and size of the galaxy we infer that many star forming cores may be heavily obscured, and could be missed in optical and near-infrared surveys.

  20. A large neutral fraction of cosmic hydrogen a billion years after the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyithe, J Stuart B; Loeb, Abraham

    2004-02-26

    The fraction of ionized hydrogen left over from the Big Bang provides evidence for the time of formation of the first stars and quasar black holes in the early Universe; such objects provide the high-energy photons necessary to ionize hydrogen. Spectra of the two most distant known quasars show nearly complete absorption of photons with wavelengths shorter than the Lyman alpha transition of neutral hydrogen, indicating that hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) had not been completely ionized at a redshift of z approximately 6.3, about one billion years after the Big Bang. Here we show that the IGM surrounding these quasars had a neutral hydrogen fraction of tens of per cent before the quasar activity started, much higher than the previous lower limits of approximately 0.1 per cent. Our results, when combined with the recent inference of a large cumulative optical depth to electron scattering after cosmological recombination therefore suggest the presence of a second peak in the mean ionization history of the Universe.

  1. Development of multicomponent parts-per-billion-level gas standards of volatile toxic organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoderick, G.C.; Zielinski, W.L. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the demand for stable, low-concentration multicomponent standards of volatile toxic organic compounds for quantifying national and state measurement of ambient air quality and hazardous waste incineration emissions has markedly increased in recent years. In response to this demand, a microgravimetric technique was developed and validated for preparing such standards; these standards ranged in concentration from several parts per million (ppm) down to one part per billion (ppb) and in complexity from one organic up to 17. Studies using the gravimetric procedure to prepare mixtures of different groups of organics. including multi-components mixtures in the 5 to 20 ppb range, revealed a very low imprecision. This procedure is based on the separate gravimetric introduction of individual organics into an evacuated gas cylinder, followed by the pressurized addition of a precalculated amount of pure nitrogen. Additional studies confirmed the long-term stability of these mixtures. The uncertainty of the concentrations of the individual organics at the 95% confidence level ranged from less than 1% relative at 1 ppm to less than 10% relative at 1 ppb. Over 100 primary gravimetric standards have been developed, validated, and used for certifying the concentrations of a variety of mixtures for monitoring studies

  2. Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Elizabeth A; Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T Mark; Mao, Wendy L

    2015-11-24

    Evidence of life on Earth is manifestly preserved in the rock record. However, the microfossil record only extends to ∼ 3.5 billion years (Ga), the chemofossil record arguably to ∼ 3.8 Ga, and the rock record to 4.0 Ga. Detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia range in age up to nearly 4.4 Ga. From a population of over 10,000 Jack Hills zircons, we identified one >3.8-Ga zircon that contains primary graphite inclusions. Here, we report carbon isotopic measurements on these inclusions in a concordant, 4.10 ± 0.01-Ga zircon. We interpret these inclusions as primary due to their enclosure in a crack-free host as shown by transmission X-ray microscopy and their crystal habit. Their δ(13)CPDB of -24 ± 5‰ is consistent with a biogenic origin and may be evidence that a terrestrial biosphere had emerged by 4.1 Ga, or ∼ 300 My earlier than has been previously proposed.

  3. The controversial "Cambrian" fossils of the Vindhyan are real but more than a billion years older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Stefan; Belivanova, Veneta; Rasmussen, Birger; Whitehouse, Martin

    2009-05-12

    The age of the Vindhyan sedimentary basin in central India is controversial, because geochronology indicating early Proterozoic ages clashes with reports of Cambrian fossils. We present here an integrated paleontologic-geochronologic investigation to resolve this conundrum. New sampling of Lower Vindhyan phosphoritic stromatolitic dolomites from the northern flank of the Vindhyans confirms the presence of fossils most closely resembling those found elsewhere in Cambrian deposits: annulated tubes, embryo-like globules with polygonal surface pattern, and filamentous and coccoidal microbial fabrics similar to Girvanella and Renalcis. None of the fossils, however, can be ascribed to uniquely Cambrian or Ediacaran taxa. Indeed, the embryo-like globules are not interpreted as fossils at all but as former gas bubbles trapped in mucus-rich cyanobacterial mats. Direct dating of the same fossiliferous phosphorite yielded a Pb-Pb isochron of 1,650 +/- 89 (2sigma) million years ago, confirming the Paleoproterozoic age of the fossils. New U-Pb geochronology of zircons from tuffaceous mudrocks in the Lower Vindhyan Porcellanite Formation on the southern flank of the Vindhyans give comparable ages. The Vindhyan phosphorites provide a window of 3-dimensionally preserved Paleoproterozoic fossils resembling filamentous and coccoidal cyanobacteria and filamentous eukaryotic algae, as well as problematic forms. Like Neoproterozoic phosphorites a billion years later, the Vindhyan deposits offer important new insights into the nature and diversity of life, and in particular, the early evolution of multicellular eukaryotes.

  4. Enhanced cellular preservation by clay minerals in 1 billion-year-old lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacey, David; Saunders, Martin; Roberts, Malcolm; Menon, Sarath; Green, Leonard; Kong, Charlie; Culwick, Timothy; Strother, Paul; Brasier, Martin D

    2014-07-28

    Organic-walled microfossils provide the best insights into the composition and evolution of the biosphere through the first 80 percent of Earth history. The mechanism of microfossil preservation affects the quality of biological information retained and informs understanding of early Earth palaeo-environments. We here show that 1 billion-year-old microfossils from the non-marine Torridon Group are remarkably preserved by a combination of clay minerals and phosphate, with clay minerals providing the highest fidelity of preservation. Fe-rich clay mostly occurs in narrow zones in contact with cellular material and is interpreted as an early microbially-mediated phase enclosing and replacing the most labile biological material. K-rich clay occurs within and exterior to cell envelopes, forming where the supply of Fe had been exhausted. Clay minerals inter-finger with calcium phosphate that co-precipitated with the clays in the sub-oxic zone of the lake sediments. This type of preservation was favoured in sulfate-poor environments where Fe-silicate precipitation could outcompete Fe-sulfide formation. This work shows that clay minerals can provide an exceptionally high fidelity of microfossil preservation and extends the known geological range of this fossilization style by almost 500 Ma. It also suggests that the best-preserved microfossils of this time may be found in low-sulfate environments.

  5. The DECam Plane Survey: Optical Photometry of Two Billion Objects in the Southern Galactic Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlafly, E. F.; Green, G. M.; Lang, D.; Daylan, T.; Finkbeiner, D. P.; Lee, A.; Meisner, A. M.; Schlegel, D.; Valdes, F.

    2018-02-01

    The DECam Plane Survey is a five-band optical and near-infrared survey of the southern Galactic plane with the Dark Energy Camera at Cerro Tololo. The survey is designed to reach past the main-sequence turn-off of old populations at the distance of the Galactic center through a reddening E(B-V) of 1.5 mag. Typical single-exposure depths are 23.7, 22.8, 22.3, 21.9, and 21.0 mag (AB) in the grizY bands, with seeing around 1\\prime\\prime . The footprint covers the Galactic plane with | b| ≲ 4^\\circ , 5^\\circ > l> -120^\\circ . The survey pipeline simultaneously solves for the positions and fluxes of tens of thousands of sources in each image, delivering positions and fluxes of roughly two billion stars with better than 10 mmag precision. Most of these objects are highly reddened and deep in the Galactic disk, probing the structure and properties of the Milky Way and its interstellar medium. The fully-processed images and derived catalogs are publicly available.

  6. Rapid oxygenation of Earth’s atmosphere 2.33 billion years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Genming; Ono, Shuhei; Beukes, Nicolas J.; Wang, David T.; Xie, Shucheng; Summons, Roger E.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular oxygen (O2) is, and has been, a primary driver of biological evolution and shapes the contemporary landscape of Earth’s biogeochemical cycles. Although “whiffs” of oxygen have been documented in the Archean atmosphere, substantial O2 did not accumulate irreversibly until the Early Paleoproterozoic, during what has been termed the Great Oxygenation Event (GOE). The timing of the GOE and the rate at which this oxygenation took place have been poorly constrained until now. We report the transition (that is, from being mass-independent to becoming mass-dependent) in multiple sulfur isotope signals of diagenetic pyrite in a continuous sedimentary sequence in three coeval drill cores in the Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa. These data precisely constrain the GOE to 2.33 billion years ago. The new data suggest that the oxygenation occurred rapidly—within 1 to 10 million years—and was followed by a slower rise in the ocean sulfate inventory. Our data indicate that a climate perturbation predated the GOE, whereas the relationships among GOE, “Snowball Earth” glaciation, and biogeochemical cycling will require further stratigraphic correlation supported with precise chronologies and paleolatitude reconstructions. PMID:27386544

  7. Sharing global CO2 emission reductions among one billion high emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Shoibal; Chikkatur, Ananth; de Coninck, Heleen; Pacala, Stephen; Socolow, Robert; Tavoni, Massimo

    2009-07-21

    We present a framework for allocating a global carbon reduction target among nations, in which the concept of "common but differentiated responsibilities" refers to the emissions of individuals instead of nations. We use the income distribution of a country to estimate how its fossil fuel CO(2) emissions are distributed among its citizens, from which we build up a global CO(2) distribution. We then propose a simple rule to derive a universal cap on global individual emissions and find corresponding limits on national aggregate emissions from this cap. All of the world's high CO(2)-emitting individuals are treated the same, regardless of where they live. Any future global emission goal (target and time frame) can be converted into national reduction targets, which are determined by "Business as Usual" projections of national carbon emissions and in-country income distributions. For example, reducing projected global emissions in 2030 by 13 GtCO(2) would require the engagement of 1.13 billion high emitters, roughly equally distributed in 4 regions: the U.S., the OECD minus the U.S., China, and the non-OECD minus China. We also modify our methodology to place a floor on emissions of the world's lowest CO(2) emitters and demonstrate that climate mitigation and alleviation of extreme poverty are largely decoupled.

  8. Large data analysis: automatic visual personal identification in a demography of 1.2 billion persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugman, John

    2014-05-01

    The largest biometric deployment in history is now underway in India, where the Government is enrolling the iris patterns (among other data) of all 1.2 billion citizens. The purpose of the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) is to ensure fair access to welfare benefits and entitlements, to reduce fraud, and enhance social inclusion. Only a minority of Indian citizens have bank accounts; only 4 percent possess passports; and less than half of all aid money reaches its intended recipients. A person who lacks any means of establishing their identity is excluded from entitlements and does not officially exist; thus the slogan of UIDAI is: To give the poor an identity." This ambitious program enrolls a million people every day, across 36,000 stations run by 83 agencies, with a 3-year completion target for the entire national population. The halfway point was recently passed with more than 600 million persons now enrolled. In order to detect and prevent duplicate identities, every iris pattern that is enrolled is first compared against all others enrolled so far; thus the daily workflow now requires 600 trillion (or 600 million-million) iris cross-comparisons. Avoiding identity collisions (False Matches) requires high biometric entropy, and achieving the tremendous match speed requires phase bit coding. Both of these requirements are being delivered operationally by wavelet methods developed by the author for encoding and comparing iris patterns, which will be the focus of this Large Data Award" presentation.

  9. Cubic crystal protein inclusions in the neodermis of the pancreatic fluke, Eurytrema pancreaticum, and Eurytrema coelomaticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Tsukasa; Oikawa, Tetsuo

    2007-10-01

    Light microscopy of Eurytrema pancreaticum and Eurytrema coelomaticum collected from cattle in Japan, China, Thailand, and Brazil showed many cubic crystal inclusions in the neodermis (tegument) of all flukes. The crystal inclusions were histochemically positive for protein. Scanning electron microscopy showed many cubic protrusions containing cubic crystal protein inclusions on the surface of the neodermis. Transmission electron microscopy showed that cubic crystal protein inclusions appeared in the perikarya of subtegumental parts, passed through the cytoplasmic bridge, moved into the syncytial neodermal cytoplasm, and then protruded from, and finally separated from, the neodermal cytoplasm. Cubic crystal protein inclusions were hexahedral with each side 2-18 microm long. High-resolution microscopy of ultrathin sections of crystal inclusions showed a lattice fringe at spacings of about 0.52 nm by using a filtering processing. Diffractograms were obtained by Fourier transform of the images. The lattice structure of the crystal protein inclusions was shown by inverse Fourier transform, indicating that the cubic crystal protein inclusions were single crystals. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis estimated the molecular weight of protein in the cubic crystal inclusion as 36.6 kDa. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy proved that the cubic crystal protein inclusions were composed of protein and sulfur.

  10. Cubic and quartic anharmonic potential energy functions for octahedral XY6 molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K.; Krohn, B.J.; Shaffer, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    We give the cubic and quartic anharmonic potential energy functions for XY 6 molecules of O/sub h/ symmetry in terms of normal coordinates. The numbers of independent cubic and quartic potential constants are 22 and 92, respectively. A standard form, introduced here, is related to the tensor formalism developed for the potential energy of tetrahedral XY 4 molecules by Hecht

  11. Feasibility Study on the Implementation of Cubic Motion Curve for Vehicle Trajectory Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Mat Ghani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cubic Motion curve has been introduced to integrate the information of path and motion. Since this is a new approach, a feasibility study has been carried out to analyse the practicality of Cubic Motion curves used as the input for the study of vehicle dynamic response. This study requires the development of three modules, namely, the Cubic Motion module, the vehicle dynamic model, the driver model (VDM-DM module, and, lastly, the integrated module. The Cubic Motion module will generate Cubic Motion curve. The VDM-DM module applies the 2 DOF bicycle model and links it with Reński's driver model. Finally, an integrated module will merge both previous modules as a complete system for trajectory and vehicle response as the output. The double lane change and the Slalom test were the case studies used to develop an understanding of the applicability of the three types of Cubic Motion input, namely, natural, adjusted tangent, and additional vertex cubic motion. The finding of this study is that Cubic Motion is in fact a compact representation of curve with motion attributes and can be directly associated with a vehicle dynamic response study.

  12. On the number of longest and almost longest cycles in cubic graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chia, Gek Ling; Thomassen, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    We consider the questions: How many longest cycles must a cubic graph have, and how many may it have? For each k >= 2 there are infinitely many p such that there is a cubic graph with p vertices and precisely one longest cycle of length p-k. On the other hand, if G is a graph with p vertices, all...

  13. On the dynamic buckling of a lightly damped elastic cubic model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... technique to determine the dynamic buckling load of a lightly and viscously damped elastic cubic model structure modulated by a sinusoidally slowly varying dynamic load. The imperfect elastic cubic (nonlinear) structure is itself a generalization of most elastic physical structures that have been investigated over the years.

  14. Cubic Invariant Spherical Surface Harmonics in Conjunction With Diffraction Strain Pole-Figures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Four kinds of cubic invariant spherical surface harmonics are introduced. It has been shown previously that these harmonics occur in the equations relating measured diffraction (line-shift) elastic strain and macro-stresses generating these strains for the case of textured cubic materials. As a

  15. The double-end-pumped cubic Nd:YVO4 laser: Temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Thermal effects of a double-end-pumped cubic Nd:YVO4 laser crystal are investigated in this paper. A detailed analysis of temperature distribution and thermal stress in cubic crystal with circular shape pumping is discussed. It has been shown that by considering the total input powers as constant, the ...

  16. Classifying cubic edge-transitive graphs of order 8p8p8p

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is proved that, every cubic edge-transitive graph of order 8p is symmetric, and then all such graphs are .... The following Corollary gives a classification of all cubic edge-transitive graphs of order 8p. COROLLARY 1.2. Let p be a ..... on the elementary abelian regular covering, Linear Algebra Appl. 373 (2003) 101–119 ...

  17. On orbital topological equivalence of cubic ODEs in two-dimensional algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Balanov, Zolman; Krawcewicz, Wiesław; Zur, Shira

    2005-01-01

    Cubic differential systems in real commutative two-dimensional algebras are classified up to orbital topological equivalence via the solubility of polynomial equations in algebras. As a by-product, existence of bounded solutions in such systems is studied via complex structures in the algebras. Application to the existence of periodic solutions to $n$-dimensional differential systems "cubic at infinity" is given.

  18. Some Curious Properties and Loci Problems Associated with Cubics and Other Polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alwis, Amal

    2012-01-01

    The article begins with a well-known property regarding tangent lines to a cubic polynomial that has distinct, real zeros. We were then able to generalize this property to any polynomial with distinct, real zeros. We also considered a certain family of cubics with two fixed zeros and one variable zero, and explored the loci of centroids of…

  19. Extending a Property of Cubic Polynomials to Higher-Degree Polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David A.; Moseley, James

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine a property that holds for all cubic polynomials given two zeros. This property is discovered after reviewing a variety of ways to determine the equation of a cubic polynomial given specific conditions through algebra and calculus. At the end of the article, they will connect the property to a very famous method…

  20. Defect structure of cubic solid solutions of alkaline earth and rare earth fluorides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DenHartog, HW

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we will consider the disorder in some cubic solid solutions consisting of one of the alkaline earth fluorides and one of the rare earth fluorides. This is an attractive group of model materials, because these materials have a rather simple overall cubic structure. We will discuss the

  1. Normative data for cutaneous threshold and spatial discrimination in the feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkel, Willem D; Aziz, M Hosein; Van Deelen, Meike J M; Willemsen, Sten P; Castro Cabezas, Manuel; Van Neck, Johan W; Coert, J Henk

    2017-09-01

    No data are available for normative values of cutaneous threshold and spatial discrimination in the feet. We developed clinically applicable reference values in relation to the nerve distributions of the feet. We determined foot sensation in 196 healthy individuals. Cutaneous threshold (1-point static discrimination, S1PD) was tested with monofilaments (0.008 to 300 gram) and spatial discrimination (2-point static [S2PD] and moving [M2PD] discrimination) on five locations per foot. There was a significant age-dependent increase in S1PD, S2PD, and M2PD values (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found between both feet. S1PD values differed up to 0.8 g between genders. There were no significant differences between genders for S2PD and M2PD measurements. M2PD values were generally lower than S2PD values. This study provides age-related normative values for foot sensation to help clinicians assess sensory deficits in relation to aging and identify patients with underlying nerve problems. Muscle Nerve 56: 399-407, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Foot reflexology in feet impairment of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Chantal Magalhães da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: to evaluate the effect of foot reflexology on feet impairment of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Method: this is a randomized, controlled and blind clinical trial. The sample was comprised by people with type 2 diabetes mellitus who, after being randomized into Treated group (n = 21 and Control group (n = 24, received guidelines on foot self-care. To the Treated Group it was also provided 12 sessions of foot reflexology. The scores of impairment indicators related to skin and hair, blood circulation, tissue sensitivity and temperature were measured by means of the instrument for assessing tissue integrity of the feet of people with diabetes mellitus. Chi-square test, Fisher exact test, Mann-Whitney test and regression analyzes were applied to the data, considering a significance level of 5% (P value <0.05.Results: participants who received the therapy showed better scores in some impairment indicators related to skin and hair (hair growth, elasticity/turgor, hydration, perspiration, texture and integrity of the skin/ skin peeling.Conclusion: the foot reflexology had a beneficial effect on feet impairment of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which makes it a viable therapy, deserving investment. This study was registered in the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials - RBR-8zk8sz.

  3. Function of the triceps surae muscle group in low and high arched feet: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branthwaite, Helen; Pandyan, Anand; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2012-06-01

    The Achilles tendon has been shown to be comprised of segmental components of tendon arising from the tricpes surae muscle group. Motion of the foot joints in low and high arched feet may induce a change in behaviour of the triceps surae muscle group due to altered strain on the tendon. Surface electromyogram of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius and the soleus muscle from 12 subjects (with 6 low arched and 6 high arched feet) (1:1) was recorded whilst walking at a self selected speed along a 10m walkway. The results showed a high variability in muscle activity between groups with patterns emerging within groups. Soleus was more active in 50% of the low arch feet at forefoot loading and there was a crescendo of activity towards heel lift in 58% of all subjects. This observed variability between groups and foot types emphasises the need for further work on individual anatomical variation and foot function to help in the understanding and management of Achilles tendon pathologies and triceps surae dysfunction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Doppler sonography of diabetic feet: Quantitative analysis of blood flow volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Young Lan; Kim, Ho Chul; Choi, Chul Soon; Yoon, Dae Young; Han, Dae Hee; Moon, Jeung Hee; Bae, Sang Hoon

    2002-01-01

    To analyze Doppler sonographic findings of diabetic feet by estimating the quantitative blood flow volume and by analyzing waveform on Doppler. Doppler sonography was performed in thirty four patients (10 diabetic patients with foot ulceration, 14 diabetic patients without ulceration and 10 normal patients as the normal control group) to measure the flow volume of the arteries of the lower extremities (posterior and anterior tibial arteries, and distal femoral artery. Analysis of doppler waveforms was also done to evaluate the nature of the changed blood flow volume of diabetic patients, and the waveforms were classified into triphasic, biphasic-1, biphasic-2 and monophasic patterns. Flow volume of arteries in diabetic patients with foot ulceration was increased witha statistical significance when compared to that of diabetes patients without foot ulceration of that of normal control group (P<0.05). Analysis of Doppler waveform revealed that the frequency of biphasic-2 pattern was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in normal control group(p<0.05). Doppler sonography in diabetic feet showed increased flow volume and biphasic Doppler waveform, and these findings suggest neuropathy rather than ischemic changes in diabetic feet.

  5. As Go the Feet … : On the Estimation of Attentional Focus from Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Francis; Ehrich, Roger; Lockhart, Thurmon

    2010-01-01

    The estimation of the direction of visual attention is critical to a large number of interactive systems. This paper investigates the cross-modal relation of the position of one's feet (or standing stance) to the focus of gaze. The intuition is that while one CAN have a range of attentional foci from a particular stance, one may be MORE LIKELY to look in specific directions given an approach vector and stance. We posit that the cross-modal relationship is constrained by biomechanics and personal style. We define a stance vector that models the approach direction before stopping and the pose of a subject's feet. We present a study where the subjects' feet and approach vector are tracked. The subjects read aloud contents of note cards in 4 locations. The order of `visits' to the cards were randomized. Ten subjects read 40 lines of text each, yielding 400 stance vectors and gaze directions. We divided our data into 4 sets of 300 training and 100 test vectors and trained a neural net to estimate the gaze direction given the stance vector. Our results show that 31% our gaze orientation estimates were within 5°, 51% of our estimates were within 10°, and 60% were within 15°. Given the ability to track foot position, the procedure is minimally invasive. PMID:20830212

  6. Sex estimation using anthropometry of feet and footprints in a Western Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemy, Naomi; Flavel, Ambika; Ishak, Nur-Intaniah; Franklin, Daniel

    2013-09-10

    An important component of forensic investigation is the identification of deceased (and increasingly living) individuals, which is often the role of the forensic anthropologist. One of the most valuable steps towards identification is via a biological profile, developed through the application of population specific standards. In disaster victim identification scenarios, fleshed feet are often recovered in footwear; footprints are another potential source of trace evidence found at crime scenes. In medico-legal investigations, feet and footprints can be useful for extrapolating living height, it is thus expedient to determine whether sex can be estimated from the same anthropometric data. The aim of the present study is to develop accurate sex estimation standards for a contemporary Western Australian population from measurements of the feet and footprints. The sample comprises 200 adults (90 males, 110 females). Three bilateral linear measurements were taken from each foot and seven bilateral measurements were acquired from static footprints obtained using a Podograph. A precision test was first conducted to assess data accuracy and reliability. Measurement data are then analysed using a range of parametric statistical tests. Results show that males were significantly (P±5%), this study provides viable alternatives for estimating sex in Western Australian individuals with accuracy equivalent to established standards developed from foot bones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Static response of maximally pronated and nonmaximally pronated feet to frontal plane wedging of foot orthoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual Huerta, Javier; Ropa Moreno, Juan Manuel; Kirby, Kevin A

    2009-01-01

    Research on foot orthoses has shown that their effect on the kinematics of the rearfoot is variable, with no consistent patterns of changes being demonstrated. It has also been hypothesized that the mechanical effect of foot orthoses could be subject specific. The purpose of our study was to determine if maximally pronated feet have a different response to frontal plane wedging of foot orthoses than do nonmaximally pronated feet during static stance. One hundred six feet of 53 healthy asymptomatic subjects were divided into two groups (maximally pronated and nonmaximally pronated) on the basis of their subtalar joint rotational position during relaxed bipedal stance. Functional foot orthoses were constructed for each subject and the relaxed calcaneal stance position was measured while standing on five separate frontal plane orthosis wedging conditions, 10 degrees valgus, 5 degrees valgus, no wedging, 5 degrees varus, and 10 degrees varus, to assess changes in calcaneal position. Relative to the no-wedging condition, there were statistically significant differences (P foot orthoses is variable between individuals. Maximally pronated subjects do not exhibit the same response to frontal plane wedging of foot orthoses as do nonmaximally pronated with 10 degrees wedging. Intrinsic biomechanical factors such as subtalar joint position may influence the response to foot orthoses.

  8. Investigation of feet functions of large ruminants with a decoupled model of equivalent mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cloven hooves of ruminants adapt to diverse terrain, provide propulsive force and support the whole body during movement in natural environments. To reveal how the feet ensure terrain adaptability by choosing the proper configurations and terrain conditions, we model the feet of ruminants as an equivalent mechanism with flexion-extension and lateral movement decoupled. The upper part of the equivalent mechanism can flex and extend, while the lower part performs the lateral movement. Combination of the two parts can adapt to longitudinal slope (anterior-posterior and transverse slope (medial-lateral, respectively. When one of two digits closes laterally, the workspace of the other decreases. The distal interdigital ligament between two digits limits their motion by elastic force and stores energy during movement. Differences in elastic energy variation of the ligament on different transverse slopes are characterized based on the configurations of two digits and the elastic energy between them. If the upper one of two symmetric digits is fixed, the foot landing on the grade surface (2° shows greater capacity for absorbing energy; otherwise, level ground is the best choice for ruminants. As for the asymmetric digits, longer lateral digits enhance the optimal adaptive lateral angle. The asymmetry predisposes the feet to damage on the hard ground, which indicates soft ground is more suitable.

  9. Cubic helimagnets in magnetic field and at pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maleyev, S.V.

    2009-01-01

    Cubic helimagnets with B20 structure display several unusual properties such as anisotropy of the spin-wave spectrum al small momenta q, rotation of the helix vector k in magnetic field and quantum phase transition at pressure. We demonstrate that first two phenomena are a result of umklapp processes mixing excitations with momenta q, q+k and q-k. At very low magnetic field perpendicular to k the helical structure remains stable due to spin-wave gap Δ. Its square is sum of two parts. The first one is a result of the magnon interaction and the second negative part stems from magneto-elastic interaction. It is suggested that competition between these parts leads to the quantum phase transition observed in MnSi and FeGe. For MnSi from rough estimations at ambient pressure was shown that both parts are comparable with the experimentally observed gap. The magneto-elastic interaction is also responsible for 2k modulation of the lattice and contributes to the magnetic anisotropy. Experimental observation by X-ray and neutron scattering of this lattice modulation allows to determine the strength of the magneto-elastic interaction responsible for above phenomena and the lattice helicity

  10. Cubic Phase Formation in Phospholipid and PEG-Lipid Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murley, Kimberly; Cunningham, Beth; Wolfe, David; Williams, Patrick

    2005-03-01

    Lipid systems modeling cell membranes are capable of self-assembling into various liquid crystal mesophases with varying geometry and dimensions. We have suggested that it is possible to engineer the lipid systems through the incorporation of covalently attached polymer lipids to produce unique effects. The results of this engineering process include both the stabilization of lipid phases that normally exist over very limited temperature ranges and the induction of novel phases that are not normally present in the parent lipid. In this study, we used x-ray diffraction and NMR to investigate the phase behavior of the DOPE:PEG:MO and MO:PEG:D2O systems with varying molar ratios and PEG sizes. The phase diagram which we have generated indicates the conditions necessary to induce specific phase structures and sizes into three-dimensional cubic lipid systems. This information may be useful to create nanostructures which will be valuable in applications such as protein crystallization and protein biochip development.

  11. Research of Cubic Bezier Curve NC Interpolation Signal Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Ji

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Interpolation technology is the core of the computer numerical control (CNC system, and the precision and stability of the interpolation algorithm directly affect the machining precision and speed of CNC system. Most of the existing numerical control interpolation technology can only achieve circular arc interpolation, linear interpolation or parabola interpolation, but for the numerical control (NC machining of parts with complicated surface, it needs to establish the mathematical model and generate the curved line and curved surface outline of parts and then discrete the generated parts outline into a large amount of straight line or arc to carry on the processing, which creates the complex program and a large amount of code, so it inevitably introduce into the approximation error. All these factors affect the machining accuracy, surface roughness and machining efficiency. The stepless interpolation of cubic Bezier curve controlled by analog signal is studied in this paper, the tool motion trajectory of Bezier curve can be directly planned out in CNC system by adjusting control points, and then these data were put into the control motor which can complete the precise feeding of Bezier curve. This method realized the improvement of CNC trajectory controlled ability from the simple linear and circular arc to the complex project curve, and it provides a new way for economy realizing the curve surface parts with high quality and high efficiency machining.

  12. Hyperfine interactions in the cubic semiconductor CdO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desimoni, J.; Bibiloni, A.G.; Massolo, C.P.; Renteria, M.

    1990-01-01

    The time-differential perturbed angular correlation technique has been applied using 111 In probes, which decay through electron capture to 111 Cd, to study the hyperfine interaction in cubic cadmium oxide, in the temperature range RT--740 degree C (RT denotes room temperature). The main fraction of probes are located in perfect-lattice sites, with null electric field gradient in agreement with crystalline-structure considerations. Around 25% of the total intensity shows an electric-field-gradient distribution around V zz =0. This corresponds to probes located in sites perturbed by the vicinity of oxygen vacancies in the lattice. The temperature-independent behavior of the measured hyperfine parameters is discussed in terms of conductivity and band-structure properties of the semiconductor. No time-dependent interaction arising from nuclear electron-capture aftereffects are seen in this experiment. This is in agreement with a previously reported model of aftereffect processes which states that only holes trapped in impurity levels inside the band gap of the semiconductor can give rise to detectable fluctuating interactions

  13. Hyperfine interactions in the cubic semiconductor CdO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desimoni, J.; Bibiloni, A.G.; Massolo, C.P.; Renteria, M. (Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Casilla de Correo No. 67, 1900 La Plata, Argentina (AR))

    1990-01-15

    The time-differential perturbed angular correlation technique has been applied using {sup 111}In probes, which decay through electron capture to {sup 111}Cd, to study the hyperfine interaction in cubic cadmium oxide, in the temperature range RT--740 {degree}C (RT denotes room temperature). The main fraction of probes are located in perfect-lattice sites, with null electric field gradient in agreement with crystalline-structure considerations. Around 25% of the total intensity shows an electric-field-gradient distribution around {ital V}{sub {ital zz}}=0. This corresponds to probes located in sites perturbed by the vicinity of oxygen vacancies in the lattice. The temperature-independent behavior of the measured hyperfine parameters is discussed in terms of conductivity and band-structure properties of the semiconductor. No time-dependent interaction arising from nuclear electron-capture aftereffects are seen in this experiment. This is in agreement with a previously reported model of aftereffect processes which states that only holes trapped in impurity levels inside the band gap of the semiconductor can give rise to detectable fluctuating interactions.

  14. Arsenic mediated reconstructions on cubic (001) GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuillet, G.; Hamaguchi, H.; Ohta, K.; Hacke, P.; Okumura, H.; Yoshida, S. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, 1-1-4 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305 (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The 4{times}1 (respectively 1{times}1) (001) GaN surfaces obtained when molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) growth is carried out on (001) cubic SiC were exposed to an As background pressure in the MBE chamber: The reconstructions rapidly and irreversibly changed to 2{times}2 [respectively {ital c}(2{times}2)] as usually observed for GaN growth on (001) GaAs. The usual reversible 2{times}2/{ital c}(2{times}2) transitions were consequently observed when bringing the Ga flux up or down. The respective positions for the 4{times}1/1{times}1 and 2{times}2/{ital c}(2{times}2) transitions were worked out as a function of the growth parameters. These observations indicate that the 2{times}2 and {ital c}(2{times}2) GaN surface reconstructions are mediated by As atoms which we tentatively assign to a surfactant effect. A simple structural model involving As dimers is proposed that accounts for Ga coverages of 0.5 and 1 monolayer for the 2{times}2 and {ital c}(2{times}2) growth regimes, respectively. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Modeling and testing treated tumor growth using cubic smoothing splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Maiying; Yan, Jun

    2011-07-01

    Human tumor xenograft models are often used in preclinical study to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of a certain compound or a combination of certain compounds. In a typical human tumor xenograft model, human carcinoma cells are implanted to subjects such as severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Treatment with test compounds is initiated after tumor nodule has appeared, and continued for a certain time period. Tumor volumes are measured over the duration of the experiment. It is well known that untreated tumor growth may follow certain patterns, which can be described by certain mathematical models. However, the growth patterns of the treated tumors with multiple treatment episodes are quite complex, and the usage of parametric models is limited. We propose using cubic smoothing splines to describe tumor growth for each treatment group and for each subject, respectively. The proposed smoothing splines are quite flexible in modeling different growth patterns. In addition, using this procedure, we can obtain tumor growth and growth rate over time for each treatment group and for each subject, and examine whether tumor growth follows certain growth pattern. To examine the overall treatment effect and group differences, the scaled chi-squared test statistics based on the fitted group-level growth curves are proposed. A case study is provided to illustrate the application of this method, and simulations are carried out to examine the performances of the scaled chi-squared tests. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Characterizing vaccine-associated risks using cubic smoothing splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, M Alan; Walker, Alexander M; Lu, Yun; Polakowski, Laura; Li, Jie; Paeglow, Corrie; Puenpatom, Tosmai; Izurieta, Hector; Daniel, Gregory W

    2012-11-15

    Estimating risks associated with the use of childhood vaccines is challenging. The authors propose a new approach for studying short-term vaccine-related risks. The method uses a cubic smoothing spline to flexibly estimate the daily risk of an event after vaccination. The predicted incidence rates from the spline regression are then compared with the expected rates under a log-linear trend that excludes the days surrounding vaccination. The 2 models are then used to estimate the excess cumulative incidence attributable to the vaccination during the 42-day period after vaccination. Confidence intervals are obtained using a model-based bootstrap procedure. The method is applied to a study of known effects (positive controls) and expected noneffects (negative controls) of the measles, mumps, and rubella and measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccines among children who are 1 year of age. The splines revealed well-resolved spikes in fever, rash, and adenopathy diagnoses, with the maximum incidence occurring between 9 and 11 days after vaccination. For the negative control outcomes, the spline model yielded a predicted incidence more consistent with the modeled day-specific risks, although there was evidence of increased risk of diagnoses of congenital malformations after vaccination, possibly because of a "provider visit effect." The proposed approach may be useful for vaccine safety surveillance.

  17. Liquid water in the domain of cubic crystalline ice Ic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, P; Banham, S F; Blake, D F; McCoustra, M R

    1997-07-22

    Vapor-deposited amorphous water ice when warmed above the glass transition temperature (120-140 K), is a viscous liquid which exhibits a viscosity vs temperature relationship different from that of liquid water at room temperature. New studies of thin water ice films now demonstrate that viscous liquid water persists in the temperature range 140-210 K. where it coexists with cubic crystalline ice. The liquid character of amorphous water above the glass transition is demonstrated by (1) changes in the morphology of water ice films on a nonwetting surface observed in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at around 175 K during slow warming, (2) changes in the binding energy of water molecules measured in temperature programmed desorption (TPD) studies, and (3) changes in the shape of the 3.07 micrometers absorption band observed in grazing angle reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) during annealing at high temperature. whereby the decreased roughness of the water surface is thought to cause changes in the selection rules for the excitation of O-H stretch vibrations. Because it is present over such a wide range of temperatures, we propose that this form of liquid water is a common material in nature. where it is expected to exist in the subsurface layers of comets and on the surfaces of some planets and satellites.

  18. Plasmon polaritons in cubic lattices of spherical metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamowski, Simon; Mann, Charlie-Ray; Hellbach, Felicitas; Mariani, Eros; Weick, Guillaume; Pauly, Fabian

    2018-03-01

    We theoretically investigate plasmon polaritons in cubic lattices of spherical metallic nanoparticles. The nanoparticles, each supporting triply-degenerate localized surface plasmons, couple through the Coulomb dipole-dipole interaction, giving rise to collective plasmons that extend over the whole metamaterial. The latter hybridize with photons forming plasmon polaritons, which are the hybrid light-matter eigenmodes of the system. We derive general analytical expressions to evaluate both plasmon and plasmon-polariton dispersions and the corresponding eigenstates. These are obtained within a Hamiltonian formalism, which takes into account retardation effects in the dipolar interaction between the nanoparticles and considers the dielectric properties of the nanoparticles as well as their surrounding. Within this model we predict polaritonic splittings in the near-infrared to the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum that depend on polarization, lattice symmetry, and wave-vector direction. Finally, we show that the predictions of our model are in excellent quantitative agreement with conventional finite-difference frequency-domain simulations, but with the advantages of analytical insight and significantly reduced computational cost.

  19. Serial femtosecond crystallography of soluble proteins in lipidic cubic phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromme, Raimund; Ishchenko, Andrii; Metz, Markus; Chowdhury, Shatabdi Roy; Basu, Shibom; Boutet, Sébastien; Fromme, Petra; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Spence, John C. H.; Weierstall, Uwe; Liu, Wei; Cherezov, Vadim

    2015-08-04

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) enables high-resolution protein structure determination using micrometre-sized crystals at room temperature with minimal effects from radiation damage. SFX requires a steady supply of microcrystals intersecting the XFEL beam at random orientations. An LCP–SFX method has recently been introduced in which microcrystals of membrane proteins are grown and delivered for SFX data collection inside a gel-like membrane-mimetic matrix, known as lipidic cubic phase (LCP), using a special LCP microextrusion injector. Here, it is demonstrated that LCP can also be used as a suitable carrier medium for microcrystals of soluble proteins, enabling a dramatic reduction in the amount of crystallized protein required for data collection compared with crystals delivered by liquid injectors. High-quality LCP–SFX data sets were collected for two soluble proteins, lysozyme and phycocyanin, using less than 0.1 mg of each protein.

  20. Twinning of cubic diamond explains reported nanodiamond polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Péter; Garvie, Laurence A J; Buseck, Peter R

    2015-12-16

    The unusual physical properties and formation conditions attributed to h-, i-, m-, and n-nanodiamond polymorphs has resulted in their receiving much attention in the materials and planetary science literature. Their identification is based on diffraction features that are absent in ordinary cubic (c-) diamond (space group: Fd-3m). We show, using ultra-high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images of natural and synthetic nanodiamonds, that the diffraction features attributed to the reported polymorphs are consistent with c-diamond containing abundant defects. Combinations of {113} reflection and rotation twins produce HRTEM images and d-spacings that match those attributed to h-, i-, and m-diamond. The diagnostic features of n-diamond in TEM images can arise from thickness effects of c-diamonds. Our data and interpretations strongly suggest that the reported nanodiamond polymorphs are in fact twinned c-diamond. We also report a new type of twin ( rotational), which can give rise to grains with dodecagonal symmetry. Our results show that twins are widespread in diamond nanocrystals. A high density of twins could strongly influence their applications.

  1. Non-spherical micelles in an oil-in-water cubic phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leaver, M.; Rajagopalan, V.; Ulf, O.

    2000-01-01

    The cubic phase formed between the microemulsion and hexagonal phases of the ternary pentaethylene glycol dodecyl ether (C12E5)-decane-water system and that doped with small amounts of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) have been investigated. The presence of discrete oil-swollen micelles in the cubic...... phase, both with and without SDS, was established by NMR self-diffusion. In addition H-2 NMR relaxation experiments have demonstrated that the micelles in the cubic phase are non-spherical, having grown and changed shape upon formation of the cubic phase from the micellar solution. Small angle...... associated with the micellar cubic phase, Pm3n and Fd3m. The micellar volumes calculated for these space groups are similar and are consistent with a change in micellar geometry from spherical to prolate....

  2. Re-sintered boron-rich polycrystalline cubic boron nitride and method for making same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavens, T.R.; Corrigan, F.R.; Shott, R.L.; Bovenkerk, H.P.

    1987-06-16

    A method is described for making re-sintered polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (CBN) which comprises: (a) placing sintered substantially catalyst-free boron-rich polycrystalline cubic boron nitride particles in a high pressure/high temperature apparatus, the particles being substantially free of sintering inhibiting impurities; (b) subjecting the boron-rich cubic boron nitride particles to a pressure and a temperature adequate to re-sinter the particles, the temperature being below the CBN reconversion temperature; (c) maintaining the temperature and pressure for a time sufficient to re-sinter the boron-rich cubic boron nitride particles in the apparatus, and (d) recovering the re-sintered polycrystalline cubic boron nitride from the apparatus.

  3. Galaxy evolution. Evidence for mature bulges and an inside-out quenching phase 3 billion years after the Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacchella, S; Carollo, C M; Renzini, A; Förster Schreiber, N M; Lang, P; Wuyts, S; Cresci, G; Dekel, A; Genzel, R; Lilly, S J; Mancini, C; Newman, S; Onodera, M; Shapley, A; Tacconi, L; Woo, J; Zamorani, G

    2015-04-17

    Most present-day galaxies with stellar masses ≥10(11) solar masses show no ongoing star formation and are dense spheroids. Ten billion years ago, similarly massive galaxies were typically forming stars at rates of hundreds solar masses per year. It is debated how star formation ceased, on which time scales, and how this "quenching" relates to the emergence of dense spheroids. We measured stellar mass and star-formation rate surface density distributions in star-forming galaxies at redshift 2.2 with ~1-kiloparsec resolution. We find that, in the most massive galaxies, star formation is quenched from the inside out, on time scales less than 1 billion years in the inner regions, up to a few billion years in the outer disks. These galaxies sustain high star-formation activity at large radii, while hosting fully grown and already quenched bulges in their cores. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. AREVA - First quarter 2011 revenue: 2.7% growth like for like to 1.979 billion euros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The group reported consolidated revenue of 1.979 billion euros in the 1. quarter of 2011, for 2.2% growth compared with the 1. quarter of 2010 (+ 2.7% like for like). The increase was driven by the Mining / Front End Business Group (+ 20.8% LFL). Revenue from outside France rose 12.0% to 1.22 billion euros and represented 62% of total revenue. The impacts of foreign exchange and changes in consolidation scope were negligible during the period. The March 11 events in Japan had no significant impact on the group's performance in the 1. quarter of 2011. The group's backlog of 43.5 billion euros at March 31, 2011 was stable in relation to March 31, 2010. The growth in the backlog of the Mining / Front End and Renewable Energies Business Groups offset the partial depletion of the backlog in the Reactors and Services and Back End Business Groups as contracts were completed

  5. Backlog at December 31, 2007: euro 39,8 billion, up by 55% from year-end 2006. 2007 sales revenue: euro 11.9 billion, up by 9.8% (+10.4% like-for-like)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The AREVA group's backlog reached a record level of euro 39.834 billion as of December 31, 2007, up by 55% from that of year-end 2006. In Nuclear, the backlog was euro 34.927 billion at year-end 2007 (+58%), due in particular to the signature of a contract in a record amount with the Chinese utility CGNPC. The series of agreements concluded provide among other things for the construction of two new-generation EPR nuclear islands and the supply of all of the materials and services needed for their operation through 2027. CGNPC also bought 35% of the production of UraMin, the mining company acquired by AREVA in August 2007. Industrial cooperation in the Back End of the cycle was launched with the signature of an agreement between China and France. In addition, the group signed several long-term contracts in significant amounts, particularly with KHNP of South Korea, EDF and Japanese utilities. The Transmission and Distribution division won several major contracts in Libya and Qatar at the end of the year approaching a total of euro 750 million. For the entire year, new orders grew by 34% to euro 5.816 billion. The backlog, meanwhile, grew by 40% to euro 4.906 billion at year-end. The group cleared sales revenue of euro 11.923 billion in 2007, up by 9.8% (+10.4% like-for-like) in relation to 2006 sales of euro 10.863 billion. Sales revenue for the 4. quarter of 2007 rose to euro 3.858 billion, for growth of 16.7% (+18.8% like-for-like) over one year. Sales revenue for the year was marked by: - Growth of 7.6% (+10.6% like-for-like) in Front End sales revenue, which rose to euro 3.140 billion. The division's Enrichment operations posted strong growth. - Sales were up by 17.5% (+15.2% like-for-like) to euro 2.717 billion in the Reactors and Services division. Sales revenue was driven in particular by the growth of Services operations, after weak demand in 2006, by progress on OL3 construction, and by the start of Flamanville 3, the second EPR. For the Back End division

  6. U.S. Air Force Spent Billions on F117 Engine Sustainment Without Knowing What a Fair Price Was

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-11

    reasonable. It states that “the fact that a price is included in a catalog does not, in and of itself, make it fair and reasonable” and further refers ...No. DODIG-2016-059 M A R C H 1 1 , 2 0 1 6 U.S. Air Force Spent Billions on F117 Engine Sustainment Without Knowing What a Fair Price Was FOR...i Results in Brief U.S. Air Force Spent Billions on F117 Engine Sustainment Without Knowing What a Fair Price Was Visit us at www.dodig.mil

  7. Layout finishing of a 28nm, 3 billions transistors, multi-core processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey-Chaisemartin, Philippe; Beisser, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Designing a fully new 256 cores processor is a great challenge for a fabless startup. In addition to all architecture, functionalities and timing issues, the layout by itself is a bottleneck due to all the process constraints of a 28nm technology. As developers of advanced layout finishing solutions, we were involved in the design flow of this huge chip with its 3 billions transistors. We had to face the issue of dummy patterns instantiation with respect to design constraints. All the design rules to generate the "dummies" are clearly defined in the Design Rule Manual, and some automatic procedures are provided by the foundry itself, but these routines don't take care of the designer requests. Such a chip, embeds both digital parts and analog modules for clock and power management. These two different type of designs have each their own set of constraints. In both cases, the insertion of dummies should not introduce unexpected variations leading to malfunctions. For example, on digital parts were signal race conditions are critical on long wires or bus, introduction of uncontrolled parasitic along these nets are highly critical. For analog devices such as high frequency and high sensitivity comparators, the exact symmetry of the two parts of a current mirror generator should be guaranteed. Thanks to the easily customizable features of our dummies insertion tool, we were able to configure it in order to meet all the designer requirements as well as the process constraints. This paper will present all these advanced key features as well as the layout tricks used to fulfill all requirements.

  8. No Photon Left Behind: How Billions of Spectral Lines are Transforming Planetary Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Geronimo L.

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of realistic potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment surface (DMS) descriptions, theoretically computed linelists can now synthesize accurate spectral parameters for billions of spectral lines sampling the untamed high-energy molecular domain. Being the initial driver for these databases the characterization of stellar spectra, these theoretical databases, in combination with decades of precise experimental studies (nicely compiled in community databases such as HITRAN and GEISA), are leading to unprecedented precisions in the characterization of planetary atmospheres. Cometary sciences are among the most affected by this spectroscopic revolution. Even though comets are relatively cold bodies (T˜100 K), their infrared molecular emission is mainly defined by non-LTE solar fluorescence induced by a high-energy source (Sun, T˜5600 K). In order to interpret high-resolution spectra of comets acquired with extremely powerful telescopes (e.g., Keck, VLT, NASA-IRTF), we have developed advanced non-LTE fluorescence models that integrate the high-energy dynamic range of ab-initio databases (e.g., BT2, VTT, HPT2, BYTe, TROVE) and the precision of laboratory and semi-empirical compilations (e.g., HITRAN, GEISA, CDMS, WKMC, SELP, IUPAC). These new models allow us to calculate realistic non-LTE pumps, cascades, branching-ratios, and emission rates for a broad range of excitation regimes for H2O, HDO, HCN, HNC and NH3. We have implemented elements of these compilations to the study of Mars spectra, and we are now exploring its application to modeling non-LTE emission in exoplanets. In this presentation, we present application of these advanced models to interpret highresolution spectra of comets, Mars and exoplanets.

  9. Atomistic simulation of fatigue in face centred cubic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Zhengxuan

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the major damage mechanisms of metals. It is characterized by strong environmental effects and wide lifetime dispersions which must be better understood. Different face centred cubic metals, al, Cu, Ni, and Ag are analyzed. The mechanical behaviour of surface steps naturally created by the glide of dislocations subjected to cyclic loading is examined using molecular dynamics simulations in vacuum and in air for Cu and Ni. an atomistic reconstruction phenomenon is observed at these surface steps which can induce strong irreversibility. Three different mechanisms of reconstruction are defined. Surface slip irreversibility under cyclic loading is analyzed. all surface steps are intrinsically irreversible under usual fatigue laboratory loading amplitude without the arrival of opposite sign dislocations on direct neighbor plane.With opposite sign dislocations on non direct neighbour planes, irreversibility cumulates cycle by cycle and a micro-notch is produced whose depth gradually increases.Oxygen environment affects the surface (first stage of oxidation) but does not lead to higher irreversibility as it has no major influence on the different mechanisms linked to surface relief evolution.a rough estimation of surface irreversibility is carried out for pure edge dislocations in persistent slip bands in so-called wavy materials. It gives an irreversibility fraction between 0.5 and 0.75 in copper in vacuum and in air, in agreement with recent atomic force microscopy measurements.Crack propagation mechanisms are simulated in inert environment. Cracks can propagate owing to the irreversibility of generated dislocations because of their mutual interactions up to the formation of dislocation junctions. (author) [fr

  10. Study of nonlinear waves described by the cubic Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walstead, A.E.

    1980-03-12

    The cubic Schroedinger equation (CSE) is ubiquitous as a model equation for the long-time evolution of finite-amplitude near-monochromatic dispersive waves. It incorporates the effects of the radiation field pressure on the constitutive properties of the supporting medium in a self-consistent manner. The properties of the uniformly transiating periodic wave solutions of the one-dimensional CSE are studied here. These (so-called cnoidal) waves are characterized by the values of four parameters. Whitham's averaged variational principle is used to derive a system of quasilinear evolution equations (the modulational equations) for the values of these parameters when they are slowly varying in space and time. Explicit expressions for the characteristic velocities of the modulational equations are obtained for the full set of cnoidal waves. Riemann invariants are obtained for several limits for the stable case, and growth rates are obtained for several limits, including the solitary wave chain, for the unstable case. The results for several nontrivial limiting cases agree with those obtained by independent methods by others. The dynamics of the CSE generalized to two spatial dimensions are studied for the unstable case. A large class of similarity solutions with cylindrical symmetry are obtained systematically using infinitesimal transformation group techniques. The methods are adapted to obtain the symmetries of the action functional of the CSE and to deduce nine integral invariants. A numerical study of the self-similar solutions reveals that they are modulationally unstable and that singularities dominate the dynamics of the CSE in two dimensions. The CSE is derived using perturbation theory for a specific problem in plasma physics: the evolution of the envelope of a near-monochromatic electromagnetic wave in a cold magnetized plasma. 13 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Nile Delta Basin Province, Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 1.8 billion barrels of recoverable oil, 223 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas, and 6 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in the Nile Delta Basin Province using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  12. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of Libya and Tunisia, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whidden, Katherine J.; Lewan, Michael; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Rondald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 3.97 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 38.5 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, and 1.47 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in two provinces of North Africa.

  13. Assessment of unconventional oil and gas resources in Northeast Mexico, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Weaver, Jean Noe

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 0.78 billion barrels of unconventional oil, 23.5 trillion cubic feet of unconventional gas, and 0.88 billion barrels of natural gas liquids in the Sabinas Basin, Burgos Basin, and Tampico-Misantla Basin provinces of northeast Mexico.

  14. Sea urchin tube feet are photosensory organs that express a rhabdomeric-like opsin and PAX6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Michael P.; Carleton, Karen L.; Böttger, Stefanie A.; Barry, Thomas M.; Walker, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    All echinoderms have unique hydraulic structures called tube feet, known for their roles in light sensitivity, respiration, chemoreception and locomotion. In the green sea urchin, the most distal portion of these tube feet contain five ossicles arranged as a light collector with its concave surface facing towards the ambient light. These ossicles are perforated and lined with pigment cells that express a PAX6 protein that is universally involved in the development of eyes and sensory organs in other bilaterians. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based sequencing and real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) also demonstrate the presence and differential expression of a rhabdomeric-like opsin within these tube feet. Morphologically, nerves that could serve to transmit information to the test innervate the tube feet, and the differential expression of opsin transcripts in the tube feet is inversely, and significantly, related to the amount of light that tube feet are exposed to depending on their location on the test. The expression of these genes, the differential expression of opsin based on light exposure and the unique morphological features at the distal portion of the tube foot strongly support the hypothesis that in addition to previously identified functional roles of tube feet they are also photosensory organs that detect and respond to changes in the underwater light field. PMID:21450733

  15. The three-dimensional shapes of underground coal miners' feet do not match the internal dimensions of their work boots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Bell, Alison F; Steele, Julie R

    2018-04-01

    Mining work boots provide an interface between the foot and the ground, protecting and supporting miners' feet during lengthy coal mining shifts. Although underground coal miners report the fit of their work boots as reasonable to good, they frequently rate their boots as uncomfortable, suggesting that there is a mismatch between the shape of their feet and their boots. This study aimed to identify whether dimensions derived from the three-dimensional scans of 208 underground coal miners' feet (age 38.3 ± 9.8 years) differed from the internal dimensions of their work boots. The results revealed underground coal miners wore boots that were substantially longer than their feet, possibly because boots available in their correct length were too narrow. It is recommended boot manufacturers reassess the algorithms used to create boot lasts, focusing on adjusting boot circumference at the instep and heel relative to increases in foot length. Practitioner Summary: Fit and comfort ratings suggest a mismatch between the shape of underground coal miners' feet and their boots exists. This study examined whether three-dimensional scans of 208 miners' feet differed from their boot internal dimensions. Miners wore boots substantially longer than their feet, possibly due to inadequate width.

  16. 77 FR 15052 - Dataset Workshop-U.S. Billion Dollar Disasters Dataset (1980-2011): Assessing Dataset Strengths...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    .... Pathways to overcome accuracy and bias issues will be an important focus. Participants will consider: Historical development and current state of the U.S. Billion Dollar Disasters Report; What additional data... dataset; Examination of unique uncertainties related to the cost of each of the major types of weather and...

  17. Constraint on a Varying Proton-Electron Mass Ratio 1.5 Billion Years after the Big Bang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagdonaite, J.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Murphy, M.T.; Withmore, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    A molecular hydrogen absorber at a lookback time of 12.4 billion years, corresponding to 10% of the age of the Universe today, is analyzed to put a constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio, μ. A high resolution spectrum of the J1443+2724 quasar, which was observed with the Very Large

  18. Bicontinuous cubic liquid crystals as sustained delivery systems for peptides and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Shakila B; Boyd, Ben J; Rades, Thomas; Hook, Sarah

    2010-10-01

    Self-assembling lipid-based liquid crystalline systems are a broad and active area of research. Of these mesophases, the cubic phase with its highly twisted bilayer and two non-intersecting water channels has been investigated extensively for drug delivery. The cubic phase has been shown to accommodate and control the release of drugs with varying physicochemical properties. Also, the lipids used to prepare these delivery systems are generally cheap, safe and biodegradable, making these systems highly attractive. Early research investigating the potential of cubic phases as delivery systems showed that several peptides or proteins entrapped within these gel-based systems showed retarded release. Furthermore, entrapment within the cubic phase protected the selected peptide or protein from chemical and physical degradation with its native confirmation and bioactivity retained. In this review, the literature pertaining to the delivery of various bioactives from cubic liquid crystalline phases is examined, with a particular focus on peptides and proteins. The scope and limitations of the cubic phases in this respect and the future of cubic liquid crystalline systems as sustained delivery systems are highlighted. The reader will be able to gain an understanding of the properties of the bicontinuous cubic phase and how its structural attributes make these systems desirable for sustained delivery of bioactives, in particular peptides and proteins, but also how these same structural properties have hindered progress towards clinical applications. Current strategies to overcome these issues will also be discussed. The bicontinuous cubic phase offers great potential in the field of peptide and protein delivery, but limited research in this area precludes definite conclusions to its future in this respect.

  19. Morphometry and abnormalities of the feet of Kaimanawa feral horses in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, B A; Ramsey, G; Macintosh, A M H; Mills, P C; de Laat, M A; Pollitt, C C

    2010-04-01

    The present study investigated the foot health of the Kaimanawa feral horse population and tested the hypotheses that horses would have a large range of foot morphology and that the incidence of foot abnormality would be significantly high. Abnormality was defined as a variation from what the two veterinarian assessors considered as optimal morphology and which was considered to impact negatively on the structure and/or function of the foot. Fifteen morphometric variables were measured on four calibrated photographic views of all four feet of 20 adult Kaimanawa feral horses. Four morphometric variables were measured from the lateromedial radiographs of the left forefoot of each horse. In addition, the study identified the incidence of gross abnormality observed on the photographs and radiographs of all 80 feet. There was a large variation between horses in the morphometric dimensions, indicating an inconsistent foot type. Mean hoof variables were outside the normal range recommended by veterinarians and hoof care providers; 35% of all feet had a long toe conformation and 15% had a mediolateral imbalance. Abnormalities included lateral (85% of horses) and dorsal (90% of horses) wall flares, presence of laminar rings (80% of horses) and bull-nose tip of the distal phalanx (75% of horses). Both hypotheses were therefore accepted. The Kaimanawa feral horse population demonstrated a broad range of foot abnormalities and we propose that one reason for the questionable foot health and conformation is lack of abrasive wearing by the environment. In comparison with other feral horse populations in Australia and America there may be less pressure on the natural selection of the foot of the Kaimanawa horses by the forgiving environment of the Kaimanawa Ranges. Contrary to popular belief, the feral horse foot type should not be used as an ideal model for the domestic horse foot.

  20. Skeletal pathology and variable anatomy in elephant feet assessed using computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Regnault

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Foot problems are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elephants, but are underreported due to difficulties in diagnosis, particularly of conditions affecting the bones and internal structures. Here we evaluate post-mortem computer tomographic (CT scans of 52 feet from 21 elephants (seven African Loxodonta africana and 14 Asian Elephas maximus, describing both pathology and variant anatomy (including the appearance of phalangeal and sesamoid bones that could be mistaken for disease. We found all the elephants in our study to have pathology of some type in at least one foot. The most common pathological changes observed were bone remodelling, enthesopathy, osseous cyst-like lesions, and osteoarthritis, with soft tissue mineralisation, osteitis, infectious osteoarthriti, subluxation, fracture and enostoses observed less frequently. Most feet had multiple categories of pathological change (81% with two or more diagnoses, versus 10% with a single diagnosis, and 9% without significant pathology. Much of the pathological change was focused over the middle/lateral digits, which bear most weight and experience high peak pressures during walking. We found remodelling and osteoarthritis to be correlated with increasing age, more enthesopathy in Asian elephants, and more cyst-like lesions in females. We also observed multipartite, missing and misshapen phalanges as common and apparently incidental findings. The proximal (paired sesamoids can appear fused or absent, and the predigits (radial/tibial sesamoids can be variably ossified, though are significantly more ossified in Asian elephants. Our study reinforces the need for regular examination and radiography of elephant feet to monitor for pathology and as a tool for improving welfare.

  1. Flat feet, happy feet? Comparison of the dynamic plantar pressure distribution and static medial foot geometry between Malawian and Dutch adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolwijk, Niki M; Duysens, Jacques; Louwerens, Jan Willem K; van de Ven, Yvonne Hm; Keijsers, Noël Lw

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to western countries, foot complaints are rare in Africa. This is remarkable, as many African adults walk many hours each day, often barefoot or with worn-out shoes. The reason why Africans can withstand such loading without developing foot complaints might be related to the way the foot is loaded. Therefore, static foot geometry and dynamic plantar pressure distribution of 77 adults from Malawi were compared to 77 adults from the Netherlands. None of the subjects had a history of foot complaints. The plantar pressure pattern as well as the Arch Index (AI) and the trajectory of the center of pressure during the stance phase were calculated and compared between both groups. Standardized pictures were taken from the feet to assess the height of the Medial Longitudinal Arch (MLA). We found that Malawian adults: (1) loaded the midfoot for a longer and the forefoot for a shorter period during roll off, (2) had significantly lower plantar pressures under the heel and a part of the forefoot, and (3) had a larger AI and a lower MLA compared to the Dutch. These findings demonstrate that differences in static foot geometry, foot loading, and roll off technique exist between the two groups. The advantage of the foot loading pattern as shown by the Malawian group is that the plantar pressure is distributed more equally over the foot. This might prevent foot complaints.

  2. Subsampled open-reference clustering creates consistent, comprehensive OTU definitions and scales to billions of sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Ram Rideout

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a performance-optimized algorithm, subsampled open-reference OTU picking, for assigning marker gene (e.g., 16S rRNA sequences generated on next-generation sequencing platforms to operational taxonomic units (OTUs for microbial community analysis. This algorithm provides benefits over de novo OTU picking (clustering can be performed largely in parallel, reducing runtime and closed-reference OTU picking (all reads are clustered, not only those that match a reference database sequence with high similarity. Because more of our algorithm can be run in parallel relative to “classic” open-reference OTU picking, it makes open-reference OTU picking tractable on massive amplicon sequence data sets (though on smaller data sets, “classic” open-reference OTU clustering is often faster. We illustrate that here by applying it to the first 15,000 samples sequenced for the Earth Microbiome Project (1.3 billion V4 16S rRNA amplicons. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest OTU picking run ever performed, and we estimate that our new algorithm runs in less than 1/5 the time than would be required of “classic” open reference OTU picking. We show that subsampled open-reference OTU picking yields results that are highly correlated with those generated by “classic” open-reference OTU picking through comparisons on three well-studied datasets. An implementation of this algorithm is provided in the popular QIIME software package, which uses uclust for read clustering. All analyses were performed using QIIME’s uclust wrappers, though we provide details (aided by the open-source code in our GitHub repository that will allow implementation of subsampled open-reference OTU picking independently of QIIME (e.g., in a compiled programming language, where runtimes should be further reduced. Our analyses should generalize to other implementations of these OTU picking algorithms. Finally, we present a comparison of parameter settings in

  3. The Other Inconvenient Truth: Feeding 9 Billion While Sustaining the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    As the international community focuses on climate change as the great challenge of our era, we have been largely ignoring another looming problem — the global crisis in agriculture, food security and the environment. Our use of land, particularly for agriculture, is absolutely essential to the success of the human race: we depend on agriculture to supply us with food, feed, fiber, and, increasingly, biofuels. Without a highly efficient, productive, and resilient agricultural system, our society would collapse almost overnight. But we are demanding more and more from our global agricultural systems, pushing them to their very limits. Continued population growth (adding more than 70 million people to the world every year), changing dietary preferences (including more meat and dairy consumption), rising energy prices, and increasing needs for bioenergy sources are putting tremendous pressure on the world’s resources. And, if we want any hope of keeping up with these demands, we’ll need to double the agricultural production of the planet in the next 30 to 40 years. Meeting these huge new agricultural demands will be one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. At present, it is completely unclear how (and if) we can do it. If this wasn’t enough, we must also address the massive environmental impacts of our current agricultural practices, which new evidence indicates rival the impacts of climate change. Simply put, providing for the basic needs of 9 billion-plus people, without ruining the biosphere in the process, will be one of the greatest challenges our species has ever faced. In this presentation, I will present a new framework for evaluating and assessing global patterns of agriculture, food / fiber / fuel production, and their relationship to the earth system, particularly in terms of changing stocks and flows of water, nutrients and carbon in our planetary environment. This framework aims to help us manage the challenges of increasing global food

  4. Strongly baryon-dominated disk galaxies at the peak of galaxy formation ten billion years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzel, R; Schreiber, N M Förster; Übler, H; Lang, P; Naab, T; Bender, R; Tacconi, L J; Wisnioski, E; Wuyts, S; Alexander, T; Beifiori, A; Belli, S; Brammer, G; Burkert, A; Carollo, C M; Chan, J; Davies, R; Fossati, M; Galametz, A; Genel, S; Gerhard, O; Lutz, D; Mendel, J T; Momcheva, I; Nelson, E J; Renzini, A; Saglia, R; Sternberg, A; Tacchella, S; Tadaki, K; Wilman, D

    2017-03-15

    In the cold dark matter cosmology, the baryonic components of galaxies-stars and gas-are thought to be mixed with and embedded in non-baryonic and non-relativistic dark matter, which dominates the total mass of the galaxy and its dark-matter halo. In the local (low-redshift) Universe, the mass of dark matter within a galactic disk increases with disk radius, becoming appreciable and then dominant in the outer, baryonic regions of the disks of star-forming galaxies. This results in rotation velocities of the visible matter within the disk that are constant or increasing with disk radius-a hallmark of the dark-matter model. Comparisons between the dynamical mass, inferred from these velocities in rotational equilibrium, and the sum of the stellar and cold-gas mass at the peak epoch of galaxy formation ten billion years ago, inferred from ancillary data, suggest high baryon fractions in the inner, star-forming regions of the disks. Although this implied baryon fraction may be larger than in the local Universe, the systematic uncertainties (owing to the chosen stellar initial-mass function and the calibration of gas masses) render such comparisons inconclusive in terms of the mass of dark matter. Here we report rotation curves (showing rotation velocity as a function of disk radius) for the outer disks of six massive star-forming galaxies, and find that the rotation velocities are not constant, but decrease with radius. We propose that this trend arises because of a combination of two main factors: first, a large fraction of the massive high-redshift galaxy population was strongly baryon-dominated, with dark matter playing a smaller part than in the local Universe; and second, the large velocity dispersion in high-redshift disks introduces a substantial pressure term that leads to a decrease in rotation velocity with increasing radius. The effect of both factors appears to increase with redshift. Qualitatively, the observations suggest that baryons in the early (high

  5. Four billion years of ophiolites reveal secular trends in oceanic crust formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Furnes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We combine a geological, geochemical and tectonic dataset from 118 ophiolite complexes of the major global Phanerozoic orogenic belts with similar datasets of ophiolites from 111 Precambrian greenstone belts to construct an overview of oceanic crust generation over 4 billion years. Geochemical discrimination systematics built on immobile trace elements reveal that the basaltic units of the Phanerozoic ophiolites are dominantly subduction-related (75%, linked to backarc processes and characterized by a strong MORB component, similar to ophiolites in Precambrian greenstone sequences (85%. The remaining 25% Phanerozoic subduction-unrelated ophiolites are mainly (74% of Mid-Ocean-Ridge type (MORB type, in contrast to the equal proportion of Rift/Continental Margin, Plume, and MORB type ophiolites in the Precambrian greenstone belts. Throughout the Phanerozoic there are large geochemical variations in major and trace elements, but for average element values calculated in 5 bins of 100 million year intervals there are no obvious secular trends. By contrast, basaltic units in the ophiolites of the Precambrian greenstones (calculated in 12 bins of 250 million years intervals, starting in late Paleo- to early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 2.0–1.8 Ga, exhibit an apparent decrease in the average values of incompatible elements such as Ti, P, Zr, Y and Nb, and an increase in the compatible elements Ni and Cr with deeper time to the end of the Archean and into the Hadean. These changes can be attributed to decreasing degrees of partial melting of the upper mantle from Hadean/Archean to Present. The onset of geochemical changes coincide with the timing of detectible changes in the structural architecture of the ophiolites such as greater volumes of gabbro and more common sheeted dyke complexes, and lesser occurrences of ocelli (varioles in the pillow lavas in ophiolites younger than 2 Ga. The global data from the Precambrian ophiolites, representative of nearly 50

  6. A cubic-anvil high-pressure device for pulsed neutron powder diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, J; Arakawa, M; Hattori, T; Arima, H; Kagi, H; Komatsu, K; Sano-Furukawa, A; Uwatoko, Y; Matsubayashi, K; Harjo, S; Moriai, A; Ito, T; Aizawa, K; Arai, M; Utsumi, W

    2010-04-01

    A compact cubic-anvil high-pressure device was developed for in situ neutron powder diffraction studies. In this device, a cubic shaped pressure medium is compressed by six anvils, and neutron beams pass through gaps between the anvils. The first high-pressure experiment using this device was conducted at J-PARC and clearly showed the neutron diffraction patterns of Pb. Combining the cubic-anvil high-pressure device with a pulsed neutron source will prove to be a useful tool for neutron diffraction experiments.

  7. Structural study on cubic-tetragonal transition of CH3NH3PbI3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yukihiko; Mashiyama, Hiroyuki; Hasebe, Katsuhiko

    2002-01-01

    The cubic-tetragonal phase transition of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 was investigated by single crystal X-ray diffractometry. The crystal structure was refined at five temperatures in the tetragonal phase. The PbI 6 octahedron rotates around the c-axis alternatively to construct the SrTiO 3 -type tetragonal structure. A methylammonium ion is partially ordered; 24 disordered states in the cubic phase are reduced to 8. With decreasing temperature, the rotation angle of the octahedron increases monotonically, which indicates it is an order parameter of the cubic-tetragonal transition. (author)

  8. d and f electrons in a qp-quantized cubical field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.; Sztucki, J.

    1993-03-01

    A procedure for qp-quantizing a crystal-field potential V with an arbitrary symmetry G is developed. Such a procedure is applied to the case where V involves cubic components (G=0) of the degrees 4 and 6. This case corresponds to d and f electrons in a qp-quantized cubical potential. It is shown that the qp-quantization of the considered cubical potential is equivalent to a symmetry breaking of type O→D 4 . A general conjecture about this symmetry breaking phenomenon is given. (author) 21 refs

  9. Case report: 16-Year-old male with autistic disorder with preoccupation with female feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Maureen C; Erickson, Craig A; Wink, Logan K; McDougle, Christopher J; Scott, Eric L

    2012-06-01

    This paper highlights clinical challenges faced when diagnosing and then treating an individual presenting to a child and adolescent psychiatry clinic because of unwelcome comments he made to female peers about their feet. Novel use of exposure therapy helped him effectively decrease his comments from 1 to 2 times per month to once every 6 months. Conceptualizing this case as the individual's failed attempts toward relationships with females instead of sexual harassment led to diminution of problematic behavior. Implications for diagnosis and treatment of individuals with Autistic Disorder displaying problematic behaviors are presented.

  10. The Effects of Wet Heat and Dry Heat on the Gait and Feet of Healthy Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Je-myung

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the degree of changes in gait and feet after wet heat and dry heat exposure for 20 minutes. [Subjects] The participants of this study were 17 young adult males. The subjects were divided into a wet heat group of 9 subjects and dry heat group of 8 subjects. [Methods] Dry heat was applied for 20 min. To facilitate temperature adjustment of an electrical hot pack, to which a temperature controller was attached to the hot compress, the outer cove...

  11. High accuracy for China's 1990 Census: refuting a rumour about China's population topping 1.4 billion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    In response to newspaper reports that China's population had topped 1.4 billion, a spokesman from the Office of Population Census under the State Council issued a statement refuting the claim, pointing out that the highly accurate 1990 census estimates the population to be 1.13 billion. US newspapers, including the Boston Globe, and the Shijie ribao, a international daily in Chinese, recently cited reports from a Japanese newspaper claiming that China's population had exceeded 1.4 billion. But as the official explained, China has carefully monitored its population size. Every year since 1982, the country has carried out a sample survey on population change, and in 1988, it conducted a national 1% population sample survey on fertility and birth control. In 1982, a national census placed China's population at 1.0817 billion. So considering that the sample surveys over the past 8 years have indicated an annual net increase in population of about 17 million, it is impossible for China's population to have topped 1.4 billion. Furthermore, the 1990 census enumerated all the unplanned births not previously registered, and carefully monitored for possible underreporting for the floating population. 2 general checks for people without fixed living quarters took place on June 28 and 29. And on July 8 and 9, officials conducted a national make-up registration. Enumerators visited and registered floating persons who did have fixed living quarters. Furthermore, officials conducted a follow-up sample survey on the quality of the registration. This showed that the rate of underregistration in the 1990 census was 0.6/1000 population--a figure of 680,000 nationally.

  12. Risk analysis and guidelines for harvest activities in wisconsin oak timberlands to minimize oak wilt threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Juzwik; Jane Cummings-Carlson; Kyoko Scanlon

    2010-01-01

    Oaks (Quercus spp.) are an important species group in the forests of Wisconsin. The State’s timberland typed as oak-hickory forest was estimated at 2.9 million acres in 1996. Growing stock volume for red oak was estimated at 2.4 billion cubic feet, whereas select white oak volume was estimated to be 927 million cubic feet. Oak wilt, the oak disease...

  13. Radiation response of cubic mesoporous silicate and borosilicate thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzini, Ayelén; Alurralde, Martín; Luca, Vittorio

    2018-01-01

    The radiation response has been studied of cubic mesoporous silicate and borosilicate thin films having different boron contents prepared using the block copolymer template Brij 58 and the dip coating technique. The degree of pore ordering of the films was analysed using low-angle X-ray diffraction and film thickness measured by X-ray reflectivity. For films calcined at 350 °C, the incorporation of boron resulted in a reproducible oscillatory variation in the d-spacing and intensity of the primary reflection as a function of boron content. A clear peak was observed in the d-spacing at 5-10 mol% boron incorporation. For borosilicate films of a given composition an overall suppression of d-spacing was observed as a function of aging time relative to films that did not contain boron. This was ascribed to a slow condensation process. The films were irradiated in pile with neutrons and with iodine ions at energies of 180 keV and 70 MeV. Neutron irradiation of the silicate thin films for periods up to 30 days and aged for 400 days resulted in little reduction in either d-spacing or intensity of the primary low-angle X-ray reflection indicating that the films retained their mesopore ordering. In contrast borosilicate films for which the B (n, α) reaction was expected to result in enhanced displacement damage showed much larger variations in X-ray parameters. For these films short irradiation times resulted in a reduction of the d-spacing and intensity of the primary reflections considerably beyond that observed through aging. It is concluded that prolonged neutron irradiation and internal α irradiation have only a small, although measurable, impact on mesoporous borosilicate thin films increasing the degree of condensation and increasing unit cell contraction. When these borosilicate films were irradiated with iodine ions, more profound changes occurred. The pore ordering of the films was significantly degraded when low energy ions were used. In some cases the degree

  14. Use of the Primitive Unit Cell in Understanding Subtle Features of the Cubic Closest-Packed Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, John A.; Rittenhouse, Jeffrey L.; Soper, Linda M.; Rittenhouse, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important crystal structures adopted by metals is characterized by the "abcabc"...stacking of close-packed layers. This structure is commonly referred to in textbooks as the cubic close-packed (ccp) or face-centered cubic (fcc) structure, since the entire lattice can be generated by replication of a face-centered cubic unit cell…

  15. On the Hyers-Ulam Stability of a General Mixed Additive and Cubic Functional Equation in n-Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhou Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to determine the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of the mixed additive-cubic functional equation in n-Banach spaces by the direct method. In addition, we show under some suitable conditions that an approximately mixed additive-cubic function can be approximated by a mixed additive and cubic mapping.

  16. [An investigation into the use of rubber shoe blocks to avoid undue pressure on the feet of cattle (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amerongen, J J

    1980-05-15

    A brief review of the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods of avoiding undue pressure on the affected feet of cattle is followed by a report on a study of the use of a new shoe block in dealing with this problem. This new shoe was developed in the ambulatory Clinic of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Utrecht. It was nailed under the feet of thirty cows which were not lame and were housed on a concrete slatted floor. Despite adverse housing conditions, the feet and shoes were still firmly connected three weeks later in 76.7 per cent and forty-nine days later in 50 per cent of the animals. The wear on the rubber shoe block was so slight as to be negligible and untoward side-effects were not observed. This type of shoe block would therefore appear to be a useful aid in avoiding undue pressure on the feet over a prolonged period.

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of isochromosome 20q in a fetus with vertebral anomaly and rocker-bottom feet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Receveur

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: The data would allow establishing a phenotype–genotype correlation. Thus, we proposed to define a recognizable syndrome combining cranio-facial dysmorphism, vertebral bodies' anomalies, feet and cerebral malformations.

  18. Standing on slopes - how current microprocessor-controlled prosthetic feet support transtibial and transfemoral amputees in an everyday task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Michael; Altenburg, Björn; Bellmann, Malte; Schmalz, Thomas

    2017-11-16

    Conventional prosthetic feet like energy storage and return feet provide only a limited range of ankle motion compared to human ones. In order to overcome the poor rotational adaptability, prosthetic manufacturers developed different prosthetic feet with an additional rotational joint and implemented active control in different states. It was the aim of the study to investigate to what extent these commercially available microprocessor-controlled prosthetic feet support a natural posture while standing on inclines and which concept is most beneficial for lower limb amputees. Four unilateral transtibial and four unilateral transfemoral amputees participated in the study. Each of the subjects wore five different microprocessor-controlled prosthetic feet in addition to their everyday feet. The subjects were asked to stand on slopes of different inclinations (level ground, upward slope of 10°, and downward slope of -10°). Vertical ground reaction forces, joint torques and joint angles in the sagittal plane were measured for both legs separately for the different situations and compared to a non-amputee reference group. Differences in the biomechanical parameters were observed between the different prosthetic feet and compared to the reference group for the investigated situations. They were most prominent while standing on a downward slope. For example, on the prosthetic side, the vertical ground reaction force is reduced by about 20%, and the torque about the knee acts to flex the joint for feet that are not capable of a full adaptation to the downward slope. In contrast, fully adaptable feet with an auto-adaptive dorsiflexion stop show no changes in vertical ground reaction forces and knee extending torques. A prosthetic foot that provides both, an auto-adaptive dorsiflexion stop and a sufficient range of motion for fully adapting to inclinations appears to be the key element in the prosthetic fitting for standing on inclinations in lower limb amputees. In such

  19. Distinct functional roles of primate grasping hands and feet during arboreal quadrupedal locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Biren A; Wallace, Ian J; Boyer, Doug M; Granatosky, Michael C; Larson, Susan G; Stern, Jack T

    2015-11-01

    It has long been thought that quadrupedal primates successfully occupy arboreal environments, in part, by relying on their grasping feet to control balance and propulsion, which frees their hands to test unstable branches and forage. If this interlimb decoupling of function is real, there should be discernible differences in forelimb versus hind limb musculoskeletal control, specifically in how manual and pedal digital flexor muscles are recruited to grasp during arboreal locomotion. New electromyography data from extrinsic flexor muscles in red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra) walking on a simulated arboreal substrate reveal that toe flexors are activated at relatively higher levels and for longer durations than finger flexors during stance phase. This demonstrates that the extremities of primates indeed have different functional roles during arboreal locomotion, with the feet emphasizing maintenance of secure grips. When this dichotomous muscle activity pattern between the forelimbs and hind limbs is coupled with other features of primate quadrupedal locomotion, including greater hind limb weight support and the use of diagonal-sequence footfall patterns, a complex suite of biomechanical characters emerges in primates that allow for the co-option of hands toward non-locomotor roles. Early selection for limb functional differentiation in primates probably aided the evolution of fine manipulation capabilities in the hands of bipedal humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of wet heat and dry heat on the gait and feet of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Je-Myung

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the degree of changes in gait and feet after wet heat and dry heat exposure for 20 minutes. [Subjects] The participants of this study were 17 young adult males. The subjects were divided into a wet heat group of 9 subjects and dry heat group of 8 subjects. [Methods] Dry heat was applied for 20 min. To facilitate temperature adjustment of an electrical hot pack, to which a temperature controller was attached to the hot compress, the outer cover of the electrical pad was wrapped in a cotton towel and then rolled around the femur and the leg. As a hot compress, a constant-temperature water tank with double-boiling functionality was used for the hot pack unit. Its surface was covered with a towel twice or three times, as needed. We measured gait and feet. [Results] Left and right step time and the step width significantly increased in the wet heat group. Left foot flat to heel off significantly increased in the dry heat group. Right heel contact to foot flat significantly increased in the wet heat group. Left rearfoot pressure significantly increased in the dry heat group. [Conclusion] Wet heat affects physical functions like gait more than dry heat. However, there is no great difference between wet heat and dry heat with respect to the distribution of foot pressure.

  1. Hyaluronic acid microneedle patch for the improvement of crow's feet wrinkles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun Young; Kwon, Hyun Jung; Ahn, Ga Ram; Ko, Eun Jung; Yoo, Kwang Ho; Kim, Beom Joon; Lee, Changjin; Kim, Daegun

    2017-11-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) has an immediate volumizing effect, due to its strong water-binding potential, and stimulates fibroblasts, causing collagen synthesis, with short- and long-term effects on wrinkle improvement. We investigated the efficacy and safety of HA microneedle patches for crow's feet wrinkles. Using a randomized spilt-face design, we compared microneedle patches with a topical application containing the same active ingredients. We enrolled 34 Korean female subjects with mild to moderate crow's feet wrinkles. The wrinkle on each side of the subject's face was randomly assigned to a HA microneedle patch or HA essence application twice a week for 8 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated at weeks 2, 4, and 8. Skin wrinkles were measured as average roughness using replica and PRIMOS. Skin elasticity was assessed using a cutometer. Two independent blinded dermatologists evaluated the changes after treatment using the global visual wrinkle assessment score. Subjects assessed wrinkles using the subject global assessment score. Skin wrinkles were significantly reduced and skin elasticity significantly increased in both groups, although improvement was greater in the patch group at week 8 after treatment. In the primary and cumulative skin irritation tests, the HA microneedle patch did not induce any skin irritation. The HA microneedle patch is more effective than the HA essence for wrinkle improvement and is a safe and convenient without skin irritation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Is starting with the feet out of the water faster in backstroke swimming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cecilia; Bradshaw, Elizabeth J; Pease, David; Wilson, Cameron

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to determine if starting with the feet above the water (FAW) in male backstroke swimming resulted in faster start times (15-m time) than when the feet were underwater (FUW). It was hypothesised that setting higher on the wall would generate increased horizontal force and velocity, resulting in quicker starts. Twelve high-level male backstrokers performed three trials of the FAW and FUW techniques. A biomechanical swimming testing system comprising one force plate (1,000 Hz), four lateral-view (100Hz), and five overhead (50Hz) video cameras captured the swimmers' performance. Data for each participant's fastest trial for each technique were collated, grouped, and statistically analysed. Analysis included Wilcoxon, Spearman Rho correlation, and regression analysis. Wilcoxon results revealed a significantly faster start time for the FAW technique (p < 0.01). Peak horizontal force was significantly smaller for FAW (p = 0.02), while take-off horizontal velocity was significantly greater (p = 0.01). Regression analysis indicated take-off horizontal velocity to be a good predictor of start time for both techniques, and the horizontal displacement of the centre of mass for the FAW start.

  3. Estimation of stature from dimensions of hands and feet in a North Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Sharma, Abhilasha

    2007-08-01

    In medico-legal autopsies, establishing personal identity of the victims is often required. Estimation of stature from extremities and their parts plays an important role in identifying the dead in forensic examinations. The study examines the relationship between stature and dimensions of hands and feet among Rajputs of Himachal Pradesh -- a North Indian endogamous group. The purpose for understanding these examinations was the paucity in the literature of studies that allow the reconstruction of stature from various dimensions of hands and feet amongst Rajputs. Hand length, hand breadth, foot length and foot breadth of 246 subjects comprising 123 males and 123 females ranging in age from 17 to 20 years were taken independently on left and right side of each individual. Statistical analyses indicated that the bilateral variation was insignificant for all the measurements except hand breadth in both the sexes (Perror of estimate) indicate that the foot length provides highest reliability and accuracy in estimating stature of an unknown individual. The regression equations were checked for their accuracy by comparing the estimated stature and actual stature.

  4. Tracking people's hands and feet using mixed network AND/OR search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morariu, Vlad I; Harwood, David; Davis, Larry S

    2013-05-01

    We describe a framework that leverages mixed probabilistic and deterministic networks and their AND/OR search space to efficiently find and track the hands and feet of multiple interacting humans in 2D from a single camera view. Our framework detects and tracks multiple people's heads, hands, and feet through partial or full occlusion; requires few constraints (does not require multiple views, high image resolution, knowledge of performed activities, or large training sets); and makes use of constraints and AND/OR Branch-and-Bound with lazy evaluation and carefully computed bounds to efficiently solve the complex network that results from the consideration of interperson occlusion. Our main contributions are: 1) a multiperson part-based formulation that emphasizes extremities and allows for the globally optimal solution to be obtained in each frame, and 2) an efficient and exact optimization scheme that relies on AND/OR Branch-and-Bound, lazy factor evaluation, and factor cost sensitive bound computation. We demonstrate our approach on three datasets: the public single person HumanEva dataset, outdoor sequences where multiple people interact in a group meeting scenario, and outdoor one-on-one basketball videos. The first dataset demonstrates that our framework achieves state-of-the-art performance in the single person setting, while the last two demonstrate robustness in the presence of partial and full occlusion and fast nontrivial motion.

  5. Superhydrophobic gecko feet with high adhesive forces towards water and their bio-inspired materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kesong; Du, Jiexing; Wu, Juntao; Jiang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Functional integration is an inherent characteristic for multiscale structures of biological materials. In this contribution, we first investigate the liquid-solid adhesive forces between water droplets and superhydrophobic gecko feet using a high-sensitivity micro-electromechanical balance system. It was found, in addition to the well-known solid-solid adhesion, the gecko foot, with a multiscale structure, possesses both superhydrophobic functionality and a high adhesive force towards water. The origin of the high adhesive forces of gecko feet to water could be attributed to the high density nanopillars that contact the water. Inspired by this, polyimide films with gecko-like multiscale structures were constructed by using anodic aluminum oxide templates, exhibiting superhydrophobicity and a strong adhesive force towards water. The static water contact angle is larger than 150° and the adhesive force to water is about 66 μN. The resultant gecko-inspired polyimide film can be used as a ``mechanical hand'' to snatch micro-liter liquids. We expect this work will provide the inspiration to reveal the mechanism of the high-adhesive superhydrophobic of geckos and extend the practical applications of polyimide materials.

  6. Bone marrow changes on STIR MR images of asymptomatic feet and ankles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubler, Veronika; Mengiardi, Bernard; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Duc, Sylvain R.; Schmid, Marius R.; Hodler, Juerg; Zanetti, Marco

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, pattern and size of bone marrow changes on short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) magnetic resonance (MR) images of asymptomatic feet and ankles. In 78 asymptomatic volunteers (41 women, 37 men; median age 47 years; range 23-83 years) sagittal STIR MR images of hindfoot and midfoot were reviewed for various patterns of high signal changes in bone marrow. The size of these bone marrow changes was measured, and signal intensity was rated semi-quantitatively using a scale from 0 (=normal) to 10 (=fluid-like). Fifty percent (39/78) of all volunteers had at least one bone marrow change. Thirty-six percent (28/78) of all volunteers had edema-like changes, 26% (20/78) had necrosis-like changes, and 5% (4/78) had cyst-like changes. The long diameters of all changes varied between 4 mm and 16 mm (median 7.5 mm). The median signal intensity for all changes was 5.0 (range 1-10). Bone marrow changes on STIR MR images are commonly detected in asymptomatic feet and ankles. However, such changes tend to be small (<1 cm) or subtle. (orig.)

  7. The effect of foot orthoses on joint moment asymmetry in male children with flexible flat feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarnezhadgero, AmirAli; Madadi Shad, Morteza; Ferber, Reed

    2018-01-01

    It has been widely postulated that structural and functional misalignments of the foot, such as flat foot, may cause mechanical deviations of the lower limb during walking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of foot orthoses on lower extremity joint moment asymmetry during the stance phase of walking in children with asymptomatic flexible flat feet. Fourteen volunteer male children, clinically diagnosed with flexible flat feet, participated in this study. Subjects completed 12 walking trials at a self-selected walking speed while 3-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data were collected for two conditions: shod with no orthoses, and shod with orthoses. The gait asymmetry index for each variable for each subject was defined as: (1-(lesser moment/greater moment)) × 100. Results reveal no significant differences in ankle or knee joint moment asymmetry. However, the use of foot orthoses decreased asymmetry for the hip abduction moment (P = 0.04) compared to walking without orthoses and also resulted in subtle, non-significant increases in frontal plane subtalar and sagittal plane knee and hip joints moment asymmetry. We conclude that foot orthoses decrease frontal plane hip joint moment asymmetry, but have little effect on ankle and knee joint asymmetry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Taping and Orthoses on Foot Biomechanics in Adults with Flat-Arched Feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Christopher; Arnold, John B; May, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    There is a paucity of evidence on the biomechanical effects of foot taping and foot orthoses in realistic conditions. This study aimed to determine the immediate effect and relationships between changes in multisegment foot biomechanics with foot taping and customized foot orthoses in adults with flat-arched feet. Multisegment foot biomechanics were measured in 18 adults with flat-arched feet (age 25.1 ± 2.8 yr; height 1.73 ± .13 m, body mass 70.3 ± 15.7 kg) during walking in four conditions in random order: neutral athletic shoe, neutral shoe with tape (low-Dye method and modified method) and neutral shoe with customized foot orthoses. In-shoe foot biomechanics were compared between conditions using a purpose developed foot model with three-dimensional kinematic analysis and inverse dynamics. Foot orthoses significantly delayed peak eversion compared to the neutral shoe (44% stance vs 39%, P = 0.002). Deformation across the midfoot and medial longitudinal arch was reduced with both the low-Dye taping (2.4°, P foot orthoses (R2 = 0.08-0.52, P = 0.006 to Foot orthoses more effectively altered timing of hindfoot motion whereas taping was superior in supporting the midfoot and medial longitudinal arch. The biomechanical response to taping was significantly related to the subsequent change observed with the use of foot orthoses.

  9. FREQUENCY DEFORMITY SCOLIOSIS AND FLAT FEET IN PUPILS III, V.VII GRADE SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejаn Gojković

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Scoliosis is a lateral deviation of the spine or the angular deviation of the normal position of one or more segmenata.Funkcional curve can be fully corrected until the internal structural scoliosis are bone disorders, muscle nerve elements that support the spine, and complete correction is impossible. Static role is reflected in the foot taking kisses body weight through the bones pop and transmission and distribution of weight on the main point of support of the foot and therefore subject to various changes in the normal foot status.Dinamic role is reflected in walking, running and jumping in different forms. Because of this, the percentage of foot disorders is particularly large in the form of lowering the testing we arche.Perform o.š.Pale Pale deformities in scoliosis and flat feet in students III, V, VII grade. Our aim was to verify the extent to which physical education classes take appropriate measures in the detection and removal of poor posture and physical deformities. For testing we used: clinical method for scoliosis, a method for flat feet -Thomson method.

  10. Predictors of the Biomechanical Effects of Customized Foot Orthoses in Adults With Flat-Arched Feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, John B; May, Thomas; Bishop, Christopher

    2017-07-21

    To determine the potential presence and characteristics of biomechanical responders to customized foot orthoses during walking in adults with flat-arched feet. Experimental, repeated-measures. University clinic and laboratory. Eighteen symptom-free adults with flat-arched feet. Customized foot orthoses. In-shoe foot biomechanics were measured during walking with and without customized foot orthoses using 3D analysis. Selected kinematic and kinetic variables during baseline walking were compared between subgroups who displayed reductions in calcaneal eversion with foot orthoses to those with no change or increases. Biomechanical responders displayed significantly greater peak calcaneal eversion (+2.2 degrees, P = 0.009). Time to peak calcaneal eversion (-11%, P = 0.006), peak dorsiflexion of the hallux (-6 degrees, P = 0.001), and medial-lateral excursion of the center of pressure during loading response were all reduced in the responder subgroup (-2 mm, P ≤ 0.001). Variables significantly different between subgroups were moderately associated with the response to foot orthoses (canonical correlation = 0.687, effect size = 0.47, P = 0.063). Individuals with increased dynamic foot pronation were more likely to show a favorable biomechanical response to customized foot orthoses, providing preliminary evidence to support the stratified use of foot orthoses to optimize their effectiveness.

  11. Trajectory Correction and Locomotion Analysis of a Hexapod Walking Robot with Semi-Round Rigid Feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yaguang; Jin, Bo; Wu, Yongsheng; Guo, Tong; Zhao, Xiangmo

    2016-08-31

    Aimed at solving the misplaced body trajectory problem caused by the rolling of semi-round rigid feet when a robot is walking, a legged kinematic trajectory correction methodology based on the Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) is proposed. The concept of ideal foothold is put forward for the three-dimensional kinematic model modification of a robot leg, and the deviation value between the ideal foothold and real foothold is analyzed. The forward/inverse kinematic solutions between the ideal foothold and joint angular vectors are formulated and the problem of direct/inverse kinematic nonlinear mapping is solved by using the LS-SVM. Compared with the previous approximation method, this correction methodology has better accuracy and faster calculation speed with regards to inverse kinematics solutions. Experiments on a leg platform and a hexapod walking robot are conducted with multi-sensors for the analysis of foot tip trajectory, base joint vibration, contact force impact, direction deviation, and power consumption, respectively. The comparative analysis shows that the trajectory correction methodology can effectively correct the joint trajectory, thus eliminating the contact force influence of semi-round rigid feet, significantly improving the locomotion of the walking robot and reducing the total power consumption of the system.

  12. Trajectory Correction and Locomotion Analysis of a Hexapod Walking Robot with Semi-Round Rigid Feet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaguang Zhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at solving the misplaced body trajectory problem caused by the rolling of semi-round rigid feet when a robot is walking, a legged kinematic trajectory correction methodology based on the Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM is proposed. The concept of ideal foothold is put forward for the three-dimensional kinematic model modification of a robot leg, and the deviation value between the ideal foothold and real foothold is analyzed. The forward/inverse kinematic solutions between the ideal foothold and joint angular vectors are formulated and the problem of direct/inverse kinematic nonlinear mapping is solved by using the LS-SVM. Compared with the previous approximation method, this correction methodology has better accuracy and faster calculation speed with regards to inverse kinematics solutions. Experiments on a leg platform and a hexapod walking robot are conducted with multi-sensors for the analysis of foot tip trajectory, base joint vibration, contact force impact, direction deviation, and power consumption, respectively. The comparative analysis shows that the trajectory correction methodology can effectively correct the joint trajectory, thus eliminating the contact force influence of semi-round rigid feet, significantly improving the locomotion of the walking robot and reducing the total power consumption of the system.

  13. A study of anatomy and biomechanics of the ankle region in normal and club feet (talipes equino varus) of infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Hosking, S W; Scott, W

    1982-01-01

    Three normal feet and three feet exhibiting talipes equino varus from infants were dissected and their anatomy studied and compared. The tibiae were immobilised in plaster and held in a bench clamp while the range of dorsiflexion (extension) was studied before and after immobilisation of either the medial or lateral, or of both groups of tendons. Movements at the subtalar and ankle joints were studied as well as factors controlling movements at the subtalar joint. There was minimal subtalar m...

  14. A Prosthetic Foot Emulator to Optimize Prescription of Prosthetic Feet in Veterans and Service Members with Leg Amputations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    commercial prosthetic feet is the limited number and diversity of feet included in studies relative to those available on the market . Given that there are...the Department of Defense ( study sponsors) Other federal agencies including, but not limited to, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Office for...STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The objective of this study is to evaluate a “test

  15. Performance of elite seated discus throwers in F30s classes: part II: does feet positioning matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, Laurent A; O'Riordan, Alison; Smeathers, James

    2013-06-01

    Studies on the relationship between performance and design of the throwing frame have been limited. Part I provided only a description of the whole body positioning. The specific objectives were (a) to benchmark feet positioning characteristics (i.e. position, spacing and orientation) and (b) to investigate the relationship between performance and these characteristics for male seated discus throwers in F30s classes. Descriptive analysis. A total of 48 attempts performed by 12 stationary discus throwers in F33 and F34 classes during seated discus throwing event of 2002 International Paralympic Committee Athletics World Championships were analysed in this study. Feet positioning was characterised by tridimensional data of the front and back feet position as well as spacing and orientation corresponding to the distance between and the angle made by both feet, respectively. Only 4 of 30 feet positioning characteristics presented a coefficient correlation superior to 0.5, including the feet spacing on mediolateral and anteroposterior axes in F34 class as well as the back foot position and feet spacing on mediolateral axis in F33 class. This study provided key information for a better understanding of the interaction between throwing technique of elite seated throwers and their throwing frame. This study aimed at improving the understanding of the relationship between performance and the design of the throwing frame of seated discus throwers, with a particular emphasis on the importance of feet positioning. This knowledge is particularly important in the current debate around general principles underlying design of throwing frame and classification of athletes with a disability, including those with lower limb amputation.

  16. An increased fluid intake leads to feet swelling in 100-km ultra-marathoners - an observational field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cejka Caroline

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An association between fluid intake and changes in volumes of the upper and lower limb has been described in 100-km ultra-marathoners. The purpose of the present study was (i to investigate the association between fluid intake and a potential development of peripheral oedemas leading to an increase of the feet volume in 100-km ultra-marathoners and (ii to evaluate a possible association between the changes in plasma sodium concentration ([Na+] and changes in feet volume. Methods In seventy-six 100-km ultra-marathoners, body mass, plasma [Na+], haematocrit and urine specific gravity were determined pre- and post-race. Fluid intake and the changes of volume of the feet were measured where the changes of volume of the feet were estimated using plethysmography. Results Body mass decreased by 1.8 kg (2.4% (p +] increased by 1.2% (p p = 0.0005. The volume of the feet remained unchanged (p > 0.05. Plasma volume and urine specific gravity increased (p r = 0.54, p +] (r = -0.28, p = 0.0142. Running speed was negatively related to both fluid intake (r = -0.33, p = 0.0036 and the change in feet volume (r = -0.23, p = 0.0236. The change in the volume of the feet was negatively related to the change in plasma [Na+] (r = -0.26, p = 0.0227. The change in body mass was negatively related to both post-race plasma [Na+] (r = -0.28, p = 0.0129 and running speed (r = -0.34, p = 0.0028. Conclusions An increase in feet volume after a 100-km ultra-marathon was due to an increased fluid intake.

  17. Unified treatment of coupled optical and acoustic phonons in piezoelectric cubic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-01-01

    A unified treatment of coupled optical and acoustic phonons in piezoelectric cubic materials is presented whereby the lattice displacement vector and the internal ionic displacement vector are found simultaneously. It is shown that phonon couplings exist in pairs only; either between the electric...... piezoelectricity in a cubic structured material slab. First, it is shown that isolated optical phonon modes generally cannot exist in piezoelectric cubic slabs. Second, we prove that confined acousto-optical phonon modes only exist for a discrete set of in-plane wave numbers in piezoelectric cubic slabs. Third...... potential and the lattice displacement coordinate perpendicular to the phonon wave vector or between the two other lattice displacement components. The former leads to coupled acousto-optical phonons by virtue of the piezoelectric effect. We then establish three new conjectures that entirely stem from...

  18. Study of unsteady cavitation on NACA66 hydrofoil using dynamic cubic nonlinear subgrid-scale model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbei Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe the use of a new dynamic cubic nonlinear model, a new nonlinear subgrid-scale model, for simulating the cavitating flow around an NACA66 series hydrofoil. For comparison, the dynamic Smagorinsky model is also used. It is found that the dynamic cubic nonlinear model can capture the turbulence spectrum, while the dynamic Smagorinsky model fails. Both models reproduce the cavity growth/destabilization cycle, but the results of the dynamic cubic nonlinear model are much smoother. The re-entrant jet is clearly captured by the models, and it is shown that the re-entrant jet cuts the cavity into two parts. In general, the dynamic cubic nonlinear model provides improvement over the dynamic Smagorinsky model for the calculation of cavitating flow.

  19. Numerical treatment of Hunter Saxton equation using cubic trigonometric B-spline collocation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, M. S.; Awais, Muhammad; Waheed, Ammarah; Ali, Qutab

    2017-09-01

    In this article, authors proposed a computational model based on cubic trigonometric B-spline collocation method to solve Hunter Saxton equation. The nonlinear second order partial differential equation arises in modeling of nematic liquid crystals and describes some aspects of orientation wave. The problem is decomposed into system of linear equations using cubic trigonometric B-spline collocation method with quasilinearization. To show the efficiency of the proposed method, two numerical examples have been tested for different values of t. The results are described using error tables and graphs and compared with the results existed in literature. It is evident that results are in good agreement with analytical solution and better than Arbabi, Nazari, and Davishi, Optik 127, 5255-5258 (2016). In current problem, it is also observed that the cubic trigonometric B-spline gives better results as compared to cubic B-spline.

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF PRECIPITATES IN CUBIC SILICON CARBIDE IMPLANTED WITH 25Mg+ IONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Weilin; Spurgeon, Steven R.; Liu, Jia; Edwards, Danny J.; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wang, Yongqiang

    2016-09-26

    The aim of this study is to characterize precipitates in Mg+ ion implanted and high-temperature annealed cubic silicon carbide using scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and atom probe tomography.

  1. Effects of quadratic and cubic nonlinearities on a perfectly tuned parametric amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumeyer, Stefan; Sorokin, Vladislav; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2016-01-01

    We consider the performance of a parametric amplifier with perfect tuning (two-to-one ratio between the parametric and direct excitation frequencies) and quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. A forced Duffing–Mathieu equation with appended quadratic nonlinearity is considered as the model system......, and approximate analytical steady-state solutions and corresponding stabilities are obtained by the method of varying amplitudes. Some general effects of pure quadratic, and mixed quadratic and cubic nonlinearities on parametric amplification are shown. In particular, the effects of mixed quadratic and cubic...... nonlinearities may generate additional amplitude–frequency solutions. In this case an increased response and a more phase sensitive amplitude (phase between excitation frequencies) is obtained, as compared to the case with either pure quadratic or cubic nonlinearity. Furthermore, jumps and bi...

  2. Cubic membranes: a legend beyond the Flatland* of cell membrane organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almsherqi, Zakaria A; Kohlwein, Sepp D; Deng, Yuru

    2006-06-19

    Cubic membranes represent highly curved, three-dimensional nanoperiodic structures that correspond to mathematically well defined triply periodic minimal surfaces. Although they have been observed in numerous cell types and under different conditions, particularly in stressed, diseased, or virally infected cells, knowledge about the formation and function of nonlamellar, cubic structures in biological systems is scarce, and research so far is restricted to the descriptive level. We show that the "organized smooth endoplasmic reticulum" (OSER; Snapp, E.L., R.S. Hegde, M. Francolini, F. Lombardo, S. Colombo, E. Pedrazzini, N. Borgese, and J. Lippincott-Schwartz. 2003. J. Cell Biol. 163:257-269), which is formed in response to elevated levels of specific membrane-resident proteins, is actually the two-dimensional representation of two subtypes of cubic membrane morphology. Controlled OSER induction may thus provide, for the first time, a valuable tool to study cubic membrane formation and function at the molecular level.

  3. Physics and Technology of Transparent Ceramic Armor: Sintered Al2O3 vs Cubic Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krell, Andreas; Hutzler, Thomas; Klimke, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Sintered sub-micrometer alumina (alpha-Al2O3) is the hardest transparent armor. However, its trigonal structure gives rise to a strong thickness effect that makes thicker components translucent. Cubic ceramics (no birefringence...

  4. Structure of cubic polytype indium nitride layers on top of modified sapphire substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, F.M.; Lozano, J.G.; Garcia, R.; Gonzalez, D. [Dpto. de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica y QI, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Lebedev, V.; Wang, Ch.Y.; Cimalla, V.; Ambacher, O. [Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies, Technical University Ilmenau, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The occurrence of cubic indium nitride thin layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on top of c-plane sapphire substrates modified by an intermediate layer of cubic indium oxide is reported. An orientation relationship between the (0001) plane of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and both (001) surfaces of body-centered cubic In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and zinc-blende InN is demonstrated by means of electron and X-ray diffraction and by transmission electron microscopy. We propose that the demonstrated approach is able to stabilize the non equilibrium phase of InN (i. e., the cubic polytype) due to a low lattice mismatch together with a four fold surface atomic arrangement of the indium oxide-indium nitride interface. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. The effects of foot orthosis on the gait ability of college students in their 20s with flat feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kyo Chul; Park, Kwang Yong

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of foot orthosis on the gait ability of college students in their 20s with flat feet. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 college students who had been diagnosed with flat feet. The subjects' step time, step length, stride time, stride length, and gait velocity were measured using the VICON Motion System (Vicon, Oxford, UK) prior to and while wearing foot orthoses. The resulting data were analyzed using SPSS v. 12.0. [Results] The subject's step time and stride time significantly decreased for both feet after they began using foot orthosis, and stride length and gait velocity significantly increased in both feet orthosis; however, step length did not significantly increase on either side. [Conclusions] College students with flat feet saw an improvement in elements of their gait while using the foot orthosis. The results of this study verified that students with flat feet might walk more efficiently if they received active gait training via long-term use of foot orthosis.

  6. On the Stability of Cubic Mappings and Quadratic Mappings in Random Normed Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho YJ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recently, the stability of the cubic functional equation in fuzzy normed spaces was proved in earlier work; and the stability of the additive functional equations , in random normed spaces was proved as well. In this paper, we prove the stability of the cubic functional equation in random normed spaces by an alternative proof which provides a better estimation. Finally, we prove the stability of the quartic functional equation in random normed spaces.

  7. Cubic and quartic planar differential systems with exact algebraic limit cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Bendjeddou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct cubic and quartic polynomial planar differential systems with exact limit cycles that are ovals of algebraic real curves of degree four. The result obtained for the cubic case generalizes a proposition of [9]. For the quartic case, we deduce for the first time a class of systems with four algebraic limit cycles and another for which nested configurations of limit cycles occur.

  8. Bare and boron-doped cubic silicon carbide nanowires for electrochemical detection of nitrite sensitively

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Yang; Liqin Zhang; Xinmei Hou; Junhong Chen; Kuo-Chih Chou

    2016-01-01

    Fabrication of eletrochemical sensors based on wide bandgap compound semiconductors has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Here we report for the first time electrochemical nitrite sensors based on cubic silicon carbide (SiC) nanowires (NWs) with smooth surface and boron-doped cubic SiC NWs with fin-like structure. Multiple techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS...

  9. Selective Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Cubic FeGe Nanowires That Support Stabilized Magnetic Skyrmions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, Matthew J; Li, Zi-An; Phillips, Brandon; Song, Dongsheng; Mathur, Nitish; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Jin, Song

    2017-01-11

    Magnetic skyrmions are topologically stable vortex-like spin structures that are promising for next generation information storage applications. Materials that host magnetic skyrmions, such as MnSi and FeGe with the noncentrosymmetric cubic B20 crystal structure, have been shown to stabilize skyrmions upon nanostructuring. Here, we report a chemical vapor deposition method to selectively grow nanowires (NWs) of cubic FeGe out of three possible FeGe polymorphs for the first time using finely ground particles of cubic FeGe as seeds. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirm that these micron-length NWs with ∼100 nm to 1 μm diameters have the cubic B20 crystal structure. Although Fe 13 Ge 8 NWs are also formed, the two types of NWs can be readily differentiated by their faceting. Lorentz TEM imaging of the cubic FeGe NWs reveals a skyrmion lattice phase under small applied magnetic fields (∼0.1 T) at 233 K, a skyrmion chain state at lower temperatures (95 K) and under high magnetic fields (∼0.4 T), and a larger skyrmion stability window than bulk FeGe. This synthetic approach to cubic FeGe NWs that support stabilized skyrmions opens a route toward the exploration of new skyrmion physics and devices based on similar nanostructures.

  10. Log-cubic method for generation of soil particle size distribution curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Songhao

    2013-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) is a fundamental physical property of soils. Traditionally, the PSD curve was generated by hand from limited data of particle size analysis, which is subjective and may lead to significant uncertainty in the freehand PSD curve and graphically estimated cumulative particle percentages. To overcome these problems, a log-cubic method was proposed for the generation of PSD curve based on a monotone piecewise cubic interpolation method. The log-cubic method and commonly used log-linear and log-spline methods were evaluated by the leave-one-out cross-validation method for 394 soil samples extracted from UNSODA database. Mean error and root mean square error of the cross-validation show that the log-cubic method outperforms two other methods. What is more important, PSD curve generated by the log-cubic method meets essential requirements of a PSD curve, that is, passing through all measured data and being both smooth and monotone. The proposed log-cubic method provides an objective and reliable way to generate a PSD curve from limited soil particle analysis data. This method and the generated PSD curve can be used in the conversion of different soil texture schemes, assessment of grading pattern, and estimation of soil hydraulic parameters and erodibility factor.

  11. On Application of Non-cubic EoS to Compositional Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Compositional reservoir simulation uses almost exclusively cubic equations of state (EoS) such as the SRK EoS and the PR EoS. This is in contrast with process simulation in the downstream industry where more recent and advanced thermodynamic models are quickly adopted. Many of these models are non-cubic...... EoS, such as the PC-SAFT EoS. A major reason for the use of the conventional cubic EoS in reservoir simulation is the concern over computation time. Flash computation is the most time consuming part in compositional reservoir simulation, and the extra complexity of the non-cubic EoS may significantly...... increase the time consumption. In addition to this, the non-cubic EoS also needs a C7+ characterization. The main advantage of the non-cubic EoS is that it provides for a more accurate descrition of fluid properties, and it is therefore of interest to investigate the computational aspects of using...

  12. Electrochemical properties and diffusion of a redox active surfactant incorporated in bicontinuous cubic and lamellar phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostela, J.; Elmgren, M.; Almgren, M.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the electrochemical behaviour of the divalent redox active surfactant, N-cetyl-N'-methylviologen (CMV), in bicontinuous cubic and lamellar phases. The liquid crystalline phases were prepared from the system glycerolmonooleate (GMO)-water (and brine)-cationic surfactant. A comparison of the phase behaviour of GMO with the monovalent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and the divalent CMV surfactant showed that the surfactants gave about the same effect at the same surface charge density. The electrochemical measurements were made with a mixture of CTAB and CMV as the surfactant. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the electrochemistry of CMV incorporated in the cubic and lamellar phases that were spread on a gold electrode. The E 0 -values in the cubic samples were more negative (-0.55 V versus SCE) than in the lamellar samples (-0.53 V versus SCE). This can be explained by the higher charge density in the lamellar phase. The diffusion coefficients were also measured in the cubic phase. The mass transport is slowed down about fifty times in the cubic phase compared to in the pure electrolyte. The concentration dependence on the diffusion coefficient was also investigated. No electron hopping could be observed, which suggest that diffusional movement of the redox probe is the main source of charge transport. By placing the samples on a conducting glass slide, spectroelectrochemical investigations were performed. In the lamellar phase strong dimerization was detected at high concentration of viologen, but much less in the cubic phase

  13. The 2011-2015 physical and monetary balance for electricity: spending of over euro 50 billion in 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggemos, Fabien; Meilhac, Christophe; Riedinger, Nicolas; Martial, Elodie; Mombel, David; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Lavail, Jennyfer

    2017-09-01

    Electricity consumers (excluding the electricity sector itself) spent euro 52 billion in 2015 to consume 446 TWh. Taxes accounted for 27% of that expenditure (of which around one-half contributed to financing renewable sources of electricity and to geographical price adjustments), the cost of transmission 27%, and that of supply (including production and sales) 46%. Trade with other countries showed a positive balance of euro 2.3 billion. The residential sector was the main consuming sector, accounting for 35% of physical deliveries. Given the transmission and sales costs, higher on average for households than for businesses, the residential sector accounted for a greater proportion of the spending (48%). Conversely, industry accounted for 24% of physical consumption but only 15% of spending. The share of the services sector was around one-third, in both physical-unit and monetary terms

  14. 1.8 Billion Years of Detrital Zircon Recycling Calibrates a Refractory Part of Earth?s Sedimentary Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Hadlari, Thomas; Swindles, Graeme T.; Galloway, Jennifer M.; Bell, Kimberley M.; Sulphur, Kyle C.; Heaman, Larry M.; Beranek, Luke P.; Fallas, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    Detrital zircon studies are providing new insights on the evolution of sedimentary basins but the role of sedimentary recycling remains largely undefined. In a broad region of northwestern North America, this contribution traces the pathway of detrital zircon sand grains from Proterozoic sandstones through Phanerozoic strata and argues for multi-stage sedimentary recycling over more than a billion years. As a test of our hypothesis, integrated palynology and detrital zircon provenance provide...

  15. THE SOUTHERN FRAGMENT OF THE SIBERIAN CRATON: “LANDSCAPE” HISTORY OVER TWO BILLION YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkady M. Stanevich

    2010-01-01

    background of sub-continental sedimentation. In the Late Paleozoic, the geologic development was marked by major transformation of the pattern of tectonic structures, that was most likely related to inside-plate extension and thinning of the continental crust. In the Mid and Late Carbon (Fig. 4A, the integrated Tungusskiy sedimentation basin was formed as a result of continuous and uniform bending. In the Early Permian (see Fig. 4Б, positive tectonic movements led to significant dewatering of the Paleozoic basins, so that they turned into a washed-out area. Overall raising of the Siberian Platform preconditioned climate changes, such as aridization and climate cooling. In the Mesozoic, landscapes were presented by a combination of flat uplands, wide river valleys with swampy plains and lakes wherein carbonous sediments were accumulated. Basic volcanism with shield eruptions and sub-volcanic rocks was typical then. In the Jurassic (see Fig. 4B, elements observed in the recent topography of the Siberian Platform were formed. In that period, major structural transformation occurred in association with the largest diastrophic cycles in the territory of the Eastern Asia, including formation of the Baikal rift and its branches.From the analyses of the available data which are briefly presented above, it is obvious that the period of two billion years in the Earth history includes numerous epochs of diastrophic processes of tremendous destructive capacity. Unconformities of formations differing in ages by millions and even hundreds of million years, as those dating back to the Pre-Cambrian, suggest quite realistic yet astounding visions. At the background of scenarios of floods, rock up-thrusts, volcanic explosions and earthquakes evidenced from the very remote past, the current geological and climatic phenomena may seem quite trivial.

  16. Three cases of feet and hand amputation from Medieval Estremoz, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Teresa; Liberato, Marco; Marques, Carina; Cunha, Eugénia

    2017-09-01

    Peri-mortem limb amputations are rarely reported in the paleopathological literature. The cases reported here concern severing of both hands and feet observed in three adult male skeletons, exhumed from the medieval Portuguese necropolis of Rossio do Marquês de Pombal, Estremoz, Portugal. The fact that they were found in the same site, in graves placed side by side, that all are young males, and that the three skeletons show similar perimortem injuries, make this a unique case meriting detailed analysis. Considering the lesions' location and pattern, as well as historical data, we hypothesize that this is a case of amputation as a consequence of judicial punishment. Estremoz was an important city in sustaining the Royal power at a regional scale during the medieval period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Healing of ulcers on the feet correlated with distal blood pressure measurements in occlusive arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P; Lassen, N A

    1980-01-01

    The frequency of healing in subchronic ulcers in 66 feet in 62 patients with arterial occlusive disease was correlated with the systolic digital blood pressure (SDBP) and the systolic ankle blood pressure (SABP), both measured with a strain gauge, and with the skin perfusion pressure on the heel...... of healing correlated significantly with the three distal blood pressure parameters investigated, the closest correlation being with the SDBP measured at the final examination, i.e. just after healing of the ulcer or just before an inevitable major amputation. Of the 22 cases with SDBP below 20 mmHg only two...... and peripheral neuropathy were frequent in the diabetic group. The data show that the systolic digital blood pressure is a particularly valuable prognostic parameter....

  18. Vertical illusory self-motion through haptic stimulation of the feet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Nilsson, Niels Christian; Turchet, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Circular and linear self-motion illusions induced through visual and auditory stimuli have been studied rather extensively. While the ability of haptic stimuli to augment such illusions has been investigated, the self-motion illusions which primarily are induced by stimulation of the haptic...... to generate the haptic feedback while the final condition included no haptic feedback. Analysis of self-reports were used to assess the participants' experience of illusory self-motion. The results indicate that such illusions are indeed possible. Significant differences were found between the condition...... modality remain relatively unexplored. In this paper, we present an experiment performed with the intention of investigating whether it is possible to use haptic stimulation of the main supporting areas of the feet to induce vertical illusory self-motion on behalf of unrestrained participants during...

  19. The initial ultrasonographic examination of hands and feet joints in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ponikowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim was to assess of the morphology, intensity, and activity of changes in the first ultrasonographic (US examination of hands and feet in patients with early arthritis (lasting up to 12 months who were ultimately diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. An attempt was made to demonstrate a correlation between the intensity of lesions in US and selected laboratory parameters. Material and methods : Ultrasonographic examination was performed using a LOGIC GE 500 device on a group of 60 patients with arthritis (46 women, 14 men aged 18–80, previously untreated. In total, 3120 hand and feet joints were examined. The assessment focused on the presence of joint effusion, synovial proliferation and power Doppler signals (assessed on a semi-quantitative scale. Each patient underwent laboratory tests, necessary for making a diagnosis. In order to analyze the correlations between changes in US and laboratory parameters, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, reactive protein test (CRP, rheumatoid factor (RF, and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs were used. Results : In the study group, the average duration of arthritis symptoms until the first US examination was 5.6 months. Among the 3120 examined hand and foot joints, deviations from the norm appeared in 1093 joints, synovial hypertrophy was found in 471 joints (grade 1 synovial hypertrophy was reported most frequently, while presence of signal in Power Doppler was revealed in 261 joints (grade 1 was observed most frequently. A statistically significant correlation was found between the intensity of changes in Power Doppler and CRP concentration. Conclusions : In patients with increased concentrations of CRP, we may expect arthritis of higher intensity, therefore, in order to prevent the progression of destructive changes, it is necessary to quickly implement effective disease-modifying antirheumatic treatment. The conducted research showed that the activity of joint

  20. Muscle Trigger Points and Pressure Pain Sensitivity Maps of the Feet in Women with Fibromyalgia Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero-Caballero, Maria C; Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Cigarán-Méndez, Margarita; Morales-Cabezas, Matilde; Madeleine, Pascal; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE : To investigate the presence of trigger points (TrPs) in feet musculature and topographical pressure sensitivity maps of the feet as well as the relationship between TrPs, pressure pain maps, and clinical variables in women with fibromyalgia (FMS). METHODS : Fifty-one FMS women and 24 comparable healthy women participated. TrPs within the flexor hallucis brevis, adductor hallucis, dorsal interossei, extensor digitorum brevis, and quadratus plantae, as well as external and internal gastrocnemius, were explored. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed in a blind manner over seven locations on each foot. Topographical pressure sensitivity maps of the plantar region were generated using the averaged PPT of each location. RESULTS : The prevalence rate of foot pain was 63% (n = 32). The number of active TrPs for each FMS woman with foot pain was 5 ± 1.5 without any latent TrPs. Women with FMS without foot pain and healthy controls had only latent TrPs (2.2 ± 0.8 and 1.5 ± 1.3, respectively). Active TrPs in the flexor hallucis brevis and adductor hallucis muscles were the most prevalent. Topographical pressure pain sensitivity maps revealed that FMS women with foot pain had lower PPT than FMS women without pain and healthy controls, and higher PPT on the calcaneus bone (P pain in women with FMS is high. The referred pain elicited by active TrPs in the foot muscles reproduced the symptoms in these patients. FMS women suffering foot pain showed higher pressure hypersensitivity in the plantar region than those FMS women without pain. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. [Application of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in the surgical treatment of patients with diabetic feet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y; Cui, Z J; Shi, X; Guo, P F; Meng, Q N; Yang, G Y; Yang, R Q

    2016-08-20

    To explore the application of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in the surgical treatment of patients with diabetic feet. The clinical data of 83 patients with diabetic feet, 95 limbs (95 wounds) in total, hospitalized in our unit from September 2011 to September 2014, conforming to the study criteria, were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into conventional treatment group (CT, n=43, 51 wounds) and PTA group (n=40, 44 wounds) according to whether receiving PTA treatment or not. Patients in two groups received conventional debridement after admission, and patients in PTA group received another PTA treatment before debridement. Granulation growing well rates of wounds of patients in two groups were calculated on post debridement day (PDD) 3, 6, 9, and 12. Two stage preoperative preparation time of wounds of patients in two groups was recorded. Status of free skin graft survival of wounds and wound healing of patients in two groups were recorded according to the grade of Wagner. Values of ankle-brachial index (ABI) and ulcer recurrence of patients in two groups checked every month during follow-up time of half a year were recorded. Data were processed with chi-square test and t test. Granulation growing well rate of wounds of patients in group CT rose slowly after treatment, which was less than 40% on PDD 12. Granulation growing well rate of wounds of patients in PTA group rose significantly on PDD 9 and all the granulation grew well on PDD 12. On PDD 9 and 12, Granulation growing well rates of wounds of patients in PTA group were significantly higher than those in group CT (with χ(2) values respectively 30.008 and 47.810, P values below 0.01). Two stage preoperative preparation time of wounds of patients in group CT [(24±10) d] was obviously longer than that in PTA group [(15±3) d, t=5.709, Pdiabetic foot.

  2. Symmetry of healthy adult feet: role of orthostatic footprint at computerized baropodometry and of digital formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridola, C; Palma, A; Cappello, F; Gravante, G; Russo, G; Truglio, G; Pomara, F; Amato, G

    2001-01-01

    Morphological aspects of orthostatic footprints (anterior heel, isthmus, posterior heel), using computerized baropodometry and of the digital formula were studied in 97 subjects (37 males, 60 females; median age: 20.9+/-1.56) at the Medical School of Palermo, Italy. The aim of this study was to contribute to our knowledge of the bilateral symmetry and asymmetry of the human feet in ethnically similar groups. We evaluated the length of the footprints (FL) and the widths of the anterior heel (AHW), isthmus (IW), and the posterior heel (PHW). Values were compared in the left and right feet of each subjects. The general morphology of the footprints was considered to determine bilateral correspondence or divergence. We also evaluated the digital formula to verify any bilateral correspondence. The linear measurements of the footprints did not show any particular bilateral conformity. The general morphology of the footprint showed bilateral correspondence in 76 subjects (78%): in 21 subjects (22%) it did not show any. Typological results of the bilateral orthostatic footprints showed normalfootprints in 54 subjects (55.5%): the isthmus included 1/3 to 2/3 of the AHW. Hollow footprints were found in 20 subjects (20.5%): the isthmus was less than 1/3 of the AHW. At clinical examination, using the digital formula, we found that Egyptian foot (1 degree > 2 degrees) was the most frequent (68%). The standard foot (1 degree = 2 degrees) and the Greek foot (1 degree digital formulas: 1 degree > 2 degrees in 59 subjects (62%), 1 degree = 2 degrees in 9 subjects (9%), and 1 degree footprints and of the digital formulas showed that bilateral correspondence was prevalent.

  3. Big Feet: Assessing the Current and Future Impact of Population Size on a Country's Ecological Footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, R. S.; Takaro, T.; Miller, C.; Hogg, E.; Anema, A.; Gislason, M.; Parkes, M.

    2015-12-01

    Background: Ecological footprints assess the land and water a population needs to procure its resources and handle its waste. Measures derived from these footprints look at a population's ecological overshoot rather than weighting the population to its footprint. The aim of this study was to examine the latter approach by determining what the current and future weighted world population, by income gradient, would be if everyone lived within the boundary of 1.8 hectares per person. Methods: Country-specific ecological footprints and populations for 2007 were obtained from the Global Footprint Network (www.footprintnetwork.org); and projected populations were collected from US Census Bureau (www.census.gov). Footprint growth to 2050 was based on a business as usual approach developed by Kitzes et al. in Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B (2008). Weighted population estimates were derived by multiplying actual population by the ratio of the country's footprint to overall boundary of 1.8 hectares per person. Results: The weighted global population increased by 2.4 billion people (37%) in 2007 based on our adjustment. High and middle-income country populations increased, by 242% and 10%, respectively, while low-income country populations decreased by 33%. The weighed global population in 2050 increased by 10.1 billion with the majority of this growth occurring in high-income countries -- 437% versus 67% and 9% respectively for medium and low-income countries. Conclusions: Our study showed that current and future global weighted demographic and ecological impact would be felt mainly in high-income countries even though actual population growth would occur mainly in low and middle-income countries.

  4. Use of a novel smart heating sleeping bag to improve wearers’ local thermal comfort in the feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W. F.; Zhang, C. J.; Lai, D. D.; Wang, F. M.; Kuklane, K.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that wearers had low skin temperatures and cold and pain sensations in the feet, when using sleeping bags under defined comfort and limit temperatures. To improve wearers’ local thermal comfort in the feet, a novel heating sleeping bag (i.e., MARHT) was developed by embedding two heating pads into the traditional sleeping bag (i.e., MARCON) in this region. Seven female and seven male volunteers underwent two tests on different days. Each test lasted for three hours and was performed in a climate chamber with a setting temperature deduced from EN 13537 (2012) (for females: comfort temperature of -0.4 °C, and for males: the limit temperature of -6.4 °C). MARHT was found to be effective in maintaining the toe and feet temperatures within the thermoneutral range for both sex groups compared to the linearly decreased temperatures in MARCON during the 3-hour exposure. In addition, wearing MARHT elevated the toe blood flow significantly for most females and all males. Thermal and comfort sensations showed a large improvement in feet and a small to moderate improvement in the whole body for both sex groups in MARHT. It was concluded that MARHT is effective in improving local thermal comfort in the feet.

  5. Sole depth and weight-bearing characteristics of the palmar surface of the feet of feral horses and domestic Thoroughbreds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Brian A; Connelley, Alexandra D; de Laat, Melody A; Mills, Paul C; Pollitt, Chris C

    2011-06-01

    To determine solar load-bearing structures in the feet of feral horses and investigate morphological characteristics of the sole in feral horses and domestic Thoroughbreds. Forelimbs from cadavers of 70 feral horses and 20 domestic Thoroughbreds in Australia. Left forefeet were obtained from 3 feral horse populations from habitats of soft substrate (SS [n = 10 horses]), hard substrate (HS [10]), and a combination of SS and HS (10) and loaded in vitro. Pressure distribution was measured with a pressure plate. Sole depth was measured at 12 points across the solar plane in feet obtained from feral horses from SS (n = 20 horses) and HS (20) habitats and domestic Thoroughbreds (20). Feet of feral horses from HS habitats loaded the periphery of the sole and hoof wall on a flat surface. Feral horses from HS or SS habitats had greater mean sole depth than did domestic Thoroughbreds. Sole depth was greatest peripherally and was correlated with the loading pattern. The peripheral aspect of the sole in the feet of feral horses had a load-bearing function. Because of the robust nature of the tissue architecture, the hoof capsule of feral horses may be less flexible than that of typical domestic horses. The application of narrow-web horseshoes may not take full advantage of the load-bearing and force-dissipating properties of the peripheral aspect of the sole. Further studies are required to understand the effects of biomechanical stimulation on the adaptive responses of equine feet.

  6. LLNL's Big Science Capabilities Help Spur Over $796 Billion in U.S. Economic Activity Sequencing the Human Genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Jeffrey S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-28

    LLNL’s successful history of taking on big science projects spans beyond national security and has helped create billions of dollars per year in new economic activity. One example is LLNL’s role in helping sequence the human genome. Over $796 billion in new economic activity in over half a dozen fields has been documented since LLNL successfully completed this Grand Challenge.

  7. Cubic zirconia as a high-quality facet coating for semiconductor lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, A.K.; Satyanarayan, A.; Zarrabi, J.H.; Vetterling, W.

    1988-08-01

    In this paper we describe the properties of high-quality, semiconductor laser facet coatings based on yttria-stabilizied cubic zirconia (90-m% ZrO/sub 2//10-m% Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/). We have found that cubic zirconia films can be reproducibly deposited by electron-beam evaporation with an index of refraction of 1.98 at 6328 A, almost ideal for use as a single-layer antireflection coating for GaAs/GaAlAs-based lasers. ZrO/sub 2/ has a monoclinic crystal structure at room temperature, but changes to tetragonal, hexagonal, and cubic phases upon heating to higher temperatures. However, the addition of the Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ stabilizes ZrO/sub 2/ in the cubic form, thus allowing electron-beam deposition of thin films of this material to be more controllable and reproducible without the usual addition of oxygen into the vacuum chamber during deposition. Preliminary aging tests of high-power GaAs/GaAlAs lasers show that cubic zirconia films suppress the photo-enhanced oxidation of laser facets that degrades device performance.

  8. Two-dimensional matter-wave solitons and vortices in competing cubic-quintic nonlinear lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuzhen; Zeng, Jianhua

    2018-02-01

    The nonlinear lattice — a new and nonlinear class of periodic potentials — was recently introduced to generate various nonlinear localized modes. Several attempts failed to stabilize two-dimensional (2D) solitons against their intrinsic critical collapse in Kerr media. Here, we provide a possibility for supporting 2D matter-wave solitons and vortices in an extended setting — the cubic and quintic model — by introducing another nonlinear lattice whose period is controllable and can be different from its cubic counterpart, to its quintic nonlinearity, therefore making a fully "nonlinear quasi-crystal". A variational approximation based on Gaussian ansatz is developed for the fundamental solitons and in particular, their stability exactly follows the inverted Vakhitov-Kolokolov stability criterion, whereas the vortex solitons are only studied by means of numerical methods. Stability regions for two types of localized mode — the fundamental and vortex solitons — are provided. A noteworthy feature of the localized solutions is that the vortex solitons are stable only when the period of the quintic nonlinear lattice is the same as the cubic one or when the quintic nonlinearity is constant, while the stable fundamental solitons can be created under looser conditions. Our physical setting (cubic-quintic model) is in the framework of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation or nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the predicted localized modes thus may be implemented in Bose-Einstein condensates and nonlinear optical media with tunable cubic and quintic nonlinearities.

  9. The formation of cubic ice under conditions relevant to Earth's atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Benjamin J; Knopf, Daniel A; Bertram, Allan K

    2005-03-10

    An important mechanism for ice cloud formation in the Earth's atmosphere is homogeneous nucleation of ice in aqueous droplets, and this process is generally assumed to produce hexagonal ice. However, there are some reports that the metastable crystalline phase of ice, cubic ice, may form in the Earth's atmosphere. Here we present laboratory experiments demonstrating that cubic ice forms when micrometre-sized droplets of pure water and aqueous solutions freeze homogeneously at cooling rates approaching those found in the atmosphere. We find that the formation of cubic ice is dominant when droplets freeze at temperatures below 190 K, which is in the temperature range relevant for polar stratospheric clouds and clouds in the tropical tropopause region. These results, together with heat transfer calculations, suggest that cubic ice will form in the Earth's atmosphere. If there were a significant fraction of cubic ice in some cold clouds this could increase their water vapour pressure, and modify their microphysics and ice particle size distributions. Under specific conditions this may lead to enhanced dehydration of the tropopause region.

  10. Phase transformation of metastable cubic γ-phase in U-Mo alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, V.P.; Hegde, P.V.; Prasad, G.J.; Dey, G.K.; Kamath, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade considerable efforts have been put by many fuel designers to develop low enriched uranium (LEU 235 ) base U-Mo alloy as a potential fuel for core conversion of existing research and test reactors which are running on high enriched uranium (HEU > 85%U 235 ) fuel and also for the upcoming new reactors. U-Mo alloy with minimum 8 wt% molybdenum shows excellent metastability with cubic γ-phase in cast condition. However, it is important to characterize the decomposition behaviour of metastable cubic γ-uranium in its equilibrium products for in reactor fuel performance point of view. The present paper describes the phase transformation behaviour of cubic γ-uranium phase in U-Mo alloys with three different molybdenum compositions (i.e. 8 wt%, 9 wt% and 10 wt%). U-Mo alloys were prepared in an induction melting furnace and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method for phase determination. Microstructures were developed for samples in as cast condition. The alloys were hot rolled in cubic γ-phase to break the cast structure and then they were aged at 500 o C for 68 h and 240 h, so that metastable cubic γ-uranium will undergo eutectoid decomposition to form equilibrium phases of orthorhombic α-uranium and body centered tetragonal U 2 Mo intermetallic compound. U-Mo alloy samples with different ageing history were then characterized by XRD for phase and development of microstructure.

  11. Unlocking the EUR53 billion savings from smart meters in the EU. How increasing the adoption of dynamic tariffs could make or break the EU's smart grid investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruqui, Ahmad; Hledik, Ryan; Harris, Dan

    2010-01-01

    We estimate the cost of installing smart meters in the EU to be EUR51 billion, and that operational savings will be worth between EUR26 and 41 billion, leaving a gap of EUR10-25 billion between benefits and costs. Smart meters can fill this gap because they enable the provision of dynamic pricing, which reduces peak demand and lowers the need for building and running expensive peaking power plants. The present value of savings in peaking infrastructure could be as high as EUR67 billion for the EU if policy-makers can overcome barriers to consumers adopting dynamic tariffs, but only EUR14 billion otherwise. We outline a number of ways to increase the adoption of dynamic tariffs. (author)

  12. Molecular dynamics beyonds the limits: Massive scaling on 72 racks of a BlueGene/P and supercooled glass dynamics of a 1 billion particles system

    KAUST Repository

    Allsopp, Nicholas

    2012-04-01

    We report scaling results on the world\\'s largest supercomputer of our recently developed Billions-Body Molecular Dynamics (BBMD) package, which was especially designed for massively parallel simulations of the short-range atomic dynamics in structural glasses and amorphous materials. The code was able to scale up to 72 racks of an IBM BlueGene/P, with a measured 89% efficiency for a system with 100 billion particles. The code speed, with 0.13. s per iteration in the case of 1 billion particles, paves the way to the study of billion-body structural glasses with a resolution increase of two orders of magnitude with respect to the largest simulation ever reported. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our code by studying the liquid-glass transition of an exceptionally large system made by a binary mixture of 1 billion particles. © 2012.

  13. Elastic-Plastic Nonlinear Response of a Space Shuttle External Tank Stringer. Part 1; Stringer-Feet Imperfections and Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Song, Kyongchan; Elliott, Kenny B.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Warren, Jerry E.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic-plastic, large-deflection nonlinear stress analyses are performed for the external hat-shaped stringers (or stiffeners) on the intertank portion of the Space Shuttle s external tank. These stringers are subjected to assembly strains when the stringers are initially installed on an intertank panel. Four different stringer-feet configurations including the baseline flat-feet, the heels-up, the diving-board, and the toes-up configurations are considered. The assembly procedure is analytically simulated for each of these stringer configurations. The location, size, and amplitude of the strain field associated with the stringer assembly are sensitive to the assumed geometry and assembly procedure. The von Mises stress distributions from these simulations indicate that localized plasticity will develop around the first eight fasteners for each stringer-feet configuration examined. However, only the toes-up configuration resulted in high assembly hoop strains.

  14. A High Percentage of Beef Bull Pictures in Semen Catalogues Have Feet and Lower Legs that Are Not Visible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Marcy K; Grandin, Temple

    2015-07-14

    A total of 1379 beef bull pictures were surveyed to determine visibility of feet and legs from four American semen company websites. Five different breeds were represented: Angus, Red Angus, Hereford (polled and horned), Simmental, and Charolais. In addition to visibility, data on other variables were collected to establish frequencies and correlations. These included breed, color, material that obscured visibility, such as grass, picture taken at livestock show or outside, semen company, photographer, video, and age of bull. A foot and leg visibility score was given to each bull picture. Only 19.4% of the pictures had fully visible feet and legs. Both the hooves and dewclaws were hidden on 32.5% of the pictures. Correlation between bull's birthdate and the first four visibility scores was statistically significant (P photo editing software and digital photography. One positive finding was that 6% of the bulls had a video of the bull walking which completely showed his feet and legs.

  15. The effect that energy storage and return feet have on the propulsion of the body: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimin, Anthony; McGarry, Anthony; Harris, Elena Jane; Solomonidis, Stephan Emanuel

    2014-09-01

    A variety of energy storage and return prosthetic feet are currently available for use within lower limb prostheses. Designs claim to provide a beneficial energy return during push-off, but the extent to which this occurs remains disputed. Techniques currently used to measure energy storage, dissipation and return within the structure of the prosthetic foot are debatable, with limited evidence to support substantial elastic energy storage and return from existing designs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of energy storage and return foot designs through considering the ankle power during push-off and the effect on body centre of mass propulsion. To achieve this aim, the gait patterns of six trans-tibial prosthetic users wearing different designs of energy storage and return feet were analysed while ascending a ramp. Three examples of energy storage and return feet (suitable for moderate activity) were selected and randomly evaluated: the Blatchford's Epirus, Össur Assure and College Park Tribute feet. The power at the anatomical and mechanical ankle joints was integrated to evaluate the work done over the gait cycle. The direction of the inertial force, and therefore propulsion of the body centre of mass, was used to indicate the effect of the energy return by the energy storage and return feet. Results indicate that although energy storage and return feet may provide energy return, the work done around the prosthetic ankle indicates net power absorption. Therefore, the prosthetic limb is unable to contribute to the body centre of mass propulsion to the same extent as the biological limb. © IMechE 2014.

  16. Operational Efficiencies and Simulated Performance of Big Data Analytics Platform over Billions of Patient Records of a Hospital System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillon Chrimes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Big Data Analytics (BDA is important to utilize data from hospital systems to reduce healthcare costs. BDA enable queries of large volumes of patient data in an interactively dynamic way for healthcare. The study objective was high performance establishment of interactive BDA platform of hospital system. A Hadoop/MapReduce framework was established at University of Victoria (UVic with Compute Canada/Westgrid to form a Healthcare BDA (HBDA platform with HBase (NoSQL database using hospital-specific metadata and file ingestion. Patient data profiles and clinical workflow derived from Vancouver Island Health Authority (VIHA, Victoria, BC, Canada. The proof-of-concept implementation tested patient data representative of the entire Provincial hospital systems. We cross-referenced all data profiles and metadata with real patient data used in clinical reporting. Query performance tested Apache tools in Hadoop’s ecosystem. At optimized iteration, Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS ingestion required three seconds but HBase required four to twelve hours to complete the Reducer of MapReduce. HBase bulkloads took a week for one billion (10TB and over two months for three billion (30TB. Simple and complex query results showed about two seconds for one and three billion, respectively. Apache Drill outperformed Apache Spark. However, it was restricted to running more simplified queries with poor usability for healthcare. Jupyter on Spark offered high performance and customization to run all queries simultaneously with high usability. BDA platform of HBase distributed over Hadoop successfully; however, some inconsistencies of MapReduce limited operational efficiencies. Importance of Hadoop/MapReduce on representation of platform performance discussed.

  17. Orientation dependence of the dislocation microstructure in compressed body-centered cubic molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.; Wang, M.P.; Chen, C.; Xiao, Z.; Jia, Y.L.; Li, Z.; Wang, Z.X.

    2014-01-01

    The orientation dependence of the deformation microstructure has been investigated in commercial pure molybdenum. After deformation, the dislocation boundaries of compressed molybdenum can be classified, similar to that in face-centered cubic metals, into three types: dislocation cells (Type 2), and extended planar boundaries parallel to (Type 1) or not parallel to (Type 3) a (110) trace. However, it shows a reciprocal relationship between face-centered cubic metals and body-centered cubic metals on the orientation dependence of the deformation microstructure. The higher the strain, the finer the microstructure is and the smaller the inclination angle between extended planar boundaries and the compression axis is. - Highlights: • A reciprocal relationship between FCC metals and BCC metals is confirmed. • The dislocation boundaries can be classified into three types in compressed Mo. • The dislocation characteristic of different dislocation boundaries is different

  18. Conformal Interpolating Algorithm Based on Cubic NURBS in Aspheric Ultra-Precision Machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C G; Zhang, Q R; Cao, C G; Zhao, S L

    2006-01-01

    Numeric control machining and on-line compensation for aspheric surface are key techniques in ultra-precision machining. In this paper, conformal cubic NURBS interpolating curve is applied to fit the character curve of aspheric surface. Its algorithm and process are also proposed and imitated by Matlab7.0 software. To evaluate the performance of the conformal cubic NURBS interpolation, we compare it with the linear interpolations. The result verifies this method can ensure smoothness of interpolating spline curve and preserve original shape characters. The surface quality interpolated by cubic NURBS is higher than by line. The algorithm is benefit to increasing the surface form precision of workpieces in ultra-precision machining

  19. Cubic B-spline solution for two-point boundary value problem with AOR iterative method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suardi, M. N.; Radzuan, N. Z. F. M.; Sulaiman, J.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the cubic B-spline approximation equation has been derived by using the cubic B-spline discretization scheme to solve two-point boundary value problems. In addition to that, system of cubic B-spline approximation equations is generated from this spline approximation equation in order to get the numerical solutions. To do this, the Accelerated Over Relaxation (AOR) iterative method has been used to solve the generated linear system. For the purpose of comparison, the GS iterative method is designated as a control method to compare between SOR and AOR iterative methods. There are two examples of proposed problems that have been considered to examine the efficiency of these proposed iterative methods via three parameters such as their number of iterations, computational time and maximum absolute error. The numerical results are obtained from these iterative methods, it can be concluded that the AOR iterative method is slightly efficient as compared with SOR iterative method.

  20. Numerical Simulation of Sloshing Phenomena in Cubic Tank with Multiple Baffles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-An Xue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-phase fluid flow model solving Navier-Stokes equations was employed in this paper to investigate liquid sloshing phenomena in cubic tank with horizontal baffle, perforated vertical baffle, and their combinatorial configurations under the harmonic motion excitation. Laboratory experiment of liquid sloshing in cubic tank with perforated vertical baffle was carried out to validate the present numerical model. Fairly good agreements were obtained from the comparisons between the present numerical results and the present experimental data, available numerical data. Liquid sloshing in cubic tank with multiple baffles was investigated numerically in detail under different external excitation frequencies. Power spectrum of the time series of free surface elevation was presented with the aid of fast Fourier transform technique. The dynamic impact pressures acting on the normal and parallel sidewalls were discussed in detail.