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Sample records for billings reservoir rio

  1. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of water quality in Rio das Pedras reservoir (Billings Complex, São Paulo State

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    Viviane Moschini-Carlos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar em escalas espacial (vertical e horizontal e temporal as características limnológicas do Reservatório Rio das Pedras (Complexo Billings, São Bernardo do Campo, SP – Brasil. Nos meses de março e outubro de 2004 foram amostradas em perfil três estações no reservatório. As variáveis analisadas foram: temperatura, condutividade elétrica e pH, com sonda multiparâmetros; concentrações de amônio, nitrito, nitrato, fosfato, ortosilicato, fósforo total, clorofila-a e feofitina, por método espectrofotométrico; oxigênio dissolvido por método titulométrico; além das concentrações de sólidos totais e material em suspensão. Para análise estatística dos dados foi aplicada a ACP (Análise de Componentes Principais. A heterogeneidade temporal observada foi conseqüência das diferenças de temperatura, que geraram estratificação térmica, química e biológica, no mês de março. As diferenças espaciais verticais também resultaram da estratificação térmica. As maiores discrepâncias das características limnológicas, em relação ao padrão de distribuição espacial horizontal, foram obtidas na estação 1, e são diretamente relacionadas à influência das águas provenientes do reservatório Billings. De acordo com a CONAMA 357/05, para o mês de outubro de 2004 as águas do reservatório estão em conformidade com a Classe 3. Para o mês de março, na estação 3 os valores estão abaixo do estabelecido, conferindo não conformidade para a Classe 3.

  2. Assessment of metal concentrations in sediment samples from Billings Reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de metais em amostras de sedimento do Reservatorio Billings, Braco Rio Grande, Sao Paulo, Brasil

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    Bostelmann, Eleine

    2006-07-01

    The present study chemically characterized sediment samples from the Billings reservoir, Rio Grande tributary, in the Metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, by determining metal concentration and other elements of interest. The chosen chemical parameters for this characterization were Aluminum, Arsenic, Barium, Cadmium, Copper, Chromium, Iron, Lead, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel, Selenium and Zinco. These parameters are also used in the water quality index, with the exception of Selenium. The concentrations were determined through different analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, GFAAS and CVAAS), optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and neutron activation analysis. These analytical methodologies were assessed for precision, accuracy and detection and/or quantification limits for the sediment elements in question. Advantages and disadvantages of each technique for each element and its concentration were also discussed. From these assessments the most adequate technique was selected for the routine analysis of sediment samples for each element concentration determination. This assessment verified also that digestion in a closed microwave system with nitric acid is efficient for the evaluation of extracted metals of environmental interest. The analytical techniques chosen were equally efficient for metals determination. In the case of Cd and Pb, the FAAS technique was selected due to better results than ICP OES, as it does not present matrix interference. The concentration values obtained for metals As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) TEL and PEL values. (author)

  3. Produtos de pesca e contaminantes químicos na água da Represa Billings, São Paulo (Brasil Fishing yield and chemical contamination of the water of the Billings Reservoir, S. Paulo (Brazil

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    Aristides Almeida Rocha

    1985-10-01

    Full Text Available Através da análise dos surfactantes determinados pelo método colorimétrico com azul de metileno, e dos metais pesados determinados por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica, como o cádmio, chumbo, cobre, cromo, mercúrio e zinco, foi caracterizada a poluição na Represa Billings, SP (Brasil, enfatizando a qualidade sanitária da água e a contaminação dos peixes. Com base nos dados coligidos, é mostrado o perigo potencial que representa o consumo do pescado proveniente da Billings, se bem que a pesca comercial esteja hoje praticamente restrita às cabeceiras dos braços dos rios Capivari e Pequeno, na junção próxima a Ribeirão Pires e nos braços dos rios Curucutu e Taquacetuba. Os dados da CEAGESP - Companhia de Entreposto de Armazéns Gerais do Estado de São Paulo - indicam que, no ano de 1980, apenas 64 toneladas de peixe provieram de São Bernardo do Campo.Data on detergents and heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, copper, chromium, mercury and zinc are used in order to estimate pollution and sanitary quality of water as well as contamination of fish from Billings Reservoir, SP, Brazil. The results of this work are a warning with regard to the potential risk of human consumption of fish from that Reservoir, even though commercial fishing is now practically restricted to the riverheads of the affluents of the rivers Capivari and Pequeno near Ribeirão Pires and along the rivers Curucutu and Taquacetuba. Data from CEAGESP (Companhia de Entreposto de Armazéns Gerais do Estado de São Paulo show that in 1980 only 64 tons of fish came from S. Bernardo do Campo.

  4. Metal quantification in water and sediment samples of billings reservoir by SR-TXRF

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    Sampaio, Sergio Arnaud; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mails: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; sergioarnaud@hotmail.com; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br

    2007-07-01

    Billings is the largest reservoir water of the metropolitan Sao Paulo area, with approximately 100km{sup 2} of water. Its basin hydrographic occupies more than 500km{sup 2} in six cities. It concentrates the largest industrial park of South America and only its margins are busy for almost a million inhabitants. The quality of its waters is, therefore, constant of concern of the whole society. In this work the Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) is applied for the identification and quantification of metals in waters and sediments of the Billings dam. A comparison of the levels of metals found with the maximum permissive limits established by the Brazilian legislation was made. The purpose of social context is to contribute for the preservation of the local springs and the rational use of its waters. For the field work they were chosen 19 collection points, included the margins and the central portion of the dam, in agreement with similar approaches the those adopted by the Company of Technology of Environmental Sanitation of Sao Paulo State (CETESB).The water and sediment samples, as well as the certified and standard samples, were analyzed at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, SP, Brazil. Results indicate that the water and the sediments of the reservoir have concentrations above the legal limits. (author)

  5. Project Rio Blanco: additional production testing and reservoir analysis

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    Ballou, L.B.

    1976-11-01

    Additional subsurface investigations of the Rio Blanco detonation region and adjacent reservoir have been underway since the last technical meeting at IAEA. The lowermost explosion cavity has been reentered and a production test from it was performed. A dry gas volume of 7.6 x 10/sup 5/ m/sup 3/ (27 Mmscf) was withdrawn. Chemical and radiochemical analyses of this gas show that (1) the yield of the bottom explosive was 31 +- 2 kt; (2) the cavity/chimney volume was 2.4 x 10/sup 4/ m/sup 3/ (8.4 x 10/sup 5/ ft/sup 3/); (3) about 7 percent of the tritium produced is associated with the gas; and (4) a slight (approximately 0.1 percent) gas contribution from the middle explosion region was noted. The reservoir/chimney model implies an unstimulated reservoir flow capacity of 0.15 mdarcy-m (0.50 md-ft) connected to the bottom chimney region. A cavity radius of 21 +- 3 m (70 +- 10 ft) was deduced. Unstimulated reservoir production parameters were investigated in a well offset 190 m (625 ft) from the emplacement hole. Insufficient productivity was obtained in the Mesaverde formation (in which the bottom explosive was detonated) to evaluate reservoir properties. The productive sandstones in the Fort Union formation adjoining the top detonation region were individually evaluated. Their aggregate flow capacity was determined to be 0.14 +- 0.2 mdarcy-m (0.45 +- 0.08 md-ft). A numerical simulation model which incorporates these data is described. The lack of a high-permeability connection between the three explosion regions remains unexplained. The two chimney reentry wells have been cemented to the surface and abandoned. The offset well has been plugged in a way which preserves the option for additional subsurface investigation in the future. Project facilities have been removed and the site restored to conditions which minimize environmental impact.

  6. Limnological evaluation of water in the Rio Grande and Taquacetuba branches of the Billings Complex (São Paulo, Brazil and management implications

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    Marcelo Pompêo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The large population contingent and the precarious urban planning in the metropolitan region of São Paulo have resulted in uncontrolled growth in areas where springs exist, generating strong pressures on the reservoirs. Concomitantly, a lack of articulation between public and private policy has led to various socio-environmental conflicts in the Billings watershed. This spring, which is responsible for the direct and indirect supply of water to millions of people, represents an enormous challenge for water resource management. In this context, this study aimed to analyze the seasonal limnological conditions of the Billings Complex, in particular the Rio Grande and Taquacetuba branches, and discuss the implications for the management procedure applied in the branches. Physical (water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, suspended material, organic and inorganic suspended material chemical (dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus and nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium and inorganic phosphorus and biological (chlorophyll-a variables of the water were analyzed and the Trophic State Index was calculated. The results indicate a hypertrophic state in the Taquacetuba branch. The Rio Grande branch presented a mesotrophic state which is, however, artificially maintained due to copper sulfate and hydrogen peroxide treatments. The results are also discussed in light of CONAMA Resolution 357/2005. Levels of chlorophyll-a and total phosphorous in the Taquacetuba branch do not conform to the proposed class of use, class I. In this branch, monitoring must be intensified and measures adopted to reduce the level of nutrients in the main body of the Billings complex.

  7. Environmental liabilities in Billings reservoir and its impacts on hydropower generation Plant Henry Borden; Os passivos ambientais no reservatorio Billings e os seus impactos na geracao hidroenergetica da Usina Henry Borden

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    Almeida, Daniel Ladeira [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The primary assertion is that this article argues that the recovery in production of hydropower in Henry Borden (UHB) is the reduction of environmental liabilities in the Billings reservoir. In this context, the aim of this paper is to provide a first consideration of the possibility of recovery of production Henry Borden hydropower plant of recovering the multiple uses of the reservoir. From this perspective, we interviewed representatives of CETESB (Sanitation Environmental Technology Company) and EMAE (Metropolitan Water and Energy Company SA) for consideration of actions that include environmental policies aimed at increasing the production of electricity in Henry Borden in order to obtain results that may contribute to the multiple uses of the Billings reservoir. Noting that the range of laws aimed at protecting the water sources was limited to disjointed public policy that has reduced the resilience of the Billings reservoir. (author)

  8. Home range and use of habitat of western yellow-billed cuckoos on the middle Rio Grande, New Mexico

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    Juddson Sechrist, jschrist@nsbr.gov; Darrell Ahlers, dahlers@usbr.gov; Katherine Potak Zehfuss, kzehfuss@usbr.gov; Robert Doster, rob_doster@fws.gov; Paxton, Eben; Ryan, Vicky M.

    2013-01-01

    The western yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus occidentalis) is a Distinct Population Segment that has been proposed for listing under the Endangered Species Act, yet very little is known about its spatial use on the breeding grounds. We implemented a study, using radio telemetry, of home range and use of habitat for breeding cuckoos along the Middle Rio Grande in central New Mexico in 2007 and 2008. Nine of 13 cuckoos were tracked for sufficient time to generate estimates of home range. Overall size of home ranges for the 2 years was 91 ha for a minimum-convex-polygon estimate and 62 ha for a 95%-kernel-home-range estimate. Home ranges varied considerably among individuals, highlighting variability in spatial use by cuckoos. Additionally, use of habitat differed between core areas and overall home ranges, but the differences were nonsignificant. Home ranges calculated for western yellow-billed cuckoos on the Middle Rio Grande are larger than those in other southwestern riparian areas. Based on calculated home ranges and availability of riparian habitat in the study area, we estimate that the study area is capable of supporting 82-99 nonoverlapping home ranges of cuckoos. Spatial data from this study should contribute to the understanding of the requirements of area and habitat of this species for management of resources and help facilitate recovery if a listing occurs.

  9. Sedimentation in Rio La Venta Canyon in Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir, Chiapas, Mexico

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    de La Fuente, J. A.; Lisle, T.; Velasquez, J.; Allison, B. L.; Miller, A.

    2002-12-01

    Sedimentation of Rio La Venta as it enters the Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir in Chiapas, Mexico, threatens a unique part of the aquatic ecosystem. Rio La Venta enters the reservoir via a narrow canyon about 16 km long with spectacular, near-vertical limestone bluffs up to 320 m high and inhabited by the flora and fauna of a pristine tropical forest. Karst terrain underlies most of the Rio La Venta basin in the vicinity of the reservoir, while deeply weathered granitic terrain underlies the Rio Negro basin, and the headwaters of the Rio La Venta to the south. The Rio Negro joins Rio La Venta 3 km downstream of the upper limit of the reservoir and delivers the bulk of the total clastic sediment (mostly sand and finer material). The canyon and much of the contributing basin lie within the Reserva de la Biosfera, Selva El Ocote, administered by the Comision Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas, part of the Secretaria de Medioambiente y Recursos Naturales. The Klamath National Forest Forest has cooperated with its Mexican counterparts since 1993 in natural resource management, neo-tropical bird inventories, wildfire management, and more recently in watershed analyses. Rates of sedimentation are estimated from bathymetric surveys conducted in March, 2002. A longitudinal profile down the inundated canyon during a high reservoir level shows an inflection from a slope of 0.0017 to one of 0.0075 at 7.2 km downstream of the mouth of Rio Negro. The bed elevation at this point corresponds to the lowest reservoir level, suggesting that the gentler sloping bed upstream is formed by fluvial processes during drawdown and that downstream by pluvial processes. Using accounts that boats could access Rio Negro during low water levels in 1984, we estimate an annual sedimentation rate of roughly 3 million cubic meters per year. This suggests that boats might no longer be able to access the most spectacular section of canyon upstream of Rio Negro within a decade, depending on how the

  10. Challenges for the Management of Cells and Batteries After Use: Nomination of Bill on E-Waste in the City of Rio Claro - SP

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    Maíra Rubini Ruiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present both the political and educational actions that are the major subjects of bill on management of batteries in Rio Claro city, SP, Brazil. While the political actions refer to the furthering of a bill approved recently in the local Youth Parliament  for presentation in the Board of Aldermen, the educational actions relate to the creation of an environmental education program to orient the disposal of batteries at the municipal level. The National Policy on Solid Waste (Law 12,305 passed in 2010 introduced mechanisms to accomplish the shared responsibility for the lifecycle of batteries (and other products and reverse logistics. This law classified batteries into the category of toxic waste. The study that supported the writing of the bill included an analysis of the existing public and private initiatives on batteries´ collection in Rio Claro seeking treatment in major urban centers having the reverse logistics as a premise. In recognition of the importance of the environmental education program, the local Education Secretariat, supported by Sepladema, has defined a schedule for the lectures to be given in public schools. In addition, an application claiming for reforms in the existing public ecopoints was submitted and approved in the Youth Parliament and forwarded for further approval by Sepladema.

  11. Fecundity of the Hypostomus affinis (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) in the Lajes Reservoir, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Duarte,Silvana; Araújo,Francisco Gerson

    2014-01-01

    The armored catfish Hypostomus affinis is a widespread Loricariidae fish in the Lajes Reservoir (22o42’-22o50’ S; 43o53’-44o05’ W), the largest lentic environment in the Rio de Janeiro State, but little is known about their reproductive biology. One hundred and twenty five females, captured from January 1996 to December 1997, were used to assess ovarian development (29 were used to determine fecundity). The oocyte distribution by size-diameter classes revealed the occurrence of two modes sugg...

  12. Ecohydromorphology of river environments of the das Velhas River upstream of Rio de Pedras hydroelectric reservoir, MG, Brazil

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    Helena Lúcia Menezes Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the applicability of ecohydromorphology assessment in differentiating ecophysical structure of river habitats of Rio das Velhas river basin upward of Rio de Pedras reservoir, Minas Gerais,Brazil. It also presents the identification of the factors conditioning the ecophysical structure of river habitats. This review associated with biological and physico-chemical conditions of the waters aims to assess the ecological integrity of the river system and also validate the characterization of water bodies identified on a large scale in the Rio das Velhas basin.

  13. Fecundity of the Hypostomus affinis (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) in the Lajes Reservoir, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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    Duarte, Silvana; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2002-03-01

    The armored catfish Hypostomus affinis is a widespread Loricariidae fish in the Lajes Reservoir (22 degrees 42'-22 degrees 50' S; 43 degrees 53'-44 degrees 05' W), the largest lentic environment in the Rio de Janeiro State, but little is known about their reproductive biology. One hundred and twenty five females, captured from January 1996 to December 1997, were used to assess ovarian development (29 were used to determine fecundity). The oocyte distribution by size-diameter classes revealed the occurrence of two modes suggesting an asynchronic development of the ovaries. The total fecundity ranged from 1235 to 4304, averaging 2374. An exponential relationship between fecundity and total length was determined, and a direct linear relationship was found between fecundity and total weight and gonad weight.

  14. Comparison of total Hg results in sediment samples from Rio Grande reservoir determine by NAA and CV AAS

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    Franklin, Robson L., E-mail: robsonf@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [Centro Tecnologico de Saneamento Basico (ELAI/CETESB), SP, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Laboratorio de Quimica Inorganica; Bevilacqua, Jose Eduardo [Centro Tecnologico de Saneamento Basico (CETESB), SP, Sao Paulo (Brazil). UNIFIEO - Centro Universitario FIEO; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica (LAN/CRPq)

    2011-07-01

    The Rio Grande reservoir is located in the Metropolitan area of Sao Paulo and it is used for recreation purposes and as source water for drinking water production. During the last decades has been detected mercury contamination in the sediments of this reservoir, mainly in the eastern part, near the main affluent of the reservoir, in the Rio Grande da Serra and Ribeirao Pires counties. In the present study bottom sediment samples were collected in four different sites into four sampling campaigns during the period of September 2008 to January 2010. The samples were dried at room temperature, ground and passed through a 2 mm sieve. Total Hg determination in the sediment samples was carried out by two different analytical techniques: neutron activation analysis (NAA) and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV AAS). The methodology validation, in terms of precision and accuracy, was performed by reference materials, and presented a recovery of 83 to 108%. The total Hg results obtained by both analytical techniques ranged from 3 to 71 mg kg-1 and were considered similar by statistical analysis, even though NAA technique furnishes the total concentration while CV AAS using the 3015 digestion procedure characterizes only the bioavailable Hg. These results confirm that both analytical techniques were suitable to detect the Hg concentration levels in the Rio Grande sediments studied. The Hg levels in the sediment of the Rio Grande reservoir confirm the anthropogenic origin for this element in this ecosystem. (author)

  15. Spatial and temporal variation of Dona Francisca reservoir (Jacuí river, Rio Grande do Sul State, a subtropical reservoir=Variação temporal e espacial do reservatório Dona Francisca (rio Jacuí, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, um reservatório subtropical

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    Albano Schwarzbold

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the behavior of a reservoir located on subtropical latitude (Dona Francisca reservoir. The limnological variables measured were dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH and electric conductivity. Measurements were taken quarterly at different sampling sites along the reservoir. The results indicated the formation of longitudinal zones regarding circulation patterns and stratification, beyond the influence from the water masses of the main tributary. The vertical profiles were obtained. The behavior of the reservoir is similar to others previously studied in the country, but with shorter time-lag stratification and a narrower range, possibly due to the shorter residence time of the water, and to the latitude, where summer is shorter.O estudo buscou analisar o comportamento das variáveis limnológicas, dentre elas oxigênio dissolvido, temperatura, pH e condutividade elétrica, em um reservatório de latitude subtropical (reservatório Dona Francisca. Medidas trimestrais foram feitas em diferentes locais do reservatório, onde foram obtidos os perfis de profundidade. Os resultados indicaram a formação de zonas longitudinais a partir dos padrões de circulação e estratificação, além da influência exercida pelas massas de água do afluente principal. Conclui-se que o comportamento do reservatório se assemelha a outros no país, mas com intervalo de tempo de estratificação menos prolongado e amplitudes menos acentuadas, em parte, possivelmente, pelo pequeno tempo de residência da água e sua posição latitudinal, quando o verão é mais curto.

  16. Movement of Sediment Associated With Lowered Reservoir Levels in the Rio La Venta Arm of the Presa Netzahualcoyotl, Chiapas, Mexico

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    Hilton, S.; de La Fuente, J.; Lisle, T. E.; Velasquez, J.; Allison, B.; Olson, B.; Quinones, R.

    2003-12-01

    A joint sedimentation study is currently underway at the Netzahualcoyotl reservoir in Chiapas, Mexico, involving the Comision Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas (CONANP) of the Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales and the USDA Forest Service. The reservoir is adjacent to the Reserva de la Biosfera, Selva El Ocote, administered by CONANP. Ongoing research is intended to provide watershed and reservoir managers with strategies to protect the resources of Rio La Venta canyon. The Rio La Venta arm of the reservoir is incised into karst terrain, with near-vertical limestone walls up to 300 meters high. The canyon is fed by two rivers, Rio La Selva and Rio Negro, and is surrounded by pristine tropical forest. The majority of the clastic sediment (predominantly sand and fine gravel) entering the reservoir originates in the headwaters of the two rivers which are underlain by weathered and dissected granitic terrain. Rapid sedimentation of the partially inundated canyon poses a threat to the aquatic ecosystem, as well as to recreational resources. Longitudinal and transverse profiles were surveyed in the inundated canyon in March of 2002 and repeated in April of 2003 when the reservoir level was 15 meters lower. The 2002 longitudinal profile shows an inflection from a slope of 0.0017 to one of 0.0075 at 7.2 km downstream of the mouth of Rio Negro. In 2003, the two slopes remained the same, but the bed lowered about 5 meters and the inflection point moved downstream about 2.3 km. We calculated that reservoir lowering in 2003 allowed the transport of 2.5 million cubic meters of sand further out into the reservoir. This volume is more than the average annual rate of filling up to the 2002 level since 1984 when sedimentation was not as advanced (De la Fuente et al., 2002), which was calculated disregarding loss of sediment to the main reservoir. Field observations at late dry season low flows in 2003 revealed active transport of sand and pebbles and formation

  17. Water-quality trends in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin using sediment cores from reservoirs

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    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, B.J.; Callender, Edward C.

    1997-01-01

    Water-quality trends reflect the relation between water quality and human activities, chronicling changes in concentrations of environmental contaminants, introduction of new contaminants, and successful efforts in environmental pollution remediation. Historical data available for analyzing trends often have severe limitations, from questionable accuracy to unknown sampling and analytic methodologies. Where data are unavailable or have such limitations, water-quality trends sometimes can be reconstructed using sediment cores from lakes and reservoirs.

  18. Identification and dating of indigenous water storage reservoirs along the Rio San José at Laguna Pueblo, western New Mexico, USA

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    Huckleberry, Gary; Ferguson, T.J.; Rittenour, Tammy M.; Banet, Chris; Mahan, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    An investigation into indigenous water storage on the Rio San José in western New Mexico was conducted in support of efforts by the Pueblo of Laguna to adjudicate their water rights. Here we focus on stratigraphy and geochronology of two Native American-constructed reservoirs. One reservoir located near the community of Casa Blanca was formed by a ∼600 m (2000 feet) long stone masonry dam that impounded ∼1.6 × 106 m3 (∼1300 acre-feet) of stored water. Four optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages obtained on reservoir deposits indicate that the dam was constructed prior to AD 1825. The other reservoir is located adjacent to Old Laguna Pueblo and contains only a small remnant of its former earthen dam. The depth and distribution of reservoir deposits and a photogrammetric analyses of relict shorelines indicate a storage capacity of ∼6.5 × 106 m3 (∼5300 ac-ft). OSL ages from above and below the base of the reservoir indicate that the reservoir was constructed sometime after AD 1370 but before AD 1750. The results of our investigation are consistent with Laguna oral history and Spanish accounts demonstrating indigenous construction of significant water-storage reservoirs on the Rio San José prior to the late nineteenth century.

  19. Reservoir

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    M. Mokhtar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Scarab field is an analog for the deep marine slope channels in Nile Delta of Egypt. It is one of the Pliocene reservoirs in West delta deep marine concession. Channel-1 and channel-2 are considered as main channels of Scarab field. FMI log is used for facies classification and description of the channel subsequences. Core data analysis is integrated with FMI to confirm the lithologic response and used as well for describing the reservoir with high resolution. A detailed description of four wells penetrated through both channels lead to define channel sequences. Some of these sequences are widely extended within the field under study exhibiting a good correlation between the wells. Other sequences were of local distribution. Lithologic sequences are characterized mainly by fining upward in Vshale logs. The repetition of these sequences reflects the stacking pattern and high heterogeneity of the sandstone reservoir. It also refers to the sea level fluctuation which has a direct influence to the facies change. In terms of integration of the previously described sequences with a high resolution seismic data a depositional model has been established. The model defines different stages of the channel using Scarab-2 well as an ideal analog.

  20. Radionuclide Migration at the Rio Blanco Site, A Nuclear-stimulated Low-permeability Natural Gas Reservoir

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    Clay A. Cooper; Ming Ye; Jenny Chapman; Craig Shirley

    2005-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies conducted a program in the 1960s and 1970s that evaluated technology for the nuclear stimulation of low-permeability gas reservoirs. The third and final project in the program, Project Rio Blanco, was conducted in Rio Blanco County, in northwestern Colorado. In this experiment, three 33-kiloton nuclear explosives were simultaneously detonated in a single emplacement well in the Mesaverde Group and Fort Union Formation, at depths of 1,780, 1,899, and 2,039 m below land surface on May 17, 1973. The objective of this work is to estimate lateral distances that tritium released from the detonations may have traveled in the subsurface and evaluate the possible effect of postulated natural-gas development on radionuclide migration. Other radionuclides were considered in the analysis, but the majority occur in relatively immobile forms (such as nuclear melt glass). Of the radionuclides present in the gas phase, tritium dominates in terms of quantity of radioactivity in the long term and contribution to possible whole body exposure. One simulation is performed for {sup 85}Kr, the second most abundant gaseous radionuclide produced after tritium.

  1. Simulação numérica do comportamento térmico do reservatório do Rio Verde Numerical simulation of the temperature dynamics at Rio Verde Reservoir

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    Danieli Mara Ferreira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mudanças na temperatura da água e na dinâmica de estratificação térmica podem causar efeitos negativos sobre os processos físicos, químicos e biológicos de reservatórios. A variação da temperatura afeta a densidade da água e, como consequência, altera os processos de transporte. Um modelo unidimensional de transferência de calor é utilizado para simular a temperatura do reservatório do Rio Verde, localizado na região metropolitana de Curitiba, Estado do Paraná. Na solução da equação, usou-se o método de diferenças finitas. O modelo foi calibrado e validado por meio dos dados de dois meses: julho de 2009 e março de 2010. Os resultados mostram uma boa concordância entre os valores simulados e observados. Esses resultados ainda permitem avaliar as relações da profundidade da termoclina com a radiação solar e a velocidade do vento.Changes in the water temperature and in the thermal stratification dynamics can be responsible for negative effects on physical, chemical and biological processes of reservoirs. The temperature variation affects the water density and, consequently, alters the transport processes. A one-dimensional model of thermal evolution is used to simulate the temperature of Rio Verde reservoir, located in the Curitiba metropolitan area, Paraná state, Brazil. The finite difference method was employed for the numerical solution of the equation. The model was calibrated and validated by means of the data from two different months: July 2009 and March 2010. The results show a good agreement between simulated and observed values. These results still allow evaluating the relationships between the depth of the thermocline with solar radiation and wind speed.

  2. Allozyme relationships in hypostomines (Teleostei: Loricariidae) from the Itaipu Reservoir, Upper Rio Paraná basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Cláudio Henrique; Renesto, Erasmo; dos Reis, Roberto Esser; Moura, Maurício Osvaldo; Mateus, Rogério Pincela

    2005-03-01

    In an allozyme electrophoresis survey of 15 hypostomine species from the Itaipu Hydroelectric Reservoir, 25 loci from 14 enzyme systems were scored. Allozyme data allowed recording diagnostic genetic markers for all species analyzed and for some species groups within Hypostomus, a taxon which is taxonomically still unresolved in the Upper Rio Paraná basin. The mean expected heterozygosity of the species was considerably variable and hypotheses to tentatively explain this variation are discussed. A cladogram based upon the allelic frequencies of the species analyzed was produced by the continuous maximum likelihood method: Rhinelepis aspera and M. parananus were separated from the species of Hypostominae by a long branch length. Pterygoplichthys anisitsi was the sister of all the representatives of the genus Hypostomus. Within Hypostomus, two main clades were produced: in the first, H. cochliodon was the sister of the species comprising the H. plecostomus group, and in the second, the tree showed the following relationships: (H. albopunctatus (H. regani + Hypostomus sp. 3) + (H. margaritifer (H. microstomus (Hypostomus sp. 1 (H. ternetzi + Hypostomus sp. 2)). Hypostomus ternetzi and Hypostomus sp. 2 are referred to here as representatives of the H. ternetzi group.

  3. Bill Maurer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Tooker

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Professor Bill Maurer is a renowned cultural anthropologist who conducts research on law, property, money and finance, focusing on the technological infrastructures and social relations of exchange and payment. Professor Maurer graduated from Stanford University in 1994 with a PhD in Anthropology. He moved to UC Irvine in 1996 as Assistant Professor, going on to become Chair of UC Irvine’s Department of Anthropology (2005-2011 and Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Studies in the Social Sciences (2011-2013. In July 2013 he assumed his current role as Dean of UC Irvine’s School of Social Sciences. Professor Maurer has published on topics ranging from offshore financial services to mobile phone-enabled money transfers, Islamic finance, alternative currencies, and the future of money. He is founding director of the Institute for Money, Technology and Financial Inclusion, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and was the founding co-director of the Intel Science and Technology Center in Social Computing. He is the editor of six collections, as well as the author of Recharting the Caribbean: Land, Law and Citizenship in the British Virgin Islands (1997, Pious Property: Islamic Mortgages in the United States (2006, and Mutual Life, Limited: Islamic Banking, Alternative Currencies, Lateral Reason (2005. The latter received the Victor Turner Prize in 2005. Professor Maurer visited the University of Warwick in September 2014 under the auspices of Warwick’s Global Governance GRP.

  4. Avaliação da vulnerabilidade ambiental de reservatórios à eutrofização Evaluation of reservoirs environmental vulnerability to eutrophication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cléa Brito de Figueirêdo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho apresenta uma ferramenta de análise da vulnerabilidade de reservatórios à eutrofização, visando subsidiar ações de controle e remediação desse processo. Foram analisadas três subbacias de açudes - Araras, Edson Queiroz e Jaibaras, da bacia do Acaraú, CE, Brasil. A análise multiatributo usada na definição de indicadores ambientais de vulnerabilidade dos açudes à eutrofização, considerou sua sensibilidade e fatores de pressão nas suas sub-bacias que acarretam o transporte de sedimentos e nutrientes para os reservatórios. Foi utilizado um Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG com a ferramenta álgebra de mapas para manipular dados de uso e ocupação do solo, declividade do terreno e erodibilidade do solo. Foi identificada alta vulnerabilidade à eutrofização nos três açudes pelas susceptibilidades à erosão, alta carga poluidora principalmente pela pecuária extensiva na região e baixa profundidade relativa dos reservatórios.This work presents a tool to analyze the vulnerability of reservoirs to eutrophication, aiming to subsidize control and remediation actions related with this process. It was analyzed the water basins of Araras, Edson Queiroz and Jaibaras reservoirs, located in the Acaraú watershed, Ceará, Brazil. The multi-criteria analyses methodology used, in order to define environmental vulnerability indicators to reservoir eutrophication, considered reservoir sensibility and pressure factors in the water basin responsible for the transport of sediments and nutrients to the reservoir. A Geographic Information System (GIS with map algebra as major tool was applied to soil use and occupation, declivity and erosion indicators. It was identified high vulnerability to eutrophication in the three mentioned reservoirs because of the waterbasins susceptibility to erosion, high phosphorous load mainly from the extensive cattle raising and low relative depth of the reservoirs.

  5. Reservatórios domiciliares de água e controle do Aedes aegypti Household water reservoirs and control of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Os reservatórios domiciliares de água, comumente conhecidos como caixas d'água, constituem fonte de desenvolvimento do Aedes aegypti. Em áreas com edificações precárias existe tendência para situar essas caixas sobre a laje das casas. Todavia, observa-se na arquitetura moderna a mesma situação em relação a esses recipientes, mesmo em condomínios de luxo. Assim sendo, chama-se a atenção para a necessidade de, na vigilância entomológica, ter cuidado especial para tais reservatórios domiciliares de água.Water reservoirs for domestic use are important sites for the development of Aedes aegypti. In poor areas, these reservoirs are often located outdoors upon flat rooftops. In modern architecture buildings, however, the same is seen even in high-class condominiums. Special attention should be given to these modern architectural constructions during entomological surveillance.

  6. Ocorrência de plantas aquáticas nos reservatórios da Light-RJ Ocurrence of aquatic plants in the Light-RJ reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martins

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar as comunidades infestantes de plantas aquáticas presentes nos reservatórios da Light-Sistema de Eletricidade S.A., localizada no município de Piraí-RJ. Os levantamentos foram realizados no período de julho a setembro de 1998. Os reservatórios analisados foram: Vigário, Pereira Passos e Lajes, sendo as quantidades de pontos amostrados de 19, 9 e 15, respectivamente. Em cada ponto amostrado fez-se a marcação das coordenadas geográficas e avaliou-se a porcentagem de ocupação do corpo d'água pelas espécies de plantas aquáticas presentes. Depois da identificação das plantas, pôde-se verificar quais eram as espécies mais freqüentes e a sua distribuição dentro do sistema de geração de energia. As espécies encontradas nos reservatórios foram: Brachiaria arrecta (Hack. Stent.; Egeria densa Planch.; Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth.; Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms.; Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Rudge Nees.; Panicum rivulare Trin.; Pistia stratiotis L.; Polygonum spp.; Sagitaria montevidensis Cham. & Schlecht; Salvinia auriculata (Micheli Adans; e Thypha dominguensis L.This study aimed to describe the aquatic weeds infesting the Light-Electric System S.A. reservoirs, located in Pirai-RJ, Brazil. The survey was carried out from July to September 1998. The reservoirs analyzed were: Vigario, Pereira Passos and Lajes, with 19, 9 and 15 points being sampled, respectively. Sampled geographic coordinates were marked in each point and a visual estimate was made of the percentage of river water occupied by the aquatic plants. After plant identification, the most frequent species and their distribution were determined as follows: Brachiaria arrecta (Hack. Stent.; Egeria densa Planch.; Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth.; Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms.; Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Rudge Nees.; Panicum rivulare Trin.; Pistia stratiotis L.; Polygonum spp.; Sagitaria montevidensis Cham.& Schlecht

  7. Metazoários parasitos de seis espécies de peixes do Reservatório de Lajes, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Metazoan parasites of six fishes species from Lajes Reservoir in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline R. Paraguassú

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre abril de 2002 e julho de 2003, foram necropsiados 231 espécimes de peixes: 39 Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758, 79 A. fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819, 23 Hypostomus affinis (Steindachner, 1877, 26 Hoplias malabaricus (Bloch, 1794, 30 Loricariichthys castaneus (Castelnau, 1855 e 34 Trachelyopterus striatulus (Steindachner, 1876 provenientes do Reservatório de Lajes (22º42' - 22º50'S, 43º53' 44º05'O, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, para estudo das suas comunidades parasitárias. A maioria dos espécimes de H. affinis (95,6% e H. malabaricus (84,6% estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espécie de metazoário. Em A. bimaculatus, A. fasciatus, L. castaneus e T. striatulus 41%, 39,2%, 56,7% e 14,7% dos espécimes estavam parasitados, respectivamente. Foram coletadas oito diferentes espécies de metazoários parasitos: 2 em A. bimaculatus, 3 em A. fasciatus, 3 em H. affinis, 4 em H. malabaricus, 4 em L. castaneus e 1 em T. striatulus. As comunidades de metazoários parasitos das seis espécies de peixes estudadas apresentaram típico padrão de distribuição agregada. Foram observados dois casos de correlação negativa entre a abundância e a prevalência parasitárias e o comprimento total dos hospedeiros. A comunidade parasitária de L. castaneus apresentou os maiores valores de intensidade média, índice de dispersão e diversidade. As comunidades parasitárias dos peixes estudados apresentaram escassez de correlação entre a abundância, riqueza parasitária e diversidade com o comprimento total dos hospedeiros. Os baixos valores de riqueza e diversidade das comuni-dades parasitárias podem ser atribuídos as características oligotróficas do Reservatório de Lajes.From April 2002 to July 2003, 231 freshwater fishes from Lajes Reservoir in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (22º42' - 22º50'S, 43º53' - 44º05'W were necropsied to study their community metazoan parasites: 39 Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758, 79 A. fasciatus

  8. The fate of Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth. detritus within a tropical reservoir O destino dos detritos de Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth. em um reservatório tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Bianchessi da Cunha Santino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study is aimed at comparing the kinetics of decomposition of Eichhornia azurea and discussing the fate of its detritus; METHODS: The samples of aquatic macrophytes and water were collected in the Piraju Reservoir (São Paulo State, Brazil. The plant material was oven-dried and triturated and for each experimental condition (aerobic and anaerobic, 72 mineralization chambers were prepared with plant fragments and reservoir water. On sampling days the particulate and dissolved organic matter were quantified (on carbon basis POC and DOC, respectively; RESULTS: The decomposition of E. azurea is more efficient under aerobic conditions, being 2.2 times faster than for the anaerobic process, according to the amount of mineralized carbon. For the decay of leaves, stems and roots of E. azurea the aerobic processes were 1.22-fold faster. It is assumed that the fractions responsible for the high oxygen consumption have reduced periods of half-time, and therefore do not accumulate in the ecosystems. Owing to the biomass of E. azurea in the Piraju Reservoir, the aerobic decay of E. azurea can promote moderate depletion in the dissolved oxygen budget. With the rate of the mineralization of refractory materials (Ξ half-time varying from 385 to 462 days, the fibrous debris of this plant, i.e. refractory fractions, associated with the appropriate conditions of pH and oxi-reduction potential, can contribute to the gas production and storage of particulate organic matter in sediments.OBJETIVO: Nesse estudo foram comparadas as cinéticas de decomposição de Eichhornia azurea e discutidos os destinos de seus detritos; MÉTODOS: As amostras de plantas e de água foram coletadas no reservatório de Piraju (Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As plantas foram secas e trituradas; para cada condição experimental (meio aeróbio e anaeróbio foram preparadas 72 câmaras de mineralização com fragmentos de planta e água do reservatório. Nos dias de coleta as fra

  9. The fallacy of "equal treatment" in Brazil's bill of rights for internet users A falácia da "igualdade de tratamento" na carta brasileira de direitos dos usuários da internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gregory Sidak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The "Brazilian bill of rights for internet users," or "marco civil," has been under consideration at the brazilian congress since 2011. Marco civil's provisions for network neutrality have been particularly controversial. Proponents of network neutrality in Brazil advocate for the "equal treatment" of all data packets, including banning internet service providers from offering to content providers the option to purchase enhanced quality of service in the delivery of data packets. These network neutrality rules conflict with the other goals and principles of marco civil-particularly goals to promote internet access, to foster innovation, and to protect the constitutional right of freedom of speech and the free flow of information.A "carta Brasileira de direitos dos usuários da internet," ou "marco civil," tramita no congresso Brasileiro desde 2011. As disposições do marco civil relativas à neutralidade de rede são particularmente controversas. Os defensores da neutralidade de rede no Brasil advogam pela "igualdade de tratamento" de todos os pacotes de dados, inclusive proibindo que provedores de serviço de acesso à internet ofereçam aos provedores de conteúdo a opção de adquirir uma melhor qualidade de serviço na entrega de pacotes de dados. Essas disposições relativas à neutralidade de rede conflitam com outros objetivos e princípios do marco civil - especialmente os objetivos de promover o acesso à internet, promover a inovação, e garantir o direito constitucional de liberdade de expressão e informação.

  10. Monitoramento de fitoplâncton e microcistina no reservatório da UHE Americana Monitoring phytoplankton and microcistyn at the Americana reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.R. Ferreira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na UHE Americana, pertencente à Companhia Paulista de Força e Luz, e faz parte de um projeto de pesquisa e desenvolvimento realizado em conjunto com a Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP, de Botucatu. As amostragens de água foram realizadas nos meses de fevereiro, abril, junho e outubro de 2004. As características analisadas foram: temperatura da água, pH, oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade, nitrogênio total, nitrito, nitrato, amônia, fósforo total, fosfato, fosfato inorgânico, juntamente com análise qualitativa e quantitativa da comunidade fitoplanctônica e a toxicidade. O reservatório apresentou valores elevados de fósforo total, variando de 18 a 509 µg L-1; fosfato, de 4 a 463 µg L-1; nitrogênio total, de 0,99 a 17,25 mg L-1; e nitrato, de 0,26 a 15,29 mg L-1. Para a comunidade fitoplanctônica foram encontrados 103 táxons em todo o período amostrado; a maior riqueza foi encontrada no ponto P06, e a maior pobreza de táxons, nos pontos localizadas no corpo central do reservatório (P02, P03, P04 e P05. A maior concentração de cianofícea ocorreu em abril de 2004: 5.375.175 ind. L-1. As espécies que apresentaram as maiores densidades foram Microcystis aeruginosa, Anabaena spiroides, Microcystis sp. e Pseudoanabaena mucicola; a maior densidade foi apresentada por Anabaena spiroides, com 4.178.084 ind. L-1. Nos meses de junho e outubro a classe Cryptophyceae teve uma grande contribuição para a densidade total. Apesar da grande densidade de cianobactérias, os valores de toxicidade ficaram abaixo do limite permitido pela Portaria nº 1.469.This work was carried out at the Americana Reservoir, owned by Companhia Paulista de Força e Luz, and was part of a joint R&D project with Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - Botucatu - São Paulo - Brazil. Water sampling was collected in February, April, June and October 2004. The following characteristics were analyzed: water temperature, p

  11. Consumer Product Safety Bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Enterprise Inst. for Public Policy Research, Washington, DC.

    This legislative analysis of the actions of the 92nd Congress concerning consumer product safety bills, current as of March 20, 1972, presents briefly the background of Congressional investigations in this area. Describing in detail four major bills which focus on the establishment of an independent government agency regulating consumer products…

  12. Hydrologic-agronomic-economic model for the optimal operation of the Yaqui river reservoir system using genetic algorithms; Modelo hidrologico-agronomico-economico para la operacion optima del sistema de presas del rio Yaqui, usando algoritmos geneticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minjares-Lugo, Jose Luis; Salmon-Castelo, Roberto Fernando; Oroz-Ramos, Lucas Antonio [Comision Nacional del Agua (Mexico); Cruz-Medina, Isidro Roberto [Instituto Tecnologico de Sonora (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    The objective of this study is to develop an integrated hydrologic-agronomic-economic annual model for the optimal operation of the Yaqui River reservoir system to support irrigation and urban water supply in the watershed. The model solves for each year's water allocations by crop, maximizing annual agricultural income for a specified risk of reservoir shortages and spills. It accounts for adjustments in water supply arising from changes in precipitation and runoff uncertainty and from changes in water demand arising from variations in crop prices and production costs. Model predictions for the agricultural year 2000-2001 are compared with observed results to test the model's predictive ability. Results demonstrate that the model can be used to optimize and analyze reservoir system operation and for water resources management in the Irrigation District No. 041, providing a framework for improving the operation of a reservoir system, selecting an optimal cropping pattern according to its maximum economic benefits, and in the optimal monthly water releases from the reservoir system. The model considers the simultaneous operation of three dams and it is applied to the Irrigation District No. 041, Rio Yaqui. [Spanish] El objetivo de este estudio es desarrollar un modelo integral de optimizacion anual para definir la operacion del sistema de presas del rio Yaqui y la asignacion del volumen mensual de agua para la irrigacion de diferentes cultivos, asi como para satisfacer los requerimientos de uso urbano basado en las condiciones hidrologicas, agronomicas y economicas en la cuenca. El modelo maximiza los beneficios anuales netos del sector agricola, minimizando el riesgo de deficit o derrames en el sistema de presas; incluye cambios en el suministro de agua debido a la incertidumbre de las precipitaciones y del escurrimiento del rio y cambios en la demanda de agua provocados por la incertidumbre de los precios y costos de los cultivos. Se utilizaron datos del

  13. Stratigraphy sequence analysis application for multi scalar characterization of paralic reservoirs - an example in the Guata group (E O-Permian) of the Parana Basin, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Aplicacao da estratigrafia de sequencias para caracterizacao multiescalar de reservatorios paralicos - um exemplo no Grupo Guata (EO-Permiano) da Bacia do Parana, no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuechle, Juliano [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Curso de Pos-graduacao em Geociencias]. E-mail: juk666@zipmail.com.br; Holz, Michael [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: michael.holz@ufrgs.br

    2003-07-01

    Detailed stratigraphic analysis of the Early Permian Rio Bonito and Palermo Formations of the Parana Basin in the region of Sao Gabriel County has been used for a study on reservoir characterization of paralic sandstones. Two main depositional systems were recognized, a fluvial-dominated delta system and a wave-dominated barrier island system. The succession is divided in two third-order depositional sequences, enclosing thirteen fourth-order para sequences. This high-resolution stratigraphic framework was the base for a multi scale approach on reservoir characterization of the sandstone bodies. Reservoir heterogeneities are discussed, staring from the scale of depositional sequence (heterogeneity level 1), passing down to heterogeneity at the scale of systems tracts (heterogeneity level 2) and finalizing with an approach at para sequence scale (heterogeneity level 3). Main control on heterogeneity at the first level is base-level variation as generating mechanism for un conformities at the sediment type and rate. At the second level, the reservoir heterogeneity is controlled by the lateral and vertical variations in thickness of particular systems within the different systems tracts, and at the third level, the heterogeneity occurs controlling reservoir continuity and connectivities between reservoirs. The study supplies a model which is useful as a predictive tool for similar geologic settings in producing oil fields. (author)

  14. Determination of metals in water from Billings dam, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Talita; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Ulrich, Joao C.; Yamaguishi, Renata Bazante, E-mail: taoliveira@ipen.br, E-mail: jesarkis@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Menezes, Luciana Carvalho Bezerra de; Castro, Paula Maria Genova de; Monteiro Junior, Adalberto Jose; Maruyama, Lidia Sumile, E-mail: lcbm@usp.br [Instituto de Pesca, (IP/SAA-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secretaria da Agricultura e Abastecimento do Estado de Sao Paulo

    2013-07-01

    The Billings reservoir, located in Sao Paulo, Brazil, is used for several purposes such as: water supply, electric generation, fishing and leisure. Although considered an area of environmental protection, in recent years the dam has suffered diverse environmental aggressions including the release of toxic metals. This study presents a recent evaluation of metal contents along the Dam. Samples were collected every three months during the period of winter 2009 to summer 2010. Samples were collected in thirteen points along of the dam, as follows: Rio dos Porcos (Point 1), Summit Control (Point 2), Ilha do Bigua (Point 3), Casa Caida (Point 4), Barragem (Point 5), Foz de Taquacetuba (Point 6), Braco Borore (Point 7), Foz de Borore (Point 8), Alvarenga (Point 9), Pedreira (Point 10), Borore's Margin (Point 11), Capivari I's Margin (Point 12) and Capivari II's Margin (Point 13). The determination of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn was performed by using high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICPMS). The methodology has been validated using certified reference material Riverine Water Reference Material for Trace Metals provided by National Research Council Canada (NRCC). The sampling points located in the Pedreira, Borore's Margin, Alvarenga, Barragem Taquacetuba, Casa Caida e Ilha do Bigua presented the highest concentrations. The level for Fe, Cu and Ni were higher than the ones reported in the literature and above the limit set by CONAMA 2914/201. (author)

  15. Spatial and temporal variation of Dona Francisca reservoir (Jacuí river, Rio Grande do Sul State, a subtropical reservoir - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i3.10078

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the behavior of a reservoir located on subtropical latitude (Dona Francisca reservoir. The limnological variables measured were dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH and electric conductivity. Measurements were taken quarterly at different sampling sites along the reservoir. The results indicated the formation of longitudinal zones regarding circulation patterns and stratification, beyond the influence from the water masses of the main tributary. The vertical profiles were obtained. The behavior of the reservoir is similar to others previously studied in the country, but with shorter time-lag stratification and a narrower range, possibly due to the shorter residence time of the water, and to the latitude, where summer is shorter.

  16. Abundância de ciliados planctônicos em reservatórios em cascata do rio Paranapanema, Brasil- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i4.1532 Abundance of planktonic ciliates in a cascading reservoirs of the Paranapanema River, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i4.1532

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa Cláudia Zolin Perenha

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar os padrões de distribuição espacial e temporal da densidade e biomassa dos ciliados planctônicos em reservatórios em cascata do rio Paranapanema (22o 18’ - 23o 35’ S; 49o 30’ - 52o 50’ W. Pretende-se testar a hipótese de que, ao longo da série de reservatórios, observa-se um decréscimo da abundância desses organismos no sentido montante-jusante. Para tal, foram coletadas amostras em sete reservatórios, no ano de 2001, em dois períodos hidrológicos distintos, à sub-superfície da região lacustre, com o auxílio de uma garrafa de Van Dorn de 5 litros. Alíquotas de um litro foram obtidas e sua fixação realizada com solução fixadora composta de lugol alcalino, formol e tiossulfeto de sódio. Os valores obtidos para a abundância (densidade e biomassa de ciliados nos diferentes reservatórios (0,4 a 16,6 células.mL-1; 0,23 a 20,7 µg.C.L-1, respectivamente foram inferiores aos resultados encontrados em ambientes eutróficos, porém similares àqueles registrados em ambientes oligo-mesotróficos. A análise dos resultados de distribuição da abundância ao longo da série de reservatórios não corroborou a hipótese preconizada de uma diminuição de densidade e biomassa no sentido montante-jusante, em função da expectativa de uma possível oligotrofização rio abaixo. Em relação aos diferentes grupos funcionais de ciliados, foi constatada a dominância dos Oligotrichida, principalmente os de menor porte (The present study aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of density and biomass of the planktonic ciliates, in a reservoir serie of the Paranapanema River (22o 18’ - 23o 35’ S; 49o 30’ - 52o 50’ W. We intend to test the hypothesis that, along reservoirs serie, there is a decrease of abundance from river towards the dam. Samplings were carried out in seven reservoirs, during 2001, in two distinct hydrological periods, at subsurface

  17. Education Bill passes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    On March 2 the U.S. House of Representatives passed a bill authorizing $425 million for science and mathematics education in fiscal 1984; the authorization is $350 million more than President Ronald Reagan requested in his budget proposal (Eos, February 15, 1983, p. 65).H.R. 1310 allocates $295 million to the Department of Education not only to improve precollege instruction in science and math, but to beef up foreign language training to aid in improving international communication among scientists. The bill also allots $130 million to the National Science Foundation for a variety of programs, the lion's share of which aims to upgrade research equipment at colleges and universities. It is hoped that industry will match the $100 million targeted for this program.

  18. Population biology of dominant fish species of the Santa Bárbara river, a tributary of the Nova Avanhandava reservoir (low Tietê river, São Paulo State, Brazil = Biologia populacional das espécies dominantes do rio Santa Bárbara, tributário do reservatório de Nova Avanhandava (baixo rio Tietê, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Daniel Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize some population biology parameters of P. squamosissimus, A. altiparanae and S. maculatus, the dominant fish species of the Santa Bárbara river, a tributary of the Nova Avanhandava reservoir, low Tietê river. Fish samplings were performed monthly between September/2002 and August/2003, using gillnets with different mesh sizes. Females of all species have larger standard lengths than males (Mann-Whitney, p O objetivo deste estudo é caracterizar alguns parâmetros da biologiapopulacional de P. squamosissimus, A. altiparanae e S. maculatus, espécies dominantes do rio Santa Bárbara, tributário do reservatório de Nova Avanhandava, baixo rio Tietê. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente entre setembro/2002 e agosto/2003, utilizando-se redes deesperas de malhagens variadas. As fêmeas de todas as espécies possuem maior comprimento-padrão que os machos (Mann-Whitney, p < 0,0001, e são mais frequentes nas classes de tamanho superiores em relação aos machos (Kolmogorov-Smirnov, p < 0,0001. Todas as populações apresentaram tipo de crescimento próximo do isométrico, porém diferenças entre machos e fêmeas foram observadas. Apenas P. squamosissimus apresentou razão sexual diferente de 1:1, com maior proporção de machos (1:2, c2, p < 0,05. A primeira maturação gonadal ocorre aos 15 cm em P. squamosissimus, 9 cm em S. maculatus e aos 8.9 cm em A. altiparanae. Em todas espécies, os adultos predominaram sobreos jovens. O fator de condição alométrico (K de P. squamosissimus e S. maculatus apresentou maiores valores nos períodos de março-maio e junho-agosto, e A. altiparanae em marçomaio (Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0,05. Estes resultados indicam que as populações estãoexplorando plenamente o ambiente lêntico, apresentando táticas de ciclo de vida ajustadas ao seu modo de ocupação do ambiente.

  19. Efeito da maturação gonadal sobre a energia dos músculos de duas espécies de piranhas do reservatório do rio Manso, Estado de Mato Grosso = Gonadal maturation effect on muscular energy in two species of piranhas (Serrasalmus marginatus and S. maculatus from rio Manso reservoir, Mato Grosso State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Hauser dos Santos

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o intuito de investigar a alocação de energia e a correlação entre esta e o fator de condição (K de duas espécies de piranhas, Serrasalmus marginatus e S. maculatus, do reservatório do rio Manso, Estado de Mato Grosso (localizado entre os paralelos 14º 52’ delatitude sul e 55º 48’ de longitude oeste. As coletas foram realizadas entre setembro de 2002 e março de 2004. As amostras de músculos de indivíduos de ambos os sexos, pertencentes a diferentes estádios de maturação gonadal e ambientes, tiveram a determinação do conteúdo energético em bomba calorimétrica e os resultados comparados com o K. Houve diferenças significativas entre os estádios de maturação apenas para os machos. As duas espécies utilizam distintamente a energia obtida do alimento. A maturação gonadal exerceu efeito sobre a alocação energética e o K, enquanto este não se correlacionou com a energia armazenada nos músculos.Aiming to investigate the allocation of energy and the correlation between this energy and the condition factor (K of two piranhas species, Serrasalmus marginatus and S. maculatus, from the reservoir of the Manso river, (located among the parallels 14°52' south latitude and 55°48' west longitude. The collections were carried between September, 2002 and March, 2004. The muscle samples of individuals from both genders belonging to different stages of gonadal maturation and environment had their energy content determined by a calorimetric pump and the results compared with K. There were significant differences among the maturation stages only for the males. The two species make distinct use of the energy obtained from the food. The gonadal maturation had an effect on the allocation of energy and K. It did not correlated with the energy stored in the muscles.

  20. Controle sanitário da propaganda de bebidas alcoólicas no Brasil: estudo dos projetos de lei de 1988 a 2004 Sanitary control of alcohol advertisement in Brazil: a study of the law bills from 1988 to 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Cristina Lopes Falcão

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa as propostas de projetos de lei para o controle sanitário da propaganda de bebidas alcoólicas nos meios de comunicação de massa, apresentados ao Congresso Nacional entre 1988 e 2004. Inserido em um debate de natureza ético-política, o controle sanitário dessa propaganda é uma questão controversa, pois os interesses pela proteção da saúde se confrontam com os interesses comerciais mesmo ante as evidências científicas de que o consumo crescente de álcool é um problema social e de saúde no mundo contemporâneo. Realizou-se a análise de conteúdo de 67 documentos, na qual se mostra que as propostas formuladas, majoritariamente, apresentam-se como estratégias de enfrentamento a essa propaganda, procurando desvincular valores associados ao produto que interferem na construção da identidade social de crianças e adolescentes e limitar o conteúdo das mensagens veiculadas nos meios de comunicação de massa, dado que este segmento está mais vulnerável. O estudo evidencia complexos desafios para o controle da propaganda, que implicam repensar a própria atuação do Estado ante esse relevante problema de Saúde Pública.This study analyses law bills towards the sanitary control of alcohol advertisement in the mass media presented to the Brazilian Congress from 1988 to 2004. The sanitary control of this advertising is a controversial issue bringing about an ethical-political debate in which the health-protecting interests conflict with commercial ones even after scientific evidence has established increasing alcohol intake as a health and social issue worldwide. The content analysis of 67 of such law bills was carried out, and these proposals were shown to consist mostly of strategies to both cope with alcohol advertising by dissociating from the product those values that might interfere with the children and teenagers' building of their social identity and limit advertisement contents in the mass media given the

  1. Josh Billings (Henry Wheeler Shaw).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesterson, David B.

    Designed for use by the general reader, the college student, and the teacher, this book analyzes the life and literary career of Josh Billings (Henry Wheeler Shaw), emphasizing his literary ventures and artistic talents. The analysis reveals Billings' talents as a subtle humorist, homespun philosopher, and artist of the essay. Chapters include…

  2. Bacterial diversity characterization in petroleum samples from Brazilian reservoirs Caracterização da diversidade bacteriana em amostras de petróleo provenientes de reservatórios brasileiros

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    Valéria Maia de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating potential differences among the bacterial communities from formation water and oil samples originated from biodegraded and non-biodegraded Brazilian petroleum reservoirs by using a PCR-DGGE based approach. Environmental DNA was isolated and used in PCR reactions with bacterial primers, followed by separation of 16S rDNA fragments in the DGGE. PCR products were also cloned and sequenced, aiming at the taxonomic affiliation of the community members. The fingerprints obtained allowed the direct comparison among the bacterial communities from oil samples presenting distinct degrees of biodegradation, as well as between the communities of formation water and oil sample from the non-biodegraded reservoir. Very similar DGGE band profiles were observed for all samples, and the diversity of the predominant bacterial phylotypes was shown to be low. Cloning and sequencing results revealed major differences between formation water and oil samples from the non-biodegraded reservoir. Bacillus sp. and Halanaerobium sp. were shown to be the predominant components of the bacterial community from the formation water sample, whereas the oil sample also included Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Rhodococcus sp., Streptomyces sp. and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The PCR-DGGE technique, combined with cloning and sequencing of PCR products, revealed the presence of taxonomic groups not found previously in these samples when using cultivation-based methods and 16S rRNA gene library assembly, confirming the need of a polyphasic study in order to improve the knowledge of the extent of microbial diversity in such extreme environments.Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar as comunidades bacterianas de amostras de água de formação e de óleo de reservatórios de petróleo brasileiros com diferentes graus de biodegradação usando a técnica de PCR-DGGE. O DNA ambiental foi isolado e empregado em reações de PCR com primers bacterianos

  3. Retocolectomia total e anastomose íleo-anal com reservatório ileal: experiência de 16 anos Total rectocolectomy and ileoanal anastomosis with ileal reservoir: experience of 16 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvenal Ricardo Navarro Góes

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available O reservatório ileal pélvico tem sido a melhor opção cirúrgica para a retocolite ulcerativa (RCU e polipose adenomatosa familiar (PAF. Desde 1983 esta técnica vem sendo empregada, e o objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar revisão desta casuística, analisando seus resultados e seus pontos controversos. Setenta e três pacientes, com média de idade de 34,6 (13-63 anos e com predomínio do sexo feminino (42 pacientes, 56,7% se submeteram ao procedimento para tratamento de RCU (46 pacientes - 63,0% e PAF(27 - 37,0%. Foram utilizadas as seguintes variantes técnicas: em S, de grande tamanho e ramo eferente longo (oito; em S pequeno e ramo eferente reduzido (22; em "dupla câmara" (20; em J (23. Todos os procedimentos foram seguidos da construção de ileostomia de proteção. De 1993 em diante, todos os pacientes tiveram a arcada do colo direito preservada. Setenta pacientes têm pelo menos um ano de pós-operatório e 61 têm dois anos ou mais com média de 7,01 (1-16 anos. Foram consideradas complicações precoces aquelas que ocorreram até o 30º dia de pós- operatório e tardias, após esse tempo. Resultados funcionais foram analisados após um ano do fechamento da ileostomia. Ocorreram 35 complicações precoces em 22 pacientes e 39 complicações tardias em 35 pacientes. Vinte e cinco pacientes não apresentaram complicações. As principais complicações foram: obstrução intestinal (19,1 %, fistulizações cutâneas, com vagina ou trato urinário (10,9%, isquemia de reservatório (parcial ou total, (9,5%, e ileíte do reservatório (pouchitis (6,8%. Nove pacientes (12,3% têm ileostomia funcionante, sendo que sete pacientes têm ainda o reservatório mantido no lugar e dois tiveram-no ressecado. A mortalidade diretamente relacionada ao procedimento foi em dois pacientes, mas outros quatro pacientes evoluíram tardiamente ao óbito, por causas como desnutrição crônica e tumor de cerebelo. Em conclusão, apesar da morbidade e da

  4. Avaliação da vulnerabilidade ambiental de reservatórios à eutrofização Evaluation of reservoirs environmental vulnerability to eutrophication

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cléa Brito de Figueirêdo; Adunias S. Teixeira; Lúcia de Fátima Pereira Araújo; Morsyleide de Freitas Rosa; Walt Disney Paulino; Suetônio Mota; José Carlos de Araújo

    2007-01-01

    Esse trabalho apresenta uma ferramenta de análise da vulnerabilidade de reservatórios à eutrofização, visando subsidiar ações de controle e remediação desse processo. Foram analisadas três subbacias de açudes - Araras, Edson Queiroz e Jaibaras, da bacia do Acaraú, CE, Brasil. A análise multiatributo usada na definição de indicadores ambientais de vulnerabilidade dos açudes à eutrofização, considerou sua sensibilidade e fatores de pressão nas suas sub-bacias que acarretam o transporte de sedim...

  5. Histologia e caracterização histoquímica do tubo gastrintestinal de Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes no reservatório de Funil, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Histology and histochemical characterization of the digestive tract of Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes in Funil reservoir, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice M. Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As estruturas teciduais do trato gastrintestinal de Pimelodus maculatus La Cepède, 1803, do reservatório de Funil (22º30'-22º35'S; 44º35'- 44º40'W foram descritas através das técnicas de hematoxilina-eosina (HE, tricômico Gomori, ácido Periódico de Schiff (PAS e alcian blue (AB pH 2,5. Objetivou-se a detecção de glicoproteínas (GPs na mucosa através de uma análise histoquímica e caracterização de possíveis alterações ao longo do trato digestório destes peixes neste sistema de elevado grau de alteração. Cinqüenta e quatro indivíduos adultos, coletados entre abril de 2003 e julho de 2004 (CT=19-38 cm foram utilizados. Na cavidade bucofaríngea, a mucosa apresenta-se com pregas longitudinais e o epitélio é do tipo estratificado pavimentoso. O esôfago apresenta o mesmo tipo de epitélio da cavidade bucofaríngea, destacando-se a predominância de células mucosas que tiveram forte reação aos métodos utilizados. O estômago foi diferenciado em região cárdica, fúndica e pilórica. A mucosa é continuamente revestida por um epitélio simples cilíndrico que apresentou reação positiva ao AB e PAS somente na superfície apical das células; a lâmina própria possui glândulas tubulares que se ramificam gradativamente e consistem de um tipo celular denominado oxinticopépticas, relacionadas com a síntese de ácido clorídrico e pepsinogênio. O intestino apresenta vilosidades revestidas por um epitélio simples cilíndrico com planura estriada e células caliciformes. Na camada submucosa do duodeno foi observada a abertura do colédoco, sendo o epitélio do tipo simples cilíndrico sem células caliciformes, positivo tanto ao PAS quanto ao AB. O ambiente eutrófico do reservatório de Funil não parece influenciar os padrões morfológicos das estruturas (esôfago, estômago e intestino e não foram observadas modificações nas atividades das células mucosas.Histological structures of the digestive traits of

  6. Economic Effects of Reservoir Re-operation Policy in the Rio Grande/Bravo for Sustainable Human and Environmental Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Partida, J. P.; Sandoval Solis, S.; Lane, B.

    2015-12-01

    A central challenge of integrated water management is the design and implementation of policies to allocate water to both humans and the environment in a sustainable manner. This study uses the results from a reach-scale water-planning model to quantify and compare the economic benefits of two water management policies: (1) a business as usual (Baseline) policy and (2) a proposed reservoir re-operation policy to provide environmental flows (EFs). Results show that the EF policy would increase water supply profit, slightly decrease recreational activities profit, and reduce costs from flood damage and environmental restoration compared to the Baseline policy. In addition to supporting ecological objectives, the proposed EF policy would increase the economic benefits of water management objectives.

  7. Plant cover, soil temperature, freeze, water stress, and evapotranspiration conditions. [Lower Rio Grande Valley Test Site: Weslaco, Texas; Falco Reservoir and the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Nixon, P. R.; Gausman, H. W.; Namken, L. N.; Leamer, R. W.; Richardson, A. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. HCMM day/night coverage 12 hours apart cannot be obtained at 26 deg N latitude; nor have any pairs 36 hours apart been obtained. A day-IR scene and a night scene for two different dates were analyzed. A profile across the test site for the same latitude shows that the two profiles are near mirror images of each other over land surfaces and that the temperature of two large water bodies, Falcon Reservoir and the Gulf of Mexico, are nearly identical on two dates. During the time interval between overpasses, the vegetative cover remained static due to winter dormancy. The data suggest that day/night temperature differences measured weeks apart may yield meaningful information about the contrast between daytime maximum and nighttime minimum temperatures for a given site.

  8. Dieta de Hypophthalmus edentatus (Spix, 1829 (Osteichthyes, Hypophthalmidae e variações de seu estoque no reservatório de Itaipu Diet of Hypophthalmus edentatus (Spix, 1829, (Osteichthyes, Hypophythalmidae and variations in its stock in Itaipu Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Agostinho

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a dieta do mapará Hypophthalmus edentatus (Osteichthyes, Hypophthalmidae no reservatório de Itaipu, durante o período de novembro/94 a outubro/97, e comparar os dados com a dieta dessa espécie nos primeiros anos de formação do reservatório, relacionando-os com a densidade de zooplâncton e fitoplâncton encontrados no ambiente e buscando possíveis relações com a depleção dos estoques que essa espécie vem apresentando nos últimos anos. Os conteúdos estomacais foram analisados pelos métodos de ocorrência e volumétrico, combinados no Índice Alimentar (IAi. A dieta do mapará no período de nov/94 a out/97 (149 estômagos mostrou um número restrito de itens alimentares, sendo composta por cladóceros, copépodos, algas e tecamebas, todos organismos planctônicos. Os resultados deste trabalho evidenciaram que o mapará utiliza, em sua dieta, principalmente zooplâncton, sendo cladóceros o zooplâncton mais ingerido (aproximadamente 63%. Não foram observadas alterações marcantes entre locais, anos e classes de tamanho estudados. Entretanto, comparações entre a dieta da espécie nos primeiros anos da formação do reservatório e aquelas do período deste estudo mostraram diferenças relevantes, com uma maior participação de cladóceros de maior tamanho (Daphnia gessneri e menor de algas cianofícias. A elevada concentração de nutrientes no período que se seguiu o represamento, com o aumento na biomassa fitoplanctônica no ambiente, e seu decréscimo com o passar dos anos, explicam essas variações. Dessa maneira, é esperado que flutuações na abundância do recurso conduzam a flutuações populacionais nesta espécie.The aim of this paper is to assess the diet of Hypophthalmus edentatus (Osteichthyes, Hypophthalmidae, also called mapará, at Itaipú Reservoir from November 1994 to October 1997 and also to compare data to the species’ diet during the first few years of the

  9. Metodologia para estimação de externalidades agropecuárias decorrentes da construção de reservatórios Methodology to estimate livestock and agricultural externalities derived from hydro power reservoirs construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Verna M. Ferreira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é o de apresentar uma metodologia que avalia e quantifica as perdas agropecuárias que ocorrem quando da construção de reservatórios para a geração de energia elétrica. Foram estudados sete reservatórios da CEMIG situados no Estado de Minas Gerais. A produção agropecuária foi obtida de acordo com dados do IBGE relativos a 2001. As áreas municipais alagadas foram calculadas com base em dados georeferenciados fornecidos pela ANEEL. Ao final, os valores das externalidades foram comparados ao custo da energia elétrica e ao PIB municipal para a avaliação da significância dos resultados. Verificou-se que quanto maior o valor da área municipal alagada, mais relevante será a externalidade. Como exemplo, o município de Grupiara tem 40% de suas terras inundadas pelo lago de Emborcação. Entre todas as localidades estudadas, esta foi aquela onde a externalidade agropecuária foi mais relevante.The objective of this work is to present a methodology that evaluates and quantifies the agricultural and livestock losses that happen when reservoirs for the electric power generation are constructed. Seven CEMIG reservoirs, located in Minas Gerais State were studied The agricultural and livestock production were obtained in agreement on with IBGE 2001 data. The municipal areas were calculated based in georeference data supplied by ANEEL. The externalities values were compared to the electric power cost and to municipal gross domestic product to evaluate the significance of the results. It was verified that as larger is the value of the municipal flooded area, more relevant is the externality. As example, the city of Grupiara has 40% of their lands flooded by the lake of Emborcação. Among all the cities studied, that was the one where the agricultural and livestock externalities were more significant.

  10. Patients Bill of Rights Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Reducing Costs, Protecting Consumers - The Affordable Care Act on the One Year Anniversary of the Patients Bill of Rights For too long, too many hard working...

  11. Análise de risco aplicada ao manejo precaucionário das pescarias artesanais na região do reservatório da UHE-Tucuruí (Pará, Brasil Risk analysis applied to the precautionary management of artisanal fisheries in the region of Tucuruí reservoir (Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Aily Franco de Camargo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available As pescarias no reservatório da UHE-Tucuruí no rio Tocantins, Pará, envolvem cerca de 6.000 pescadores e movimentam cerca de R$ 4,2 milhões/ano. A atividade se concentra em três espécies principais: tucunaré Cichla monoculus (capturado com anzol, pescada Plagioscion squamosissimus (capturado com rede e/ou anzol e mapará Hypophthalmus marginatus (capturado com rede. Com o objetivo de caracterizar os pescadores e as pescarias do reservatório, criar cenários de aumento do esforço pesqueiro e prever os momentos de conflito pela escassez de recursos, foram levantadas informações da literatura e realizadas duas campanhas de coleta de dados nos anos de 1999 e 2000, envolvendo entrevistas com líderes comunitários e pescadores. As seguintes variáveis foram consideradas: desembarque por espécie-alvo (de acordo com os registros fornecidos pelas colônias de pescadores, artes de pesca, estratégias dos pescadores, conflitos e formas de apropriação do espaço e rendimentos da atividade. Estas variáveis foram inseridas em um modelo dinâmico, simulado no software Vensim PLE para um período de 10 anos a partir de 1999. Os resultados indicam que a pesca de anzol é a estratégia mais rentável, e que possíveis momentos de conflito devido à escassez de recursos podem acontecer em curto prazo (2005. A metodologia utilizada para as simulações e análises de risco também se revelou adequada à realidade local e ao conjunto de dados disponíveis.The fisheries in the reservoir of UHE-Tucuruí employ about 6.000 fishermen generating approximately R$ 4.2 million/year. There are three main target-species: Tucunaré Cichla monoculus (caught with hook and line, Pescada Plagioscion squamosissimus (caught with gill net and/or hook and line and Mapará Hypophthalmus marginatus (caught with gill net. Published information was reviewed and data collected during two field trips in 1999 and 2000 that included interviews with community leaders and

  12. Cultural change and financial benefits in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mayrink, Fernanda; Mitch, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Launched in 2011 in Rio de Janeiro, “Light Recicla”, an electricity access project, provides a wide range of benefits to low-income communities. It was launched because regularized electrical connections and waste of “free” electricity made bills a financial burden. The project promoted bill payment, recycling, reduced consumption while generating income, encouraging financial education. We describe the project history from its inception to its potential during major events such as the Rio 20...

  13. Water quality assessment of fifth-order tributaries of the reservoir at the Marechal Mascarenhas de Morais Hydroelectric Power Station in the Rio Grande watershed (State of Minas Gerais, Brazil Avaliação da qualidade da água dos afluentes de quinta ordem do reservatório da Usina Hidrelétrica de Marechal Mascarenhas de Morais na bacia hidrográfica do médio rio Grande (Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas de Pádua Andrade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study assessed the water quality from the springs and river mouths of the fifth-order tributaries which compose the reservoir of Marechal Mascarenhas de Morais HPS in the middle Rio Grande watershed, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: It has been studied 14 tributaries distributed in the reservoir, two points for tributary - spring and river mouth. Eighteen limnological variables added to the Rapid Assessment Protocol and Trophic Level Index were evaluated. The benthic macroinvertebrates had been collected by the use of a granulometric sieve and a Petersen-type sampler. Results: The cluster analysis of limnological data revealed the existence of two tributary groups. Group I consisted of eutrophic tributaries degraded by human activities, while group II exhibited good water quality and well-preserved environments. Group I was divided into two subgroups, Ia tributaries were characterized by being altered by human activities, while the Ib subgroup was composed of highly impacted tributaries. By ordering the PCA, it can be observed spatial segregation of groups, where the most polluted tributaries were separated from those which are better preserved. A total of 8,987 individuals belonging to 36 families of macroinvertebrates were identified. The family Chironomidae was the most abundant. There was no significant difference in total abundance and the richness of macroinvertebrates taxa inhabiting springs, by those who inhabiting the river mouths. Conclusions: It was noticed that most of the tributaries which supply and composes the reservoir are already degraded and have low quality water. It is observed that the human presence drastically affected water quality and faunal composition of tributaries. Thus, it is necessary a complementary study of the tributaries in working with issues related to reservoirs, as these components have direct influence on the water quality and composition of these lentic environments.Objetivos: O trabalho avaliou

  14. Central Bank (Supervision and Enforcement) (Amendment) Bill 2016: Legislative Bill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Rock, Noel

    2016-01-01

    Private Members' Bill (legislation) introduced in Dáil Éireann (House of Deputies), Houses of the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament). An Act to amend sections 49 and 51 of the Central Bank (Supervision and Enforcement) Act 2013 to ensure the powers exercised by the Central Bank of Ireland to make...

  15. Corner Office: Polaris's Bill Schickling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkoff, Francine; Hadro, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Bill Schickling has spent a good chunk of his professional life at what is now Polaris Library Systems, shaping both the older Galaxy system and the newer Polaris integrated library system (ILS). When he joined the company as a programmer in 1987, it was still part of Gaylord, known mostly for its furniture and supplies division. Schickling was…

  16. Periphytic algal community in artificial and natural substratum in a tributary of the Rosana reservoir (Corvo Stream, Paraná State, Brazil = Comunidade de algas perifíticas em substrato artificial e natural em um tributário do reservatório de Rosana (Ribeirão do Corvo, Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rodrigues

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Periphytic algal community in artificial and natural substratum in a tributary of the Rosana reservoir (Corvo Stream, Paraná State, Brazil. This study evaluated the heterogeneity in periphytic algal community, under the influence of time colonization on artificial substratum. We also examined which abiotic variables most influenced the community in natural and artificial substratum. Egeria najas Planchon was used as natural substratum, and a plastic plant, asartificial. This experiment was carried out in a lateral arm from Rosana Reservoir, formed by Corvo Stream (Paranapanema river basin, in the period from November 21st to December 12nd, 2003, characterized as a warm and rainy period. Changes in species composition were assessed using the similarity indices. 495 taxa were registered in the phycoperiphytic community, distributed in 133 genera and 11 classes. Zygnemaphyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae presented higher species number, in both substrata. Staurodesmus, Closterium, Staurastrum and Cosmarium (Desmidiales; Gomphonema and Eunotia (Pennales; Characium, Scenedesmus and Desmodesmus (Chlorococcales; Anabaena and Aphanocapsa (Nostocales and Chroococcales, respectively were the most species-rich genera. The epiphytic community reached the highest species richness in the 15th successional day. Regardless the substratum type, the number of species was probably related to the high concentrations of nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen.Este trabalho objetivou analisar a composição da comunidade de algas perifíticas sob influência do tempo de colonização em substrato artificial. Ainda procurou responder quais variáveis abióticas mais influenciaram na comunidade em substrato artificial e natural. Utilizou-se Egeria najas Planchon como substrato natural e planta de plástico semelhante à Egeria como artificial. O experimento foi realizado no rio do Corvo, tributário do reservatório de Rosana (bacia do Paranapanema

  17. A morfometria e o estado trófico de um reservatório urbano: lagoa do Nado, Belo Horizonte, Estado de Minas Gerais Morphometry and trophic state of an urban reservoir: Nado Lagoon, Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Motta Pinto-Coelho

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available São descritas as características morfométricas de um pequeno reservatório, a lagoa do Nado. Trata-se de lago artificial raso, com 2,7 m e 7,6 m de profundidades média e máxima, respectivamente. A localização, no fundo de um pequeno vale, rodeado por vegetação de grande porte, elevada profundidade relativa (5,5% e bacia de acumulação de formato cônico (Dv = 1,07, indica uma alta estabilidade física da coluna de água. O tempo de retenção da água no reservatório, no período seco, foi de 78 dias e, no período chuvoso, de 2,1 dias. O presente estudo ainda apresenta a primeira carta batimétrica do reservatório. Finalmente, o estado trófico foi avaliado mensalmente, de setembro/99 a setembro/00, utilizando-se o índice de estado trófico (IET de Carlson. O reservatório foi considerado como meso-eutrófico ao longo do período de amostragem.This study presents the morphometric characteristics of a small urban reservoir: Nado Lagoon. It is an artificial, shallow lake with 2.7 m. mean depth and 7.6 m. maximum depth. It is located at the bottom of a relatively large valley, surrounded by tall trees, with high relative depth (5.5% and conical accumulation basin (Dv = 1.07, with a high water column physical stability. The reservoir mean retention time was 78 days during the dry season and 2.1 days during the rainy season. This study also presents the first bathymetric map of the reservoir. The reservoir trophic state was monthly evaluated from September 1999 to September 2000, through Carlson trophic state index (TSI. The results classify the reservoir as meso-eutrophic throughout the sampling period.

  18. How the Bill of Rights Was Developed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivison, David V.

    The roots of the Bill of Rights, the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution, are examined in this document. Attention is directed to English law, specifically the Magna Carta and England's Bill of Rights of 1689, as providing much of the underpinnings for the U.S. Bill of Rights. The text of 15 articles proposed by anti-federalists…

  19. Bill Gates vil redde Folkeskolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, Adam Moe

    2014-01-01

    Det amerikanske uddannelsessystem bliver for tiden udsat for hård kritik, ledt an af Microsoft stifteren Bill Gates. Gates har indtil videre brugt 3 mia. kroner på at skabe opbakning til tiltag som præstationslønning af lærere og strømlining af pensum på tværs af alle skoler i landet......Det amerikanske uddannelsessystem bliver for tiden udsat for hård kritik, ledt an af Microsoft stifteren Bill Gates. Gates har indtil videre brugt 3 mia. kroner på at skabe opbakning til tiltag som præstationslønning af lærere og strømlining af pensum på tværs af alle skoler i landet...

  20. Comparação da dieta de duas espécies de Triportheus (Characidae, Triportheinae, em trechos do reservatório de Manso e lagoas do rio Cuiabá, Estado do Mato Grosso - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2023 Diet Comparison of two species of Triportheus in Manso Reservoir and lagoons of Cuiabá River, Mato Grosso do Sul - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2023

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Beal Galina

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo conhecer aspectos da alimentação de duas espécies de Triportheus, no reservatório de Manso e lagoas do rio Cuiabá, Estado do Mato Grosso. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente (março/00 a fevereiro/01 e os conteúdos estomacais analisados pelos métodos de Ocorrência (O% e Volumétrico (V%. Os dados foram sintetizados graficamente no Índice de Costello. T. nematurus explorou insetos terrestres (Hymenoptera e Coleoptera e insetos aquáticos (larvas de Diptera no reservatório, durante todo o período de estudos. Nas lagoas, a dieta foi baseada principalmente em algas e insetos terrestres no período de cheia, sendo mais diversificada na seca. No reservatório, T. paranensis consumiu preferencialmente invertebrados aquáticos (Cladocera e Copepoda enquanto que, nas lagoas, explorou insetos terrestres no período de seca e insetos aquáticos na cheia. A sobreposição alimentar (Índice de Schoener intra e interespecífica apresentou valores baixos (The aim of this paper is to determine the diet of two species of Triportheus (T. paranensis e T. nematurus, in Manso Reservoir and lagoons of Cuiabá River, MT. Samples were monthly taken from March 2000 to February 2001. Stomach contents were analyzed by the occurrence and volumetric methods, and data were graphically grouped by Costello Index. The diet of T. nematurus was composed of terrestrial (Hymenoptera and Coleoptera and aquatic insects (larvae of Diptera in the reservoir. In lagoons it consumed algae and terrestrial insects during the flood period, and the diet was more diversified during the dry season. In the reservoir, T. paranensis consumed specially aquatic invertebrates, while in lagoons its diet was composed of terrestrial insects in dry season and aquatic insects in flood period. Schoener Index presented low values (< 0,6, showing partial segregation in both species diet

  1. Bill Gates vil redde Folkeskolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, Adam Moe

    2014-01-01

    Det amerikanske uddannelsessystem bliver for tiden udsat for hård kritik, ledt an af Microsoft stifteren Bill Gates. Gates har indtil videre brugt 3 mia. kroner på at skabe opbakning til tiltag som præstationslønning af lærere og strømlining af pensum på tværs af alle skoler i landet...

  2. Reproductive biology of Leporinus taeniatus Lütken (Pisces, Anostomidae in Juramento Reservoir, São Francisco River basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil Biologia reprodutiva de Leporinus taeniatus Lütken (Pisces, Anostomidae do reservatório de Juramento, bacia do rio São Francisco, Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Ralph G. Thomé

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology of the piau-jejo Leporinus taeniatus Lütken, 1875, an endemic species from the São Francisco River basin, was studied by using macroscopical and histological techniques. A total of 121 males and 94 females were captured quarterly, between March 2002 and February 2003 in the Juramento Reservoir. Females were larger than males, indicating sexual dimorphism. Stages of gonadal maturation were defined from histological analyses and gonadosomatic index. Peaks of maturing/mature and spawned/spermiated fishes has occurred in period December-February. L. taeniatus presented total spawning and group-synchronic development of the oocytes. The gonadosomatic index accompanied gonad maturation in both sexes, and coelomic fat presented lower levels during maturing/mature stage, indicating fat consumption during the reproductive period. Stomach repletion index presented higher values during spawned and spermiated stages, indicating greater food ingestion after the reproductive period.A biologia reprodutiva do piau-jejo Leporinus taeniatus Lütken, 1875, espécie endêmica da bacia do rio São Francisco, foi estudada utilizando-se técnicas biométricas, macroscópicas e microscópicas. Capturaram-se no reservatório de Juramento, MG, em coletas trimestrais, 121 machos e 94 fêmeas, no período de março de 2002 a fevereiro de 2003. Observou-se que fêmeas são maiores do que os machos indicando dimorfismo sexual. Determinaram-se os estádios de maturação gonadal através de análise histológica e do índice gonado-somático. Os picos de maturação/maduro e de peixes desovados/espermiados ocorreram no trimestre dezembro/janeiro/fevereiro. L. taeniatus apresentou desova total e desenvolvimento grupo-sincrônico dos ovócitos. O índice gonadossomático acompanhou a maturação das gônadas e o índice de gordura celômica apresentou menores valores no estádio maturação/maduro, indicando consumo de reservas graxas no per

  3. Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum (Digenea, Diplostomidae infecting Steindachnerina insculpta (Characiformes, Curimatidae in the Chavantes Reservoir, Southeastern Brazil Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum (Digenea, Diplostomidae infectando Steindachnerina insculpta (Characiformes, Curimatidae no reservatório de Chavantes, Sudeste do Brasil

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    Aline Cristina Zago

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to report the infection by Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum metacercariae in Steindachnerina insculpta from the Chavantes Reservoir, medium Paranapanema River, municipality of Ipaussu, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Thirty specimens of S. insculpta were collected and 29 were infected with S. musculosum metacercariae (prevalence = 96.67% in the eyes and visceral cavity. The mean intensity of infection and abundance were 96.6 ± 29.41 (7-846 and 93.3 ± 28.6 (0-846, respectively. Positive correlation was observed between parasite abundance in the eyes and standard length (rs = 0.5, p = 0.005, total weight (rs = 0.649, p = 0.0001, and condition factor (rs = 0.439, p = 0.0154. The high parasitism rates by S. musculosum metacercariae in S. insculpta can be an indicative that this fish species is highly susceptible to infection by this diplostomid, and even reflect the presence of a large abundance of the intermediate host. Moreover, S. musculosum metacercariae are reported for the first time in S. insculpta.O presente estudo tem como objetivo relatar a infecção por metacercárias de Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum em Steindachnerina insculpta provenientes do Reservatório de Chavantes, médio Paranapanema, município de Ipaussu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram coletados 30 espécimes de S. insculpta, sendo que 29 estavam infectados por metacercárias de S. musculosum (prevalência = 96,67% nos olhos e na cavidade visceral. A intensidade média de infecção e abundância apresentaram valores de 96,6 ± 29,41 (7-846 e 93,3 ± 28,6 (0-846, respectivamente. Foi observada correlação positiva entre a abundância dos parasitas presentes nos olhos com relação ao comprimento padrão (rs = 0.5, p = 0.005, peso (rs = 0.649, p = 0.0001 e fator de condição (rs = 0.439, p = 0.0154. As altas taxas de parasitismo de metacercárias de S. musculosum em S. insculpta podem ser um indicativo de que esta espécie de peixe é altamente suscept

  4. Copepod parasites of Curimatella lepidura (Characiformes, Curimatidae from the Três Marias Reservoir, Brazil Copépodes parasitos de Curimatella lepidura (Characiformes, Curimatidae do reservatório de Três Marias, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Albuquerque

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Copépodes ergasilídeos coletados nas brânquias de Curimatella lepidura do reservatório de Três Marias, alto rio São Francisco, Minas Gerais, Brasil e identificados como Miracetyma etimaruya e Ergasilus sp., constituem o primeiro registro de parasitos nesse peixe forrageiro e endêmico. A ocorrência foi independente do sexo e do tamanho dos peixes. A distribuição geográfica conhecida das espécies de Miracetyma Malta, 1993, restrita à bacia do rio Amazonas, é ampliada neste estudo para a bacia do rio São Francisco.

  5. Sharing China's Bank Restructuring Bill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guonan Ma

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the questions related to the cost of China's bank restructuring and how it has been financed. We first propose a framework for recognizing losses. Then, we examine the recent major moves by the Chinese Government to repair the country's bank balance sheets. Finally, we explore the implications of the Chinese Government's methods of funding bank restructuring. We find that the Chinese Government has been decisive in confronting the costly task of bank restructuring. So far, Chinese taxpayers have paid most of the bill for bank restructuring.

  6. Parâmetros de projeto de microrreservatório, de pavimentos permeáveis e de previsão de enchentes urbanas Design parameters for micro reservoir, for porous pavements and for forecast of urban flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenço Leme da Costa Junior

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo principal avaliar o uso e a ocupação dos lotes de uma área urbana e analisar as possibilidades de uso das medidas de controle local de inundação: microrreservatórios de detenção e pavimentos permeáveis. A área de estudo foi a Sub-bacia Hidrográfica Urbana da Ponte Seca (SBHUPS, em Jaboticabal - SP. O total de lotes da SBHUPS é 1.777. Avaliaram-se 164 lotes, por amostragem aleatória estratificada proporcional de acordo com a área. Utilizou-se de levantamento de campo, informações cadastrais e entrevistas com moradores para a coleta dos dados. Caracterizaram-se a área livre, área impermeabilizada, área construída, taxa de ocupação (TO, taxa de ocupação e impermeabilização (TOI, tipo de solo, nível do lençol freático e topografia de cada lote amostrado. Argüiram-se os moradores sobre a aceitação do uso das medidas. Estes parâmetros foram usados para avaliar as possibilidades de suas implantações e, então, avaliaram-se os custos. Os valores médios por estrato indicam que a TO e a TOI decrescem com o aumento da área do lote. Obtiveram-se relações entre TO e área do lote, TOI e área do lote e TO e TOI representadas por equações, cujos coeficientes de determinação ficaram acima de 0,96. O uso dos microrreservatórios de detenção, como medida de controle, foi limitado pela aceitação dos moradores, a 82,8% dos lotes. O uso do pavimento permeável foi restringido pelos parâmetros área livre e aceitação dos moradores.This report had the main objective to evaluate the use and the occupation of the plot from an urban hydrographic basin and to analyze the possibilities at the use of measures of local control of floods, such as micro reservoir of detention and porous pavements. The area studied was the urban hydrographic basin from "Ponte Seca" (SBHUPS, on Jaboticabal City, São Paulo. The total of plots on BHUPS is 1.777. During the research it was analyzed 164 plots, using

  7. Dinâmica da comunidade de macrófitas aquáticas no reservatório de Santana, RJ Dynamics of the aquatic macrophytecommunity in the Santana reservoir in Pirai-RJ

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    R.L.C.M. Pitelli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da importância na dinâmica dos ecossistemas aquáticos, as macrófitas podem formar densas e extensas colonizações em corpos hídricos cujos equilíbrios ecológicos foram rompidos. Nessas condições, essas plantas promovem uma série de problemas que as tornam alvos de controle. Para elaboração de planos adequados de manejo dessa vegetação, é fundamental o conhecimento das dinâmicas relativas das populações que a compõem. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar levantamentos mensais da composição específica da comunidade de macrófitas que coloniza o reservatório de Santana, localizado no município de Piraí/RJ, monitorando 97 pontos georreferenciados, abrangendo toda a lâmina d'água. Foram identificadas 41 espécies, inseridas em 21 famílias botânicas. As famílias Poaceae, Pontederiaceae e Cyperacae foram as que apresentaram os maiores números de espécies ao longo do ano. Salvinia herzogii e Egeria densa apresentaram as maiores notas anuais de colonização do reservatório. As populações de Eichhornia azurea, Brachiaria arrecta e Paspalum repens completaram o grupo das espécies numericamente mais relevantes. As plantas de hábito flutuante tenderam a apresentar populações com padrão de distribuição geográfica casualizado, enquanto as espécies fixadas no sedimento e as submersas apresentaram populações com padrão agregado. Não houve expressivas variações mensais dos valores dos índices de diversidade (H' e de equitabilidade (E' das comunidades de macrófitas aquáticas ao longo do ano. O dendrograma construído com o coeficiente de Odum mostrou uma seqüência lógica dos meses, evidenciando uma definida sucessão de populações divididas em dois grupos de similaridade separados pelo mês de junho. Nessa época, o nível de água do reservatório foi reduzido e o sedimento ficou exposto, favorecendo as espécies de hábito emergente.Despite the importance of aquatic ecosystem dynamics, aquatic

  8. Indicadores do desenvolvimento gonadal e nutricional de Prochilodus cearensis (Steindachner, 1911 (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae no açude Itans/Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2027 Gonadal and nutritional indexes influencing the reproductive behavior of Prochilodus cearensis (Steindachner, 1911 (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae in Itans water reservoir, Caicó, Rio Grande do N - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2027

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio de Castro Bezerra Gurgel

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se alguns aspectos da reprodução e do estado nutricional de 213 exemplares (160 fêmeas e 53 machos de Prochilodus cearensis no açude Itans/ Caicó no Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, no período de abril de 1996 a janeiro de 1997. As médias dos valores dos índices gônadossomático e gonadal apresentaram-se mais elevadas para fêmeas e machos no mês de janeiro. O índice de repleção foi semelhante entre os sexos. O fator de condição (ø mostrou-se mais elevado no período que antecede à reprodução. Não foi observada correlação significativa entre os fatores abióticos e o ciclo reprodutivo da espécie. No entanto, a presença de indivíduos com gônadas preparadas para a reprodução no trimestre que antecede ao das chuvas sugere que a desova possa estar condicionada a sua ocorrênciaThe aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gonadal and nutritional index on reproductive behavior of Prochilodus cearensis (Steindachner, 1911 (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae in Itans water reservoir, Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte. 213 animals were used (160 females and 53 males and collected from Itans water reservoir during the period from April 1996 to January 1997. The highest Gonadossomatic and Gonadal Index values were obtained for females and males from December to February. The repletion index was similar for males and females. The condition factor (ø showed the highest value just before reproduction. Data collected suggest that reproductive cycle in this species is not directly related to abiotic factors

  9. Ocorrência de plantas aquáticas nos reservatórios da Companhia Energética de São Paulo Aquatic weed survey in reservoirs controlled by the oower plant of São Paulo, Brazil

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    R.H. Tanaka

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar as comunidades de plantas aquáticas presentes nos reservatórios da Companhia Energética de São Paulo. Os levantamentos foram realizados entre janeiro e dezembro de 1999, percorrendo-se com um barco as margens dos reservatórios de Três Irmãos, Jupiá, Ilha Solteira, Porto Primavera, Paraibuna e Jaguari, visando identificar as áreas com infestações de plantas aquáticas. Em cada ponto de avaliação, fez-se a identificação das espécies e estimou-se visualmente a área total infestada e a participação de cada espécie (em % da área total. Com as informações coletadas em campo, procedeu-se a uma etapa de trabalhos em escritório, incluindo a identificação das espécies de plantas aquáticas nos casos em que não era possível identificar as espécies no local; a determinação de classes de plantas aquáticas (emersas, emersas com folhas flutuantes, submersas, flutuantes; a identificação das espécies mais freqüentes; e o estabelecimento de relações de dominância e co-dominância. São apresentados os resultados obtidos em cada reservatório.This work aimed to describe the aquatic plant communities present in reservoirs controlled by Companhia Energética de São Paulo (CESP. The survey was carried out from January to December 1999, using a boat along the marginal areas of Três Irmãos, Jupiá, Ilha Solteira, Porto Primavera, Paraibuna and Jaguari reservoirs, aiming to identify areas with aquatic plant infestations. In each evaluation point plant species were identified and the infested areas and participation of each species visually estimated (% of the total area. Fieldwork for data collection were followed by other studies including the identification of plant species not identified in the field; the classification of plants in groups (emersed, emersed with floating leaves, submersed and floating; the identification of the most frequent species and the determination of

  10. Colonização ictiofaunística do Reservatório de Itaipu e áreas adjacentes Ichthyofaunistic colonization of the Itaipu Reservoir and vicinity áreas

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    Evanilde Benedito Cecilio

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples were taken from November 1983 to October 1989 in sites along the main body of the Itaipu reservoir and its area of influence to evaluate the impacts of this reservoir on ichthyofauna and to provide information about the colonization process in the dammed area. The ichthyofaunistic similarity between the sites was analysed during the studied period. Spatial and temporal variations of the ichthyofaunistic diversity were also done, using Shannon-Winer Index of Diversity, eveness and species richness, comparing the results with those obtained before the damming. After Itaipu Reservoir formation, it was observed significative alteration in specific abundance and ichthyofauna structure of the Paraná River, with an increase in species number in ali tributaries of the reservoir, and a high replacement in species. Diversity and species richness were higher in the dammed stretch of the Paraná river and in its tributaries of the left side after the Itaipu reservoir formation. Among the sampled sites, the highest values of the diversity index were registered in Paraná River upstream and downstream the reservoir, Iguatemi river and Arroio Guaçu. Based on information of similarity in species composition and abundance in the sampled area, five site groups could be identified.

  11. Rio+20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Horn

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This reflection on Rio+20 examines many of the major social institutions and how they fulfilled their functions during the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development at Rio. The institutions are: 1. Nation-states as a collective. 2. Individual nation-states. 3. Vanguard institutions (some NGOs. 4. Action and convening NGOs. 5. Global media. 6. Governments of nation-states acting domestically 7. Individual governments in bilateral and multilateral situations. 8. Similar institutions in different countries acting together. 9. Businesses. 10. Global science. Each is considered within the assumptions of what the society expects them to deliver (in general, what is possible for them to deliver, and what they did deliver at Rio. In approaching Rio+20, our account differs considerably from much of the reportage by the mainstream media.

  12. Relação peso-comprimento e fator de condição para Cichla cf. ocellaris e Cichla monoculus (Perciformes, Cichlidae no reservatório de Volta Grande, rio Grande - MG/SP - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2119 Length-weight relationship and condition factor for Cichla cf. ocellaris and Cichla monoculus (Perciformes, Cichlidae in Volta Grande Reservoir, Rio Grande -MG/SP- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2119

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Muller Gomiero

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foram analisados a relação peso e comprimento e o fator de condição de duas espécies de tucunarés, Cichla (Perciformes, Cichlidae, introduzidas no reservatório da UHE de Volta Grande, rio Grande. Tanto para Cichla cf. ocellaris como para Cichla monoculus não houve diferença na relação peso e comprimento entre os sexos. O fator de condição alométrico mostrou uma queda na primavera e outra menor no inverno; isso ocorre quando esses peixes mudam sua atividade alimentar. Na primavera, desenvolvem-se todos os comportamentos reprodutivos e, no inverno, existe escassez de presas. A variação do fator de condição relativo acompanhou a do fator de condição alométrico devido à baixa representatividade do peso das gônadas e da pouca quantidade de gordura acumulada no peso total. A distribuição de comprimento, relação peso e comprimento e fator de condição desses peixes variam de acordo com o tempo de introdução no reservatório, com as características do ecossistema e as interações entre as espécies nesses locaisThe aim of this paper was to analyze the length-weight relationship and the condition factor of two species of cichlids (Cichla cf. ocellaris and Cichla monoculus (Perciformes, Cichlidae that were inducted in Volta Grande Reservoir, Rio Grande. There was no difference in the length-weight relationship between the sexes for Cichla cf. ocellaris and Cichla monoculus. The allometric condition factor showed a fall in the spring and another smaller one in the winter. It happens when these fishes change their feeding activity. In the spring all the reproductive behavior are developed and, in the winter, there is a shortage of prey. The variation of the relative condition factor followed the variation of the allometric condition factor due to the low contribution of the gonads weight and the small amount of accumulated fat in the total weight. The length distribution, length-weight relationship and

  13. 47 CFR 64.2401 - Truth-in-Billing Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truth-in-Billing Requirements. 64.2401 Section... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Truth-in-Billing Requirements for Common Carriers § 64.2401 Truth-in-Billing Requirements. (a) Bill organization. Telephone bills shall be...

  14. Ocorrência de Cianobactérias no Reservatório de Mundaú, no Estado de Pernambuco, no Período de Janeiro de 2010 a Novembro de 2011 / Occurrence of Cyanobacteria in Mundaú Reservoir, in Pernambuco State During January 2010 to November 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvani Maria da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As cianobactérias são organismos procariontes, assemelhando-se às bactérias, e realizam fotossíntese com produção de oxigênio, como células vegetais. As fl orações desses organismos podem causar problemas em mananciais de abastecimento público, pois algumas espécies podem produzir cianotoxinas. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a ocorrência e as densidades de cianobactérias no reservatório de Mundaú-PE, no período de janeiro de 2010 a novembro de 2011. Esse reservatório faz parte da bacia hidrográfica do rio Mundaú e está localizado no município de Garanhuns – PE. Foram analisadas 23 amostras de água desse reservatório no LACEN-PE. Dessas, 21 (91,3% apresentaram densidade acima do limite máximo preconizado pela legislação específica. Durante esse período ocorreram intensas florações de cianobactérias nos meses de abril, maio e entre agosto e dezembro. Estes últimos meses estão inseridos no período de estiagem dessa região, quando ocorreram elevadas densidades de determinadas espécies. Dentre as espécies destacaram-se Microcystis panniformis, Microcystis protocystis, Raphidiopsis curvata, Raphidiopsis mediterranea, Geitlerinema amphibium, Synechocystis aquatilis e Coelomoron tropicale. Concluímos, portanto, que essas fl orações de cianobactérias, potencialmente produtoras de cianotoxinas, constituem um problema de saúde pública, pois o reservatório de Mundaú abastece a cidade de Garanhuns e outras cidades. ------------------------------------------------ The cyanobacteria are prokaryotes, resembling bacteria, and carry out photosynthesis to produce oxygen as plant cells. The blooms of these organisms can cause problems in public water supply sources, because some species can produce cyanotoxins. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence and densities of cyanobacteria in reservoir Mundaú-PE, from January 2010 to November 2011. This reservoir is part of the river basin Mundaú and

  15. Sojourner, Barnacle Bill, Yogi, & Couch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    At center, Sojourner has traveled off the lander's rear ramp and onto the surface of Mars. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The rock Barnacle Bill is to the left of Sojourner, and the large rock Yogi is at upper right. On the horizon sits the rock dubbed 'Couch.' A deflated airbag sits at lower right.The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  16. Uso do sensoriamento remoto orbital no monitoramento da dispersão de macrófitas nos reservatórios do complexo Tietê Remote satellite sensing to monitor macrophyte dispersion in the Tietê river reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.B.T. Galo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A presença de algumas substâncias na água, como pigmentos fotossintetizantes, particulados, etc., afeta sua cor, provocando mudanças na radiância da água registrada por sensores orbitais. Nesse sentido, o sensoriamento remoto pode se constituir em uma fonte complementar de dados para o monitoramento da qualidade da água em grandes reservatórios (Novo et al., 1994. No contexto de um projeto de pesquisa realizado na AES Tietê S.A., com o objetivo de desenvolver técnicas para a avaliação da área com infestação de plantas aquáticas, imagens orbitais multiespectrais foram usadas tanto para mapear a dispersão espacial e estimar a área de ocorrência de macrófitas aquáticas, em duas épocas distintas, quanto para orientar a definição de pontos de amostragem in loco, visando a coleta e posterior análise da água e de sedimentos nos reservatórios. Este trabalho apresenta uma descrição do procedimento metodológico adotado na análise das imagens multiespectrais, bem como os resultados obtidos na caracterização dos reservatórios de Barra Bonita, Bariri, Ibitinga, Promissão e Nova Avanhandava, em termos de seu dimensionamento, variabilidade espectral da água e presença de macrófitas emersas, nas duas épocas do ano consideradas.Water color is affected by substances that change the water radiance detected by satellite sensors. Thus, remote sensing techniques may be used as a complementary data source to monitor water quality in large reservoirs (Novo et al., 1994. Within the context of a research project, whose main purpose is to develop techniques to evaluate macrophyte infestation levels in AES Tietê reservoirs, multi spectral satellite images were used to: a map microphyte spatial dispersion and evaluate their area of occurrence , in two periods and, b locate points to collect water samples. This paper presents the methodology adopted and the results obtained from Barra Bonita, Bariri, Ibitinga, Promissão and Nova

  17. Estudo da degradação da biomassa de três espécies de plantas aquáticas no reservatório da UHE de Americana-SP Study on the degradation of three aquatic weeds at the Americana-SP reservoir in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Negrisoli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de decomposição de plantas aquáticas foi realizado na UHE de Americana-CPFL, com o objetivo de avaliar a taxa de degradação de plantas na própria água do reservatório. Foram consideradas como variáveis a profundidade (superfície, 3,5 e 7,0 m, as espécies de plantas aquáticas (Eichhornia crassipes, Brachiaria subquadripara e Pistia stratiotes e o tipo de processamento a que estas foram submetidas (planta inteira, planta picada manualmente e com aplicação de fogo. Este estudo indicou que as espécies E. crassipes e P. stratiotes foram rapidamente decompostas no reservatório, ao contrário de B. subquadripara. Um outro fator importante observado foi a similaridade na decomposição das plantas, independentemente da profundidade testada. Essas diferenças devem ser consideradas na elaboração de planos de manejo e na previsão do impacto ambiental de programas de controle de plantas aquáticas.A study on aquatic weed decomposition was carried out at the Americana-SP reservoir in Brazil, to compare degradation rate of the plants in the reservoir's water itself. Three variables were considered as treatments: depth (surface, 3.5 and 7.0 m; aquatic weed species (Eichhornia crassipes, Brachiaria subquadripara, and Pistia stratiotes and type of handling the aquatic weeds (whole plant, hand cut plant, and burnt plant. The results indicated that the species E. crassipes and P. stratiotes had a fast decomposition in the reservoir, unlike B. subquadripara. These differences must be considered in the elaboration of management plans and prediction of environmental impact of aquatic plant control programs. The most positive aspect of the study was to demonstrate that decomposition at 3.5m and 7.0 m of depth had practically the same speed observed on the surface.

  18. Bill McSweeney: a remembrance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdon, W.E.

    1999-03-01

    Pediatric radiologists (both SPR and ESPR) are a family growing in numbers. When founders such as John Caffey, Ed Neuhauser and Jacques Le Febvre died, we grieved while remembering them fondly. The death of Bill McSweeney from acute airway obstruction in August 1998 came as a shock. Yet Bill had been ill for many years. His once promising effects of been cut short by the inexorable; devastating effects of Parkinson disease and the complications of this therapy. Most current SPR and ESPR members never knew Bill McSweeney. These remembrances are designed to correct that. With 3 figs.

  19. Plantas aquáticas e nível de infestação das espécies presentes no reservatório de Bariri, no Rio Tietê Aquatic plants and infestation level at the Bariri reservoir in Tietê River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.T. Carvalho

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O monitoramento da vegetação aquática permite avaliar a evolução das comunidades e determinar o potencial de danos associados a essas populações. O objetivo do trabalho foi identificar as plantas aquáticas e os níveis de infestação de cada espécie, presentes no reservatório de Bariri. Foram avaliados todos os focos de vegetação aquática presente na represa (194 pontos, e os pontos foram demarcados com um aparelho de GPS. As plantas foram identificadas e realizou-se uma estimativa visual do valor geográfico do ponto (tamanho da área e a distribuição proporcional das plantas no foco de infestação. Foram encontradas 15 espécies de plantas aquáticas vegetando na represa de Bariri. Considerando que as principais espécies ocorreram com níveis de infestação acima de 10%, as mais importantes foram: Brachiaria mutica (27,0% da área e 97,4% de freqüência, B. subquadripara (22,7% da área e 96,9% de freqüência, Eichhornia crassipes (13,8% da área e 85,6% de freqüência e Typha angustifolia (16,7% da área e 72,7% de freqüência. Outra espécie que pode ser destacada e que apresentou um bom potencial de infestação foi Enidra sessilis, que ocorreu em 8,9% de ocupação na área vegetada e com 76,3% de freqüência.Aquatic vegetation monitoring allows to evaluate community evolution and to determine the potential of damages associated to these populations. The objective of this work was to identify the aquatic plants and infestation levels of each species in the Bariri reservoir in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. All the aquatic vegetation foci in the dam (194 points were evaluated and marked with GPS equipment. The plants were identified and a visual estimate of the geographic value of the point (size of the area and a proportional distribution of the plants in the focus were carried out. Fifteen macrophyte species were found vegetating in the Bariri dam. Due to the great diversity of the species found, those presenting

  20. 7 CFR 91.42 - Billing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS SERVICES... Financial Information System (FFIS) on the 1st day, following the end of the billing cycle in...

  1. Estudo da movimentação de plantas aquáticas imersas presentes no reservatório da UHE Eng. Souza Dias - Jupiá Movement of submerged aquatic weeds in UHE Eng. Souza Dias reservoir - Jupiá, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martins

    2005-06-01

    11 bóias com deslocamento superior a 500 m. Os sítios de reprodução localizados no rio Paraná também contribuíram para o fornecimento de plantas imersas ao reservatório de Jupiá; nove blocos saíram da "Lagoa Pernilongo" e apresentaram deslocamentos superiores a 500 m. Entretanto, os sítios "Lagoa Barrenta" e "Lagoa Ferradura" foram aqueles que mais contribuíram com a chegada de plantas na tomada de água da UHE Eng. Souza Dias, uma vez que foram recolhidos, respectivamente, seis e quatro blocos de plantas provenientes desses locais de dispersão. A metodologia utilizada mostrou-se eficaz quanto à avaliação da movimentação de plantas aquáticas imersas dentro do reservatório de Jupiá.The purpose of this research was to develop a methodology to determine reproduction sites and respective importance on dissemination of E. densa, E. najas and C. demersum in the Jupiá Reservoir in Brazil. Ten sites with high incidence of these aquatic plant were monitored. Two sites were located at the Paraná River on "Ferradura"and "Pernilongo" Lakes, called "Testemunha", "Barrenta", "Vírgula" and "Florida", and on bed river points " Leito Acima da ponte", Abaixo da Ponte", " Baia ao lado da Ponte " and Praia de Itapura". Ten blocs of aquatic plants were released per month and monitored in each reproduction site. The blocs had a volume of 0.14 cm³ and had an external plastic label and an orange identification buoy to be easily located and inspected at long distances. After being released, the blocs were geo-referenced and their movements evaluated every fifteen days using a GPS equipment. The places "Vírgula Lake", "Testemunha Lake"and "Barrenta Lake" showed an outstanding number of blocs (30, 20 and 19 blocs, respectively that moved for distances farther than 500 m and, consequently, left their respective sites of reproduction. Most blocs remained inside the "Flórida Lake" and only 12 blocs reached the bed of the Tietê river. The site "Acima da Ponte" supplied

  2. Impact of acid mine drainage from mining exploitations on the Margajita River basin and the Hatillo reservoir (Dominican Republic); Impacto del drenaje acido de explotaciones mineras en la cuenca del Rio Margajita y Embalse de Hatillo (Republica Dominicana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandia, F.; Salas, J.; Arcos, D.; Archambault, A.; Cottard, F.

    2009-07-01

    Mining of the Pueblo Viejo high-sulphidation epithermal deposit (Dominican Republic) leads to environmental impact due to the formation of acid mine drainage associated with the oxidative dissolution of sulphides and sulpho salts. In addition to the very low pH, the acid waters are capable of transporting away from the mining areas high concentrations of metals and metalloids in solution. In the present work, a geochemical study of sediments deposited in the Hatillo reservoir is carried out. This reservoir is fed by the Margajita and Yuna streams which transport leachates from the Pueblo Viejo and Falcondo-Bonao (Cr-Ni) mining areas, respectively. The results show that these sediments have very high concentrations of Fe, Al and sulphate, along with significant amounts of As, Zn and Te, which are of especial environmental concern. The main contributor to this metal discharge into the reservoir is the Margajita stream, whereas the Yuna stream does not transport significant amounts of metals in solution due to its neutral pH, although it is likely that metals such as Mn, Cr, Ni and Co can be mobilised as a particulate. (Author) 5 refs.

  3. Alimentação da pirambeba Serrasalmus spilopleura Kner, 1858 (Characidae; Serrasalminae em um reservatório do Sudeste brasileiro - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i4.1331 Feeding aspects of Serrasalmus spilopleura Kner, 1858 (Characidae; Serrasalminae in a Southeast Brazilian reservoir - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i4.1331

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Luisa Fonseca

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados aspectos da alimentação de 158 exemplares de Serrasalmus spilopleura capturados no reservatório de Porto Colômbia, localizado no rio Grande, bacia do rio Paraná, no período entre novembro de 2001 e agosto de 2002. Utilizaram-se redes de malhar com tamanhos entre 3cm e 16 cm entre nós opostos armadas ao entardecer e retiradas pela manhã, permanecendo expostas por um período de aproximadamente 12 horas. A análise da dieta dos exemplares mostrou-se predominantemente piscívora, sendo exclusivo para exemplares de comprimento padrão superior a 22 cm. Insetos aquáticos também foram ingeridos, complementando a dieta dos indivíduos pertencentes às menores classes de tamanho, demonstrando uma evidente ontogenia tróficaWe studied the feeding aspects from 158 individuals of Serrasalmus spilopleura captured in Porto Colômbia Reservoir, situated on the Grande River, at the Paraná basin, between November 2001 and August 2002. Mesh nets were used to capture the individuals, with sizes ranging from 3 cm to 16 cm, between opposed knots set at sunset, and collected in the following morning; remaining exposed during approximately 12 hours. The analysis from the stomach content of the captured individuals showed a predominantly piscivore feeding habit, and exclusive to individuals over 22 cm. Aquatic insects were also found, complementing the diet of individuals belonging to smaller size groups, indicating a clear trophic ontogeny

  4. 77 FR 32896 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... modify controlled airspace at Billings, MT (77 FR 20747). Interested parties were invited to participate... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT AGENCY... airspace at Billings Logan International Airport, Billings, MT. Controlled airspace is necessary...

  5. Reproductive biology and feeding of Curimatella lepidura (Eigenmann & Eigenmann (Pisces, Curimatidae in Juramento reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil Biologia reprodutiva e alimentação de Curimatella lepidura (Eigenmann & Eigenmann (Pisces, Curimatidae no reservatório de Juramento, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika R. de Alvarenga

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive biology and feeding of Curimatella lepidura (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 were studied in Juramento reservoir, São Francisco River basin, Southeastern Brazil. Histological analyses and gonadosomatic indexes revealed females and males in reproductive activity from October to March and total spawning occurring from January to March coupled with the peak of spermiating males. In the dry season, the fishes accumulated energetic reserves for reproduction during a short rainy season. The species presented sexual dimorphism, being females larger than males and sexual maturation occurring close to 7.7 cm standard length for females and 7.1 cm for males. C. lepidura presented iliophagous feeding habit, ingesting mainly sediment/detritus and a small amount of acari, algae, Tricoptera insects and Ostracoda crustaceans, suggesting a probable role in nutrient recycling of the Juramento reservoir.A biologia reprodutiva e alimentação de Curimatella lepidura (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 foram estudadas no reservatório de Juramento, Bacia do rio São Francisco, Sudeste do Brasil. Análises histológicas e índices gonadosomáticos mostraram fêmeas e machos em atividade reprodutiva de outubro a março e desova total ocorrendo de janeiro a março coincidindo com pico de espermiação. Na estação seca, os peixes acumularam reservas energéticas para a reprodução durante curta estação chuvosa. A espécie apresentou dimorfismo sexual, sendo as fêmeas maiores do que os machos e, a maturação gonadal ocorreu em torno de 7,7 cm de comprimento padrão para as fêmeas e 7,1 cm para os machos. C. lepidura apresentou hábito alimentar iliófago, ingerindo predominantemente sedimento/detrito e, em menor proporção, ácaros, algas, insetos Tricoptera e crustáceos Ostracodas sugerindo provável papel na reciclagem de nutrientes do reservatório de Juramento.

  6. Aerobic and anaerobic mineralization of Salvinia molesta and Myriophyllum aquaticum leachates from a tropical reservoir (Brazil Mineralização aeróbia e anaeróbia dos lixiviados de Salvinia molesta e Myriophyllum aquaticum de um reservatório tropical (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Henriques da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed at describing and discussing the leachates mineralization (aerobic and anaerobic of two species of aquatic macrophytes (Salvinia molesta and Myriophyllum aquaticum from a tropical reservoir (22° 00' S and 47° 54' W; METHODS: The incubations were prepared with plant leachates and reservoir water sample and were maintained during 45 days in the dark (at 20 °C. The organic carbon and the oxygen consumption kinetics were evaluated; RESULTS: Irrespective of to the experimental condition, the leachates were mainly utilized for catabolic processes (i.e., respiration, mineralization was slightly faster in an aerobic environment (1.22 fold and in this condition, the yield of refractory products was smaller (2.3%; the O/C stoichiometric ratios values (oxygen consumed per atom of carbon from mineralization of the 2 types of leachates were similar (ca. 1.12; CONCLUSIONS: According to these results we conclude that the leachate from selected macrophytes is rapidly decomposed and subsidize primariy the microbial catabolism (aerobic or anaerobic; in addition, we propose that S. molesta contributes more to the input of dissolved organic matter within the reservoir.OBJETIVO: Nesse estudo foram descritas as mineralizações (aeróbias e anaeróbias dos lixiviados de 2 espécies de macrófitas aquáticas (Salvinia molesta e Myriophyllum aquaticum que ocorrem em um reservatório tropical (22° 00' S e 47° 54' O; MÉTODOS: As incubações, preparadas com os lixiviados das plantas e amostra de água do reservatório, foram mantidas no escuro e a 20 °C, por 45 dias. Foram avaliadas as cinéticas de perda de massa do carbono orgânico e de consumo de oxigênio; RESULTADOS: Independente da condição experimental, os lixiviados foram principalmente utilizados na respiração; as mineralizações foram ligeiramente mais rápidas em meio aeróbio (1,22 vezes e nessa condição, os rendimentos dos produtos refratários foram menores (2,3%; as

  7. Red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male, Timothy D.; Fancy, Steven G.; Ralph, C. John

    1998-01-01

    Known in the cage bird trade as the Japanese Hill-Robin, Peking Robin, or Peking Nightingale, the Red-billed Leiothrix was first imported into the Hawaiian Islands in 1911 ( Fisher and Baldwin 1947 ), with intentional releases to the wild occurring after 1918 ( Caum 1933 ). A native of Southeast Asia, southern China, and the Himalayan regions of India, this species is a medium-sized, green and yellow babbler with a conspicuous red bill and strongly notched tail. The species is extremely active, but individuals are somewhat secretive and difficult to see as they flit around in the understory, often in small groups. The Red-billed Leiothrix is found in a wide variety of habitats in the Hawaiian Islands, including both native and exotic forests from sea level to near mountain summits exceeding 4,000 m elevation.

  8. Determinación de indicadores de eutrofización en el embalse Río Tercero, Córdoba (Argentina Determination of trophic indicators in Rio Tercero reservoir, Cordoba (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ledesma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La eutrofización es una de las problemáticas ambientales más importantes de lagos y embalses. El embalse Río Tercero (Argentina se encuentra afectado por diversas actividades antrópicas que impactan negativamente sobre el recurso. A la hora de generar un programa de monitoreo de los sistemas acuáticos, una de las consideraciones más importante es poder definir las variables más significativas. El análisis multivariado se presenta como una herramienta alternativa. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la calidad del agua y estado trófico del embalse Río Tercero, con el fin de generar bases para una adecuada gestión de los recursos hídricos. Se realizaron campañas de muestreos durante los años 2003 a 2006 donde se midieron parámetros de calidad del agua. Se determino el estado trófico del reservorio. Se realizó un análisis multivariado, generando una matriz de correlación y un análisis de componentes principales (ACP. El embalse experimentó un deterioro en su calidad, pasando desde un estado de mesotrófico a eutrófico. Se demostró que existe correlación positiva entre la clorofila- a y las variables fósforo total (r = 0.83, oxigeno disuelto (r = 0.51 y temperatura (r = 0.43. El ACP explicó el 65,6% de la variabilidad total de los datos. El análisis multivariado estableció que las variables más significativas para explicar la variabilidad en el reservorio fueron clorofila-a, fósforo total y temperatura, lo que demuestra que los florecimientos algales deberían ocurrir en las estaciones primavera-verano. Los resultados obtenidos permiten generar un programa preliminar de monitoreo y gestión extrapolable a otros recursos acuáticos.Eutrophication is one of the most important environmental problems in lakes and reservoirs. Río Tercero reservoir (Argentina is affected by various human activities that impact negatively on the system. When generating a monitoring program of aquatic systems, one of the most important

  9. Utopian dream: a new farm bill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, Marion

    2012-01-01

    In the fall of 2011, I taught a graduate food studies course at New York University devoted to the farm bill, a massive and massively opaque piece of legislation passed most recently in 2008 and up for renewal in 2012. The farm bill supports farmers, of course, but also specifies how the United States deals with such matters as conservation, forestry, energy policy, organic food production, international food aid, and domestic food assistance. My students came from programs in nutrition, food studies, public health, public policy, and law, all united in the belief that a smaller scale, more regionalized, and more sustainable food system would be healthier for people and the planet.

  10. Carga máxima de fósforo admissível ao reservatório Piraquara II, uma aplicação do processo TMDL Maximum allowable phosphorus load in the Piraquara II reservoir, a TMDL process application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Bittencourt

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Para implementação e operacionalização da política brasileira de recursos hídricos, é imprescindível o uso de ferramentas de planejamento que considerem o efeito de todas as atividades ou processos que causam ou contribuem para a degradação da qualidade de um corpo d'água. Neste sentido, aplicou-se o processo TMDL (total maximum daily load, desenvolvido pela Agência de Proteção Ambiental dos Estados Unidos (EPA, para o P, na área de drenagem de contribuição ao futuro reservatório Piraquara II, bacia hidrográfica do rio Piraquara, Paraná. O processo TMDL determina a quantidade máxima de cargas de um poluente que um corpo d'água pode receber sem violar os padrões estabelecidos de qualidade da água e aloca cargas deste poluente entre fontes de poluição pontuais e difusas. No presente estudo, utilizou-se o método TMDL, com o objetivo de demonstrar ser ele uma ferramenta útil no processo de gestão dos recursos hídricos. Simularam-se cenários de uso do solo, por meio de modelagem matemática, até obter-se uma concentração de P total no reservatório abaixo da faixa limite para ocorrência de eutrofização, de 0,025 a 0,10 mg L-1, estabelecida no estudo. Realizou-se uma simulação de uso atual do solo, visando prever a condição inicial de qualidade da água no corpo d'água, na qual a concentração de P total no reservatório resultante não atendeu ao padrão estabelecido. Procedeu-se a uma segunda simulação com adoção das medidas de controle, recomposição de mata ciliar e plantio direto, para reduzir a exportação de carga de P total da bacia. Obteve-se uma melhoria na qualidade da água do reservatório, indicando que as medidas adotadas foram suficientes para atingir o padrão estabelecido, o que demonstra a aplicabilidade do método.For the implementation and operation of the Brazilian Federal law on water resources of 1997 it is indispensable to use planning tools that take into account the effect of

  11. Parâmetros de projeto de microrreservatório, de pavimentos permeáveis e de previsão de enchentes urbanas Design parameters for micro reservoir, for porous pavements and for forecast of urban flow

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço Leme da Costa Junior; Ademir Paceli Barbassa

    2006-01-01

    Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo principal avaliar o uso e a ocupação dos lotes de uma área urbana e analisar as possibilidades de uso das medidas de controle local de inundação: microrreservatórios de detenção e pavimentos permeáveis. A área de estudo foi a Sub-bacia Hidrográfica Urbana da Ponte Seca (SBHUPS), em Jaboticabal - SP. O total de lotes da SBHUPS é 1.777. Avaliaram-se 164 lotes, por amostragem aleatória estratificada proporcional de acordo com a área. Utilizou-se de levantamento d...

  12. Periphytic algal community in artificial and natural substratum in a tributary of the Rosana reservoir (Corvo Stream, Paraná State, Brazil) = Comunidade de algas perifíticas em substrato artificial e natural em um tributário do reservatório de Rosana (Ribeirão do Corvo, Estado do Paraná, Brasil)

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Rodrigues; Sirlene Aparecida Felisberto

    2010-01-01

    Periphytic algal community in artificial and natural substratum in a tributary of the Rosana reservoir (Corvo Stream, Paraná State, Brazil). This study evaluated the heterogeneity in periphytic algal community, under the influence of time colonization on artificial substratum. We also examined which abiotic variables most influenced the community in natural and artificial substratum. Egeria najas Planchon was used as natural substratum, and a plastic plant, asartificial. This experiment was c...

  13. The water quality investigation using GIS and multivariable analysis in a semiarid region reservoir Investigação da qualidade das águas em reservatório do semiárido usando geoprocessamento e análise multivariada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Mithya Barros Alexandre

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the Serrote reservoir, sited in the Groaíras watershed at the northeastern region of Ceará State, Brazil. The aim was to investigate the temporal and spatial variability of water quality. Data investigation was processed using multivariate analysis/cluster analysis and GIS techniques. Samples were taken in four stations spreading out over the water body during five campaigns of collection (February, May, August/2007 and May, August/2008. The water quality parameters analyzed were: Electric Conductivity (EC, pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, temperature, chlorophyll 'a' concentration and Total Phosphorus (TP. Two homogeneous groups were identified, which expressed the inter-annual seasonality influence in the water quality. The highest concentration of investigated attributes occurred in 2008. At that year, the depth of the annual rainfall was 53% above the annual average. Chlorophyll 'a' and total phosphorus defined the dissimilarity between the two groups. Group 1 was composed with the better water quality and concentrations of attributes were close to the recommended limit defined by resolution 357/05 of CONAMA. Whereas Group 2 presented average concentrations of chlorophyll 'a' and total phosphorus two times greater than the ones registered in Group 1, there for been above the limit established by CONAMA (357/05 for human consumption. The reservoir presents characteristics that point toward eutrophization due to the use and management of the soil around said reservoir.Este estudo foi conduzido no açude Serrote (barragem Edson Queiroz, localizado na bacia do rio Groaíras, no norte do estado do Ceará, objetivando-se investigar a variabilidade espaço-temporal da qualidade da água. Foram coletadas amostras de água em quatro pontos do corpo hídrico, durante os meses de fevereiro, maio e agosto de 2007 e maio e agosto de 2008, totalizando cinco campanhas. Os parâmetros considerados neste estudo foram Condutividade El

  14. Is Bill Gates Getting Too Powerful?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑娟娟

    2004-01-01

    Plenty of technology genius lie awake nights anxiously wondering what Bill Gates is up to and how to grow up to be just like him. Microsoft, the company he heads, already owns the operating systems that run most of the world's personal computers. But good comput-

  15. Psychiatric Rehabilitation: A Dialogue with Bill Anthony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Hanoch

    1984-01-01

    Presents an interview with Dr. Bill Anthony, Director of the Boston University Center for Rehabilitation Research and Training in Mental Health. Outlines the historical forerunners of Anthony's Psychiatric Rehabilitation Model, describes its major components, discusses its applicability to different client populations, and demonstrates the model's…

  16. The Balanced Billing Cycle Vehicle Routing Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groer, Christopher S [ORNL; Golden, Bruce [University of Maryland; Edward, Wasil [American University

    2009-01-01

    Utility companies typically send their meter readers out each day of the billing cycle in order to determine each customer s usage for the period. Customer churn requires the utility company to periodically remove some customer locations from its meter-reading routes. On the other hand, the addition of new customers and locations requires the utility company to add newstops to the existing routes. A utility that does not adjust its meter-reading routes over time can find itself with inefficient routes and, subsequently, higher meter-reading costs. Furthermore, the utility can end up with certain billing days that require substantially larger meter-reading resources than others. However, remedying this problem is not as simple as it may initially seem. Certain regulatory and customer service considerations can prevent the utility from shifting a customer s billing day by more than a few days in either direction. Thus, the problem of reducing the meterreading costs and balancing the workload can become quite difficult. We describe this Balanced Billing Cycle Vehicle Routing Problem in more detail and develop an algorithm for providing solutions to a slightly simplified version of the problem. Our algorithm uses a combination of heuristics and integer programming via a three-stage algorithm. We discuss the performance of our procedure on a real-world data set.

  17. Perkins Bill is Approved by Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2006-01-01

    Career and technical education programs will face new pressure to show that they are academically rigorous and guiding high school students through a lineup of courses that prepares them for college or the workplace, under a bill approved by Congress. The reauthorization of the federal law known as the Perkins Act--dealing with what traditionally…

  18. Electoral (Amendment) (Hours of Polling) Bill 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Hunt, Brian; Doyle, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Private Members' Bill (legislation) introduced in Dáil Éireann (House of Deputies), Houses of the Oireachtas (Parliament of Ireland). An Act to set voting hours for Dáil Elections, Dáil Bye-Elections, Presidential Elections, European Parliament Elections, Local Government Elections and Referenda...

  19. Bill Gates,Head of Microsoft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鸿钧

    2001-01-01

    As a teenager in 1972, Bill Gates once said that he would be a millionaire by the time he was 20. Only 15 years later he was a billionaire. And by 1992, as head of the Microsoft company,he became the richest man in America with assets(资产) ofabout US$ 6. 3 billion.

  20. "Buffalo Bill" and the Siouan Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Phyllis

    1983-01-01

    The popular art of William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody--lithographic posters advertising his Wild West Show and depicting the Indians who performed in it--created the visual image of the American Indian that we have come to know as the Siouan stereotype. By contrast the artists' images of the American Indian were inaccessible to the general…

  1. One year of migration data for a western yellow-billed cuckoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechrist, Juddson D.; Paxton, Eben H.; Ahlers, Darrell D.; Doster, Robert H.; Ryan, Vicky M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, we studied the migration of the Western Yellow-billed Cuckoo by capturing 13 breeding birds on the middle Rio Grande, New Mexico, and attaching a 1.5-g Mk 14-S British Antarctic Survey geolocator to each bird. In 2010, we recaptured one of the cuckoos, enabling us to download its geolocation data. The cuckoo had flown approximately 9500 km during its southward migration, traveling through Central America to winter in portions of Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina. The spring migration route differed somewhat from the fall route, with the cuckoo bypassing Central America to migrate through the Caribbean. Additionally, it moved between New Mexico and Mexico at the end of summer in 2009 and again in 2010 before being recaptured at its breeding site. Our results, albeit from one individual, hint at a dynamic migration strategy and have broad implications for the ecology and conservation of the Western Yellow-billed Cuckoo, a species of conservation concern.

  2. Estudo de dois anos com animais reservatórios em área de ocorrência de leishmaniose tegumentar americana humana em bairro de urbanização antiga na cidade de Manaus-AM, Brasil Two year study of reservoir animals in an old urban area with cutaneous Leishmaniasis occurrence in the city of Manaus-AM, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Augusto de Oliveira Guerra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem o resultado de dois anos de investigação de um foco de Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA, ocorrida em área urbanizada em um conjunto habitacional na cidade da Manaus-AM. Chama atenção o fato de que este não é o padrão de ocorrência de surtos da doença na região, e sim interrupção da transmissão após urbanização. Foram investigados os animais considerados reservatórios em potencial para a leishmaniose em domicílios humanos e em áreas de floresta adjacentes. Foram testados anticorpos contra Leishmania spp em amostras de sangue de cães e detectada reatividade pela reação de imunofluorescencia indireta em oito (20,51 % dos examinados. Entre os animais silvestres examinados a espécie Didelphis marsupialis foi predominante, com 20 exemplares capturados, sendo encontrados homoflagelados em três destes e lesões suspeitas de leishmaniose cutanea em dois. Acredita-se que um assentamento populacional desordenado ocorrido nas adjacências tenha causado o deslocamento das populações de vetores e reservatórios naturais em direção às casas do conjunto Hiléia propiciando o surto.This is the result of a two year follow-up of a Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL foci in the Hileia urban neighborhood in Manaus. It is important to point out that this is not the usual pattern of Leishmaniasis occurrence in this area. The authors investigated the animal potential reservoir in households and in the surrounding forest area. Samples were tested for leishmaniasis antibodies by RIFI. Eight (20.51% of the examined domestic dogs showed reactivity. In captured wild animals, the Didelphis marsupialis was predominant in twenty specimens, three with homoflagelated in the blood and two with suspicious cutaneous lesions. We believe that the disordered population growth in the nearby area pushed the population of vectors and natural reservoir toward the homes in the Heleia neighborhood creating conditions for this outbreak.

  3. Caracterização química das plantas aquáticas coletadas no reservatório de Salto Grande (Americana-SP Chemical characterization of aquatic plants assessed in Salto Grande reservoir (Americana-SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martins

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a constituição química das espécies de plantas aquáticas Brachiaria arrecta, Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes e Salvinia auriculata - encontradas no reservatório da usina hidrelétrica de Salto Grande, em Americana-SP - de forma a fornecer subsídios para futuras avaliações sobre o comportamento da biomassa dessas espécies em local de descarte ou no próprio reservatório. As amostras de plantas foram coletadas no dia 16.4.2002, sendo desidratadas em estufa de circulação forçada de ar a 60 ºC. B. arrecta apresentou os menores teores médios de macro e micronutrientes e o maior teor médio de elementos pesados na matéria seca, em relação às demais espécies. A relação C/N das espécies E. crassipes, P. stratiotes e S. auriculata apresentou valores próximos. Não foi detectada, em nenhuma das espécies estudadas, a presença dos elementos molibdênio, prata, chumbo e mercúrio.This research aimed to describe the chemical components of the following aquatic plants: Brachiaria arrecta, Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes and Salvinia auriculata, found in a reservoir formed by Salto Grande power plant in Americana-SP, Brazil, to provide a basis for future evaluations of the biomass behavior of these species at waste points or in the reservoir. Plant samples were collected on 04/16/2002. B. arrecta showed the lowest medium contents of macro and micronutrients and the highest medium contents of heavy metal in the dry matter, compared to the other aquatic species. The C/N relationship of E. crassipes, P. stratiotes and S. auriculata showed similar contents. Molybdenum, silver, lead and mercury were not detected in any of the species studied.

  4. Estrutura e dinâmica da comunidade fitoplanctônica a jusante e montante do reservatório de Corumbá, Caldas Novas, Estado de Goiás, Brasil Structure and dynamics of the phytoplankton community downstream and upstream Corumbá reservoir, Caldas Novas, state of Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Train

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O fitoplâncton desempenha um importante papel na teia trófica de ambientes lóticos; no entanto, estudos sobre o potamoplâncton no Brasil são ainda escassos. O presente trabalho visa a caracterizar a comunidade fitoplanctônica, nas estações a montante e jusante do reservatório de Corumbá, Estado de Goiás, e identificar as principais variáveis ambientais que influenciam sua estrutura. Foram realizadas coletas mensais, a subsuperfície, em 3 estações, no período de novembro de 1996 a novembro de 1997, e, bimestrais de janeiro de 1998 a maio de 1999. Foram analisados os padrões de distribuição do fitoplâncton em relação a alguns fatores limnológicos: temperatura da água, vazão, turbidez, condutividade elétrica, fósforo solúvel reativo, íon amônio, nitrato e nitrogênio Kjeldahl total, utilizando-se análise de correspondência canônica. Foram identificados 162 táxons. As classes Cyanophyceae e Bacillariophyceae foram as mais abundantes, sendo responsáveis pelos picos de densidade registrados. Durante o período de estudo, a maior densidade fitoplanctônica (28.313 ind.ml-1 foi registrada no rio Corumbá a jusante do reservatório, com dominância da diatomácea Achnanthes minutissima. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, cianoprocariota heterocitada, apresentou elevadas abundâncias nas estações a montante do reservatório, no período de seca. As variações observadas mostraram uma clara sazonalidade relacionada ao ciclo hidrológico, sendo que as menores densidades fitoplanctônicas ocorreram no período de maior vazão, enquanto que os máximos de abundância foram registrados durante reduzida vazão. Assim, a dinâmica da comunidade fitoplanctônica foi fortemente determinada pela vazão do rio Corumbá, temperatura da água e concentração de nutrientesAlthough phytoplankton plays an important role in the trophic web of lotic environments, studies on potamoplankton in Brazil are still scarce. The present study

  5. Ilmumised ja mediteerimised / Bill Viola ; interv. Harry Liivrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viola, Bill

    1998-01-01

    Bill Viola videoretrospektiiv Stedelijk Museumis, Rijksmuseumis, New Metropolises jm. Amsterdamis 29. novembrini. H. Liivrand Bill Violast ja tema loomingust. B. Viola oma videokunstist praegu ja 25 aastat tagasi, mil tema alustas, mõjutustest loomingule.

  6. Law on Negotiable Bills of Exchange to Be Revised

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China Banking Regulatory Commission(CBRC) will revise the Law on Negotiable Bills of Exchange cooperating with the relevant government departments. CBRC will discuss with the relevant departments on the specific regulatory work on bank bill and on the system

  7. Aspectos Ecológicos dos Parasitos de Iheringichthys labrosus (Lütken, 1874 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae em Reservatórios da Bacia do Rio Paraná e na Planície de Inundação do Alto Rio Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i4.1265 Ecological aspects of the parasites of Iheringichthys labrosus (Lütken, 1874 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae in reservoirs of Paraná basin and upper Paraná floodplain, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i4.1265

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Cezar Pavanelli

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 62 espécimes de Iheringichthys labrosus capturados nos reservatórios de Rosana, Taquaruçú, Salto Grande e Canoas I, localizados na bacia do Rio Paraná. Cinqüenta peixes (80,65% estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espécie. Foram encontrados os seguintes parasitos: uma espécie de Dactylogyridae; uma espécie de Apocreadiidae; uma espécie de Proteocephalidea; Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus pimelodus Pinto, Fábio, Noronha e Rolas, 1974; Quadrigyrus sp.; e Ergasilus sp. Na planície de inundação do Alto rio Paraná, foram capturados 35 espécimes deste mesmo hospedeiro, sendo que 13 estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espécie (37,14%. As espécies de parasitos encontradas foram: Herpetodiplostomum gymnoti larva; uma espécie de Proteocephalidea; Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus pimelodus; Contracaecum sp. Tipo 1 larva de Moravec, Kohn e Fernandes, 1993; e Quadrigyrus sp. Em ambos os locais de estudo, a prevalência e a abundância de parasitismo não estavam correlacionadas com o comprimento padrão dos hospedeiros. Houve diferenças significativas entre prevalência e abundância das espécies de parasitos de acordo com o sexo dos peixes somente na planície de inundação do Alto rio Paraná. Além disso, observou-se em ambas as localidades que a abundância de parasitismo não exerce influência sobre o fator de condição dos hospedeiros. A comparação das infracomunidades de parasitos presentes nos peixes de ambas as localidades apresentou uma similaridade de 54,54%Sixty-two specimens of Iheringichthys labrosus, captured in Rosana, Taquaruçú, Salto Grande and Canoas I reservoirs, located in the Paraná River basin, were necropsied. Fifty specimens were parasited by at least one species (80.65%. Six parasite species were recorded: one species of Dactylogyridae; one species of Apocreadiidae; one species of Proteocephalidea; Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus pimelodus Pinto, Fábio, Noronha e Rolas, 1974

  8. 9 CFR 590.130 - Basis of billing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis of billing plants. 590.130... of Service § 590.130 Basis of billing plants. Overtime and/or holiday services shall be billed to the official plant on the basis of each 15 minutes of overtime and/or holiday service performed by...

  9. 42 CFR 408.82 - Conditions for group billing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for group billing. CMS agrees to a group billing arrangement only if the following conditions are met... by the State under a buy-in agreement. (c) Protection of enrollee's rights. The use of group billing... maximum feasible protection of the rights specified in paragraph (c) of this section, each enrollee...

  10. Ocorrência de Diplostomum sp Nordmann, 1832 (Digenea: Diplostomatidae em Plagioscion squamosissimus Heckel, 1840, proveniente do Reservatório de Volta Grande, MG, Brasil Occurrence of Diplostomum sp Nordmann, 1832 (Digenea: Diplostomatidae in Plagioscion squamosissimus Heckel, 1840, from Volta Grande Reservoir, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ruas de Moraes

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho demonstrou a presença de Diplostomum sp (Digenea em corvinas (Plagioscion squamosissimus Heckel, 1840 do reservatório de Volta Grande (MG, avaliando, em condições naturais, a ocorrência do parasito, a intensidade de infestação e a sazonalidade. Os peixes foram coletados bimestralmente, com rede de espera, durante o período de dezembro de 1995 a dezembro de 1996, e dissecados para observação de parasitos. De 68 peixes examinados, 31 apresentaram-se parasitados no globo ocular. A prevalência foi de 45,6% e o número médio de parasitos de 13, variando de 1 a 34.The present work demonstrated the presence of Diplostomum sp (Digenea in corvina (Plagioscion squamosissimus Heckel, 1840 from the Volta Grande Reservoir (MG. Prevalence, intensity and seasonality in the natural conditions were evaluated. Fishes were bimonthly collected with the aid of a net, during the period of December 1995 through December 1996. Thirty one out of sixty eight fishes were parasitized in the eyes. The prevalence was 45,6% and the mean number of parasites was 13 varying from 1 to 34.

  11. Digitalization of incoming mail and incoming bills

    OpenAIRE

    Huč, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide an overview of the processes involved in the digitalization of materials and having consideration of legal regulations, restrictions and recommendations, make the digitalization process of incoming mail and incoming bills as a cloud-based service. Having an efficient document management system has a significantly positive effect on an organization. In order for documents to be managed more easily and efficiently, they must be converted into an electron...

  12. Simulation of spectral bands of the MERIS sensor to estimate chlorophyll-a concentrations in a reservoir of the semi-arid region = Simulação de bandas espectrais do sensor MERIS para estimativas das concentrações de clorofila-a em reservatório da região semiárida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bezerra Lopes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the monitoring of water is essential for the sustainability and better management of water resources. The use of remote sensing data is important, since it allows evaluation of dynamic problems in aquatic systems, such as the eutrophication of bodies of water and suspended sediment. The aim of this study was to estimate chlorophyll-a concentrations in a reservoir of the semi-arid region of Brazil using simulated orbital-sensor data, as an aid in the management of water resources. The study area corresponded to the Orós reservoir, in the State of Ceará, Brazil. Water samples for analysis of the chlorophyll-a and measurements of the spectral radiance of the aquatic system were collected from 20 points. The radiance was measured by spectroradiometer. The data were collected in June and August of 2011. The model using three bands of the MERIS sensor (7, 9 and 10 presented an R2 of 0.84. For the two-band model (7 and 9, the value of R2 was 0.85. The waters of the Orós reservoir were all classified as eutrophic. The main optically active component in modelling the shape of the spectra was chlorophyll-a. The models showed a mean absolute error (MAE of 3.45 and 3.61 μg L-1 for the three- and two-band models respectively. The models displayed high coefficients of determination, i.e. the simulations show the feasibility of estimating chlorophyll-a concentration from the data of the MERIS orbital sensor. = O monitoramento da água nos dias atuais é essencial para a sustentabilidade e para a melhor gestão dos recursos hídricos. O uso de dados de sensoriamento remoto é relevante, uma vez que permite a avaliação de problemas dinâmicos em sistemas aquáticos, tais como a eutrofização de corpos de água e dos sedimentos em suspensão. Objetivou-se estimar as concentrações de clorofila-a em reservatório da região semiárida do Brasil, usando dados simulados de sensor orbital, como suporte à gestão dos recursos hídricos. A área de

  13. Monitoramento da composição específica da comunidade de macrófitas aquáticas no reservatório Luis Eduardo Magalhães Monitoring the specific composition of macrophyte communities in Luis Eduardo Magalhaes reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Lolis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição e distribuição espacial e temporal da comunidade de macrófitas aquáticas diante de algumas variáveis abióticas no reservatório Luis Eduardo Magalhães, localizado no rio Tocantins. As coletas foram bimestrais, no período de março de 2005 a janeiro de 2006, em cinco regiões. Em cada região foram demarcados 15 pontos de coleta. Foram mensuradas a transparência da água e a condutividade elétrica em cada ponto de amostragem. Para avaliar a composição da comunidade e a distribuição das espécies, foi percorrida uma distância de cerca de 100 m de margem com embarcação em baixa velocidade, por aproximadamente 10 minutos. As espécies submersas foram inventariadas com um rastelo até 4 m de profundidade. Foi calculada a frequência de ocorrência e a diversidade beta. Os dados de presença e ausência das espécies foram analisados utilizando Análise de Correspondência Destendenciada DCA. Uma ANOVA One-Way foi empregada para avaliar o efeito dos períodos e regiões sobre as variáveis abióticas e bióticas. Foi aplicado o teste a posteriori de Tukey quando houve diferenças significativas entre as variáveis analisadas (PThis study aimed to evaluate the composition and spatial and temporal distribution of a community of macrophytes in response to abiotic factors in Luis Eduardo Magalhães Reservoir, in the Tocantins River. Samplings were collected every two months, from March 2005 to January 2006 in five regions of the reservoir. In each region, 15 collection sites were selected. The abiotic variables measured were the Secchi disk depth, electrical conductivity, air temperature, and rain and water levels. A standardized sampling effort was applied to assess macrophyte species distribution and community composition. In each site, a distance of 100 m from the shore was covered with a boat maintaining low and constant velocity, for approximately 10 minutes. The submerged species

  14. Water quality in four reservoirs of the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Amazonas Pires

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: This paper describes some limnological variables of four reservoirs with different trophic status (Billings, Guarapiranga, Jundiaí and Paiva Castro of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil, aiming to characterize the water quality in these reservoirs. Methods Water sampling occurred between October 2011 and September 2012, on subsurface, at the pelagic compartment. Physical and chemical characteristics of water were evaluated, and the Trophic State Index (TSI was calculated. Multivariate Principal Components Analysis (PCA was used to ordinate sampling sites and periods in relation to environmental data. Results Two reservoirs were classified as eutrophic (Billings and Guarapiranga, one as mesotrophic (Jundiaí and one as oligotrophic (Paiva Castro. The highest concentrations of total phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll a were recorded in the eutrophic reservoirs. The lowest values of dissolved oxygen concentration were registered at Guarapiranga reservoir. Residence time in Paiva Castro reservoir was very low (one day; on the other hand, the highest value was recorded in Billings reservoir: 428 days.

  15. Plantas aquáticas e nível de infestação das espécies presentes no reservatório de Barra Bonita, no rio Tietê Aquatic plants and level of infestation of the species at the Barra Bonita reservoir in the Tietê river

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,F.T.; Galo,M.L.B.T.; E.D Velini; Martins, D

    2003-01-01

    O monitoramento da vegetação aquática permite avaliar a evolução das comunidades e determinar o potencial de danos associados a essas populações. O objetivo do trabalho foi identificar as plantas aquáticas e os níveis de infestação de cada espécie, presentes no reservatório de Barra Bonita. Foram avaliados todos os focos de vegetação aquática presentes na represa (335 pontos), sendo os pontos demarcados com um aparelho de GPS. As plantas foram identificadas e foi feita uma estimativa visual d...

  16. Constitutionality of the Plachimada Tribunal Bill, 2011: An Assessment - Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujith Koonan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Plachimada Coca-Cola Victims Relief and Compensation Claims Special Tribunal Bill, 2011 was passed by the Kerala Legislative Assembly on 24 February 2011. The Bill provides for the establishment of a special tribunal to settle disputes between the local residents and the Hindustan Coca Cola Company in Plachimada for recovery of compensation for damages caused to individuals, property and the environment by the company. The Bill is reserved for the assent of the President of India. In the meantime, the central government has sought clarifications on the Kerala government’s competence under the Constitution to adopt the Bill. The major issue is the perceived inconsistency between the Bill and some of the central environmental laws. Thus, the constitutional validity of the Bill is in doubt. In this background, this paper examines the issue of legislative competence of the Kerala government to adopt the Bill.

  17. 41 CFR 102-117.85 - What is the difference between a Government bill of lading (GBL) and a bill of lading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... between a Government bill of lading (GBL) and a bill of lading? 102-117.85 Section 102-117.85 Public... Services § 102-117.85 What is the difference between a Government bill of lading (GBL) and a bill of lading? (a) A Government bill of lading (GBL), Optional Forms 1103 and 1203, is a controlled document...

  18. Anthropogenic impact of mercury accumulation in fish from the Rio Madeira and Rio Negro rivers (Amazonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, José G; Barbosa, Antonio C

    2007-03-01

    Fish is an important concentrator of mono-methyl mercury and the main route to human contamination. We compared fish Hg bioaccumulation (within similar weight ranges) in two Amazonian river habitats during high-water seasons. The Rio Madeira has been greatly impacted by agriculture, alluvial gold extraction, and a hydroelectric reservoir, whereas the Rio Negro is much less affected by these human activities. The species at the top of the food web, Hoplias malabaricus (piscivorous; 80-668 ng Hg/g) and Cichla spp. (piscivorous; 42-747 ng Hg/g) showed the highest range of Hg concentrations. Nonpiscivorous species with comparable weight range, such as Potamorhina latior (detritivorous; 20-157 ng Hg/g) and Myleus torquatus (herbivorous; 2-182 ng Hg/g), had lower Hg concentrations. Triportheus elongatus (omnivorous; 5-350 ng Hg/g), with the lowest weight range, also showed a low range of Hg concentrations. Despite the Rio Madeira's higher sediment load as well as environmental impacts (deforestation, agriculture, hydroelectric reservoir, and alluvial gold mining) on natural Hg release, fish Hg bioaccumulation was no different between the two river habitats for nonpiscivorous species. In this small observational study only the species at the top of the food web (M. torquatus, Cichla spp, T. elongatus) showed higher mean Hg concentrations in the Rio Madeira than the dominantly wilderness habitat of the Rio Negro.

  19. Abundância e aspectos reprodutivos de Loricariichthys platymetopon (Siluriformes, Loricariidae em quatro trechos da represa Capivara, médio rio Paranapanema Abundance and reproductive aspects of Loricariichthys platymetopon (Siluriformes, Loricariidae in four sections of the Capivara reservoir, river Paranapanema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. I. Marcucci

    Full Text Available O cascudo Loricariichthys platymetopon foi capturado pela primeira vez recentemente na região média do rio Paranapanema, tornando-se uma espécie abundante desde então. Aspectos reprodutivos dessa espécie foram analisados neste estudo, com base numa amostra de 1.044 exemplares provenientes do reservatório de Capivara. Foram avaliados a abundância, proporção sexual, RGS, IAR e o diâmetro dos ovócitos. Locais distantes da barragem apresentaram as maiores abundâncias, as fêmeas atingiram maiores tamanhos que os machos e a proporção sexual variou entre os trechos de coleta. A reprodução ocorreu principalmente nos meses quentes, com intensidade moderada; as médias da fecundidade absoluta e da relativa foram de 663,95 ± 141,99 ovócitos e 4,9 ± 1,24 ovócitos/g, respectivamente. A desova ocorreu de modo parcelado e o diâmetro máximo médio do ovócito maduro foi de 3,67 mm. Os dados foram relacionados com o sucesso da espécie na ocupação da região.The armored catfish Loricariichthys platymetopon was recently caught by the first time in the middle region of river Paranapanema. It has quickly become one of the most abundant species. This study evaluated reproductive aspects of 1,044 specimens collected in the Capivara reservoir. Abundance, sex ratio, RGS, IAR and oocyte diameter were evaluated. Sites far away from the dam showed higher abundances than the one next to it. Breeding occurred when temperature was higher, with moderate intensity. Mean absolute fecundity and mean relative fecundity were 663.95 ± 141.99 oocytes and 4.9 ± 1.24 oocytes.gr-1 respectively. Spawning occurred in batches. Mean diameter of mature oocytes was 3.67 mm.

  20. Habitat type and ambient temperature contribute to bill morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, David; Greenberg, Russell

    2014-03-01

    Avian bills are iconic structures for the study of ecology and evolution, with hypotheses about the morphological structure of bills dating back to Darwin. Several ecological and physiological hypotheses have been developed to explain the evolution of the morphology of bill shape. Here, we test some of these hypotheses such as the role of habitat, ambient temperature, body size, intraspecific competition, and ecological release on the evolution of bill morphology. Bill morphology and tarsus length were measured from museum specimens of yellow warblers, and grouped by habitat type, sex, and subspecies. We calculated the mean maximum daily temperature for the month of July, the hottest month for breeding specimens at each collecting location. Analysis of covariance models predicted total bill surface area as a function of sex, habitat type, body size, and temperature, and model selection techniques were used to select the best model. Habitat, mangrove forests compared with inland habitats, and climate had the largest effects on bill size. Coastal wetland habitats and island populations of yellow warblers had similar bill morphology, both of which are larger than mainland inland populations. Temperate but not tropical subspecies exhibited sexual dimorphism in bill morphology. Overall, this study provides evidence that multiple environmental factors, such as temperature and habitat, contribute to the evolution of bill morphology.

  1. Improved reservoir exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassen, P.R. [IKU Petroleumsforskning A/S, Trondheim (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    This paper deals with reservoir exploitation and it highlights some ideas on how to improve exploitive skills to optimise the recovery of a field. The author looks closer at what needs to be done to optimise the reservoir data and the exploitation tools, and what are the needs of the reservoir production management. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Bill Barbour : mõned ideed kasvavatele firmadele / Bill Barbour ; interv. Taivo Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Barbour, Bill

    2005-01-01

    Suurbritannia üks kogenumaid ärikonsultante firmade ärikasvumudelist, mis aitab ettevõttel järgmisesse etappi üle minna. Mida peaks ettevõtja enne äri alustamist läbi mõtlema ning millised eesmärgid ja ülesanded enda jaoks paika panema. Lisad: Bill Barbour; Universaalne kriisimudel

  3. Categorização funcional trófica das comunidades de macroinvertebrados de dois reservatórios na região Centro-Oeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil = Functional trophic categorization of macroinvertebrate communities of two reservoirs in the Midwestern region of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Laurindo da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização do conceito de guilda pode ser útil para a categorização funcional trófica de comunidades, pois não há obrigatoriedade da identificação dos organismos em nível de espécie, nem de tratar cada espécie como uma entidade separada. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os grupos funcionais tróficos (coletores-catadores, coletores-filtradores, fragmentadores, predadores e raspadores das comunidades de macroinvertebrados de dois reservatórios da região Centro-Oeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As amostragens foramrealizadas nos períodos chuvoso (março/abril - 2001 e de seca (julho/agosto - 2001 e os dados obtidos indicam que os coletores-catadores foram a guilda mais frequente. Este fato sugere grande importância da matéria orgânica como recurso alimentar na dieta dosmacroinvertebrados analisados.The use of the concept of guild can be useful for the functional trophic categorization of communities, because there is no requirement identification of organisms in the level of species and not to treat each species as a separate entity. The aim of this studywas to analyze the functional feeding groups (collectors-gatherers, collectors-filterers, shredders, predators and grazer-scrapers of the macroinvertebrate communities of two reservoirs in the Midwestern region of São Paulo State. Sampling was carried out in rainy(March/April - 2001 and dry (July/August - 2001 seasons and the data obtained indicate that ‘collectors-gatherers’ is the most frequent guild. This fact suggests a great importance of organic matter as a food source in the diet of the macroinvertebrates analyzed.

  4. A physician's due: measuring physician billing performance, benchmarking results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Elizabeth W; Browne, Robert C; Jenkins, Jennifer L

    2008-07-01

    A 2008 study focused on four key performance indicators (KPIs) and staffing levels to benchmark the FYO7 performance of physician group billing operations. A comparison of the change in the KPIs from FYO3 to FYO7 for a number of these billing operations disclosed across-the-board improvements. Billing operations did not show significant changes in staffing levels during this time, pointing to the existence of obstacles that prevent staff reductions in this area.

  5. Status of Cherokee Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    This is the first in a series of reports prepared by Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overviews of Cherokee Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports, publications, and data available, and interviews with water resource professionals in various Federal, state, and local agencies and in public and private water supply and wastewater treatment facilities. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Status of Wheeler Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Influência de processos locais e regionais nas assembléias de peixes em reservatórios do Estado do Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2087 Influence of local and regional processes on fish Assemblager in reservoirs of Paraná State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2087

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Agostinho

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os principais processos (locais e/ou regionais que influenciam a composição e a estrutura das assembléias de peixes em reservatórios do Estado do Paraná. Foram amostrados seis reservatórios (Capivari, Guaricana, Alagados, Fiú, Mourão e Rio dos Patos. As coletas foram trimestrais (de julho/95 a fevereiro/97 e de março/98 a fevereiro/99, com uso de redes de espera simples e tresmalhos, de diferentes malhagens, expostas por 24 horas. Todos os exemplares foram identificados, medidos, pesados e a abundância das espécies foi expressa pela captura por unidade de esforço (CPUE, dada em número (no ind./ 1000m2 de rede* 24h. Variáveis abióticas (processos locais também foram medidas no momento de coleta. A análise de correspondência com remoção do efeito do arco (DCA e a análise de componentes principais (PCA foram utilizadas para sumarizar os dados de abundância e abióticos, respectivamente. Os escores dos eixos dessas análises foram utilizados para avaliar a relação entre os fatores abióticos (locais e regionais e a estrutura das assembléias de peixes. Os processos regionais parecem ser os principais responsáveis pela composição e, conseqüentemente, pela estrutura das assembléias de peixes nos reservatóriosThe aim of this study was to identify the main processes (local and/or regional that influence in the composition and structure of fish assemblages in reservoirs located in the state of Paraná. Six reservoirs were sampled (Capivari, Guaricana, Alagados, Fiú, Mourão and Rio dos Patos. The samples were quarterly taken from July/95 to February/97 and March/98 to February/99 using gillnets and trammel nets of different mesh sizes set for 24 hours. The abundance was indexed by the catch per effort in number (No. ind./ 1000m2 net* 24 hs. All fishes collected were identified, measured and weighted. Some abiotic variables (local process were measured during the samples. The detrended

  8. Practical considerations for conducting effective billing audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Robert F

    2002-04-01

    Healthcare organizations need to ensure that they are in compliance with government regulations, especially with the increased vigilance by the HHS Office of Inspector General (OIG) in investigating fraud and abuse. After an OIG audit of claims submitted to Medicare by its teaching and resident physicians, the Clinical Practices of the University of Pennsylvania (CPUP), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, entered into a settlement that included significant financial penalties and a five-year corporate integrity agreement. Lessons learned from the experience may be helpful to other providers in ensuring that their billing practices are in regulatory compliance. As a precautionary measure, providers can undertake their own audits, whether routine or focused. Audits can help providers uncover areas of potential abuse and take steps to correct the problems.

  9. China : Development of National Heat Pricing and Billing Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Anke Sofia; Kalkum, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Market-based reforms in China's urban centralized heating sector are essential to addressing the perpetual inefficiency of a sector built on welfare based principles. The reform of heat pricing and billing is a crucial part of overall heat reform, since it will commodity heat and thus create economic incentives to provide and use heat much more efficiently. Heat pricing and billing reform ...

  10. 38 CFR 17.1008 - Balance billing prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Balance billing prohibited. 17.1008 Section 17.1008 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Facilities § 17.1008 Balance billing prohibited. Payment by VA under 38 U.S.C. 1725 on behalf of a veteran...

  11. 49 CFR 377.205 - Presentation of freight bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Presentation of freight bills. 377.205 Section 377.205 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.205 Presentation of freight bills. (a) “To be prepaid”...

  12. 19 CFR 142.14 - Delinquent payment of Customs bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delinquent payment of Customs bills. 142.14 Section 142.14 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of Customs bills. The following procedure shall be followed if an importer is substantially...

  13. 19 CFR 142.26 - Delinquent payment of Customs bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delinquent payment of Customs bills. 142.26 Section 142.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Delinquent payment of Customs bills. The following procedures shall be followed if an importer...

  14. An Investigation of Telecom Mobile Data Billing Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Bing Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, mobile operators have provided many billing alternatives such as limited and unlimited billing plans, and shared and non-shared data plans for the users with different needs. A non-shared data plan is designed for a single user with a limited monthly data allowance. On the other hand, the monthly data allowance of a shared data plan is shared by a group of users with multiple devices. The mobile operators often conduct the primary price study to compare their billing plans, which shows the relationship between the prices of the billing plans against the fixed amounts of data usage. Although the primary price study can easily and quickly draw the conclusions, it only provides rough billing plan suggestions. In reality, the amounts of data usage are not fixed, and therefore should be measured from commercial mobile networks to reflect the user behaviors on data usage. This paper proposes an analytical approach by using the measured data of Chunghwa Telecom Co., Ltd. (CHT, the largest telecommunications company in Taiwan, to derive the expected payments of various billing plans. The results of the analytical model are more accurate than those of the primary price study, and therefore provide better suggestions for billing plan selection. Other mobile operators can easily use our model to analyze the billing alternatives with their measured data.

  15. 42 CFR 71.11 - Bills of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bills of health. 71.11 Section 71.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING FOREIGN QUARANTINE Measures at Foreign Ports § 71.11 Bills of health. A carrier at any foreign port clearing...

  16. 29 CFR 1205.2 - Employees' Bill of Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees' Bill of Rights. 1205.2 Section 1205.2 Labor... Employees' Bill of Rights. The provisions of the third, fourth, and fifth paragraphs of section 2 are by law... provisions the employees are guaranteed the right to organize without interference of management, the...

  17. Human-Centered Design Bill of Rights for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, William A.

    This paper presents a potential solution to encourage technology adoption and integration within schools by proposing a human-centered technology "bill of rights" for educators. The intention of this bill of rights it to influence educators' beliefs towards technology and to enable educators to confront with confidence the seemingly…

  18. Advance Billing and Metering Architecture for Infrastructure as a Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhpal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Billing in Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS is a complex task that is often compromised due to lack of various interactions (Consumer, Provider, Budget Manager, Agent and Online Payment simultaneously along with necessary features like discount, tax, plan etc. Until Billing is considered as a last essential ability, appropriate framework cannot be provided to IaaS cloud consumers. In this paper, IaaS Online Billing System (IOBS has been proposed that describes transparency of consumption, billing and frequency of usage of services for a cloud based pay per use system. This system describes various interactions of network and user interface. The billing rules have been stored in a database. The model has been verified through UML that demonstrates that IOBS is effective in improving user interaction by reducing time and increasing customer satisfaction.

  19. 77 FR 20747 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT AGENCY... action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Billings Logan International Airport, Billings, MT, to... feet or more above the surface of the earth. * * * * * ANM MT E5 Billings, MT Billings...

  20. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...... dispersion equation in modeling the transport and the deposition of reservoir fines. It successfully predicts the unsymmetrical concentration profiles and the hyperexponential deposition in experiments....

  1. Trace elements and organic compounds associated with riverbed sediments in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo basin, Mexico and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R.W.; Wilson, J.T.

    1997-01-01

    In 1991, the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) was mandated by the Texas Clean Rivers Act (Senate Bill 818) to assess water quality of rivers in Texas. Recent efforts to collect information for the assessment of water quality in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin have involved Federal agencies on both sides of the 1,248-mile U.S.-Mexico border?U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Secretaria de Desarollo Social (Secretary for Social Development, Mexico), National Water Commission of Mexico, and International Boundary and Water Commission?as well as State and local agencies in a spirit of international cooperation. Substantial efforts have been made to gather data needed to determine the quality of water and ecological status of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, especially at sites along the border (fig. 1). The purpose of this report is to assess selected historical data of trace elements and organic compounds in riverbed sediments of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, and of the Pecos River and the Arroyo Colorado in Texas.

  2. Reservoir Engineering Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.H.; Schwarz, W.J.

    1977-12-14

    The Reservoir Engineering Management Program being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory includes two major tasks: 1) the continuation of support to geothermal reservoir engineering related work, started under the NSF-RANN program and transferred to ERDA at the time of its formation; 2) the development and subsequent implementation of a broad plan for support of research in topics related to the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs. This plan is now known as the GREMP plan. Both the NSF-RANN legacies and GREMP are in direct support of the DOE/DGE mission in general and the goals of the Resource and Technology/Resource Exploitation and Assessment Branch in particular. These goals are to determine the magnitude and distribution of geothermal resources and reduce risk in their exploitation through improved understanding of generically different reservoir types. These goals are to be accomplished by: 1) the creation of a large data base about geothermal reservoirs, 2) improved tools and methods for gathering data on geothermal reservoirs, and 3) modeling of reservoirs and utilization options. The NSF legacies are more research and training oriented, and the GREMP is geared primarily to the practical development of the geothermal reservoirs. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  3. Dynamic reservoir well interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, W.L.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Wolfswinkel, O. van; Peters, M.C.A.M.; Verhelst, F.J.P.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop smart well control systems for unstable oil wells, realistic modeling of the dynamics of the well is essential. Most dynamic well models use a semi-steady state inflow model to describe the inflow of oil and gas from the reservoir. On the other hand, reservoir models use steady s

  4. Modeling vapor dominated geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marconcini, R.; McEdwards, D.; Neri, G.; Ruffilli, C.; Schroeder, R.; Weres, O.; Witherspoon, P.

    1977-09-12

    The unresolved questions with regard to vapor-dominated reservoir production and longevity are reviewed. The simulation of reservoir behavior and the LBL computer program are discussed. The geology of Serrazzano geothermal field and its reservoir simulation are described. (MHR)

  5. Uma proposta de modelagem da lista de materiais Bill of materials' modeling: a proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vila Gonçalves Filho

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho propõe uma nova forma de estruturação da lista de materiais, para empresas fabricantes de bens de capital, apesar dos conceitos gerais serem passíveis de utilização em outros tipos de companhias de manufatura. A lista de materiais, como elemento fomentador da integração, é modelada com base em necessidades-chave de diversos usuários, desde o orçamento até a expedição. O objetivo é facilitar as atividades de administração de materiais e gestão da produção. A metodologia desenvolvida consiste em estruturar uma lista de materiais paralela, delineada em função do organograma fabril da empresa e da seqüência de fabricação do produto no tempo. Esses conceitos foram aplicados na formação de grupos de dispositivos dedicados, utilizados na fabricação de hidrogeradores, na SADE VIGESA S/A., fábrica de Araraquara.This paper suggests a new idea to form a Bill of Materials (BOM, for heavy equipment manufacturing companies, with the general concepts applied in others kind of manufacturing companies. The bill of materials, as an essential element of integration, from marketing to delivery, aims to facilitate the activities of Production Planning and of the Control System. The methodology developed is based on a new approach to build parallel bill of materials, using concepts of pseudo levels and assemblies, mainly based on the industrial organizational structure of the company and on the sequence of product fabrication in time. The implementation of this system for dedicated fixtures resulted in expressive reduction of lead time, project hours, fabrication hours and costs.

  6. Statement on Bills to Designate Crab Orchard Wilderness

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Statement of John Kyl on H.R. 3508 and H.R. 5893, bills to designate Crab Orchard Wilderness within Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge. This document includes maps.

  7. 47 CFR 76.985 - Subscriber bill itemization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The amount of the total bill assessed as a franchise fee and the identity of the franchising authority... imposed on the cable operator by the franchise agreement to support public, educational, or...

  8. Plümtoonia Bill - nagu orkester / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2008-01-01

    19.-23. nov. toimuvast animafilmide festivalist "Animated Dreams". Pikemalt USA tuntuimast sõltumatust animaatorist Bill Plymtonist, kes näitab festivalil oma täispikka joonisfilmi "Idioodid ja inglid" ("Idiots and Angels")

  9. Soul / Randy Becker, Bill Evans, Evelin Samuel ; interv. Sven Sapelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Becker, Randy

    2007-01-01

    The Soulbop Bandi rajajad Randy Becker ja Bill Evans ning meie Evelin Samuel gospeli ja rhytmblues'i juurtega soulist. Lk. 72-73 Inessa Josingu ja Ande Kaalepi souliteemaline fotolavastusega ruumikujundus

  10. 47 CFR 76.1619 - Information on subscriber bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... credits. (b) In case of a billing dispute, the cable operator must respond to a written complaint from a subscriber within 30 days. (c) A cable franchise authority may enforce the customer service standards...

  11. 好汉当年勇 BILL WALTON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    chinshen

    2011-01-01

    "拉塞尔(Bill Russell)是伟大的盖帽手,张伯伦(Wilt Chamberlain)则在进攻方面非常优异,他们都是很棒的中锋。"前开拓者教练兰姆西(Jack Ramsay)这么说。"但他们办得到的,沃顿(Bill Walton)通通都做得到……"

  12. Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: FY1970-FY2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-20

    their numbers and votes, vetoes, substitutions, dates of final passage, and public law numbers. Significant definitions are also included. This report...is reported to both houses. Votes on the bill are taken in both chambers. If passed it is sent to the President for his consideration and signature...drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law .” CRS-3 Table 1. Authorization Bills, 1970-2016 Authorization—House

  13. Impact of the Balance Billing Ban on California Emergency Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Pao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to examine reimbursement trends for emergency provider professional services following the balance billing ban in California. Methods: We conducted a blinded web-based survey to collect claims data from emergency providers and billing companies. Members of the California Chapter of the American College of Emergency Physicians (California ACEP reimbursement committee were invited to participate in the survey. We used a convenience sample of claims to determine payment rates before and after the balance billing ban. Results: We examined a total of 55,243 claims to determine the percentage of charges paid before and after the balance billing ban took effect on October 15, 2008. The overall reduction in percentage of charges paid was 13% in the first year and 19% in the second year following the balance billing ban. The average percentage of charges paid by health plans decreased from 91% to 86% from 2008 to 2010. Payments by risk-bearing organizations decreased from 72% to 46% of charges during the same time frame. Conclusion: Payment rates by subcontracted risk-bearing organizations for non-contracted emergency department professional services declined significantly following the balanced billing ban whereas payment rates by health plans remained relatively stable.

  14. Comparison groups on bills: Automated, personalized energy information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Maithili; Kempton, Willett; Payne, Christopher

    2006-07-01

    A program called ``Innovative Billing?? has been developed to provide individualized energy information for a mass audience?the entireresidential customer base of an electric or gas utility. Customers receive a graph on the bill that compares that customer?s consumption with othersimilar customers for the same month. The program aims to stimulate customers to make ef?ciency improvements. To group as many as severalmillion customers into small ``comparison groups??, an automated method must be developed drawing solely from the data available to the utility.This paper develops and applies methods to compare the quality of resulting comparison groups.A data base of 114,000 customers from a utility billing system was used to evaluate Innovative Billing comparison groups, comparing fouralternative criteria: house characteristics (?oor area, housing type, and heating fuel); street; meter read route; billing cycle. Also, customers wereinterviewed to see what forms of comparison graphs made most sense and led to fewest errors of interpretation. We ?nd that good qualitycomparison groups result from using street name, meter book, or multiple house characteristics. Other criteria we tested, such as entire cycle, entiremeter book, or single house characteristics such as ?oor area, resulted in poor quality comparison groups. This analysis provides a basis forchoosing comparison groups based on extensive user testing and statistical analysis. The result is a practical set of guidelines that can be used toimplement realistic, inexpensive innovative billing for the entire customer base of an electric or gas utility.

  15. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  16. Reservoirs of the basin of Majaceite river (Hurones and Guadalcacin) in Cadiz; water quality and their influence with the drought; Influencia de la sequia en la calidad de las aguas de los embalses (Hurones y Guadalcacin) en la cuencia del rio Majaceite de la provincia de Cadiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Barroso, M. R.; Vidal Valderas, L.; Sales Marquez, D.; Quiroga Alonso, J. M.

    2001-07-01

    In this work the results of the limnological study of the two reservoirs of the basin of Majaceite river is presented: Guadalcacin and Hurones. These reservoirs are part of the hydrography net of the county of Cadiz (south of Spain) and it belongs to the Guadalquivir Hydrography Confederation. The study of physical chemical parameters, together with the data of the climate variations have allowed to know the quality of the dammed water, as well as, to predict certain behaviour rules in the adaptation of the water, in the drinking waters treatment plant for their final destination as water of supply. The results obtained in this study allow to conclude that the waters quality of the reservoirs of Hurones are biggest than the reservoir of Guadalcin makes then more appropriate for the public supply because present smaller saline content. (Author) 18 refs.

  17. A biodiversidade bentônica em lagoa marginal ao rio Paranapanema na zona de sua desembocadura, na represa de Jurumirim - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i4.166 The benthic biodiversity in a lake marginal to the Paranapanema river in its mouth zone into Jurumirim reservoir- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.166

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Cristina Souza Davanso

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo principal verificar a biodiversidade bentônica em áreas do fundo da lagoa do Coqueiral, zona de desembocadura do rio Paranapanema, na represa de Jurumirim, Estado de São Paulo. Foram selecionados dezoito pontos de amostragem, englobando áreas rasas e áreas profundas. As coletas foram feitas em intervalos trimestrais ao longo de um ano; também foram analisadas as variáveis físicas e químicas da água (nível, transparência, temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, pH e condutividade elétrica. Amostras do sedimento, para análise da fauna e de fatores abióticos (granulometria e conteúdo orgânico, foram recolhidas em tréplicas, utilizando como coletor a draga de Petersen. O material foi triado e analisado sob microscópio estereoscópico. Contagem e identificação dos organismos foram realizadas, e densidade, abundância relativa, riqueza taxonômica e índice de dominância foram calculados. A análise revelou uma fauna com baixa diversidade e a dominância de Chironomidae e Ephemeroptera. Domínio de Ephemeroptera, constituído por Campsurus, ocorreu no período mais quente do ano e com baixa profundidade da lagoa. A distribuição dos organismos teve como principais fatores determinantes profundidade, transparência, pH e temperatura da água. Na comparação feita entre áreas rasas e profundas, foi observada uma menor densidade de organismos nas regiões profundas.Coqueiral lake is a marginal lake located at the southeast São Paulo State, in the mouth zone of the Paranapanema river into Jurumirim Reservoir and it has high connectivity with the Paranapanema river. This work aimed to verify the benthic biodiversity in areas of the lake bottom. 18 sampling sites in the lake were selected, including shallow and deep areas. The samples were taken every three months during one year. Physical and chemical water variables (level, transparency, dissolved oxygen, pH, and electric conductivity were

  18. Public submissions on the Uganda national biotechnology and biosafety bill, 2012 reveal consensus for Uganda legislators to pass the bill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clet Wandui Masiga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an internationally binding instrument addressing issues of biosafety. Biosafety refers to the need to protect human health and the environment from the possible adverse effects of the products of modern biotechnology. Accordingly all countries to the convention are required to put in place regulatory mechanisms to enhance the safety of biotechnology in the context of the Convention’s overall goal of reducing all potential threats to biological diversity, while taking into account the risks to human health. Therefore each country party to the convention has its own procedures to enact laws to guide the safe use of biotechnology. In Uganda the process involves the drafting of the bill by the first parliamentary counsel, approval by cabinet, first reading at the parliament, committal to the responsible parliamentary sessional committee, tabling of the bill for public hearing, consultations, and final approval. In Uganda, the Committee on Science and Technology is responsible for the Biosafety Bill. In March 2013, the Committee tabled the bill for public hearing and submissions from public institutions. There were comments supporting the passage of the Bill and comments in objection.The reasons for objection are mainly due to precaution, speculation, lack of knowledge about biotechnology and biosafety, and alleged influence from biosafety entrepreneurs. This article reviews these public views, revealing controversy and possible consensus to pass the bill.

  19. 16 CFR 308.7 - Billing and collection for pay-per-call services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Billing and collection for pay-per-call... 1992 § 308.7 Billing and collection for pay-per-call services. (a) Definitions. For the purposes of... transaction. (iv) A reflection on a billing statement of a telephone-billed purchase for a call made to an...

  20. Limnological variations of a deep reservoir in periods with distinct rainfall patterns Variações na limnologia de um reservatório profundo em períodos com diferentes padrões de precipitação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Geraldes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study intends to provide information on how precipitation variation may impact environmental parameters (total phosphorus, water temperature, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, Secchi depth, chlorophyll a and Anabaena abundance and crustacean zooplankton composition and abundance. METHODS: Samples were collected monthly from October 2000 to September 2002 and from October 2007 to September 2009 at one single sampling station located at the deepest point of the reservoir. All data were obtained in the euphotic zone. RESULTS: The highest values of total phosphorous concentrations were reported together with the maximal values of precipitation. Conversely, conductivity decreased during the wet periods. Anabaena presence was only detected between September and December 2001. Daphnia longispina total abundance showed large inter-annual differences. A clear seasonal pattern was inferred for Diaphanosoma brachyurum and Ceriodaphnia pulchella. Both species are thermophilic and begin to be detected in early summer when the water temperature is around 15 ºC. Copidodiaptomus numidicus abundance did not present a clear seasonal pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Some of the observed shifts in environmental parameters (Conductivity, total phosphorus concentrations and Anabaena abundance resulting in changes in zooplankton abundance are induced by rainfall variation. The most affected species were those with a lack of seasonality (C. numidicus or species occurring mainly in winter/early summer (Daphnia longispina. However, a wide range of physical, chemical and biotic interactions is likely to influence zooplankton abundance. Therefore, caution is advised when relating the observed variation exclusively with rainfall intensity. In fact, some of the observed shifts were induced by other factors varying subtly in a seasonal or inter-annual pattern, independently of rainfall intensity.OBJECTIVO: Com o presente estudo pretende-se obter informação sobre os

  1. C3: A comprehensive physician activity and billing tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschl; Sikina; Keller; Kastle; McConnell; Greenfield; Plachta

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The Clinical Charge Capture system (C3) was developed at the University of Michigan to increase the efficiency and accuracy with which information about physician activity and billing is tracked in academic medical centers. Description: This Oracle-based, Visual Basic system integrates the operating room scheduling system, transcription database, clinical data repository, referring physician database, and IDX to allow physicians and staff to perform paperless and on-line standard tasks such as preauthorizing procedures; creating a bill which describes the charges for procedures performed along with their supporting diagnoses; identifying inpatient daily care and consult charges; dictating, editing, signing, and providing attestations for procedural and inpatient notes (menu-driven boilerplate notes are used for common procedures); submitting of charges on-line to IDX; and downloading of payment data from IDX. A messaging system between physicians and billing specialists allows questions to be posed regarding coding issues and options. Summary information about charges is presented and the status of the bill as it progresses through the internal review and billing process is demonstrated. Any missing data are flagged such that delivery of a bill is accurate, timely, and complete. Outpatient clinic visit charges are acquired on line using bar code technology with direct download of clinic charges to IDX. Generation of charges and referral letters may be performed immediately following the performance of a procedure or patient encounter or subsequently in the office. Resident activity is also tracked. Finally, search functions are provided which allow the program to serve as a clinical information research database. Results: The time to bill submission for operative procedures in fiscal year 1996 (Pre-C3) when compared to 1999 (Post-C3) decreased in each individual surgical division (See figure)as well as for the overall Department (Total: mean Pre-C3=40 days

  2. Archeological Investigations in Cochiti Reservoir, New Mexico. Volume 3. 1976-1977 Field Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    13352, LA 13353), David again allowing field crews to camp along the Rio Chiquito Eck (LA 13351), and Rosalind Hunter-Anderson (LA " during the 1977 field...4 Research Problems and Approach............................................... 5 Culture History for the Northern Rio Grande and...416~ A-,...-,,- LO- SANGRE \\ ~~ ~ AMOUNrAN ’- -. rir .. m .j l^ "- ’ - O I~ * COCHITI SANTA FE-% 2 RESERVOIR A NEW MEXICO ALBUQUERQUE FIG. 1.1

  3. How sailfish use their bills to capture schooling prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, P.; Wilson, A.D.M.; Kurvers, R.H.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The istiophorid family of billfishes is characterized by an extended rostrum or ‘bill’. While various functions (e.g. foraging and hydrodynamic benefits) have been proposed for this structure, until now no study has directly investigated the mechanisms by which billfishes use their rostrum to feed...... on prey. Here, we present the first unequivocal evidence of how the bill is used by Atlantic sailfish (Istiophorus albicans) to attack schooling sardines in the open ocean. Using high-speed video-analysis, we show that (i) sailfish manage to insert their bill into sardine schools without eliciting...... an evasive response and (ii) subsequently use their bill to either tap on individual prey targets or to slash through the school with powerful lateral motions characterized by one of the highest accelerations ever recorded in an aquatic vertebrate. Our results demonstrate that the combination of stealth...

  4. Design and Modeling Billing solution to Next Generation Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhtaria, Kamaljit I

    2010-01-01

    Next generation networks (NGN) services are assumed to be a new revenue stream for both network operators and service providers. New services especially focused on a mobile telecommunications that would be used not only as a communication de vice but also as a personal gateway to order or consume a variety of services and products [1]. This type of advanced services can be accomplished when the adaptability of the packet-networks (Internet) and the quality of service of the circuit switched networks are combined into one network [2]. New challenges appear in the billing of this heterogeneous multi services network. Some examples of such a services and possible solutions about charging and billing are examined in this paper. The first steps of mathematical model for billing are also considered.

  5. Review of the hydraulic behavior of Iguacu River in the region of Uniao da Vitoria and its impacts on operation of the Foz do Areia and Segredo reservoirs; Revisao do comportamento hidraulico do Rio Iguacu na regiao de Uniao da Vitoria e seu impacto na operacao hidraulica dos reservatorios de Foz do Areia e Segredo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castanharo, Giancarlo; Buba, Homero [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mails: giancarlo.castanharo@copel.com; homero@copel.com

    2008-04-15

    The Foz do Areia reservoir, under certain combinations of events, may influence flood levels in the cities of Uniao da Vitoria and Porto Uniao, located upstream. To avoid this phenomenon constitutes the main purpose of the hydraulic operation of the Foz do Areia and Segredo reservoirs, after dams safety. To satisfy these objectives, first have to correctly quantify these effects by means of studying the hydraulic behavior of the river reach between the cities and the Foz do Areia reservoir. A description of the recent version of these studies is shown, which demanded significant efforts in modeling and obtaining topographical and hydrological data. A more critical scenery has resulted as compared to former studies, emphasizing the importance of the methods and parameters for the hydraulic operation proposed in this paper. (author)

  6. Composition and abundance of zooplankton in the limnetic zone of seven reservoirs of the Paranapanema River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. SAMPAIO

    Full Text Available The species composition and abundance of the zooplankton community of seven reservoirs of the Paranapanema River, located between 22º37'-23º11'S and 48º55'-50º32'W, were analysed over four periods, in the year of 1979. The zooplankton community was composed of 76 species of Rotifera, 26 species of Cladocera and 7 species of Copepoda. For a large part of the period under study the Rotifera were dominant, followed by Copepoda. The Piraju and Salto Grande reservoirs, which occupy intermediate positions in the cascade of reservoirs, were richest in species, most of them belonging to Rotifera and Cladocera. In the reservoirs Rio Pari and Rio Novo, lateral to the cascade of reservoirs, a lower species richness was observed, although higher densities of organisms were found than in the other reservoirs located in the main river body. Different rotifer species occurred in succession, being abundant in different periods, with no defined pattern. Among the copepods, Thermocyclops decipiens predominated in the majority of the reservoirs. Ceriodaphnia cornuta was the most abundant cladoceran in the intermediate reservoirs of the cascade, and Daphnia gessneri, Bosminopsis deitersi and Moina minuta, in the reservoirs lateral to the cascade. The most frequent zooplankton species were Notodiaptomus conifer, Thermocyclops decipiens, Ceriodaphnia cornuta cornuta and C. cornuta rigaudi, Daphnia gessneri, Bosmina hagmanni, Keratella cochlearis and Polyarthra vulgaris. Some relationships were found between the trophic state of the reservoirs and the zooplankton community.

  7. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister

    2011-01-01

    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  8. Jamaica National Net-Billing Pilot Program Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stout, Sherry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, Kimberly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-18

    This technical report discusses the effectiveness of the Jamaica Public Service Company Limited Net-Billing Pilot Program. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected and analyzed data from a wide range of stakeholders, conducted in-country research, and compared program elements to common interconnection practices to form programmatic recommendations for the Jamaica context. NREL finds that the net-billing pilot program has successfully contributed to the support of the emerging solar market in Jamaica with the interconnection of 80 systems under the program for a total of 1.38 megawatts (MW) at the time of original analysis.

  9. Reservoirs of the basin of Guadalete river (Zahara. El Gastor, Bornos and Arcos) in Cadiz; waters quality and their influence with the drought; Embalses de la cuencia del rio Guadalete (Zahara-El Gastor, Bornos y Arcos) de la provincia de Cadiz: calidad de las aguas y su influencia con la sequia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Barroso, M. R.; Vidal Valderas, L.; Sales Marquez, D.; Quiroga Alonso, J. M.

    2001-07-01

    In this work the results of the limnological study of the reservoirs of the basin of Guadalete river is presented: Zahara-El Gastor, Bonos and Arcos. These reservoirs are part of the hydrography net of the county of Cadiz (south of Spain) and it belongs to the Guadalquivir Hydrography Confederation. The study of physical chemical parameters, together with the data of the climate variations have allowed to know the quality of the dammed water, as well as, to predict certain behaviour rules in the adaptation of the water, in the drinking waters treatment plant for their final destination ad water of supply. The results obtained show a similarity of the waters quality of the reservoirs of Bornos and Arcos, and different to the reservoirs of Zahara-El Gastor because are more saline content. It is showed a progressive decrees of the waters quality dammed during the drought period (1992-1995). In 1995 the water levels was alarmingly lowest. (Author) 19 refs.

  10. 47 CFR 36.380 - Other billing and collecting expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... statistical work, controlling record work and the preparation of revenue reports. (b) Local exchange carriers..., study areas subject to price cap regulation, pursuant to § 61.41 of this chapter, shall assign the balance of Account 6620-Services to the Other billing and collecting expense classification based on...

  11. US Congress considers bill to relieve helium shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2013-04-01

    A bill to alleviate the threat of a significant shortage of helium was set to be debated in the US House of Representatives as Physics World went to press with the House's Natural Resources Committee putting the finished touches to the motion.

  12. The Interpretation of Dreams: Ladson-Billings, Freud, and Derrida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwalt, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a critical and close reading of "The Dreamkeepers" (1994), by Gloria Ladson-Billings. The paper focuses primarily on the gendered nature of "being a teacher" and "being a student" as revealed in the dreamkeeper text, while maintaining its engagement with race and culture as it is manifested in the United States context. It…

  13. 12 CFR 226.13 - Billing error resolution. 27

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., 12 CFR 205.11 governing error resolution rather than those of paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (e), (f), and... account, the creditor shall comply with the requirements of Regulation E, 12 CFR 205.11 governing error... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Billing error resolution. 27 226.13 Section...

  14. Bill and Melinda Gates Pledge $1-Billion for Minority Scholarships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Peter; Lederman, Douglas; van der Werf, Martin; Pulley, John

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a $1 billion dollar grant from Bill and Melinda Gates to send 20,000 low-income minority students to college. The Gates Millenium Scholars Program will require students to demonstrate financial need and maintain a 3.0 grade point average in college. A list of the largest private gifts to higher education since 1967 is also provided. (DB)

  15. Size & Flow: Adult Education Issues in the Senate Immigration Bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Garrett; Spangenberg, Gail

    2014-01-01

    In this essay Garrett Murphy and Gail Spangenberg report on the need for understanding better than in the past, the number of undocumented immigrants likely to need adult education services under provisions of Senate Immigration Bill S.744. The essay looks at why the issues of "size and flow" are important for planners, providers, and…

  16. Bill Gates : Miljardärist nohik / Martin Hanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Martin, 1984-

    2008-01-01

    Bill Gates loobub Microsofti juhi kohast ning jätkab vaid nõustajana. Vt. samas: Elulugu; Tasub teada; Miljardär, kes hoiab oma eraelu kiivalt saladuses. Kommenteerivad Microsoft Eesti esinduse juht Rain Laane ja IBM Eesti juht Valdo Randpere

  17. The "Ever Green" Interpretations of the "Library Bill of Rights"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Helen R.

    2010-01-01

    The American Library Association's (ALA) "Library Bill of Rights" is important to school librarians because it provides the philosophical structure for intellectual freedom in school libraries and asserts the rights of minors. It states: "A person's right to use a library should not be denied or abridged because of origin, age,…

  18. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS RECEIPTS...

  19. BILLING IS A DEVELOPING MEANS OF BRANDS PROMOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Polyakov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a concept of the billing as a developing means of marketing promotion. Examples of comparative analysis for a rating are considered. The author presents technology of two-factor rating of trade marks on the basis of expert and comparative analysis.

  20. Freedom of Movement (Common Travel Area) (Travel Documentation) Bill 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Hunt, Brian; Flanagan, Terence

    2014-01-01

    Private Members' Bill (legislation) introduced in Dáil Éireann (House of Deputies), Houses of the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament). An Act to reinforce the Common Travel Area by providing for passport-free travel for persons who are entitled to travel within the Common Travel Area without a passport...

  1. Active pollinator choice by Heliconia 'fits the bill'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Judith L; Richman, Sarah K

    2015-07-01

    A new study documents that a tropical plant only reproduces when pollen has been deposited by a visitor capable of extracting nectar from its deep flowers. Large, long-billed hummingbirds generally carry greater quantities of, and more genetically diverse, pollen. Thus, plants can exert more active partner choice than previously considered possible.

  2. 31 CFR 309.2 - Description of Treasury bills (General).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Description of Treasury bills (General). 309.2 Section 309.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE OF...

  3. House Bill 1079: 2013-14 Student Enrollment Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Effective July 1, 2003, House Bill (HB) 1079 allows any student, including presumed undocumented students who meet specific criteria, to pay in-state tuition at Washington's public colleges and universities. In addition to meeting certain conditions, the affidavit states that the student will file for permanent residency at the earliest…

  4. 78 FR 76719 - Bill of Rights Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... experimentation and national debate, the Bill of Rights came into force, touching off a long journey to carve... and constitutions, but laws and constitutions must go hand in hand with the progress of the human mind.'' Our liberties opened heated debate over the questions of citizenship and human rights,...

  5. RIO Country Report 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Mitchell, Jessica

    The 2015 series of RIO Country Reports analyse and assess the policy and the national research and innovation system developments in relation to national policy priorities and the EU policy agenda with special focus on ERA and Innovation Union. The executive summaries of these reports put forward...

  6. Fatigue Level Estimation of Bill Based on Acoustic Signal Feature by Supervised SOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Masaru; Omatu, Sigeru; Kosaka, Toshihisa

    Fatigued bills have harmful influence on daily operation of Automated Teller Machine(ATM). To make the fatigued bills classification more efficient, development of an automatic fatigued bill classification method is desired. We propose a new method to estimate bending rigidity of bill from acoustic signal feature of banking machines. The estimated bending rigidities are used as continuous fatigue level for classification of fatigued bill. By using the supervised Self-Organizing Map(supervised SOM), we estimate the bending rigidity from only the acoustic energy pattern effectively. The experimental result with real bill samples shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Ways of implementation of fatf recommendations on combating criminal incomes at bills market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолій Іванович Гулей

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article the measures directed on counteraction to laundering of criminal incomes are considered about the financial transaction with using bills of exchange and promissory notes. A study and analysis of the development process of bills of exchange and promissory notes in different countries of the world, the nature of bills as payment document, securities, commercial and bank credit, and process of immobilization of bills. Also, the problems of the legal framework relating to bill circulation in Ukraine are investigated and some recommendations for reduce the risks of bill circulation are given

  8. Senate working on reauthorization of water resources development bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    Although the details are not even written for forthcoming legislation to reauthorize the U.S. federal Water Resources Development Act (WRDA), three broad themes emerged during a 20 September hearing by the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works (EPW). First, passage of the WRDA bill, which would authorize water projects around the country, already appears to have bipartisan support, as well as support from conservation, industry, and labor groups. WRDA was last reauthorized in 2007 when the Senate voted 79-14 in broad bipartisan support to override President George W. Bush's veto of the $23 billion bill. Second, although the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers—which manages, operates, and maintains a vast water resources infrastructure including more than 600 dams, 926 harbors, and 12,000 miles of commercial inland navigation channels—received some praise for its projects, it was also criticized as being a bureaucracy in need of repair. Third, WRDA legislation is operating under different ground rules than in the past. EPW committee chair Barbara Boxer (D-Calif.) said that she has been working with Republicans on WRDA legislation and that she hopes to move forward with a bill later this year—possibly bringing it up for a markup during Congress's lame duck session following the national election in November. She said that would be a way to set a marker for leadership on both sides of the congressional aisle to move forward with the bill. Boxer said she would "get my dream bill in place" and then provide it to committee ranking member James Inhofe (R-Okla.) and other Republicans for their comments.

  9. Differences in bill form of the oystercatcher haematopus ostralegus; a dynamic adaptation to specific foraging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swennen, C.; De Bruijn, L. L. M.; Duiven, P.; Leopold, M. F.; Marteijn, E. C. L.

    In wintering European oystercatchers 3 bill types: pointed, chisel-shaped, and blunt were found as well as their intermediates. The distribution of the different bill types varied widely in both time and space. Pointed bills had a larger mean length than both chisel-shaped and blunt bills, and occurred more often in young birds than in adults, and more often in females than in males. On an average, females had longer bills than males. In oystercatchers in the Wadden Sea area bill length was found to increase with age, but in the Delta area no increase was found. In semi-natural cage experiments each bill type proved to be most suitable for a specific manner of localization and handling of prey. Bills of individual oystercatchers were shown to change shape when the bird was forced to change its feeding method. A change in method accompanied by a gradual change in bill form only caused a temporary loss of feeding efficiency. It is concluded that differences in bill length influence prey choice and feeding method and hence induce different bill forms. Age- and sex-dependent differences in bill length and form, together with the ability of the individual to adapt bill form and feeding behaviour, enable the oystercatcher to lessen interspecific competition and to respond to changing environmental conditions.

  10. Kill Bill! Ugandan human rights organizations' attempts to influence the media's coverage of the Anti-Homosexuality Bill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Cecilia

    2011-09-01

    The Ugandan Anti-Homosexuality Bill of October 2009 caused an international outcry and sparked intense debate in the local and international media. Particularly contentious was its proposal to impose the death penalty for acts of 'aggravated homosexuality'. Through a quantitative content analysis of 176 items from two main daily newspapers, the government-owned New Vision and the privately-owned Daily Monitor, over the period October 2009-June 2010, combined with qualitative interviews with human rights defenders in Uganda, this study explores attempts made by local human rights advocates to influence the media's coverage of the Bill and the extent to which these attempts were successful. The study finds that while there are significant differences between the frequency of reporting on the Bill in the two newspapers, both papers devoted little editorial space to the public health and human rights concerns put forward by local human rights organizations. Despite Uganda's recent and often lauded history of openly addressing HIV/AIDS, human right organizations' attempts to highlight the Bill's potentially adverse effects on the country's ability to tackle the epidemic effectively were only partially successful and, interestingly, awarded much less attention than the potential human rights implications of the proposed change in legislation.

  11. Stylistic Analysis on "Bill's Little Girl":Lexical Features%Stylistic Analysis on "Bill's Little Girl": Lexical Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲雯

    2011-01-01

    "Bill's Little Girl " is a prose.This article analysis's its stylistic features of language in the aspects of lexical.While analysis,we can further appreciate its plain and simple language,its natural and fluent manner of writing and its complete discourse,meanwhile we can deeply understand that love is great,father's love is great.

  12. Estrutura trófica da ictiofauna, ao longo do gradiente longitudinal do reservatório de Salto Caxias (rio Iguaçu, Paraná, Brasil, no terceiro ano após o represamento - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i1.1362 Fishfauna trophic structure across longitudinal gradient of Salto Caxias Reservoir (Iguaçu River – state of Paraná – Brazil in the third year after dam - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i1.1362

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilene Luciana Delariva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste estudo, avaliar a estrutura trófica da ictiofauna, ao longo do gradiente longitudinal do reservatório de Salto Caxias, no terceiro ano após seu represamento (pós 3. Compararam-se os dados obtidos neste trabalho com dados anteriores (pré e pós 1, a fim de verificar se as espécies que alteraram suas dietas no início do represamento voltaram a utilizar os mesmos recursos alimentares oferecidos no ambiente natural. Foram analisados conteúdos estomacais de 1527 exemplares pelo método volumétrico. A maioria das espécies apresentou dietas compostas por grande diversidade de itens alimentares, predominando, geralmente, um tipo de recurso. A ictiofauna foi organizada em oito guildas tróficas. As espécies detritívoras e piscívoras não alteraram consideravelmente seu hábito alimentar ao longo do gradiente espacial. A montante, todas as guildas estiveram distribuídas em proporção mais semelhante do que nos demais locais. Comparando-se os períodos de pré e pós 1 com o pós 3, verifica-se que poucas espécies retomaram seu hábito alimentar originalThis study aims at evaluating the fishfauna trophic structure across the longitudinal gradient of Salto Caxias reservoir, in the third year after its dam (post 3. The data obtained were compared with the previous ones (pre and post 1 to verify if the species that altered their diets in the initial phase of the dam, returned to the same food resources offered by natural environment. S(tomachal contents of 1527 fishes were analyzed, using the volumetric method. In general, fishes presented a great diversity of food items in their diets, usually with a predominant resource kind. Thus, the fishfauna was synthetized in eight trophic guilds. The detrivore and piscivore species did not alter their feeding habit across spatial gradient considerably. (A montanteUpstream, all the trophic guilds were equally distributed compared to the other sites. Comparing pre and post 1 periods

  13. Status of Blue Ridge Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Blue Ridge Reservoir summarizes reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, water quality and aquatic biological conditions, and activities of reservoir management agencies. This information was extracted from the most current reports and data available, as well as interview with water resource professionals in various federal, state, and local agencies. Blue Ridge Reservoir is a single-purpose hydropower generating project. When consistent with this primary objective, the reservoir is also operated to benefit secondary objectives including water quality, recreation, fish and aquatic habitat, development of shoreline, aesthetic quality, and other public and private uses that support overall regional economic growth and development. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Endine FBI agent õpetab eestlasi allilma imbuma / Bill Moschella ; interv. Rasmus Kagge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Moschella, Bill

    2004-01-01

    Ameerika Föderaalse Juurdlusbüroo (FBI) endine eriagent Bill Moschella hakkab treenima siinseid kriminaalpolitseinikke, õpetab, kuidas paremini tööd organiseerida ja kurjategijate paljastamiseks varioperatsioone korraldada. Lisa: Bill Moschella

  15. 48 CFR 53.247 - Transportation (U.S. Commercial Bill of Lading).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Commercial Bill of Lading). 53.247 Section 53.247 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 53.247 Transportation (U.S. Commercial Bill of Lading). The commercial bill of lading is the preferred document for the transportation...

  16. 40 CFR 81.88 - Billings Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.88 Billings Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Billings Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Montana) has been renamed the Billings Intrastate Air Quality Control... to by Montana authorities as follows: Sec. 481.168Great Falls Intrastate Air Quality Control...

  17. A Critique of the Unemployment Insurance Amendment Bill, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Olivier; Avinash Govindjee

    2015-01-01

    The contribution critically reflects on the proposed amendments to the Unemployment Insurance Act Act 63 of 2001 (the UIA / the Act), introduced via the provisions of the Unemployment Insurance Amendment Bill of 2015 (B25-2015). Several shortcomings and deficiencies are addressed and improvements introduced by the proposed amending legislation, including the extension of coverage to a wider range of beneficiaries, the extension of the period of benefits (to a maximum of 365 days), the increas...

  18. National Survey of Patients’ Bill of Rights Statutes

    OpenAIRE

    Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Jacob, Dan M.; Hochhauser, Mark; Parker, Ruth M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite vigorous national debate between 1999–2001 the federal patients’ bill of rights (PBOR) was not enacted. However, states have enacted legislation and the Joint Commission defined an accreditation standard to present patients with their rights. Because such initiatives can be undermined by overly complex language, we surveyed the readability of hospital PBOR documents as well as texts mandated by state law. METHODS State Web sites and codes were searched to identify PBOR stat...

  19. Ninth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Gudmundsson, J.S. (Stanford Geothermal Program)

    1983-12-15

    The attendance at the Workshop was similar to last year's with 123 registered participants of which 22 represented 8 foreign countries. A record number of technical papers (about 60) were submitted for presentation at the Workshop. The Program Committee, therefore, decided to have several parallel sessions to accommodate most of the papers. This format proved unpopular and will not be repeated. Many of the participants felt that the Workshop lost some of its unique qualities by having parallel sessions. The Workshop has always been held near the middle of December during examination week at Stanford. This timing was reviewed in an open discussion at the Workshop. The Program Committee subsequently decided to move the Workshop to January. The Tenth Workshop will be held on January 22-24, 1985. The theme of the Workshop this year was ''field developments worldwide''. The Program Committee addressed this theme by encouraging participants to submit field development papers, and by inviting several international authorities to give presentations at the Workshop. Field developments in at least twelve countries were reported: China, El Salvador, France, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, and the United States. There were 58 technical presentations at the Workshop, of which 4 were not made available for publication. Several authors submitted papers not presented at the Workshop. However, these are included in the 60 papers of these Proceedings. The introductory address was given by Ron Toms of the U.S. Department of Energy, and the banquet speaker was A1 Cooper of Chevron Resources Company. An important contribution was made to the Workshop by the chairmen of the technical sessions. Other than Stanford Geothermal Program faculty members, they included: Don White (Field Developments), Bill D'Olier (Hydrothermal Systems), Herman Dykstra (Well Testing), Karsten Pruess (Well Testing), John Counsil

  20. Geothermal reservoir management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, C.R.; Golabi, K.

    1978-02-01

    The optimal management of a hot water geothermal reservoir was considered. The physical system investigated includes a three-dimensional aquifer from which hot water is pumped and circulated through a heat exchanger. Heat removed from the geothermal fluid is transferred to a building complex or other facility for space heating. After passing through the heat exchanger, the (now cooled) geothermal fluid is reinjected into the aquifer. This cools the reservoir at a rate predicted by an expression relating pumping rate, time, and production hole temperature. The economic model proposed in the study maximizes discounted value of energy transferred across the heat exchanger minus the discounted cost of wells, equipment, and pumping energy. The real value of energy is assumed to increase at r percent per year. A major decision variable is the production or pumping rate (which is constant over the project life). Other decision variables in this optimization are production timing, reinjection temperature, and the economic life of the reservoir at the selected pumping rate. Results show that waiting time to production and production life increases as r increases and decreases as the discount rate increases. Production rate decreases as r increases and increases as the discount rate increases. The optimal injection temperature is very close to the temperature of the steam produced on the other side of the heat exchanger, and is virtually independent of r and the discount rate. Sensitivity of the decision variables to geohydrological parameters was also investigated. Initial aquifer temperature and permeability have a major influence on these variables, although aquifer porosity is of less importance. A penalty was considered for production delay after the lease is granted.

  1. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  2. Reservoir management cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulati, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    This article by Mohinder S. Gulati, Chief Engineer, Unocal Geothermal Operations, discusses cost cutting in geothermal reservoir management. The reservoir engineer or geoscientist can make a big difference in the economical outcome of a project by improving well performance and thus making geothermal energy more competitive in the energy marketplace. Bringing plants online in less time and proving resources to reduce the cycle time are some of the ways to reduce reservoir management costs discussed in this article.

  3. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  4. All-optical reservoir computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duport, François; Schneider, Bendix; Smerieri, Anteo; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2012-09-24

    Reservoir Computing is a novel computing paradigm that uses a nonlinear recurrent dynamical system to carry out information processing. Recent electronic and optoelectronic Reservoir Computers based on an architecture with a single nonlinear node and a delay loop have shown performance on standardized tasks comparable to state-of-the-art digital implementations. Here we report an all-optical implementation of a Reservoir Computer, made of off-the-shelf components for optical telecommunications. It uses the saturation of a semiconductor optical amplifier as nonlinearity. The present work shows that, within the Reservoir Computing paradigm, all-optical computing with state-of-the-art performance is possible.

  5. Reservoir geochemistry; Geoquimica de reservatorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Joelma Pimentel; Rangel, Mario Duncan; Morais, Erica Tavares de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)], Emails: joelma.lopes@petrobras.com.br, mduncan@petrobras.com.br, ericat@petrobras.com.br; Aguiar, Helen G.M. de [Fundacao GORCEIX, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: helenaguiar.GORCEIX@petrobras.com.br

    2008-03-15

    Reservoir Geochemistry has many important practical applications during petroleum exploration, appraisal and development of oil fields. The most important uses are related to providing or disproving connectivity between reservoirs of a particular well or horizon. During exploration, reservoir geochemistry can indicate the direction of oil filling, suggesting the most appropriate places for drilling new wells. During production, studies of variations in composition with time and determination of proportions of commingled production from multiple zones, may also be carried out. The chemical constituents of petroleum in natural reservoirs frequently show measurable compositional variations, laterally and vertically. Due to the physical and chemical nature of petroleum changes with increasing maturity (or contribution of a second source during the filling process), lateral and vertical compositional variations exist in petroleum columns as reservoir filling is complete. Compositional variation can also be introduced by biodegradation or water washing. Once the reservoir is filled, density driven mixing and molecular diffusion tend to eliminate inherited compositional variations in an attempt to establish mechanical and chemical equilibrium in the petroleum column (England, 1990). Based on organic geochemical analysis it is possible to define these compositional variations among reservoirs, and use these data for developing of petroleum fields and for reservoir appraisal. Reservoir geochemistry offers rapid and low cost evaluation tools to aid in understanding development and production problems. Moreover, the applied methodology is relatively simple and gives reliable results, and can be performed routinely in any good geochemical laboratory at a relatively low cost. (author)

  6. Estado trófico e bioacumulação do fósforo total no cultivo de peixes em tanques-rede na área aqüícola do reservatório de Itaipu - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.519 Trophic level and bioaccumulation of total phosphorus in cage fish rearing on the aquaculture area at Itaipu reservoir - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.519

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rogério Boscolo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A intensa produção de peixes e uso dos recursos hídricos pode comprometer a qualidade e disponibilidade da água, além de afetar a capacidade de suporte do ambiente, causando eutrofização e conseqüentemente a poluição do mesmo. Realizou-se um estudo das variáveis físico-químicas da água e dos teores de fósforo total (P-total no sedimento, rações e peixes cultivados em tanques-rede em uma área aqüícola localizada no reservatório da Itaipu, no município de Santa Helena – PR, objetivando monitorar a qualidade da água e determinar o índice de eutrofização total da área de cultivo, além de analisar a bioacumulação de P-total nos peixes e sedimento. As variáveis físico-químicas da água mantiveram valores normais indicados pelo CONAMA. A concentração média de P-total na área aqüícola foi de 28,41 IET e com transparência por disco de Secchi de 2,74 m, enquadrando o ambiente como oligotrófico. Houve correlação de 0,55 (pThe intense production of fishes and the use of water resources can compromise the quality and the availability of water, besides its affects in the environment carrying capacity, causing eutrophization and consequently water pollution. Therefore the objective of this study was to monitor the physical-chemical water variables and to measure the total phosphorus (total-P in sediment, feed and fish in cage culture on an aquaculture area situated at the Itaipu reservoir in Santa Helena – Parana state, observing the water quality and determining the total eutrophic level on the aquaculture area, in addition to analyze the total-P bioaccumulation in fish and sediment. The physical-chemical water variables presented normal values as indicated from CONAMA. The mean concentration of total-P for the aquaculture area was 28.41 IET and Secchi disc transparency of 2.74 m, giving it an oligotrophic classification. There was a correlation of 0.55 (p<0.01 between this two variables. The bioaccumulation of

  7. Decomposição e dinâmica de liberação de nitrogênio e fósforo de frações vegetais de Salvinia auriculata Aubl. em um reservatório da Amazônia legal = Decomposition and release dynamics of nitrogen and phosphorous from vegetal fractions of Salvinia auriculata Aubl. in a Legal Amazon reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivid Sousa Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar os coeficientes de decomposição da parte submersa (PS e aérea (PA de Salvinia auriculata em duas profundidades da coluna de água (superfície e sedimento. Também visou avaliar o rendimento do processo de perda de massa assim como a evolução temporal dos teores de fósforo e nitrogênio. As macrófitas foram separadas em partes; em seguida, foram secas até peso constante. Os materiais vegetais foram depositados em sacos de decomposição e incubados no reservatório da UHE Lajeado, Tocantins. As análises dos resultados de perda de massa revelaram que não houve diferenças significativas entre os PA-sed e PA-sup (p > 0,05, entretanto, os PA-sed foram significativamente diferentes dos PS-sed (p This study aimed to determine the decomposition coefficients of the submerged (SP and aerial part (AP of S. auriculata at two different depths within water column (surface and sediment. It also quantified the decomposition yield of S. auriculata and the temporal changes of nitrogen and phosphorous content of the remaining biomass. The macrophytes were fractionated in parts and were dried in sequence until attaining constant weight. The litterbags with plant material were incubated in the reservoir of UHE Lajeado. The results of mass loss showed that there were no significant differences among the AP-sed and AP-sur (p > 0.05. However, the AP-sed was significantly different from SP-sed (p < 0.05 and SP-sur (p < 0.01. The AP-sed presented a decay coefficient (k of 0.0102 day-1 and AP-sur a k of 0.0067 day-1. The SP-sed presented a k of 0.0027 day-1 and the SP-sur 0.0040 day-1. It was also noticed that during the first days ofdecomposition great amounts of nitrogen and phosphorous were solubilized. This event was related to the leachate process; from the 14th day of decomposition, an increasing trend was observed in nitrogen concentrations. This fact was probably related to detritus enrichment by microbial

  8. Influence of a cage farming on the population of the fish species Apareiodon affinis (Steindachner, 1879 in the Chavantes reservoir, Paranapanema River SP/PR, Brazil Influência de uma piscicultura em tanques-rede na população da espécie de peixe Apareiodon affinis (Steindachner, 1879 no reservatório de Chavantes, rio Paranapanema SP/PR, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleno Brandão

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diet and biological attributes of the population of Apareiodon affinis residing near net-cage fish farming activities in the Chavantes reservoir. METHODS: Samples were collected from two populations: one near the net cages (NC and one from an area not influenced by these cages denominated the "reference site" (RS. Monthly sampling was carried out from Mar/2008 to Feb/2009. Fish were caught with a standardized effort using gill nets deployed for 14 hours. After all individuals were measured (standard length and weighed (total weight, carcass weight , body weight without gonads. To determine the composition of the diet, the alimentary index was calculated (AI. We also calculated the length-weight relationship, condition factor, gonad-somatic index (GSI and reproductive potential. RESULTS: A total of 3050 individuals were caught. The results of the (AI revealed that the item detritus was the main food used for populations of A. affinis studied in two areas (NC = 73.1% and RS = 95.7%. The use of feed on diet A. affinis was recorded for the populations of NC adding (20.5% of the total items consumed by the population. The resident populations residing near net-cage showed higher condition factor and more reproductive period. CONCLUSIONS: The results show the ability of the species to benefit from the input of organic matter from fish farming activities, inserting a new item in their diet (ration. This work indicates that the species A. affinis managed to establish near net-cage, allocating enough energy to increase their reproductive period and maintain viable populations close to net-cage, evidenced by the high abundance. This study suggests that systems of fish farming in net-cage influence diet and biological attributes of the species A. affinis residents Chavantes reservoir, Brazil.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência de uma piscicultura em tanques-rede na dieta e nos

  9. Reservoir sedimentation; a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of literature is made on reservoir sedimentation, one of the most threatening processes for world-wide reservoir performance. The sedimentation processes, their impacts, and their controlling factors are assessed from a hydraulic engineering point of view with special emphasis on mathematic

  10. Diets of nestling gull-billed terns in coastal Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.; Eyler, T.B.; Hatfield, J.S.; McGary, S.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the diets of nestling Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) at colonies in coastal Virginia during the breeding seasons of 1995 and 1996 as part of a long-term study of the species. No previous quantitative assessments had been made of diets of this species anywhere along the Atlantic Coast, and only a few observations had been reported from other coastal areas in the southern United States. During 80 h of observations over the two seasons, 757 feeding observations were made, primarily at two colony sites. We examined how prey type (fish, marine invertebrates, terrestrial prey) and size were influenced by year, tide cycle, season (early and late) and age of the young (small chicks 7 d). We did not find significant year differences, but all other factors revealed statistically significant results. Older (>7 d) chicks were fed relatively more terrestrial and marine invertebrate prey than were younger chicks. In June (early season), fewer fish and terrestrial prey were fed to chicks than later (July-August). Most prey were less than one bill length in size, with the majority of the smallest prey being marine invertebrates. Tide cycle influenced prey delivered with terrestrial prey becoming relatively more important during high and ebb periods than during low and flood tides when aquatic prey dominated. The major marine invertebrate prey taken was the fiddler crab (Uca spp.). Terrestrial prey consisted mostly of large odonates and orthopterans. Unlike earlier reports from Europe, we found no regurgitated food pellets in any of the colonies in either year. This study confirms that the Gull-billed Tern is an extremely opportunistic feeder and has adapted to a variety of habitats, helping to explain its cosmopolitan distribution.

  11. Bill restricts abortion blockades. Clinic violence is target of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-17

    On November 16, 1993, the US Senate voted approval, by 69 to 30 members, to impose stiff penalties on those obstructing access to abortion clinics. The penalties include up to 1 year in jail and a $100,000 fine for first violent offenses. Obstruction without violence would lead to a fine of $10,000 and 6 months in jail. The legislation was deemed necessary after the murder of a doctor in Florida and the wounding of another doctor in Kansas. Democratic Senator Edward Kennedy said that those who do not obstruct access have nothing to fear. Support came not only from abortion rights advocates, but from those against lawlessness in the pro-life movement. Maryland's Democratic Senators Mikulski and Sarbanes and California's Democratic Senator Barbara Boxes supported the bill, as well as Attorney General Janet Reno and President Clinton. House Speaker Thomas S. Foley announced that the House would consider its version of the bill on November 18, 1993. The original version was changed to reduce fines for nonviolent offenders from $100,000 to $10,000. Opponents argued that the legislation treated peaceful protesters as felons, and was directed in a singular=sided way with no regard to civil disobedience by animal rights activists, antinuclear protesters, and AIDS activists. North Carolina Republican Senator Jesse Helms thought that the Supreme Court would find the bill unconstitutional. Other arguments were that civil disobedience should be allowed for anti-abortion protesters, as it was allowed for civil rights protesters such as Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Senator Kennedy pointed out the Dr. King was trying to secure a constitutional right, unlike anti-abortion protesters who were trying to deny a constitutional right.

  12. Treasury bill rates in the 1970s and 1980s

    OpenAIRE

    Patric H. Hendershott; Joe Peek

    1991-01-01

    As is widely recognized, real interest rates in the early 1980s were at peaks not witnessed since the late 1920s. Less well perceived is the sharp decline in real interest rates since 1984. By 1986-88, real interest rates were back at their average levels of the previous quarter century. This paper seeks to identify the underlying determinants of the major movements in real six-month Treasury bill rates. The rise in real interest rates between the middle 1970s and early 1980s, not surprisingl...

  13. Reasons for reservoir effect variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater reservoir effects can be large and highly variable. I will present my investigations into the short-term variability of the freshwater reservoir effect in two Northern German rivers. The samples analysed in this study were collected between 2007 and 2012. Reservoir ages of water samples......, aquatic plants and fish from the rivers Alster and Trave range between zero and about 3,000 radiocarbon years. The reservoir age of water DIC depends to a large extent on the origin of the water and is for example correlated with precipitation amounts. These short-term variations are smoothed out in water...... plants. Their carbon should represent an average value of the entire growth season. However, there are large reservoir age variations in aquatic plants and animals as well. These can best be explained by the multitude of carbon sources which can be utilized by aquatic organisms, and which have...

  14. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly

  15. Heat loss may explain bill size differences between birds occupying different habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Greenberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research on variation in bill morphology has focused on the role of diet. Bills have other functions, however, including a role in heat and water balance. The role of the bill in heat loss may be particularly important in birds where water is limiting. Song sparrows localized in coastal dunes and salt marsh edge (Melospiza melodia atlantica are similar in size to, but have bills with a 17% greater surface area than, those that live in mesic habitats (M. m. melodia, a pattern shared with other coastal sparrows. We tested the hypotheses that sparrows can use their bills to dissipate "dry" heat, and that heat loss from the bill is higher in M. m. atlantica than M. m. melodia, which would indicate a role of heat loss and water conservation in selection for bill size. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bill, tarsus, and body surface temperatures were measured using thermal imaging of sparrows exposed to temperatures from 15-37°C and combined with surface area and physical modeling to estimate the contribution of each body part to total heat loss. Song sparrow bills averaged 5-10°C hotter than ambient. The bill of M. m atlantica dissipated up to 33% more heat and 38% greater proportion of total heat than that of M. m. melodia. This could potentially reduce water loss requirements by approximately 7.7%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This >30% higher heat loss in the bill of M. m. atlantica is independent of evaporative water loss and thus could play an important role in the water balance of sparrows occupying the hot and exposed dune/salt marsh environments during the summer. Heat loss capacity and water conservation could play an important role in the selection for bill size differences between bird populations and should be considered along with trophic adaptations when studying variation in bill size.

  16. Contribuição da precipitação de mesoescala para o volume de água armazenada no reservatório de Boqueirão Contribution of mesoscale precipitation for the volume of water stored in the Boqueirão Reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes Filho,Manoel F.; Galvão,Carlos de O.; Rita M. Ricarte; Maria C. L. da Silva; Pontes,Alana de L.; Becker,Carmem T.

    2003-01-01

    Apresenta-se uma análise da influência do sistema convectivo de mesoescala, que ocorreu no início da noite do dia 14 de fevereiro do ano 2002, sobre o volume de água armazenada no reservatório de Boqueirão, na Paraíba. Esta análise foi realizada a partir da precipitação e do volume observado no período de atuação do sistema e mostra que, na verdade, a sua atividade começou no início da noite do dia 14 e se estendeu até a madrugada do dia 15. Para avaliar a contribuição desse sistema par...

  17. Water resources review: Ocoee reservoirs, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, J.P.

    1990-08-01

    Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is preparing a series of reports to make technical information on individual TVA reservoirs readily accessible. These reports provide a summary of reservoir purpose and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and watershed; water quality conditions; aquatic biological conditions; and designated, actual and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those use. This reservoir status report addressed the three Ocoee Reservoirs in Polk County, Tennessee.

  18. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  19. Data requirements and acquisition for reservoir characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, S.; Chang, Ming Ming; Tham, Min.

    1993-03-01

    This report outlines the types of data, data sources and measurement tools required for effective reservoir characterization, the data required for specific enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, and a discussion on the determination of the optimum data density for reservoir characterization and reservoir modeling. The two basic sources of data for reservoir characterization are data from the specific reservoir and data from analog reservoirs, outcrops, and modern environments. Reservoir data can be divided into three broad categories: (1) rock properties (the container) and (2) fluid properties (the contents) and (3)interaction between reservoir rock and fluid. Both static and dynamic measurements are required.

  20. Beyond the game: the legacy of Bill Masterton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfield, Christopher M; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2016-07-01

    Bill Masterton is the only man to die of injuries sustained in a National Hockey League (NHL) game. He remains the last fatality in any professional team sport involving a direct in-game injury in North America. While Masterton was originally thought to have suffered a fatal brain injury while being checked on the ice, later analysis of the case revealed evidence of second-impact syndrome and the effects of prior concussions. Masterton's death sparked both an immediate debate in the NHL on whether helmets should be compulsory and the NHL's first vote on mandatory helmet use. Although the subject of mandated helmet use met with resistance in the 10 years after Masterton's death, especially from hockey owners and coaches, the NHL finally legislated helmet use by all players entering the league beginning in the 1979-1980 season. Several awards, including one recognizing the NHL player who best exemplifies the qualities of perseverance, sportsmanship, and dedication to hockey, have been created in memory of Masterton. However, his legacy extends far beyond the awards that bear his name. His death was the seminal event bringing head safety to the forefront of a game that was both unready and unwilling to accept change. An increase in mainstream media attention in recent years has led to unprecedented public awareness of brain injury and concussion in hockey and other sports. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of head injury in sports have occurred recently, the impetus for which started over 45 years ago, when Bill Masterton died.

  1. Water Label to Improve Water Billing in Spanish Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Castillo-Martinez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A significant decrease in water consumption has been achieved in recent years thanks to different campaigns run by different institutions in Spain. However, most citizens do not have a very clear idea about whether or not they are efficiently using water. To solve this situation, this paper aims is to develop two water labels in order to improve the current water billing. These water labels evaluate the total water consumption and the domestic hot water consumption. To make the tags, several research studies were tackled for establishing consumer trends and behavior patterns. Furthermore, a survey and data collection were conducted to obtain updated values to validate information obtained from previous studies. The result are two water labels that establish six different levels to graphically show the efficiency, and they also include a comparison with the average consumption by customers of the same province. To ensure that the benefits of this evaluation are available to citizens, its inclusion on the water bill is proposed.

  2. ELEVATED LEVELS OF MULTIPLE CYTOCHROME P450 FORMS IN TILAPIA FROM BILLINGS RESERVOIR-SAO PAULO, BRAZIL. (R827102)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) levels in tissues of fish inhabiting polluted areas have been used extensively in biomonitoring studies in Europe and North America. However, little information is available about the extent of CYP1A expression in fish from South American waters, nor on ...

  3. Water Management for Competing Uses: Environmental Flows in the Transboundary Rio Grande/Rio Bravo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval Solis, S.; McKinney, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Introduction Due to high water demand, the scarcity of water, and the complexity of water allocation, environmental flows have not been considered as an integral part of the water management in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo transboundary basin. The Big Bend reach is located between the cities of Presidio/Ojinaga to Amistad international reservoir, along the main stream (Fig. 1). Important environmental habitats such as the Big Bend National and State Park in the U.S., the Maderas del Carmen, Cañon de Santa Elena and Ocampo natural reserved areas in Mexico are ecologically threatened because of the lack of environmental water management policies. Several efforts have been undertaken by scientists, government agencies and NGOs to determine the environmental flows for this reach and water management policies that can provide these flows. Objective The objective of this research is to describe a water management policy that can conciliate environmental and human water uses in the Big Bend region. In other words, define a policy that can provide environmental flows without harming water supply for stakeholders or increasing flood risk, within legal and physical constraints of the system. Methodology First, the system was characterized identifying water users, hydraulic infrastructure, and water allocation according to state, federal and international regulations. Second, a hydrograph for environmental flows was proposed that mimics the hydrologic characteristics of the prior dam alteration. Third, a water planning model was constructed to evaluate alternative policies. Fourth, the water management is proposed to provide environmental restoration flows from Luis L. Leon reservoir. This policy considers mechanisms that reduce flooding and drought risks, while meting national and international water regulations. Results Three types of natural flow regimes are considered: (1) median flows aimed to provide the base flow in the region, (2) high flows to provide transversal

  4. 78 FR 61202 - Medicare Program; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... Program; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing Facilities for FY 2014... for Skilled Nursing Facilities for FY 2014.'' DATES: These corrections are effective October 1,...

  5. THE SURDUC RESERVOIR (ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Iulian TEODORESCU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Surduc reservoir was projected to ensure more water when water is scarce and to thus provide especially the city Timisoara, downstream of it with water.The accumulation is placed on the main affluent of the Bega river, Gladna in the upper part of its watercourse.The dam behind which this accumulation was created is of a frontal type made of enrochements with a masque made of armed concrete on the upstream part and protected/sustained by grass on the downstream. The dam is 130m long on its coping and a constructed height of 34 m. It is also endowed with spillway for high water and two bottom outlets formed of two conduits, at the end of which is the microplant. The second part of my paper deals with the hydrometric analysis of the Accumulation Surduc and its impact upon the flow, especially the maximum run-off. This influence is exemplified through the high flood from the 29th of July 1980, the most significant flood recorded in the basin with an apparition probability of 0.002%.

  6. Rock in Rio: eternamente jovem

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas; Flávio Lins Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark ...

  7. Rock in Rio: forever young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark of past festivals around the world. Thus, the musical expands the possibilities of growth for the brand.

  8. A Critique of the Unemployment Insurance Amendment Bill, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Olivier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution critically reflects on the proposed amendments to the Unemployment Insurance Act Act 63 of 2001 (the UIA / the Act, introduced via the provisions of the Unemployment Insurance Amendment Bill of 2015 (B25-2015. Several shortcomings and deficiencies are addressed and improvements introduced by the proposed amending legislation, including the extension of coverage to a wider range of beneficiaries, the extension of the period of benefits (to a maximum of 365 days, the increase of the rate of maternity benefits of a (female contributor's earnings, the adjustment of the accrual rate of a contributor's duration of benefits from 1 day for every 6 days of employment to 1 day for every 5 days of employment, and some attempt to provide for employment retention and the re-entry of unemployed contributors into the labour market. And yet, despite these important contributions to the development of unemployment insurance in South Africa, several matters appearing from the Bill point towards inconsistent, inadequate and inappropriate treatment of core elements of the unemployment insurance system. Recommendations have been made to address these matters, which among others relate to: •\tThe insufficient alignment of the UIA with ILO, UN and SADC standards in key areas of concern; •\tUnclear or absent provisions in relation to the coverage and/or application of the UIA in relation to public servants, migrant workers, and the self- and informally employed; •\tInadequate provision for employment promotion, the prevention, combating and reduction of unemployment, and reintegration into employment; •\tInappropriate provisions relating to benefit rates and periods, among others concerning the Minister's power to set/amend the Income Replacement Rate and to vary the benefit period by regulation; •\tInconsistent and discriminatory provisions requiring a 13-week qualifying period for accessing maternity benefits; •\tInappropriate provisions

  9. Glendo Reservoir 2003 Sedimenation Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) surveyed Glendo Reservoir in May and July of 2003 and January 2005 to develop a new topographic map and compute a present...

  10. 2011 Groundhog Reservoir Bathymetric Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey performed a bathymetric survey of Groundhog Reservoir using a man-operated boat-mounted multibeam echo sounder integrated with a global...

  11. 2010 Fresno Reservoir Sedimentation Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) surveyed Fresno Reservoir in June of 2010 to develop a topographic map and compute a storage-elevation relationship...

  12. Utilização de análise multivariada e redes neurais artificiais na determinação do comportamento de colonização de populações de macrófitas aquáticas no reservatório de Santana Using multivariate statistics and artificial neural networks to determe the colonization behavior of aquatic macrophyte populations in Santana reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L.C.M. Pitelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As análises de agrupamento e de componentes principais e as redes neurais artificiais foram utilizadas na determinação de padrões de comportamento das populações de macrófitas aquáticas que colonizaram o reservatório de Santana, Piraí-RJ, durante o ano de 2004. As análises de agrupamento dividiram o comportamento das populações durante o ano em dois grupos distintos, apresentando um padrão no primeiro semestre que difere daquele observado no segundo semestre do ano. A análise de componentes principais demonstrou que esse comportamento da comunidade (grupo de populações é influenciado principalmente pelas espécies S. montevidensis, Heteranthera reniformis, Ludwigia sp., Rhynchospora aurea, C. iria, C. ferax e Aeschynomene denticulata no primeiro grupo e por Echinochloa polystachya, Polygonum lapathifolium, Alternanthera phyloxeroides, Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia azurea, Brachiaria arrecta e Oxyscarium cubense no segundo grupo. As redes neurais artificiais agruparam as populações de macrófitas aquáticas em nove grupos, conforme sua densidade nos diferentes meses do ano. A aplicação da análise de componentes principais (ACP nos valores de frequência das populações presentes nos primeiros três grupos de Kohonen permitiu discriminar três grupos de meses, cujas populações apresentaram características diferentes de colonização. A aplicação das redes neurais artificiais permitiu melhor discriminação dos meses e das espécies que compõem as comunidades correspondentes, quando utilizada a análise de componentes principais.Cluster analysis, principal components analysis and Kohonen artificial neural networks were tested to determine the behavior patterns of aquatic macrophyte colonization on Santana reservoir, Piraí-RJ, 2004. The colonization behavior of the populations was divided into two groups, representing the two year semesters. The principal components analysis showed that the behavior of the first group

  13. Providing content based billing architecture over Next Generation Network

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhtaria, Kamaljit I

    2010-01-01

    Mobile Communication marketplace has stressed that "content is king" ever since the initial footsteps for Next Generation Networks like 3G, 3GPP, IP Multimedia subsystem (IMS) services. However, many carriers and content providers have struggled to drive revenue for content services, primarily due to current limitations of certain types of desirable content offerings, simplistic billing models, and the inability to support flexible pricing, charging and settlement. Unlike wire line carriers, wireless carriers have a limit to the volume of traffic they can carry, bounded by the finite wireless spectrum. Event based services like calling, conferencing etc., only perceive charge per event, while the Content based charging system attracts Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) to maximize service delivery to customer and achieve best ARPU. With the Next Generation Networks, the number of data related services that can be offered, is increased significantly. The wireless carrier will be able to move from offering wireles...

  14. Tres artículos de Max Bill

    OpenAIRE

    Escaño Rodríguez, Maite

    2015-01-01

    Se presentan aquí las traducciones de tres artículos de Max Bill de gran relevancia sobre su pensamiento acerca del diseño en los años previos a la creación de la escuela de Ulm. Los dos primeros, escritos en 1946 y 1949, tratan de experiencias propias de diseño del autor y de las ideas de belleza y función en el diseño respectivamente. El segundo corresponde a una conferencia dada en el Werkbund suizo en 1948 de cuyo debate surgió la exposición itinerante “Die gute Form” (La buena Forma). El...

  15. Striden om typografiens sjel – Max Bill versus Jan Tschichold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvin Rannem

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Den korte og følelsesladede debatten mellom den tyske typografen og designeren Jan Tschichold og den sveitsiske arkitekten og designeren Max Bill fra 1946 berører noen sentrale estetiske og funksjonelle aspekter ved typografi og grafisk design. Foranledningen for debatten var at Tschichold i løpet av krigsårene 1940–45 hadde vendt seg mot sine tidligere standpunkter og gått til angrep på funksjonalismen og «den nye typografien». Isteden tok han den tradisjonelle, symmetriske typografien i forsvar og gav den en fornyelse og en kvalitetsheving. Artikkelen tar for seg debatten og kommenterer de ulike standpunktene i lys av den senere faghistorien, og fokuserer spesielt på hvordan ideologi og tidsavhengig tanke­gods kan påvirke argumenter om funksjonalitet og estetikk. 

  16. The Assisted Dying Bill and the role of the physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullock, Alexandra

    2015-08-01

    This article explores the role of the physician in the Assisted Dying Bill, which is currently progressing through the House of Lords. The Supreme Court decision in Nicklinson and Others has alerted Parliament to the possibility that the current prohibition against assisted suicide may breach Article 8 of the European Convention in relation to the right to choose how to end one's life. In this article, the role of healthcare professionals in the proposed legalisation of physician-assisted suicide is examined, together with consideration of key ethical concerns over who might be permitted to access assisted dying. Whether the proposed law presents an ethically sound alternative to the current prohibition against assisting in suicide is not clear, but Parliament must now respond in order to address human rights issues and the call to legalise medically assisted suicide.

  17. Capacity sharing of water reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Norman J.; Musgrave, Warren F.

    1988-05-01

    The concept of a water use property right is developed which does not apply to water volumes as such but to a share of the capacity (not contents) of river storage reservoirs and their inflows. The shareholders can withdraw water from their share over time in accordance with their preferences for stability of water deliveries. The reservoir authority does not manage reservoir releases but keeps record of individual shareholder's withdrawals and net inflows to monitor the quantity of water in each shareholder's capacity share. A surplus of total reservoir contents over the sum of the contents of the individual shareholder's capacity shares will accrue over time. Two different criteria for its periodic distribution among shareholders are compared. A previous paper Dudley (this issue(b)) noted a loss of short-run economic efficiency as reservoir and farm management decision making become separated. This is largely overcome by capacity sharing which allows each user to integrate the management of their portion of the reservoir and their farming operations. The nonattenuated nature of the capacity sharing water rights also promotes long-run economic efficiency.

  18. Chickamauga reservoir embayment study - 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, D.L.; Butkus, S.R.; McDonough, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The objectives of this report are three-fold: (1) assess physical, chemical, and biological conditions in the major embayments of Chickamauga Reservoir; (2) compare water quality and biological conditions of embayments with main river locations; and (3) identify any water quality concerns in the study embayments that may warrant further investigation and/or management actions. Embayments are important areas of reservoirs to be considered when assessments are made to support water quality management plans. In general, embayments, because of their smaller size (water surface areas usually less than 1000 acres), shallower morphometry (average depth usually less than 10 feet), and longer detention times (frequently a month or more), exhibit more extreme responses to pollutant loadings and changes in land use than the main river region of the reservoir. Consequently, embayments are often at greater risk of water quality impairments (e.g. nutrient enrichment, filling and siltation, excessive growths of aquatic plants, algal blooms, low dissolved oxygen concentrations, bacteriological contamination, etc.). Much of the secondary beneficial use of reservoirs occurs in embayments (viz. marinas, recreation areas, parks and beaches, residential development, etc.). Typically embayments comprise less than 20 percent of the surface area of a reservoir, but they often receive 50 percent or more of the water-oriented recreational use of the reservoir. This intensive recreational use creates a potential for adverse use impacts if poor water quality and aquatic conditions exist in an embayment.

  19. Petroleum reservoir data for testing simulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, J.M.; Harrison, W.

    1980-09-01

    This report consists of reservoir pressure and production data for 25 petroleum reservoirs. Included are 5 data sets for single-phase (liquid) reservoirs, 1 data set for a single-phase (liquid) reservoir with pressure maintenance, 13 data sets for two-phase (liquid/gas) reservoirs and 6 for two-phase reservoirs with pressure maintenance. Also given are ancillary data for each reservoir that could be of value in the development and validation of simulation models. A bibliography is included that lists the publications from which the data were obtained.

  20. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.

    1992-09-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the second year of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description and scale-up procedures; (ii) outcrop investigation; (iii) in-fill drilling potential. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be characterized, can be described in three dimensions, and can be scaled up with respect to its properties, appropriate for simulation purposes. The second section describes the progress on investigation of an outcrop. The outcrop is an analog of Bartlesville Sandstone. We have drilled ten wells behind the outcrop and collected extensive log and core data. The cores have been slabbed, photographed and the several plugs have been taken. In addition, minipermeameter is used to measure permeabilities on the core surface at six inch intervals. The plugs have been analyzed for the permeability and porosity values. The variations in property values will be tied to the geological descriptions as well as the subsurface data collected from the Glen Pool field. The third section discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to infer in-fill well locations. The geostatistical technique used is the simulated annealing technique because of its flexibility. One of the important reservoir data is the production data. Use of production data will allow us to define the reservoir continuities, which may in turn, determine the in-fill well locations. The proposed technique allows us to incorporate some of the production data as constraints in the reservoir descriptions. The technique has been validated by comparing the results with numerical simulations.

  1. Mapeamento do uso e cobertura da terra a partir da segmentação e classificação de imagens-fração solo, sombra e vegetação derivadas do modelo linear de mistura aplicado a dados do sensor TM/Landsat5, na região do reservatório de Tucuruí - PA Mapping land use cover using segmentation and classification of fraction images, soil, shade and vegetation, derived from a linear mixing model applied to Landsat-5 TM data, Tucuruí reservoir region - Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Honório Vasconcelos

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Técnicas de sensoriamento remoto são fundamentais para o monitoramento das mudanças de uso da terra, principalmente em áreas extensas como a Amazônia. O mapeamento de uso da terra, geralmente é realizado por métodos de classificação manual ou digital pixel a pixel, os quais consomem muito tempo. Este estudo aborda a aplicação do modelo linear de mistura em uma imagem Landsat-TM segmentada para o mapeamento das classes de uso da terra na região do reservatório de Tucuruí-PA para os anos de 1996 e 2001.Remote sensing techniques are mandatory for monitoring land use changes in large areas such as the Amazon. Land use mapping is usually performed by both manual and digital pixel based classification methods which are cost and time-consuming. In this study an image segmentation approach is applied to unmix TM-Landsat images for mapping land use classes in Tucuruí-PA reservoir region to 1996 and 2001.

  2. Contamination of semiarid potiguar reservoirs by harmful bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermeton Duarte do Nascimento

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water contamination in the semi-arid section of Northeast Brazil is a current concern for the country’s researchers, since this region is considered one of the poorest in Brazil and the water in these locations is a primary vehicle for disease transmission. We collected physical and chemical data as well as water samples from four semiarid potiguar reservoirs during the dry and rainy seasons of 2013 and 2014. These samples were prepared in a laboratory at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN and their physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics were evaluated. The procedures of microbial isolation and identification followed the Standard Methods for Examinations of Water and Wastewater. Then Vitek II system (Bio-Merieux® was used to identify the microbial specimens and we calculated the frequency of specimens’ occurrence. Altogether, 168 bacteria were isolated and identified; 97% were Gram-negative and only 3% were Gram-positive. Within the Gram negatives, 73.2% were identified as belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family and, in general terms, the most constant genera in the water reservoirs were Vibrio and Aeromonas. Among the Enterobacteriaceae family, the species Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae complex and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most frequent. There was no statistical difference between the number or morphotype groups found in the periods, p=0.255 and p=0.237, respectively. The analyzed data indicate possible contamination of these water reservoirs by human and/or animal fecal material.

  3. Organizing a Grassroots Lobbying Effort: Working a Bill from Beginning to End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Terry

    2009-01-01

    This article provides information related to organizing a grassroots lobbying effort within a state association and working for the passage of a bill. This information resulted from experience working for the successful passage of the pay parity bill for nationally certified school psychologists in West Virginia during the 2008 legislative…

  4. 76 FR 22363 - Kaibab National Forest, Williams Ranger District; Arizona; Bill Williams Mountain Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... Forest Service Kaibab National Forest, Williams Ranger District; Arizona; Bill Williams Mountain... forested conditions on and surrounding Bill Williams Mountain by reducing hazardous fuels and moving... approximately 4 miles south-southwest of the city of Williams, Arizona. The Proposed Action includes...

  5. Towards an inter-domain billing system to support dynamic service provisioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Van Minh

    2009-01-01

    Today, billing is a big challenge for service providers. With a growing number of rich services such as music, mobile TV, Video-on-Demand and eHealth delivered to the mass market, service providers are missing business opportunities because current billing solutions are not fully capable. In particu

  6. 77 FR 46213 - Medicare Program; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing Facilities for FY 2013; Notice #0;#0;Federal Register...; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing Facilities for FY 2013 AGENCY: Centers... rates used under the prospective payment system (PPS) for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), for...

  7. 76 FR 59265 - Medicare Program; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ...; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing Facilities for FY 2012; Correction... Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing Facilities for FY 2012'' that appeared in the... Nursing Facility (SNF) Prospective Payment System (PPS) final rule (76 FR 48486, 48540)...

  8. A Barking Dog That Never Bites? The British Sign Language (Scotland) Bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2015-01-01

    This article describes and analyses the pathway to the British Sign Language (Scotland) Bill and the strategies used to reach it. Data collection has been done by means of interviews with key players, analysis of official documents, and participant observation. The article discusses the bill in relation to the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005…

  9. A Critical Discussion of "The Ethical Presuppositions behind the Library Bill of Rights."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Tony

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the Library Bill of Rights focuses on paternalism and the dangers of Internet filtering, in response to a previous article that advocated revision of the Bill of Rights. Topics include ethical presuppositions; censorship; philosophical foundations; access; social contract theory; and utilitarianism. (LRW)

  10. 75 FR 78147 - Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... Proclamation 8616--Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, and Human Rights Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In 1948,...

  11. Estimating Nursing Wage Bill in Canada and Breaking Down the Growth Rate: 2000 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariste, Ruolz; Béjaoui, Ali

    2015-05-01

    Even though the nursing professional category (registered nurses [RNs] and licensed practical nurses) made up about one-third of the Canadian health professionals, no study exists about their wage bill, the composition and growth rate of this wage bill. This paper attempts to fill this gap by estimating the nursing wage bill in the Canadian provinces and breaking down the growth rate for the 2000-2010 period, using the 2001 Census and the 2011 National Household Survey. Total wage bill for the nursing professional category in Canada was estimated at $20.1 billion ($17.3 billion for RNs), which suggests that it is as substantial as net physician remuneration. The average annual growth rate of this wage bill was 6.6% for RNs. This increase was mainly driven by real (inflation-adjusted) wage per hour, which was 3.0%, suggesting the existence of a "health premium" of 1.7 percentage points during the study period.

  12. Application of Integrated Reservoir management and Reservoir Characterization to Optimize Infill Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Pregger; D. Davies; D. Moore; G. Freeman; J. Callard; J.W. Nevans; L. Doublet; R. Vessell; T. Blasingame

    1997-08-31

    Infill drilling if wells on a uniform spacing without regard to reservoir performance and characterization foes not optimize reservoir development because it fails to account for the complex nature of reservoir heterogeneities present in many low permeability reservoirs, and carbonate reservoirs in particular. New and emerging technologies, such as geostatistical modeling, rigorous decline curve analysis, reservoir rock typing, and special core analysis can be used to develop a 3-D simulation model for prediction of infill locations.

  13. Reservoir Protection Technology in China: Research & Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiangui; Wu Juan; Kang Yili

    2006-01-01

    @@ Great development of reservoir protection technology (RPT) has been achieved since 1996, including oil and gas reservoir protection for exploration wells, reservoir protection during underbalanced drilling, protection of fractured tight sandstone gas reservoir, and reservoir protection while increase production and reconstructing, development and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) etc. It has stepped into a new situation with special features and advantage. These technical advancements marked that China's RTP have realized leaps from porous reservoirs to fractured reservoirs,from conventional medium-to-low permeability reservoirs to unconventional reservoirs, from oil and gas producers to exploration wells, and from application mainly in drilling and completion processes to application in stimulation,development, production and EOR processes.

  14. Spatial variations in the zooplankton community from the Corumbá Reservoir, Goiás State, in distinct hydrological periods = Variações espaciais da comunidade zooplanctônica no reservatório de Corumbá (Estado de Goiás, em distintos períodos hidrológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Mayumi Takahashi

    2009-07-01

    maiores valores de abundância, pela contribuição de formas jovens, seguidos pelos rotíferos, cladóceros e amebas testáceas. Em geral, as amebas testáceas apresentaram maior riqueza e abundância nas estações lóticas do reservatório. Os demais grupos zooplanctônicos (rotíferos, cladóceros e copépodes foram mais abundantes nos ambientes lênticos e apresentaram maior número de espécies em ambientes lóticos. A correlação de Pearson evidenciou a importância das variáveis físicas e químicas da água e da disponibilidade de alimento sobre a variação da abundância dosorganismos.

  15. Avaliação operacional do controle mecânico de plantas aquáticas imersas no reservatório de Jupiá Operational evaluation of mechanical control of aquatic macrophytes submerged in the Jupia reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Velini

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar a coleta e o descarte de plantas aquáticas em diferentes locais e infestações do sistema Tietê/Paraná, no reservatório de Jupiá. A operação foi realizada com auxílio de instrumentação instalada em uma colhedora de plantas aquáticas, com sistema de GPS dotado de sinal de correção diferencial. Os tempos gastos para carregar e descarregar a colhedora foram determinados por cronometragem, e a distância do ponto final de coleta ao ponto de descarte e o tempo de deslocamento, por cronometragem e uso de GPS convencional. Em algumas coletas foram demarcados polígonos, instruindo-se o operador a trabalhar exclusivamente na área correspondente. A interpretação dos resultados permitiu determinar a participação do tempo de coleta em relação ao tempo total de operação, indicando um valor significativo do ponto de vista operacional (>70%. Considerando o descarte em áreas infestadas com "taboa", o deslocamento total médio foi de apenas 383 m, com gasto médio de 200,96 s. Os valores de capacidade operacional da colhedora oscilaram entre 0,23 e 1,60 ha h-1, indicando valor médio de 4,48 ha dia-1. A maior limitação à capacidade operacional associou-se à velocidade média de deslocamento, com maior agravante em áreas com altas infestações ou profundas. Considerando-se o deslocamento da colhedora, houve grande dificuldade de orientação em condições normais de operação, inviabilizando a manutenção de espaçamentos uniformes entre as faixas de coleta e sobrepondo as passagens. Conclui-se que a avaliação operacional indicou a impossibilidade de operar a colhedora sem o auxílio de um sistema de navegação que permita orientar a sua movimentação nas áreas de controle.This work aimed to study the harvest and discard of aquatic plants from different places and infestation in the Tiete/Parana River system. The operation was performed with equipment installed at

  16. Size and retention of breeding territories of yellow-billed loons in Alaska and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Joel A.; Wright, Kenneth G.; DeSorbo, Christopher R.; Fair, Jeff; Evers, David C.; Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Yellow-billed Loons (Gavia adamsii) breed in lakes in the treeless Arctic and are globally rare. Like their sister taxa, the well-documented Common Loon (G. immer) of the boreal forest, Yellow-billed Loons exhibit strong territorial behavior during the breeding season. Little is known about what size territories are required, however, or how readily territories are retained from year to year. An understanding of territory dynamics and size is needed by management agencies as most of the U.S. breeding population of Yellow-billed Loons resides in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska where oil and gas development is expected to increase in the next few decades. Using locational data from a set of Yellow-billed Loons marked with satellite transmitters, we quantified an index of territory radius for each of three breeding populations: two in Alaska and one in Canada. The mean territory radius was 0.42 km for Yellow-billed Loons summering on lakes within the Seward Peninsula in northwest Alaska, 0.69 km for Yellow-billed Loons within the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska (encompasses the National Petroleum Reserve), and 0.96 km for Yellow-billed Loons within Daring Lake in mainland Canada. In this study, the mean territory radius on the Arctic Coastal Plain was about half the distance identified in stipulations for industrial development in the National Petroleum Reserve. The range in territory size among areas corresponded to a gradient in size of lakes used by Yellow-billed Loons with territories at the two Alaska sites on lakes averaging < 200 ha while territories in Canada were generally on much larger lakes. In the year after capture, 71% of Yellow-billed Loons retained territories that were held the previous year. Most Yellow-billed Loons that lost their territories wandered over a large area within 6 km of their prior territory. No Yellow-billed Loons occupied new territories, though one reacquired its prior territory after a 1-year hiatus. Retention of a territory

  17. Smart Waterflooding in Carbonate Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel

    During the last decade, smart waterflooding has been developed into an emerging EOR technology both for carbonate and sandstone reservoirs that does not require toxic or expensive chemicals. Although it is widely accepted that different salinity brines may increase the oil recovery for carbonate...... reservoirs, understanding of the mechanism of this increase is still developing. To understand this smart waterflooding process, an extensive research has been carried out covering a broad range of disciplines within surface chemistry, thermodynamics of crude oil and brine, as well as their behavior...

  18. SIRIU RESERVOIR, BUZAU RIVER (ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Constantin DIACONU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Siriu reservoir, owes it`s creation to the dam built on the river Buzau, in the town which bears the same name. The reservoir has a hydro energetic role, to diminish the maximum flow and to provide water to the localities below. The partial exploitation of the lake, began in 1984; Since that time, the initial bed of the river began to accumulate large quantities of alluvia, reducing the retention capacity of the lake, which had a volume of 125 million m3. The changes produced are determined by many topographic surveys at the bottom of the lake.

  19. Globalization's costs to healthcare. How can we pay the bill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, Laura J

    2004-01-01

    As people become ever more globally mobile and electronic communication permeates ever more remote areas of the world, healthcare reaps both benefits and burdens. Instantaneous communication and worldwide collegial collaboration are contributing solutions to complex biologic and technologic healthcare challenges. Patients are able to access healthcare expertise in distant sites through telehealth modalities, as well as through direct contact. Affordable, accessible air transportation renders world society highly and rapidly mobile. Concomitantly, both new and previously remote diseases are spreading in epidemics and pandemics. Both the financial cost and the cost in human lives lost during the time required to uncover the etiology of a new disease and develop efficacious diagnostic and therapeutic modalities to control it can be astronomical. How can society pay the bills when economies around the world are struggling for stability? A new model for reimbursement of the financial burden incurred by epidemics or pandemics is proposed. In addition, nurse executives are encouraged to invest in preparedness, rather than risk the financial and human cost of being unprepared.

  20. The Irish Theme in the Writings of Bill Naughton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pierce

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The student interested in cultural assimilation, hybridity, and naturalization, in masculinity, authorship, and identity, in what happened to the Irish in Britain in the twentieth century, will turn at some point to the Mayo-born, Lancashire writer Bill Naughton (1910-1992, author of a classic children’s story collection The Goalkeeper’s Revenge and Other Stories (1961, ofAlfie (1965, the film which helped define 1960s London, and of a series of autobiographies largely centering on his Irish childhood and upbringing in Bolton. It has been the historic role of Irish writers from Richard Brinsley Sheridan to Oscar Wilde, from Elizabeth Bowen to William Trevor, to give the English back to themselves in a gallery of portraits. Naughton is part of this tradition, but, unlike these other writers, his subject is the English working class, which he writes about from within, with both sympathy and knowledge. It can be readily conceded that his work is not at the forefront of modern English or Irish writing, but it does deserve to be better known and appreciated. Here in this discursive essay, with an eye on his Irish background, I move back and forth across his writing to reflect on his contribution not so to much the cultural greening of Britain as to the mass observation of the English and of the Irish in Britain.

  1. Farmer Participation in U.S. Farm Bill Conservation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Adam P.; Prokopy, Linda S.

    2014-02-01

    Conservation policy in agricultural systems in the United States relies primarily on voluntary action by farmers. Federal conservation programs, including the Environmental Quality Incentives Program, offer incentives, both financial and technical, to farmers in exchange for adoption of conservation practices. Understanding motivations for (as well as barriers to) participation in voluntary programs is important for the design of future policy and effective outreach. While a significant literature has explored motivations and barriers to conservation practice adoption and participation in single programs, few studies in the U.S. context have explored general participation by farmers in one place and time. A mixed-methods research approach was utilized to explore farmer participation in all U.S. Farm Bill programs in Indiana. Current and past program engagement was high, with nearly half of survey respondents reporting participation in at least one program. Most participants had experience with the Conservation Reserve Program, with much lower participation rates in other programs. Most interview participants who had experience in programs were motivated by the environmental benefits of practices, with incentives primarily serving to reduce the financial and technical barriers to practice adoption. The current policy arrangement, which offers multiple policy approaches to conservation, offers farmers with different needs and motivations a menu of options. However, evidence suggests that the complexity of the system may be a barrier that prevents participation by farmers with scarce time or resources. Outreach efforts should focus on increasing awareness of program options, while future policy must balance flexibility of programs with complexity.

  2. The fish fauna of Brokopondo Reservoir, Suriname, during 40 years of impoundment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Mol

    2007-09-01

    had a lower biomass in Brokopondo Reservoir than in Suriname River. Serrasalmus rhombeus showed reduced body length in Brokopondo Reservoir as compared to riverine populations.Foram pesquisadas as modificações a longo prazo na ictiofauna do reservatório de Brokopondo, o primeiro de grande porte (1560 km² construído em floresta tropical úmida. Antes do fechamento da barragem em 1964, a ictiofauna do rio Suriname possuía 172 espécies, com diversidade e equitabilidade altas. A fauna do rio era dominada por espécies de pequeno porte, mas nenhuma delas dominava em número de indivíduos. Em termos de biomassa, os grandes bagres eram dominantes. As espécies estavam homogeneamente distribuídas nos diferentes hábitats: corredeiras, afluentes e canal principal. Quatro anos depois do fechamento da barragem, somente 62 espécies de peixes foram coletadas no reservatório de Brokopondo, mas a composição da ictiofauna ainda estava mudando. Em 1978, a ictiofauna do reservatório era semelhante à de 2005, indicando que um equilíbrio estável foi atingindo 14 anos depois do fechamento da barragem. A ictiofauna do reservatório tinha 41 espécies, diversidade e equitabilitade baixas. A maioria das espécies do rio Suriname que tinham exigências estreitas de hábitat não sobreviveram no reservatório. A estrutura das comunidades de peixes foi diferente nos quatro hábitats do reservatório de Brokopondo. O hábitat das águas abertas (10 espécies foi dominado pelos piscívoros Serrasalmus rhombeus, Acestrorhynchus microlepis e Cichla ocellaris e suas presas Bryconops melanurus e duas espécies de Hemiodus. Bryconops alimentou se de zooplâncton, pupas de Culicidae e invertebrados terrestres. Hemiodus alimentou se de detritos floculentos, demostrando que a cadeia alimentar baseada em detritos ainda era importante em estágios avançados de desenvolvimento dos reservatórios. Serrasalmus rhombeus também come queixadas que se afogam quando tentam atravessar nadando o

  3. The billing process at a teaching hospital specialized in cardiology and pulmonology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Favaro Faria Guerrer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this exploratory study was to describe and map out the billing process in a public tertiary-level university hospital specialized in cardiology and pulmonology. In the period between May and June of 2012, we identified and documented the steps in the process validated by the professionals involved in the hospital bill audit service. We found that during billing pre-analysis, auditors make corrections to justify the billing of procedures and to avoid unwarranted billing and loss of revenue. Mapping out the process allowed us to propose strategies to minimize the time for presenting bills to payment sources. By bringing visibility to this process, which is fundamental for the economic-financial balance of the studied hospital, we bring such knowledge to the public domain. Thus, it is accessible to other health organizations that wish to increment their revenue and reduce divergences between patient charts and the patient’s hospital bill. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i3.23487.

  4. 78 FR 69878 - AT&T Corporation, a Subsidiary of AT&T Inc., Business Billing Customer Care, Pittsburgh...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ..., a subsidiary of AT&T Inc., Business Billing Customer Care, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (subject firm... separations ] are attributable to a shift of the services supplied by Business Billing Customer Care to other... Employment and Training Administration AT&T Corporation, a Subsidiary of AT&T Inc., Business Billing...

  5. 街拍摄影师BillCunningham因病去世

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    6月25日,美国著名时尚摄影师、街拍鼻祖级人物Bill Cunningham因病过世,享年87岁。Bill Curlnlngham总是身穿一件蓝色夹克,骑着自行车在纽约街头穿梭,拍下许多经典街拍照片。Bill Cunningham的时尚事业始于女帽制造,当时他从越南战争回来。

  6. Thick-billed murres from the High Arctic have the luxury of being lazy!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnebjerg, Jannie; Tremblay, Yann; Mosbech, Anders

    . In this study we used time-depth recorders (recording pressure, temperature, wet/dry and light every 10th sec. for ~365 days) to investigate the activity budget and locations of thick-billed murres during the non-breeding season. Fall migration by male parent and chick was conducted solely by swimming...... and covered distances of ~3000 km. Females and non-breeding males conducted the first part of their fall migration by flight (~800 km) and the rest of the migration (~2000 km) by swimming. Movement by flight is the most costly form of locomotion for thick-billed murres and we found thick-billed murres...

  7. Unconventional Reservoirs: Ideas to Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    There is no shortage of coal, oil, and natural gas in the world. What are sometimes in short supply are fresh ideas. Scientific innovation combined with continued advances in drilling and completion technology revitalized the natural gas industry in North America by making production from shale economic. Similar advances are now happening in shale oil. The convergence of ideas and technology has created a commercial environment in which unconventional reservoirs could supply natural gas to the North American consumer for 50 years or more. And, although not as far along in terms of resource development, oil from the Eagle Ford and Bakken Shales and the oil sands in Alberta could have a similar impact. Without advanced horizontal drilling, geosteering, staged hydraulic-fracture stimulation, synthetic and natural proppants, evolution of hydraulic fluid chemistry, and high-end monitoring and simulation, many of these plays would not exist. Yet drilling and completion technology cannot stand alone. Also required for success are creative thinking, favorable economics, and a tolerance for risk by operators. Current understanding and completion practices will leave upwards of 80% of oil and natural gas in the shale reservoirs. The opportunity to enhance recovery through advanced reservoir understanding and imaging, as well as through recompletions and infill drilling, is considerable. The path from ideas to commercialization will continue to provide economic results in unconventional reservoirs.

  8. Prevention of Reservoir Interior Discoloration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, K.F.

    2001-04-03

    Contamination is anathema in reservoir production. Some of the contamination is a result of welding and some appears after welding but existed before. Oxygen was documented to be a major contributor to discoloration in welding. This study demonstrates that it can be controlled and that some of the informal cleaning processes contribute to contamination.

  9. Reservoir Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a reservoir cathode to improve performance in both ion and Hall-effect thrusters. We propose to adapt our existing reservoir cathode technology to this...

  10. Reservoir Cathode for Electric Space Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a hollow reservoir cathode to improve performance in ion and Hall thrusters. We will adapt our existing reservoir cathode technology to this purpose....

  11. Reservoir resistivity characterization incorporating flow dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Arango, Santiago

    2016-04-07

    Systems and methods for reservoir resistivity characterization are provided, in various aspects, an integrated framework for the estimation of Archie\\'s parameters for a strongly heterogeneous reservoir utilizing the dynamics of the reservoir are provided. The framework can encompass a Bayesian estimation/inversion method for estimating the reservoir parameters, integrating production and time lapse formation conductivity data to achieve a better understanding of the subsurface rock conductivity properties and hence improve water saturation imaging.

  12. High Energy Gas Fracturing in Deep Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qiangde; Zhao Wanxiang; Wang Faxuan

    1994-01-01

    @@ Introduction The HEGF technology has many merits such as low cost, simple work conditions, treating the thin reservoir without layer dividing tools, no contamination to the reservoirs and connections with more natural fractures. So it is suitable to treat thin reservoirs,water and acid senstive reservoirs and the reserviors with natural fissures and also suitable to evaluate the production test of new wells, blocking removing treatment, increasing injection treatment and the treatment for the hydrofracturing well with some productivity.

  13. RIO Country Report 2015: Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    HERJOLFSDÓTTIR SKOGLAND Hulda

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 series of RIO Country Reports analyse and assess the policy and the national research and innovation system developments in relation to national policy priorities and the EU policy agenda with special focus on ERA and Innovation Union. The executive summaries of these reports put forward the main challenges of the research and innovation systems.

  14. Travel to the Rio Olympics

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-21

    Learn how to stay healthy and safe when travelling to the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.  Created: 7/21/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/21/2016.

  15. Amplitude various angles (AVA) phenomena in thin layer reservoir: Case study of various reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B., E-mail: bagusnur@bdg.centrin.net.id, E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com [Wave Inversion and Subsurface Fluid Imaging Research Laboratory (WISFIR), Basic Science Center A 4" t" hfloor, Physics Dept., FMIPA, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia); Susilowati, E-mail: bagusnur@bdg.centrin.net.id, E-mail: bagusnur@rock-fluid.com [Rock Fluid Imaging Lab., Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Amplitude various offset is widely used in petroleum exploration as well as in petroleum development field. Generally, phenomenon of amplitude in various angles assumes reservoir’s layer is quite thick. It also means that the wave is assumed as a very high frequency. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Therefore, topic about amplitude various angles in thin layer reservoir as well as low frequency assumption is important to be considered. Thin layer reservoir means the thickness of reservoir is about or less than quarter of wavelength. In this paper, I studied about the reflection phenomena in elastic wave which considering interference from thin layer reservoir and transmission wave. I applied Zoeppritz equation for modeling reflected wave of top reservoir, reflected wave of bottom reservoir, and also transmission elastic wave of reservoir. Results show that the phenomena of AVA in thin layer reservoir are frequency dependent. Thin layer reservoir causes interference between reflected wave of top reservoir and reflected wave of bottom reservoir. These phenomena are frequently neglected, however, in real practices. Even though, the impact of inattention in interference phenomena caused by thin layer in AVA may cause inaccurate reservoir characterization. The relation between classes of AVA reservoir and reservoir’s character are different when effect of ones in thin reservoir and ones in thick reservoir are compared. In this paper, I present some AVA phenomena including its cross plot in various thin reservoir types based on some rock physics data of Indonesia.

  16. Gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glegola, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the added value of gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring and characterization is investigated. Reservoir processes and reservoir types most suitable for gravimetric monitoring are identified. Major noise sources affecting time-lapse gravimetry are analyzed. The ad

  17. Tenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-22

    The workshop contains presentations in the following areas: (1) reservoir engineering research; (2) field development; (3) vapor-dominated systems; (4) the Geysers thermal area; (5) well test analysis; (6) production engineering; (7) reservoir evaluation; (8) geochemistry and injection; (9) numerical simulation; and (10) reservoir physics. (ACR)

  18. 33 CFR 211.81 - Reservoir areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reservoir areas. 211.81 Section... Lands in Reservoir Areas Under Jurisdiction of Department of the Army for Cottage Site Development and Use § 211.81 Reservoir areas. Delegations, rules and regulations in §§ 211.71 to 211.80 are...

  19. Conhecimento, aceitabilidade e uso do método billings de planejamento familiar natural El conocimiento, la aceptación y el uso del método Billings de planificación familiar natural Knowledge, acceptability and use of the Billings natural family planning method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Shozo Uchimura

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudo observacional, quantitativo analítico que objetivou verificar o conhecimento, a aceitabilidade e o uso do planejamento familiar natural (PFN pelos pacientes em um hospital universitário no período de julho a novembro de 2008. Os dados foram coletados utilizando questionário estruturado e analisados através dos Programas Excel e Statistica 8.0. Das 113 mulheres entrevistadas, 70 (62% aceitavam o método e 1 (0,9% fazia o uso rotineiro. A aceitação foi maior entre as que desejavam engravidar no futuro quando comparadas aquelas que não desejavam engravidar. A aceitabilidade foi estatisticamente significativa (p=0,0147 entre as 28 (80% não usuárias de métodos contraceptivos comparadas a 42 (53,8% com algum método contraceptivo. Fatores como idade, escolaridade, número de filhos vivos e religião não apresentaram associação estatística com a aceitabilidade do PFN. A aceitabilidade do método de ovulação Billings é adequada, porém com pouco uso na prática por falta de informação pelos profissionais da saúde da verdadeira eficácia e aplicabilidade.Estudio observacional, cuantitativo y analítico para verificar el conocimiento, la aceptación y el uso de la planificación familiar natural (PFN en un hospital universitario en el periodo de julio a noviembre de 2008. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de cuestionario estructurado y analizados mediante los programas Excel e Statistica 8.0. De las 113 mujeres entrevistadas, 70 (62,0% aceptaron el método y 1 (0,9% tenían uso rutinario. Aceptación fue mayor entre las que deseaban futuros embarazos en comparación con aquellos que no desean quedar embarazadas. Aceptabilidad fue estadísticamente significativa (p=0,0147 entre 28 (80,0% no usuarias de anticonceptivos en comparación con 42 (53,8% con el método anticonceptivo. Factores como edad, escolaridad, número de hijos vivos y religión no se asoció estadísticamente con la aceptación de PFN. Aceptabilidad del m

  20. Bill-Postings as Pervasive Media Culture. Evidence from Edo Central District of Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osakue Stevenson Omoera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the problem of bill-postings as pervasive media culture, using Edo Central District (ECD of Edo State, Nigeria as a case study. To achieve the set task, it adopts an evaluative methodology. This is complemented by interviews and random photographic snapshots of indiscriminately posted-bills across the district under examination. This paper argues that the indiscriminately posted-bills are eyesores, which apart from not being aesthetically pleasing, exacerbate the environmental management challenge in the ECD. It further contends that the problem is a multilayered one, judging from the different kinds of posters that are commonly posted by diverse groups in society. Consequently, this study asserts that probing the sociological causes and implications of the menace of bill-postings could offer some insights on how to redress the situation. To this end, a number of suggestions are made, with a view to improving the condition of the physical environment in ECD.

  1. Letter pertaining to alleged Ivory-billed Woodpecker observation on Choctaw National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter is in response to observation of bird resembling the Ivory-billed Woodpecker on Choctaw National Wildlife Refuge in October 2007 which you reported in a...

  2. Letter about Ivory-billed Woodpecker on Allan Grey Estate (Dahomey NWR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Letter contains historic information regarding ivory-billed woodpecker occurance on Dahomey NWR prior to World War II. Letter found in museum in PA by Dr. Jerome...

  3. Evaluation of black-billed magpies as monitors of environmental contamination : Monthly report for March 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Monthyl report for March on the project "Evaluation of Black-billed Magpies as Indicators of Environmental Contamination at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal." The purpose...

  4. Analysis of operating model of electronic invoice colombian Colombian electronic billing analysis of the operational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Roberto da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has been one of the first countries to introduce electronic billing process on a voluntary basis, from a traditional to a digital version. In this context, the article analyzes the electronic billing process implemented in Colombia and the advantages. Methodological research is applied, qualitative, descriptive and documentary; where the regulatory framework and the conceptualization of the model is identified; the process of adoption of electronic billing is analyzed, and finally the advantages and disadvantages of its implementation is analyzed. The findings indicate that the model applied in Colombia to issue an electronic billing in sending and receiving process, is not complex, but it requires a small adequate infrastructure and trained personnel to reach all sectors, especially the micro and business which is the largest business network in the country.

  5. A policy-based billing management architecture for the next generation IP-based network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Lu; Qiu Xuesong; Meng Luoming

    2006-01-01

    IP billing is not only a basic functionality to operate IP services, but also it is fundamental to offer customers with a stable and QoS-enabled network environment. As IP-based network has been widely agreed to be the core network of NGN, and existing IP billing system is too simple to fulfill the emerging requirements, the next generation IP billing has become an interesting topic in recent years. Policy-based management brings flexibility and scalability to systems by describing management logic and functions through policies, and thus reduces the complexity of the management of large-scale systems. Working on existing efforts, this paper proposed an improved IETF policy framework based upon which a policy-based billing management architecture for the next generation IP-based network was presented. Then a prototype with some basic functionalities was developed. The results of the experiment validated the expected improvements specified in this paper.

  6. Mehhiklane troonil: kas Bill Gatesi ajastu sai tõesti otsa? / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    Ajakirja Forbes koostatud maailma rikkaimate inimeste edetabelist, mille tipus on Mehhiko telekomi monopoli suuromanik Carlos Slim Helú, seniselt liidripositsioonilt on teisele kohale langenud Microsofti rajaja Bill Gates

  7. Yellow-billed Loon Geodatabase, 2013 Update. Version 2.0.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This database is intended to be a qualitative "first look" at where yellow-billed loons have been recorded and where surveys have been conducted. This spatial...

  8. Evaluation of black-billed magpies as monitors of environmental contamination : Work plan 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Preliminary proposal and work plan for the project "Evaluation of Black-billed Magpies as Indicators of Environmental Contamination at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal"....

  9. Legally flawed, scientifically problematic, potentially harmful: The UK Psychoactive Substance Bill

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Alex; Fortson, Rudi; Measham, Fiona; Sumnall, Harry

    2015-01-01

    This journal has often analysed legislation in the field of drug policy. Rarely has it discussed a proposed law that has such deep problems in its legal and scientific bases. The Psychoactive Substances Bill, which is currently proceeding through the UK Parliament, will (if enacted) create a ‘blanket ban’ on the production, importation, exportation and supply of all psychoactive substances for human consumption, except for those that are specifically exempted. The Bill provides for a range of...

  10. Money Talks: Why Nigeria’s Petroleum Industry Bill will Fail to End Gas Flaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    Industry Bill ( PIB ) that if enacted would ban gas flaring. However, as currently written the PIB will not end flaring for the same reasons that...previous legislation failed. Loopholes in the PIB combined with corruption, lack of effective enforcement mechanisms and lack of incentives to develop...Bill ( PIB ) that if enacted would ban gas flaring. However, as currently written, the PIB will not end flaring for the same reasons that previous

  11. Bill Gates køber sig til positive historier om udviklingsbistanden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, Adam Moe

    2014-01-01

    Flere store og velansete medier får penge af Bill Gates' fond for at at bringe positive historier om udviklingsbistanden. Men det medfører en risiko for at journalistikken bliver ukritisk og overfladisk......Flere store og velansete medier får penge af Bill Gates' fond for at at bringe positive historier om udviklingsbistanden. Men det medfører en risiko for at journalistikken bliver ukritisk og overfladisk...

  12. THE ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR OF THE LONG BILLED CURLEW (NUMENIUS AMERICANUS) IN SOUTHEASTERN WASHINGTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia N. Fitzner

    1978-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine in depth the nesting ecology and behavior of the Long-billed Curlew on a breeding area relatively free of disruptive human activity. Two surruners of field work were devoted to that end; a post-breeding season survey in 1976 of the major National Wildlife Refuges in Washington, Southern Idaho, Utah, Nevada California, and Oregon enlarged the scope by including unpublished records of Long-billed Curlews in these areas.

  13. Petroleum geology of the deltaic sequence, Rio Del Rey basin, offshore Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, R.M.; Bement, W.O.; Maloney, W.V. (Pecten International Company, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-09-01

    The Rio Del Rey Basin of offshore Cameroon comprises the easternmost portion of the Niger delta complex. In the delta flank setting, the overall package is thinner and stratigraphic correlation simpler than in the depocenter to the west so the distribution of reservoirs and seals is well defined. Productive reservoirs are shallow, typically less than 2000 m, and mostly hydropressured to slightly overpressured. Reservoir properties generally are excellent and seismic bright-spot technology has played a major role in exploration and development efforts. Rio Del Rey is characterized by three main structural styles from north to south: (1) detachment-based growth faults, (2) highly faulted, mobile shale cored domes and ridges, and (3) toe thrusts and folds. Virtually all individual traps are fault dependent and lack of sufficient internal seals in sand-rich wave-dominated deltaic sequences can limit the objective window. Most fields are downthrown fault traps in which hanging-wall reservoirs are effectively sealed against older prodelta and marine shales. All large oil fields are located in the dome and ridge province and are potential analogs for similar structures now being explored on the upper slope off Nigeria. The best quality source rocks identified thus far are Paleocene to Eocene marine shales. Oil vs. gas distribution in the basin is a function of variations in the kerogen type, organic richness, and maturity of these source rocks. A significant quantity of the gas found to date in Rio Del Rey is biogenic in origin. The Cameroon charge model may aid in better understanding hydrocarbon distribution on offshore Nigeria, where the Miocene deltaic section is much thicker and potential Paleocene-Eocene source rocks likely are unpenetrated. The shallow deltaic play in Cameroon is relatively mature. Future exploration likely will focus on identifying deeper, nonbright-spot-supported opportunities including potential stratigraphic traps.

  14. The BDS iGMAS RIOS station at Observatório Nacional, Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humberto Andrei, Alexandre; Song, Shuli; Junqueira, Selma; Beauvalet, Laurene

    2016-07-01

    GNSS navigation satellites are currently being developed by all major players in the science and technology scene, to compete with the GPS system. Because their applications span many different areas, from traffic and cargo control, to geodesy and seismic monitoring, it is required to assess the coherence between the different constellations. BDS is the GNSS system currently developed in China. Its first generation of satellites consisted of 3 geostationnary satellites allowing geolocalisation in China only. In addition to these satellites, other satellites have been launched in geostationnary and geosynchronous orbits, as well as satellites orbiting with a classical GNSS semi-major axis. With these additions, the BDS system possesses 19 operating satellites, and though the system is mostly efficient for geolocalisation in Asia, the satellites are also visible in other parts of the globe. In parallel to the development of the BDS constellation, China has launched the iGMAS (International GNSS Monitoring and Assessment Service) project to develop a global tracking network of multi-GNSS geodetic receivers. One of the goals of this project is to evaluate the efficiency of the BDS constellation as well as the efficiency of the receivers developed by the Chinese laboratories. As part of the Brazilian program COSBAN leaded by the Foreign Affairs Ministry to foster up the science and technology partnership with China, materialized by the collaboration between the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory/CAS and the Observatório Nacional/MCTI, in Rio de Janeiro. Through it the RIOS-iGMAS station was installed at Observatório Nacional, where the RJEP GNSS station already operates as part of the Brazilian reference system. Thus at the Observatório Nacional can be observed satellites from any constellation with both systems of reception, leading to a direct, efficient way to compare the results obtained for each network. In this communication we focus on the determination of the

  15. 4. International reservoir characterization technical conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Fourth International Reservoir Characterization Technical Conference held March 2-4, 1997 in Houston, Texas. The theme for the conference was Advances in Reservoir Characterization for Effective Reservoir Management. On March 2, 1997, the DOE Class Workshop kicked off with tutorials by Dr. Steve Begg (BP Exploration) and Dr. Ganesh Thakur (Chevron). Tutorial presentations are not included in these Proceedings but may be available from the authors. The conference consisted of the following topics: data acquisition; reservoir modeling; scaling reservoir properties; and managing uncertainty. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  16. The role of reservoir characterization in the reservoir management process (as reflected in the Department of Energy`s reservoir management demonstration program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M.L. [BDM-Petroleum Technologies, Bartlesville, OK (United States); Young, M.A.; Madden, M.P. [BDM-Oklahoma, Bartlesville, OK (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Optimum reservoir recovery and profitability result from guidance of reservoir practices provided by an effective reservoir management plan. Success in developing the best, most appropriate reservoir management plan requires knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system including rocks, and rock-fluid interactions (i.e., a characterization of the reservoir) as well as wellbores and associated equipment and surface facilities; (2) the technologies available to describe, analyze, and exploit the reservoir; and (3) the business environment under which the plan will be developed and implemented. Reservoir characterization is the essential to gain needed knowledge of the reservoir for reservoir management plan building. Reservoir characterization efforts can be appropriately scaled by considering the reservoir management context under which the plan is being built. Reservoir management plans de-optimize with time as technology and the business environment change or as new reservoir information indicates the reservoir characterization models on which the current plan is based are inadequate. BDM-Oklahoma and the Department of Energy have implemented a program of reservoir management demonstrations to encourage operators with limited resources and experience to learn, implement, and disperse sound reservoir management techniques through cooperative research and development projects whose objectives are to develop reservoir management plans. In each of the three projects currently underway, careful attention to reservoir management context assures a reservoir characterization approach that is sufficient, but not in excess of what is necessary, to devise and implement an effective reservoir management plan.

  17. Nonlinear Multigrid for Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Max la Cour; Eskildsen, Klaus Langgren; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2016-01-01

    A feasibility study is presented on the effectiveness of applying nonlinear multigrid methods for efficient reservoir simulation of subsurface flow in porous media. A conventional strategy modeled after global linearization by means of Newton’s method is compared with an alternative strategy...... modeled after local linearization, leading to a nonlinear multigrid method in the form of the full-approximation scheme (FAS). It is demonstrated through numerical experiments that, without loss of robustness, the FAS method can outperform the conventional techniques in terms of algorithmic and numerical...... efficiency for a black-oil model. Furthermore, the use of the FAS method enables a significant reduction in memory usage compared with conventional techniques, which suggests new possibilities for improved large-scale reservoir simulation and numerical efficiency. Last, nonlinear multilevel preconditioning...

  18. Coalbed methane reservoir boundaries and sealing mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Xianbo; LIN Xiaoying; LIU Shaobo; SONG Yan

    2005-01-01

    It is important to investigate the coalbed methane reservoir boundaries for the classification, exploration, and development of the coalbed methane reservoir.Based on the investigation of the typical coalbed methane reservoirs in the world, the boundaries can be divided into four types: hydrodynamic boundary, air altered boundary,permeability boundary, and fault boundary. Hydrodynamic and air altered boundaries are ubiquitous boundaries for every coalbed methane reservoir. The four types of the fault sealing mechanism in the petroleum geological investigation (diagen- esis, clay smear, juxtaposition and cataclasis) are applied to the fault boundary of the coalbed methane reservoir. The sealing mechanism of the open fault boundary is the same with that of the hydrodynamic sealing boundary.The sealing mechanism of the permeability boundary is firstly classified into capillary pressure sealing and hydrocarbon concentration sealing. There are different controlling boundaries in coalbed methane reservoirs that are in different geological backgrounds. Therefore, the coalbed methane reservoir is diversiform.

  19. Reservoir compartmentalization assessment by using FTIR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Permanyer, A. [Dept. Geoquimica, Petrologia i Prospeccio Geologica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, s/n, 08028 - Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Rebufa, C.; Kister, J. [Universite d' Aix - Marseille III, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques de St. Jerome, CNRS UMR 6171, Laboratoire de Geochimie Organique Analytique et Environnement (GOAE), Case 561, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2007-09-15

    Reservoir geochemistry has traditionally used the gas chromatographic fingerprinting method and star diagrams to provide evidence of petroleum reservoir compartmentalization. Recently alternative techniques such as Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy have been postulated to aid the evaluation of reservoir compartmentalization, and to characterize the geochemical evolution of oils from individual reservoirs. FTIR spectroscopy was applied successfully in the Tarragona Basin, Offshore N.E. Spain, validating the method to identify oils from different reservoirs. Moreover the method was successfully applied to provide evidence of compositional differences in oils from a faulted reservoir (El Furrial field, Venezuela), in which GC fingerprints failed to differentiate the oils. FTIR spectroscopy therefore, proves to be a complementary tool for reservoir compartmentalization studies. (author)

  20. Representations of Women in Kill Bill and Charlie 's Angels%Representations of Women in Kill Bill and Charlie 's Angels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱敏思

    2011-01-01

    This paper is to explore and analyze the representations of women in Hollywood action films--Kill Bill and Charlie's Angels. in the former Hollywood aetion films sueh as 007, women are often depicted as a foil or assistant to the leading actors. What have

  1. Analysis of technical feasibility, economic and environmental operation of the lift system Tiete-Billings in the supply of water and electricity in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo; Analise da viabilidade tecnico-economico-ambiental da operacao do sistema elevatorio Tiete-Billings no suprimento de agua e eletricidade na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Luiz

    2010-07-01

    This study examines the characteristics of the water from the upper Tiete, as an input in the form of drinking water produced in eight stations, water treatment plant (WTP), an input for hydropower generation and wastewater generated by different anthropogenic activities. The most important problem of this basin is the wastewater that is released in the Pinheiros river and due to the deficit of 32.41 m3/s (2008) in the treatment of sewage in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo ('RMSP') which produces one pollutant load of 920 thousand kilograms of BOD per day. The Pinheiros river's flow during the floods and drought has the same destination, the Billings reservoir. However, the legislation for floods and drought periods are different. The first case - floods occurs by the action of full control of the metropolitan region and is supported by the Joint Resolution of Secretaries of State of Sao Paulo (SEE-SMA-SRHSO on 13/03/96) that allows the pumping of water in the following emergencies: (1) estimates of flow of the Tiete river at the point of its confluence with the river Pinheiros, above 160 m3/ s; (2) raised level above 30 cm water level at the confluence with the river Pinheiros. The second case - drought, the Metropolitan Company for Water and Energy (EMAE) Project proposed flotation of the Secretary of State for the Environment (SMA, 2004) to treat 10 m3/ s water originating channel Pinheiros (set/2007 the set / 2008) by means of flotation technology in flow. Using information based on Environmental Sanitation Great Sao Paulo (SANEGRAN) and data from the operation of the prototype flotation system Pinheiros-Billings (Project QAPB), concluded that the environmental impact of the reservoir Billings for the load of pollutants (mass per second) pumped after the flotation of the Pinheiros river water was always lower than that observed in the flood control operation. The treatment presented by flotation removal of 91% for total phosphorus, 90% for E

  2. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  3. Trinidad Reservoir Salvage Archaeology, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-30

    section by the prominent Canadian Escarpment; on the west the commonly stated boundary is the eastern front of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of the...drained by rivers that, with the exception -. of the Dry Cimarron, originate in or near the Sangre de Cristo Mountainsi all flow to the Mississippi River...River (a waterway which time has treated with several j designations: Picketwire, Purgatory, El Rio de Las Animas Perdidas en Purgatorio, comonly

  4. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Reservoir analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunzo, Z.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Steingrimsson, B.; Truesdell, A.H.; Witherspoon, P.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Icelandic National Energy Authority, Reykjavik (Iceland); Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA); Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is conducting a reservoir evaluation study of the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador. This work is being performed in cooperation with the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report describes the work done during the first year of the study (FY 1988--89), and includes the (1) development of geological and conceptual models of the field, (2) evaluation of the initial thermodynamic and chemical conditions and their changes during exploitation, (3) evaluation of interference test data and the observed reservoir pressure decline, and (4) the development of a natural state model for the field. The geological model of the field indicates that there are seven (7) major and five (5) minor faults that control the fluid movement in the Ahuachapan area. Some of the faults act as a barrier to flow as indicated by large temperature declines towards the north and west. Other faults act as preferential pathways to flow. The Ahuachapan Andesites provide good horizontal permeability to flow and provide most of the fluids to the wells. The underlying Older Agglomerates also contribute to well production, but considerably less than the Andesites. 84 refs.

  5. Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlote Wink

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Cryptophlebia carpophagoides Clarke, 1951, (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae, in fruit of Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong, has bun first registered in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The damaged fruit was collected in the campus of National University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, from May to June of 2003 and 2004. It was evidenced that the caterpillars damage the fruit of that specie affecting the integrety, the vigor and the germination of the seeds.

  6. A TERCEIRA MARGEM DO RIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmaneul Carneiro Leão

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumoQual a mútua referência existente entre homeme terceira margem? Pode-se tentar apontá-la no trabalho, no pensamento, na fi losofi a,ou, ainda no mistério, que engloba as três dimensõesanteriores. Assim, torna-se necessáriose perguntar pela identidade do mistérioe como esse se faz presente no trabalho, nafi losofi a e no pensamentoPalavras-chave: Terceira margem; mistério; fi losofi a; pensamento; verdade.AbstractWhat is the mutual reference between manand the third bank? One might try to outlineit in the spheres of work, thought, philosophyor even in mystery, which comprehendsthe previous spheres. As a result, one must fi -nally think about the identity of mystery itselfand how it relates to work, philosophy andthought.Keywords: Th ird bank; mystery; philosophy; thought; truth.Emmanuel Carneiro Leão Filósofo, ensaísta e tradutor, autor do livroAprendendo a pensar, entre outros. Ex-aluno de Martin Heideggerna Universidade de Freiburg, é hoje um de seus principais tradutoresbrasileiros. Atualmente é Professor Emérito da Universidade Federal doRio de Janeiro.

  7. Identifying western yellow-billed cuckoo breeding habitat with a dual modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew J.; Hatten, James R.; Holmes, Jennifer A.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2017-01-01

    The western population of the yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) was recently listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act. Yellow-billed cuckoo conservation efforts require the identification of features and area requirements associated with high quality, riparian forest habitat at spatial scales that range from nest microhabitat to landscape, as well as lower-suitability areas that can be enhanced or restored. Spatially explicit models inform conservation efforts by increasing ecological understanding of a target species, especially at landscape scales. Previous yellow-billed cuckoo modelling efforts derived plant-community maps from aerial photography, an expensive and oftentimes inconsistent approach. Satellite models can remotely map vegetation features (e.g., vegetation density, heterogeneity in vegetation density or structure) across large areas with near perfect repeatability, but they usually cannot identify plant communities. We used aerial photos and satellite imagery, and a hierarchical spatial scale approach, to identify yellow-billed cuckoo breeding habitat along the Lower Colorado River and its tributaries. Aerial-photo and satellite models identified several key features associated with yellow-billed cuckoo breeding locations: (1) a 4.5 ha core area of dense cottonwood-willow vegetation, (2) a large native, heterogeneously dense forest (72 ha) around the core area, and (3) moderately rough topography. The odds of yellow-billed cuckoo occurrence decreased rapidly as the amount of tamarisk cover increased or when cottonwood-willow vegetation was limited. We achieved model accuracies of 75–80% in the project area the following year after updating the imagery and location data. The two model types had very similar probability maps, largely predicting the same areas as high quality habitat. While each model provided unique information, a dual-modelling approach provided a more complete picture of yellow-billed cuckoo habitat

  8. The devil we know: the implications of bill C-38 for assisted human reproduction in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattapan, Alana; Cohen, Sara R

    2013-07-01

    In June 2012, the Canadian House of Commons passed the so-called omnibus budget bill, making several important changes to the governance of assisted reproduction in Canada. The bill (Bill C-38) was widely criticized for its unwieldy size and rapid passage through Parliament, preventing adequate parliamentary debate and public scrutiny. Given the substantive nature of the amendments to the Assisted Human Reproduction Act made by Bill C-38, and the lack of relevant discussion about these changes both before and following its passage, this commentary is intended to identify how Bill C-38 may alter the governance of reproductive technologies in Canada. In this commentary, we address some of the more significant changes made by Bill C-38 to the regulation of reproductive medicine in Canada. We identify the benefits and challenges of closing Assisted Human Reproduction Canada, noting that doing so eliminates a much-needed forum for stakeholder consultation in this field. Further, we explore the implications of moving the regulation of donor semen from the Food and Drugs Act to the Assisted Human Reproduction Act; these include increased liability for physicians, and opportunities to expand the existing regulations to account for the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer Canadians using donor gametes and recent advances in reproductive technologies. Overall, we argue that although the implementation of a policy framework in this field remains highly dependent on yet-to-be written regulations, the changes to the Assisted Human Reproduction Act enabled by Bill C-38 may significantly alter how Canadians interact with reproductive technologies.

  9. Longitudinal gradients along a reservoir cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, L.E.; Habrat, M.D.; Miyazono, S.

    2008-01-01

    Reservoirs have traditionally been regarded as spatially independent entities rather than as longitudinal segments of a river system that are connected upstream and downstream to the river and other reservoirs. This view has frustrated advancement in reservoir science by impeding adequate organization of available information and by hindering interchanges with allied disciplines that often consider impounded rivers at the basin scale. We analyzed reservoir morphology, water quality, and fish assemblage data collected in 24 reservoirs of the Tennessee River; we wanted to describe longitudinal changes occurring at the scale of the entire reservoir series (i.e., cascade) and to test the hypothesis that fish communities and environmental factors display predictable gradients like those recognized for unimpounded rivers. We used a data set collected over a 7-year period; over 3 million fish representing 94 species were included in the data set. Characteristics such as reservoir mean depth, relative size of the limnetic zone, water retention time, oxygen stratification, thermal stratification, substrate size, and water level fluctuations increased in upstream reservoirs. Conversely, reservoir area, extent of riverine and littoral zones, access to floodplains and associated wetlands, habitat diversity, and nutrient and sediment inputs increased in downstream reservoirs. Upstream reservoirs included few, largely lacustrine, ubiquitous fish taxa that were characteristic of the lentic upper reaches of the basin. Fish species richness increased in a downstream direction from 12 to 67 species/ reservoir as riverine species became more common. Considering impoundments at a basin scale by viewing them as sections in a river or links in a chain may generate insight that is not always available when the impoundments are viewed as isolated entities. Basin-scale variables are rarely controllable but constrain the expression of processes at smaller scales and can facilitate the

  10. Seismic Imaging of Reservoir Structure at The Geysers Geothermal Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritto, R.; Yoo, S.; Jarpe, S.

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional Vp/Vs-ratio structure is presented for The Geysers geothermal field using seismic travel-time data. The data were recorded by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) using a 34-station seismic network. The results are based on 32,000 events recorded in 2011 and represent the highest resolution seismic imaging campaign at The Geysers to date. The results indicate low Vp/Vs-ratios in the central section of The Geysers within and below the current reservoir. The extent of the Vp/Vs anomaly deceases with increasing depth. Spatial correlation with micro-seismicity, used as a proxy for subsurface water flow, indicates the following. Swarms of seismicity correlate well with areas of high and intermediate Vp/Vs estimates, while regions of low Vp/Vs estimates appear almost aseismic. This result supports past observations that high and low Vp/Vs-ratios are related to water and gas saturated zones, respectively. In addition, the correlation of seismicity to intermediate Vp/Vs-ratios is supportive of the fact that the process of water flashing to steam requires four times more energy than the initial heating of the injected water to the flashing point. Because this energy is dawn from the reservoir rock, the associated cooling of the rock generates more contraction and thus seismic events than water being heated towards the flashing point. The consequences are the presence of some events in regions saturated with water, most events in regions of water flashing to steam (low steam saturation) and the absence of seismicity in regions of high steam concentrations where the water has already been converted to steam. Furthermore, it is observed that Vp/Vs is inversely correlated to Vs but uncorrelated to Vp, leading support to laboratory measurements on rock samples from The Geysers that observe an increase in shear modulus while the core samples are dried out. As a consequence, traditional poroelastic theory is no applicable at The Geysers geothermal

  11. Analysis of artisanal fisheries in two reservoirs of the upper Paraná River basin (Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luís Costa Novaes

    Full Text Available We compared the artisanal fisheries, in terms of catch strategies, productivity, and gross per capita income, at two reservoirs: the Barra Bonita (an eutrophic reservoir with some introduced species, and the Jurumirim (an oligotrophic reservoir, with no introduced species. Published data and structured interviews with fishers were used to evaluate fishing activity, fish biomass, and the financial performance of the fisheries. In the Barra Bonita Reservoir we analysed data from 745 fishing trips, from which 86,691.9 kg of fish were landed, with a mean CPUE of 62.4 kg/fisher-1 day-1. The main type of fish caught was tilapia (71,513.5 kg; CPUE of 51.5 kg/fisher-1 day-1, which constituted 82.5% of the biomass caught. In the Jurumirim Reservoir, we analysed data from 2,401 fishing trips, from which 25,093.6 kg of fish were landed, with a mean CPUE of 10.4 kg/fisher-1 day-1. The main type of fish caught was "traíra" (6,158.6 kg; CPUE of 2.6 kg/fisher-1 day-1, which constituted 24.5% of the biomass caught. Ordination analysis (PCA indicated that there was a difference in composition between the fishing reservoirs and ANCOVA showed that there was a significant difference in fish production between the reservoirs. A Student's t-test showed that fishers in the Barra Bonita Reservoir had a significantly higher gross per capita income than those from the Jurumirim Reservoir. Although the Barra Bonita Reservoir has a higher fish production and the fishers earn a higher gross per capita income, we recommend the Jurumirim Reservoir as a model for artisanal fishery management because fishing activity in this reservoir is viable in the long term and such a model would promote conservation and sustainability. This contrasts with the Barra Bonita Reservoir, in which the fishery is not viable in the long term, due to environmental problems caused by artificial eutrophication and the introduction of alien species. It is also noted that in many countries, management

  12. Analysis of Three Cobble Ring Sites at Abiquiu Reservoir, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    were made at 2000X with a Watson image-splitting measurement instrument. Seven independent measurements were made and a mean value and standard...152 88 0 debitage 12 cripto -c 11 4 1 5 ’ . 2 1 S G 148 E6 (t devitage ,1C" obm-idian 1 1I 21 S 6 15’ -11 6 ae~itaoe Ilvqrtzite 4,1 1 5 1 k1 !I t 21 S 6...17 N1 T3 11I? 24Q 30 debitaqe 9 Crypto-C 11 17 M T7 113 249 () debitage 12 cripto -c .6 4 17 Mi T3 113 2149 370 debitaqe I1I crvpto-c ~ 17? N TT3 11 249

  13. The effects of different bill-trimming methods on the well-being of Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, L A; Cheng, H-W; Garner, J P; Pajor, E A; Mench, J A

    2007-09-01

    Pekin ducks are often bill-trimmed to prevent feather pecking and cannibalism, but this practice has been criticized because of the resulting potential for acute and chronic pain. The goal of this experiment was to compare 2 different bill-trimming methods, hot blade trimming with cautery (TRIM) and cautery only (tip-searing; SEAR), on the behavior, bill morphology, and weight gain of Pekin ducks. Ducklings (n = 192, 96 per sex) were trimmed at the hatchery and assigned to 12 floor pens (3.66 x0.91 m) by treatment. Behavior was evaluated by scan sampling, and plumage condition was scored using a 0 to 3 scoring system. Thirty-six ducks were randomly euthanized at 3 and 6 wk of age, and their bills were collected for examination. Following fixation and decalcification, the bills were embedded in paraffin wax and sectioned longitudinally. Alternate sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome for the connective tissues, and with Bielschowsky's silver impregnation, Bodian's staining, and Holmes' staining for the nerve fibers. Trimmed ducks engaged in fewer bill-related behaviors and rested more than untrimmed ducks (NOTRIM) during the first 2 wk posttrim. Ducks in the SEAR and NOTRIM groups showed similar patterns of weight gain, but those in the TRIM group had a lower rate of gain than ducks in the SEAR group during the first week posttrim and had a lower rate of gain than those in the NOTRIM group for 2 wk posttrim. Feather scores of ducks in the NOTRIM group were significantly worse than those in the TRIM or SEAR group by 18 d, and scores continued to deteriorate at a greater rate than those of trimmed ducks throughout the study. Both trimming methods caused connective tissue proliferation in the bill stumps, but the TRIM method caused thicker scar tissue than the SEAR method. No neuromas were found with either trimming method, but there were more nerve fibers in bill stumps of the SEAR ducks than the TRIM ducks. These results suggest that

  14. Data Compression of Hydrocarbon Reservoir Simulation Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Chavez, Gustavo Ivan

    2015-05-28

    A dense volumetric grid coming from an oil/gas reservoir simulation output is translated into a compact representation that supports desired features such as interactive visualization, geometric continuity, color mapping and quad representation. A set of four control curves per layer results from processing the grid data, and a complete set of these 3-dimensional surfaces represents the complete volume data and can map reservoir properties of interest to analysts. The processing results yield a representation of reservoir simulation results which has reduced data storage requirements and permits quick performance interaction between reservoir analysts and the simulation data. The degree of reservoir grid compression can be selected according to the quality required, by adjusting for different thresholds, such as approximation error and level of detail. The processions results are of potential benefit in applications such as interactive rendering, data compression, and in-situ visualization of large-scale oil/gas reservoir simulations.

  15. Long-billed curlews on the Yakima Training Center: Information for base realignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, K.D.; Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This report summarizes and discusses the results obtained during 1992 from the study of long-billed curlews on the Yakima Training Center (YTC), which Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted for the US Department of the Army. This study was initiated to provide basic ecological information on YTC long-billed curlews (Numenius americanus). The long-billed curlew is a relatively common spring and summer resident on the YTC. However, other than casual observations, very little is known about the distribution, density, reproductive success, and habitat requirements for this species on the YTC. Until recently the long-billed curlew was a US Fish and Wildlife Service candidate for listing as threatened or endangered; however, on November 21, 1991 it was down-listed to Class IIIc. The Washington Department of Wildlife lists the long-billed curlew as a ``species of special concern.`` Specific objectives of this study were to (1) locate nesting areas, (2) locate brood-rearing areas, (3) evaluate habitat requirements, (4) determine diet, (5) evaluate response to troop activities, (6) evaluate the impact of livestock grazing, (7) estimate the population size, and (8) estimate recruitment rates. Six curlews (four females and two males) were captured and fitted with radio transmitters. These birds were relocated to obtain nesting, habitat use, and feeding information. Road surveys conducted over most of the YTC provided information on the bird`s general distribution, habitat requirements, and nesting and brood-rearing areas.

  16. Education in medical billing benefits both neurology trainees and academic departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Jeff L

    2014-11-11

    The objective of residency training is to produce physicians who can function independently within their chosen subspecialty and practice environment. Skills in the business of medicine, such as clinical billing, are widely applicable in academic and private practices but are not commonly addressed during formal medical education. Residency and fellowship training include limited exposure to medical billing, but our academic department's performance of these skills was inadequate: in 56% of trainee-generated outpatient notes, documentation was insufficient to sustain the chosen billing level. We developed a curriculum to improve the accuracy of documentation and coding and introduced practice changes to address our largest sources of error. In parallel, we developed tools that increased the speed and efficiency of documentation. Over 15 months, we progressively eliminated note devaluation, increased the mean level billed by trainees to nearly match that of attending physicians, and increased outpatient revenue by $34,313/trainee/year. Our experience suggests that inclusion of billing education topics into the formal medical curriculum benefits both academic medical centers and trainees.

  17. Carotenoid-based bill colour is an integrative signal of multiple parasite infection in blackbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biard, Clotilde; Saulnier, Nicolas; Gaillard, Maria; Moreau, Jérôme

    2010-11-01

    In the study of parasite-mediated sexual selection, there has been controversial evidence for the prediction that brighter males should have fewer parasites. Most of these studies have focused on one parasite species. Our aim was to investigate the expression of carotenoid-based coloured signals in relation to patterns of multiple parasite infections, to determine whether colour reflects parasite load of all parasite species, or whether different relationships might be found when looking at each parasite species independently. We investigated the relationship between bill colour, body mass and plasma carotenoids and parasite load (feather chewing lice, blood parasite Plasmodium sp., intestinal parasites cestodes and coccidia) in the blackbird ( Turdus merula). Bill colour on its own appeared to be a poor predictor of parasite load when investigating its relationships with individual parasite species. Variation in parasite intensities at the community level was summarised using principal component analysis to derive synthetic indexes of relative parasite species abundance and absolute parasite load. The relative abundance of parasite species was strongly related to bill colour, plasma carotenoid levels and body mass: birds with relatively more cestodes and chewing lice and relatively less Plasmodium and coccidia had a more colourful bill, circulated more carotenoids and were heavier. These results suggest that bill colour more accurately reflects the relative intensities of parasite infection, rather than one-by-one relationships with parasites or absolute parasite burden. Investigating patterns of multiple parasite infection would thus improve our understanding of the information conveyed by coloured signals on parasite load.

  18. Chart Smart: A Need for Documentation and Billing Education Among Emergency Medicine Residents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Dawson, MD

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The healthcare chart is becoming ever more complex, serving clinicians, patients, third party payers, regulators, and even medicolegal parties. The purpose of this study was to identify our emergency medicine (EM resident and attending physicians’ current knowledge and attitudes about billing and documentation practices. We hypothesized that resident and attending physicians would identify billing and documentation as an area in which residents need further education.Methods: We gave a 15-question Likert survey to resident and attending physicians regarding charting practices, knowledge of billing and documentation, and opinions regarding need for further education.Results: We achieved a 100% response rate, with 47% (16/34 of resident physicians disagreeing or strongly disagreeing that they have adequate training in billing and documentation, while 91% (31/34 of residents and 95% (21/22 of attending physicians identified this skill as important to a resident’s future practice. Eighty-two percent (28/34 of resident physicians and 100% of attending physicians recommended further education for residents.Conclusion: Residents in this academic EM department identified a need for further education in billing and documentation practices. [West J Emerg Med. 2010;11(2: 116-119.

  19. Wild mallards have more "goose-like" bills than their ancestors: a case of anthropogenic influence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Söderquist

    Full Text Available Wild populations of the world's most common dabbling duck, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos, run the risk of genetic introgression by farmed conspecifics released for hunting purposes. We tested whether bill morphology of free-living birds has changed since large-scale releases of farmed mallards started. Three groups of mallards from Sweden, Norway and Finland were compared: historical wild (before large-scale releases started, present-day wild, and present-day farmed. Higher density of bill lamellae was observed in historical wild mallards (only males. Farmed mallards had wider bills than present-day and historical wild ones. Present-day wild and farmed mallards also had higher and shorter bills than historical wild mallards. Present-day mallards thus tend to have more "goose-like" bills (wider, higher, and shorter than their ancestors. Our study suggests that surviving released mallards affect morphological traits in wild population by introgression. We discuss how such anthropogenic impact may lead to a maladapted and genetically compromised wild mallard population. Our study system has bearing on other taxa where large-scale releases of conspecifics with 'alien genes' may cause a cryptic invasive process that nevertheless has fitness consequences for individual birds.

  20. HEALTH INFO Information from the CHISBoard and Personnel Division: ABOUT BILLS FROM HOPITAL DE LA TOUR

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The tariff agreement signed by CERN (and other international organisations) with Hôpital de La Tour specifies that all bills paid within 30 days of the date of the invoice will enjoy a discount, to be deducted by the payer. The bills are labelled with a message to this effect.Physicians' fees, personal expenses as well as services from outside providers (e.g. ambulance companies or external laboratories) are however not part of the discount agreement. Bills for hospitalisation (i.e. with a stay in hospital longer than 28h) are normally directly paid by AUSTRIA, acting as a third-party payer.In May this year, Hôpital de La Tour introduced a new (Y2K compliant) accounting and invoicing system. This implementation did not go as smoothly as planned and delayed the issuing of bills by two months. During the summer period, a special team of temporary staff was put in place to catch up on the delay. As a result of this, some bills were produced that contained errors and the sticky label mentionin...

  1. A reservoir trap for antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Smorra, Christian; Franke, Kurt; Nagahama, Hiroki; Schneider, Georg; Higuchi, Takashi; Van Gorp, Simon; Blaum, Klaus; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Quint, Wolfgang; Walz, Jochen; Yamazaki, Yasunori; Ulmer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We have developed techniques to extract arbitrary fractions of antiprotons from an accumulated reservoir, and to inject them into a Penning-trap system for high-precision measurements. In our trap-system antiproton storage times > 1.08 years are estimated. The device is fail-safe against power-cuts of up to 10 hours. This makes our planned comparisons of the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons independent from accelerator cycles, and will enable us to perform experiments during long accelerator shutdown periods when background magnetic noise is low. The demonstrated scheme has the potential to be applied in many other precision Penning trap experiments dealing with exotic particles.

  2. Ecological assessment of a southeastern Brazil reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Martins,Isabela; Sanches,Barbara; Kaufmann,Philip Robert; Hughes,Robert M.; Santos,Gilmar Bastos; Molozzi,Joseline; Callisto, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Reservoirs are artificial ecosystems with multiple functions having direct and indirect benefits to humans; however, they also cause ecological changes and influence the composition and structure of aquatic biota. Our objectives were to: (1) assess the environmental condition of Nova Ponte Reservoir, Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil; and (2) determine how the aquatic biota respond to disturbances. A total of 40 sites in the littoral zone of the reservoir were sampled to characterize ph...

  3. Gas reservoir evaluation for underbalanced horizontal drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of surface equipment for monitoring the parameters of fluid and pressure while drilling was developed, and mathematical models for gas reservoir seepage and wellbore two-phase flow were established. Based on drilling operation parameters, well structure and monitored parameters, the wellbore pressure and the gas reservoir permeability could be predicted theoretically for underbalanced horizontal drilling. Based on the monitored gas production along the well depth, the gas reservoir type could be identified.

  4. billingsMentor: Adapting natural family planning to information technology and relieving the user of unnecessary tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Audrey D; Smith, John L

    2014-08-01

    BillingsMentor is an automated Web-based service for the Billings Method of natural family planning in which the guidance and interpretation previously communicated from teacher to student is provided by programmed algorithms. There are two functions: (1) to instruct the client to generate proper descriptions of her fertility symptoms; and (2) to interpret the symptoms efficiently according to the Billings Method and to communicate the results to the client. The efficiency of billingsMentor was tested by using the historical records of students who were under the guidance of a teacher to emulate their experience under the guidance of billingsMentor. The results indicate that billingsMentor performs as well as the teacher/student in recognizing the peak of fertility but it is slightly less efficient than the teacher/student in establishing the basic infertile pattern. Advantages that arise from adapting natural family planning to information technology are discussed.

  5. Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    In the study of gas reservoir development, the first year topics are restricted on reservoir characterization. There are two types of reservoir characterization. One is the reservoir formation characterization and the other is the reservoir fluid characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. The results of conditional simulation has higher confidence level than the unconditional simulation because conditional simulation considers the sample location as well as distance correlation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. From the liquid volume fraction with pressure drop, the phase behavior of reservoir fluid can be estimated. The calculation results of fluid recombination, constant composition expansion, and constant volume depletion are matched very well with the experimental data. In swelling test of the reservoir fluid with lean gas, the accuracy of dew point pressure forecast depends on the component characterization. (author). 28 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Slimholes for geothermal reservoir evaluation - An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickox, C.E.

    1996-08-01

    The topics covered in this session include: slimhole testing and data acquisition, theoretical and numerical models for slimholes, and an overview of the analysis of slimhole data acquired by the Japanese. The fundamental issues discussed are concerned with assessing the efficacy of slimhole testing for the evaluation of geothermal reservoirs. the term reservoir evaluation is here taken to mean the assessment of the potential of the geothermal reservoir for the profitable production of electrical power. As an introduction to the subsequent presentations and discussions, a brief summary of the more important aspects of the use of slimholes in reservoir evaluation is given.

  7. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, B.; Heinemeier, J.

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fish bones, shells, human bones, or food crusts on pottery from sites near rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in hardwater rivers can be up to several thousand years and may be highly variable. Accurate 14C dating...... of freshwater-based samples requires knowing the order of magnitude of the reservoir effect and its degree of variability. Measurements on modern riverine materials may not give a single reservoir age correction that can be applied to archaeological samples, but they show the order of magnitude and variability...

  8. IMAGINÁRIO, UTOPIA, DEMOCRACIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constança Marcondes Cesar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O papel da imaginação na vida social é estudado por Ricoeur no âmbito de uma teoria geral da imaginação. Em sua filosofia, a ideologia e a utopia são focalizadas como duas expressões do imaginário social. Examinaremos, primeiro, o papel da imaginação, em seguida focalizaremos a questão da utopia e, finalmente, as relações entre ética e utopia.

  9. Watching the Creation of Southern California's Largest Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The new Diamond Valley Lake Reservoir near the city of Hemet in Riverside County is billed as the largest earthworks construction project in U.S.history. Construction began in 1995 and involved 31 million cubic meters of foundation excavation and 84 million cubic meters of embankment construction. This set of MISR images captures the most recent phase in the reservoir's activation. At the upper left is a natural-color view acquired by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on March 14, 2000 (Terra orbit 1273), shortly after the Metropolitan Water District began filling the reservoir with water from the Colorado River and Northern California. Water appears darker than the surrounding land. The image at the upper right was acquired nearly one year later on March 1, 2001 (Terra orbit 6399), and shows a clear increase in the reservoir's water content. When full, the lake will hold nearly a trillion liters of water.According to the Metropolitan Water District, the 7 kilometer x 3 kilometer reservoir nearly doubles Southern California's above-groundwater storage capacity. In addition to routine water management, Diamond Valley Lake is designed to provide protection against drought and a six-month emergency supply in the event of earthquake damage to a major aqueduct. In the face of electrical power shortages, it is also expected to reduce dependence on the pumping of water from northern mountains during the high-demand summer months. An unexpected result of site excavation was the uncovering of mastodon and mammoth skeletons along with bones from extinct species not previously thought to have been indigenous to the area, such as the giant long-horned bison and North American lion. A museum and interpretive center is being built to protect these finds.The lower MISR image, from May 20, 2001 (Terra orbit 7564), is a false-color view combining data from the instrument's 26-degree forward view (displayed as blue) with data from the 26-degree backward view

  10. Utility bill comprehension in the commercial and industrialsector: results of field research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, Christopher T.

    2000-06-02

    This paper presents the results of interviews conducted with 44 business people in 10 states to examine the use of the utility bill as an information mechanism for providing businesses with the relationship between energy consumption and cost. Our results indicate that there are significant barriers to the use of the utility bill as an information tool for energy consumers. Furthermore, we found significant variations among respondents in the information desired from the bill, and differences in decision-making criteria for investments aimed at reducing energy consumption and for those aimed at other forms of waste minimization. These results call into question the applicability of standard market theories in the purchase of energy by most businesses.

  11. Max Bill: variaciones sobre la búsqueda de la belleza

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Castillo, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Max Bill es un artista lógico. Quince variaciones sobre el mismo tema 1938, podría ser el epítome de la lógica de Bill: la obra como resultado de la aplicación de leyes distintas sobre una estructura de orden. La gran diversidad formal de la obra de Max Bill –entre sus diseños de objetos, su tipografía, su pintura, su escultura o su arquitectura no parece haber líneas formales evidentes- se debe a que, para él, cada tarea es diferente y depende de medios y leyes propios. Una diversidad que po...

  12. The rights of persons with Disability Bill, 2014: How "enabling" is it for persons with mental illness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gundugurti Prasad; Ramya, Vemulokonda Sri; Bada, Math Suresh

    2016-01-01

    India ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Person with Disabilities (UNCRPD) in 2007. This is a welcome step towards realizing the rights of the persons with disability. The UNCRPD proclaims that disability results from interaction of impairments with attitudinal and environmental barriers which hinders full and active participation in society on an equal basis with others. Further, the convention also mandates the signatory governments to change their local laws, to identify and eliminate obstacles and barriers and to comply with the terms of the UNCRPD in order to protect the rights of the person with disabilities, hence the amendments of the national laws. Hence, the Government of India drafted two important bill the Right of Persons with Disabilities Bill, 2014 (RPWD Bill, 2014) and Mental Health Care Bill, 2013 (MHC Bill, 2013). There is no doubt that persons with mental illness are stigmatized and discriminated across the civil societies, which hinders full and active participation in society. This situation becomes worse with regard to providing mental health care, rehabilitation and social welfare measures to persons with mental illness. There is an urgent need to address this issue of attitudinal barrier so that the rights of persons with mental illness is upheld. Hence, this article discusses shortcomings in the Right of Persons with Disabilities Bill, 2014 (RPWD Bill, 2014) from the perspective of persons with mental illness. Further, the article highlights the need to synchronize both the RPWD Bill, 2014 and Mental Health Care Bill, 2013 to provide justice for persons with mental illness.

  13. Estimation of Bank Erosion Due To Reservoir Operation in Cascade (Case Study: Citarum Cascade Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Legowo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation is such a crucial issue to be noted once the accumulated sediment begins to fill the reservoir dead storage, this will then influence the long-term reservoir operation. The sediment accumulated requires a serious attention for it may influence the storage capacity and other reservoir management of activities. The continuous inflow of sediment to the reservoir will decrease the capacity of reservoir storage, the reservoir value in use, and the useful age of reservoir. Because of that, the rate of the sediment needs to be delayed as possible. In this research, the delay of the sediment rate is considered based on the rate of flow of landslide of the reservoir slope. The rate of flow of the sliding slope can be minimized by way of each reservoir autonomous efforts. This effort can be performed through; the regulation of fluctuating rate of reservoir surface current that does not cause suddenly drawdown and upraising as well. The research model is compiled using the searching technique of Non Linear Programming (NLP.The rate of bank erosion for the reservoir variates from 0.0009 to 0.0048 MCM/year, which is no sigrificant value to threaten the life time of reservoir.Mean while the rate of watershed sediment has a significant value, i.e: 3,02 MCM/year for Saguling that causes to fullfill the storage capacity in 40 next years (from years 2008.

  14. Increasing Waterflooding Reservoirs in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerner, Roy; Clarke, Don; Walker, Scott

    1999-11-09

    The objectives of this quarterly report was to summarize the work conducted under each task during the reporting period April - June 1998 and to report all technical data and findings as specified in the ''Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist''. The main objective of this project is the transfer of technologies, methodologies, and findings developed and applied in this project to other operators of Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs. This project will study methods to identify sands with high remaining oil saturation and to recomplete existing wells using advanced completion technology.

  15. Exploration on ecological regulation of the reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Qihua

    2009-01-01

    Reservoir regulation process in the Yangtze River basin is mainly divided into two types of flood regulation and initiating benefit regulation. The present reservoir management system and operation mode are mainly for dealing with or coordinating of flood control and benefit initiation as well as benefit distribution among various beneficial functions. From the view point of river ecosystem protection, the current regulation mode has two kinds of problems: firstly, most of the reservoir regulation plans do not consider ecosystem protection at downstream of dams and needs of environment protection in reservoir areas; secondly, integrated regulation or management of water resources is ignored. It is very necessary to improve reservoir regulation mode, bearing problems faced by regulation of the Three Gorges reservoir and issues related to cascade development and regulation in Tuojiang and Minjiang River basins in mind. In accordance with the concept of scientific development, and the philosophy of "ensuring a healthy Yangtze River and promoting the har-mony between human and water", taking flood control, benefit initiation and eco-system as a whole, this paper put for-ward the basic consideration to improve reservoir regulation as follows : on the basis of requirements of ecosystem protec-tion at downstream of dams and needs of environment protection in reservoir areas, we should bring the functions of res-ervoir such as flood control and benefit initiation into full play, control the negative influence to the ecosystem at down-stream of dams and the environment in reservoir areas in an endurable scope, and restore the ecosystem and the environ-ment step by step. This paper put forward the relevant regulation process aiming at the idiographic problems such as pro-tection of ecosystem at downstream of dams and environment in reservoir areas, protection of aquatic wildlife species and fish species, regulation of sediment and protection of wetland.

  16. 1993 study of long-billed curlews on the Yakima Training Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, K.D.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1994-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study for the US Department of the Army on long-billed curlews (Numenius americanus) on the Yakima Training Center (YTC) in the spring and summer of 1993. Long-billed curlews are a Class IIIc federal candidate species and are listed as a ``species of special concern`` by the Washington Department of Wildlife. The objectives of this study were to (1) locate major nesting areas, (2) locate brood rearing areas, (3) evaluate habitat requirements, (4) determine diet, (5) evaluate response to troop activities, (6) estimate population size, (7) estimate recruitment rates, and (8) establish a relative abundance survey method.

  17. Critique of U.S. House Bill 2454 on Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Waggoner

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. House of Representatives, in June 2009, approved a bill to create a cap and trade system and a system of regulations and subsidies to address the problems of climate change. The U.S. Senate is now considering remedies for climate change. The approach of House Bill 2454 is ill-advised, and should be rejected by the Senate, because of the problems outlined below. I propose that these problems that would not be presented by a carbon tax, a simpler and more effective remedy for the risk of climate change.

  18. Killing the bill online? Pathways to young people's protest engagement via social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macafee, Timothy; De Simone, J J

    2012-11-01

    In spring 2011, thousands of Wisconsin residents protested a controversial bill spearheaded by Governor Scott Walker. Protest engagement via social media was popular, especially among young people. The current study examines the relationship between young people's informational and expressive uses of four social media-Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, and Blogs-and their offline protest engagement. Survey results reveal that although college students used these social media to obtain information about the budget repair bill protests, only expressive uses related to offline protest engagement. We move research forward by examining the implications of multiple uses of political social media surrounding a compelling case study.

  19. Roger House, Blue Smoke: The Recorded Journey of Big Bill Broonzy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian O’Connell

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is surprising that a full biography of Big Bill Broonzy has not appeared since Yannick Bruynoghe’s collection of interviews with the singer in Big Bill Blues (1955. Broonzy recorded just under a thousand sides in his career, making him one of the most widely recorded blues musicians of the twentieth century. He was also one of the most important sources of information for blues scholars such as Alan Lomax and Paul Oliver who would go on to write up the history of the music. However, in th...

  20. O batistério publicitário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Carvalho

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho descreve o papel do léxico nos meios de comunicação, evidenciando a elaboração da mensagem publicitária. A necessidade de brevidade e clareza determina a escolha lexical, responsável pela informação e convencimento do receptor. Para nomear e qualificar o produto são utilizados substantivos, adjetivos e verbos por meio dos processos de formação de palavras, relações semânticas e recursos estilísticos. Os traços culturais também estão presentes no uso do vocabulário.

  1. Subtle traps in Cretaceous, Archuleta, Conejos, Mineral, and Rio Grande counties, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.T. Jr. (Coastal Oil and Gas Corp., Denver, CO (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Regional interpretation of the stratigraphy, faulting, fracturing, and hydrodynamics in Archuleta, Conejos, Mineral, and Rio Grande Counties in southern Colorado indicates that significant reserves of hydrocarbons could exist in subtle trapping situations within the Cretaceous sequences. The presence of Price-Gramps field (7 million bbl of oil ultimate recoverable), which produces primarily from the Dakota Formation, is presently anomalous in this area but is indicative of existing hydrocarbon potential. Hydrocarbon shows from drilled wells and outcrops suggest that significant quantities of hydrocarbons are present in this area, sourced both from the San Juan basin to the south and west, and from more local areas for fractured reservoirs.

  2. Re-recognizing the Function of the Bill and Bill Market%应该重新认识票据与票据市场的功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志凌

    2015-01-01

    The original function of the bill is changing; the exchange function is shrinking, but the payment function is very strong. The derivative function of the bill is constantly enriched; the circulation function is increasingly important, while its basis is the credit function. The other derivative function of the bill is a tool for the market financing and investment, and then becoming the central bank’ s monetary policy instrument. The bill market in China can connect the bank, non-bank financial institution and enterprise capital flow through business procedures such as issuance, acceptance, discounting, counter-discounting and re-discounting. Bill financing not only becomes the optimal choice for many enterprises’ payment and settlement as well as short-term financing, more conducive to reducing the cost of real economy financing, and then promoting the currency directly placed into the real economy, but also can effectively adjust the structure of economic operation.%票据的原始功能正在变化,汇兑功能不断萎缩,但支付功能却很顽强;票据的衍生功能不断丰富,流通功能越来越重要,但其基础是信用功能;票据的另一个衍生功能,就是市场融资与投资工具,进而成为中央银行的货币政策工具。我国的票据市场能够通过票据的签发、承兑、贴现、转贴现和再贴现等业务流程,连接银行、非银行金融机构以及企业资金流动。票据融资不仅成为众多企业支付结算和短期资金融通的首选,更加有利于降低实体经济融资成本,促进货币直接注入实体经济,而且能有效调节经济运行结构。

  3. Ichthyofauna of the reservoirs of Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stolbunov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, distribution and abundance of fish in the pelagic and littoral zone of four reservoirs of Central Vietnam (Suoi Chau, Kam Lam, Da Ban and Suoi Dau were studied first. According to the research data the fish community of the reservoirs is represented by 43 species of 19 fish families.

  4. Reservoir optimization for the synthetic brugge field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, E.; Leeuwenburgh, O.; Egberts, P.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing availability of data and tools for history matching and optimisation brings the long-term goal of closed loop reservoir management closer. However, still many issues are not solved. An example is the interaction between the history match of the reservoir model and the optimisation. How im

  5. Identifying and Evaluating of Oil Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haixia

    2002-01-01

    The identification and evaluation of oil reservoir with logging data are one of most important ways in geologic logging services. For the last decades, with the further development of the oil & gas exploration, great advances have been achieved in techniques on the acquisition, processing and interpretative evaluation of logging data. How to identify fluid characteristics and evaluate the productivity in light oil reservoir (the crude density being between 0.74g/cm3 and 0.82g/cm3)has become one of the difficulties.With the establishment of the regional interpretation criterion of the study blocks, the optimized logging parameters that reflect the reservoir characteristics have been used to establish the chart for the interpretation of oil-water reservoir combining with well logging parameters. Then, to begin with geologic reserves of crude in single well, we establish evaluation criterion for productivity in oil reservoir with determining lower limit value of the reservoir and applying the relationship between chart parameters. The techniques are verified in production and get better effect.On the basis of the reservoir characteristics analysis of both basin A and B, We established the evaluation method of static productivity on light oil reservoir with getting quantitative evaluation parameters after quantitatively evaluating the date of core, pyrolysis chromatogram and gas chromatogram. It provides new technique 7 for new well interpretation and old well review, as well as evidence for project.design of well testing.

  6. Advances in carbonate exploration and reservoir analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, J.; Neilson, J.E.; Laubach, S.E.; Whidden, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    Carbonate reservoirs contain an increasingly important percentage of the world’s hydrocarbon reserves. This volume presents key recent advances in carbonate exploration and reservoir analysis. As well as a comprehensive overview of the trends in carbonate over the years, the volume focuses on four key areas:

  7. Zooplankton of the Zaporiz’ke Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Mykolaichuk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to zooplankton species composition in the Zaporiz’ke Reservoir. The greatest species diversity was found in the macrophyte communities of the upper reservoir’s littoral, but the least zooplankton diversity – in the pelagic zone of the lower reservoir.

  8. Advances in China's Oil Reservoir Description Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Longxin; Huang Shiyan; Jia Ailin; Rong Jiashu

    1997-01-01

    @@ Oil reservoir description in China has undergone rapid development in recent years. Extensive research carried out at various oilfields and petroleum universities has resulted in the formulation of comprehensive oil reservoir description techniques and methods uniquely suited to the various development phases of China's continental facies. The new techniques have the following characteristics:

  9. Geothermal reservoir insurance study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-09

    The principal goal of this study was to provide analysis of and recommendations on the need for and feasibility of a geothermal reservoir insurance program. Five major tasks are reported: perception of risk by major market sectors, status of private sector insurance programs, analysis of reservoir risks, alternative government roles, and recommendations.

  10. Seismic determination of saturation in fractured reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.L.; Wiggins, M.L.; Gupta, A.

    2002-01-01

    Detecting the saturation of a fractured reservoir using shear waves is possible when the fractures have a geometry that induces a component of movement perpendicular to the fractures. When such geometry is present, vertically traveling shear waves can be used to examine the saturation of the fractured reservoir. Tilted, corrugated, and saw-tooth fracture models are potential examples.

  11. Economics of Developing Hot Stratigraphic Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Hillary Hanson; Rick Allis; Joseph Moore

    2014-09-01

    Stratigraphic geothermal reservoirs at 3 – 4 km depth in high heat-flow basins are capable of sustaining 100 MW-scale power plants at about 10 c/kWh. This paper examines the impacts on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of reservoir depth and temperature, reservoir productivity, and drillhole/casing options. For a reservoir at 3 km depth with a moderate productivity index by hydrothermal reservoir standards (about 50 L/s/MPa, 5.6 gpm/psi), an LCOE of 10c/kWh requires the reservoir to be at about 200°C. This is the upper temperature limit for pumps. The calculations assume standard hydrothermal drilling costs, with the production interval completed with a 7 inch liner in an 8.5 inch hole. If a reservoir at 4 km depth has excellent permeability characteristics with a productivity index of 100 L/s/MPa (11.3 gpm/psi), then the LCOE is about 11 c/kWh assuming the temperature decline rate with development is not excessive (< 1%/y, with first thermal breakthrough delayed by about 10 years). Completing wells with modest horizontal legs (e.g. several hundred meters) may be important for improving well productivity because of the naturally high, sub-horizontal permeability in this type of reservoir. Reducing the injector/producer well ratio may also be cost-effective if the injectors are drilled as larger holes.

  12. Time-lapse seismic within reservoir engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenziel, T.

    2003-01-01

    Time-lapse 3D seismic is a fairly new technology allowing dynamic reservoir characterisation in a true volumetric sense. By investigating the differences between multiple seismic surveys, valuable information about changes in the oil/gas reservoir state can be captured. Its interpretation involves d

  13. Water resources review: Wheeler Reservoir, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallus, R.; Cox, J.P.

    1990-09-01

    Protection and enhancement of water quality is essential for attaining the full complement of beneficial uses of TVA reservoirs. The responsibility for improving and protecting TVA reservoir water quality is shared by various federal, state, and local agencies, as well as the thousands of corporations and property owners whose individual decisions affect water quality. TVA's role in this shared responsibility includes collecting and evaluating water resources data, disseminating water resources information, and acting as a catalyst to bring together agencies and individuals that have a responsibility or vested interest in correcting problems that have been identified. This report is one in a series of status reports that will be prepared for each of TVA's reservoirs. The purpose of this status report is to provide an up-to-date overview of the characteristics and conditions of Wheeler Reservoir, including: reservoir purposes and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and the watershed; water quality conditions: aquatic biological conditions: designated, actual, and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those uses; ongoing or planned reservoir management activities. Information and data presented here are form the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. 21 refs., 8 figs., 29 tabs.

  14. DAM IMPACTS ON AND RESTORATION OF AN ALLUVIAL RIVER - RIO GRANDE, NEW MEXICO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gigi RICHARD; Pierre JULIEN

    2003-01-01

    The impact of construction of dams and reservoirs on alluvial rivers extends both upstream and downstream of the dam. Downstream of dams, both the water and sediment supplies can be altered leading to adjustments in the river channel geometry and ensuing changes in riparian and aquatic habitats.The wealth of pre and post-regulation data on the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico, provides an excellent case study of river regulation, channel adjustments, and restoration efforts. Cochiti Dam was constructed on the main stem of the Rio Grande in 1973 for flood control and sediment retention. Prior to dam construction, the Rio Grande was a wide, sandy braided river. Following dam construction, the downstream channel bed degraded and coarsened to gravel size, and the planform shifted to a more meandering pattern. Ecological implications of the geomorphic changes include detachment of the river from the floodplain, reduced recruitment of riparian cottonwoods, encroachment of non-native saltcedar and Russian olive into the floodplain, and degraded aquatic habitat for the Rio Grande silvery minnow.Recent restoration strategies include removal of non-native riparian vegetation, mechanical lowering of floodplain areas, and channel widening.

  15. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; John Nguyen; Kwasi Tagbor; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker

    1997-04-10

    This project is intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  16. Rodent reservoirs of future zoonotic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Barbara A; Schmidt, John Paul; Bowden, Sarah E; Drake, John M

    2015-06-02

    The increasing frequency of zoonotic disease events underscores a need to develop forecasting tools toward a more preemptive approach to outbreak investigation. We apply machine learning to data describing the traits and zoonotic pathogen diversity of the most speciose group of mammals, the rodents, which also comprise a disproportionate number of zoonotic disease reservoirs. Our models predict reservoir status in this group with over 90% accuracy, identifying species with high probabilities of harboring undiscovered zoonotic pathogens based on trait profiles that may serve as rules of thumb to distinguish reservoirs from nonreservoir species. Key predictors of zoonotic reservoirs include biogeographical properties, such as range size, as well as intrinsic host traits associated with lifetime reproductive output. Predicted hotspots of novel rodent reservoir diversity occur in the Middle East and Central Asia and the Midwestern United States.

  17. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect can result in anomalously old radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers. This includes the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. Water rich in dissolved ancient calcium carbonates, commonly known...... as hard water, is the most common reason for the freshwater reservoir effect. It is therefore also called hardwater effect. Although it has been known for more than 60 years, it is still less well-recognized by archaeologists than the marine reservoir effect. The aim of this study is to examine the order...... of magnitude and degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants, and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 14C years can occur within one river. The freshwater reservoir effect has also implications...

  18. Bottomwater drive in tarmat reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kaabi, A.A.; Menouar, H.; Al-Marhoun, M.A.; Al-Hashim, H.S.

    1988-05-01

    This paper addresses the class of tarmat reservoirs subject to bottomwater drive. Different shapes of tar layers are simulated physically and numerically to study the behavior of WOR and oil recovery. Four different cases were studied: a square barrier beneath the well, a disk beneath the well, a hollow square or disk beneath the well, and a half plane. The results showed that breakthrough time occurs earlier in the case of hollow tarmat barriers, while it is delayed considerably in the case of tarmat barriers shaped in the form of a disk beneath the well. Paradoxically, in this last case, the WOR increases more rapidly and becomes higher toward the end of the depletion than in any other case. Among all the cases studied, the no-barrier case gives the highest recovery, while the hollow-tarmat-barrier case leads to the lowest recovery.

  19. Production Optimization of Oil Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten

    with emphasis on optimal control of water ooding with the use of smartwell technology. We have implemented immiscible ow of water and oil in isothermal reservoirs with isotropic heterogenous permeability elds. We use the method of lines for solution of the partial differential equation (PDE) system that governs...... the uid ow. We discretize the the two-phase ow model spatially using the nite volume method (FVM), and we use the two point ux approximation (TPFA) and the single-point upstream (SPU) scheme for computing the uxes. We propose a new formulation of the differential equation system that arise...... as a consequence of the spatial discretization of the two-phase ow model. Upon discretization in time, the proposed equation system ensures the mass conserving property of the two-phase ow model. For the solution of the spatially discretized two-phase ow model, we develop mass conserving explicit singly diagonally...

  20. Reservoir management under geological uncertainty using fast model update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanea, R.; Evensen, G.; Hustoft, L.; Ek, T.; Chitu, A.; Wilschut, F.

    2015-01-01

    Statoil is implementing "Fast Model Update (FMU)," an integrated and automated workflow for reservoir modeling and characterization. FMU connects all steps and disciplines from seismic depth conversion to prediction and reservoir management taking into account relevant reservoir uncertainty. FMU del

  1. Dynamic dam-reservoir interaction analysis including effect of reservoir boundary absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN; Gao; DU; JianGuo; HU; ZhiQiang

    2007-01-01

    Based on the scaled boundary finite-element method,the governing equations for the analysis of dam-reservoir interaction including the reservoir boundary absorption are developed.Coupling with the equation of dam-unbounded foundation interaction,it can effectively carry out the earthquake response analysis of dam-reservoir-foundation system.The proposed approach has the advantages that the effect of compressibility of reservoir water as well as the energy absorption of reservoir boundary on the earthquake response of arch dams and gravity dams can be efficiently evaluated and higher accuracy can be achieved.In comparison with the methods available in the literature,the computational cost can be reduced to a great extent.It facilitates the application of earthquake response analysis of dam-reservoir-foundation system including reservoir boundary absorption to the engineering practice.

  2. Rio 2016 golf Olympic course: technical brief

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Through the RFP, Rio 2016™ seeks to identify the best concept design for the Olympic golf course, for both women’s and men’s competition at the Rio 2016™ Olympic Games as well as the best legacy solution for the future.

  3. Evaluation of antibody response to vaccination against West Nile virus in thick billed parrots (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavis, Jennifer; Larsen, R Scott; Lamberski, Nadine; Gaffney, Patricia; Gardner, Ian

    2011-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first documented in North America in New York City in 1999. Several deaths attributable to WNV have been reported in captive thick-billed parrots (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha), an endangered psittacine native to North America. The serologic responses in 12 captive adult thick-billed parrots after a series of three initial WNV vaccine injections with annual boosters over 6 yr was evaluated. In addition, the serologic responses of 11 thick-billed parrot chicks following an initial vaccination series to determine if there were seroconversions were also reported. Most adults (67%) had seroconverted after 5 yr of annual vaccination, with a median titer of 1:80 (range 1:40-1:160) for those that seroconverted. After the first year, birds were likely naturally exposed to WNV, which limited interpretation of titers. None of the chicks seroconverted during the initial three-vaccine series; only two of four chicks (50%) had seroconverted when tested at the 1-yr yearly booster, and at 2 yr, three of four chicks had seroconverted. Although some birds had detectable antibody titers, it is unclear whether this vaccine can reliably provide protection against WNV in thick-billed parrots.

  4. 75 FR 72773 - Empowering Consumers to Avoid Bill Shock; Consumer Information and Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... shock regulation in the European Union. In addition, the Commission proposes that mobile providers... received in response to the Bill Shock PN, published at 75 FR 28249, May 20, 2010, it may be easier for the...? Methods for Reviewing and Capping Usage The Commission proposes that mobile providers make...

  5. The Environmental Ethic of Bill Mason: A Model for Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintzman, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Almost 20 years after Bill Mason's death, the writings and films of this legendary Canadian canoeist, filmmaker, and artist remain popular: "Few people of any nation have been so influential in creating a sense of responsibility for the environment" (Buck, 2005, p. 12). Supported by statements in Mason's writings and films, this paper…

  6. Teaching Undergraduate Money and Banking: T-Bill Auctions and Stock Market Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saros, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    The author offers innovative approaches to 3 topics that are typically only briefly mentioned (if at all) in money and banking courses. The first topic is a Treasury bill auction experiment in which students have an opportunity to participate directly. The results from a class of 14 money and banking students are used to explain how an instructor…

  7. Preliminary investigations of the winter ecology of Long-billed Curlews in coastal Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodin, Marc C.; Skoruppa, Mary Kay; Edwardson, Jeremy W.; Austin, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1900s, the distribution of the Long-billed Curlew (Numenius americanus) has contracted dramatically in the eastern one-half of its historic range. The species has been designated as a "Bird of Conservation Concern" and focal species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, a species of concern by several states, and a "Highly Imperiled" species in the U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plan. The uncertain outlook for this species has contributed to a plethora of research on Long-billed Curlews, most of which have focused on breeding and nesting ecology of the species. Gaps remain in information about factors affecting population dynamics on the winter grounds and the linkages between Long-billed Curlew populations on the breeding range, migration routes, and winter range. To begin filling those gaps, a pilot study was done to evaluate (1) curlew use of nocturnal roost sites, (2) use of public outreach to locate curlews and contribute to preliminary assessment of foraging habitat use, (3) six different methods to capture curlews, and (4) movements by curlews on wintering areas. The study area includes the lower Texas coast, which harbors the eastern-most dense populations of Long-billed Curlews in North America.

  8. 29 CFR 458.2 - Bill of rights of members of labor organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... organization shall have the right to meet and assemble freely with other members; and to express any views... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bill of rights of members of labor organizations. 458.2 Section 458.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT...

  9. The Library Bill of Rights in the 1960s: One Profession, One Ethic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Toni

    1996-01-01

    Discusses two vying interpretations of the Library Bill of Rights (intellectual freedom seen as pure neutrality or as social responsibility) and highlights conflicts that these views created within the American Library Association (ALA) from 1967 to 1973. Outlines early history of the Social Responsibilities Round Table of Libraries and the…

  10. Max Bill´s "Die Gute Form" versus Asger Jorn´s "Dynamic Form"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumeister, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Departing from their dispute about the reconstruction of the Bauhaus in West Germany after WW2, this article discusses Asger Jorn´s and Max Bill´s different notions of form. Implicitly, this also brings to the forth their different attitude regarding the positions of art and life in the postwar...

  11. Specimen-based modeling, stopping rules, and the extinction of the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Chao, Anne; Colwell, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    stopping rules for terminating the search for missing or allegedly extinct species. These stopping rules are based on survey data for counts of co-occurring species that are encountered in the search for a target species. We illustrate both these methods with a case study of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker...

  12. At CES Paul Allen beaming about Hawks, wishing Bill Gates well

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    when word came out that he and Bill Gates were supporting a spectacular new telescope with $30 million in donations. E-mail was apparently a little spotty on the yacht, but he responded last night to a few questions about the LSST project:

  13. An Enterprise Model for Real-Time Inter-domain Billing of Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, van M.; Beijnum, van B.J.F.; Nieuwenhuis, L.J.M.; Huitema, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    The technological developments in networking solutions, information and communication services create the basis for the provisioning of complex, realtime services. This paper addresses the charging and billing of such advanced services. Advanced services will be composed of services provided by vari

  14. Christian Librarians and the Ethics of the Library Bill of Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Kaihoi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is the follow up to a pilot study entitled “Christian Librarians and the Library Bill of Rights: a survey of opinions and professional practice” published in the Spring 2014 issue of The Christian Librarian.  Using an online survey, it sought to discover how librarians working in a variety of contexts who self-identified as Christians responded to the ALA’s ethical standards as embodied in the Library Bill of Rights.  The results showed general support for the Library Bill of Rights and its ethics, though a majority of respondents had at least some way in which they adhered to the Library Bill of Rights less than fully, and a significant minority (around 40% had areas in which they differed with its ethics, usually in the form of feeling that certain types of content (e.g., pornography, harmful materials, etc. could or should be limited.  The responses in this survey would seem to support the notion that many Christian librarians do sometimes perceive a need to place the value of defending what they perceive to be true and right above the call to remain professionally impartial about certain kinds of content.

  15. 76 FR 48485 - Medicare Program; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... Nursing Facilities for FY 2012; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 152 / Monday, August 8... Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing Facilities for FY 2012 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid... prospective payment system for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for fiscal year 2012. In addition,...

  16. 75 FR 55801 - Medicare Program; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing Facilities for FY 2011; Correction AGENCY... for Skilled Nursing Facilities for FY 2011.'' DATES: Effective Date: This correction is effective... 42911 of the July 22, 2010 notice with comment period. These two tables illustrate the skilled...

  17. Gender Differences in the Media Interviews of Bill and Hillary Clinton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Camelia; O'Connell, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Does gender make a difference in the way politicians speak and are spoken to in public? This paper examines perspective in three television interviews and two radio interviews with Bill Clinton in June 2004 and in three television interviews and two radio interviews with Hillary Clinton in June 2003 with the same interviewers. Our perspectival…

  18. 78 FR 19291 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Billings and Pompeys Pillar National Monument Resource...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    .../billings_field_office/rmp.html . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carolyn Sherve-Bybee, RMP Team Lead, 406... of firearms, archery hunting may be allowed if deemed necessary by Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks... restricting human activity along the rims that might adversely affect the nesting birds. Grove Creek ACEC...

  19. 78 FR 46425 - Sale and Issue of Marketable Book-Entry Treasury Bills, Notes, and Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... computed on an actual/360 basis, subject to an appropriate lockout period,\\3\\ which initially will be two... auction of 13-week bills and will be subject to a minimum daily interest accrual rate of zero percent... repurchase agreement rate, Treasury weighed that input against the benefits of indexing to the...

  20. 31 CFR 309.5 - Acceptance of Treasury bills for various purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance of Treasury bills for various purposes. 309.5 Section 309.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT ISSUE AND SALE...

  1. 78 FR 52857 - Sale and Issue of Marketable Book-Entry Treasury Bills, Notes, and Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service 31 CFR Part 356 Sale and Issue of Marketable Book-Entry Treasury Bills, Notes, and Bonds Correction In rule document C1-2013-18178 appearing on page 50335 in the issue of August 19, 2013, make...

  2. Migrating Broad-billed Sandpipers achieve high fuelling rates by taking a multi-course meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, Y.I.; Dekinga, A; Koolhaas, A; van der Winden, J; van der Have, T M; Chernichko, I I

    2006-01-01

    In spring, large numbers of migrating Broad-billed Sandpipers make a stop-over in the Sivash, a shallow lagoon system in the Crimea, Ukraine, between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. Observed fuelling rates are high and, in just a few weeks, the birds can build up sufficient departure mass to reac

  3. 2004 energy bill of the France; Facture energetique de la France en 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document analyzes the energy bill in France (28,35 milliards of euros), which increased of 24,1 % in 2004. This increase is due to the net imports and especially the fossil fuels. Statistical data and the presentation of Patrick Devedjian, delegated ministry for the Industry, illustrate this economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  4. 78 FR 70584 - ATOS IT Solutions & Services, Inc., Billing and Collections Department, Including Workers Whose...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... Doc No: 2013-28332] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-82,999] ATOS IT... Insurance (UI) Wages are Reported Through Siemens IT Solutions and Services, Mason, Ohio; Amended... workers of ATOS IT Solutions & Services, Inc., Billing and Collections Department, Mason, Ohio....

  5. A Descriptive Study of Students with Disabilities at Montana State University Billings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Thomas Francis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze how the characteristics of age, major and type of disabilities for students who received services through Disability Support Services at Montana State University-Billings have changed from 1999 to 2011. Furthermore, this analysis contrasted local trends for types of disabilities with national…

  6. Business Models, Accounting and Billing Concepts in Grid-Aware Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrotsos, Serafim; Racz, Peter; Morariu, Cristian; Iskioupi, Katerina; Hausheer, David; Stiller, Burkhard

    The emerging Grid Economy, shall set new challenges for the network. More and more literature underlines the significance of network - awareness for efficient and effective grid services. Following this path to Grid evolution, this paper identifies some key challenges in the areas of business modeling, accounting and billing and proposes an architecture that addresses them.

  7. 41 CFR 102-118.80 - Who is responsible for keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records? 102-118.80 Section 102-118.80... Transportation and Transportation Services § 102-118.80 Who is responsible for keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records? Your agency's internal financial regulations will...

  8. 20 CFR 30.713 - If OWCP reduces a fee, may a provider bill the employee for the balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If OWCP reduces a fee, may a provider bill the employee for the balance? 30.713 Section 30.713 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS... fee, may a provider bill the employee for the balance? A provider whose fee for service is...

  9. 20 CFR 10.813 - If OWCP reduces a fee, may a provider bill the claimant for the balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If OWCP reduces a fee, may a provider bill the claimant for the balance? 10.813 Section 10.813 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS... Schedule § 10.813 If OWCP reduces a fee, may a provider bill the claimant for the balance? A provider...

  10. 9 CFR 73.6 - Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed to scabies. 73.6 Section 73.6... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.6 Placarding means of conveyance and marking billing of shipments of treated scabby cattle or cattle exposed...

  11. 42 CFR 414.50 - Physician or other supplier billing for diagnostic tests performed or interpreted by a physician...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Physician or other supplier billing for diagnostic... or other supplier. 414.50 Section 414.50 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.50 Physician or other supplier billing...

  12. 75 FR 43557 - TA-W-73,682, Hartford Financial Services Group, Incorporated, Medical Bill Processing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Employment and Training Administration TA-W-73,682, Hartford Financial Services Group, Incorporated, Medical...; TA-W-73,682A, Hartford Financial Services Group, Incorporated Medical Bill Processing and Production... Financial Services Group, Incorporated, Medical Bill Processing and Production Center Support,...

  13. 3 CFR 8464 - Proclamation 8464 of December 9, 2009. Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, And Human Rights...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proclamation 8464 of December 9, 2009. Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, And Human Rights Week, 2009 8464 Proclamation 8464 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8464 of December 9, 2009 Proc. 8464 Human Rights Day, Bill of Rights Day, And...

  14. A breeding site record of Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus (Aves: Accipitriformes: Accipitridae from Bejjur Reserve Forest, Telangana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Stotrabhashyam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus is, Critically Endangered with few known breeding sites in peninsular India.  We present a previously undocumented Long-billed Vulture breeding site in Bejjur Reserve Forest, Adilabad District, northern Telangana.

  15. The Tanggu geothermal reservoir (Tianjin, China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelsson, Gudni [Virkir-Orkint Consulting Group and National Energy Authority, Reykjavik (Iceland); Zhilin Dong [Tanggu Geothermal Office, Tianjin (China)

    1998-06-01

    The Tanggu geothermal system is an extensive, highly permeable, horizontal sandstone reservoir, situated within the North China Sedimentary Basin. Twenty-three successful production wells, yielding water with an average temperature of about 70degC, have been drilled into this reservoir since 1987, distributed over an area of some 330 km{sup 2}. The hot water is mostly used for space heating. In 1995 the annual production exceeded 5 million tons. Hot water extraction has caused the water level to drop to a depth of 80 m in the production wells, and it continues to decline at a rate of 3-4 m per year. This has raised the question as to whether the reservoir may be overexploited. The main objective of a reservoir evaluation carried out in 1996 was to estimate the long-term production potential of the Tanggu reservoir. Two simple models were developed for this purpose. The potential is determined by specifying a maximum allowable pump setting depth of 150 m . On this basis the potential of the Tanggu reservoir is estimated to be about 10 million tons per year, for the next ten years. A comprehensive reservoir management program must be implemented in Tanggu. The first priority of such a program should be to improve the energy efficiency of space heating in the district, which should result in about 50% reduction in hot water consumption. Another management option is reinjection, which would counteract the water level draw-down. (Author)

  16. Stochastic Reservoir Characterization Constrained by Seismic Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, Alfhild Lien

    1999-07-01

    In order to predict future production of oil and gas from a petroleum reservoir, it is important to have a good description of the reservoir in terms of geometry and physical parameters. This description is used as input to large numerical models for the fluid flow in the reservoir. With increased quality of seismic data, it is becoming possible to extend their use from the study of large geologic structures such as seismic horizons to characterization of the properties of the reservoir between the horizons. Uncertainties because of the low resolution of seismic data can be successfully handled by means of stochastic modeling, and spatial statistics can provide tools for interpolation and simulation of reservoir properties not completely resolved by seismic data. This thesis deals with stochastic reservoir modeling conditioned to seismic data and well data. Part I presents a new model for stochastic reservoir characterization conditioned to seismic traces. Part II deals with stochastic simulation of high resolution impedance conditioned to measured impedance. Part III develops a new stochastic model for calcite cemented objects in a sandstone background; it is a superposition of a marked point model for the calcites and a continuous model for the background.

  17. TEORÍA DE BILL MUNDY EN EL MECANIZADO DE COBRE CON BROCAS Y MACHOS ESPECIALES BILL MUNDY THEORY. SPECIAL DRILLS AND TAPS TOOLS IN COPPER MACHINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Colque C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El mecanizado del cobre, debido a su fluidez, produce una viruta plástica y continua que afecta la calidad superficial de las piezas mecanizadas. El método desarrollado por el ingeniero norteamericano Bill Mundy permite obtener el mejor ángulo de corte para mecanizar un material. El taladrado y el roscado con machos son dos procesos de mecanizado que tienen aspectos en común. Diseños de nuevas herramientas, nuevos materiales y técnicas de mecanizado, mejorías en la lubricación, diferentes velocidades de corte y avances, son variables que se deben estudiar para obtener una menor potencia, mayor duración de la herramienta y buen acabado superficial. En este trabajo probetas de cobre fueron ensayadas a tracción y se determinó experimentalmente el ángulo efectivo de corte, de acuerdo con la teoría de Bill Mundy. Posteriormente se fabricaron nuevas probetas que fueron perforadas con brocas tipo H, N y W, con refrigeración externa, refrigeración interna y en seco. Se usaron machos de máquina de dos y tres hélices. En cada perforación se midió la velocidad de rotación, avance, fuerza de corte, momento torsor y potencia necesaria. Se verificó que en el taladrado de cobre un ángulo mayor de la hélice favorece el desmenuzado de la viruta y disminuye el momento torsor. Brocas con refrigeración interna pueden ser utilizadas con mayores velocidades y muestran una mejor calidad superficial del perforado. Las brocas y machos con un ángulo de ataque próximo al ángulo calculado experimentalmente por la teoría de Bill Mundy muestran un buen comportamiento en el mecanizado y menor consumo de potencia.Copper drilling produces plastic and continuous chip. Bill Mundy a North American engineer developed a method who allows determines experimentally the best cutting angle material machining. Drilling and threading processes has several aspects in common. New tools design, new materials, new techniques, new lubrication and cooling improvement

  18. Reservoir stimulation techniques to minimize skin factor of Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Jianchun

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm carbonatite gas reservoirs in the Leshan-Longnüsi Paleouplift in the Sichuan Basin feature strong heterogeneity, well-developed fractures and caverns, and a high content of H2S, so these reservoirs are prone to reservoir damages caused by the invasion of drilling fluid or the improper well completion, so to minimize the reservoir skin factor is key to achieving high yield of oil and gas in this study area. Therefore, based on the geological characteristics of the Longwangmiao reservoirs, the binomial productivity equation was applied to demonstrate the possibility and scientificity of minimizing the skin factor. According to the current status of reservoir stimulation, the overall skin factors of reservoir damage caused by drilling fluid invasion, improper drilling and completion modes etc were analyzed, which shows there is still potential for skin factor reduction. Analysis of reservoir damage factors indicates that the main skin factor of Longwangmiao Fm reservoirs consists of that caused by drilling fluid and by improper completion modes. Along with the minimization of skin factor caused by drilling and improper completion, a fracture-network acidizing process to achieve “non-radial & network-fracture” plug-removal by making good use of natural fractures was proposed according to the characteristics of Longwangmiao Fm carbonatite reservoirs.

  19. Improving reservoir history matching of EM heated heavy oil reservoirs via cross-well seismic tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced recovery methods have become significant in the industry\\'s drive to increase recovery rates from oil and gas reservoirs. For heavy oil reservoirs, the immobility of the oil at reservoir temperatures, caused by its high viscosity, limits the recovery rates and strains the economic viability of these fields. While thermal recovery methods, such as steam injection or THAI, have extensively been applied in the field, their success has so far been limited due to prohibitive heat losses and the difficulty in controlling the combustion process. Electromagnetic (EM) heating via high-frequency EM radiation has attracted attention due to its wide applicability in different environments, its efficiency, and the improved controllability of the heating process. While becoming a promising technology for heavy oil recovery, its effect on overall reservoir production and fluid displacements are poorly understood. Reservoir history matching has become a vital tool for the oil & gas industry to increase recovery rates. Limited research has been undertaken so far to capture the nonlinear reservoir dynamics and significantly varying flow rates for thermally heated heavy oil reservoir that may notably change production rates and render conventional history matching frameworks more challenging. We present a new history matching framework for EM heated heavy oil reservoirs incorporating cross-well seismic imaging. Interfacing an EM heating solver to a reservoir simulator via Andrade’s equation, we couple the system to an ensemble Kalman filter based history matching framework incorporating a cross-well seismic survey module. With increasing power levels and heating applied to the heavy oil reservoirs, reservoir dynamics change considerably and may lead to widely differing production forecasts and increased uncertainty. We have shown that the incorporation of seismic observations into the EnKF framework can significantly enhance reservoir simulations, decrease forecasting

  20. Ecological operation for Three Gorges reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-xian GUO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional operation rule of Three Gorges reservoir has mainly focused on water for flood control, power generation, navigation, water supply and recreation and given less attention to the negative impacts of reservoir operation on river ecosystem. In order to reduce the negative influence of reservoir operation, ecological operation of the reservoir should be studied to maintain healthy river ecosystem. The study considered the ecological operation targets, including maintaining river environmental flow and protecting the spawning and reproduction of Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps. Based on the flow data from 1900 to 2006 of Yichang gauge as the control station of the Yangtze River, the minimal and optimal river environmental flows were analyzed, and eco-hydrological targets of Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps in the Yangtze River were calculated. The paper proposed a reservoir ecological operation model of comprehensively considering flood control, power generation, navigation and ecological environment. Three typical periods including wet, normal and dry year were selected and particle swarm optimization was applied to analyze the model. The results show that there are different influences of ecological operation rules on economic benefit of hydropower station and reservoir ecological operation model can simulate the flood pulse for requirement of spawning of Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps. Finally, ecological operation measures of Three Gorges reservoir were proposed. According to the results, by adopting a suitable re-operation scheme, the hydropower benefit of the reservoir will not decrease dramatically while the ecological demand can be met. The results provide the reference for making the reasonable operation schemes for Three Gorges reservoir.

  1. Water temperature change caused by reservoirs; Alteracion que presenta la temperatura del agua por la existencia de embalses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Val, Rafael [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Ninerola, Daniel; Pomares, Juan; Dolz, Jose [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna (Spain); Armengol, Juan [Universidad de Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    The water of a river exchanges heat with the atmosphere and with the riverbed; this process can reach its equilibrium along a stretch of river with similar geologic and climatic characteristics. This behavior can be modified by artificial effects; for example the use of the river water as a cooler in thermal power stations or in reservoir existent. The case of regions with Mediterranean climate, where the reservoirs here studied are found, the effects of changes in the natural thermal regime caused by dams and reservoirs are evaluated through: seasonal and daily thermal constancies, warmer winter water temperatures and reduced summer water temperature. Downstream from the power station or downstream the dam, the water temperature will evolve in such a way as to achieve the environmental equilibrium. The water temperature is a main factor in the ecology of the river; already it conditions in importance the life in fluvial reservoirs. [Spanish] El agua de un rio mantiene un intercambio de calor con la atmosfera y con el fondo. Este proceso puede alcanzar su equilibrio siempre y cuando las caracteristicas geologicas y climaticas a lo largo de un tramo del rio sean similares. Sin embargo, el comportamiento termico del rio puede ser alterado por los diversos usos del agua, como la refrigeracion de centrales termoelectricas, o por el almacenamiento del agua debido a la existencia de una presa. En el caso de las regiones con clima mediterraneo, donde se encuentran los embalses aqui estudiados, los efectos de las alteraciones en el regimen termico, resultado a su vez de dichos embalses, provocan una tendencia a la constancia termica estacional (elevacion de las temperaturas invernales y disminucion de las temperaturas estivales) y tambien un aumento de la uniformidad diaria. Aguas abajo de las termoelectricas o presas, la temperatura del agua evoluciona de tal forma que tiende a lograr el equilibrio con el medio ambiente.

  2. TRANSFER RESERVOIR AS A RAINWATER DRAINAGE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Malmur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensive rainfalls and snow melting often cause floods in protected areas and overflow the existing sewage systems. Such cases are particularly burdensome for the inhabitants and cause considerable physical losses. One of the possible constructional solutions to ensure the effective outflow of stormwater are transfer reservoirs located between the draining system and a receiver set discussed in this paper. If gravity outflow of sewage is impossible, the initial part of sewage volume is accumulated in the transfer reservoir and then it is transferred into the water receiver set. However, gravity discharge of sewage to the water receiver set occurs through transfer chambers in the transfer reservoir.

  3. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fishbones, shells, human bones or food crusts on pottery from sites next to rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in rivers containing considerable amounts of dissolved 14C-free carbonates can be up to several thousand...... years and may be highly variable. For accurate radiocarbon dating of freshwater-based samples, the order of magnitude of the reservoir effect as well as the degree of variability has to be known. The initial problem in this case was the accurate dating of food crusts on pottery from the Mesolithic sites...

  4. Production-induced changes in reservoir geomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoyedo, Sunday O.

    Sand production remains a source of concern in both conventional and heavy oil production. Porosity increase and changes in local stress magnitude, which often enhance permeability, have been associated with severe sanding. On the other hand, sand production has been linked to a large number of field incidences involving loss of well integrity, casing collapse and corrosion of down-hole systems. It also poses problems for separators and transport facilities. Numerous factors such as reservoir consolidation, well deviation angle through the reservoir, perforation size, grain size, capillary forces associated with water cut, flow rate and most importantly reservoir strain resulting from pore pressure depletion contribute to reservoir sanding. Understanding field-specific sand production patterns in mature fields and poorly consolidated reservoirs is vital in identifying sand-prone wells and guiding remedial activities. Reservoir strain analysis of Forties Field, located in the UK sector of the North Sea, shows that the magnitude of the production-induced strain, part of which is propagated to the base of the reservoir, is of the order of 0.2 %, which is significant enough to impact the geomechanical properties of the reservoir. Sand production analysis in the field shows that in addition to poor reservoir consolidation, a combined effect of repeated perforation, high well deviation, reservoir strain and high fluid flow rate have contributed significantly to reservoir sanding. Knowledge of reservoir saturation variation is vital for in-fill well drilling, while information on reservoir stress variation provides a useful guide for sand production management, casing design, injector placement and production management. Interpreting time-lapse difference is enhanced by decomposing time-lapse difference into saturation, pressure effects and changes in rock properties (e.g. porosity) especially in highly compacting reservoirs. Analyzing the stress and saturation

  5. The generation of three-dimensional petroleum reservoirs scenarios; Geracao de cenarios tridimensionais de reservatorios petroliferos canalizados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Andre Luiz F. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)]. E-mail: andre.alfa@gmail.com; Silva, Rosana M. da [Universidade Federal de Campo Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Matematica e Estatistica]. E-mail: rosana@dme.ufcg.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a prototype of a modeler aimed to obtain 3-dimensional geologic scenarios which simulate canalized petroleum reservoirs from information about the geometry of the geologic units that compound them and the wells' profiles, using as a base the 'Namorado' Field (Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro). The connected volumes that form a reservoir have proper shapes, which can be hardly modeled by known surfaces with parametric description (or implicit). The geologic units implemented by the prototype are formed by turbidity canals, which are represented by poliedric surfaces through triangulated webs. The 3-dimensional models that represent the reservoir geometry were obtained using the method of superposition of geologic units, according to the natural depositional sequence, through intersection operations between the geologic units modeled as poliedric surfaces. Limit boxes are used to optimize the calculus of intersections in the triangulated webs, using the algorithm proposed by Lo and Wang (2004). The validation of the 3-dimensional model, that models the reservoir, is done through the calculus of interiority, obtained from the implicit equations that describe the transversal sections of the canal's surface, whose domains include the identified intervals as reservoir in the data of previously informed wells. (author)

  6. Monitoring water quality in reservoirs for human supply through multi-biomarker evaluation in tropical fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade Brito, Izabella; Arruda Freire, Carolina; Yamamoto, Flávia Yoshie; Silva de Assis, Helena Cristina; Rodrigues Souza-Bastos, Luciana; Cestari, Marta Margarete; de Castilhos Ghisi, Nédia; Prodocimo, Viviane; Filipak Neto, Francisco; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto

    2012-02-01

    Paraíba do Sul River is located at a very densely inhabited region of Brazil crossing the three most industrialized states of the country (São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states). As a result, industrial and farming residues as well as urban sewage are frequently disposed without appropriate treatment. The current study aimed at investigating the water quality in three reservoirs along the Paraíba do Sul River (Ilha dos Pombos, Santa Cecília and Santa Branca), through physiological, morphological, biochemical, and genetic biomarkers. The bioindicator chosen was the catfish Pimelodus maculatus, sampled during the dry (June 2008) and rainy (February 2009) seasons. Also, some water physicochemical parameters were analyzed from the sampling sites, but displayed no alterations according to the Brazilian Agency for Water Quality Legislation. Branchial carbonic anhydrase activity was inhibited in the dry season, while renal carbonic anhydrase activity was inhibited in the rainy season in the Santa Branca reservoir, indicating disturbance of osmoregulatory and acid-base regulation processes. Histopathological alterations were observed in the gills (neoplasic and tissue hyperplasia processes) and liver (necrosis), indicating serious damage to the functional integrity of these organs. A high incidence of melanomacrophage centers was observed in the liver, suggesting an intense immune response in all reservoirs. Acetylcholinesterase and catalase activity showed also differences corroborating some morphological results. Likewise, the induction of the micronucleus and DNA damage indicate genotoxicity, but mainly in the Santa Branca reservoir. Thus, the health status of P. maculatus warrants caution in the use of the water from the 3 reservoirs for direct human consumption, particularly after the accidental spill of endosulfan in November 2008, three months before the rainy season sampling.

  7. The mutual relations of structures in the growing bill of chick (Gallus domesticus L.) and duck (Anas platyrhynchos L.) Embryos. IV. The size, shape, and position of the upper and lower bills in unilaterally microphthalmic duck embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouterlood, F G

    1977-10-01

    Unilaterally microphthalmic duck (DUM) embryos studied in stage 39 were obtained by damaging the right eye in stage 17. The development between stages 19 and 39 was observed in samples. After prolonged incubation, one duck hatched and reached adulthood. In DUM embryos partial crossbeak develops. Both the upper and lower bills deviate lateralwards, the upper bill more than the lower. In stage 39 a small orbit is present on the treated side. In stained and cleared heads most of the elements of the skull (the bones surrounding the orbit, the brain-case, and the upper and lower bill elements) are translated in the direction of the rudimentary orbit on the treated side. The bills are twisted around each other at the tip. Measurements of external dimensions as well as those made in stained and cleared stage-39 DUM heads show elongation of the left part of the lower bill. Except for the crossed bills, the changes found in the embryos persisted in the adult. The findings support a hypothesis concerning the mutual influence of bills during morphogenesis. The coherence of the functional cranial components in the embryo is discussed.

  8. Evaluation of an Empirical Reservoir Shape Function to Define Sediment Distributions in Small Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Bogusław Michalec

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and defining the spatial distribution of sediment deposited in reservoirs is essential not only at the design stage but also during the operation. The majority of research concerns the distribution of sediment deposition in medium and large water reservoirs. Most empirical methods do not provide satisfactory results when applied to the determination of sediment deposition in small reservoirs. Small reservoir’s volumes do not exceed 5 × 106 m3 and their capacity-inflow ratio is l...

  9. Reservoir Greenhouse Gas Emissions at Russian HPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, M. P.; Elistratov, V. V.; Maslikov, V. I.; Sidorenko, G. I.; Chusov, A. N.; Atrashenok, V. P.; Molodtsov, D. V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Savvichev, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, S. N. Vinogradskii Institute of Microbiology (Russian Federation); Zinchenko, A. V. [A. I. Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    Studies of greenhouse-gas emissions from the surfaces of the world’s reservoirs, which has demonstrated ambiguity of assessments of the effect of reservoirs on greenhouse-gas emissions to the atmosphere, is analyzed. It is recommended that greenhouse- gas emissions from various reservoirs be assessed by the procedure “GHG Measurement Guidelines for Fresh Water Reservoirs” (2010) for the purpose of creating a data base with results of standardized measurements. Aprogram for research into greenhouse-gas emissions is being developed at the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University in conformity with the IHA procedure at the reservoirs impounded by the Sayano-Shushenskaya and Mainskaya HPP operated by the RusHydro Co.

  10. NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12) GIS layer was derived from the 12-Digit National Watershed Boundary Database (WBD) at 1:24,000 for EPA Region 2 and...

  11. Overdamped stochastic thermodynamics with multiple reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashita, Yûto; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2016-12-01

    After establishing stochastic thermodynamics for underdamped Langevin systems in contact with multiple reservoirs, we derive its overdamped limit using timescale separation techniques. The overdamped theory is different from the naive theory that one obtains when starting from overdamped Langevin or Fokker-Planck dynamics and only coincides with it in the presence of a single reservoir. The reason is that the coarse-grained fast momentum dynamics reaches a nonequilibrium state, which conducts heat in the presence of multiple reservoirs. The underdamped and overdamped theory are both shown to satisfy fundamental fluctuation theorems. Their predictions for the heat statistics are derived analytically for a Brownian particle on a ring in contact with two reservoirs and subjected to a nonconservative force and are shown to coincide in the long-time limit.

  12. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    The freshwater reservoir effect can result in too high radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers, including the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. In my talk, I will explain the causes and consequences of this effect. Two...... case studies will show the degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 years can occur within one river. In the Limfjord, freshwater influence...... caused reservoir ages to vary between 250 and 700 years during the period 5400 BC - AD 700. Finally, I will discuss the implications of the freshwater reservoir effect for radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from inland sites of the Ertebølle culture in Northern Germany....

  13. Sumário/Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Machado

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Nem sempre os temas candentes da investigação, numa determinada área do conhecimento, são colocados de maneira orgânica e organizada para o conjunto dos pesquisadores que sobre eles se debruçam. Quase nunca as edições cientí­cas, que se propõem a torná-los acessí­veis a seus leitores, conseguem harmonizá-los sem correr os riscos de aproximações indevidas. A única forma de não incorrer em equí­vocos perigosos é assumir a idiossincrasia do temário diversificado que constitui o campo em questão. O leitor que ora inicia seu diálogo com este sétimo número de Galáxia não deve tomar esse preâmbulo por alerta, mas sim como tentativa de a revista manter a coerência face a seu compromisso de ser porta-voz dos temas e problemas da comunicação e da cultura pelo prisma das teorias semióticas que orientam o olhar dos vários colaboradores que encontram neste espaço uma tribuna aberta ao trânsito das diferenças. Basta um relance pelo sumário desta edição para que tal armação possa ser confirmada. Os textos que constituem o Fórum, respeitadas as singularidades, tratam de temas que são caros para as abordagens da comunicação e da semiótica na cultura. Temos o privilégio de publicar o texto inédito em português de Jakob von Uexküll em que o autor apresenta sua teoria da Umwelt, caracterizando formulações da biossemiótica sobre o signi.cado do entorno ou do espaço circundante, que são valiosas para compreender a percepção, a interação, o contexto, a informação, os códigos em ambientes de semiose. De um outro lugar - aquele modulado pela lógica da linguagem - Lucrécia Ferrara perscruta o campo conceitual que entende o design não pelo viés da operatividade, mas como processo semiótico-cognitivo. A outra ponta deste que pode ser um triálogo nos é dado pela comunicologia de Vilém Flusser. Para Michael Hanke, Flusser foi um dos grandes teóricos a investigar a importância da mí­dia para os

  14. Geophysical monitoring in a hydrocarbon reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of hydrocarbons from reservoirs demands ever-increasing technological effort, and there is need for geophysical monitoring to better understand phenomena occurring within the reservoir. Significant deformation processes happen when man-made stimulation is performed, in combination with effects deriving from the existing natural conditions such as stress regime in situ or pre-existing fracturing. Keeping track of such changes in the reservoir is important, on one hand for improving recovery of hydrocarbons, and on the other hand to assure a safe and proper mode of operation. Monitoring becomes particularly important when hydraulic-fracturing (HF) is used, especially in the form of the much-discussed "fracking". HF is a sophisticated technique that is widely applied in low-porosity geological formations to enhance the production of natural hydrocarbons. In principle, similar HF techniques have been applied in Europe for a long time in conventional reservoirs, and they will probably be intensified in the near future; this suggests an increasing demand in technological development, also for updating and adapting the existing monitoring techniques in applied geophysics. We review currently available geophysical techniques for reservoir monitoring, which appear in the different fields of analysis in reservoirs. First, the properties of the hydrocarbon reservoir are identified; here we consider geophysical monitoring exclusively. The second step is to define the quantities that can be monitored, associated to the properties. We then describe the geophysical monitoring techniques including the oldest ones, namely those in practical usage from 40-50 years ago, and the most recent developments in technology, within distinct groups, according to the application field of analysis in reservoir. This work is performed as part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu); this project, funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, aims at helping minimize the

  15. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This project has used a multi-disciplinary approach employing geology, geophysics, and engineering to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and management activities to design and implement an optimized infill drilling program at the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit in Gaines County, Texas. The activities during the first Budget Period consisted of developing an integrated reservoir description from geological, engineering, and geostatistical studies, and using this description for reservoir flow simulation. Specific reservoir management activities were identified and tested. The geologically targeted infill drilling program currently being implemented is a result of this work. A significant contribution of this project is to demonstrate the use of cost-effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability shallow-shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs. The techniques that are outlined for the formulation of an integrated reservoir description apply to all oil and gas reservoirs, but are specifically tailored for use in the heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs of West Texas.

  16. Decomposição e dinâmica de liberação de nitrogênio e fósforo de frações vegetais de Salvinia auriculata Aubl. em um reservatório da Amazônia legal - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.5630 Decomposition and release dynamics of nitrogen and phosphorous from vegetal fractions of Salvinia auriculata Aubl. in a Legal Amazon reservoir - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.5630

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Bianchessi de Cunha-Santino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar os coeficientes de decomposição da parte submersa (PS e aérea (PA de Salvinia auriculata em duas profundidades da coluna de água (superfície e sedimento. Também visou avaliar o rendimento do processo de perda de massa assim como a evolução temporal dos teores de fósforo e nitrogênio. As macrófitas foram separadas em partes; em seguida, foram secas até peso constante. Os materiais vegetais foram depositados em sacos de decomposição e incubados no reservatório da UHE Lajeado, Tocantins. As análises dos resultados de perda de massa revelaram que não houve diferenças significativas entre os PA-sed e PA-sup (p > 0,05, entretanto, os PA-sed foram significativamente diferentes dos PS-sed (p -1 e as incubadas na superfície (PA-sup um k = 0,0067 dia-1, os PS-sed apresentaram um k = 0,0027 dia-1 e os PS-sup um k = 0,0040 dia-1. Durante os primeiros dias de decomposição foram liberadas grandes concentrações de fósforo e nitrogênio pelo processo de lixiviação; a partir do 14° dia foi observada uma tendência de aumento nas concentrações de nitrogênio, fato provavelmente relacionado com o enriquecimento dos detritos pela biomassa microbiana.This study aimed to determine the decomposition coefficients of the submerged (SP and aerial part (AP of S. auriculata at two different depths within water column (surface and sediment. It also quantified the decomposition yield of S. auriculata and the temporal changes of nitrogen and phosphorous content of the remaining biomass. The macrophytes were fractionated in parts and were dried in sequence until attaining constant weight. The litterbags with plant material were incubated in the reservoir of UHE Lajeado. The results of mass loss showed that there were no significant differences among the AP-sed and AP-sur (p > 0.05. However, the AP-sed was significantly different from SP-sed (p -1 and AP-sur a k of 0.0067 day-1. The SP-sed presented a k of 0

  17. Massachusetts reservoir simulation tool—User’s manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.

    2016-10-06

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey developed the Massachusetts Reservoir Simulation Tool to examine the effects of reservoirs on natural streamflows in Massachusetts by simulating the daily water balance of reservoirs. The simulation tool was developed to assist environmental managers to better manage water withdrawals in reservoirs and to preserve downstream aquatic habitats.

  18. Parallel reservoir computing using optical amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoorne, Kristof; Dambre, Joni; Verstraeten, David; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Bienstman, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Reservoir computing (RC), a computational paradigm inspired on neural systems, has become increasingly popular in recent years for solving a variety of complex recognition and classification problems. Thus far, most implementations have been software-based, limiting their speed and power efficiency. Integrated photonics offers the potential for a fast, power efficient and massively parallel hardware implementation. We have previously proposed a network of coupled semiconductor optical amplifiers as an interesting test case for such a hardware implementation. In this paper, we investigate the important design parameters and the consequences of process variations through simulations. We use an isolated word recognition task with babble noise to evaluate the performance of the photonic reservoirs with respect to traditional software reservoir implementations, which are based on leaky hyperbolic tangent functions. Our results show that the use of coherent light in a well-tuned reservoir architecture offers significant performance benefits. The most important design parameters are the delay and the phase shift in the system's physical connections. With optimized values for these parameters, coherent semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) reservoirs can achieve better results than traditional simulated reservoirs. We also show that process variations hardly degrade the performance, but amplifier noise can be detrimental. This effect must therefore be taken into account when designing SOA-based RC implementations.

  19. Reservoir Thermal Recover Simulation on Parallel Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoyan; Ma, Yuanle

    The rapid development of parallel computers has provided a hardware background for massive refine reservoir simulation. However, the lack of parallel reservoir simulation software has blocked the application of parallel computers on reservoir simulation. Although a variety of parallel methods have been studied and applied to black oil, compositional, and chemical model numerical simulations, there has been limited parallel software available for reservoir simulation. Especially, the parallelization study of reservoir thermal recovery simulation has not been fully carried out, because of the complexity of its models and algorithms. The authors make use of the message passing interface (MPI) standard communication library, the domain decomposition method, the block Jacobi iteration algorithm, and the dynamic memory allocation technique to parallelize their serial thermal recovery simulation software NUMSIP, which is being used in petroleum industry in China. The parallel software PNUMSIP was tested on both IBM SP2 and Dawn 1000A distributed-memory parallel computers. The experiment results show that the parallelization of I/O has great effects on the efficiency of parallel software PNUMSIP; the data communication bandwidth is also an important factor, which has an influence on software efficiency. Keywords: domain decomposition method, block Jacobi iteration algorithm, reservoir thermal recovery simulation, distributed-memory parallel computer

  20. Reservoir assessment of The Geysers Geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.P.; Chapman, R.H.; Dykstra, H.

    1981-01-01

    Big Sulphur Creek fault zone, in The Geysers Geothermal field, may be part of a deep-seated, wrench-style fault system. Hydrothermal fluid in the field reservoir may rise through conduits beneath the five main anomalies associated with the Big Sulphur Creek wrench trend. Some geophysical anomalies (electrical resistivity and audio-magnetotelluric) evidently are caused by the hot water geothermal field or zones of altered rocks; others (gravity, P-wave delays, and possibly electrical resistivity) probably respresent the underlying heat source, a possible magma chamber; and others (microearthquake activity) may be related to the steam reservoir. A large negative gravity anomaly and a few low-resistivity anomalies suggest areas generally favorable for the presence of steam zones, but these anomalies apparently do not directly indicate the known steam reservoir. At the current generating capacity of 930 MWe, the estimated life of The Geysers Geothermal field reservoir is 129 years. The estimated reservoir life is 60 years for the anticipated maximum generating capacity of 2000 MWe as of 1990. Wells at The Geysers are drilled with conventional drilling fluid (mud) until the top of the steam reservoir is reached; then, they are drilled with air. Usually, mud, temperature, caliper, dual induction, and cement bond logs are run on the wells.

  1. Healthcare guide: Olympic Games Rio 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This guide provides information on the medical services programme for the Rio 2016 Summer Olympic Games. It contains the map of the organisation, the IOC medical policies and procedures, and many more.

  2. Rio Grande Channel, Guadalupe Area, 1852

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Historical map of Rio Grande river between Texas and Mexico. U.S.- Mexican Boundary Survey. The original map is a xerox of a map entitled Boundary between the United...

  3. EKA urbanistika osakond / Lilia del Rio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rio, Lilia del

    2006-01-01

    Lilia del Rio magistritöö "Beyond the player's manual / Mänguõpetus edasijõudnutele. Experiencing the world (and the city) as a playground / Kogedes maailma (ja linna) mänguväljakuna". Juhendaja Andres Kurg

  4. Rio Grande Channel, El Paso Area, 1852

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Historical map of Rio Grande river between Texas and Mexico. U.S.-Mexican Boundary Survey.The original map is a Xerox of a Photolithographic Copy of Salazar...

  5. Chicana/o Students Respond to Arizona's Anti-Ethnic Studies Bill, SB 1108: Civic Engagement, Ethnic Identity, and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Anna Ochoa; Romero, Andrea J.

    2011-01-01

    Arizona Senate Bill 1108, the "anti-ethnic studies bill," proposed to eliminate ethnic studies programs and ethnic-based organizations from state-funded education. Along with other anti-immigrant legislation, this bill is creating an oppressive climate of discrimination against individuals of Mexican descent in Arizona. This study investigates the…

  6. 75 FR 28249 - Comment Sought on Measures Designed To Assist U.S. Wireless Consumers To Avoid “Bill Shock”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... COMMISSION Comment Sought on Measures Designed To Assist U.S. Wireless Consumers To Avoid ``Bill Shock... these provisions, commonly referred to as the ``bill shock'' provisions, are designed to ensure that a... implemented procedures to combat the problem of ``bill shock'' prior to the adoption of the June...

  7. Potential methane reservoirs beneath Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadham, J L; Arndt, S; Tulaczyk, S; Stibal, M; Tranter, M; Telling, J; Lis, G P; Lawson, E; Ridgwell, A; Dubnick, A; Sharp, M J; Anesio, A M; Butler, C E H

    2012-08-30

    Once thought to be devoid of life, the ice-covered parts of Antarctica are now known to be a reservoir of metabolically active microbial cells and organic carbon. The potential for methanogenic archaea to support the degradation of organic carbon to methane beneath the ice, however, has not yet been evaluated. Large sedimentary basins containing marine sequences up to 14 kilometres thick and an estimated 21,000 petagrams (1 Pg equals 10(15) g) of organic carbon are buried beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet. No data exist for rates of methanogenesis in sub-Antarctic marine sediments. Here we present experimental data from other subglacial environments that demonstrate the potential for overridden organic matter beneath glacial systems to produce methane. We also numerically simulate the accumulation of methane in Antarctic sedimentary basins using an established one-dimensional hydrate model and show that pressure/temperature conditions favour methane hydrate formation down to sediment depths of about 300 metres in West Antarctica and 700 metres in East Antarctica. Our results demonstrate the potential for methane hydrate accumulation in Antarctic sedimentary basins, where the total inventory depends on rates of organic carbon degradation and conditions at the ice-sheet bed. We calculate that the sub-Antarctic hydrate inventory could be of the same order of magnitude as that of recent estimates made for Arctic permafrost. Our findings suggest that the Antarctic Ice Sheet may be a neglected but important component of the global methane budget, with the potential to act as a positive feedback on climate warming during ice-sheet wastage.

  8. User Acceptance Model on E-Billing Adoption: A Study of Tax Payment by Government Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulana Yusup

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of information technology is to create the paradigm shift in public services by government agencies, particularly in the payment of taxes. The purpose of this study is to determine the user's perception of e-billing in paying taxes. The study population were employees of the 17 companies in the textile and garment industry in Bandung, West Java and the sample was taken by simple random sampling with as many as 269 people involved from 17 industries in textile and garment units. Analysis of data was using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM. The results showed that there was a significant effect of perceived ease of use, subjective norm, perceived usefulness, facilitating condition of the attitude, toward the attitude and the intention to use. Thus, it is evidence that e-billing based services may be one way to improve service of government agencies to facilitate the payment of taxes.

  9. RANCANG BANGUN PERANGKAT LUNAK BILLING DAN IMPLEMENTASI VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly evolving communication system enables applications for telephone communication to be carried over the data network known as VoIP (voice over internet protocol. SIP (session initiation protocol as the signaling protocol is text-based VoIP which can be implemented easily in comparison with other signaling protocols. The purpose of this paper is designing and implementing VoIP billing up to the company to provide additional facilities for enterprise customers. The methods start with data collection, analysis, design, development, and implementation. The result achieved is a system of VoIP with SIP and Asterisk software which has functions of PBX to provide additional facilities such as VoIP which is a plus for the company and customers. After implemented, the VoIP system and billing features are found work well.

  10. An Exploration of Behavioral Health Productivity and Billing Practices Within Pediatric Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederna-Meko, Crystal L; Ellens, Rebecca E H; Burrell, Katherine M; Perry, Danika S; Rafiq, Fatima

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVES : To provide descriptive information on behavioral health (BH) productivity and billing practices within a pediatric primary care setting. METHODS : This retrospective investigation reviewed 30 months of electronic medical records and financial data. RESULTS : The percent of BH provider time spent in direct patient care (productivity) was 35.28% overall, with a slightly higher quarterly average (M  =  36.42%; SD  =  6.46%). In the 646.75 hr BH providers spent in the primary care setting, $52,050.00 was charged for BH services delivered ($80.48 hourly average). CONCLUSIONS : BH productivity and billing within pediatric primary care were suboptimal and likely multifactorially derived. To promote integrated primary care sustainability, the authors recommend three future aims: improve BH productivity, demonstrate the value-added contributions of BH services within primary care, and advocate for BH-supporting health care reform.

  11. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Fireside Chat with Steven Chu and Bill Gates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Steven (U.S. Department of Energy Secretary); Gates, Bill (Microsoft, Chairman); Podesta, John (Center for American Progress, Chair and Counselor)

    2012-02-28

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. This video captures a session called 'Fireside Chat' that featured Steven Chu, the Secretary of Energy, and Bill Gates, Chairman of Microsoft Corporation. The session is moderated by John Podesta, Chair of the Center for American Progress. Energy Secretary Steven Chu and Microsoft Founder and Chairman Bill Gates exchanged ideas about how small businesses and innovators can overcome the challenges that face many startups.

  12. War and Marriage: Assortative Mating and the World War II GI Bill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew F; McCarthy, T J; Moulton, Jeremy G; Page, Marianne E; Patel, Ankur J

    2015-10-01

    World War II and its subsequent GI Bill have been widely credited with playing a transformative role in American society, but there have been few quantitative analyses of these historical events' broad social effects. We exploit between-cohort variation in the probability of military service to investigate how WWII and the GI Bill altered the structure of marriage, and find that it had important spillover effects beyond its direct effect on men's educational attainment. Our results suggest that the additional education received by returning veterans caused them to "sort" into wives with significantly higher levels of education. This suggests an important mechanism by which socioeconomic status may be passed on to the next generation.

  13. Bill2d -- a software package for classical two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems

    CERN Document Server

    Solanpää, Janne; Räsänen, Esa

    2016-01-01

    We present Bill2d, a modern and efficient C++ package for classical simulations of two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. Bill2d can be used for various billiard and diffusion problems with one or more charged particles with interactions, different external potentials, an external magnetic field, periodic and open boundaries, etc. The software package can also calculate many key quantities in complex systems such as Poincar\\'e sections, survival probabilities, and diffusion coefficients. While aiming at a large class of applicable systems, the code also strives for ease-of-use, efficiency, and modularity for the implementation of additional features. The package comes along with a user guide, a developer's manual, and a documentation of the application program interface (API).

  14. BILL2D - A software package for classical two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanpää, J.; Luukko, P. J. J.; Räsänen, E.

    2016-02-01

    We present BILL2D, a modern and efficient C++ package for classical simulations of two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. BILL2D can be used for various billiard and diffusion problems with one or more charged particles with interactions, different external potentials, an external magnetic field, periodic and open boundaries, etc. The software package can also calculate many key quantities in complex systems such as Poincaré sections, survival probabilities, and diffusion coefficients. While aiming at a large class of applicable systems, the code also strives for ease-of-use, efficiency, and modularity for the implementation of additional features. The package comes along with a user guide, a developer's manual, and a documentation of the application program interface (API).

  15. Model for Bidding and Tendering with Bill of Quantities Based on Bid-Winning Estimate at Reasonable Low Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Jirong; Zhong Sheng; Guo Yaohuang

    2006-01-01

    The possibility and rationality of introducing an bid-winning estimate based on a reasonable low price into construction bidding mode with bill of quantities were analyzed by setting up a model for bidding and tendering, and the functions of the estimate of reasonable low price in the bidding were revealed. On this basis, a new bidding mode of the project with bill of quantities was proposed. The application of the new mode will be advantageous to the promotion of the bill of quantities in China.

  16. Kickbacks, stark violations, client billing, and joint ventures: facts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannava, Kathleen A; Bercovitch, Lionel; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2013-01-01

    Many current business trends in the field of dermatopathology deserve ethical scrutiny. An important point to consider in these analyses is that which is legal is not necessarily ethical. We examine the topics of client billing, contractual joint ventures, and health information technology donations, including both the legal implications as pertaining to the Stark Law and Anti-Kickback Statute, and the ethical ramifications of these practices.

  17. Knowledge and Attitude of Saudi Health Professions’ Students Regarding Patient’s Bill of Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa B. El-Sobkey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Patient’s rights are worldwide considerations. Saudi Patient’s Bill of Rights (PBR which was established in 2006 contained 12 items. Lack of knowledge regarding the Saudi PBR limits its implementation in health facilities. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge of health professions’ students at College of Applied Medical Sciences (CAMS Riyadh Saudi Arabia regarding the existence and content of Saudi PBR as well as their attitude toward its ineffectiveness. Method A 3-parts survey was used to collect data from 239 volunteer students participated in the study. Data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics using SPSS. Results Results showed that although the majority of students (96.7% believe in the ineffectiveness of patient’s rights, half (52.3% of them had perceptual knowledge regarding the existence of Saudi PBR and only 7.9% of them were knowledgeable about some items (1–4 items of the bill. Privacy and confidentiality of patient was the most common known patient’s rights. Students’ academic level was not correlated to neither their knowledge regarding the bill existence or its content nor to their attitude toward the bill. The majority of the students (93% reported that only one course within their curriculum was patient’s rights-course related. About one quarter (23.4% of the students reported that teaching staff used to mention patient’s rights in their teaching sessions. Conclusion The Saudi health professions students at CAMS have positive attitude toward the ineffectiveness of patient’s rights nevertheless they showed limited knowledge regarding the existence of Saudi PBR and its contents. CAMS curriculums do not support the subject of patient’s rights.

  18. Finite State Machine based Vending Machine Controller with Auto-Billing Features

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, Vending Machines are well known among Japan, Malaysia and Singapore. The quantity of machines in these countries is on the top worldwide. This is due to the modern lifestyles which require fast food processing with high quality. This paper describes the designing of multi select machine using Finite State Machine Model with Auto-Billing Features. Finite State Machine (FSM) modelling is the most crucial part in developing proposed model as this reduces the hardware. In this paper th...

  19. Surveillance Camera Players / Bill Brown ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brown, Bill

    2006-01-01

    New Yorgis tegutsevast rühmitusest SCP (Turvakaamera Esinejad), mille rajas Bill Brown (sünd. 1959), temaga 2001. a. jaanuaris tehtud meiliintervjuu. SCP etendab näidendeid turvakaamerate ees, Internetis jagab informatsiooni oma tegevuse kohta. Tekstis: "...kuna SCP keskendub turvakaameratele, kasutades nende loogikat selle tehnoloogia enda vastu, siis võib öelda, et nad töötavad kommunikatsioonivõrkudega"

  20. AudioQuest总裁兼设计师Bill Low访华

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 美国AQ集团总裁,著名发烧线材品牌Audio-Quest创始人兼设计师Bill Low日前访华.Bill此行的主要目的是参加11月27日在杭州举办的AQ中国经销商交流活动,国内主要影音媒体趁此机会对Bill进行了座谈.

  1. Mapping landscape phenology preference of yellow-billed cuckoo with AVHRR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Villarreal, Miguel; Van Riper, Charles

    2013-01-01

    We mapped habitat for threatened Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccycus americanus occidentalis) in the State of Arizona using the temporal greenness dynamics of the landscape, or the landscape phenology. Landscape phenometrics were derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data for 1998 and 1999 by using Fourier harmonic analysis to analyze the waveform of the annual NDVI profile at each pixel. We modeled the spatial distribution of Yellow-billed Cuckoo habitat by coupling the field data of Cuckoo presence or absence and point-based samples of riparian and cottonwood-willow vegetation types with satellite phenometrics for 1998. Models were validated using field and satellite data collected in 1999. The results indicate that Yellow-billed Cuckoo occupy locations within their preferred habitat that exhibit peak greenness after the start of the summer monsoon and are greener and more dynamic than “average” habitat. Identification of preferred phenotypes within recognized habitat areas can be used to refine habitat models, inform predictions of habitat response to climate change, and suggest adaptation strategies.

  2. Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems: Sensitivities to Changes in Future Electricity Market Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-01-09

    Customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States are often compensated at the customer’s underlying retail electricity rate through net metering. Calculations of the customer economics of PV, meanwhile, often assume that retail rate structures and PV compensation mechanisms will not change and that retail electricity prices will increase (or remain constant) over time, thereby also increasing (or keeping constant) the value of bill savings from PV. Given the multitude of potential changes to retail rates and PV compensation mechanisms in the future, however, understanding how such changes might impact the value of bill savings from PV is critical for policymakers, regulators, utilities, the solar industry, and potential PV owners, i.e., any stakeholder interested in understanding uncertainties in and potential changes to the long-term customer economics of PV. This scoping study investigates the impact of, and interactions among, three key sources of uncertainty in the future value of bill savings from customer-sited PV, focusing in particular on residential customers. These three sources of uncertainty are: changes to electricity market conditions that would affect retail electricity prices, changes to the types of retail rate structures available to residential customers with PV, and shifts away from standard net-metering toward other compensation mechanisms for residential PV.

  3. Current Status of Western Yellow-Billed Cuckoo along the Sacramento and Feather Rivers, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettling, Mark D; Seavy, Nathaniel E; Howell, Christine A; Gardali, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the current status of the western population of the Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) along the Sacramento and Feather rivers in California's Sacramento Valley, we conducted extensive call playback surveys in 2012 and 2013. We also quantified the amount and distribution of potential habitat. Our survey transects were randomly located and spatially balanced to sample representative areas of the potential habitat. We estimated that the total area of potential habitat was 8,134 ha along the Sacramento River and 2,052 ha along the Feather River, for a total of 10,186 ha. Large-scale restoration efforts have created potential habitat along both of these rivers. Despite this increase in the amount of habitat, the number of cuckoos we detected was extremely low. There were 8 detection occasions in 2012 and 10 occasions in 2013 on the Sacramento River, in both restored and remnant habitat. We had no detections on the Feather River in either year. We compared our results to 10 historic studies from as far back as 1972 and found that the Yellow-billed Cuckoo had unprecedentedly low numbers in 2010, 2012, and 2013. The current limiting factor for the Yellow-billed Cuckoo in the Sacramento Valley is likely not the amount of appropriate vegetation, as restoration has created more habitat over the last 30 years. Reasons for the cuckoo decline on the Sacramento and Feather rivers are unclear.

  4. The Role of Non-Governmental Organization (NGO in Advocating the National Security Bill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusa Djuyandi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The role run by a coalition of NGOs in advocating the National Security Bill aimed at encouraging the birth of national security policy to appropriate to the purpose of reform. However, until now the role of NGOs in advocating National Security Bill has not been able to encourage the authorities to reconstruct the draft of national security policy that is consistent with the objectives of security sector reform. This study is conducted to analyze the role of NGOs in the security sector reform in Indonesia, particularly through the advocacy of the National Security Bill. The method used in this study is a qualitative method. The result shows that NGOs, which are members of the KMSRK, have been running the multiple roles, such as: popularly involved in policy making, providing political education to the community, promoting or encouraging reform, and promoting the interests of the community. The study also suggests the existence of new findings of the role of NGOs, which is forming a coherent unity of interests.

  5. The rights of persons with disability bill, 2014: Implications for neurological disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Bada Math

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available India ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD in 2007. This is a welcome step toward realizing the rights of the persons with disability. The UNCRPD proclaims that disability results from interaction of impairments with attitudinal and environmental barriers, which hinders full and active participation in society on an equal basis with others. Further, the convention also mandates the signatory governments to make suitable changes in the existing laws of the country, to identify and eliminate obstacles and barriers, and to comply with the terms of the UNCRPD in order to protect the rights of the person with disabilities, hence the amendments of the national laws. Hence, the Government of India drafted the Right of Persons with Disabilities Bill (RPWD Bill, 2014. It is evident that neurological disorders are emerging as priority health problems worldwide. They not only contribute to mortality but also contribute to huge morbidity. Further, shortage of neurologists, huge treatment gap, and stigma add to the burden. The situation becomes worse with regard to providing quality care, comprehensive rehabilitation, and social welfare measures to persons with neurological disability. There is no doubt that persons with neurological disability do not get adequate representation, stigmatized and discriminated across the civil societies, which hinders full and active participation in society. Hence, this article is a critique of the RPWD Bill, 2014 from the perspective of persons with neurological and neurosurgical disability. Further, this article also discusses challenges in quantifying and certifying disability in neurological disability.

  6. The rights of persons with disability bill, 2014: Implications for neurological disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Math, Suresh Bada; Gupta, Anupam; Yadav, Ravi; Shukla, Dhaval

    2016-10-01

    India ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) in 2007. This is a welcome step toward realizing the rights of the persons with disability. The UNCRPD proclaims that disability results from interaction of impairments with attitudinal and environmental barriers, which hinders full and active participation in society on an equal basis with others. Further, the convention also mandates the signatory governments to make suitable changes in the existing laws of the country, to identify and eliminate obstacles and barriers, and to comply with the terms of the UNCRPD in order to protect the rights of the person with disabilities, hence the amendments of the national laws. Hence, the Government of India drafted the Right of Persons with Disabilities Bill (RPWD Bill), 2014. It is evident that neurological disorders are emerging as priority health problems worldwide. They not only contribute to mortality but also contribute to huge morbidity. Further, shortage of neurologists, huge treatment gap, and stigma add to the burden. The situation becomes worse with regard to providing quality care, comprehensive rehabilitation, and social welfare measures to persons with neurological disability. There is no doubt that persons with neurological disability do not get adequate representation, stigmatized and discriminated across the civil societies, which hinders full and active participation in society. Hence, this article is a critique of the RPWD Bill, 2014 from the perspective of persons with neurological and neurosurgical disability. Further, this article also discusses challenges in quantifying and certifying disability in neurological disability.

  7. Water quality control in Third River Reservoir (Argentina using geographical information systems and linear regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ledesma

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Water quality is traditionally monitored and evaluated based upon field data collected at limited locations. The storage capacity of reservoirs is reduced by deposits of suspended matter. The major factors affecting surface water quality are suspended sediments, chlorophyll and nutrients. Modeling and monitoring the biogeochemical status of reservoirs can be done through data from remote sensors. Since the improvement of sensors’ spatial and spectral resolutions, satellites have been used to monitor the interior areas of bodies of water. Water quality parameters, such as chlorophyll-a concentration and secchi disk depth, were found to have a high correlation with transformed spectral variables derived from bands 1, 2, 3 and 4 of LANDSAT 5TM satellite. We created models of estimated responses in regard to values of chlorophyll-a. To do so, we used population models of single and multiple linear regression, whose parameters are associated with the reflectance data of bands 2 and 4 of the sub-image of the satellite, as well as the data of chlorophyll-a obtained in 25 selected stations. According to the physico-chemical analyzes performed, the characteristics of the water in the reservoir of Rio Tercero, correspond to somewhat hard freshwater with calcium bicarbonate. The water was classified as usable as a source of plant treatment, excellent for irrigation because of its low salinity and low residual sodium carbonate content, but unsuitable for animal consumption because of its low salt content.

  8. MITIGATION OF SEDIMENTATION HAZARDS DOWNSTREAM FROM RESERVOIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ellen WOHL; Sara RATHBURN

    2003-01-01

    Many reservoirs currently in operation trap most or all of the sediment entering the reservoir,creating sediment-depleted conditions downstream. This may cause channel adjustment in the form of bank erosion, bed erosion, substrate coarsening, and channel planform change. Channel adjustment may also result from episodic sediment releases during reservoir operation, or from sediment evacuation following dam removal. Channel adjustment to increased sediment influx depends on the magnitude, frequency, duration and grain-size distribution of the sediment releases, and on the downstream channel characteristics. Channel adjustment may occur as a change in substrate sizedistribution, filling of pools, general bed aggradation, lateral instability, change in channel planform,and/or floodplain aggradation. The increased sediment availability may alter aquatic and riparian habitat, reduce water quality, distribute adsorbed contaminants along the river corridor, and provide germination sites for exotic vegetation. Mitigation of these sedimentation hazards requires: (1)mapping grain-size distribution within the reservoir and estimating the grain-size distributions of sediment that will be mobilized through time; (2) mapping shear stress and sediment transport capacity as a function of discharge on the basis of channel units for the length of the river likely to be affected; (3) mapping potential depositional zones, and aquatic habitat and "acceptable losses," along the downstream channel, and comparing these volumes to the total sediment volume stored in the reservoir as a means of estimating total transport capacity required to mobilize reservoir sediment delivered to the channel; (4) designing discharge and sediment release regime (magnitude, frequency,duration) to minimize adverse downstream impacts; and (5) developing plans to remove, treat, contain,or track contaminants, and to restrict establishment of exotic vegetation. The North Fork Poudre River in Colorado is used to

  9. GEOGRAPHICAL EXPANSION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    da SILVA, Denise Amaro; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease that affects humans, and domestic and wild animals. It is caused by the protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (syn = Leishmania chagasi). The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is considered the main reservoir of the etiologic agent of VL in domestic and peridomestic environments. In the past three years, although control actions involving domestic dogs are routinely performed in endemic areas of the Rio de Janeiro State, new cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) have been reported in several municipalities. The objective of this short communication was to describe the geographical expansion of CVL in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, through its reports in the scientific literature and studies performed by our group. From 2010 to 2013, autochthonous and allochthonous cases of CVL were reported in the municipalities of Mangaratiba, Marica, Niteroi, Barra Mansa, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Volta Redonda, Resende and Rio de Janeiro. These reports demonstrate that CVL is in intense geographical expansion around the state; therefore, a joint effort by public agencies, veterinarians and researchers is needed in order to minimize and/or even prevent the dispersion of this disease. PMID:26603233

  10. Development of Reservoir Characterization Techniques and Production Models for Exploiting Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, Michael L.; Brown, Raymon L.; Civan, Frauk; Hughes, Richard G.

    2001-08-15

    Research continues on characterizing and modeling the behavior of naturally fractured reservoir systems. Work has progressed on developing techniques for estimating fracture properties from seismic and well log data, developing naturally fractured wellbore models, and developing a model to characterize the transfer of fluid from the matrix to the fracture system for use in the naturally fractured reservoir simulator.

  11. Multi-data reservoir history matching for enhanced reservoir forecasting and uncertainty quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-04-01

    Reservoir simulations and history matching are critical for fine-tuning reservoir production strategies, improving understanding of the subsurface formation, and forecasting remaining reserves. Production data have long been incorporated for adjusting reservoir parameters. However, the sparse spatial sampling of this data set has posed a significant challenge for efficiently reducing uncertainty of reservoir parameters. Seismic, electromagnetic, gravity and InSAR techniques have found widespread applications in enhancing exploration for oil and gas and monitoring reservoirs. These data have however been interpreted and analyzed mostly separately, rarely exploiting the synergy effects that could result from combining them. We present a multi-data ensemble Kalman filter-based history matching framework for the simultaneous incorporation of various reservoir data such as seismic, electromagnetics, gravimetry and InSAR for best possible characterization of the reservoir formation. We apply an ensemble-based sensitivity method to evaluate the impact of each observation on the estimated reservoir parameters. Numerical experiments for different test cases demonstrate considerable matching enhancements when integrating all data sets in the history matching process. Results from the sensitivity analysis further suggest that electromagnetic data exhibit the strongest impact on the matching enhancements due to their strong differentiation between water fronts and hydrocarbons in the test cases.

  12. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Jack; Blasingame, Tom; Doublet, Louis; Kelkar, Mohan; Freeman, George; Callard, Jeff; Moore, David; Davies, David; Vessell, Richard; Pregger, Brian; Dixon, Bill; Bezant, Bryce

    2000-03-16

    The major purpose of this project was to demonstrate the use of cost effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs such as the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit.

  13. Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems: Sensitivities to Changes in Future Electricity Market Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naim; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-09

    This scoping study investigates the impact of, and interactions among, three key sources of uncertainty in the future value of bill savings from customer-sited PV, focusing in particular on residential customers. These three sources of uncertainty are: changes to electricity market conditions that would affect retail electricity prices, changes to the types of retail rate structures available to residential customers with PV, and shifts away from standard net-metering toward other compensation mechanisms for residential PV. We investigate the impact of a range of electricity market scenarios on retail electricity prices and rate structures, and the resulting effects on the value of bill savings from PV. The scenarios include various levels of renewable and solar energy deployment, high and low natural gas prices, the possible introduction of carbon pricing, and greater or lesser reliance on utility-scale storage and demand response. We examine the bill savings from PV with time-invariant, flat residential retail rates, as well as with time-varying retail rates, including time-of-use (TOU) rates and real-time pricing (RTP). In addition, we explore a flat rate with increasing-block pricing (IBP). We evaluate the bill savings from PV with net metering, as currently allowed in many states, as well as scenarios with hourly netting, a partial form of net metering. This scoping study is the first known effort to evaluate these types of interactions in a reasonably comprehensive fashion, though by no means have we considered every possible change to electricity market conditions, retail rate structures, or PV compensation mechanisms. It focuses solely on the private value of bill savings for residential PV and does not seek to quantify the broader social or economic cost or value of solar electricity. Our analysis applies assumptions based loosely on California’s electricity market in a future year (2030); however, it is neither intended to forecast California’s future

  14. Seismic imaging of reservoir flow properties: Resolving waterinflux and reservoir permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D.W.; Keers, Henk

    2006-11-27

    Methods for geophysical model assessment, in particuale thecomputation of model parameter resolution, indicate the value and thelimitations of time-lapse data in estimating reservoir flow properties. Atrajectory-based method for computing sensitivities provides an effectivemeans to compute model parameter resolutions. We examine the commonsituation in which water encroaches into a resrvoir from below, as due tothe upward movement of an oil-water contact. Using straight-forwardtechniques we find that, by inclusing reflections off the top and bottomof a reservoir tens of meters thick, we can infer reservoir permeabilitybased upon time-lapse data. We find that, for the caseof water influxfrom below, using multiple time-lapse 'snapshots' does not necessarilyimprove the resolution of reservoir permeability. An application totime-lapse data from the Norne field illustrates that we can resolve thepermeability near a producing well using reflections from threeinterfaces associated with the reservoir.

  15. Reservoir Characterization, Production Characteristics, and Research Needs for Fluvial/Alluvial Reservoirs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Jackson, S.R.; Madden, M.P.; Raw-Schatzinger, V.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.; Young, M.A.

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program was initiated in 1992 to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from known domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. Cost-shared field demonstration projects are being initiated in geology defined reservoir classes which have been prioritized by their potential for incremental recovery and their risk of abandonment. This document defines the characteristics of the fifth geological reservoir class in the series, fluvial/alluvial reservoirs. The reservoirs of Class 5 include deposits of alluvial fans, braided streams, and meandering streams. Deposit morphologies vary as a complex function of climate and tectonics and are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity to fluid flow as a result of extreme variations in water energy as the deposits formed.

  16. Sumário/Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Machado

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Um dos propósitos que tem orientado a edição de Galáxia é a publicação de trabalhos que provoquem discussões e sejam capazes de introduzir abordagens e metodologias de estudo na área de sua competência a partir, prioritariamente, de um ponto de vista semiótico. O que rege essa "carta de intenções" é a divulgação de temas e problemas atuais, inovadores e norteadores do pensamento. Até agora a sorte não nos deixou à deriva graças, sobretudo, à confiança que os colaboradores depositam na revista. Neste sexto número, Galáxia apresenta contribuições inéditas para se compreender a dimensão sensorial da imagem no cinema e nas artes, a semiótica da guerra, a dinâmica dos gêneros e formatos na comunicação mediada, a noção de design como intervenção cultural, a semiose dos gestos no discurso polí­tico veiculado pela mí­dia, o imaginário e o espaço na cibercultura. Esses são alguns dos temas de que o exercí­cio competente do pensamento sobre a comunicação na cultura não pode prescindir. Para a seção fórum, o incansável investigador da imagem Jacques Aumont nos ofertou uma de suas mais recentes pesquisas sobre a base sensorial da imagem. Em seu ensaio, examina o processo de superposição a partir da continuidade da imagem móvel e da descontinuidade da montagem. Esse é um tema que não apenas redimensiona as bases semióticas do cinema, como também revela a interferência que o processo cinematográfico continua exercendo na constituição da linguagem audiovisual como um todo. A abordagem de Aumont é surpreendente e, até agora, única, daí­ a decisão de dedicar a ela todo o espaço da seção. Trata-se de um trabalho que teve uma edição restrita no Les Cahiers du Musée National d'Art Modern (MNAM de Paris, uma publicação quadrimestral, editada por Jean-Pierre Criqui (historiador e crí­tico de arte, e voltada para a discussão da arte contemporânea na França. Vinculado ao Centre

  17. Mutanttulnukad ja festivalid pimedas öös / Bill Plympton ; interv. Mikk Rand, tõlk. Elen Lotman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Plympton, Bill

    2002-01-01

    USA animaator, illustraator ja karikaturist Bill Plympton (1946), kelle animafilm "Mutanttulnukad" ("Mutant Aliens") osales Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivalil 2001. aasta detsembris. Vestlus toimus samal festivalil. Lisatud filmograafia

  18. Connectivity of channelized reservoirs: a modelling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, David K. [ChevronTexaco, Bakersfield, CA (United States); Hovadik, Joseph [ChevronTexaco, San Ramon, CA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Connectivity represents one of the fundamental properties of a reservoir that directly affects recovery. If a portion of the reservoir is not connected to a well, it cannot be drained. Geobody or sandbody connectivity is defined as the percentage of the reservoir that is connected, and reservoir connectivity is defined as the percentage of the reservoir that is connected to wells. Previous studies have mostly considered mathematical, physical and engineering aspects of connectivity. In the current study, the stratigraphy of connectivity is characterized using simple, 3D geostatistical models. Based on these modelling studies, stratigraphic connectivity is good, usually greater than 90%, if the net: gross ratio, or sand fraction, is greater than about 30%. At net: gross values less than 30%, there is a rapid diminishment of connectivity as a function of net: gross. This behaviour between net: gross and connectivity defines a characteristic 'S-curve', in which the connectivity is high for net: gross values above 30%, then diminishes rapidly and approaches 0. Well configuration factors that can influence reservoir connectivity are well density, well orientation (vertical or horizontal; horizontal parallel to channels or perpendicular) and length of completion zones. Reservoir connectivity as a function of net: gross can be improved by several factors: presence of overbank sandy facies, deposition of channels in a channel belt, deposition of channels with high width/thickness ratios, and deposition of channels during variable floodplain aggradation rates. Connectivity can be reduced substantially in two-dimensional reservoirs, in map view or in cross-section, by volume support effects and by stratigraphic heterogeneities. It is well known that in two dimensions, the cascade zone for the 'S-curve' of net: gross plotted against connectivity occurs at about 60% net: gross. Generalizing this knowledge, any time that a reservoir can be regarded as &apos

  19. Bill YEN——The Stanford Years 1962~1965%Bill YEN在斯坦福的日子(1962~1965)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George F Imbusch

    2008-01-01

    @@ After a boyhood spent in a number of countries, Bill Yen enrolled as an undergraduate student at the University of Redlands, a private liberal arts and sciences university located in southern California. He spent the years 1952~1956 there, graduating with the BS degree in Physics. His postgraduate training was at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, where he carried out experiments in nuc-lear magnetic resonance under Prof. Richard Nor-berg. He was awarded the Ph.D degree in 1962. His doctoral work was sufficiently impressive that he was offered a postdoctoral fellowship to work in the area of electron spin resonance with Prof. George Pake at Stanford University.

  20. Mercury and methylmercury in reservoirs in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.; Fredericksen, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an element that occurs naturally, but evidence suggests that human activities have resulted in increased amounts being released to the atmosphere and land surface. When Hg is converted to methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic ecosystems, MeHg accumulates and increases in the food web so that some fish contain levels which pose a health risk to humans and wildlife that consume these fish. Reservoirs unlike natural lakes, are a part of river systems that are managed for flood control. Data compiled and interpreted for six flood-control reservoirs in Indiana showed a relation between Hg transport, MeHg formation in water, and MeHg in fish that was influenced by physical, chemical, and biological differences among the reservoirs. Existing information precludes a uniform comparison of Hg and MeHg in all reservoirs in the State, but factors and conditions were identified that can indicate where and when Hg and MeHg levels in reservoirs could be highest.

  1. Tracing fluid flow in geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, P.E.; Adams, M.C. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A family of fluorescent compounds, the polycyclic aromatic sulfonates, were evaluated for application in intermediate- and high-temperature geothermal reservoirs. Whereas the naphthalene sulfonates were found to be very thermally stable and reasonably detectable, the amino-substituted naphthalene sulfonates were found to be somewhat less thermally stable, but much more detectable. A tracer test was conducted at the Dixie Valley, Nevada, geothermal reservoir using one of the substituted naphthalene sulfonates, amino G, and fluorescein. Four of 9 production wells showed tracer breakthrough during the first 200 days of the test. Reconstructed tracer return curves are presented that correct for the thermal decay of tracer assuming an average reservoir temperature of 227{degrees}C. In order to examine the feasibility of using numerical simulation to model tracer flow, we developed simple, two-dimensional models of the geothermal reservoir using the numerical simulation programs TETRAD and TOUGH2. By fitting model outputs to measured return curves, we show that numerical reservoir simulations can be calibrated with the tracer data. Both models predict the same order of elution, approximate tracer concentrations, and return curve shapes. Using these results, we propose a method for using numerical models to design a tracer test.

  2. Relatório de Estágio Curricular - Dealpoint Mobiliário, Lda.

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Sílvia

    2008-01-01

    O trabalho de estágio decorreu na empresa Dealpoint Mobiliário, empresa esta que se dedica á venda de mobiliário, através de uma loja on-line. Este estágio teve como objectivo a actualização do site e o tratamento de fotografia.

  3. The impact of rate design and net metering on the bill savings from distributed PV for residential customers in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naim R., E-mail: ndarghouth@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS 90R4000, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Energy and Resources Group, 310 Barrows Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS 90R4000, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Net metering has become a widespread mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), but has faced challenges as PV installations grow to a larger share of generation in a number of states. This paper examines the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. We find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies by more than a factor of four across the customers in the sample, which is largely attributable to the inclining block structure of the utilities' residential retail rates. We also compare the bill savings under net metering to that received under three potential alternative compensation mechanisms, based on California's Market Price Referent (MPR). We find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than a full MPR-based feed-in tariff, but only modestly greater savings than alternative mechanisms under which hourly or monthly net excess generation is compensated at the MPR rate. - Highlights: > We examine the value of bill savings under net metering to PV owners in California. > Bill savings per kWh of PV generation varies by a factor of four with net metering. The variation is attributable to rate design, the unique inclining block structure. > The median value of bill savings is reduced by 40-67% with MPR feed-in tariff. > The median value of bill savings is reduced by 6-12% with hourly netting.

  4. 杀死比尔:你所不知道的%Something You Don't Know about Killing Bill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lily

    2004-01-01

    @@ This you know: Bill dies-hence the title. That's no secret. Other things you know already about the intense, kitschy ( 艺术上浅薄鄙谷但技巧娴熟的) revenge movie Kill Bill: Volume 1: It's packed with kung fu,samurai swords, Uma Thurman and the big comeback of 90s film-geek savant (专家) Quentin Tarantino.

  5. Optimized recovery through cooperative geology and reservoir engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, F.F. Jr.; Willcox, P.J.; Ballard, J.R.; Nation, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    Reservoir engineers have always used geological descriptions in their performance calculations. At first, the only information that could be utilized consisted of gross factors such as structure, thickness, fault and boundary locations, and the like, and average values for permeability, porosity, and fluid saturations. The advent of easy-to-use, relatively inexpensive mathematical models provided a new and powerful tool to the reservoir engineer for predicting performance. However, this tool required for its optimum use a more detailed reservoir description than geologists were accustomed to providing. Today's reservoir engineer utilizes the most detailed geological information along with a reservoir performance simulator to synthesize a detailed reservoir description capable of matching actual field performance data. Use of such a reservoir description permits the design of operating programs to obtain optimized recovery from hydrocarbon reservoirs. Two examples of the use of this combined geology-reservoir engineering technique are taken from the international arena of operations.

  6. REDE DE TERRITÓRIOS SOLIDÁRIOS E TURISMO DE BASE LOCAL NO CEARÁ - BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Neide Coriolano, Luzia; Barbosa, Luciana Maciel

    2012-01-01

    A pesquisa estuda redes de territórios solidários, objetivando análise e compreensão do fenômeno turístico, sob o eixo do turismo comunitário, no estado do Ceará, localizado na região Nordeste do Brasil, é consolidado destino turístico nacional, pretensamente internacional. Esse eixo de turismo configura territórios solidários que produzem o turismo de base comunitária voltados às diretrizes da economia solidária. Ganha espaço em discussões de interesse do Estado, Organizações Não-Governament...

  7. Landfill liners from dam reservoir sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koś Karolina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Landfill liners from dam reservoir sediments. Every municipal solid waste landfill has to be properly secured to protect the natural environment from possible leachate. Most often an artificial sealing is used, which is based on a soil liner from cohesive soils (clays, silts. Usability evaluation of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir for building these liners was presented in the paper. Sediments from dam reservoirs, gathered as a result of the siltation process, can be a valuable material for earthworks purposes. Determination of their possible ways of usage is important, especially before the planned dredging, because thanks to that this material will not be put on a heap. Based on the analysis of the geotechnical parameters of these sediments it was stated that this material can be preliminary allowed for using in liners.

  8. Reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, L.W.; Pope, G.A.; Schechter, R.S.

    1992-03-01

    The research in this annual report falls into three tasks each dealing with a different aspect of enhanced oil recovery. The first task strives to develop procedures for accurately modeling reservoirs for use as input to numerical simulation flow models. This action describes how we have used a detail characterization of an outcrop to provide insights into what features are important to fluid flow modeling. The second task deals with scaling-up and modeling chemical and solvent EOR processes. In a sense this task is the natural extension of task 1 and, in fact, one of the subtasks uses many of the same statistical procedures for insight into the effects of viscous fingering and heterogeneity. The final task involves surfactants and their interactions with carbon dioxide and reservoir minerals. This research deals primarily with phenomena observed when aqueous surfactant solutions are injected into oil reservoirs.

  9. Second workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, P.; Ramey, H.J. Jr. (eds.)

    1976-12-03

    The Arab oil embargo of 1973 focused national attention on energy problems. A national focus on development of energy sources alternative to consumption of hydrocarbons led to the initiation of research studies of reservoir engineering of geothermal systems, funded by the National Science Foundation. At that time it appeared that only two significant reservoir engineering studies of geothermal reservoirs had been completed. Many meetings concerning development of geothermal resources were held from 1973 through the date of the first Stanford Geothermal Reservoir Engineering workshop December 15-17, 1975. These meetings were similar in that many reports dealt with the objectives of planned research projects rather than with results. The first reservoir engineering workshop held under the Stanford Geothermal Program was singular in that for the first time most participants were reporting on progress inactive research programs rather than on work planned. This was true for both laboratory experimental studies and for field experiments in producing geothermal systems. The Proceedings of the December 1975 workshop (SGP-TR-12) is a remarkable document in that results of both field operations and laboratory studies were freely presented and exchanged by all participants. With this in mind the second reservoir engineering workshop was planned for December 1976. The objectives were again two-fold. First, the workshop was designed as a forum to bring together researchers active in various physical and mathematical branches of the developing field of geothermal reservoir engineering, to give participants a current and updated view of progress being made in the field. The second purpose was to prepare this Proceedings of Summaries documenting the state of the art as of December 1976. The proceedings will be distributed to all interested members of the geothermal community involved in the development and utilization of the geothermal resources in the world. Many notable

  10. Transmissibility scale-up in reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Gupta, A. [Oklahoma Univ., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    1999-11-01

    A study was conducted to develop efficient methods for scaling of petrophysical properties from high resolution geological models to the resolution of reservoir simulation. Data from the Gypsy Field located in northeastern Oklahoma near Lake Keystone was used to evaluate the proposed method. The petrophysical property which was scaled in this study was the transmissibility between two grid blocks. A linear flow scale-up of the transmissibility between two grid blocks was conducted. It was determined that the scale-up of the productivity index is both important and necessary for determining the radial flow around the wellbore. Special consideration was needed for the pinch-out grid blocks in the system. Fine-scale and coarse-scale reservoir models were used to evaluate the feasibility of this proposed method. Performance predictions were compared with various reservoir flow case studies. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 20 figs.

  11. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF RESERVOIR SEDIMENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jinchi

    2001-01-01

    Reliable quantitative estimation of bed aggradation or degradation is important for river-training and water management projects. With the development of water resources, sediment problems associated with a dam are becoming more severe. This paper describes some special problems in mathematical model for calculation of degradation and aggradation in a reservoir. The main efforts of this study are on the treatment of some physical processes of fine sediment transport (<0.05 mm). Problems in a reservoir are obviously different from a natural stream, such as the turbid current flow, orifice sediment flushing;and the initiation and consolidation of cohesive sediment deposition. The case of Liujiaxia Reservoir,which is located in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, is employed to verify the model. The results show that the model is applicable in the evaluation of an engineering planing with plenty of fine sediment movement.

  12. Aquatic macrophytes of Itaipu Reservoir, Brazil: survey of species and ecological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidinei Magela Thomaz

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In a survey of the aquatic macrophytes of the Itaipu Reservoir, we identified 62 taxa in 25 families and 42 genera. The highest number taxa was observed for the emergent macrophytes (40 taxa. Reduced fluctuation in water level, increased light penetration, and sediment enrichment by nutrients and organic matter following the formation of the reservoir favored the appearance of a species-rich community of submerged macrophytes (23% of the taxa identified. The aquatic macrophytes were found mainly near the mouths of the main tributaries of the reservoir, in shallow area of depth less than 2 meters. In addition to the shallow depth, the greater nutrient input from the tributaries and relative protection from wind explained this distribution. Among the species found, Egeria najas merits mention for its occurrence in all localities sampled, with biomass values varying between 98 and 186 gDW/m². Some potential nuisance species such as Eichhornia crassipes, Salvinia auriculata, and Pistia stratiotes also deserve attention, since they were also observed to be covering large areas of Itaipu Reservoir.Em um levantamento de macrófitas aquáticas realizado no reservatório de Itaipu foram identificados 62 táxons pertencentes a 25 famílias e 42 gêneros. O maior número de táxons foi representado pelas macrófitas emergentes (40 táxons. O surgimento de uma rica comunidade de espécies submersas (23% dos táxons identificados parece ter sido favorecido pelas alterações decorrentes da formação dor reservatório, tais como redução da flutuação dos níveis de água, aumento da penetração de luz e enriquecimento do sedimento em nutrientes e matéria orgânica. As macrófitas aquáticas foram registradas principalmente próximo à foz dos tributários do reservatório, em áreas rasas (profundidade inferior a 2 metros. Além da reduzida profundidade, o maior aporte de nutrientes associado à proteção do vento explicam essa distribuição. Entre

  13. Sumário/Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comissão Editorial

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A revista Galáxia surgiu no cenário intelectual nacional para atestar que a vitalidade das múltiplas confluências entre Comunicação e Semiótica delimitava um campo de conhecimento maduro capaz de produzir a sua própria revista cientí­fica. Fiel ao seu nome - homenagem a Haroldo de Campos, que, em poema homônimo, sinalizava para o conví­vio entre fronteiras -, a revista assumiu sua vocação transdisciplinar. O Programa de Estudos Pós-Graduados em Comunicação e Semiótica da PUC/SP confiou o projeto inicial do periódico a Irene Machado, que respondeu, de forma notável, pela editoria cientí­fica dos sete primeiros números. A dedicação de Irene Machado contribuiu para consolidar a proposta dos trânsitos e fluxos de idéias como fatores de fomento da diversidade que marca a Comunicação como campo cientí­fico. Sem esse competente trabalho, a revista não teria alcançado o significativo patamar Nacional A na escala de avaliação do sistema Qualis/CAPES. Nessa esteira, feita em nome do Programa, os rigores de edição do presente volume ficaram a cargo de uma comissão composta por Lucrécia D'Aléssio Ferrara, Ana Claudia de Oliveira, Eugênio Trivinho e Helena Katz. Galáxia 8 apresenta uma dupla articulação na seção "Fórum". José Luiz Fiorin mostra as contribuições de uma teoria da significação para a compreensão dos fenômenos comunicacionais, que não se restringem ao âmbito da produção de massa. Eric Landowski, por sua vez, chama a atenção para um outro regime de interpretação das encenações do corpo numa detalhada análise ancorada em quatro dimensões especí­ficas do retrato (mimética, hermenêutica, cosmética e estética, na qual a fotografia dos homens polí­ticos na imprensa é tratada como componente de uma estratégia discursiva midiática global. A problematização dessas dimensões possibilita ao autor desenvolver uma teoria semiótica da visualidade midiática. Com essas duas

  14. On the simulation of heterogeneous petroleum reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daripa, P.; Glimm, J.; Lindquist, B.; Maesumi, M.; McBryan, O.

    1987-04-01

    The authors and coworkers have proposed the front tracking method as useful in applications to petroleum reservoir simulation. A variety of tests of a numerical analysis nature were performed for the method, verifying convergence under mesh refinement and absence of mesh orientation effects. The ability to handle complex interface bifurcation, fingering instabilities and polymer injection (as an example of tertiary oil recovery) indicates a level of robustness in this method. The main purpose of this paper is to report on two features which will allow further series of tests by enabling a more realistic description of reservoir heterogeneities. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  16. NMPC for Oil Reservoir Production Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völcker, Carsten; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we use nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) to maximize secondary oil recovery from an oil reservoir by controlling two-phase subsurface porous flow using adjustable down-hole control valves. The resulting optimal control problem is nonlinear and large-scale. We solve this pro......In this paper, we use nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) to maximize secondary oil recovery from an oil reservoir by controlling two-phase subsurface porous flow using adjustable down-hole control valves. The resulting optimal control problem is nonlinear and large-scale. We solve...

  17. RESERVOIR CAPACITY DEPLETION ON ACCOUNT OF SEDIMENTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prabhata K.SWAMEE

    2001-01-01

    Capacity depletion is an important information required for planning of multipurpose reservoirs. It is a complex phenomenon involving diverse fields like surface hydrology, sediment transport, varied flow hydraulics and soil consolidation. Proper assessment of capacity reduction is helpful in ascertaining the life of the reservoir and the project benefits for cost/benefit analysis. In this study dimensionally consistent equations for deposition volume and the trap efficiency have been obtained. Methods of obtaining the parameters involved these equations have also been indicated. It was found that there is good agreement with the field data. It is hoped that the equations are useful to design engineer.

  18. Simulation of Reservoir Sediment Flushing of the Three Gorges Reservoir Using an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueying Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir sedimentation and its effect on the environment are the most serious world-wide problems in water resources development and utilization today. As one of the largest water conservancy projects, the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR has been controversial since its demonstration period, and sedimentation is the major concern. Due to the complex physical mechanisms of water and sediment transport, this study adopts the Error Back Propagation Training Artificial Neural Network (BP-ANN to analyze the relationship between the sediment flushing efficiency of the TGR and its influencing factors. The factors are determined by the analysis on 1D unsteady flow and sediment mathematical model, mainly including reservoir inflow, incoming sediment concentration, reservoir water level, and reservoir release. Considering the distinguishing features of reservoir sediment delivery in different seasons, the monthly average data from 2003, when the TGR was put into operation, to 2011 are used to train, validate, and test the BP-ANN model. The results indicate that, although the sample space is quite limited, the whole sediment delivery process can be schematized by the established BP-ANN model, which can be used to help sediment flushing and thus decrease the reservoir sedimentation.

  19. Reservoir characteristics and genesis of high-porosity and high-permeability reservoirs in Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on detailed studies, this paper proposes that in the Tarim Basin, hydrocarbon reservoirs widespread either in vertical sequences or in plane and high-porosity and high-permeability reservoirs are developed all over the basin. However, obvious difference and heterogeneity exist among different kinds of reservoirs. The lithologic characteristics, reservoir space types and reservoir properties in various strata have been probed. The result indicates that although the Paleozoic carbonates have been deeply buried for a long period, high-quality reservoirs with the porosity of up to 5%-8% (12% as the maximum) and the permeability of 10×10?3-100×10?3 ?m2 (1000×10?3 ?m2 as the maximum) can be found in certain areas. These include the area with the development of reefs and carbonate beaches, the weathered-crust buried-hill belts that have undergone the long-term exposure, weathering and leaching, the area with the development of dolomitization, and those areas that have experienced the resolution of carbonic acid and organic acid generated by the maturity of the organic matter. Finally, the genesis of the high-porosity and high-permeability reservoirs in deep-buried conditions (with the depth more than 3500 m) have been investigated thoroughly.

  20. Selamento coronário em Endodontia

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Rui Pedro Barra de Sá

    2016-01-01

    Introdução: A Endodontia é a especialidade da Medicina Dentária responsável pelo estudo e tratamento da câmara pulpar, de todo o sistema de canais radiculares e dos tecidos periapicais, bem como das doenças que os afetam. O selamento da porção coronária dos dentes alvo de tratamento endodôntico apresenta-se como um critério determinante no sucesso ou insucesso do tratamento. São vários os fatores que podem proporcionar um correto selamento coronário evitando assim a microinfiltração de ...

  1. Fish assemblage composition and mapped mesohabitat features over a range of streamflows in the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico, winter 2011-12, summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Daniel K.; Braun, Christopher L.; Moring, J. Bruce

    2016-01-21

    This report documents differences in the mapped spatial extents and physical characteristics of in-channel fish habitat evaluated at the mesohabitat scale during winter 2011–12 (moderate streamflow) and summer 2012 (low streamflow) at 15 sites on the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico starting about 3 kilometers downstream from Cochiti Dam and ending about 40 kilometers upstream from Elephant Butte Reservoir. The results of mesohabitat mapping, physical characterization, and fish assemblage surveys are summarized from the data that were collected. The report also presents general comparisons of physical mesohabitat data, such as wetted area and substrate type, and biological mesohabitat data, which included fish assemblage composition, species richness, Rio Grande silvery minnow relative abundance, and Rio Grande silvery minnow catch per unit effort.

  2. Effects of a Supraseasonal Drought on the Ecological Attributes of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) (Pisces, Sciaenidae) in a Brazilian Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Antonia E. F.; Oliveira, Jônnata F.; Fernandes, Rodrigo; Costa, Rodrigo S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a supraseasonal drought on the ecological attributes of Plagioscion squamosissimus. The fish were caught quarterly from February 2010 to November 2014 using gill nets in the reservoir of Santa Cruz, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The abundance of the species was evaluated with the catch per unit effort (CPUE) metric and then correlated with the accumulated rainfall and water volume of the reservoir. The diet of the fish was evaluated using the feeding index (IAi). The proportional similarity index (PSi) was used to evaluate the variation in the niches of the fish. The body condition was inferred through the relative condition factor, and its variation was assessed with ANOVA. A reduction in the abundance of the species that were positively correlated with the reservoir water volume was observed. The diet of the fish comprised shrimp, gastropods, fish, insects, shrimp larvae, and vegetable matter, with shrimp being the major component. PSi showed the occurrence of individual specialization during November 2013 and November 2014. The relative condition factor was not correlated with a reduction in the water volume of the reservoir. The supraseasonal drought did not affect the relative condition factor, diet, and the trophic niche, but it did affect the species abundance. PMID:28326431

  3. Improved characterization of reservoir behavior by integration of reservoir performances data and rock type distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D.K.; Vessell, R.K. [David K. Davies & Associates, Kingwood, TX (United States); Doublet, L.E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    An integrated geological/petrophysical and reservoir engineering study was performed for a large, mature waterflood project (>250 wells, {approximately}80% water cut) at the North Robertson (Clear Fork) Unit, Gaines County, Texas. The primary goal of the study was to develop an integrated reservoir description for {open_quotes}targeted{close_quotes} (economic) 10-acre (4-hectare) infill drilling and future recovery operations in a low permeability, carbonate (dolomite) reservoir. Integration of the results from geological/petrophysical studies and reservoir performance analyses provide a rapid and effective method for developing a comprehensive reservoir description. This reservoir description can be used for reservoir flow simulation, performance prediction, infill targeting, waterflood management, and for optimizing well developments (patterns, completions, and stimulations). The following analyses were performed as part of this study: (1) Geological/petrophysical analyses: (core and well log data) - {open_quotes}Rock typing{close_quotes} based on qualitative and quantitative visualization of pore-scale features. Reservoir layering based on {open_quotes}rock typing {close_quotes} and hydraulic flow units. Development of a {open_quotes}core-log{close_quotes} model to estimate permeability using porosity and other properties derived from well logs. The core-log model is based on {open_quotes}rock types.{close_quotes} (2) Engineering analyses: (production and injection history, well tests) Material balance decline type curve analyses to estimate total reservoir volume, formation flow characteristics (flow capacity, skin factor, and fracture half-length), and indications of well/boundary interference. Estimated ultimate recovery analyses to yield movable oil (or injectable water) volumes, as well as indications of well and boundary interference.

  4. Reservoir-forming age and its exploration significance to stratigraphic reservoirs in southern Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Despite many studies concerning the forming age, evolution characteristics and the age of petroleum charging in the Fuxin upheaval of southern Songliao Basin, no consensus has been reached so far. This paper presents the first K-Ar dating of autogenetic illite from stratigraphic petroleum reservoirs in the Fuyu oil layer of the Fuxin upheaval belt. Isotopic test and age calculation were carried out based on the separation and purification of illite mineral, X-diffraction analysis and the detection of scanning electron microscopy. The evolution characteristics of structure, sedimentation, reservoir-forming about the Fuxin upheaval belt were interpreted in terms of the synthetical analysis of "six-type geological history" evolution in southern Songliao Basin. The geologic background of petroleum evolution and reservoir formation are similar in the entire central depression region of southern Songliao Basin. The Changling sag and the Fuxin upheaval belt brought about obvious upheaval-sag separation after the hydrocarbon-generation peak of K2qn1 and the main reservoir-forming period of the Fuyu oil layer, namely reservoir-forming happened before the Fuxin upheaval belt extensively raised. The reservoirs have three characteristics: the hydrocarbon source rock above the reservoir, the oil source in the locality, and the vertical migration. The geological cognition is corrected, that is, oil source came from the Changling sag and migrated from the side direction. The bulk process of petroleum charging in the stratigraphic hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Fuxin upheaval belt of southern Songliao Basin is determined according to the isotopic age of autogenetic illite in combination with the method of fluid inclusions. The cognition is helpful to exactly evaluate the resource potential and exploration direction in the Fuxin upheaval belt, Changling sag and their peripheral areas. The present results indicate that the combination of the two methods (the K-Ar dating of

  5. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  6. Quantifying Salinization of the Upper-Middle Rio Grande Using a Basin-Scale Water and Chloride Mass Balance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, S. K.; Phillips, F. M.; Hogan, J. F.; Hendrickx, J. M.

    2002-12-01

    The Rio Grande is clearly undergoing salinization, manifested by a 50-fold increase in total dissolved solids content between its headwaters in Colorado and the U.S.-Mexico border. To elucidate the causes of this salinization, we conducted an eight-day synoptic sampling campaign in August 2001. This sampling included the river, its major tributaries, and major irrigation drain inflows. Along 1200 km between the river headwaters in Colorado and Fort Quitman, Texas, we collected 110 water samples with an average interval of ~10 km between sampling locales. In the laboratory, samples were analyzed for major constituents including chloride, as well as for bromide and the 36Cl/Cl ratio. Isotopic fingerprinting using the 36Cl/Cl ratio indicates that meteoric waters and deep sedimentary brines respectively account for most of the water and most of the salt inflow to the Rio Grande. The meteoric end member has a 36Cl/Cl ratio of 1100 and a Cl/Br ratio of 30; the brine end member has a 36Cl/Cl ratio of 35 and a Cl/Br ratio of 1150. Using these end member chemistries with USGS stream flow gauging data, we constructed a water- and salt- instantaneous mass balance model of the Rio Grande for the eight-day sampling interval. This model indicates that most water losses from the Rio Grande are due to evaporation from Elephant Butte reservoir, open water evaporation from irrigation ditches, and evapotranspiration of riparian and ditch-bank vegetation. The model also emphasizes the significance of salt input due to deep brine discharge to the river, particularly at the downstream ends of local sedimentary basins of the Rio Grande rift. The Rio Grande receives a smaller amount of salt from saline drains near El Paso, which may be acquiring salt from deep brine discharge as they cross over faults or other structural fluid conduits.

  7. Análise da Composição Cianobacteriana das Esteiras Pustulares em Salina, Araruama, Rio de Janeiro.

    OpenAIRE

    Loreine Hermida da Silva e Silva; Fabiane Feder; Deise de Oliveira Delfino; Frederico Alves dos Santos Lopes

    2007-01-01

    Julieta saline receives water from lagoa de Araruama, which is located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, to the East of the city of Araruama and to the west of the city of Cabo Frio, between 22o 49’ and 22o 57’ S latitude and 42o 00’ and 42o 23’ W longitude. It is composed by a series of soil tanks obtained by natural excavation, where water gradually concentrates through natural evaporation until salt precipitation. The reservoirs can be divided in three types, according to their activity: car...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES AND PRODUCTION MODELS FOR EXPLOITING NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Wiggins; Raymon L. Brown; Faruk Civan; Richard G. Hughes

    2002-12-31

    For many years, geoscientists and engineers have undertaken research to characterize naturally fractured reservoirs. Geoscientists have focused on understanding the process of fracturing and the subsequent measurement and description of fracture characteristics. Engineers have concentrated on the fluid flow behavior in the fracture-porous media system and the development of models to predict the hydrocarbon production from these complex systems. This research attempts to integrate these two complementary views to develop a quantitative reservoir characterization methodology and flow performance model for naturally fractured reservoirs. The research has focused on estimating naturally fractured reservoir properties from seismic data, predicting fracture characteristics from well logs, and developing a naturally fractured reservoir simulator. It is important to develop techniques that can be applied to estimate the important parameters in predicting the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. This project proposes a method to relate seismic properties to the elastic compliance and permeability of the reservoir based upon a sugar cube model. In addition, methods are presented to use conventional well logs to estimate localized fracture information for reservoir characterization purposes. The ability to estimate fracture information from conventional well logs is very important in older wells where data are often limited. Finally, a desktop naturally fractured reservoir simulator has been developed for the purpose of predicting the performance of these complex reservoirs. The simulator incorporates vertical and horizontal wellbore models, methods to handle matrix to fracture fluid transfer, and fracture permeability tensors. This research project has developed methods to characterize and study the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs that integrate geoscience and engineering data. This is an important step in developing exploitation strategies for

  9. Evaluation of Planning for Fish and Wildlife at Corps of Engineers Reservoirs, Allegheny Reservoir Project, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    I *~ -* .t4 000 Uin.~, P~n 0* .5 0 05 ~ @ftft’~% MO 0.u I- a * - j *SSES -~ M -- - * 𔃺 0 .1 I A S 4% * Ag U .2 - ~SMU cnn ftS44% -o -. 𔃺ft 4%0𔃺 M0M...Longnead darter , A Pearl dace, A Blackside darter, A Slenderkeed dartw. A Catostomidae Malley*, A, R Qutll ck, A, R White sucker, A, 4 Cettid...reservoirs and incorporating data such as morpho- metry, water chemistry, and reservoir age , the Alle- gheny Reservoir should now have an annual sport fishing

  10. Segunda Guerra Mundial, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Souza Rocha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the National Memorial to the World War II Dead (1956-60, a monument designed by Marcos Konder Netto and Hélio Ribas Marinho, and located in Flamengo Park, Rio de Janeiro. We start by commenting on the debates that were going on within the Modernist movement about the need for a new monumentality. Then, we examine the memorial against the urban landscape of Rio de Janeiro and its specific architectural language. Finally, we make an effort to explain the apparent paradox found in modern monuments.

  11. Solar astrometry with Rio Astrolabe and Heliometer

    CERN Document Server

    Sigismondi, Costantino; Andrei, Alexandre Humberto; Reis-Neto, Eugenio; Penna, Jucira Lousada; D'Avila, Victor Amorim

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring the micro-variations of the solar diameter helps to better understand local and secular trends of solar activity and Earth climate. The instant measurements with the Reflecting Heliometer of Observatorio Nacional in Rio de Janeiro have minimized optical and thermal distortion, statistically reducing air turbulence effects down to 0.01 arcsec. Contrarily to satellites RHRJ has unlimited lifetime, and it bridges and extends the measures made with drift-scan timings across altitude circles with 0.1 arcsec rms with Astrolabes. The Astrolabe in Rio operated from 1998 to 2009 to measure the solar diameter and the detected variations have statistical significance.

  12. AUTOMATED EB BILLING SYSTEM USING GSM AND AD-HOC WIRELESS ROUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Saravanan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available With the passage of time, technology has merged itself with the daily life of humans. We have seen so much progress in the field of science and technology but we are not able to make full use of it. One such area for improvement is the Electricity board billing system. Our existing electricity board billing system in India is obsolete and time consuming. We are proposing a system through which electricity billing becomes fully automated and communication is made possiblevia wireless networks. The existing manual system in India has major drawbacks. This system is prone to errors and can also be easily manipulated. The prevailing manual system also requires lot of human workforce. The major disadvantage in this system is that the meter cannot be accessed by the meter reader if the customer is not present at home. In our system the central EB office has immediate access to all consumer homes in a locality with the help of an RF system. The EB meter present in each house is connected by wireless network with the EB office which periodically gets updates from the meter. The EB office using a backend database calculates the amount to be paid according to the number of units consumed and sends it back to the meter for display and also to the user’s mobile phone. The advantages of the proposed system make the existing system incompetent. It ispossible to connect to remote areas even when there is a power failure as it employs wireless technology. The new system is user friendly, easy to access and far more efficient than the existing system.

  13. Perfil dos usuários do Arquivo Público do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    iviane Portella de Portella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata sobre o perfil dos usuários do Arquivo Público do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. A pesquisa caracteriza-se como descritiva, de cunho quantitativo e de natureza aplicada. Os dados foram recolhidos mediante levantamento, sendo realizada observação direta e análise de relatórios dos serviços prestados aos usuários referentes ao período de primeiro de janeiro a trinta e um de dezembro de 2010. Os resultados obtidos permitiram delinear o perfil dos usuários. Assim como, identificar os temas mais pesquisados, observar a existência de políticas e programas de treinamentos de usuários e atualização de funcionários. Através desta pesquisa foi possível quantificar os atendimentos prestados a sociedade, identificar a necessidade de ampliação do programa de difusão do APERS e comprovar a relevância de suas fontes documentais para a sociedade gaúcha.

  14. Sumário/Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comissão Editorial

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Galáxia: Revista Transdisciplinar de Comunicação, Semiótica, Cultura, editada pelo Programa de Estudos Pós-Graduados em Comunicação e Semiótica (PUC-SP, amplia, com a publicação deste número 9, a sua consolidação como periódico de divulgação científica de pesquisas e, sobretudo, como espaço incentivador do trânsito de idéias e do diálogo teórico entre investigadores nacionais e internacionais da área de Comunicação e afins. Procura propor paradigmas para a definição dos objetos científicos da área desafiada pelo desenvolvimento tecnológico da informação e pela crescente expansão da economia globalizada e da mundialização da cultura. O presente número confirma o projeto em que se aliam comunicação, semiótica, cultura, tecnologia e informação. Nessa integração, e dentre os temas do volume, destaca-se o espaço, que, lido em sua organização e mediação sígnica, permite compreender as dinâmicas culturais que lhe dão suporte. Na seção "Fórum", Manar Hammad, pesquisador francês da Falculté d'Architecture de Versailles, apresenta uma leitura semiótica do Santuário de Bel, conjunto religioso monumental da antiga Síria, situado na cidade de Tadmor-Palmira. Atualmente, o templo não é senão um complexo em ruínas ou pouco conservado, mas ainda oferece à leitura os alicerces de sua construção e os pilares de crenças que nortearam a civilização modelada por valores gregos que atestam um sincretismo básico para a compreensão da cultura do antigo oriente. A leitura da construção semiótica desse conjunto de relações sígnicas permite flagrar os procedimentos de enunciação que superam o âmbito do verbal para atingir a complexidade dos signos não-verbais e, notadamente, do espaço. Utilizando sua formação arquitetônica, mas superando os limites perceptivos de um espaço simplesmente físico ou tecnicamente edificado, Manar Hammad procura apreender o processo

  15. Bill Lowrie In The Apennines U Reading - The Pelagic Record of Geomagnetic Reversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Walter

    Twenty five years ago, Bill Lowrie and I, along with Mike Arthur, Al Fischer, Gio- vanni Napoleone, Isabella Premoli Silva and Bill Roggenthen, published a set of five papers in the Geological Society of America Bulletin (March 1977), reporting a re- markable new source of information on the geomagnetic polarity time scale. The re- versal sequence was already known back to the Late Cretaceous on the basis of marine magnetic anomalies, but only as a sequence of longer and shorter polarity intervals, a kind of fingerprint with almost no age calibration. At Gubbio, in the Umbrian Apen- nines of Italy, we discovered that the polarity intervals are also recorded in pelagic limestones, deposited quietly at moderate oceanic depths at rates of order 10 m/Myr. and these limestones are literally made of fossils, notably the planktic foraminifera which are the best age correlation tool for the last 100 Myr. The reversal sequence was now datable. You can make a discovery like this either by looking for it, as Al Fischer did U hoping ° that such a record would be present and waiting until magnetometers improved enough to make it possible to measure these very weakly magnetic rocks U or by stumbling ° on it as Bill and I did. We went to the Apennines hoping to measure paleomagnetically a tectonic rotation of the Italian crust. Digital spinner magnetometers had just become available and Bill found that he could measure the remanence of the Apennine pelagic limestones I had been studying in the field. Tectonic rotation of the Italian crust turned out to be very difficult to detect, because interbed slip was a major complication. But we accidentally sampled both normal and reversed beds in the Scaglia rossa limestone on our first trip, and back in the lab we recognized that we had a polarity record in front of us. The microfossils made it a datable record, which raised great excitement among our colleagues at Lamont, where sea-floor magnetic reversals were the key to tectonic

  16. 新一代的运营支撑系统bSVAP Billing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上海广电通迅网络有限公司

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1 bSVAP Billing的价值体现 1.1 bSVAP Billing概述 新一代的宽带运营支撑系统bSVAP Billing,是针对宽带ISP/ASP运营商的一套完整的运营支撑解决方案,是一个电信级的、系统化、可伸缩的系统,集实时计费、业务管理、用户管理、账务管理、系统管理等功能于一体.

  17. Nonpayment of water bills in Guatemala: Dissatisfaction or inability to pay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, William F.

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates nonpayment behavior in Guatemala. Determinants of nonpayment behavior are identified through zero-inflated negative binomial regression models in order to take into account particular distributional characteristics of the amount of outstanding payments. Findings indicate that nonpayment behavior is a demonstration of consumer dissatisfaction with current water services. The amount of outstanding bill payments also responds to system unreliability. Results also suggest that nonpayment behaviors are more prominent in community-managed systems than in municipal systems. No evidence was found on a potential relationship between nonpayment behavior and household income. Policy implications are discussed.

  18. The anatomy of the bill tip of kiwi and associated somatosensory regions of the brain: comparisons with shorebirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J Cunningham

    Full Text Available Three families of probe-foraging birds, Scolopacidae (sandpipers and snipes, Apterygidae (kiwi, and Threskiornithidae (ibises, including spoonbills have independently evolved long, narrow bills containing clusters of vibration-sensitive mechanoreceptors (Herbst corpuscles within pits in the bill-tip. These 'bill-tip organs' allow birds to detect buried or submerged prey via substrate-borne vibrations and/or interstitial pressure gradients. Shorebirds, kiwi and ibises are only distantly related, with the phylogenetic divide between kiwi and the other two taxa being particularly deep. We compared the bill-tip structure and associated somatosensory regions in the brains of kiwi and shorebirds to understand the degree of convergence of these systems between the two taxa. For comparison, we also included data from other taxa including waterfowl (Anatidae and parrots (Psittaculidae and Cacatuidae, non-apterygid ratites, and other probe-foraging and non probe-foraging birds including non-scolopacid shorebirds (Charadriidae, Haematopodidae, Recurvirostridae and Sternidae. We show that the bill-tip organ structure was broadly similar between the Apterygidae and Scolopacidae, however some inter-specific variation was found in the number, shape and orientation of sensory pits between the two groups. Kiwi, scolopacid shorebirds, waterfowl and parrots all shared hypertrophy or near-hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus. Hypertrophy of the nucleus basorostralis, however, occurred only in waterfowl, kiwi, three of the scolopacid species examined and a species of oystercatcher (Charadriiformes: Haematopodidae. Hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus in kiwi, Scolopacidae, and other tactile specialists appears to have co-evolved alongside bill-tip specializations, whereas hypertrophy of nucleus basorostralis may be influenced to a greater extent by other sensory inputs. We suggest that similarities between kiwi and scolopacid

  19. The anatomy of the bill tip of kiwi and associated somatosensory regions of the brain: comparisons with shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Susan J; Corfield, Jeremy R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Castro, Isabel; Alley, Maurice R; Birkhead, Tim R; Parsons, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Three families of probe-foraging birds, Scolopacidae (sandpipers and snipes), Apterygidae (kiwi), and Threskiornithidae (ibises, including spoonbills) have independently evolved long, narrow bills containing clusters of vibration-sensitive mechanoreceptors (Herbst corpuscles) within pits in the bill-tip. These 'bill-tip organs' allow birds to detect buried or submerged prey via substrate-borne vibrations and/or interstitial pressure gradients. Shorebirds, kiwi and ibises are only distantly related, with the phylogenetic divide between kiwi and the other two taxa being particularly deep. We compared the bill-tip structure and associated somatosensory regions in the brains of kiwi and shorebirds to understand the degree of convergence of these systems between the two taxa. For comparison, we also included data from other taxa including waterfowl (Anatidae) and parrots (Psittaculidae and Cacatuidae), non-apterygid ratites, and other probe-foraging and non probe-foraging birds including non-scolopacid shorebirds (Charadriidae, Haematopodidae, Recurvirostridae and Sternidae). We show that the bill-tip organ structure was broadly similar between the Apterygidae and Scolopacidae, however some inter-specific variation was found in the number, shape and orientation of sensory pits between the two groups. Kiwi, scolopacid shorebirds, waterfowl and parrots all shared hypertrophy or near-hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus. Hypertrophy of the nucleus basorostralis, however, occurred only in waterfowl, kiwi, three of the scolopacid species examined and a species of oystercatcher (Charadriiformes: Haematopodidae). Hypertrophy of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus in kiwi, Scolopacidae, and other tactile specialists appears to have co-evolved alongside bill-tip specializations, whereas hypertrophy of nucleus basorostralis may be influenced to a greater extent by other sensory inputs. We suggest that similarities between kiwi and scolopacid bill

  20. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-12-31

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.