WorldWideScience

Sample records for bilingualism

  1. Bilingualism and Bilingual Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Medardo

    1972-01-01

    The bilingual is an individual who straddles and/or links, to a greater or lesser degree, two or more languages and cultures. The degree of language and cultural dominance can vary from individual to individual, and bilingual programs must take this variety into consideration. This paper considers some of the varying degrees of bilingual…

  2. Bimodal Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmorey, Karen; Borinstein, Helsa B.; Thompson, Robin; Gollan, Tamar H.

    2008-01-01

    Speech-sign or "bimodal" bilingualism is exceptional because distinct modalities allow for simultaneous production of two languages. We investigated the ramifications of this phenomenon for models of language production by eliciting language mixing from eleven hearing native users of American Sign Language (ASL) and English. Instead of switching…

  3. Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Fifth Edition. Bilingual Education & Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Colin

    2011-01-01

    The fifth edition of this bestselling book provides a comprehensive introduction to bilingualism and bilingual education. In a compact and clear style, its 19 chapters cover all the crucial issues in bilingualism at individual, group and national levels. These include: (1) defining who is bilingual and multilingual; (2) testing language abilities…

  4. Reflection on Bilingual Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严玲

    2013-01-01

    Some problems are found about bilingual teaching in the local universities and colleges through the research. This pa⁃per intends to solve the problems by analyzing the findings from the investigations done among the bilingual teachers and stu⁃dents, who are now involved in bilingual teaching. And it also proposes a practical bilingual teaching model especially for universi⁃ties and colleges. This will determine the quality of practicing bilingual teaching and will improve its efficiency.

  5. Zionism & Bilingualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Carmit Romano

    2010-01-01

    TV reports were made about the schools. In this paper, the way in which the schools are presented in documentary films is illuminated. The paper provides an analysis of how certain views of linguistic and cultural co-existence within an educational setting are brought forward. The paper’s main...... conclusion is, that such films serve as a basis for a fruitful discussion about hegemony and dominance, and that the picture of reality as shown in the films puts a question mark as to whether a bilingual educational system in Israel, could strive within a Zionist framework....

  6. Bilingualism: Research and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCardle, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Bilingualism, commonplace throughout the world, is not well accepted or supported in many parts of the United States. Education policies and practices regarding bilingualism are often based on myths and attitudes rather than facts, despite scientific evidence on both the disadvantages and advantages of bilingualism. Based on a brief overview of…

  7. Bilingualism, Biculturalism, and Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosjean, Francois

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains three parts. In the first part, what it means to be bilingual in sign language and the spoken (majority) language is explained, and similarities as well as differences with hearing bilinguals are discussed. The second part examines the biculturalism of deaf people. Like hearing biculturals, they take part, to varying degrees,…

  8. Bilingual teaching of molecular biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Recently bilingual teaching in China's universities has been widely carried out and become a popular subject for study. In this paper, the reasons for bilingual teaching of molecular biology are pointed out, the textbook of molecular biology and teaching method in bilingual teaching classes are determined after investigation and the practice of bilingually teaching molecular biology use both English and Chinese in a class. The effect has proved good. The bilingual teaching methods, the problem of bilingual teaching, the importance of understanding its significance and the possibilities of improving such teaching of the subject are also discussed.

  9. Bilingualism: A Canadian Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Bilingualism in French and English is a much-to-be hoped for common and shared characteristic of Canadian citizenship—even though to date the effect of forty years of the Official Languages Act has been most marked in government services and among various Canadian elites. Although it is important that Canada hold onto a goal of the widest possible bilingualism,more modest objectives are outlined for the years immediately ahead.

  10. Does Bilingualism Influence Cognitive Aging?

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Thomas H.; Nissan, Jack J; Allerhand, Michael M; Deary, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests a positive impact of bilingualism on cognition, including later onset of dementia. However, monolinguals and bilinguals might have different baseline cognitive ability. We present the first study examining the effect of bilingualism on later-life cognition controlling for childhood intelligence. We studied 853 participants, first tested in 1947 (age = 11 years), and retested in 2008–2010. Bilinguals performed significantly better than predicted from their baseline cog...

  11. Bilingual Advertising in Melbourne Chinatown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sherry Yong

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the function of bilingual advertising by analyzing a case study of bilingual advertising in the Chinatown of Melbourne, Australia. The use of bilingual advertising in an immigrant setting differentiates itself from those in Asian settings where English is not used by dominant proportion of speakers in the society, and this…

  12. Socio-Cultural Variables in Bilingual Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Meena; Jain, Vinay Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Bilingualism is a common phenomenon in India. We are all instinctively bilingual. A large proportion of the world's population is bilingual. A bilingual speaking to the other bilingual chooses the language unconsciously or semi-consciously with no extra time or effort. Language alternation has become significant in the Indian context in view of…

  13. Bilingualism and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui

    2012-01-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort, this study examines the role that bilingualism plays in children's academic developmental trajectories during their early school years, with particular attention on the school environment (N = 16,380). Growth-curve results showed that despite starting with lower math scores in kindergarten, Mixed Bilingual children fully closed the math gap with their White English Monolingual peers by fifth grade. However, because non-English-Dominant Bilinguals and non-English Monolinguals started kindergarten with significantly lower reading and math scores compared to their English Monolingual peers, by fifth grade the former groups still had significantly lower scores. School-level factors explained about one third of the reductions in the differences in children's academic performance. PMID:22098584

  14. Bilingualism and attrition

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Monika; Köpke, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    This collection of articles provides theoretical foundations and perspectives for language attrition research. Its purpose is to enable investigations of L1 attrition to avail themselves more fully and more fundamentally of the theoretical frameworkes that have been formulated with respect to SLA and bilingualism.

  15. Neurolinguistic Aspects of Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goral, Mira; Levy, Erika S.; Obler, Loraine K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses aphasia, the language deficit resulting from damage to the language centers of the brain, in order to evaluate how research on bilingual and polyglot aphasic individuals has contributed to our knowledge of the representation of language and languages in neurologically intact humans' brains. Examines the literature on treating lateral…

  16. Bicultural-Bilinguals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringberg, Torsten; Luna, David; Reihlen, Markus;

    2010-01-01

    Cross-cultural management research suggests that bicultural-bilinguals are ideal cultural mediators as they are able to access dual cultural frameworks and seamlessly switch back and forth between these. The assumption is that this switching between cultural frameworks ensures equivalency in mean...

  17. Bilingualism and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Mary V

    2016-06-22

    Although a bilingual advantage has been described for neurodegenerative disease in general, it is not known whether such an advantage could accrue to individuals suffering from schizophrenia, since language networks are known to be disrupted in this condition. The aim of this minireview was to scan the existing literature to determine: (1) whether individuals with schizophrenia are able to learn a second language as adults; (2) whether clinical assessment, both for the purpose of accurate diagnosis and for the prediction of treatment response, should be carried out in both languages in bilinguals with schizophrenia; (3) whether psychotherapy in schizophrenia is affected by bilingualism; and (4) whether speaking a second language improves outcome in schizophrenia. The literature to date is too sparse to make definitive statements, but: (1) individuals with schizophrenia appear to be capable of learning a new languages as adults; and (2) it is possible that teaching a foreign language may serve as a form of cognitive rehabilitation for this condition. This literature review recommends research into the effects of bilingualism on the outcome of schizophrenia. Included in this review is a retrospective pilot study conducted in Canada, which suggests that employment opportunities for patients with schizophrenia are improved when they speak more than one language. This is important to note because employment is generally problematic in the context of schizophrenia while, at the same time, the ability to obtain work contributes significantly to quality of life. PMID:27354960

  18. Industrialization and Bilingualism in India

    OpenAIRE

    David Clingingsmith

    2014-01-01

    Bilingualism is a distinct and important form of human capital in linguistically diverse countries. When communication among workers increases productivity, there can be economic incentives to learn a second language. I study how the growth of industrial employment increased bilingualism in India between 1931 and 1961. During that period, Indian factories were linguistically mixed. I exploit industrial clustering and sectoral demand growth for identification. The effect on bilingualism was st...

  19. Bilingual Education Technology. Ethnoperspectives in Bilingual Education Research, Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Raymond V., Ed.

    The 32 papers in this collection on the general topic of bilingual education technology are presented in three sections. The first group of papers deals with models, methods, and materials; the second group treats measurement and evaluation. The papers in the final section are about language mixing and bilingual education and public policy. (AMH)

  20. Bilingualism and schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Seeman, Mary V.

    2016-01-01

    Although a bilingual advantage has been described for neurodegenerative disease in general, it is not known whether such an advantage could accrue to individuals suffering from schizophrenia, since language networks are known to be disrupted in this condition. The aim of this minireview was to scan the existing literature to determine: (1) whether individuals with schizophrenia are able to learn a second language as adults; (2) whether clinical assessment, both for the purpose of accurate dia...

  1. Bilingualism in Rarotonga

    OpenAIRE

    Wiglesworth, Aileen K.

    1998-01-01

    The globalization of English is a mixed blessing for many of the worlds' small linguistic groups: it provides them with a lingua franca to expand their economic and political opportunities, but it also threatens to displace their indigenous languages. Analysis of codeswitching behavior indicates that English is becoming the dominant language among bilingual Rarotongans of the Cook Islands in the South Pacific. However, there are also social forces supporting the indigenous language and the bi...

  2. Teacher Advocacy in Bilingual Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubetz, Nancy E.; de Jong, Ester J.

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of changes in federal and state policies in education, educators who believe in the value and importance of bilingualism find themselves in a contested environment where their notions of best practices for emergent bilinguals contradict those espoused in such policies. In this context, acts of advocacy that support bilingual…

  3. Bilingual Education and Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Theodore

    Educators are presently engaged in testing the hypothesis that under favorable conditions bilingual schooling will improve the education of both bilinguals and monolingual English-speaking children and at the same time contribute to a healthier society. These prerequisite favorable conditions are: a socio-economic-cultural survey of the community…

  4. Bilingual Approaches to Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaryMcgroarty; NorthernArizonaUniversity

    2003-01-01

    “Billingual Approaches to Language Learning” describes the various bilingual models found at different levels(elementary,secondary,post-secondary,and adult education),identifying key instructional features and emphasizing the drive for quality instruction.The paper makes reference to consideration of the political contexts as well as pedagogical factors affecting the choices and outcomes related to bilingual instruction.

  5. Proficiency and the Bilingual Lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woutersen, Mirjam; And Others

    A study investigated lexical decision-making among Dutch-English bilinguals in the auditory modality. Subjects, bilinguals at three proficiency levels (intermediate, high, and near-native) were presented with 40 cognate and 40 non-cognate word pairs, a similar number of English and Dutch distractors, and a similar number of nonsense words in each…

  6. Bilingual Literacy in Creole Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    This article examines whether the conventional notion of bilingual literacy is applicable to speakers of creole languages in terms of autonomy, codification, instrumentalisation, education and literacy practices. It then goes on to describe alternative conceptions of both literacy and bilingualism that appear to be more relevant to creole…

  7. Monolingual and Bilingual Learners' Dictionaries*

    OpenAIRE

    Rufus H Gouws

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: When deciding on the best learners' dictionary for a specific user and a specificsituation of usage one often has to make a choice between a monolingual and a bilingual learners'dictionary. This article discusses some aspects of the user-driven approach so prevalent in moderndaylexicographic thought, focuses broadly on dictionary typology and takes a closer look at monolingualand bilingual learners' dictionaries. Some problems users experience when learning a newlanguage, e...

  8. Bilingual beginnings to learning words

    OpenAIRE

    Janet F Werker; Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Fennell, Christopher T.

    2009-01-01

    At the macrostructure level of language milestones, language acquisition follows a nearly identical course whether children grow up with one or with two languages. However, at the microstructure level, experimental research is revealing that the same proclivities and learning mechanisms that support language acquisition unfold somewhat differently in bilingual versus monolingual environments. This paper synthesizes recent findings in the area of early bilingualism by focusing on the question ...

  9. The German Model of Bilingual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masch, Nando

    1993-01-01

    The German model of bilingual education is described in terms of its history, syllabus, rationale, and aims and objectives. The essential features of the model are contrasted with other forms of bilingual education. (Contains 23 references.) (JL)

  10. Studying bilingual students’ literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia

    2012-01-01

    contribute to lift the basic understanding of bilinguals’ literacy out of a disqualifying political discourse. Drawing on the ongoing study Sign of Language (Laursen, 2011), I reflect on how a social semiotic framework might help open new research perspectives on bilingual children’s literacy acquisition by...... recognizing as well the child's agency and the micro-stories embedded in the creation of signs as the discursive macro-stories surrounding the meaning making processes. The longitudinal study Signs of Language (2008-2014) involves five multilingual classrooms and aims at getting insight into the children......’s complex uses of the linguistic and semiotic resources available to them by paying close attention to the perspective of the children - as users and interpreters of literacy. Methodologically we adopt an ethnographic approach which also leads us to focus attention to the local use of sociolinguistic and...

  11. Bilingualism and Musicianship Enhance Cognitive Control

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Scott R.; Viorica Marian; Anthony Shook; James Bartolotti

    2016-01-01

    Learning how to speak a second language (i.e., becoming a bilingual) and learning how to play a musical instrument (i.e., becoming a musician) are both thought to increase executive control through experience-dependent plasticity. However, evidence supporting this effect is mixed for bilingualism and limited for musicianship. In addition, the combined effects of bilingualism and musicianship on executive control are unknown. To determine whether bilingualism, musicianship, and combined biling...

  12. Testing the Language Proficiency of Bilingual Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    As bilingual education emerges after the 1974 Lau decision, the additional need to test the language proficiency of bilingual education teachers is recognized. Examination of possible means of validating language proficiency of bilingual education teacher certification candidates shows several alternatives, some desirable and some not. A review of…

  13. Deaf Children's Bimodal Bilingualism and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanwick, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the research into deaf children's bilingualism and bilingual education through a synthesis of studies published over the last 15 years. This review brings together the linguistic and pedagogical work on bimodal bilingualism to inform educational practice. The first section of the review provides a synthesis of…

  14. BILINGUALISM: AN ASSET OR A BURDEN?

    OpenAIRE

    Ienneke Indra Dewi

    2008-01-01

    The article shows literary scholar opinion whether bilingualism is an asset or burden. The literary scholars see it from many aspects such as neuropsychological, cognitive, social, and psychology. From their research it found that generally bilingualism is an asset and not a burden. The analysis is also supported by argument and some examples from bilingual peoples.

  15. Bilingualism and Creativity in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikin, Mark; Tovli, Esther

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the possible effect of bilingualism on creativity in nonmathematical and mathematical problem solving among bilingual and monolingual preschoolers. Two groups of children (M age = 71.9 months, SD = 3.6) from the same monolingual kindergartens participated in this study: 15 Russian/Hebrew balanced bilinguals and 16 native…

  16. Bilingual Evidence against the Principle of Contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, Suzanne

    Prior research on early lexical acquisition in bilingual infants has been used by Clark (1987) to support the Principle of Contrast, which states that every two forms contrast in meaning. In this study of an English-Spanish bilingual child, it is argued that the Principle of Contrast is not applicable to bilingual acquisition in general. Daily…

  17. Information Architecture for Bilingual Web Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunliffe, Daniel; Jones, Helen; Jarvis, Melanie; Egan, Kevin; Huws, Rhian; Munro, Sian

    2002-01-01

    Discusses creating an information architecture for a bilingual Web site and reports work in progress on the development of a content-based bilingual Web site to facilitate shared resources between speech and language therapists. Considers a structural analysis of existing bilingual Web designs and explains a card-sorting activity conducted with…

  18. Bilingualism and Musicianship Enhance Cognitive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R. Schroeder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning how to speak a second language (i.e., becoming a bilingual and learning how to play a musical instrument (i.e., becoming a musician are both thought to increase executive control through experience-dependent plasticity. However, evidence supporting this effect is mixed for bilingualism and limited for musicianship. In addition, the combined effects of bilingualism and musicianship on executive control are unknown. To determine whether bilingualism, musicianship, and combined bilingualism and musicianship improve executive control, we tested 219 young adults belonging to one of four groups (bilinguals, musicians, bilingual musicians, and controls on a nonlinguistic, nonmusical, visual-spatial Simon task that measured the ability to ignore an irrelevant and misinformative cue. Results revealed that bilinguals, musicians, and bilingual musicians showed an enhanced ability to ignore a distracting cue relative to controls, with similar levels of superior performance among bilinguals, musicians, and bilingual musicians. These results indicate that bilingualism and musicianship improve executive control and have implications for educational and rehabilitation programs that use music and foreign language instruction to boost cognitive performance.

  19. Bilingualism and Musicianship Enhance Cognitive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Learning how to speak a second language (i.e., becoming a bilingual) and learning how to play a musical instrument (i.e., becoming a musician) are both thought to increase executive control through experience-dependent plasticity. However, evidence supporting this effect is mixed for bilingualism and limited for musicianship. In addition, the combined effects of bilingualism and musicianship on executive control are unknown. To determine whether bilingualism, musicianship, and combined bilingualism and musicianship improve executive control, we tested 219 young adults belonging to one of four groups (bilinguals, musicians, bilingual musicians, and controls) on a nonlinguistic, nonmusical, visual-spatial Simon task that measured the ability to ignore an irrelevant and misinformative cue. Results revealed that bilinguals, musicians, and bilingual musicians showed an enhanced ability to ignore a distracting cue relative to controls, with similar levels of superior performance among bilinguals, musicians, and bilingual musicians. These results indicate that bilingualism and musicianship improve executive control and have implications for educational and rehabilitation programs that use music and foreign language instruction to boost cognitive performance. PMID:26819764

  20. Survey of Bilingualism in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay-Raining Bird, Elizabeth; Lamond, Erin; Holden, Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    This survey study investigates issues related to bilingualism and autism. Bilingualism is common around the world but there is little published information to guide professionals and parents in making decisions about bilingualism for children with autism. Participants were 49 parents or guardians of children with autism who were members of a…

  1. BILINGUALISM: AN ASSET OR A BURDEN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ienneke Indra Dewi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The article shows literary scholar opinion whether bilingualism is an asset or burden. The literary scholars see it from many aspects such as neuropsychological, cognitive, social, and psychology. From their research it found that generally bilingualism is an asset and not a burden. The analysis is also supported by argument and some examples from bilingual peoples.

  2. A Bilingual Advantage in Task Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; MacWhinney, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility that lifelong bilingualism may lead to enhanced efficiency in the ability to shift between mental sets. We compared the performance of monolingual and fluent bilingual college students in a task-switching paradigm. Bilinguals incurred reduced switching costs in the task-switching paradigm when compared with…

  3. Bilingualism: Beyond Basic Principles. Multilingual Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc, Ed.; Housen, Alex, Ed.; Wei, Li, Ed.

    This collection of papers focuses on individual bilingualism and societal and educational phenomena. After "Introduction and Overview" (Jean-Marc Dewaele, Alex Housen, and Li Wei), 12 papers include: (1) "Who is Afraid of Bilingualism?" (Hugo Baetens Beardsmore); (2) "The Importance of being Bilingual" (John Edwards); (3) "Towards a More…

  4. Bilingualism and Musicianship Enhance Cognitive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Scott R; Marian, Viorica; Shook, Anthony; Bartolotti, James

    2016-01-01

    Learning how to speak a second language (i.e., becoming a bilingual) and learning how to play a musical instrument (i.e., becoming a musician) are both thought to increase executive control through experience-dependent plasticity. However, evidence supporting this effect is mixed for bilingualism and limited for musicianship. In addition, the combined effects of bilingualism and musicianship on executive control are unknown. To determine whether bilingualism, musicianship, and combined bilingualism and musicianship improve executive control, we tested 219 young adults belonging to one of four groups (bilinguals, musicians, bilingual musicians, and controls) on a nonlinguistic, nonmusical, visual-spatial Simon task that measured the ability to ignore an irrelevant and misinformative cue. Results revealed that bilinguals, musicians, and bilingual musicians showed an enhanced ability to ignore a distracting cue relative to controls, with similar levels of superior performance among bilinguals, musicians, and bilingual musicians. These results indicate that bilingualism and musicianship improve executive control and have implications for educational and rehabilitation programs that use music and foreign language instruction to boost cognitive performance. PMID:26819764

  5. Non-Selective Lexical Access in Different-Script Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jihye; Jiang, Nan

    2012-01-01

    Lexical access in bilinguals is known to be largely non-selective. However, most studies in this area have involved bilinguals whose two languages share the same script. This study aimed to examine bilingual lexical access among bilinguals whose two languages have distinct scripts. Korean-English bilinguals were tested in a phoneme monitoring task…

  6. Semantic facilitation in bilingual first language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilson, Samuel; Yoshida, Hanako; Tran, Crystal D; Woods, Elizabeth A; Hills, Thomas T

    2015-07-01

    Bilingual first language learners face unique challenges that may influence the rate and order of early word learning relative to monolinguals. A comparison of the productive vocabularies of 435 children between the ages of 6 months and 7 years-181 of which were bilingual English learners-found that monolinguals learned both English words and all-language concepts faster than bilinguals. However, bilinguals showed an enhancement of an effect previously found in monolinguals-the preference for learning words with more associative cues. Though both monolinguals and bilinguals were best fit by a similar model of word learning, semantic network structure and growth indicated that the two groups were learning English words in a different order. Further, in comparison with a model of two-monolinguals-in-one-mind, bilinguals overproduced translational equivalents. Our results support an emergent account of bilingual first language acquisition, where learning a word in one language facilitates its acquisition in a second language. PMID:25909582

  7. Graphic Arts. A Bilingual Text = Artes Graficas. Un Texto Bilingue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Career and Continuing Education.

    This bilingual instructional text, one in a series of six texts covering various vocational and technical topics, provides secondary level English and Spanish instruction in graphic arts. Addressed in the individual sections are basic graphic arts (composition, stone and press work, offset printing, silk screen, and photography) and allied graphic…

  8. Bilingual Competence and Bilingual Proficiency in Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    When two or more languages are part of a child's world, we are presented with a rich opportunity to learn something about language in general and about how the mind works. In this book, Norbert Francis examines the development of bilingual proficiency and the different kinds of competence that come together in making up its component parts. In…

  9. Becoming Bilingual: Children's Insights about Making Friends in Bilingual Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne; Verdon, Sarah; Theobald, Maryanne

    2015-01-01

    The majority of the world speaks more than one language, yet the impact of learning a second language has rarely been studied from a child's perspective. This paper describes monolingual children's insights into becoming bilingual at four time points: 2 months before moving to another country (while living in Australia), as well as 1, 6, and…

  10. Compositions in English: Comparing the Works of Monolinguals, Passive Bilinguals, and Active Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Eka Rini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to see whether the subjects’ “monolingualism” and “bilingualism” (monolinguals learning an L2 and bilinguals learning an L3 influence their study on English, especially writing. The term “bilinguals” also means “multilinguals” in this study. Bilinguals in this paper are classified into two; first, passive bilinguals who are only exposed to another local language, besides speaking Bahasa Indonesia at home, and second, active bilinguals who are exposed to and also speak other language(s and Bahasa Indonesia at home. The findings show that the monolingual and the active bilingual are better than the passive one; the active bilingual is better than the monolingual. However, if the passive and the active bilingual are combined, the monolingual is better than the bilinguals.

  11. Optimization in Bilingual Language Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Rakesh M.

    2013-01-01

    Pieter Muysken's keynote paper, "Language contact outcomes as a result of bilingual optimization strategies", undertakes an ambitious project to theoretically unify different empirical outcomes of language contact, for instance, SLA, pidgins and Creoles, and code-switching. Muysken has dedicated a life-time to researching, rather…

  12. Moral Dimensions of Bilingual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutri, Ramona Maile; Ferrin, Scott

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the historical development of U.S. bilingual education policy largely results from a morality based on economic and social interdependency. Explores strengths and limitations of that morality. Develops the construct of a spiritual morality that combines the powers of intellect, emotions, politics, and spirituality in support of…

  13. Bilingualism: A Bridge to Cosmopolitanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Raúl A.; Golovátina-Mora, Polina

    2011-01-01

    The literature in English education has discussed at length the proposed goals of English as a tool for international communication, diversity, and the mutual sharing of cultures. In Colombia, different policies have aimed at making "bilingualism" a policy and educational priority that wants to help Colombian students turn these goals…

  14. Bilingualism and Adult Differences in Inhibitory Mechanisms: Evidence from a Bilingual Stroop Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Zied, Kefi; Phillipe, Allain; Karine, Pinon; Valerie, Havet-Thomassin; Ghislaine, Aubin; Arnaud, Roy; Didier, Le Gall

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation examined the functioning of inhibitory mechanisms in younger and older bilinguals using a bilingual version of the Stroop test. The study predicted different patterns of age related decline in inhibitory mechanisms (inter- and intralingual interference) in bilinguals depending on their level of proficiency. Consistent…

  15. A Test on a Bilingual Dual Coding Hypothesis in Japanese-English Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taura, Hideyuki

    A study investigated the effects of second language (L2) acquisition age, length of L2 exposure, and gender on bilingual coding, and examined whether the bilingual dual coding effect in incidental recalls would be the same as in Indo-European languages. The bilingual dual coding hypothesis proposes that the individual's image system and the two…

  16. Age of First Bilingual Language Exposure as a New Window into Bilingual Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovelman, Ioulia; Baker, Stephanie A.; Petitto, Laura-Ann

    2008-01-01

    How does age of first bilingual language exposure affect reading development in children learning to read in both of their languages? Is there a reading advantage for monolingual English children who are educated in bilingual schools? We studied children (grades 2-3, ages 7-9) in "bilingual" Spanish-English schools who were either from…

  17. The Benefits of Being Bilingual: Working Memory in Bilingual Turkish-Dutch Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.B.T.; Küntay, A.C.; Messer, M.H.; Verhagen, J.; Leseman, P.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Whether bilingual children outperform monolingual children on visuospatial and verbal working memory tests was investigated. In addition, relations among bilingual proficiency, language use at home, and working memory were explored. The bilingual Turkish–Dutch children (n = 68) in this study were ra

  18. Reshaping the Mind: The Benefits of Bilingualism

    OpenAIRE

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that bilingual individuals consistently outperform their monolingual counterparts on tasks involving executive control. The present paper reviews some of the evidence for this conclusion and relates the findings to the effect of bilingualism on cognitive organisation and to conceptual issues in the structure of executive control. Evidence for the protective effect of bilingualism against Alzheimer’s disease is presented with some speculation about the reason for that protec...

  19. The economic value of reciprocal bilingualism

    OpenAIRE

    Caminal, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    Some bilingual societies exhibit a distribution of language skills that can- not be explained by economic theories that portray languages as pure commu- nication devices. Such distribution of skills are typically the result of public policies that promote bilingualism among members of both speech commu- nities (reciprocal bilingualism). In this paper I argue that these policies are likely to increase social welfare by diminishing economic and social segmenta- tion between the two communities....

  20. Bilingualism: Consequences for Mind and Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Bialystok, Ellen; Craik, Fergus I M; Luk, Gigi

    2012-01-01

    Building on earlier evidence showing a beneficial effect of bilingualism on children’s cognitive development, we review recent studies using both behavioral and neuroimaging methods to examine the effects of bilingualism on cognition in adulthood and explore possible mechanisms for these effects. This research shows that bilingualism has a somewhat muted effect in adulthood but a larger role in older age, protecting against cognitive decline, a concept known as “cognitive reserve”. We discuss...

  1. Research on Bilingual Education in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2014-01-01

    It is acknowledged that bilingual educaiton, as a new way in teaching, has attracted much attention in China for several years. This language policy gains praises from supporters but also causes lots of controversies with its relevant limitations. The pres⁃ent paper provides a brief review of the broad historical development of bilingual education in China, analyzes the unsolved prob⁃lems and offers some recommendations for bilingual education to make it develop more smoothly and successfully.

  2. Web-based Digital Lexicographic Bilingual Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralitsa Dutsova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Web-based Digital Lexicographic Bilingual ResourcesThe paper presents briefly a web-based system for creation and management of bilingual resources with Bulgarian as one of the paired language. This is useful and easy to use tool for collection and management of a large amount of different linguistic knowledge. The system uses two sets of natural language data: bilingual dictionary and aligned text corpora

  3. BILINGUALISM AND DEVELOPMENT: A PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajos Göncz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on the relation between bilingualism and psychological development can be structured in many ways. This review will focus on two issues: first, empirical evidence that bilingualism is associated with several aspects of psychological development; and second, holistic and partial explanations for the influence of bilingualism on personality development, whether in general or in particular. Holistic explanations usually begin by distinguishing between additive and subtractive bilingual situations, and then hypothesizing as a result a broad spectrum of behavioural changes in personality. An attempt has been made to illuminate this connection by using concepts from the psychology of learning and motivation. Partial explanations can be found in concepts such as semi-lingualism vs. surface- and cognitive linguistic competence; and in several hypotheses, such as the interdependence of language proficiency in bilinguals, and Cummins’ threshold hypothesis. In conclusion, the accumulated knowledge about bilingual development will be suggested as a resource for better understanding issues of psychological development in general. Future research should concentrate especially on mechanisms that best reverse language shift, on bilingualism and aging, bilingualism and emotions, and on bilingual episodic (autobiographical memory.

  4. The effects of bilingualism on children's perception of speech sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasileiro, I.

    2009-01-01

    The general topic addressed by this dissertation is that of bilingualism, and more specifically, the topic of bilingual acquisition of speech sounds. The central question in this study is the following: does bilingualism affect children’s perceptual development of speech sounds? The term bilingual i

  5. Discourses on Bilingualism in Canadian French Immersion Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sylvie; Galiev, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The present article examines discourses on bilingualism in French immersion schools and connects local ideologies of bilingualism to a more global view of what it means to be bilingual in Canada. Bilingualism is usually regarded as two isolated monolingualisms (or monolingual systems) in which there is no place for code-switching, uneven language…

  6. Understanding Bilingual/Bicultural Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Lourdes Diaz

    1991-01-01

    Among the topics examined in this research review of issues in bilingual and bicultural education are (1) demographic and educational trends that point to growing numbers of bilingual and bicultural children; (2) continuing misconceptions about how young children learn a second language; (3) successful approaches in early childhood bilingual…

  7. Translating Competence in a Critical Bilingual Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahnmann, Melisa

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the work of a bilingual educator who "translated" herself from a teacher working within the deficit structures of bilingual education to an individual who worked creatively within those structures so that she and her students could resituate themselves in positions of authority and value. This one-year study of a bilingual…

  8. Explaining Language Choice in Early Infant Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, Suzanne

    This study investigated whether language context affects language choice in a Spanish-English bilingual infant from age 1;3 to 1;10. Most studies of child bilingualism assume that communicative competence occurs at a stage in language development after the onset of syntactic constructions, but this paper hypothesizes that once the child begins to…

  9. Culture in the Bilingual-Bicultural Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Anthony R.

    The creation of a classroom that is more receptive to individual and cultural differences and the inclusion of the intangible elements of culture in the total instructional plan will increase the effectiveness of the educational process in bilingual-bicultural programs. In planning a cultural component for the bilingual-bicultural classroom, the…

  10. Emergent Bilinguals: Framing Students as Statistical Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Jill; Menken, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Immigrant youth who are designated as English language learners in American schools--whom we refer to as "emergent bilinguals"--are increasingly framed by numerical calculations. Utilizing the notion of assemblage from actor-network theory (ANT), we trace how emergent bilinguals are discursively constructed by officials, administrators,…

  11. The Organisation of the Bilingual Lexicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woutersen, Mirjam

    A study investigated the processes used by bilinguals for organizing vocabulary by presenting subjects with bilingual word recognition tasks in two modalities (aural and visual) and using a repetition paradigm. Subjects were asked to decide whether a word presented to them was a nonsense word or a real word. Two separate experiments are described.…

  12. Lexical Aspects of Standard Dialect Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woutersen, Mirjam; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Uses Weinreich's (1953) partition of bilingualism to describe the effects of a small typological distance on the organization of the bilingual lexicon. Using standard Dutch and the dialect of Maastricht, subjects performed an auditory lexical decision task. (30 references) (Author/CK)

  13. Working with Bilingual Learners: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenberg, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to provide a theoretical overview of bilingualism and discuss the key concepts and theories that inform classroom pedagogy with bilingual learners. Although some specific classroom strategies are introduced, the primary purpose is not to offer strategies, but rather to offer guiding principles based on theory and research to…

  14. Bilingualism--A Sanguine Step in ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Beena

    2014-01-01

    Bilingualism can be used as a teaching aid in teaching and learning English language in an Indian classroom and to improve the language accuracy, fluency, and clarity of learners. Bilingualism can aid the teaching and learning process productively in the classroom. In India, most of the students consider English as a subject rather than a tool of…

  15. Contribution of Bilingualism in Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipra, Muhammad Aslam

    2013-01-01

    This study is an investigation into the contribution of the use of bilingualism as an aid in learning/teaching English as a foreign language and bilingualism in EFL classroom does not reduce students' communicative abilities but in effect can assist in teaching and learning process. The study employed a qualitative, interpretive research design…

  16. How Does Pragmatic Competence Develop in Bilinguals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecskes, Istvan

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss how the emerging new language with its own developing socio-cultural foundation affects the existing L1-governed knowledge and pragmatic competence of "adult sequential bilinguals." It is assumed that these bilinguals already have an L1-governed pragmatic competence at place, which will be adjusted to…

  17. Bilingual Siblings: Language Use in Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron-Hauwaert, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Taking a different perspective to traditional case studies on one bilingual child, this book discusses the whole family and the realities of life with two or more children and languages. What do we know about the language patterns of children in a growing and evolving bilingual family? Which languages do the siblings prefer to speak to each other?…

  18. A bilingual disadvantage in metacognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folke, Tomas; Ouzia, Julia; Bright, Peter; De Martino, Benedetto; Filippi, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Recent research indicating that bilingualism is associated with enhanced executive function suggests that this enhancement may operate within a broader spectrum of cognitive abilities than previously thought (e.g., Stocco & Prat, 2014). In this study, we focus on metacognition or the ability to evaluate one's own cognitive performance (Flavell, 1979). Over the course of two experiments, we presented young healthy adult monolinguals and bilinguals with a perceptual two-alternative-forced-choice task followed by confidence judgements. Results from both experiments indicated that bilingual participants showed a disadvantage in metacognitive efficiency, determined through the calculation of Mratio (Maniscalco & Lau, 2014). Our findings provide novel insight into the potential differences in bilingual and monolingual cognition, which may indicate a bilingual disadvantage. Results are discussed with reference to the balance of advantages versus disadvantages associated with multilanguage learning. PMID:26896725

  19. The Bilingual Switching Advantage: Sometimes Related to Bilingual Proficiency, Sometimes Not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lily; Taft, Marcus; Gollan, Tamar H

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship between bilingualism and task switching ability using a standardized measure of switching and an objective measure of bilingual language proficiency. Heritage Language (HL) speaking Spanish-English and Mandarin-English bilinguals and English speaking monolinguals completed all four subtests of the Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), an English verbal fluency task, and a picture naming test (the Multilingual Naming Test) in English. Bilinguals also named pictures in their HL to assess HL proficiency. Spanish-English bilinguals were advantaged in task switching, exhibiting significantly smaller switching cost than monolinguals, but were disadvantaged in verbal fluency and picture naming. Additionally, performance on these cognitive and linguistic tasks was related to degree of HL proficiency, so that increased ability to name pictures in Spanish was associated with greater switching advantage, and greater disadvantage in both verbal fluency and picture naming. Mandarin-English bilinguals, who differed from the Spanish-English bilinguals on several demographic and language-use characteristics, exhibited a smaller but statistically significant switching advantage, but no linguistic disadvantage, and no clear relationship between HL proficiency and the switching advantage. Together these findings demonstrate an explicit link between objectively measured bilingual language proficiency and both bilingual advantages and disadvantages, while also showing that consequences of bilingualism for cognitive and linguistic task performance can vary across different language combinations. PMID:26527242

  20. Speech and language intervention in bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Ramos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, speech and language pathologists (SLPs around the world are faced with the unique set of issues presented by their bilingual clients. Some professional associations in different countries have presented recommendations when assessing and treating bilingual populations. In children, most of the studies have focused on intervention for language and phonology/ articulation impairments and very few focus on stuttering. In general, studies of language intervention tend to agree that intervention in the first language (L1 either increase performance on L2 or does not hinder it. In bilingual adults, monolingual versus bilingual intervention is especially relevant in cases of aphasia; dysarthria in bilinguals has been barely approached. Most studies of cross-linguistic effects in bilingual aphasics have focused on lexical retrieval training. It has been noted that even though a majority of studies have disclosed a cross-linguistic generalization from one language to the other, some methodological weaknesses are evident. It is concluded that even though speech and language intervention in bilinguals represents a most important clinical area in speech language pathology, much more research using larger samples and controlling for potentially confounding variables is evidently required.

  1. Opinions of Students Enrolled in an Andalusian Bilingual Program on Bilingualism and the Program Itself

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ramos Calvo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The Regional Ministry of Education of the Autonomous Government of Andalusia, an autonomous community in the South of Spain, has established several bilingual programs to improve language proficiency of its student population. The programs, which undertake second languages as vehicular languages at the classroom, encourage student’s bilingualism, academic development and positive attitudes toward other groups. The following paper examines opinions given by a group of students enrolled in an Andalusian bilingual program about those matters. Students had different positive opinions on bilingualism as well as the program in general; however, they had some doubts over the intellectual and cognitive benefits of learning languages.

  2. Bilingual Education in Early Childhood Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Eugene

    1988-01-01

    This article surveys literature of research based on several early childhood bilingual education programs and guidelines. Common findings of each are outlined. It also includes a case study of instructional discourse in teaching language minority kindergarten children. (JL)

  3. Hebrew-Arabic bilingual schooling in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Carmit Romano

    2010-01-01

    . The “Hand In Hand Centre for Jewish-Arab Education in Israel” is a grass-root movement of bilingual, bi-national primary schools in which Jewish and Arab children study together. The first school was open in Jerusalem in 1998. Currently there are 4 schools throughout the country The schools’ rational is...... was perceived as a bi-product that would come about as a result of the equal amount of time and resources allocated to both Arabic and Hebrew in the curriculum. However, there are a number of challenges such as the hegemony and dominance of Hebrew, the imbalance in knowledge of the two languages among...... the teaching stuff and the parents population (the Jewish teachers and parents have little or no knowledge of Arabic while the Arab teachers and parents are virtually bilinguals), the absence of bilingual teacher-training programs and lack of bilingual teaching materials production, that have to be addressed...

  4. Grey literature on bilingualism in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Schöpfel, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Because of the town Antwerp host of the GL9 conference and because of our own former scientific experience we selected the field of bilingualism for a study on the importance of grey literature in social sciences and humanities. The study is meant to be an additional contribution to comparable scientometric analyses on the distribution of types of publications in different scientific domains. Bilingualism, the learning and use of two or more languages, is a linguistic, social, educational and...

  5. Contribution of Bilingualism in Language Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Aslam Sipra

    2013-01-01

    This study is an investigation into the contribution of the use of bilingualism as an aid in learning/teaching English as a foreign language and bilingualism in EFL classroom does not reduce students’ communicative abilities but in effect can assist in teaching and learning process. The study employed a qualitative, interpretive research design involving questionnaires, classroom observations and semi-structured interviews. The data part analyzed the students and the teachers’ expressed respo...

  6. Speech and language intervention in bilinguals

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Ramos; Alfredo Ardila

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, speech and language pathologists (SLPs) around the world are faced with the unique set of issues presented by their bilingual clients. Some professional associations in different countries have presented recommendations when assessing and treating bilingual populations. In children, most of the studies have focused on intervention for language and phonology/ articulation impairments and very few focus on stuttering. In general, studies of language intervention tend to agree tha...

  7. Bilingual dictionaries for all EU languages

    OpenAIRE

    Aker, A.; Paramita, M.L.; Pinnis, M.; Gaizauskas, R.

    2014-01-01

    Bilingual dictionaries can be automatically generated using the GIZA++ tool. However, these dictionaries contain a lot of noise, because of which the qualities of outputs of tools relying on the dictionaries are negatively affected. In this work, we present three different methods for cleaning noise from automatically generated bilingual dictionaries: LLR, pivot and transliteration based approach. We have applied these approaches on the GIZA++ dictionaries – dictionaries covering official EU ...

  8. Language competition with bilinguals in social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Castelló; Víctor M Eguíluz; Maxi San Miguel

    2006-01-01

    Several models have been proposed to study the dynamics of competition between languages. Among them, and starting from the dynamics of endangered languages, recent approaches have addressed the issue of bilingualism. Along these lines we consider the dynamics of language use, allowing for bilingualism, within a social network in the case where the two languages are equivalent. Understanding this case is a first step to describe the case of an endangered language competing against a language ...

  9. Becoming Bilingual: A View Towards Communicative Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilla Musyanda

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The phenomenon of foreign language mastery shall always be the main issue in the pedagogy since it has numerous advantages in human life, especially in terms of economic value. The definition of bilingualism is connected with the speaking of two languages or expression in two languages and it can be used to describe societies or individuals (Lyon, 1995. The way that a bilingual adapts to a certain condition leads to a certain phenomenon, which is quite interesting to analyze. The texture of the bilingual's creativity is essentially the result of the process of translation and transcreation, and insightful approaches to stylistics-its theory and methodology must be take into consideration. When people speak more than one languages, they may have different levels of proficiency in each of the languages, and use them for very different social purposes and in different situations. The languages that a bilingual speaks affect each other in various ways, so much that there is a regular study of what happens when one language comes into contact with another. In educational setting, it is important to know how a bilingual's first language may affect the function of other languages. The paper will discuss the phenomenon of bilingual and the implication towards communicative competence which would consists, minimally, of four areas of knowledge and skills; grammatical competence, sociolinguistic competence, discourse competence and strategic competence.

  10. Becoming Bilingual: A View Towards Communicative Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilla Musyahda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of foreign language mastery shall always be the main issue in the pedagogy since it has numerous advantages in human life, especially in terms of economic value. The definition of bilingualism is connected with the speaking of two languages or expression in two languages and it can be used to describe societies or individuals (Lyon, 1995. The way that a bilingual adapts to a certain condition leads to a certain phenomenon, which is quite interesting to analyze. The texture of the bilingual's creativity is essentially the result of the process of translation and transcreation, and insightful approaches to stylistics-its theory and methodology must be take into consideration. When people speak more than one languages, they may have different levels of proficiency in each of the languages, and use them for very different social purposes and in different situations. The languages that a bilingual speaks affect each other in various ways, so much that there is a regular study of what happens when one language comes into contact with another. In educational setting, it is important to know how a bilingual's first language may affect the function of other languages. The paper will discuss the phenomenon of bilingual and the implication towards communicative competence which would consists, minimally, of four areas of knowledge and skills; grammatical competence, sociolinguistic competence, discourse competence and strategic competence.

  11. Monolingual and Bilingual Learners' Dictionaries*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufus H. Gouws

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: When deciding on the best learners' dictionary for a specific user and a specificsituation of usage one often has to make a choice between a monolingual and a bilingual learners'dictionary. This article discusses some aspects of the user-driven approach so prevalent in moderndaylexicographic thought, focuses broadly on dictionary typology and takes a closer look at monolingualand bilingual learners' dictionaries. Some problems users experience when learning a newlanguage, e.g. language distortion and problems related to the phenomenon of false friends, especiallyin closely related languages, are mentioned. It is indicated that a typological hybrid dictionarycould assist certain users. The importance of an unambiguous identification of the relevantlexicographic functions is emphasised and the notions of function condensation and function mergingare introduced. It is shown that the typological choice should be determined by a function-basedapproach to dictionary usage.

    Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, FALSE FRIENDS, FUNCTION CONDENSATION,FUNCTION MERGING, GENUINE PURPOSE, LEARNERS' DICTIONARY, LEXICOGRAPHICFUNCTIONS, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, TEXT PRODUCTION, TEXT RECEPTION,TYPOLOGICAL HYBRID, TYPOLOGY.

    Opsomming: Eentalige en tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboeke. Wanneerbesluit moet word oor die beste aanleerderwoordeboek vir 'n spesifieke gebruiker en 'n spesifiekegebruiksituasie moet daar dikwels gekies word tussen 'n eentalige en 'n tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboek.Hierdie artikel bespreek bepaalde aspekte van die gebruikersgedrewe benaderingwat kenmerkend is van die moderne leksikografiese denke, fokus breedweg op woordeboektipologieen gee in meer besonderhede aandag aan sekere aspekte van eentalige en tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboeke.Bepaalde probleme wat gebruikers ervaar by die aanleer van 'n vreemde taal,bv. taalversteuring en probleme verwant aan die verskynsel van valse vriende, veral in nou verwantetale, kry aandag

  12. The Effects of Bilingualism on Cognitive Development: A Case of Bilingual Children in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi, Marzieh; Alizadeh, Sona

    2008-01-01

    In Urmia city, many children learn and speak their first language (either Azari or Kurdish) at home and study all of their courses in Farsi throughout their education. This bilingual quality of education needs to be researched to attain high quality educational practices. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of bilingualism on…

  13. Bilingual Development and the Education of Bilingual Children during Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Eugene E.

    A discussion of the cognitive development of bilingual children and its implications for early childhood education for this population begins with a review of recent research on bilingual development. It looks at the forms and results of research projects on dual language acquisition processes, the interactive influence of multiple language…

  14. The Long-Term Effects of Bilingualism on Children of Immigration: Student Bilingualism and Future Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirdag, Orhan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine the largely neglected long-term effects of bilingualism for students with roots in immigration. Our central research question is whether students' bilingual proficiencies have an impact on their future earnings in the USA. For this purpose, we used two different data-sets, i.e. the National Education Longitudinal…

  15. Spaces for Dynamic Bilingualism in Read-Aloud Discussions: Developing and Strengthening Bilingual and Academic Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Jo; Durán, Leah; Hikida, Michiko; Pruitt, Alina; Peterson, Katie

    2013-01-01

    A substantial body of research has collectively concluded that encouraging students to draw flexibly on multiple aspects of their linguistic repertoires is positively associated with developing bilingualism, metalinguistic awareness, and academic skills. However, most bilingual education programs--including transitional and dual-language--limit,…

  16. Through the Lens of Teachers in Two Bilingual Programmes: A Look at Early Bilingual Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Wee Koh, Poh; Xi Chen, Becky; Sinke, Mark; Geva, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Educators and researchers increasingly recognise the impact of language policies on bilingual education. The present study examined the similarities and differences in how the teachers and principals in two different contexts, a Mandarin-English bilingual programme in a Canadian kindergarten and elementary school and a Russian-Hebrew bilingual…

  17. Creating a Bilingual Pre-School Classroom: The Multilayered Discourses of a Bilingual Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palviainen, Åsa; Mård-Miettinen, Karita

    2015-01-01

    Teachers have an agentive role as they interpret, evaluate and develop language policies and practices. In the current study we interviewed a bilingual pre-school teacher in Finland during the first year of implementing a new way of working bilingually with a class of monolingual children. Applying nexus analysis, we explored the teacher…

  18. Language dominance and inhibition abilities in bilingual older adults*

    Science.gov (United States)

    GORAL, MIRA; CAMPANELLI, LUCA; SPIRO, AVRON

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the so-called bilingual advantage in older adults’ performance in three cognitive domains and to identify whether language use and bilingual type (dominant vs. balanced) predicted performance. The participants were 106 Spanish–English bilinguals ranging in age from 50 years to 84 years. Three cognitive domains were examined (each by a single test): inhibition (the Simon task), alternating attention (the Trail Making test), and working memory (Month Ordering). The data revealed that age was negatively correlated to performance in each domain. Bilingual type – balanced vs. dominant – predicted performance and interacted with age only on the inhibition measure (the Simon task). Balanced bilinguals showed age-related inhibition decline (i.e., greater Simon effect with increasing age); in contrast, dominant bilinguals showed little or no age-related change. The findings suggest that bilingualism may offer cognitive advantage in older age only for a subset of bilinguals.

  19. Enseignement bilingue et enseignement international

    OpenAIRE

    Maillard, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    L’enseignement bilingue n’est pas nouveau, même en France, mais il est à la mode. L’enseignement international est moins connu, mais il n’est plus nécessaire, comme c’était encore le cas il y a quelques années de clarifier les concepts ou de faire œuvre de militant. Pourtant, le succès même de certaines formules, qui les place désormais dans le champ des décisions administratives, impose qu’on y regarde à nouveau de plus près. En France même, des cursus existent, et d’autres vont se développe...

  20. Working memory in multilingual children: Is there a bilingual effect?

    OpenAIRE

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates whether early childhood bilingualism affects working memory performance in 6- to 8-year-olds, followed over a longitudinal period of 3 years. The study tests the hypothesis that bilinguals might exhibit more efficient working memory abilities than monolinguals, potentially via the opportunity a bilingual environment provides to train cognitive control by combating interference and intrusions from the non-target language. A total of 44 bilingual and monolingual child...

  1. A Bilingual Advantage in Young Adults: Unfounded or Undetectable

    OpenAIRE

    Clarkson, Harriet

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that a bilingual cognitive advantage in young adults manifests inconsistently. The objective of the present study was to investigate the existence of a bilingual advantage in this age group, whilst looking at factors which may influence its detectability and thus contribute to explaining the variability in previous research. In order to ensure that all bilinguals had spent a period of time speaking their second language in its natural environment, bilingual exchange student...

  2. Bilingualism and Cognition: Informing Research, Pedagogy, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Eugene E.; Nanez, Jose E., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 7% to 10% of children are raised in bilingual households. Despite inherent advantages to bilingualism, some bilingual children experience a significant lag in academic success relative to other groups. Bridging the fields of cognitive psychology and education, this volume presents research-based knowledge on…

  3. Bilingualism and Multiculturalism Go to Early Childhood Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Roy Ceferino

    This presentation on the preparation of early childhood teachers addresses implication of multiculturalism and bilingual education in early childhood programs. The purpose of the presentation was threefold: (1) to increase understanding of bilingualism and multiculturalism; (2) to compare and contrast bilingualism and multiculturalism; and (3) to…

  4. The Bimodal Bilingual Brain: Effects of Sign Language Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmorey, Karen; McCullough, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Bimodal bilinguals are hearing individuals who know both a signed and a spoken language. Effects of bimodal bilingualism on behavior and brain organization are reviewed, and an fMRI investigation of the recognition of facial expressions by ASL-English bilinguals is reported. The fMRI results reveal separate effects of sign language and spoken…

  5. The Influence of Bilingualism on Speech Production: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambly, Helen; Wren, Yvonne; McLeod, Sharynne; Roulstone, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children who are bilingual and have speech sound disorder are likely to be under-referred, possibly due to confusion about typical speech acquisition in bilingual children. Aims: To investigate what is known about the impact of bilingualism on children's acquisition of speech in English to facilitate the identification and treatment of…

  6. Self-Construal and Emotion in Bicultural Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, Viorica; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2004-01-01

    Autobiographical memories retrieved by bicultural Russian-English bilinguals were compared across languages. Results suggest that bilinguals' languages may influence cognitive styles, so that when speaking a language associated with a more individualistic culture, bilinguals produce more individualistic narratives, whereas when speaking a language…

  7. Code-Mixing as a Bilingual Instructional Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yih-Lin Belinda; García, Georgia Earnest; Willis, Arlette Ingram

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated code-mixing practices, specifically the use of L2 (English) in an L1 (Chinese) class in a U.S. bilingual program. Our findings indicate that the code-mixing practices made and prompted by the teacher served five pedagogical functions: (a) to enhance students' bilingualism and bilingual learning, (b) to review and…

  8. Back to Basics: A Bilingual Advantage in Infant Visual Habituation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leher; Fu, Charlene S. L.; Rahman, Aishah A.; Hameed, Waseem B.; Sanmugam, Shamini; Agarwal, Pratibha; Jiang, Binyan; Chong, Yap Seng; Meaney, Michael J.; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Comparisons of cognitive processing in monolinguals and bilinguals have revealed a bilingual advantage in inhibitory control. Recent studies have demonstrated advantages associated with exposure to two languages in infancy. However, the domain specificity and scope of the infant bilingual advantage in infancy remains unclear. In the present study,…

  9. Reasoning about Other People's Beliefs: Bilinguals Have an Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Fernandez, Paula; Glucksberg, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Bilingualism can have widespread cognitive effects. In this article we investigate whether bilingualism might have an effect on adults' abilities to reason about other people's beliefs. In particular, we tested whether bilingual adults might have an advantage over monolingual adults in false-belief reasoning analogous to the advantage that has…

  10. Louis, Hildegarde, and Mary: A Comparative Study in Infant Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Coral

    Studies of bilingual infants are in disagreement as to the point at which the child distinguishes two languages in his linguistic environment. In this paper, data from two classic works by linguist-parents on bilingual infants are compared with data collected from the author's own bilingual daughter. Five types of behavior are described which…

  11. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF BILINGUAL EDUCATION OF FOREIGN STUDENTS IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Gagarin, A.; Smirnova, Z.

    2011-01-01

    This article represents the theoretical aspects of bilingual teaching of foreign students (by the example of physics), develops and specifies the concept of objective professional competence of foreign students, defines the didactic conditions of bilingual teaching effectiveness, establishes the didactic model of the bilingual teaching process.

  12. Citizenship and Sign Bilingualism: "... There Is Nothing Wrong with Being Bilingual... It's a Positive and Fantastic Thing!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    The issue of the education of deaf children is addressed in relation to citizenship and sign bilingualism. Citizenship is a contested concept and those who advocate a sign bilingual approach use the discourse of citizenship when arguing for the value of their method, but so too do other approaches. The sign bilingual approach may benefit from a…

  13. A Parents' and Teachers' Guide to Bilingualism. Second Edition. Parents' and Teachers' Guides 1. Bilingualism in Children Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Colin

    This guide, written in a question-and-answer format, provides basic information on bilingualism and raises practical issues in plain, clear, and direct language. It is written for both monolingual speakers who want to consider bilingualism and bilingual speakers who want to become better informed. Many of the ideas and perceptions in the first…

  14. Bilingual Object Naming: A Connectionist Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shin-Yi; Zinszer, Benjamin D; Malt, Barbara C; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of object naming often differ between languages, but bilingual speakers develop convergent naming patterns in their two languages that are distinct from those of monolingual speakers of each language. This convergence appears to reflect interactions between lexical representations for the two languages. In this study, we developed a self-organizing connectionist model to simulate semantic convergence in the bilingual lexicon and investigate the mechanisms underlying this semantic convergence. We examined the similarity of patterns in the simulated data to empirical data from past research, and we identified how semantic convergence was manifested in the simulated bilingual lexical knowledge. Furthermore, we created impaired models in which components of the network were removed so as to examine the importance of the relevant components on bilingual object naming. Our results demonstrate that connections between two languages' lexicons can be established through the simultaneous activations of related words in the two languages. These connections between languages allow the outputs of their lexicons to become more similar, that is, to converge. Our model provides a basis for future computational studies of how various input variables may affect bilingual naming patterns. PMID:27242575

  15. Bilingual Object Naming: A Connectionist Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shin-Yi; Zinszer, Benjamin D.; Malt, Barbara C.; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of object naming often differ between languages, but bilingual speakers develop convergent naming patterns in their two languages that are distinct from those of monolingual speakers of each language. This convergence appears to reflect interactions between lexical representations for the two languages. In this study, we developed a self-organizing connectionist model to simulate semantic convergence in the bilingual lexicon and investigate the mechanisms underlying this semantic convergence. We examined the similarity of patterns in the simulated data to empirical data from past research, and we identified how semantic convergence was manifested in the simulated bilingual lexical knowledge. Furthermore, we created impaired models in which components of the network were removed so as to examine the importance of the relevant components on bilingual object naming. Our results demonstrate that connections between two languages’ lexicons can be established through the simultaneous activations of related words in the two languages. These connections between languages allow the outputs of their lexicons to become more similar, that is, to converge. Our model provides a basis for future computational studies of how various input variables may affect bilingual naming patterns.

  16. Attentional Control in Early and Later Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapa, Leah L; Colombo, John

    2013-07-01

    This study examined differences in attentional control among school-age children who were monolingual English speakers, early childhood Spanish-English bilinguals who began speaking both languages by age 3, and later childhood Spanish-English bilingual children who began speaking English after age 3. Children's attentional control was tested using the Attention Network Test (ANT). All language groups performed equally on ANT networks; however, when controlling for age and verbal ability, groups differed significantly on reaction time. Early bilingual children responded faster on the ANT compared to both monolingual and later bilingual children, suggesting an attentional monitoring advantage for early bilinguals. These results add to mounting evidence of advantaged cognitive functioning among bilinguals, and are consistent with the possibility that children who begin speaking a second language earlier in childhood have larger advantages due either to differential effects of acquiring a second language earlier during development or due to longer duration of bilingual experience. PMID:24910499

  17. Neuroanatomical Evidence in Support of the Bilingual Advantage Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olulade, O A; Jamal, N I; Koo, D S; Perfetti, C A; LaSasso, C; Eden, G F

    2016-07-01

    The "bilingual advantage" theory stipulates that constant selection and suppression between 2 languages results in enhanced executive control (EC). Behavioral studies of EC in bilinguals have employed wide-ranging tasks and report some conflicting results. To avoid concerns about tasks, we employed a different approach, measuring gray matter volume (GMV) in adult bilinguals, reasoning that any EC-associated benefits should manifest as relatively greater frontal GMV. Indeed, Spanish-English-speaking bilinguals exhibited greater bilateral frontal GMV compared with English-speaking monolinguals. Was this observation attributable to the constant selection and inhibition of 2 spoken languages? To answer this question, we drew on bimodal bilinguals of American Sign Language (ASL) and English who, unlike unimodal bilinguals, can simultaneously use both languages and have been shown not to possess the EC advantage. In this group, there was no greater GMV when compared with monolinguals. Together these results provide neuroanatomical evidence in support of the bilingual advantage theory. PMID:26184647

  18. Co-speech gesture in bimodal bilinguals

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Shannon; Emmorey, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The effects of knowledge of sign language on co-speech gesture were investigated by comparing the spontaneous gestures of bimodal bilinguals (native users of American Sign Language and English; n = 13) and non-signing native English speakers (n = 12). Each participant viewed and re-told the Canary Row cartoon to a non-signer whom they did not know. Nine of the thirteen bimodal bilinguals produced at least one ASL sign, which we hypothesise resulted from a failure to inhibit ASL. Compared with...

  19. Electrophysiological measures of language processing in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Cok, Barbara; Zani, Alberto

    2002-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how multiple languages are represented in the human brain. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from right-handed polyglots and monolinguals during a task involving silent reading. The participants in the experiment were nine Italian monolinguals and nine Italian/Slovenian bilinguals of a Slovenian minority in Trieste; the bilinguals, highly fluent in both languages, had spoken both languages since birth. The stimuli were terminal words that would correctly complete a short, meaningful, previously shown sentence, or else were semantically or syntactically incorrect. The task consisted in deciding whether the sentences were well formed or not, giving the response by pressing a button. Both groups read the same set of 200 Italian sentences to compare the linguistic processing, while the bilinguals also received a set of 200 Slovenian sentences, comparable in complexity and length, to compare the processing of the two languages within the group. For the bilinguals, the ERP results revealed a strong, left-sided activation, reflected by the N1 component, of the occipitotemporal regions dedicated to orthographic processing, with a latency of about 150 msec for Slovenian words, but bilateral activation of the same areas for Italian words, which was also displayed by topographical mapping. In monolinguals, semantic error produced a long-lasting negative response (N2 and N4) that was greater over the right hemisphere, whereas syntactic error activated mostly the left hemisphere. Conversely, in the bilinguals, semantic incongruence resulted in greater response over the left hemisphere than over the right. In this group, the P615 syntactical error responses were of equal amplitude on both hemispheres for Italian words and greater on the right side for Slovenian words. The present findings support the view that there are interand intrahemispheric brain activation asymmetries when monolingual and bilingual speakers

  20. BEST: Bilingual environmental science training: Kindergarten level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English for each lesson. A bilingual glossary, alphabetized by English entries, with Spanish equivalents in both English and Spanish, follows the lesson descriptions, and is itself followed by a bibliography of English-language references. This booklet includes descriptions of six lessons covering the senses of touch and sight, the sense of smell, how to distinguish living and non-living things, cell structures, the skeletal system, and the significance of food groups. 8 figs.

  1. Translation lexicon acquisition from bilingual dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doermann, David S.; Ma, Huanfeng; Karagol-Ayan, Burcu; Oard, Douglas W.

    2001-12-01

    Bilingual dictionaries hold great potential as a source of lexical resources for training automated systems for optical character recognition, machine translation and cross-language information retrieval. In this work we describe a system for extracting term lexicons from printed copies of bilingual dictionaries. We describe our approach to page and definition segmentation and entry parsing. We have used the approach to parse a number of dictionaries and demonstrate the results for retrieval using a French-English Dictionary to generate a translation lexicon and a corpus of English queries applied to French documents to evaluation cross-language IR.

  2. Bilingual lexical selection as a dynamic process: Evidence from Arabic-French bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukadi, Mariem; Davies, Robert A I; Wilson, Maximiliano A

    2015-12-01

    The nature of the lexical selection process in bilingual spoken word production is one of the pending questions of research on bilingualism. According to one view this competitive process is language-specific, while another holds that it is language-nonspecific (i.e., lexical competition is cross-linguistic). In recent years, research on bilingual language production has seen the rise of a third view that postulates that lexical selection is in fact dynamic and may function as language-specific or nonspecific depending on a number of factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the lexical selection process among moderately proficient bilinguals whose two languages are typologically distant: Tunisian Arabic and French. The picture-word interference task was used in two experiments where moderately proficient Tunisian Arabic (L1)-French (L2) bilinguals were asked to name pictures in their L2 while ignoring auditory distractors (semantic, phono-translation, phonological, or unrelated) in their L2 (Experiment 1) or their L1 (Experiment 2). Thus, the language context was entirely monolingual in Experiment 1 and bilingual in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, only a phonological facilitation effect was observed. In Experiment 2, interference was found in the phono-translation, semantic, and phonological conditions. Taken together, these results indicate that cross-language competition occurs among moderately proficient Tunisian Arabic-French bilinguals only in a bilingual context (Experiment 2) as indexed by the phono-translation interference effect observed. Our findings are in line with the recent hypothesis that lexical selection is a dynamic process modulated by factors like language similarity, language proficiency, and the experimental language context. PMID:26372057

  3. Transmigrant Families: Intercultural and Bilingual Competences Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Barea, Eva Ma.; Garcia-Cano Torrico, Maria; Marquez Lepe, Esther; Ruiz Garzon, Francisca; Pozo Llorente, Ma. Teresa; Dietz, Gunther

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a research project concerned with analysing and identifying the discourses and related strategies used by Spanish-German trans-migrant families to support and develop bilingual and intercultural competences stemming from their transmigratory experiences. Using the biographical-narrative approach, we reconstruct…

  4. Bilingual Teachers' Performances of Power and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymes, Betsy; Cahnmann-Taylor, Melisa; Souto-Manning, Mariana

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the use of Augusto Boal's Theater of the Oppressed (TO) as a form of academic and social support used in a recruitment and retention program for bilingual teachers in the Southeastern United States. We use critical discourse analysis to understand how TO works to disrupt monologic relationships and reestablish…

  5. Wole Soyinka's Poetry as Bilingual's Creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osakwe, Mabel I.

    1999-01-01

    Examines features that make Wole Soyinka's poems bilingual and bicultural. Four linguistic strategies revealing features used in Yoruba poetic discourse are identified across Soyinka's four anthologies: literal translation, creative translation, transference, and stylistic translation. The study reveals that the native language and literary…

  6. Spanish: A New Approach to Bilingual Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Anthony R.

    The child in the bilingual education situation must be aware of the two languages involved as two separate systems corresponding to the two distinct cultural entities that are part of his environment. The child must learn to separate, yet identify with, each system as a useful and necessary means of communication. The teacher-directed method is…

  7. Heritage/Culture Preservation Model Bilingual Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samayoa, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Our first generation children face a loss of heritage in today's public schools. Unfortunately, the assets that one's bilingual ability brings into the classroom are difficult for educators to fully understand. Often this may happen because professionals in the field of education lack the knowledge about the need for children to maintain…

  8. The concept of a bilingual dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2005-01-01

    The term bilingual dictionary is widely used, not only by librarians and dictionary users en general but also by professional lexicographers dedicated to the theory and practice of dictionary making. For this reason it should be expected that there were a common and well-established definition of...

  9. Attitudes to Bilingual Education in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak Lukanovic, Sonja; Limon, David

    2014-01-01

    The two different models of bilingual/multilingual education that have been developed in Slovenia since the 1950s in the regions of Prekmurje (minority language Hungarian) and Slovene Istria (Italian) are the result of international agreements, education and language policies, social and demographic factors. The basic aim in both cases is to help…

  10. Bilingual Technology Equalizes Opportunities in Elementary Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Angela; Flores, Chencho

    Educational technology is a significant resource for meaningful, active, sensory, and relevant instruction for limited-English-proficient (LEP) students in the elementary grades, particularly those students who are educationally disadvantaged. It is suitable for bridging the instructional gap in bilingual education so these children can have the…

  11. Dental Assisting Course. Bilingual Vocational Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Cox, Guadalupe

    This course in dental assisting, one of a series of bilingual English-Spanish vocational education courses, is designed to prepare the student to assist the dentist at the chairside in the dental operatory, to perform reception and clerical functions, and to carry out selected dental laboratory work. The course covers an introduction to the…

  12. Bilingual Buds: The Evolution of a Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The impetus to begin Bilingual Buds came about six years ago when the author, pregnant with twins and commuting into New York City, was reading about the numerous cognitive benefits for children of acquiring a second language early in their lives. She was surprised to learn that even by the age of six months, children begin to lose the ability to…

  13. Bilingual Education and Telecommunications: A Perfect Fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Dennis; Brown, Kristin

    1987-01-01

    Describes Project Orillas, a telecommunications network designed to improve the writing skills of bilingual and foreign language students studying English and Spanish in Mexico, Puerto Rico, and the United States. The electronic bulletin board system used for communication is explained and guidelines for joining the network are included. (LRW)

  14. Bilingual Discourse Markers in Indigenous Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lourdes

    2006-01-01

    This review of research considers the occurrence and function of Spanish discourse markers and other particles in indigenous speech. I discuss important research that has examined these phenomena and refer to studies of bilingual discourse markers in other non-indigenous language contact situations to address unresolved issues concerning the form…

  15. Balanced bilingualism and early age of second language acquisition as the underlying mechanisms of a bilingual executive control advantage: why variations in bilingual experiences matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow, W Quin; Li, Xiaoqian

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies revealed inconsistent evidences of a bilingual advantage in executive processing. One potential source of explanation is the multifaceted experience of the bilinguals in these studies. This study seeks to test whether bilinguals who engage in language selection more frequently would perform better in executive control tasks than those bilinguals who engage in language selection less frequently. We examined the influence of the degree of bilingualism (i.e., language proficiency, frequency of use of two languages, and age of second language acquisition) on executive functioning in bilingual young adults using a comprehensive battery of executive control tasks. Seventy-two 18- to 25-years-old English-Mandarin bilinguals performed four computerized executive function (EF) tasks (Stroop, Eriksen flanker, number-letter switching, and n-back task) that measure the EF components: inhibition, mental-set shifting, and information updating and monitoring. Results from multiple regression analyses, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping supported the positive association between age of second language acquisition and the interference cost in the Stroop task. Most importantly, we found a significant effect of balanced bilingualism (balanced usage of and balanced proficiency in two languages) on the Stroop and number-letter task (mixing cost only), indicating that a more balanced use and a more balanced level of proficiency in two languages resulted in better executive control skills in the adult bilinguals. We did not find any significant effect of bilingualism on flanker or n-back task. These findings provided important insights to the underlying mechanisms of the bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, demonstrating that regular experience with extensive practice in controlling attention to their two language systems results in better performance in related EFs such as inhibiting prepotent responses and global set-shifting. PMID:25767451

  16. Balanced bilingualism and early age of second language acquisition as the underlying mechanisms of a bilingual executive control advantage: Why variations in bilingual experiences matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Quin eYow

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies revealed inconsistent evidences of a bilingual advantage in executive processing. One potential source of explanation is the multifaceted experience of the bilinguals in these studies. This study seeks to test whether bilinguals who engage in language selection more frequently would perform better in executive control tasks than those bilinguals who engage in language selection less frequently. We examined the influence of the degree of bilingualism (i.e., language proficiency, frequency of use of two languages, and age of second language acquisition on executive functioning in bilingual young adults using a comprehensive battery of executive control tasks. Seventy-two 18- to 25-year-old English-Mandarin bilinguals performed four computerized executive function tasks (Stroop, Eriksen flanker, number-letter switching and n-back task that measure the executive function components: inhibition, mental-set shifting, and information updating and monitoring. Results from multiple regression analyses, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping supported the positive association between age of second language acquisition and the interference cost in the Stroop task. Most importantly, we found a significant effect of balanced bilingualism (balanced usage of and balanced proficiency in two languages on the Stroop and number-letter task (mixing cost only, indicating that a more balanced use and a more balanced level of proficiency in two languages resulted in better executive control skills in the adult bilinguals. We did not find any significant effect of bilingualism on flanker or n-back task. These findings provided important insights to the underlying mechanisms of the bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, demonstrating that regular experience with extensive practice in controlling attention to their two language systems results in better performance in related executive functions such as inhibiting prepotent responses and global

  17. The impact of bilingualism on working memory in pediatric epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Amy L; Riley, Jeffrey D; Barrett, Lauren E; Muhonen, Michael G; Zupanc, Mary; Romain, Jonathan E; Lin, Jack J; Mucci, Grace

    2016-02-01

    Impairments in executive skills broadly span across multiple childhood epilepsy syndromes and can adversely affect quality of life. Bilingualism has been previously shown to correlate with enhanced executive functioning in healthy individuals. This study sought to determine whether the bilingual advantage in executive functioning exists in the context of pediatric epilepsy. We retrospectively analyzed neuropsychological data in 52 children with epilepsy and compared executive function scores in monolingual versus bilingual children with epilepsy while controlling for socioeconomic status and ethnicity. Bilingual children performed significantly better on the Working Memory Index than did monolingual children. There were no significant differences on the remaining executive function variables. The bilingual advantage appears to persist for working memory in children with epilepsy. These findings suggest that bilingualism is potentially a protective variable in the face of epilepsy-related working memory dysfunction. PMID:26720703

  18. A longitudinal study of memory advantages in bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K Ljungberg

    Full Text Available Typically, studies of cognitive advantages in bilinguals have been conducted previously by using executive and inhibitory tasks (e.g. Simon task and applying cross-sectional designs. This study longitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n=178 between 35-70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task. The results are discussed in the light of successful aging.

  19. Input and Language Development in Bilingually Developing Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Erika; Core, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Language skills in young bilingual children are highly varied as a result of the variability in their language experiences, making it difficult for speech-language pathologists to differentiate language disorder from language difference in bilingual children. Understanding the sources of variability in bilingual contexts and the resulting variability in children’s skills will help improve language assessment practices by speech-language pathologists. In this article, we review literature on b...

  20. Bilingual Education: the view of pupils and educators.

    OpenAIRE

    Percipalle, Delphine; Westberg, Naiyya

    2012-01-01

    This study is about how children of early school age, specifically children who have both English and Swedish at home, experience a bilingual school system in Sweden. The study on the early student’s viewpoint of a bilingual instruction was narrowed down to an elementary school in Stockholm which proposes an English-Swedish bilingual education. This research revolved around information obtained from interviews with children and educators. The “field-work” approach provided a set of data which...

  1. Understanding the Consequences of Bilingualism for Language Processing and Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Kroll, Judith F.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary research on bilingualism has been framed by two major discoveries. In the realm of language processing, studies of comprehension and production show that bilinguals activate information about both languages when using one language alone. Parallel activation of the two languages has been demonstrated for highly proficient bilinguals as well as second language learners and appears to be present even when distinct properties of the languages themselves might be sufficient to bias at...

  2. Construction of a Bilingual Dictionary Intermediated by a Third Language

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, K; TANAKA, Kumiko; UMEMURA, Kyoji

    1994-01-01

    When using a third language to construct a bilingual dictionary, it is necessary to discriminate equivalencies from inappropriate words derived as a result of ambiguity in the third language. We propose a method to treat this by utilizing the structures of dictionaries to measure the nearness of the meanings of words. The resulting dictionary is a word-to-word bilingual dictionary of nouns and can be used to refine the entries and equivalencies in published bilingual dictionaries.

  3. Language Preference and Development of Dementia Among Bilingual Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    McMurtray, Aaron; Saito, Erin; Nakamoto, Beau

    2009-01-01

    In bilingual individuals, regression to a primary language may be associated with development of cognitive impairment and increased risk for development of dementia. This report describes two bilingual patients who presented with early symptoms of dementia after regression to their primary language. The results of this study may help clinicians identify aging bilingual patients who are beginning to develop cognitive impairment or dementia and suggest that further studies on the long term cogn...

  4. Unilingual versus Bilingual Education System: A Political Economy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Javier; Tangeraas, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    We define an economy composed of two language groups. Value is created through bilateral trade between individuals who can speak the same language. The value of trade increases in each participant's level of education. We compare a bilingual education system, under which the individuals who take education become bilingual, with a unilingual system, under which the individuals attending school end up speaking the language of the politically dominating group only. Bilingualism is socially optim...

  5. The role of age of acquisition in bilingual word translation: evidence from Spanish-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J Michael; Kennison, Shelia M

    2011-08-01

    The present research tested the hypothesis that the age at which one's first language (L1) words are learned influences language processing in bilinguals. Prior research on bilingual language processing by Kroll and colleagues has suggested that memory links between L1 words and conceptual representations are stronger than memory links between one's second language (L2) word and conceptual representations. We hypothesized that the strengths of memory links between L1 words and conceptual representations are stronger for words learned early in life than for words learned later in life. Support for the hypothesis was obtained in bilingual translation experiment with 36 Spanish-English bilinguals. Participants translated L1 words into L2 and L2 words into L1. Half of the L1 words were learned early in childhood (early AoA words), and half were learned later in life (late AoA words). The L2 words were translation equivalents of the L1 words tested; the average age at which L2 words were learned was age 7. Target words were presented either in random order or blocked by semantic category. Translation times were longer when trials were blocked by semantic category (i.e., categorical interference) occurred only when early AoA L1 words were translated into L2. Implications for current models of bilingual memory are discussed. PMID:21687967

  6. The emergence of competing modules in bilingualism

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Arturo; LI, Ping; MacWhinney, Brian

    2005-01-01

    How does the brain manage to store and process multiple languages without encountering massive interference and transfer? Unless we believe that bilinguals live in two totally unconnected cognitive worlds, we would expect far more transfer than actually occurs. However, imaging and lesion studies have not provided consistent evidence for the strict neuronal separation predicted by the theory of modularity. We suggest that emergentist theory offers a promising alternative. It emphasizes the co...

  7. 34 CFR 427.1 - What is the Bilingual Vocational Training Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Bilingual Vocational Training Program? 427...) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BILINGUAL VOCATIONAL TRAINING PROGRAM General § 427.1 What is the Bilingual Vocational Training Program? The Bilingual Vocational...

  8. Finding "le mot juste": Differences between Bilingual and Monolingual Children's Lexical Access in Comprehension and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Stephanie; Nicoladis, Elena

    2009-01-01

    By school age, some bilingual children can score equivalently to monolinguals in receptive vocabulary but still lag in expressive vocabulary. In this study, we test whether bilingual children have greater difficulty with lexical access, as has been reported for adult bilinguals. School-aged French-English bilingual children were given tests of…

  9. The Additive Effect of Bilingualism on Third Language Acquisition: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenoz, Jasone

    2003-01-01

    Looks at the general effects of bilingualism on cognitive development and highlights the specific effects of bilingualism on third language acquisition. Examines effects of bilingualism on cognitive development, metalinguistic awareness, and communicative skills, then focuses on the specific effects of bilingualism on third language proficiency by…

  10. Implications of Bilingual Development for Specific Language Impairments in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of bilingualism on children's language development has emerged as a crucial concern for Turkey, but so far it has not been addressed from the point of view of language disorders. This short review examines the potential impact of bilingual language development for language impairments in Turkey, with special emphasis on the…

  11. Two Tests of the Effectiveness of Bilingual Education in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Andrew M.

    2007-01-01

    Three meta-analytic studies have shown that bilingual education is an effective method for teaching students who are English language learners. However, there is limited evidence of the effectiveness of bilingual education in preschool. This study used multiple years of data from the Manchester (New Hampshire) Even Start program and relevant…

  12. Bilingual Teaching Research and Practice of Complex Function Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lixin

    2011-01-01

    Mathematics bilingual teaching is assisted in Chinese with English teaching, and gradually enables students to independently use English to learn, study, reflect and exchange Mathematics. In order to better carry out mathematics teaching, department of mathematics in Dezhou University forms discussion groups and launches bilingual teaching…

  13. Fast Mapping by Bilingual Children: Storybooks and Cartoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Danielle; Kan, Pui Fong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the fast mapping skills in Spanish-English bilingual preschool children in two learning contexts: storybook reading and cartoon viewing. Eighteen typically developing Spanish-English bilingual preschool children completed a fast mapping task in Spanish (L1) and in English (L2). In 4 different sessions, each…

  14. Bimodal Bilingualism and the Frequency-Lag Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmorey, Karen; Petrich, Jennifer A. F.; Gollan, Tamar H.

    2013-01-01

    The frequency-lag hypothesis proposes that bilinguals have slowed lexical retrieval relative to monolinguals and in their nondominant language relative to their dominant language, particularly for low-frequency words. These effects arise because bilinguals divide their language use between 2 languages and use their nondominant language less…

  15. Characterizing the Bilingual Disadvantage in Noun Phrase Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat, Jasmin; Martin, Clara D.; Alario, F. Xavier; Costa, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Up to now, evidence on bilingual disadvantages in language production comes from tasks requiring single word retrieval. The present study aimed to assess whether there is a bilingual disadvantage in multiword utterances, and to determine the extent to which such effect is present in onset latencies, articulatory durations, or both. To do so, we…

  16. Hemispheric Differences in Bilingual Word and Language Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, William T.; And Others

    The linguistic role of the right hemisphere in bilingual language processing was examined. Ten right-handed Spanish-English bilinguals were tachistoscopically presented with mixed lists of Spanish and English words to either the right or left visual field and asked to identify the language and the word presented. Five of the subjects identified…

  17. Bilingual Communication Skills in Classroom Contexts. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Luis C.; Diaz, Stephen

    Grade 3 and grade 4 classrooms in a California bilingual Spanish/English environment were studied. In the first study, reading lessons were observed and analyzed in a bilingual classroom. Using the analysis of this experience, in the second study a series of theory-driven experimental interventions were initiated. It was found that the achievement…

  18. Inclusive Practice? Supporting Isolated Bilingual Learners in a Mainstream School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Ann M.; Haining, Irene

    2011-01-01

    This paper is based on action research carried out in a primary school in Scotland where few bilingual learners shared their home language with classmates or staff. It investigated the educational experiences of bilingual children in the early stages of primary school, in which there were often practical difficulties supporting isolated learners…

  19. Investigating Linguistic Relativity through Bilingualism: The Case of Grammatical Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Vinson, David P.; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated linguistic relativity effects by examining the semantic effects of grammatical gender (present in Italian but absent in English) in fluent bilingual speakers as compared with monolingual speakers. In an error-induction experiment, they used responses by monolingual speakers to establish a baseline for bilingual speakers…

  20. Cognitive Development in Bilingual and Monolingual Lower-Class Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Barbara; Goldstein, David

    1979-01-01

    The cognitive development of lower-class English-speaking monolingual and English-Spanish speaking bilingual children in kindergarten, third, and sixth grades was compared by means of standard verbal and nonverbal measures. The verbal ability of bilingual children was assessed in both English and Spanish. Their scores in both languages were low.…

  1. Maturation of Executive Functioning Skills in Early Sequential Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikova, Marina; Mattock, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that being bilingual from birth is advantageous for the development of skills of social cognition, executive functioning, and metalinguistic awareness due to bilingual children's extensive experience of processing and manipulating two linguistic systems. The present study investigated whether these cognitive…

  2. The Effects of Bilingualism on Toddlers' Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Blaye, Agnes; Coutya, Julie; Bialystok, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Bilingual children have been shown to outperform monolingual children on tasks measuring executive functioning skills. This advantage is usually attributed to bilinguals' extensive practice in exercising selective attention and cognitive flexibility during language use because both languages are active when one of them is being used. We examined…

  3. Towards a General Theory of Bilingual Legal Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    As the need for intercultural communication in the field of law has increased, the foundation of a general theory of bilingual legal lexicography must be given priority. This paper introduces, describes and explains the elements necessary for compiling the optimal bilingual law dictionary...

  4. A Select Review of Bilingualism in Education in Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri Grima, Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a review of some of the major issues of bilingualism in education in Malta. It starts by contextualising the current situation in a historical perspective. From the macro-perspective it then moves to a micro-perspective to illustrate how, in practice, Maltese and English are used as a bilingual medium of instruction across…

  5. Bilingual children's production of regular and irregular past tense morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Rispens; E. de Bree

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the production of the Dutch past tense in Dutch-Hebrew bilingual children and investigated the effect of type of past tense allomorph (de versus te) and token frequency on productions of the past tense. Seven-year-old bilingual children (n=11) were compared with monolingual child

  6. Families and Educators Supporting Bilingualism in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, M. Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the strategies that three Latino families in the U.S. employed in raising their children bilingually in Spanish and English. It also looks at their rationale for bilingualism as well as the challenges the parents failed to anticipate in implementing their strategies. The data were gleaned from comparative case studies over a…

  7. Influence of Bilingualism on Memory Generalization during Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Natalie; Barr, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Very few studies have examined the cognitive advantages of bilingualism during the first two years of development, and a majority of the studies examining bilingualism throughout the lifespan have focused on the relationship between multiple languages and cognitive control. Early experience with multiple language systems may influence…

  8. Teacher Beliefs regarding Bilingualism in an English Medium Reading Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaish, Viniti

    2012-01-01

    Reading classes in schools where English is the medium of instruction are increasingly servicing a linguistically diverse population; however, teacher-training for English teachers lacks a focus on bilingualism. Using the context of Singapore, this paper analyses beliefs on bilingualism of English teachers in an early intervention reading program.…

  9. Using What Matters to Students in Bilingual Mathematics Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Higinio

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the author represented what matters to bilingual students in their everyday lives--namely bilingualism and everyday experiences--in school-based mathematical problems. Solving problems in pairs, students demonstrated different patterns of organizing and coordinating talk across problem contexts and across languages. Because these…

  10. Bilingual Lexical Interactions in an Unsupervised Neural Network Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Li, Ping

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an unsupervised neural network model of bilingual lexical development and interaction. We focus on how the representational structures of the bilingual lexicons can emerge, develop, and interact with each other as a function of the learning history. The results show that: (1) distinct representations for the two lexicons…

  11. Understanding the Consequences of Bilingualism for Language Processing and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Judith F; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary research on bilingualism has been framed by two major discoveries. In the realm of language processing, studies of comprehension and production show that bilinguals activate information about both languages when using one language alone. Parallel activation of the two languages has been demonstrated for highly proficient bilinguals as well as second language learners and appears to be present even when distinct properties of the languages themselves might be sufficient to bias attention towards the language in use. In the realm of cognitive processing, studies of executive function have demonstrated a bilingual advantage, with bilinguals outperforming their monolingual counterparts on tasks that require ignoring irrelevant information, task switching, and resolving conflict. Our claim is that these outcomes are related and have the overall effect of changing the way that both cognitive and linguistic processing are carried out for bilinguals. In this article we consider each of these domains of bilingual performance and consider the kinds of evidence needed to support this view. We argue that the tendency to consider bilingualism as a unitary phenomenon explained in terms of simple component processes has created a set of apparent controversies that masks the richness of the central finding in this work: the adult mind and brain are open to experience in ways that create profound consequences for both language and cognition. PMID:24223260

  12. Bilingual Education: A Reference Handbook. Contemporary Education Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Rosa Castro

    This book describes the evolution of bilingual education in the United States, emphasizing its relationship to educational and civil rights reform. Federal, state, and district policies affecting the implementation of bilingual programs are identified, along with related legal, political, demographic, and economic factors and controversies.…

  13. Bidirectional Transfer: Consequences of Translation Ambiguity for Bilingual Word Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Tamar

    2011-01-01

    Could a second language (L2) influence how bilinguals process their native language (L1)? The work described in this dissertation examined this issue focusing on the way bilinguals interpret the meanings of words. Capitalizing on the prevalence of words that can be translated in more than one way across languages (i.e., "translation ambiguity,"…

  14. Recognition of interlingual homophones in bilingual auditory word recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulpen, B.J.H.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.; Schriefers, H.J.; Hasper, M.

    2003-01-01

    How do bilinguals recognize interlingual homophones? In a gating study, word identification and language membership decisions by Dutch-English bilinguals were delayed for interlingual homophones relative to monolingual controls. At the same time, participant judgments were sensitive to subphonemic c

  15. Teachers' Language: L1 Attrition in Russian-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isurin, Ludmila

    2007-01-01

    The present study reports on the evidence of first language (L1) attrition in a population that may appear to be the most resistant to L1 changes. Russian monolinguals (n=3) and Russian-English bilinguals (n=10) participated in the study. The bilinguals were graduate students teaching Russian as a foreign language at a U.S. university. The data…

  16. Bilingual Pupil Services 1983-1984. OEA Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Educational Evaluation.

    The Bilingual Pupil Services Program (B.P.S.) has been administered for ten years by the Office of Bilingual Education of the New York City Public Schools. In the 1983-84 school year the project provided in-service training of para-professionals to work with students of limited English proficiency (LEP) in grades one through six in the already…

  17. Bilingual Pupil Services, 1984-1985. OEA Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    The Bilingual Pupil Services (BPS) Program has been operating for 11 years in 24 New York City schools. During the 1984-85 school year BPS provided bilingual instruction to 1,616 Hispanic students and (for the second year) to Chinese students of limited English proficiency (LEP) in grades one through six. BPS has two functions: providing services…

  18. Bilingual Pupil Services, 1986-1987. OEA Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Eulalia; And Others

    New York's Bilingual Pupil Services program, funded by federal and city governments, promotes linguistic and academic progress among limited-English-proficient elementary school children in selected schools and provides comprehensive in-service training to bilingual paraprofessionals training to become licensed teachers. Recognition as an…

  19. Bilingual Pupil Services 1985-86. OEA Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    During the 1985-86 fiscal year, the Bilingual Pupil Services (BPS) Project was selected by the U.S. Department of Education as an exemplary Chapter 1 Project, suitable for national dissemination and replication. BPS provides instruction in English as a second language (ESL), bilingual reading, and mathematics to students of limited English…

  20. Bilingual Two-Way Immersion Programs Benefit Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, Viorica; Shook, Anthony; Schroeder, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of bilingual education on reading and math achievement were examined by comparing test scores across different elementary school programs. Results revealed that bilingual Two-Way Immersion (TWI) programs benefited both minority-language and majority-language students. Minority-language students in TWI programs outperformed their peers…

  1. Producing Bilinguals through Immersion Education: Development of Metalinguistic Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Peets, Kathleen F.; Moreno, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    This study examined metalinguistic awareness in children who were becoming bilingual in an immersion education program. The purpose was to determine at what point in emerging bilingualism the previously reported metalinguistic advantages appear and what types of metalinguistic tasks reveal these developmental differences. Participants were 124…

  2. Formal and Informal Academic Language Socialization of a Bilingual Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyonsuk

    2016-01-01

    This ethnographic case study examines a bilingual child's academic socialization in both formal and informal academic communities. The study follows a high-achieving, bilingual student in a public US elementary school, who paradoxically is seen as a slow learner in her Korean-American Sunday school. From the academic socialization and community of…

  3. Bilingual Storybook Apps: An Interactive Reading Experience for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Melissa; Malzkuhn, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have turned their attention to the cognitive impact of bilingualism, and the benefits of using two languages have become increasingly apparent. Children raised in bilingual families exhibit stronger awareness of the style and tone of language, stronger cognitive development, and higher levels of reading skill than…

  4. Tips for Teachers to Help Bilingual Chinese Immigrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Xu, Yili

    2012-01-01

    Teachers of young children in Chinese immigrant families need to help children become proficient in English (ESL) while affirming the children's bilingual abilities. Pictures, gestures, pantomimes, and props as well as specific input of school-related words help bilingual young children learn English. Teachers read storybooks in English while…

  5. Meaning Discrimination in Bilingual Venda Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munzhedzi James Mafela

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: Venda, one of the minority languages in South Africa, has few dictionaries. All are translational bilingual dictionaries meant for dictionary users who are non-native speakers of the language. Dictionary users find it difficult to use the bilingual Venda dictionaries because they are confronted with equivalents which they cannot distinguish. In most cases, the equivalents of the entry-words are provided without giving meaning discrimination. Without a good command of Venda and the provision of meaning discrimination, users will find it difficult to make a correct choice of the equivalent for which they are looking. Bilingual Venda dictionaries are therefore not helpful for dictionary users who are non-native speakers of the language. Devices such as giving illustrative examples, indicating parts of speech and adding etymology could be used to solve the problem of meaning discrimination in bilingual Venda dictionaries. This article highlights the problem of the absence of meaning discrimination and suggests solutions to future Venda lexico-graphers in this regard.


    Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, MEANING DISCRIMINATION, EQUIVALENCE, ENTRY-WORD, LEXICOGRAPHY, CULTURE, TRANSLATION, SOURCE LANGUAGE, TAR-GET LANGUAGE, SYNONYM, POLYSEMY


    *****

    OPSOMMING: Betekenisonderskeiding in tweetalige Vendawoordeboeke. Venda, een van die minderheidstale in Suid-Afrika, het min woordeboeke. Almal is vertalende tweetalige woordeboeke bedoel vir woordeboekgebruikers wat nie moedertaalsprekers van die taal is nie. Woordeboekgebruikers vind dit moeilik om tweetalige Vendawoordeboeke te gebruik om-dat hulle gekonfronteer word met ekwivalente wat hulle nie kan onderskei nie. In die meeste gevalle word die ekwivalente van die trefwoorde verskaf sonder om betekenisonderskeiding aan te dui. Sonder 'n goeie beheersing van Venda en die aanduiding van betekenisonderskeiding, sal gebruikers dit moeilik vind om die regte keuse van die

  6. Relationship between the Onset Age of Bilingualism and Development of Cognitive Control among Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Bdaiwi Jasim Al-Shujairi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of studies suggests that bilingual persons are better than monolinguals on a variety of cognitive measures. Thus, the present study investigates the relationship between the onset age of bilingual and the development of cognitive control among Nigerians. 10 bilingual students studying at University Putra Malaysia have been selected to participate in this study.  They are divided into two groups: 5 early and 5 late bilinguals. The data are collected using online English proficiency test and E-prime software as instruments. Both groups are examined for English proficiency and performance on a flanker task. The result demonstrates that early bilinguals are more proficient in English than late bilinguals. Moreover, early bilingual performs better than late bilingual on flanker task. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that being early active bilinguals tend to have greater advantages in cognitive control and higher language proficiency.Keywords: onset age, bilingualism, and cognitive control

  7. The bilingual brain: Flexibility and control in the human cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Prat, Chantel

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the present review is to discuss recent cognitive neuroscientific findings concerning bilingualism. Three interrelated questions about the bilingual brain are addressed: How are multiple languages represented in the brain? how are languages controlled in the brain? and what are the real-world implications of experience with multiple languages? The review is based on neuroimaging research findings about the nature of bilingual processing, namely, how the brain adapts to accommodate multiple languages in the bilingual brain and to control which language should be used, and when. We also address how this adaptation results in differences observed in the general cognition of bilingual individuals. General implications for models of human learning, plasticity, and cognitive control are discussed.

  8. Instructive Bilingualism: Can Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment Rely on One Language in Learning a Second One?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armon-Lotem, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Only a decade ago, a very few researchers considered the study of language disorders in bilingual population worth pursuing. It was mostly argued that there were enough challenges in studying bilingualism, and even more challenges in the study of specific language impairment (SLI). So why complicate things and combine the two domains?

  9. SALT 2010 Bilingual S/E Version: A Tool for Assessing the Language Production of Bilingual (Spanish/English) Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jon F.; Iglesias, Aquiles; Rojas, Raul

    2010-01-01

    Assessing the language development of bilingual children can be a challenge--too often, children in the complex process of learning both Spanish and English are under- or over-diagnosed with language disorders. SLPs can change that with "SALT 2010 Bilingual S/E Version" for grades K-3, the first tool to comprehensively assess children's language…

  10. Implementing a Successful Bilingual Educational Program in Japan: Support for Minority Languages and the Present Climate of Bilingual Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Although generally acknowledged as complex and multidimensional, bilingual education, when successful, plays an important role in maintaining and developing bilingualism, resulting in numerous benefits to those who undertake it. This essay will discuss the necessary components and principles of what is required to make a successful bilingual…

  11. Teacher Agency in Bilingual Spaces: A Fresh Look at Preparing Teachers to Educate Latina/o Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Deborah; Martinez, Ramon Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This review poses an increasingly common--and increasingly urgent--question in the field of teacher education: How can teachers best be prepared to educate Latina/o bilingual learners? The answers that the authors offer here challenge some of the prevailing assumptions about language and bilingualism that inform current approaches to teacher…

  12. Phonological systems in bilinguals: Age of learning effects on the stop consonant systems of Korean-English bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyoung-Ho; Guion, Susan G.

    2005-04-01

    The stop systems of adult Korean (L1)-English (L2) bilinguals were studied through acoustic analysis of Korean and English stop productions. The interaction of the first and second language stop systems was investigated as a function of age of exposure to English. The main goals of the investigation were to examine the extent to which early and the late bilinguals produced a given stop category in a native-like way and the extent to which the two stop systems were held independent from each other in the phonological systems of the bilinguals. Two specific questions were asked: whether early bilinguals were more native-like in the production of English stops and thus were more likely to establish L2 phonetic categories than late bilinguals, and whether the Early bilinguals maintain a greater extent of independence between the Korean and English stop systems than the late bilinguals. For this purpose, productions of Korean and English stops were analyzed in terms of three acoustic-phonetic properties, VOT, H1-H2, and f0. The results suggested that fine-grained phonetic information is crucial to investigation of bilingual phonological systems and they were discussed in terms of the role of perceived phonetic distance between L1 and L2 phonetic categories in L2 speech learning.

  13. Challenging the Dominant Narrative: Critical Bilingual Leadership ("Liderazgo") for Emergent Bilingual Latin@ Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemelt, Joseph; Welton, Anjale

    2015-01-01

    The growing "Latinization" of the United States is drastically changing the demographics of the students served in PK-12 public schools (Irizarry, 2011). To understand how educational leaders can best serve this changing student population, we used Critical Bilingual leadership, "Liderazgo," to interrogate the aim to create a…

  14. CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION IN BILINGUAL SITUATION: TRANSLATION OF FOLK TALES BY SIMULTANEOUS BILINGUALS

    OpenAIRE

    KARPUKHINA VIKTORIYA NIKOLAEVNA

    2015-01-01

    The author of the article considers the contemporary sociocultural situation in the Altai Mountains as a trilingual one. The article deals with the translated folklore texts training the communicative competence of the bilingual children (the Altai and the Russian languages are mentioned) in diachronic and synchronic aspects.

  15. Translanguaging, TexMex, and Bilingual Pedagogy: Emergent Bilinguals Learning through the Vernacular

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an ethnographic study of how bilingual teachers and children use their home language, TexMex, to mediate academic content and standard languages. From the premise that TESOL educators can benefit from a fuller understanding of students' linguistic repertoires, the study describes language practices in a second-grade classroom…

  16. The Bilingual Brain: Neuropsychological and Neurolinguistic Aspects of Bilingualism. Perspectives in Neurolinguistics and Psycholinguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Martin L.; Obler, Loraine K.

    This volume brings to light: (1) studies on the effects of different ways of acquiring and teaching a second language; (2) psychological studies on lexical organization in the bilingual brain; (3) neurological research including more than 100 case studies of polyglot aphasics; and (4) original experimental research on language lateralization in…

  17. Content Analysis Schedule for Bilingual Education Programs: Adaptations of Bilingual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Richard T.

    This content analysis schedule for Adaptations of Bilingual Education of Orange, California, presents information on the history, funding, and scope of the project. Included are sociolinguistic process variables such as the native and dominant languages of students and their interaction. Information is provided on staff selection and the…

  18. Minimalism and Bilingualism: How and Why Bilingualism Could Benefit Children with SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeper, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We begin with the hypothesis that all people are "bilingual" because every language contains ingredients from several grammars, just as English exhibits both an Anglo-Saxon and a Latinate vocabulary system. We argue that the dominant grammar is defined by productivity and recursion in particular. Although current evidence is sparse, in principle,…

  19. CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION IN BILINGUAL SITUATION: TRANSLATION OF FOLK TALES BY SIMULTANEOUS BILINGUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPUKHINA VIKTORIYA NIKOLAEVNA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article considers the contemporary sociocultural situation in the Altai Mountains as a trilingual one. The article deals with the translated folklore texts training the communicative competence of the bilingual children (the Altai and the Russian languages are mentioned in diachronic and synchronic aspects.

  20. Industrial Crafts. A Bilingual Text = Trabajos Manuales Industriales. Un Texto Bilingue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Career and Continuing Education.

    This bilingual instructional text, one in a series of six texts covering various vocational and technical topics, provides secondary level English and Spanish instruction in industrial crafts. Addressed in the individual units are the following topics: plastics; laminating acrylic plastic; thermoforming plastics; sawing, shaping, and finishing…

  1. Affective processing in bilingual speakers: disembodied cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    A recent study by Keysar, Hayakawa, and An (2012) suggests that "thinking in a foreign language" may reduce decision biases because a foreign language provides a greater emotional distance than a native tongue. The possibility of such "disembodied" cognition is of great interest for theories of affect and cognition and for many other areas of psychological theory and practice, from clinical and forensic psychology to marketing, but first this claim needs to be properly evaluated. The purpose of this review is to examine the findings of clinical, introspective, cognitive, psychophysiological, and neuroimaging studies of affective processing in bilingual speakers in order to identify converging patterns of results, to evaluate the claim about "disembodied cognition," and to outline directions for future inquiry. The findings to date reveal two interrelated processing effects. First-language (L1) advantage refers to increased automaticity of affective processing in the L1 and heightened electrodermal reactivity to L1 emotion-laden words. Second-language (L2) advantage refers to decreased automaticity of affective processing in the L2, which reduces interference effects and lowers electrodermal reactivity to negative emotional stimuli. The differences in L1 and L2 affective processing suggest that in some bilingual speakers, in particular late bilinguals and foreign language users, respective languages may be differentially embodied, with the later learned language processed semantically but not affectively. This difference accounts for the reduction of framing biases in L2 processing in the study by Keysar et al. (2012). The follow-up discussion identifies the limits of the findings to date in terms of participant populations, levels of processing, and types of stimuli, puts forth alternative explanations of the documented effects, and articulates predictions to be tested in future research. PMID:23163422

  2. Cognitive control in Russian-German bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JuliaFestman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Multilingual speakers are faced with the problem to keep their languages apart, but do so with interindividually varying success. Cognitive control abilities might be an important factor to explain such interindividual differences. Here we compare two late, balanced and highly proficient bilingual groups (mean age 24 years, L1 Russian, L2 German which were established according to their language control abilities on a bilingual picture-naming task. One group had difficulties to remain in the instructed target language and switched unintentionally to the non-target language (“switchers”, whereas the other group rarely switched unintentionally (“non-switchers”. This group-specific behaviour could not be explained by language background, socio-cultural or demographic variables. Rather, the non-switchers also demonstrated a faster and better performance on four cognitive control tests (Tower of Hanoi, Ruff Figural Fluency Test, Divided Attention, Go/Nogo. In this paper we will focus on two additional cognitive tasks, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST and the Flanker task. Importantly, these two tasks require executive processing components for conflict monitoring and conflict resolution. Non-switchers outperformed switchers with regard to speed and accuracy, and were better at finding and applying the correct rules in the WCST. On the Flanker task, non-switchers performed faster and better on conflict trials and had a higher correction rate following an error. Event-related potential recordings furthermore revealed a smaller error-related negativity in the non-switchers. In sum, the non-switcher group consistently performed better and faster, in particular on high-conflict trials, probably due to better efficiency in dealing with conflict. They also demonstrated overall better self-monitoring abilities compared to switchers. We conclude that bilingual language performance, in particular switching behavior is related to performance on

  3. Being Bilingual: Issues for Cross-Language Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusia Temple

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The current political debates in England highlight the role of language in citizenship, social exclusion, and discrimination. Similar debates can also be found around the world. Correspondingly, research addressing different language communities is burgeoning. Service providers and academics are increasingly employing bilingual community researchers or interpreters to carry out research. However, there is very little written about the effect of working with bilingual researchers. What it means to be bilingual is often essentialised and rarely problematised. Bilingual researchers are seen as unproblematically acting as bridges between communities just because they are bilingual. Their ties to communities, their use of language, and their perspectives on the research are rarely investigated. Language is tied in an unproblematic way to meaning, values, and beliefs. In this article, I use examples from my own research to question what it means to be bilingual and to do cross-language research. I argue that there is no straightforward way in which meanings can be read off from researchers’ ties to language and that being bilingual is not the same for everyone.

  4. The effects of bilingual growth on toddlers' executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivello, Cristina; Kuzyk, Olivia; Rodrigues, Monyka; Friend, Margaret; Zesiger, Pascal; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2016-01-01

    The mastery of two languages provides bilingual speakers with cognitive benefits over monolinguals, particularly on cognitive flexibility and selective attention. However, extant research is limited to comparisons between monolinguals and bilinguals at a single point in time. This study investigated whether growth in bilingual proficiency, as shown by an increased number of translation equivalents (TEs) over a 7-month period, improves executive function. We hypothesized that bilingual toddlers with a larger increase of TEs would have more practice in switching across lexical systems, boosting executive function abilities. Expressive vocabulary and TEs were assessed at 24 and 31 months of age. A battery of tasks, including conflict, delay, and working memory tasks, was administered at 31 months. As expected, we observed a task-specific advantage in inhibitory control in bilinguals. More important, within the bilingual group, larger increases in the number of TEs predicted better performance on conflict tasks but not on delay tasks. This unique longitudinal design confirms the relation between executive function and early bilingualism. PMID:26402219

  5. Categorization of speech sounds by Norwegian/English bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dypvik, Audny T.; Slawinski, Elzbieta B.

    2005-04-01

    Bilinguals who learned English late in life (late bilinguals) as opposed to those who learned English early in life (early bilinguals) differ in their perception of phonemic distinctions. Age of acquisition of a second language as well as depth of immersion into English is influenced by perceptual differences of phonemic contrasts between monolinguals and bilinguals, with consequences for speech production. The phonemes /v/ and /w/ are from the same category in Norwegian, rendering them perceptually indistinguishable to the native Norwegian listener. In English, /v/ and /w/ occupy two categories. Psychoacoustic testing on this phonemic distinction in the current study will compare perceptual abilities of monolingual English and bilingual Norwegian/English listeners. Preliminary data indicates that Norwegian/English bilinguals demonstrate varying perceptual abilities for this phonemic distinction. A series of speech sounds have been generated by an articulatory synthesizer, the Tube Resonance Model, along a continuum between the postures of /v/ and /w/. They will be presented binaurally over headphones in an anechoic chamber at a sound pressure level of 75 dB. Differences in the perception of the categorical boundary between /v/ and /w/ among English monolinguals and Norwegian/English bilinguals will be further delineated.

  6. Verbal short-term memory and vocabulary development in monolingual Dutch and bilingual Turkish-Dutch preschoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messer, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing immigration, bilingualism has become part and parcel of the everyday lives of many children. Although research indicates that under favourable circumstances bilingual children can become balanced bilinguals, especially immigrant children seem to have difficulty coping with the langua

  7. What is it like to grow up to be bilingual?-A survey report on bilingual high school students-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Tamiya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this era of globalization, Japanese teachers as well as teachers in other areas of the world have increasing chances of encountering bilingual students such as returnees and immigrants. It is important to understand the development of these students. The authors conducted a survey about bilingualism on 60 bilingual high school students at an international school in Japan. The survey questions asked about the students’ background and their experiences as a bilingual. Twenty-nine students responded to the survey. The responses were classified according to whether the reported advantages/disadvantages were linguistic, socio-cultural or identity-related. Linguistic disadvantages as well as advantages were experienced by most students. Bilingual influences on identity were mostly favorable, but some difficulties were common. Despite these disadvantages, socio-cultural advantages were prominent. It was reassuring to see that many bilingual high school students felt they were socio-culturally advantaged and mostly felt secure about their identity as a bilingual. However, we should not dismiss linguistic difficulties experienced by many of them and some cases of insecure identity, as these are crucially related to the mental health and creation of self-identity that is typical of adolescence.

  8. Can bilingual two-year-olds code-switch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, E

    1992-10-01

    Sociolinguists have investigated language mixing as code-switching in the speech of bilingual children three years old and older. Language mixing by bilingual two-year-olds, however, has generally been interpreted in the child language literature as a sign of the child's lack of language differentiation. The present study applies perspectives from sociolinguistics to investigate the language mixing of a bilingual two-year-old acquiring Norwegian and English simultaneously in Norway. Monthly recordings of the child's spontaneous speech in interactions with her parents were made from the age of 2;0 to 2;7. An investigation into the formal aspects of the child's mixing and the context of the mixing reveals that she does differentiate her language use in contextually sensitive ways, hence that she can code-switch. This investigation stresses the need to examine more carefully the roles of dominance and context in the language mixing of young bilingual children. PMID:1429952

  9. Bilingual Teachers Take Part in Immersion Program in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Emilio J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the experience of 11 Michigan bilingual teachers attending an immersion program in Mexico involving 15 days of intensive seminars dealing with Mexican history, geography, mythology, folklore, politics, and education. (CB)

  10. Errors in the Production of Adult Early and Late Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the grammatical knowledge of adult second language (L2 learners and heritage speakers. Given the differences in the mode and age of acquisition between L2 learners (late bilinguals and heritage speakers (early bilinguals, the question arises as to whether and how these groups differ from each other in their knowledge of Korean. To address this question, the present study looks at the production of Korean relative clauses by three groups of learners (26 L2 learners, 11 simultaneous bilinguals, and 38 early sequential bilinguals. The results of a written production task showed that all three groups made similar types of errors such as those involving the use of incorrect word order and case markers. Yet differences were also observed in the nature of errors made by these three groups. Based on the findings, pedagogical implications are drawn for classroom instruction.

  11. Bilingualism changes children's beliefs about what is innate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Garcia, Bianca

    2015-03-01

    Young children engage in essentialist reasoning about natural kinds, believing that many traits are innately determined. This study investigated whether personal experience with second language acquisition could alter children's essentialist biases. In a switched-at-birth paradigm, 5- and 6-year-old monolingual and simultaneous bilingual children expected that a baby's native language, an animal's vocalizations, and an animal's physical traits would match those of a birth rather than of an adoptive parent. We predicted that sequential bilingual children, who had been exposed to a new language after age 3, would show greater understanding that languages are learned. Surprisingly, sequential bilinguals showed reduced essentialist beliefs about all traits: they were significantly more likely than other children to believe that human language, animal vocalizations, and animal physical traits would be learned through experience rather than innately endowed. These findings suggest that bilingualism in the preschool years can profoundly change children's essentialist biases. PMID:25546698

  12. Bilingual Education for Spanish-Speaking Children: An Abstract Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Mima, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography contains 86 document and journal references listed in "Research in Education (RIE)" and in "Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE)." Included are references related to programs, issues, materials, and methodology involved in bilingual teaching. (SET)

  13. Acquiring bilinguality : a multiple case study of Russian-speaking bilinguals in Reykjavik

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Shukurova 1984

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates language and literacy acquisition in five Russian-speaking bilingual children living in Reykjavik. Explorative in its nature, the study is designed to provide information on the subjects’ language and literacy acquisition in addition to contributing to studies of multilingual children in Iceland. The research strategy adopted was a holistic multiple-case study conducted in one national context, in order to answer the following questions: What sociolinguistic and...

  14. Methodological reflections on gesture analysis in SLA and bilingualism research

    OpenAIRE

    Gullberg, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Gestures, i.e. the symbolic movements that speakers perform while they speak, form a closely interconnected system with speech, where gestures serve both addressee-directed (‘communicative’) and speaker-directed (‘internal’) functions. This article aims (1) to show that a combined analysis of gesture and speech offers new ways to address theoretical issues in second language acquisition (SLA) and bilingualism studies, probing SLA and bilingualism as product and process; and (2) to outline som...

  15. Effects of Marathi-Hindi Bilingualism on Neuropsychological Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kamat, Rujvi; Ghate, Manisha; Gollan, Tamar H.; Meyer, Rachel; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K.; Letendre, Scott; Franklin, Donald; Alexander, Terry; Grant, Igor; Mehendale, Sanjay; Marcotte, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine if bilingualism affects executive functions and verbal fluency in Marathi and Hindi, two major languages in India, with a considerable cognate (e.g., activity is actividad in Spanish) overlap. A total of 174 native Marathi speakers from Pune, India, with varying levels of Hindi proficiency were administered tests of executive functioning and verbal performance in Marathi. A bilingualism index was generated using self-reported Hindi and Marathi proficiency. A...

  16. Being Bilingual: Issues for Cross-Language Research

    OpenAIRE

    Bogusia Temple

    2006-01-01

    The current political debates in England highlight the role of language in citizenship, social exclusion, and discrimination. Similar debates can also be found around the world. Correspondingly, research addressing different language communities is burgeoning. Service providers and academics are increasingly employing bilingual community researchers or interpreters to carry out research. However, there is very little written about the effect of working with bilingual researchers. What it mean...

  17. Head start for target language in bilingual listening

    OpenAIRE

    FitzPatrick, I.; Indefrey, P.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the availability of non-target language semantic features in bilingual speech processing. We recorded EEG from Dutch-English bilinguals who listened to spoken sentences in their L2 (English) or L1 (Dutch). In Experiments 1 and 3 the sentences contained an interlingual homophone. The sentence context was either biased towards the target language meaning of the homophone (target biased), the non-target language meaning (non-target biased), or neither meaning of the...

  18. Bilingual Two-Way Immersion Programs Benefit Academic Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Marian, Viorica; Shook, Anthony; Schroeder, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of bilingual education on reading and math achievement were examined by comparing test scores across different elementary-school programs. Results revealed that bilingual Two-Way Immersion programs benefited both minority-language and majority-language students. Minority-language students in Two-Way Immersion outperformed their peers in Transitional Programs of Instruction, while majority-language students in Two-Way Immersion outperformed their peers in Mainstream monolingual cla...

  19. Linguistic and Cognitive Skills in Sardinian–Italian Bilingual Children

    OpenAIRE

    Garraffa, Maria; Beveridge, Madeleine; Sorace, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a study which tested receptive Italian grammatical competence and general cognitive abilities in bilingual Italian–Sardinian children and age-matched monolingual Italian children attending the first and second year of primary school in the Nuoro province of Sardinia, where Sardinian is still widely spoken. The results show that across age groups the performance of Sardinian–Italian bilingual children is in most cases indistinguishable from that of monolingual Italian ...

  20. How does the bilingual experience sculpt the brain?

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Albert; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria

    2014-01-01

    The ability to speak two languages often marvels monolinguals, although bilinguals report no difficulties in achieving this feat. Here, we examine how learning and using two languages affect language acquisition and processing as well as various aspects of cognition. We do so by addressing three main questions. First, how do infants who are exposed to two languages acquire them without apparent difficulty? Second, how does language processing differ between monolingual and bilingual adults? L...

  1. Using a Bilingual Resource to Add Synonyms to a Wordnet

    OpenAIRE

    Niemi, Jyrki; Linden, Krister; HyvÀrinen, Mirka

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a simple method for finding new synonym candidates to a bilingual wordnet by using another bilingual resource. Our goal is to add new synonyms to the existing synsets of the Finnish WordNet, which has direct word sense translation correspondences to the Princeton WordNet. For this task, we use Wikipedia and its links between the articles of the same topic in Finnish and English.

  2. Unilingual versus Bilingual Education: a Political Economy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Javier; Tangeraas, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We consider an economy with two language groups, where only agents who share a language can produce together. Schooling enhances the productivity of students. Individuals attending a unilingual school end up speaking the language of instruction only, while bilingual schools render individuals bilingual at the same cost. The politically dominant group(not necessarily the majority) chooses the type(s) of schools accessible to each language group, and then individuals decide whether to attend...

  3. Influence of Bilinguism on Socio-Cognitive Personality Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Sokolova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overeview of foreign studies devoted to bilinguism and its influence on socio-cognitive personality development. Experimental research conducted in the recent years has broken the myth of negative influence of childhood bilinguism. Moreover, based on the comparative analysis, the present research shows the advantages of children and adults grown up in the bilingual environment. Their advantages compared with the monolingual peers include the well-developed meta-lingual abilities and executive functions - executive control, attention, planning, concentration, rejection of inessential information - necessary for fulfilling verbal tasks and activity control. The paper emphasizes the influence of bilinguism on cognitive decentration, ability to learn foreign languages and develop higher social sensitivity regarding both verbal and non-verbal communication (i.e. interpretation of mimics, gestures, intonations, and more adequate reaction to communicative behavior of surrounding people.The author concludes that bilinguism stimulates creativity, facilitates divergent thinking necessary for observing a variety of possible solutions and creative ideas development. Bilingual skills broaden children’s mental horizons leaving them more prepared for adult life compared to their monolingual peers. 

  4. The influence of bilingualism on statistical word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poepsel, Timothy J; Weiss, Daniel J

    2016-07-01

    Statistical learning is a fundamental component of language acquisition, yet to date, relatively few studies have examined whether these abilities differ in bilinguals. In the present study, we examine this issue by comparing English monolinguals with Chinese-English and English-Spanish bilinguals in a cross-situational statistical learning (CSSL) task. In Experiment 1, we assessed the ability of both monolinguals and bilinguals on a basic CSSL task that contained only one-to-one mappings. In Experiment 2, learners were asked to form both one-to-one and two-to-one mappings, and were tested at three points during familiarization. Overall, monolinguals and bilinguals did not differ in their learning of one-to-one mappings. However, bilinguals more quickly acquired two-to-one mappings, while also exhibiting greater proficiency than monolinguals. We conclude that the fundamental SL mechanism may not be affected by language experience, in accord with previous studies. However, when the input contains greater variability, bilinguals may be more prone to detecting the presence of multiple structures. PMID:27015348

  5. Historical perspectives of bilingual education in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Isabel GARCÍA GARRIDO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} This article presents a revision of the evolution of bilingual education in the United States, focusing on the main movements that have been against and in favor of bilingualism. Respect for cultural and linguistic diversity started being jeopardized in 1750 when Benjamin Franklin tried to impose English as the official language of the United States. The strongest opposition to bilingualism took place in 1983 with a movement called U.S. English. Another movement, the so called English First, appeared in 1986 with the same objectives as U.S. English. However, bilingualism has also had its proposers, such as English Plus. The future of bilingualism has also been legally protected by three acts: (1 the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA, (2 The Bilingual Education Act of 1968, and (3 the No Child Left Behind Act.

  6. The auditory attention status in Iranian bilingual and monolingual people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayiere Mansoori

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Bilingualism, as one of the discussing issues of psychology and linguistics, can influence the speech processing. Of several tests for assessing auditory processing, dichotic digit test has been designed to study divided auditory attention. Our study was performed to compare the auditory attention between Iranian bilingual and monolingual young adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 students including 30 Turkish-Persian bilinguals and 30 Persian monolinguals aged between 18 to 30 years in both genders. Dichotic digit test was performed on young individuals with normal peripheral hearing and right hand preference. Results: No significant correlation was found between the results of dichotic digit test of monolinguals and bilinguals (p=0.195, and also between the results of right and left ears in monolingual (p=0.460 and bilingual (p=0.054 groups. The mean score of women was significantly more than men (p=0.031. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between bilinguals and monolinguals in divided auditory attention; and it seems that acquisition of second language in lower ages has no noticeable effect on this type of auditory attention.

  7. Age of acquisition and allophony in Spanish-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    This study examines age of acquisition (AoA) in Spanish-English bilinguals' phonetic and phonological knowledge of /l/ in English and Spanish. In English, the lateral approximant /l/ varies in darkness by context [based on the second formant (F2) and the difference between F2 and the first formant (F1)], but the Spanish /l/ does not. Further, English /l/ is overall darker than Spanish /l/. Thirty-eight college-aged adults participated: 11 Early Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English before the age of 5 years, 14 Late Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English after the age of 6 years, and 13 English monolinguals. Participants' /l/ productions were acoustically analyzed by language and context. The results revealed a Spanish-to-English phonetic influence on /l/ productions for both Early and Late bilinguals, as well as an English-to-Spanish phonological influence on the patterning of /l/ for the Late Bilinguals. These findings are discussed in terms of the Speech Learning Model and the effect of AoA on the interaction between a bilingual speaker's two languages. PMID:24795664

  8. Phonotactic Constraints Are Activated across Languages in Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Max R.; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

    2016-01-01

    During spoken language comprehension, auditory input activates a bilingual’s two languages in parallel based on phonological representations that are shared across languages. However, it is unclear whether bilinguals access phonotactic constraints from the non-target language during target language processing. For example, in Spanish, words with s+ consonant onsets cannot exist, and phonotactic constraints call for epenthesis (addition of a vowel, e.g., stable/estable). Native Spanish speakers may produce English words such as estudy (“study”) with epenthesis, suggesting that these bilinguals apply Spanish phonotactic constraints when speaking English. The present study is the first to examine whether bilinguals access Spanish phonotactic constraints during English comprehension. In an English cross-modal priming lexical decision task, Spanish–English bilinguals and English monolinguals heard English cognate and non-cognate primes containing s+ consonant onsets or controls without s+ onsets, followed by a lexical decision on visual targets with the /e/ phonotactic constraint or controls without /e/. Results revealed that bilinguals were faster to respond to /es/ non-word targets preceded by s+ cognate primes and /es/ and /e/ non-word targets preceded by s+ non-cognate primes, confirming that English primes containing s+ onsets activated Spanish phonotactic constraints. These findings are discussed within current accounts of parallel activation of two languages during bilingual spoken language comprehension, which may be expanded to include activation of phonotactic constraints from the irrelevant language. PMID:27242615

  9. The emergence of competing modules in bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Arturo; Li, Ping; MacWhinney, Brian

    2005-05-01

    How does the brain manage to store and process multiple languages without encountering massive interference and transfer? Unless we believe that bilinguals live in two totally unconnected cognitive worlds, we would expect far more transfer than actually occurs. However, imaging and lesion studies have not provided consistent evidence for the strict neuronal separation predicted by the theory of modularity. We suggest that emergentist theory offers a promising alternative. It emphasizes the competitive interplay between multiple languages during childhood and by focusing on the dual action of competition and entrenchment, avoids the need to invoke a critical period to account for age of acquisition effects in second-language learning. This view instantiates the motto formulated by Elizabeth Bates that 'modules are made, not born.' PMID:15866148

  10. An Understanding of the Concept and Conditions of Bilingualism: A Study in an EFL Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Patricia Lastra R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study carried out at a private school that implemented a bilingual program more than a decade ago. The main aim of the project was to find out how the school community understands the concept of bilingualism and the conditions required to fulfill the goals of a bilingual curriculum at the school. Data were collected through surveys and focus groups made up of different members of the school community. The results showed that bilingualism is associated with a high intensi...

  11. The Role of Bilingualism on Neuropsychological Test Performance among Spanish Speakers Tested in Their Native Language

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez, Paola A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale : The cognitive science literature suggests both advantages and disadvantages of bilingualism for cognitive performance. However, little is known about the generalizability of such findings to clinical neuropsychology for diagnosing brain dysfunction in Spanish dominant bilinguals in the U.S. The present study examined the effects of bilingualism on Spanish-language neuropsychological test performance, and whether or not these bilingual advantages could be explained by socioeconomic...

  12. Bilingual education among ethnic Koreans in China: ethnic language maintenance and upward social mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, F

    2010-01-01

    Ethnic minority education is a challenge for developing countries and a matter of international urgency. This paper imputes bilingual policy for ethnic Koreans as an example for exploring the implementation of bilingual education during China's reform period. Drawn from an ethnographic research study at a bilingual Korean school in northeast China, focus is on the dilemmas facing Korean bilingual education. Although there is diversity among China's ethnic minorities, a common thread and a gen...

  13. Self-Repair and Language Selection in Bilingual Speech Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Hennecke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In psycholinguistic research the exact level of language selection in bilingual lexical access is still controversial and current models of bilingual speech production offer conflicting statements about the mechanisms and location of language selection. This paper aims to provide a corpus analysis of self-repair mechanisms in code-switching contexts of highly fluent bilingual speakers in order to gain further insights into bilingual speech production. The present paper follows the assumptions of the Selection by Proficiency model, which claims that language proficiency and lexical robustness determine the mechanism and level of language selection. In accordance with this hypothesis, highly fluent bilinguals select languages at a prelexical level, which should influence the occurrence of self-repairs in bilingual speech. A corpus of natural speech data of highly fluent and balanced bilingual French-English speakers of the Canadian French variety Franco-Manitoban serves as the basis for a detailed analysis of different self-repair mechanisms in code-switching environments. Although the speech data contain a large amount of code-switching, results reveal that only a few speech errors and self-repairs occur in direct code-switching environments. A detailed analysis of the respective starting point of code-switching and the different repair mechanisms supports the hypothesis that highly proficient bilinguals do not select languages at the lexical level.Le niveau exact de la sélection des langues lors de l’accès lexical chez le bilingue reste une question controversée dans la recherche psycholinguistique. Les modèles actuels de la production verbale bilingue proposent des arguments contradictoires concernant le mécanisme et le lieu de la sélection des langues. La présente recherche vise à fournir une analyse de corpus mettant l’accent sur les mécanismes d’autoréparation dans le contexte d’alternance codique dans la production verbale

  14. One World, Two Languages: Cross-Language Semantic Priming in Bilingual Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leher

    2014-01-01

    The interconnectedness of bilingual memory remains a topic of great debate. Semantic priming provides a powerful methodological tool with which to investigate this issue in early bilingual toddlers. Semantic priming effects were investigated in 21 bilingual toddlers (2.5 years) within and across each of their languages. Results revealed the first…

  15. The Impact of Bilingualism on the Executive Control and Orienting Networks of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Mireia; Costa, Albert; Fuentes, Luis J.; Vivas, Ana B.; Sebastian-Galles, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to provide new evidence regarding the impact of bilingualism on the attentional system. We approach this goal by assessing the effects of bilingualism on the executive and orienting networks of attention. In Experiment 1, we compared young bilingual and monolingual adults in a numerical version of the Stroop…

  16. Bilingualism and Phonological Segmentation of Speech: The Case of English-French Pre-Schoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Angelique; Martinot, Clara

    2009-01-01

    From studies of bilingual education practices, some authors have suggested that bilingualism, in a favourable environment, facilitates development of metaphonological abilities. In a monolingual context, these abilities develop in interaction with literacy. The objective of the present study is to determine if bilingual children have some…

  17. THE ROLE OF BILINGUAL COMPETENCE IN INTERPRETERS’ TRAINING IN MULTILINGUAL SOCIETY

    OpenAIRE

    ZINUKOVA NATALIA VIKTOROVNA

    2015-01-01

    Aspects of bilingualism in relation to interpreters’ training have been investigated in this article. The findings of the research raise the question about whether notions of bilingualism should be considered in more depth by interpreter trainers and assessors and whether an understanding of bilingualism should be included in the university course content.

  18. The Impact of Bilingual Environments on Language Development in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambly, Catherine; Fombonne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The impact of bilingual exposure on language learning has not been systematically studied in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This study compared the social abilities and language levels of children (mean age = 56 months) with ASDs from bilingual (n = 45) and monolingual (n = 30) environments. Bilingually-exposed children were subgrouped…

  19. Dual Language Use in Sign-Speech Bimodal Bilinguals: fNIRS Brain-Imaging Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovelman, Ioulia; Shalinsky, Mark H.; White, Katherine S.; Schmitt, Shawn N.; Berens, Melody S.; Paymer, Nora; Petitto, Laura-Ann

    2009-01-01

    The brain basis of bilinguals' ability to use two languages at the same time has been a hotly debated topic. On the one hand, behavioral research has suggested that bilingual dual language use involves complex and highly principled linguistic processes. On the other hand, brain-imaging research has revealed that bilingual language switching…

  20. Differences in Word Recognition between Early Bilinguals and Monolinguals: Behavioral and ERP Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Minna; Hulten, Annika; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral and brain responses (ERPs) of bilingual word recognition to three fundamental psycholinguistic factors, frequency, morphology, and lexicality, in early bilinguals vs. monolinguals. Earlier behavioral studies have reported larger frequency effects in bilinguals' nondominant vs. dominant language and in some studies…

  1. Examining the Text Quality of English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning

    2016-01-01

    As a branch of multicultural literature, bilingual children's picture books present a special opportunity for readers to expand their horizons and knowledge of other cultures. The researchers took a closer look at the text quality of 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. These bilingual books were examined on the aspects of the…

  2. Crosslinguistic Influence on Phonological Awareness for Korean-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk

    2009-01-01

    This study examined (1) the potential influence of oral language characteristics of two languages that bilingual children acquire on their PA and (2) the relationship of PA in L1 with PA and literacy skills in L2, using data from Korean-English bilingual children. Thirty three Korean-English bilingual children, composed of two subsamples from two…

  3. Some Research-Based Issues and Recommendations Expressed at the Seminario Internacional Sobre la Educacion Bilingue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Ernesto M.

    The first Seminario Internacional Sobre la Educacion Bilingue (International Seminar on Bilingual Education), under the aegis of the National Association for Bilingual Education and the Mexican secretary for public education, brought together professionals from Canada, the United States, and Mexico in Oaxtepec, Mexico in November 1986 to share…

  4. The Role of Formal L2 Learning Experience in L3 Acquisition among Early Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mihi; Starr, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Early bilingualism is thought to facilitate language learning [Klein, E. C. (1995). "Second versus third language acquisition: Is there a difference?" "Language Learning", 45(3), 419-466; Cromdal, J. (1999). "Childhood bilingualism and metalinguistic skills: Analysis and control in young Swedish-English bilinguals."…

  5. Switching Codes, Switching Code: Bilinguals' Emotional Responses in English and Greek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayiotou, Alexia

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the verbal construction of emotions in a bilingual/bicultural setting, the target languages and cultures being American English and Cypriot Greek. To examine whether bilingual speakers express different emotions in their respective languages, a study was carried out with 10 bilingual/bicultural professionals. A scenario was…

  6. Early Childhood Bilingualism Leads to Advances in Executive Attention: Dissociating Culture and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sujin; Yang, Hwajin; Lust, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether early especially efficient utilization of executive functioning in young bilinguals would transcend potential cultural benefits. To dissociate potential cultural effects from bilingualism, four-year-old U.S. Korean-English bilingual children were compared to three monolingual groups--English and Korean monolinguals…

  7. Chinese Translation Errors in English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the Chinese translation errors in 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. While bilingual children's books make definite contributions to language acquisition, few studies have examined the quality of these books, and even fewer have specifically focused on English/Chinese bilingual books.…

  8. Executive Function Differences between Bilingual ArabicEnglish and Monolingual Arabic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than…

  9. Literacy Instruction in Bilingual Settings: A Synthesis of Current Research. Professional Papers M-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace-Matluck, Betty J.

    Research on the effectiveness of literacy instruction of bilingual children is reviewed. Most research on reading in a bilingual setting involves college students in the United States or younger students in other countries, while research on writing in a bilingual setting is only beginning to emerge. The review focuses on the nature of literacy,…

  10. The Development of Associative Word Learning in Monolingual and Bilingual Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Fennell, Christopher T.; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    Children growing up bilingual face a unique linguistic environment. The current study investigated whether early bilingual experience influences the developmental trajectory of associative word learning, a foundational mechanism for lexical acquisition. Monolingual and bilingual infants (N = 98) were tested on their ability to learn…

  11. Understanding, Connection, and Identification: Friendship Features of Bilingual Spanish-English Speaking Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebanc, Anne M.; Hernandez, Maria D.; Alvarado, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Bilingual undergraduates may have closer friendships with other bilinguals than with monolinguals. This study investigated this hypothesis and explored the friendship features of 46 bilingual Spanish and English speaking undergraduates by combining quantitative analyses of surveys and qualitative analyses of interviews. Survey results indicated…

  12. Bilingualism in International Baccalaureate Programmes, with Particular Reference to International Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, Maurice

    2006-01-01

    Students successfully completing an International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma course of study may, under certain conditions, be awarded a Bilingual Diploma. Since many students in international schools may be expected to be bilingual, and bilingualism, properly nurtured, has been shown to have metalinguistic and cognitive advantages, it would be…

  13. The Effect of Bilingualism on Letter and Category Fluency Tasks in Primary School Children: Advantage or Disadvantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormi-Nouri, Reza; Moradi, Ali-Reza; Moradi, Shahram; Akbari-Zardkhaneh, Saeed; Zahedian, Haedeh

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of bilingualism on letter and category fluency tasks. Participants were 1,600 monolingual and bilingual children from three cities in Iran: Tehran (Persian monolinguals), Tabriz (Turkish-Persian bilinguals), and Sanandaj (Kurdish-Persian bilinguals). We separately presented nine Persian…

  14. Working memory in multilingual children: is there a bilingual effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M J

    2011-07-01

    This research investigates whether early childhood bilingualism affects working memory performance in 6- to 8-year-olds, followed over a longitudinal period of 3 years. The study tests the hypothesis that bilinguals might exhibit more efficient working memory abilities than monolinguals, potentially via the opportunity a bilingual environment provides to train cognitive control by combating interference and intrusions from the non-target language. A total of 44 bilingual and monolingual children, matched on age, sex, and socioeconomic status, completed assessments of working memory (simple span and complex span tasks), fluid intelligence, and language (vocabulary and syntax). The data showed that the monolinguals performed significantly better on the language measures across the years, whereas no language group effect emerged on the working memory and fluid intelligence tasks after verbal abilities were considered. The study suggests that the need to manage several language systems in the bilingual mind has an impact on children's language skills while having little effects on the development of working memory. PMID:21864216

  15. Neurolinguistics: Structure, Function, and Connectivity in the Bilingual Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Becky; Yin, Bin; O'Brien, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Advances in neuroimaging techniques and analytic methods have led to a proliferation of studies investigating the impact of bilingualism on the cognitive and brain systems in humans. Lately, these findings have attracted much interest and debate in the field, leading to a number of recent commentaries and reviews. Here, we contribute to the ongoing discussion by compiling and interpreting the plethora of findings that relate to the structural, functional, and connective changes in the brain that ensue from bilingualism. In doing so, we integrate theoretical models and empirical findings from linguistics, cognitive/developmental psychology, and neuroscience to examine the following issues: (1) whether the language neural network is different for first (dominant) versus second (nondominant) language processing; (2) the effects of bilinguals' executive functioning on the structure and function of the “universal” language neural network; (3) the differential effects of bilingualism on phonological, lexical-semantic, and syntactic aspects of language processing on the brain; and (4) the effects of age of acquisition and proficiency of the user's second language in the bilingual brain, and how these have implications for future research in neurolinguistics. PMID:26881224

  16. Neurolinguistics: Structure, Function, and Connectivity in the Bilingual Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Becky; Yin, Bin; O'Brien, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Advances in neuroimaging techniques and analytic methods have led to a proliferation of studies investigating the impact of bilingualism on the cognitive and brain systems in humans. Lately, these findings have attracted much interest and debate in the field, leading to a number of recent commentaries and reviews. Here, we contribute to the ongoing discussion by compiling and interpreting the plethora of findings that relate to the structural, functional, and connective changes in the brain that ensue from bilingualism. In doing so, we integrate theoretical models and empirical findings from linguistics, cognitive/developmental psychology, and neuroscience to examine the following issues: (1) whether the language neural network is different for first (dominant) versus second (nondominant) language processing; (2) the effects of bilinguals' executive functioning on the structure and function of the "universal" language neural network; (3) the differential effects of bilingualism on phonological, lexical-semantic, and syntactic aspects of language processing on the brain; and (4) the effects of age of acquisition and proficiency of the user's second language in the bilingual brain, and how these have implications for future research in neurolinguistics. PMID:26881224

  17. Grammatical category mediates the bilingual disadvantage in word retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah

    2015-05-01

    Figure 1 shows the scores. Language Quotient (LQ, Kertesz, 2006 was treated as a covariate to account for overall language proficiency for both picture naming and fluency. There was an interaction between grammatical category and bilingualism for both picture naming accuracy (F(1, 69 = 37.5, p< .001 and verbal fluency (F(1,60 = 5.2, p<.05, such that bilinguals scored lower than monolinguals for noun picture naming (F(1, 69 = 4.1, p< .05, LQ-corrected mean difference of 28.2% and animal fluency (F(1, 60 = 13.9, p< .001, mean difference = 3.2, but not for actions. This finding of comparable verb retrieval accuracy in high proficiency bilingual speakers could be attributed to fewer cross-language competitors for verbs (Bultena et al., 2013. This study suggests that 1 bilingual lexical organization is influenced by grammatical category; and 2 action naming tasks may be more reliable for neuropsychological testing of high proficiency bilinguals.

  18. Vowel categorization during word recognition in bilingual toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon-Casas, Marta; Swingley, Daniel; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Bosch, Laura

    2009-08-01

    Toddlers' and preschoolers' knowledge of the phonological forms of words was tested in Spanish-learning, Catalan-learning, and bilingual children. These populations are of particular interest because of differences in the Spanish and Catalan vowel systems: Catalan has two vowels in a phonetic region where Spanish has only one. The proximity of the Spanish vowel to the Catalan ones might pose special learning problems. Children were shown picture pairs; the target picture's name was spoken correctly, or a vowel in the target word was altered. Altered vowels either contrasted with the usual vowel in Spanish and Catalan, or only in Catalan. Children's looking to the target picture was used as a measure of word recognition. Monolinguals' word recognition was hindered by within-language, but not non-native, vowel changes. Surprisingly, bilingual toddlers did not show sensitivity to changes in vowels contrastive only in Catalan. Among preschoolers, Catalan-dominant bilinguals but not Spanish-dominant bilinguals revealed mispronunciation sensitivity for the Catalan-only contrast. These studies reveal monolingual children's robust knowledge of native-language vowel categories in words, and show that bilingual children whose two languages contain phonetically overlapping vowel categories may not treat those categories as separate in language comprehension. PMID:19338984

  19. Bilingualism as Conceptualized and Bilingualism as Lived: A Critical Examination of the Monolingual Socialization of a Child with Autism in a Bilingual Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Betty

    2016-01-01

    This is an ethnographic and discourse analytic case study of a bilingual, minority-language family of a six-year-old child with autism whose family members were committed to speaking English with him. Drawing on "family language policy," the study examines the tensions between the family members' stated beliefs, management efforts, and…

  20. Bilingualism at the core of the brain. Structural differences between bilinguals and monolinguals revealed by subcortical shape analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgaleta, Miguel; Sanjuán, Ana; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sebastian-Galles, Núria; Ávila, César

    2016-01-15

    Naturally acquiring a language shapes the human brain through a long-lasting learning and practice process. This is supported by previous studies showing that managing more than one language from early childhood has an impact on brain structure and function. However, to what extent bilingual individuals present neuroanatomical peculiarities at the subcortical level with respect to monolinguals is yet not well understood, despite the key role of subcortical gray matter for a number of language functions, including monitoring of speech production and language control - two processes especially solicited by bilinguals. Here we addressed this issue by performing a subcortical surface-based analysis in a sample of monolinguals and simultaneous bilinguals (N=88) that only differed in their language experience from birth. This analysis allowed us to study with great anatomical precision the potential differences in morphology of key subcortical structures, namely, the caudate, accumbens, putamen, globus pallidus and thalamus. Vertexwise analyses revealed significantly expanded subcortical structures for bilinguals compared to monolinguals, localized in bilateral putamen and thalamus, as well as in the left globus pallidus and right caudate nucleus. A topographical interpretation of our results suggests that a more complex phonological system in bilinguals may lead to a greater development of a subcortical brain network involved in monitoring articulatory processes. PMID:26505300

  1. “One glove does not fit all” in bilingual reading acquisition: Using the age of first bilingual language exposure to understand optimal contexts for reading success

    OpenAIRE

    Ioulia Kovelman; Maha Salah-Ud-Din; Melody S Berens; Laura-Ann Petitto

    2015-01-01

    In teaching reading, educators strive to find the balance between a code-emphasis approach and a meaning-oriented literacy approach. However, little is known about how different approaches to literacy can benefit bilingual children’s early reading acquisition. To investigate the novel hypothesis that children’s age of first bilingual exposure can interact with different approaches to literacy, we tested 56 Spanish-English bilingual children (ages 7–9), with birth exposure to Spanish and eithe...

  2. A Bafri, un Pafri: bilinguals' Pseudoword identifications support language-specific phonetic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Kalim; Lotto, Andrew J

    2013-11-01

    Bilinguals perceptually accommodate speech variation across languages, but to what extent this flexibility depends on bilingual experience is uncertain. One account suggests that bilingual experience promotes language-specific processing modes, implying that bilinguals can switch as appropriate between the different phonetic systems of the languages they speak. Another account suggests that bilinguals rapidly recalibrate to the unique acoustic properties of each language following language-general processes common to monolinguals. Challenging this latter account, the present results show that Spanish-English bilinguals with exposure to both languages from early childhood, but not English monolinguals, shift perception as appropriate across acoustically controlled English and Spanish contexts. Early bilingual experience appears to promote language-specific phonetic systems. PMID:24022652

  3. Effects of SES on literacy development of deaf signing bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twitchell, Paul; Morford, Jill P; Hauser, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    Research on spoken-language monolinguals and bilinguals has shown that socioeconomic status significantly affects literacy outcomes. One explanation for this effect is that children in higher-SES homes have better oral proficiency in the language of literacy instruction (Hoff, 2013; Zhang et al., 2013). American Sign Language-English deaf bilingual children exhibit a unique profile because they achieve L2 literacy without prior development of spoken L2 proficiency. This provides an opportunity to evaluate the role of SES in literacy development without the confounding effect of the influence of spoken-language proficiency. The present study evaluated effects of SES and ASL proficiency on 135 deaf signing bilinguals' English reading proficiency. Although SES and ASL proficiency were not correlated in this sample, both factors were significant predictors of reading proficiency. The implications of these findings for educational reform in schools with deaf students are discussed. PMID:26012169

  4. A comparative study on students' attitudes towards bilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Furlan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to assess the existence of differences between attitudes towards bilingualism held by students of the Faculty of Humanities Koper and those held by students of Italian language and literacy from the Faculty of Philosophy in Split (Croatia. We investigated whether there are differences between attitudes towards bilingualism of both groups and if attitudes towards bilingualism held by students from Split are more favorable than those held by students from the Faculty of Humanities Koper. The results confirmed the first hypothesis partially, and the second one completely. 11 items out of 20 have shown to conduct to statistically different attitudes, whereas in one case a tendency towards statistically significant difference is to be found. In all cases, where statistically significant differences are to be found, attitudes held by students from Split are more positive, if compared to those held by students from Koper.

  5. BILINGUALISM AMONG THE ADOLESCENTS IN BADUNG REGENCY, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Muliana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a discussion of bilingualism among the adolescents in Badung Regency, the Province of Bali. It aims to explore the bilingualism situation and the existence of Balinese Language among them. The discussion is based on participant observation to the adolescents and it is based on Sociolinguistic Theory. The result of the discussion shows that the adolescents in Badung Regency are bilinguals of Balinese and Indonesian languages. They use Balinese language in all their communicative activities, except some females occasionally showed the use of Indonesian language. Their conversations both in Balinese and Indonesian languages are also followed by code mixing of the words and phrase of Indonesian, Balinese, and English languages.  The result of the discussion also indicates that Balinese language still used and maintained by the adolescents in Badung Regency.

  6. Translation Dictionaries and Bilingual Dictionaries. Two Different Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2002-01-01

    The starting point in any scientific process is always the formulation of the problem and then the search for a solution. In my opinion the question on the relaton between lexicography and translation should be put in this way: How can dictionaries assist translators in finding solutions to...... problems arising from the translation process? If one tries to answer this question based on the available lexicographic theory, the result might be that the solution is not to be found in a bilingual dictionary or - and this is more likely - that bilingual dictionaries are not the only type of...... dictionaries - and in some cases even not the best ones - to assist the translator who runs into problems in the translation process. In my paper, I will argue that monolingual dictionaries - together with bilingual dictionaries «the other way around«, e.g. L2-L1 dictionaries when translating from L1 into L2...

  7. Racial Threat and White Opposition to Bilingual Education in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Lynn M.; Dowling, Julie A.; Boardman, Jason D.; Ellison, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines local contextual conditions that influence opposition to bilingual education among non-Hispanic Whites, net of individual-level characteristics. Data from the Texas Poll (N = 615) are used in conjunction with U.S. Census data to test five competing hypotheses using binomial and multinomial logistic regression models. Our…

  8. Modeling the Control of Phonological Encoding in Bilingual Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Ardi; Verhoef, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Phonological encoding is the process by which speakers retrieve phonemic segments for morphemes from memory and use the segments to assemble phonological representations of words to be spoken. When conversing in one language, bilingual speakers have to resist the temptation of encoding word forms using the phonological rules and representations of…

  9. Advantages of Bilinguals over Monolinguals in Learning a Third Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Sanitsky, Ekaterina

    2010-01-01

    The present study is an examination of the contribution of bilingualism to trilingualism, namely the influence of learning two different orthographies on learning a third. The participants were two groups of sixth graders from Israeli schools who were studying English as a foreign (second or third) language: Russian Israeli children for whom…

  10. Sentence comprehension in Swahili-English bilingual agrammatic speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abuom, Tom O.; Shah, Emmah; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2013-01-01

    For this study, sentence comprehension was tested in Swahili-English bilingual agrammatic speakers. The sentences were controlled for four factors: (1) order of the arguments (base vs. derived); (2) embedding (declarative vs. relative sentences); (3) overt use of the relative pronoun "who"; (4) lang

  11. "Good Citizenship" through Bilingual Children Literature: Arabic and Hebrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, Sara; Baratz, Lea

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the research has been to evaluate the contribution of the genre of bilingual literature, Arabic and Hebrew, to citizenship education. Since the Israeli society is a multicultural society comprised of both nations, Arabs and Jews who live in conflicted environment, one must regard those textbooks as civic agents. Literature is a…

  12. Insufficient Language Education Policy: Intercultural Bilingual Education in Chiapas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ofelia; Velasco, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork research of the authors in schools in Chiapas, Mexico, the article provides an overview of efforts being made to address the unique educational needs of Mexico's Indigenous populations through intercultural bilingual education programs. The article examines the Indigenous teachers' commitment to intercultural…

  13. Exploring Teachers' Use of Technology in Classrooms of Bilingual Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Mayra C.; Cowan, John E.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents results of an investigation that documents teachers' perceptions of the contribution of technology use in classrooms of bilingual learners. Study questions asked how teachers perceive teacher-made digital movies impact learning, and what situational factors delimit technology infusion. Data gathered in focus groups and…

  14. Language Deficits in a Bilingual Child with Cerebral Cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMenamin, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Presents a case report of cysticercosis (a parasitic infestation which results in inflammation of the brain, eye, muscles, liver, and lung tissues) and the resulting language pathology in a nine-year-old Mexican American girl who is bilingual in Spanish and English. (SED)

  15. Bilingual and Biliteracy Development Over the Transition to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagoilelagi-LeotaGlynn, Fa'asaulala; McNaughton, Stuart; MacDonald, Shelley; Farry, Sasha

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the bilingual and biliteracy development of a group of children from Samoan and Tongan families over the transition to mainstream English-medium schools in New Zealand. The children attended Pasifika Early Childhood Education Centres in Auckland, New Zealand, which provided full immersion programmes in their L1 (either Samoan…

  16. Perspectives on the "Silent Period" for Emergent Bilinguals in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bligh, Caroline; Drury, Rose

    2015-01-01

    This article draws together the research findings from two ethnographic studies as a means to problematize the "silent period" as experienced by young bilingual learners in two English speaking early-years settings in England. Most teachers and senior early-years practitioners in England are monolingual English speakers. The children…

  17. Profiles in Bilingualism: Factors Influencing Kindergartners' Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L. Quentin; Wu, Shuang; Daraghmeh, Ahlam

    2012-01-01

    Three common assumptions concerning bilingual children's language proficiency are: (1) their proficiency in two languages is usually unbalanced; (2) low socioeconomic status (SES) indicates low proficiency in both languages; and (3) encouraging parents to speak some societal language at home will promote its development. Examining the vocabulary…

  18. Language Policy and Bilingual Education in Arizona and Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric J.; Johnson, David Cassels

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the bilingual/language education policies of Arizona and Washington to show that state-level language policy plays a critical role in shaping the appropriation of federal language policy [No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), Title III] and how different state-level language policies impact the district level of policy…

  19. The Language Attitudes of Bilingual Youth in Multilingual Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhorst-Heng, Wendy D.; Caleon, Imelda Santos

    2009-01-01

    This paper is about the language attitudes that bilingual youth in Singapore have towards their Mother Tongue and English, and towards codeswitching between the two. The language attitudes of 443 primary school students were investigated using a variation of the matched-guise technique. Status and solidarity dimensions of attitudes, with ethnicity…

  20. Bimodal Bilingual Language Development of Hearing Children of Deaf Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Kristin; Chilla, Solveig

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a bimodal bilingual language acquisition model, this qualitative case study is the first in Germany to investigate the spoken and sign language development of hearing children of deaf adults (codas). The spoken language competence of six codas within the age range of 3;10 to 6;4 is assessed by a series of standardised tests (SETK 3-5,…

  1. Bimodal Bilinguals Co-Activate Both Languages during Spoken Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Anthony; Marian, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Bilinguals have been shown to activate their two languages in parallel, and this process can often be attributed to overlap in input between the two languages. The present study examines whether two languages that do not overlap in input structure, and that have distinct phonological systems, such as American Sign Language (ASL) and English, are…

  2. Bilingual Learning for Second and Third Generation Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, Charmian; Gregory, Eve; Ruby, Mahera; Al-Azami, Salman

    2008-01-01

    Throughout the English-speaking world, children from bilingual backgrounds are being educated in mainstream classrooms where they have little or no opportunity to use their mother tongue. Second and third generation children, in particular, are assumed to be learning sufficiently through English only. This study investigated how British…

  3. Critical Advocacy and Bilingual Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahnmann, Melisa; Varghese, Manka M.

    2005-01-01

    Comparing data from two ethnographic studies of bilingual teachers and their students in the United States, the authors present a cross-case analysis that illuminates how issues of language are inextricably linked with issues of race, class, and socioeconomic status. The authors show how portraits of teachers' practice help to examine some of the…

  4. The Impact of Early Bilingualism on Face Recognition Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Sonia; Burfin, Sabine; Méary, David; Ruiz-Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Pascalis, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Early linguistic experience has an impact on the way we decode audiovisual speech in face-to-face communication. The present study examined whether differences in visual speech decoding could be linked to a broader difference in face processing. To identify a phoneme we have to do an analysis of the speaker’s face to focus on the relevant cues for speech decoding (e.g., locating the mouth with respect to the eyes). Face recognition processes were investigated through two classic effects in face recognition studies: the Other-Race Effect (ORE) and the Inversion Effect. Bilingual and monolingual participants did a face recognition task with Caucasian faces (own race), Chinese faces (other race), and cars that were presented in an Upright or Inverted position. The results revealed that monolinguals exhibited the classic ORE. Bilinguals did not. Overall, bilinguals were slower than monolinguals. These results suggest that bilinguals’ face processing abilities differ from monolinguals’. Early exposure to more than one language may lead to a perceptual organization that goes beyond language processing and could extend to face analysis. We hypothesize that these differences could be due to the fact that bilinguals focus on different parts of the face than monolinguals, making them more efficient in other race face processing but slower. However, more studies using eye-tracking techniques are necessary to confirm this explanation. PMID:27486422

  5. Bilingual Education Versus School Desegregation: Reconciling the Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Diego

    Three phenomena are examined in this paper: (1) the segregation inherent in the early stages of bilingual instruction; (2) the Hispanic view of school desegregation; (3) the treatment of Hispanic children by desegregating school systems. Court rulings, Federal guidelines, and other legal mandates concerning the segregation of national origin…

  6. Receptive Vocabulary Differences in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi; Peets, Kathleen F.; Yang, Sujin

    2010-01-01

    Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738…

  7. Receptive Vocabulary Differences in Monolingual and Bilingual Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi

    2012-01-01

    English receptive vocabulary scores from 797 monolingual and 808 bilingual participants between the ages of 17 and 89 years old were aggregated from 20 studies to compare standard scores across language groups. The distribution of scores was unimodal for both groups but the mean score was significantly different, with monolinguals obtaining higher…

  8. Coloured Language: Identity Perception of Children in Bilingual Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Research involving bilingual education programmes has largely focused on cognitive and academic outcomes, with a paucity of studies investigating what involvement in these programmes means to the participants. Viewing identity using the dynamic systems theory perspective, this paper reports on a study analysing how children experience their…

  9. Understanding Depth of Vocabulary Online with Bilingual and Monolingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, C. Patrick; Uccelli, Paola; Dalton, Bridget; Snow, Catherine E.

    2009-01-01

    The sheer quantity of words known (breadth) is strongly predictive of reading comprehension, yet little is understood about how quality of word knowledge (depth) affects comprehension. A group of 35 bilingual and monolingual 5th-grade students worked on developing depth of knowledge of 8 words, culminating in an activity in which the students…

  10. Bilingual Creativity in Chinese English: Ha Jin's "In the Pond."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang

    2002-01-01

    Addresses issues related to bilingual creativity in Chinese English and their implications for world Englishes in the Chinese context. The language examined is drawn from Ha Jin's novella, "In the Pond, in which the author's use of English is nativized in the Chinese context in order to recast the cultural meanings of the language. (Author/VWL)

  11. Understanding Deaf Bilingual Education from the inside: A SWOT Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Baell, Irma M.; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Ruiz-Cantero, M.; Ferreiro-Lago, Emilio; Aroca-Fernandez, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis using a nominal group process undertaken to identify and tackle significant factors, both internal and external, affecting those current Deaf bilingual practices in Spain which promote or prevent the processes through which more inclusive (barrier-free)…

  12. Cognitive-Linguistic Foundations of Early Spelling Development in Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Rickard Liow, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Developing spelling skills in English is a particularly demanding task for Chinese speakers because, unlike many other bilinguals learning English as a second language, they must learn two languages with different orthography as well as phonology. To disentangle socioeconomic and pedagogical factors from the underlying cognitive-linguistic…

  13. The Linguist's Role in a Bilingual Education Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeding, Velma J.

    This paper outlines an Australian bilingual education program for aboriginal children, and describes the role of linguists in such programs. The program consists of four stages, roughly coinciding with the first four elementary grades. During the first stage, the child becomes literate in the vernacular, is exposed to beginning content material,…

  14. Inhibition and Adjective Learning in Bilingual and Monolingual Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanako Yoshida

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability to control attention—by inhibiting prepotent, yet no longer relevant information—is an essential skill in all of human learning, and increasing evidence suggests that this ability is enhanced in language learning environments in which the learner is managing and using more than one language. One question waiting to be addressed is whether such efficient attentional control plays a role in word learning. That is, children who must manage two languages also must manage to learn two languages and the advantages of more efficient attentional control may benefit aspects of language learning within each language. This study compared bilingual and monolingual children’s performances in an artificial word-learning task and in a nonlinguistic task that measures attention control. Three-year-old monolingual and bilingual children with similar vocabulary development participated in these tasks. The results replicate earlier work showing advanced attentional control among bilingual children and suggest that this better attentional control may also benefit better performance in novel adjective learning. The findings provide the first direct evidence of a relation between performances in an artificial word-learning task and in an attentional control task. We discuss this finding with respect to the general relevance of attentional control for lexical learning in all children and with respect to current views of bilingual children’s word learning.

  15. Lau Vs. Nichols--A Turning Point in Bilingual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Estelle Pau-on

    In the wake of the 1974 decision handed down by the Supreme Court in Lau v Nichols, there has been a burgeoning of training programs, workshops, conferences, and graduate programs in bilingual bicultural education. This paper examines some of the sources of these developments and attempts to put theory and practice into historical, cultural, and…

  16. Language-Switching Costs in Bilingual Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabner, Roland H.; Saalbach, Henrik; Eckstein, Doris

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral studies on bilingual learning have revealed cognitive costs (lower accuracy and/or higher processing time) when the language of application differs from the language of learning. The aim of this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to provide insights into the cognitive underpinnings of these costs (so-called…

  17. Switch cost modulations in bilingual sentence processing: Evidence from shadowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bultena, S.S.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.; Hell, J.G. van

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual processing, cognates are associated with facilitatory processing, while switching between languages is associated with a processing cost. This study investigates whether co-activation of cognates affects the magnitude of switch costs in sentence context. A shadowing task was conducted t

  18. The Impact of Immigration on Bilingualism among Indigenous American Peoples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahler, Janet Goldenstein

    2007-01-01

    Early federal government policies for American indigenous people alternated between extermination and assimilation. Imposing the colonists' and immigrants' language on indigenous people was important for achieving the latter. In the 1970-90's, federally funded grants for bilingual education for indigenous schools were offered to accommodate Native…

  19. Assimilation versus Multiculturalism: Bilingual Education and the Latino Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick-Will, Julia; Gomez, Christina

    2006-01-01

    This article analyzes the public rhetoric during the November 2002 vote over bilingual education in Colorado and Massachusetts. We argue that the neoassimilationist views displayed in both states represent a new step in the evolution of assimilation theory and ideology--one that has adapted to both the current immigrant environment and to…

  20. EFL Students' "Yahoo!" Online Bilingual Dictionary Use Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Fan-ping

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 38 EFL senior high school students' "Yahoo!" online dictionary look-up behavior. In a language laboratory, the participants read an article on a reading sheet, underlined any words they did not know, looked up their unknown words in "Yahoo!" online bilingual dictionary, and wrote down the definitions of…

  1. Bilingual Memory: The Interaction of Language and Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritos, Calliope; Nelson, Katherine

    2001-01-01

    A study examined how languages affect memory for narrative. Forty bilingual children aged 8-9 listened to a story in either English or Greek, and then retold it in English or Greek. Unexpectedly, children who heard the story in English and retold it in Greek had significantly better story recall than other groups. Educational implications are…

  2. Lexical selection differences between monolingual and bilingual listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Deanna C; Chung-Fat-Yim, Ashley; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Three studies are reported investigating how monolinguals and bilinguals resolve within-language competition when listening to isolated words. Participants saw two pictures that were semantically-related, phonologically-related, or unrelated and heard a word naming one of them while event-related potentials were recorded. In Studies 1 and 2, the pictures and auditory cue were presented simultaneously and the related conditions produced interference for both groups. Monolinguals showed reduced N400s to the semantically-related pairs but there was no modulation in this component by bilinguals. Study 3 inserted an interval between picture and word onset. For picture onset, both groups exhibited reduced N400s to semantically-related pictures; for word onset, both groups showed larger N400s to phonologically-related pictures. Overall, bilinguals showed less integration of related items in simultaneous (but not sequential) presentation, presumably because of interference from the activated non-English language. Thus, simple lexical selection for bilinguals includes more conflict than it does for monolinguals. PMID:26684415

  3. Language Control in Bilinguals: Monitoring and Response Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branzi, Francesca M; Della Rosa, Pasquale A; Canini, Matteo; Costa, Albert; Abutalebi, Jubin

    2016-06-01

    Language control refers to the cognitive mechanism that allows bilinguals to correctly speak in one language avoiding interference from the nontarget language. Bilinguals achieve this feat by engaging brain areas closely related to cognitive control. However, 2 questions still await resolution: whether this network is differently engaged when controlling nonlinguistic representations, and whether this network is differently engaged when control is exerted upon a restricted set of lexical representations that were previously used (i.e., local control) as opposed to control of the entire language system (i.e., global control). In the present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated these 2 questions by employing linguistic and nonlinguistic blocked switching tasks in the same bilingual participants. We first report that the left prefrontal cortex is driven similarly for control of linguistic and nonlinguistic representations, suggesting its domain-general role in the implementation of response selection. Second, we propose that language control in bilinguals is hierarchically organized with the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/presupplementary motor area acting as the supervisory attentional system, recruited for increased monitoring demands such as local control in the second language. On the other hand, prefrontal, inferior parietal areas and the caudate would act as the response selection system, tailored for language selection for both local and global control. PMID:25838037

  4. Implications for Child Bilingual Acquisition, Optionality and Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serratrice, Ludovica

    2014-01-01

    Amaral & Roeper's Multiple Grammars (MG) proposal offers an appealingly simple way of thinking about the linguistic representations of bilingual speakers. This article presents a commentary on the MG language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in this issue, focusing on the theory's implications for child…

  5. Notes on the Nature of Bilingual Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Johanne Paradis' Keynote Article can be read as a concise critical review of the research that focuses on the sometimes strained relationship between bilingualism and specific language impairment (SLI). In my comments I will add some thoughts based on our own research on the learning of Dutch as a second language (L2) by children with SLI.

  6. Conversation Analysis and the Study of Bilingual Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Steensig

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is written by a linguist who is working with language in interaction within the paradigm of Conversation Analysis. The topic of the paper was inspired by a seminar where the socalled Køge Project researchers, who investigate Turkish-Danish bilingual students in Denmark, invited researchers with different backgrounds and approaches to work on data from the Køge Project corpus (see Holmen & Jørgensen (eds. 2000. The paper contains deliberations about how Conversation Analysis can contribute to the study of bilingual interaction, and focuses on methodological problems and advantages of doing Conversation Analysis on bilingual data. The first part of the article briefly outlines the fields of “Conversation Analysis” and “the study of bilingual interaction” and sums up the methodological lessons from my earlier analyses of the data from the Køge Project. Then the author proceeds to showing some aspects of conversation-analytical methodology through concrete analyses of extracts from the Køge Project data.

  7. Reflections on a Bilingual Peer Assisted Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jin; Huang, Tairan Kevin; Cortese, Corinne; Pepper, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and evaluate faculty and academic staff perceptions, experiences and expectations with respect to a voluntary, bilingual peer assisted learning (PAL) program, which operates for the benefit of students studying in the Faculty of Business at a regional Australian University.…

  8. Exploring Noun Bias in Filipino-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rochelle Irene G.; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that there is a noun bias in children's early vocabularies brought about by features of adults' child-directed utterances, which may vary across languages (E. V. Bates et al., 1994; D. Gentner, 1982). In the present study, the authors explored noun bias in 60 Filipino-English bilingual children whose 2 languages differed…

  9. The Role of Code-Switching in Bilingual Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkhurin, Anatoliy V.; Wei, Li

    2015-01-01

    This study further explores the theme of bilingual creativity with the present focus on code-switching. Specifically, it investigates whether code-switching practice has an impact on creativity. In line with the previous research, selective attention was proposed as a potential cognitive mechanism, which on the one hand would benefit from…

  10. Relatorio Final Sobre o Ensino Bilingue: Resultados da Avaliacao Externa da Experiencia de Escolarizacao Bilingue em Mocambique (PEBIMO) (Final Report on Bilingual Education: Results of External Evaluation of an Experiment in Bilingual Education in Mozambique).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Carolyn J.

    The PEBIMO project was designed to determine whether bilingual education could improve the quality of primary education in Mozambique, recognizing that Portuguese is not the native language of the majority of Mozambican students. The project began in 1992 with 8 cohorts of first grade in 2 provinces; during this investigation, students were in…

  11. Principles Underlying the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) and Its Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) is designed to be objective (so it can be administered by a lay native speaker of the language) and equivalent across languages (to allow for a comparison between the languages of a given patient as well as across patients from different institutions). It has been used not only with aphasia but also with any…

  12. Development of False Memories in Bilingual Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.; Gagnon, Nadine; Thouas, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The effects of within- versus between-languages (English-French) study and test on rates of bilingual children's and adults' true and false memories were examined. Children aged 6 through 12 and university-aged adults participated in a standard Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory task using free recall and recognition. Recall results showed…

  13. Lectura en Espanol en el Salon Bilingue Bicultural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Gerardo

    This document addresses the subject of reading Spanish in a bilingual-bicultural classroom. Sections of the document focus on the following: rationale, definitions, required skills, final criteria, and competencies in reading Spanish. Three classroom modules are discussed. The first focuses on the stages of development in Spanish reading, the…

  14. A Comparison between Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary in Bilingual and Monolingual South African School Beginners: Implications for Bilingual Language Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bilingual and monolingual school beginners on measures of simple and complex verbal working memory and receptive and expressive vocabulary. The aim was to determine whether the tests of working memory are fairer measures of language ability than the vocabulary tests for bilingual children when tested in their second language.…

  15. Modular Sequence: Teaching Reading to Bilingual Learners. TTP 002.15B; An Annotated Bibliography of Reading Materials for Spanish-Speaking Students. Teacher Corps Bilingual Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Norma, Comp.

    The majority of the material cited in this annotated bibliography is in Spanish although bilingual and English materials are also included. Each annotation is presented both in English and in Spanish. The bibliography is part of a modular sequence for teaching reading to bilingual learners. The bibliography covers the following areas: (a) general…

  16. Cross-Linguistic Interactions Influence Reading Development in Bilinguals: A Comparison between Early Balanced French-Basque and Spanish-Basque Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallier, Marie; Acha, Joana; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether orthographic consistency and transparency of languages have an impact on the development of reading strategies and reading sub-skills (i.e. phonemic awareness and visual attention span) in bilingual children. We evaluated 21 French (opaque)-Basque (transparent) bilingual children and 21 Spanish (transparent)-Basque…

  17. Materiales en marcha para el esfuerzo bilingue-bicultural (Materials on the March for the Promotion of Bilingualism/Biculturalism), September 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Diego City Schools, CA.

    This newsletter is designed to promote the needs and interests of bilingual-bicultural education. This issue contains the following articles: (1) What in the World Is a Team-Teaching, Continuous Progress, Non-Graded, Open Classroom in Bilingual Bicultural Education?, (2) Laughter and Anaya's "Lenguaje," (3) "Alegrias" and the Language Experience…

  18. Teachers' Views on Organizational and Pedagogical Approaches to Early Bilingual Education: A Case Study of Bilingual Kindergartens in Germany and Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moin, Victor; Breitkopf, Anna; Schwartz, Mila

    2011-01-01

    The article focuses on bilingual kindergartens in Germany and Israel offering education in both host (German or Hebrew) and immigrant (Russian) languages. The main questions are how teachers of bilingual kindergartens understand and explain the organizational and pedagogical principles of the kindergartens and how they negotiate home and host…

  19. A National Study of Spanish/English Bilingualism in Young Hispanic Children of the United States. Bilingual Education Paper Series, Vol. 4, No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Eugene E.; And Others

    Six hundred, 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old bilingual, rural, and urban children from southwestern, midwestern, eastern, and southern United States participated in a national study of Spanish/English bilingual development. Half of these children completed the English version of CIRCO (1980) sub-test 10-C, a productive language measure that requires…

  20. Profiling Performance in L1 and L2 Observed in Greek-English Bilingual Aphasia Using the Bilingual Aphasia Test: A Case Study from Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.

    2011-01-01

    The Greek and the English versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) were used to assess the linguistic abilities of a premorbidly highly proficient late bilingual female after a haemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident involving the left temporo-parietal lobe. The BAT was administered in the two languages on separate occasions by the first author,…

  1. La literatura infantil en espanol en la clase bilingue (Children's Literature in Spanish in the Bilingual Class).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centurion, Henry

    Techniques for using children's rhymes, games, tongue twisters, and fables in Spanish to teach bilingual education classes are described. It is argued that these abundant materials serve as natural sources for authentic Spanish from a variety of Hispanic cultures. With the appeal of rhythm, rhyme, and game-like feeling, they can be used to teach…

  2. "Why in This Bilingual Classroom … Hablamos Más Español?" Language Choice by Bilingual Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Alma D.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative sociolinguistic research study examines Latino/a students' use of language in a science classroom and laboratory. This study was conducted in a school in the southwestern United States that serves an economically depressed, predominantly Latino population. The object of study was a 5th-grade bilingual (Spanish/English) class.…

  3. From Ethnic Segregation to Bilingual Education: What Can Bilingual Education Do for the Future of the Israeli Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Mor-Sommerfeld, Aura; Zelniker, Tamar; Azaiza, Faisal

    2008-01-01

    In May 2006, a group of experts in language education from Europe, Canada and Israel gathered to discuss and reflect in a conference entitled: "Into the Future--Towards Bilingual Education in Israel." The conference, held at the University of Haifa, was initiated and organized by the Jewish-Arab Center and sponsored by the Zeit Stiftung from…

  4. Conversations about Code-Switching: Contrasting Ideologies of Purity and Authenticity in Basque Bilinguals' Reactions to Bilingual Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantto, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the manifestations of purity and authenticity in 47 Basque bilinguals' reactions to code-switching. The respondents listened to two speech extracts with code-switching, filled in a short questionnaire and talked about the extracts in small groups. These conversations were then recorded. The respondents' beliefs can be…

  5. Language differences between monolingual English and bilingual English-Spanish young children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valicenti-McDermott, Maria; Tarshis, Nancy; Schouls, Melissa; Galdston, Molly; Hottinger, Kathryn; Seijo, Rosa; Shulman, Lisa; Shinnar, Shlomo

    2013-07-01

    Bilingualism is common worldwide and increasingly prevalent, but there is little information about bilingual children with autism spectrum disorder. The goal of the study was to compare expressive and receptive language skills in monolingual English and bilingual English-Spanish children with autism spectrum disorder. A review of the multidisciplinary evaluations done in toddlers who were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder at a university-affiliated center between 2003 and 2010 was performed. Data included demographics, developmental testing, autistic characteristics, and expressive and receptive language skills, obtained from formal speech and language evaluation. A total of 80 toddlers were identified, 40 classified as bilingual English-Spanish. Compared with monolinguals, bilingual children were more likely to vocalize and utilize gestures, with no other differences in language skills. There were no differences in cognitive functioning and autistic features between the groups. In this study, bilingualism did not negatively affect language development in young children with autism spectrum disorder. PMID:22859698

  6. An Understanding of the Concept and Conditions of Bilingualism: A Study in an EFL Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Lastra R.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study carried out at a private school that implemented a bilingual program more than a decade ago. The main aim of the project was to find out how the school community understands the concept of bilingualism and the conditions required to fulfill the goals of a bilingual curriculum at the school. Data were collected through surveys and focus groups made up of different members of the school community. The results showed that bilingualism is associated with a high intensification of English classes and the necessity of having English-speaking employees. Results also depict some theoretical issues about bilingualism and important conditions for implementing a bilingual program.

  7. Children's use of linguistic information when learning in a bilingual context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atagi, Natsuki; Goldenberg, Elizabeth R; Sandhofer, Catherine M

    2016-04-01

    Children prefer to learn from people who are like themselves. However, who is considered "like themselves" is complex for bilingual children. Thus, the current study examined whether children's language experiences affect who they prefer to imitate. A sample of 3- to 5-year-old monolingual English-speaking children (n=16), Japanese-English bilingual children (n=16), and children bilingual in English and a non-Japanese language (n=16) watched videos of a monolingual English speaker and a Japanese-English bilingual speaker playing with novel toys and were asked to play with the same novel toys. Although all children--regardless of language background--imitated the monolingual speaker at similar rates, the two bilingual groups imitated the bilingual speaker more often than did the monolingual children. Such results suggest that experience in speaking two languages affects children's imitation behaviors. PMID:26687441

  8. “ALL IN ALL, I AM BILINGUAL” A STUDY OF BILINGUALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep CANLI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available he aim of the study is to investigate whether EFL instructors in a university preparatory school consider themselves bilingual, or not; and the reasons for the EFL instructors to consider themselves bilingual or not. For the purpose of the study, a qualitative research was carried out. Thirty EFL instructors participated in this study. The data were collected via an open-ended questionnaire. Analyzing the results indicated that most of the participants considered themselves bilingual. The results of the study emphasized the importance of awareness of being bilingual in order to empower EFL instructors, encourage them to use more L2 in the classroom, and raise their self-esteem as non native speakers of English. The findings help instructors to make them less concerned about the grammar and focus more on communication, and explain their students that they would be bilingual too. This study might be of pedagogical help and significance to teachers interested in bilingualism in EFL context.

  9. Aphasia Therapy in the Age of Globalization: Cross-Linguistic Therapy Effects in Bilingual Aphasia

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Inés Ansaldo; Ladan Ghazi Saidi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Globalization imposes challenges to the field of behavioural neurology, among which is an increase in the prevalence of bilingual aphasia. Thus, aphasiologists have increasingly focused on bilingual aphasia therapy and, more recently, on the identification of the most efficient procedures for triggering language recovery in bilinguals with aphasia. Therapy in both languages is often not available, and, thus, researchers have focused on the transfer of therapy effects from the tr...

  10. Bilingual students' mother tongue : a resource for teaching and learning matematics

    OpenAIRE

    Norén, Eva

    2008-01-01

    This article presents some of the main results of a bilingual mathematics teaching project, which run in five multicultural schools in Sweden. The main research question was: How do mathematical practices emerge in bilingual mathematics classrooms? In the project bilingual mathematics teachers seemed to promote mathematical learning and engagement in the classroom by using two languages in mathematical discourses. Pupils and teachers communicated mathematically in different ways, and the inte...

  11. The perception of the French /s/-/ʃ/ contrast in early Creole-French bilinguals

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie eDufour; Sibylle eKriegel; muhsina eAlleesaib; Noel eNguyen

    2014-01-01

    One particularity of the Mauritian Creole language is that there is no contrastive distinction between the consonants /s/ and /ʃ/, which are both pronounced /s/ in Creole. In this study, we examined the identification performance of the /s/ - /ʃ/ contrast by Mauritian Creole-French bilinguals who have been exposed to French before 7 years of age, and who have been raised in a highly Creole-French bilingual society. The results showed that most of our bilingual participants identify the /s/ an...

  12. Hungarian folk music in music education at the lower levels of bilingual primary schools in Prekmurje

    OpenAIRE

    Vöröš, Laura

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we theoretically and empirically demonstrate the importance of knowledge of Slovenian and Hungarian folk heritage for everyone in the ethnically mixed area in Prekmurje. The bilingual elementary school students learn about Hungarian history, geography, culture and music. The theoretical part presents the history of Hungarian folk music, bilingual area in Prekmurje, describes teaching in bilingual primary schools and further compares the music education curriculum and adapted...

  13. Learning and processing of nonverbal symbolic information in bilinguals and monolinguals

    OpenAIRE

    BLUMENFELD, HENRIKE K.; Adams, Ashley M.

    2014-01-01

    Bilinguals have been shown to outperform monolinguals on word learning and on inhibition tasks that require competition resolution. Yet the scope of such bilingual advantages remains underspecified. We compared bilinguals and monolinguals on nonverbal symbolic learning and on competition resolution while processing newly-learned material. Participants were trained on 12 tone-to-symbol mappings, combining timbre, pitch, and duration of tones. During subsequent processing, participants viewed a...

  14. Cross language phonetic influences on the speech of French-English bilinguals

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Carol A.; Sramko, Valery; Ostry, David J.; Rowland, Sarah A.; Hallé, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    We examined the voice onset times (VOTs) of monolingual and bilingual speakers of English and French to address the question whether cross language phonetic influences occur particularly in simultaneous bilinguals (that is, speakers who learned both languages from birth). Speakers produced sentences in which there were target words with initial /p/, /t/ or /k/. In French, natively bilingual speakers produced VOTs that were significantly longer than those of monolingual French speakers. French...

  15. Executive control in bilinguals: a concise review on fMRI studies

    OpenAIRE

    Pliatsikas , Christos; Luk, Gigi

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of bilingualism and cognition has been enriched by recent developments in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Extending how bilingual experience shapes cognition, this review examines recent fMRI studies adopting executive control tasks with minimal or no linguistic demands. Across a range of studies with divergent ages and language pairs spoken by bilinguals, brain regions supporting executive control significantly overlap with brain regions recruited for language...

  16. Developing and Using Big Data Archives to Quantify Disfluency and Stuttering in Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, Shelley B; Corcoran, Tayler; Wu, Catherine; Sturgill, Charlotte

    2016-05-01

    Worldwide, bilingualism is the rule rather than the exception, and yet we have surprisingly little research data on the fluency development of bilingual children, and even less information on their potential risk for stuttering. Many variables influence a bilingual child's language, speech, and fluency development (e.g., amount of exposure to each language); controlling these variables in research studies necessitates large numbers of bilingual participants. The frequency and types of typical disfluencies in the speech of young children are also varied. In addition, stuttering is also variable in its presentation, and when we assess bilingual children for the presence of stuttering we are adding yet another layer of complexity. This article reviews research on typical disfluencies in monolingual and bilingual speakers, and how this information might be useful clinically. We provide examples from our laboratory to illustrate how computerized language analysis (CLAN) can be used over time to track the behaviors of research participants. We also present data on the identification of stuttering in bilingual children. We discuss challenges to studying bilingual speakers and how big data initiatives such as TalkBank address these challenges to increase our understanding of bilingual fluency development. PMID:27111271

  17. Bilingualism and creativity: Benefits in convergent thinking come with losses in divergent thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LorenzaSColzato

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bilingualism is commonly assumed to improve creativity but the mechanisms underlying creative acts, and the way these mechanisms are affected by bilingualism, are not very well understood. We hypothesize that learning to master multiple languages drives individuals towards a strongly focused cognitive-control state that exerts strong top-down impact on information processing and creates strong local competition for selection between cognitive codes. Considering the control requirements posed by creativity tasks tapping into convergent and divergent thinking, this predicts that high-proficient bilinguals should outperform low-proficient bilinguals in convergent thinking, while low-proficient bilinguals might be better in divergent thinking. Comparing low- and high-proficient bilinguals on convergent-thinking and divergent-thinking tasks indeed showed a high-proficient bilingual advantage for convergent thinking but a low-proficient bilingual advantage for fluency in divergent thinking. These findings suggest that bilingualism should not be related to “creativity” as a unitary concept but, rather, to the specific processes and mechanisms that underlie creativity.

  18. HOW CAN BILINGUAL EDUCATION CONTRIBUTE TO LANGUAGE EDUCATION IN THE 21st CENTURY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Vila Mendiburu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection about the future which does not obviate all the knowledge acquired in nearly a hundred years time of research about bilingualism and bilingual education. In the first part, it considers the psycho-educational base where bilingualism lies on. In the second part, this article shows the possibilities and the limits of bilingual education in societies which are more and more diversified on linguistic terms. Finally, it reviews some of the guidelines about linguistic education both in Europe and in this country, while it points out some methods to promote the multilingual competence of students.

  19. Positive Effects of Bilingualism:Divergent Thinking and Its Implications for Language Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Bing-jie

    2014-01-01

    The issue of bilingualism has been widely explored in the past decades, showing that there are multiple positive effects of“additive bilingualism”. Such positive factors are closely linked with children’s cognitive development and intelligence. This paper gives a detailed review on how bilingualism plays a role in children’s divergent thinking ability. Fully taking advantage of such positive effects in language education should be a significant part for bilingual education and foreign language programs. Thus, this paper further discusses the educational implications of these theoretic findings, suggesting that an additive bilingual envi⁃ronment should be cultivated through multiple ways of curriculum and program planning.

  20. Non-traditional Classification of Bilingualism Notion as a Radial Category Involved into Formation of Multicultural Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Thalia F. Pechherskih; Natalya A. Berkutova

    2013-01-01

    The article, basing on comparative research attempts to examine various definitions and classifications of bilingualism in different scientific realms. The analysis has shown that there is an enormous number of descriptions involving bilingualism, however no classification presented that would entirely combine all aspects of such a broad notion as bilingualism. Therefore, the article attempts to present such kind of classification, illustrating bilingualism in form of radial category

  1. How much exposure to English is necessary for a bilingual toddler to perform like a monolingual peer in language tests?

    OpenAIRE

    Cattani, Allegra; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Farag, Rafalla; Krott, Andrea; Arreckx, Frédérique; Dennis, Ian; Floccia, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Background Bilingual children are under-referred due to an ostensible expectation that they lag behind their monolingual peers in their English acquisition. The recommendations of the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists (RCSLT) state that bilingual children should be assessed in both the languages known by the children. However, despite these recommendations, a majority of speech and language professionals report that they assess bilingual children only in English as bilingual ...

  2. Another Type of Bilingual Advantage? Tense-Mood-Aspect Frequency, Verb-Form Regularity and Context-Governed Choice in Bilingual vs. Monolingual Spanish Speakers with Agrammatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ann O'Connor Wells

    2014-04-01

    ser or estar in the present tense and do not result in a semantic change Participants: Six Spanish-speaking participants with agrammatism were tested. Three had been highly proficient bilingual Spanish-English speakers, while the other three were relatively monolingual Spanish speakers. All had suffered left-frontal strokes at least 6 months prior to this study (X= 3.4 years and were judged agrammatic (in both languages, for bilinguals based on the effortfulness of their spontaneous speech, short phrase-length, high substantive-word use, omission of functors, and relatively good comprehension. Twelve non-aphasic Spanish-English speakers served as controls, and were matched for language history, age, educational attainment, and relative socio-economic status. Results and Conclusions: In general, participants with agrammatism made markedly more errors on this task (X= 40% than control participants (X= 4%, thus reinforcing our finding that despite high frequency in daily usage, ser and estar are not resistant to agrammatism (O’Connor Wells, 2011; O’Connor, Obler & Goral, 2007. A mixed-effects logistic regression analysis of the bilingual vs. monolingual data, revealed a trend (p = 0.07 for the mean performance of the bilinguals with agrammatism (65% to be greater than that of the monolinguals (54%. Although the direction of their performance was the same, the bilinguals with agrammatism outperformed the monolingual ones on all three of our verb factors. These data are consistent with the possibility that bilingualism facilitates language performance among bilinguals in their first language.

  3. Differences in the Association between Segment and Language: Early Bilinguals Pattern with Monolinguals and Are Less Accurate than Late Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Cynthia P; Bannard, Colin; Smiljanic, Rajka

    2016-01-01

    Early bilinguals often show as much sensitivity to L2-specific contrasts as monolingual speakers of the L2, but most work on cross-language speech perception has focused on isolated segments, and typically only on neighboring vowels or stop contrasts. In tasks that include sounds in context, listeners' success is more variable, so segment discrimination in isolation may not adequately represent the phonetic detail in stored representations. The current study explores the relationship between language experience and sensitivity to segmental cues in context by comparing the categorization patterns of monolingual English listeners and early and late Spanish-English bilinguals. Participants categorized nonce words containing different classes of English- and Spanish-specific sounds as being more English-like or more Spanish-like; target segments included phonemic cues, cues for which there is no analogous sound in the other language, or phonetic cues, cues for which English and Spanish share the category but for which each language varies in its phonetic implementation. Listeners' language categorization accuracy and reaction times were analyzed. Our results reveal a largely uniform categorization pattern across listener groups: Spanish cues were categorized more accurately than English cues, and phonemic cues were easier for listeners to categorize than phonetic cues. There were no differences in the sensitivity of monolinguals and early bilinguals to language-specific cues, suggesting that the early bilinguals' exposure to Spanish did not fundamentally change their representations of English phonology. However, neither did the early bilinguals show more sensitivity than the monolinguals to Spanish sounds. The late bilinguals however, were significantly more accurate than either of the other groups. These findings indicate that listeners with varying exposure to English and Spanish are able to use language-specific cues in a nonce-word language categorization task

  4. Dual language intervention for bilinguals at risk for language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Neris, Mirza J; Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D

    2015-05-01

    Selecting the initial language of intervention for bilingual children at risk for language impairment is challenging for clinicians, as both the home and academic languages are important for children's successful communication. In this project, six Spanish-English bilingual first graders at risk for language impairment participated in an 8-week intervention program targeting vocabulary, morphosyntax, narrative, and literacy skills in both Spanish and English. Children completed 24 small-group sessions (three times a week). One group received Spanish intervention first, then English, and another group received English first, then Spanish. The systematic use of both languages in intervention resulted in overall gains in vocabulary and narrative skills in this short-term intervention. Language condition groups differed in performance on oral narratives and semantics. Clinical recommendations for selecting the initial language of intervention are discussed. PMID:25922998

  5. Lexical profiles of bilingual children with primary language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Pham, Giang; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2014-10-01

    This study used lexical tasks to examine associations between languages, tasks, and age in bilingual children with primary language impairment. Participants (n = 41, mean age 8;8 years) lived in the United States, spoke primarily Spanish (L1) at home and English (L2) at school, and were identified with moderate to severe impairments in both languages. A total of eight tasks (four in each language) measured breadth of vocabulary knowledge (receptive and expressive vocabulary) and aspects of lexical processing (rapid automatic naming and nonword repetition). Correlational analyses revealed older children outperformed younger children on lexical tasks in L2 but not L1, as well as relative L2 dominance for most individuals and tasks. Positive associations were found between languages on processing-based tasks but not vocabulary measures. Findings were consistent with literature on typical bilingual learners, albeit with a notable increased risk of plateau in L1 growth. Results are interpreted within a Dynamic Systems framework. PMID:25404865

  6. Silent Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Beth A.; Wallot, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on reading fluency by bilingual primary school students, and the relation of text fluency to their reading comprehension. Group differences were examined in a cross-sectional design across the age range when fluency is posed to shift from word-level to text-level. One hundred five bilingual children from primary grades 3, 4, and 5 were assessed for English word reading and decoding fluency, phonological awareness, rapid symbol naming, and oral language proficiency with standardized measures. These skills were correlated with their silent reading fluency on a self-paced story reading task. Text fluency was quantified using non-linear analytic methods: recurrence quantification and fractal analyses. Findings indicate that more fluent text reading appeared by grade 4, similar to monolingual findings, and that different aspects of fluency characterized passage reading performance at different grade levels. Text fluency and oral language proficiency emerged as significant predictors of reading comprehension.

  7. Translating Politeness in Bilingual English-Spanish Business Correspondence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Fuertes Olivera, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    which pragmatic information types are needed when translating business letters. The analysis focuses on a Spanish-English business dictionary and its treatment of politeness in special sections dealing with business correspondence. The findings show that the treatment is insufficient, because users......Politeness is an important element in interlingual business communication. Translators uae bilingual dictionaries as tools helping them in business discourse across cultures, but dictionaries do not contain the relevant pragmatic information. The functions of dictionaries are used to determine......' business-language competence does not enable them to express the right level of politeness. Bilingual dictionaries should offer a systematic treatment of cultural and genre-specific means of expressing politeness in contrastive, informative texts showing the specific uses of politeness in business...

  8. BEST: Bilingual environmental science training: Grades 1--2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English for each lesson. A bilingual glossary, alphabetized by English entries, with Spanish equivalents and definitions in both English and Spanish, follows the lesson descriptions, and is itself followed by a bibliography of English-language references. This booklet includes descriptions of ten lessons covering surface tension in water, the life cycle of plants, the protective function of the skeletal system, functions and behavior of the circulatory system and how to measure its activities, structure and functions of the digestive system, simple food chains, how that many foods come from different plant parts, importance of a good diet, distinguishing living and non-living things, and the benefits of composting. 8 figs.

  9. The Segmentals of Bilingual Nigerian Adult Broca’s Aphasics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesina B. Sunday

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the segmental phonology of 25 purposively sampled bilingual Nigerian adult Broca’s aphasics from a Nigerian teaching hospital. Data were collected by tape-recording the speech of each of the aphasic. The data were analysed perceptually, complemented with frequency count and simple percentage. The way the subjects ranked constraints were then examined, using Optimality Theory. Three main forms of deviation were noticed in their speech: deletion, substitution and epenthesis, with substitution having the highest frequency, followed by deletion. The deviation affected consonants more than vowels. Plosives and alveolars were more affected by the brain damage than any other sound. Some of the effects of Nigerian English on the speech of the subjects were still retained after the brain damage. The Broca’s aphasics sampled ranked constraints in such a way that markedness dominated faithfulness.Keywords: Bilingual Nigerian adult aphasics, Optimality Theory, deviation, substitution, deletion, epenthesis

  10. The efficiency of attentional networks in early and late bilinguals: the role of age of acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily eTao

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated a bilingual advantage in the efficiency of executive attention. A question remains, however, about the impact of the age of L2 acquisition and relative balance of the two languages on the enhancement of executive functions in bilinguals, and whether this is modulated by the similarity of the bilingual’s two languages. The present study explores these issues by comparing the efficiency of attentional networks amongst three groups of young adults living in Australia: English monolinguals and early and late Chinese-English bilinguals. We also address the impact of bilingualism on hemispheric lateralization of cognitive functions, which is of interest since a recent study on early bilinguals revealed reduced hemispheric asymmetry in attentional functioning. In the present study, participants performed a modified version of the lateralized attention network test (LANT. Both early and late bilinguals were found to have more efficient executive network than monolinguals. The late bilinguals, who were also reported to be more balanced in the proficiency and usage of their two languages, showed the greatest advantage in conflict resolution, whereas early bilinguals seemed to show enhanced monitoring processes. These group differences were observed when controlling for nonverbal intelligence and socioeconomic status. Such results suggest that specific factors of language experience may differentially influence the mechanisms of cognitive control. Since the bilinguals had distinct language sets, it seems that the influence of bilingualism on executive functions is present regardless of the similarity between the two languages. As for hemispheric lateralization, although the results were not clear-cut, they suggest the reduced lateralization in early bilinguals.

  11. Comparison of Bilingual Children on the WISC-R and the Escala De Inteligencia Wechsler Para Ninos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplesch, Marie; Genshaft, Judy

    1981-01-01

    A comparison of bilingual Puerto Rican students' scores showed no significant differences between the Full Scale and the Verbal Scale scores on both tests, but significant differences between the Verbal and Performance Scale scores on both tests. Caution in testing bilingual children before determination of bilinguality is recommended. (Author)

  12. Translation Recognition in Highly Proficient Hindi-English Bilinguals: The Influence of Different Scripts but Connectable Phonologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderman, Gretchen L.; Priya, Kanu

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the phonological nature of the lexical links in the bilingual lexicon using different-script bilinguals. Highly proficient Hindi-English bilinguals performed a translation recognition task (i.e., decide whether two words presented sequentially are a correct translation pair). For the critical trials, the second word was a…

  13. Musical Training, Bilingualism, and Executive Function: A Closer Look at Task Switching and Dual-Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether musical training and bilingualism are associated with enhancements in specific components of executive function, namely, task switching and dual-task performance. Participants (n = 153) belonging to one of four groups (monolingual musician, bilingual musician, bilingual non-musician, or monolingual non-musician)…

  14. Degree of Bilingualism Predicts Age of Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease in Low-Education but Not in Highly Educated Hispanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Salmon, David P.; Montoya, Rosa I.; Galasko, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between bilingual language proficiency and onset of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) in 44 Spanish-English bilinguals at the UCSD Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. Degree of bilingualism along a continuum was measured using Boston Naming Test (BNT) scores in each language. Higher degrees of…

  15. Accessibility of the Nondominant Language in Picture Naming: A Counterintuitive Effect of Dementia on Bilingual Language Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Salmon, David P.; Montoya, Rosa I.; da Pena, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    The current study tested the assumption that bilinguals with dementia regress to using primarily the dominant language. Spanish-English bilinguals with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 29), and matched bilingual controls (n = 42) named Boston Naming Test pictures in their dominant and nondominant languages. Surprisingly, differences between…

  16. How Bilingual Counselors Experience Sense of Professional Self

    OpenAIRE

    Cottle, Tatyana Vladimirovna

    2014-01-01

    The United States is in the process of changing demographically. As a result, there is an increasing demand for culturally appropriate counseling services for minority groups. However, little research about counselors' ability to deal with issues stemming from bilingualism is available. As language is used to establish the relationship in counseling, the importance of counselors' understanding regarding how a second language may influence the counseling process is vital. Although numerous stu...

  17. Bilingual Polytechnic Dictionary of Metaphors: Spanish to English

    OpenAIRE

    Roldan Riejos, Ana Maria; Molina Plaza, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of an ongoing research project work: “A Polytechnical Bilingual Dictionary of Metaphors: Spanish-English/English-Spanish” done by the UPM consolidated research group “DISCYT” (Estudios Cognitivos del Discurso Científico-Técnico). A detailed explanation of the method adopted to identify key metaphors collected from the different subject areas is included. Drawing from recognized empirical methods (Pragglejaz 2007, Cameron 2007, Steen 2007), the examples have bee...

  18. Diagnosing language impairment in bilinguals : professional experience and perception

    OpenAIRE

    O'Toole, Ciara; Hickey, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosing specific language impairment (SLI) in monolingual children is a complex task, with some controversy regarding criteria. Diagnosis of SLI in bilinguals is made more complex by the lack of standardized assessments and poor understanding of clinical markers in languages other than English. There is an added complexity when one of the languages being acquired is an endangered one, where the domains of use and input are restricted, and where input is affected by convergen...

  19. Vowel Categorization during Word Recognition in Bilingual Toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon-Casas, Marta; Swingley, Daniel; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Bosch, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Toddlers’ and preschoolers’ knowledge of the phonological forms of words was tested in Spanish-learning, Catalan-learning, and bilingual children. These populations are of particular interest because of differences in the Spanish and Catalan vowel systems: Catalan has two vowels in a phonetic region where Spanish has only one. The proximity of the Spanish vowel to the Catalan ones might pose special learning problems. Children were shown picture pairs; the target picture’s name was spoken cor...

  20. Bilingual Corpus - Digital Repository for Preservation of Language Heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, Ludmila; Garabík, Radovan

    2012-01-01

    The article briefly reviews bilingual Slovak-Bulgarian/Bulgarian-Slovak parallel and aligned corpus. The corpus is collected and developed as results of the collaboration in the frameworks of the joint research project between Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, and Ľ. Štúr Institute of Linguistics, Slovak Academy of Sciences. The multilingual corpora are large repositories of language data with an important role in preserving and supporting the world's cu...

  1. Developing oral skills in a Bilingual School: The Show & Tell

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Urbón, María del Rosario

    2012-01-01

    Study focused on how teachers come together to increase Oral Skills in their students in the context of a bilingual state school, developing different techniques and strategies, with special emphasis on the Oral Presentation works at the final stage of the Primary Education. In the last ten years of this programme, a great systematization has taken place to help new teachers who might join this innovative project. It involves a special philosophy in teachers, which is based on ...

  2. Bilingual lexicon extraction from comparable corpora for closely related languages

    OpenAIRE

    Ljubešić, Nikola; Fišer, Darja

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a knowledge-light approach to extract a bilingual lexicon for closely related languages from comparable corpora. While in most related work an existing dictionary is used to translate context vectors, we take advantage of the similarities between languages instead and build a seed lexicon from words that are identical in both languages and then further extend it with context-based cognates and translations of the most frequent words. We also use cognates for reranking...

  3. Gambaran Kompetensi Sosial Pada Anak yang Mengikuti Sekolah Bilingual

    OpenAIRE

    Purba, Lenny Veronika

    2011-01-01

    Middle childhood is the stage of development in which children attend school, involve in society and golden age of learning. Social competence is one of the competence children needed to integrate with people. Children must have verbal and non verbal skills to compete socially, by all means different from a bilingual children. Social competence is a skill needed to interact and communicate with people. This descriptive research aims to know social competence in children who ...

  4. Preventing disability through understanding international megatrends in Deaf bilingual education

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Baell, Irma María; Álvarez-Dardet Díaz, Carlos; Ruiz Cantero, María Teresa; Ortiz Moncada, Rocío; Esteban, M.L.; Ferreiro Lago, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Background: Education is a basic prerequisite for d/Deaf people’s health. Deaf education varies considerably from country to country and we still know very little about the reasons for such variation. Objective: To identify international megatrends that influence the current Deaf bilingual education move (Deaf Bilingual–Bicultural education; DBiBi) worldwide. Methods: Using the Delphi technique, 41 experts in d/ Deaf education (nine Deaf, 32 hearing) from 18 countries identified, ranked, a...

  5. Phonemic Representation and Early Spelling Errors in Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Rickard Liow, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between linguistic experience and phonemic representations in spelling was investigated in two groups of Mandarin-English bilingual children (aged 5-6 years) who spoke mostly Mandarin-L1 (n = 23) or mostly English-L1 (n = 27) at home. A 60-item cloze task including high- and low-frequency words with word-initial and word-final…

  6. Nigeria : un siècle de dictionnaires igbo bilingues

    OpenAIRE

    Ugochukwu, Francoise

    2008-01-01

    The ALLEX lexicography project, the fruit of an active collaboration between Universities in Zimbabwe, Sweden and Norway, has already led to the publication of two monolingual dictionaries, of Shona and Ndebele, showing that lexicography can be used sucessfully to promote the teaching and learning of African languages at all levels and the general use of these languages. After more than a century of lexicographic endeavours, Nigeria cannot boast of any such publications, as bilingual dictiona...

  7. Bilingual Picture-Word Studies Constrain Theories of Lexical Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Hall

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Whether lexical selection is by competition is the subject of current debate in studies of monolingual language production. Here, I consider whether extant data from bilinguals can inform this debate. In bilinguals, theories that accept the notion of lexical selection by competition are divided between those positing competition among all lexical nodes versus those that restrict competition to nodes in the target language only. An alternative view rejects selection by competition altogether, putting the locus of selection in a phonological output buffer, where some potential responses are easier to exclude than others. These theories make contrasting predictions about how quickly bilinguals should name pictures when non-target responses are activated. In Part 1, I establish the empirical facts for which any successful theory must account. In Part 2, I evaluate how well each theory accounts for the data. I argue that the data do not support theories that reject lexical selection by competition, and that although theories where competition for selection is restricted to the target language can be altered to fit the data, doing so would fundamentally undermine the distinctness of their position. Theories where selection is by competition throughout both target and non-target language lexicons must also be modified to account for the data, but these modifications are relatively peripheral to the theoretical impetus of the model. Throughout, I identify areas where our empirical facts are sparse, weak, or absent, and propose additional experiments that should help to further establish how lexical selection works, in both monolinguals and bilinguals.

  8. Gabor filters for Document analysis in Indian Bilingual Documents

    OpenAIRE

    Pati, Peeta Basa; Raju, Sabari S; Pati, Nishikanta; Ramakrishnan, AG

    2004-01-01

    Reasonable success has been achieved at developing monolingual OCR systems in Indian scripts. Scientists, optimistically, have started t o look beyond. Development of bilingual OCR systems and OCR systems with capability t o identify the text areas are some of the pointers to future activities in Indian scenario. The separation of text and non-text regions before considering the document image for OCR is an important task. In this paper, we present a biologically inspired, multi-channel...

  9. Predicting Spanish–English Bilingual Children’s Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Komaroff, Eugene; Rodriguez, Barbara L.; Lopez, Lisa M.; Scarpino, Shelley E.; Goldstein, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the authors investigated factors that affect bilingual children’s vocabulary and story recall abilities in their 2 languages. Method Participants included 191 Latino families and their children, who averaged 59 months of age. Data on parental characteristics and children’s exposure to and usage of Spanish and English were collected. The authors assessed children’s Spanish and English vocabulary and story recall abilities using subtests of the Woodcock–Muñoz Language Survey—Revised (Woodcock, Muñoz-Sandoval, Ruef, & Alvarado, 2005). Results Sizeable percentages of variation in children’s English (R2 = .61) and Spanish (R2 = .55) vocabulary scores were explained by children’s exposure to, and usage of, each language and maternal characteristics. Similarly, variations in children’s story recall scores in English (R2 = .38) and Spanish (R2 = .19) were also explained by the factors considered in this investigation. However, the authors found that different sets of factors in each category affected children’s vocabulary and story recall abilities in each language. Conclusions Children’s exposure to and usage of their two languages as well as maternal characteristics play significant roles in bilingual individuals’ language development. The results highlight the importance of gathering detailed sociolinguistic information about bilingual children when these children are involved in research and when they enter the educational system. PMID:22337497

  10. Study of functional brain imaging for bilingual language cognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilingual and multilingual brain studies of language recognition is an interdisciplinary subject which needs to identify different levels involved in the neural representation of languages, such as neuroanatomical, neurofunctional, biochemical, psychological and linguistic levels. Furthermore, specific factor's such as age, manner of acquisition and environmental factors seem to affect the neural representation. Functional brain imaging, such as PET, SPECT and functional MRI can explore the neurolinguistics representation of bilingualism in the brain in subjects, and elucidate the neuronal mechanisms of bilingual language processing. Functional imaging methods show differences in the pattern of cerebral activation associated with a second language compared with the subject's native language. It shows that verbal memory processing in two unrelated languages is mediated by a common neural system with some distinct cortical areas. The different patterns of activation differ according to the language used. It also could be ascribed either to age of acquisition or to proficiency level. And attained proficiency is more important than age of acquisition as a determinant of the cortical representation of the second language. The study used PET and SPECT shows that sign and spoken language seem to be localized in the same brain areas, and elicit similar regional cerebral blood flow patterns. But for sign language perception, the functional anatomy overlaps that of language processing contain both auditory and visual components. And the sign language is dependent on spatial information too. (authors)

  11. Plasticity of illusory vowel perception in Brazilian-Japanese bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlato-Oliveira, Erika; Christophe, Anne; Hirose, Yuki; Dupoux, Emmanuel

    2010-06-01

    Previous research shows that monolingual Japanese and Brazilian Portuguese listeners perceive illusory vowels (/u/ and /i/, respectively) within illegal sequences of consonants. Here, several populations of Japanese-Brazilian bilinguals are tested, using an explicit vowel identification task (experiment 1), and an implicit categorization and sequence recall task (experiment 2). Overall, second-generation immigrants, who first acquired Japanese at home and Brazilian during childhood (after age 4) showed a typical Brazilian pattern of result (and so did simultaneous bilinguals, who were exposed to both languages from birth on). In contrast, late bilinguals, who acquired their second language in adulthood, exhibited a pattern corresponding to their native language. In addition, an influence of the second language was observed in the explicit task of Exp. 1, but not in the implicit task used in Exp. 2, suggesting that second language experience affects mostly explicit or metalinguistic skills. These results are compared to other studies of phonological representations in adopted children or immigrants, and discussed in relation to the role of age of acquisition and sociolinguistic factors. PMID:20550272

  12. A Study of the Relationship between Code Switching and the Bilingual Advantage: Evidence That Language Use Modulates Neural Indices of Language Processing and Cognitive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Angelique Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals sometimes outperform age-matched monolinguals on non-language tasks involving cognitive control. But the bilingual advantage is not consistently found in every experiment and may reflect specific attributes of the bilinguals tested. The goal of this dissertation was to determine if the way in which bilinguals use language, specifically…

  13. Theory and Practice of Chinese-English Bilingual Teaching in Circuit Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese-English bilingual teaching in the circuit course is an important approach to foster innovational talents for the electronic industry in the new century. In this article, we analyze the background, applicability and feasibility of bilingual teaching in the course of circuit and the difficulties facing in the process of implementation.…

  14. Bilingual Children with Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and/or Palate: Language and Memory Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Selena Ee-Li; Purcell, Alison Anne; Ballard, Kirrie Jane; Liow, Susan Jane Rickard; Ramos, Sara Da Silva; Heard, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Research shows that monolingual children with cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) have a higher incidence of cognitive-linguistic deficits, but it is not clear whether bilingual preschool children with CLP are especially vulnerable because they need to acquire 2 languages. We tested the hypothesis that bilingual children with CLP score lower…

  15. Clinical Implications of Research on Language Development and Disorders in Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Brian A.

    2006-01-01

    Assessing and treating bilingual children with speech and language disorders is difficult given the relative paucity of data on the speech and language skills of typically developing bilingual children and those with speech and language disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the research that is available with regard to clinical…

  16. Cross-Cultural Transfer in Gesture Frequency in Chinese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Wing Chee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine cross-cultural differences in gesture frequency and the extent to which exposure to two cultures would affect the gesture frequency of bilinguals when speaking in both languages. The Chinese-speaking monolinguals from China, English-speaking monolinguals from America, and Chinese-English bilinguals from…

  17. Research-Based Curriculum, Pedagogy, and Assessment in a Deaf Bilingual Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The California School for the Deaf (CSD), Fremont, is a deaf-centered bilingual program. CSD's approach to curriculum development, instructional pedagogy, and assessment integrates best practices in deaf education, bilingual education, and general education. The goals of the program are outlined in the Expected School-wide Learning Results which…

  18. The Use of Descriptive Data from Bilingual Children to Inform Theories of Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weismer, Susan Ellis; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    In her Keynote Article, Paradis reviews evidence from bilingual language development to assess the claims of two opposing theoretical views of language disorders. Specifically, she examines the evidence for similarities in language profiles of typically developing (TD) sequential bilingual (second language [L2]) children and monolingual children…

  19. Challenging the Political Mirage of ESL and Bilingual Education: A Study of Public Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gwendolyn M.

    A survey investigating public beliefs about teaching methods of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and bilingual education is reported. An introductory section chronicles the political history of ESL and bilingual education in the United States, describes major program designs, and reviews literature on public opinion concerning these programs.…

  20. The Stroop Effect in English: Evidence for Enhanced Attentional Control in Deaf Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasnis, Ila

    This study investigated the Stroop effect with deaf and hearing bilingual individuals and whether there is a positive relationship between the Stroop effect and English language proficiency of deaf bilinguals. The Stroop effect refers to the interference caused by incongruent semantic information in naming colors (e.g., when subjects must name the…

  1. Chinese-English Bilingual Education in China: A Case Study of College Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Fuhui; Shi, Qing

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examines current practice and challenges of Chinese-English bilingual education in Chinese tertiary institutions and presents a case study of a bilingual course by investigating learners' attitudes toward this educational and language policy. Using a convenience sampling strategy with an instrument modified from a…

  2. "Safe Spaces"? Sites of Bilingualism for Young Learners in Home, School and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conteh, Jean; Brock, Avril

    2011-01-01

    Drawing together the work of two researchers engaged in ongoing, longitudinal research with practitioners in early years and bilingual complementary settings, this article argues that bilingual learners in the early years need and are entitled to particular kinds of "safe spaces" to succeed in their education. Historical and policy contexts, and…

  3. Bilingual/Multicultural Early Childhood Education: Proceedings of Head Start Regional Conferences, 1978-79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Kenneth A.; Arenas, Soledad

    This summary of the presentation given at four Head Start Regional Bilingual/Multicultural Conferences consists of materials related to the Head Start Strategy for Spanish-speaking Children. Keynote addresses focus on Head Start policy implications, the future of Head Start in the 1980s, and the relation of bilingual/bicultural programs to the…

  4. Brief Report: An Exploratory Study of Lexical Skills in Bilingual Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jill M.; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Mirenda, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Studying lexical diversity in bilingual children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can contribute important information to our understanding of language development in this diverse population. In this exploratory study, lexical comprehension and production and overall language skills were investigated in 14 English-Chinese bilingual and 14…

  5. Tromso as a "Sami Town"?--Language Ideologies, Attitudes, and Debates Surrounding Bilingual Language Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiss, Florian

    2013-01-01

    The study focuses on local people's expressions of attitudes and ideologies in the light of proposed Sami-Norwegian bilingual policies in their Northern Norwegian hometown. The local politicians' plan to introduce the bilingual regulations of an "administrative area for the Sami language" in the town of Tromso encountered conflicting language…

  6. Bilingual Poetry: Expanding the Cognitive and Cultural Dimensions of Children's Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, Charmian; Al-Azami, Salman; Gregory, Eve; Ruby, Mahera

    2008-01-01

    Stories and poetry have long been considered a resource for the language and literacy development of bilingual children, particularly if they can work with texts in both mother tongue and English. This paper demonstrates that bilingual learning is also beneficial for second and third-generation children whose English is often stronger than their…

  7. The Best of Two Worlds: Bilingual-Bicultural Education in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Diego; Leggio, Pamela

    This history of bilingual education in the United States begins with the advent of the Spanish in the early 16th century, and traces the development of the phenomenon to the present. Chapters cover (1) early immigration of Spanish and Germans before the Revolution, (2) early 19th century xenophobia, (3) bilingual schooling in the early 19th…

  8. Diverse Language Profiles: Leveraging Resources of Potential Bilingual Teachers of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanases, Steven Z.; Banes, Leslie C.; Wong, Joanna W.

    2015-01-01

    Bilingual prospective teachers of color may possess experiences and knowledge particularly suitable for teaching linguistically diverse students but may need guidance and support to leverage such resources for teaching. In a class of 76 undergraduates, with a focus on bilingual students of color intending to teach, this study used self-reflexive…

  9. The Timing and Magnitude of Stroop Interference and Facilitation in Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Emily L.; Van Heuven, Walter J. B.; Conklin, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Executive control abilities and lexical access speed in Stroop performance were investigated in English monolinguals and two groups of bilinguals (English-Chinese and Chinese-English) in their first (L1) and second (L2) languages. Predictions were based on a bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, implicating cognitive control ability as the…

  10. Differential Language Functioning of Monolinguals and Bilinguals on Positive-Negative Emotional Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirzadeh, Shiela; Hajiabed, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    The present interdisciplinary research investigates the differential emotional expression between Persian monolinguals and Persian-English bilinguals. In other words, the article was an attempt to answer the questions whether bilinguals and monolinguals differ in the expression of positive and negative emotions elicited through sad and happy…

  11. Multiple Translations in Bilingual Memory: Processing Differences Across Concrete, Abstract, and Emotion Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnight-Brown, Dana M; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2016-10-01

    Historically, the manner in which translation ambiguity and emotional content are represented in bilingual memory have often been ignored in many theoretical and empirical investigations, resulting in these linguistic factors related to bilingualism being absent from even the most promising models of bilingual memory representation. However, in recent years it was reported that the number of translations a word has across languages influences the speed with which bilinguals translate concrete and abstract words from one language into another (Tokowicz and Kroll in Lang Cogn Process 22:727-779, 2007). The current work examines how the number of translations that characterize a word influences bilingual lexical organization and the processing of concrete, abstract, and emotional stimuli. In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals translated concrete and abstract words with one and more than one translation. As reported by Tokowicz and Kroll, concreteness effects emerged only when words had more than one translation across languages. In Experiment 2, bilinguals translated emotion words with more than one translation. Concreteness effects emerged in both language directions for words with more than one translation, and in the L1-L2 language direction for words with a single translation across languages. These findings are discussed in terms of how multiple translations, specifically for emotion words, might be incorporated into current models of bilingual memory representation. PMID:26519144

  12. Using Critical Discourse Analysis to Understand and Facilitate Identification Processes of Bilingual Adults Becoming Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahnmann, Melisa; Rymes, Betsy; Souto-Manning, Mariana

    2005-01-01

    Our research focuses on bilingual adults enrolled in the Teachers for English Language Learners (TELL) program. TELL is a scholarship program whose goal is to increase the number of critically-minded bilingual educators in the state of Georgia in the United States. In this paper, we use critical discourse analysis to inform theoretical and…

  13. The Interplay between Language, Gestures, Dragging and Diagrams in Bilingual Learners' Mathematical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Oi-Lam

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of considering bilingual learners' non-linguistic forms of communication for understanding their mathematical thinking. In particular, I provide a detailed analysis of communication involving a pair of high school bilingual learners during an exploratory activity where a touchscreen-based dynamic geometry…

  14. New Discoveries from the Bilingual Brain and Mind across the Life Span: Implications for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitto, Laura-Ann

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the fruits of educational neuroscience research from our laboratory and show how the typical maturational timing milestones in bilingual language acquisition provide educators with a tool for differentiating a bilingual child experiencing language and reading delay versus deviance. Further, early schooling in two languages…

  15. Addressing Clinician-Client Mismatch: A Preliminary Intervention Study with a Bilingual Vietnamese-English Preschooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang; Kohnert, Kathryn; Mann, Deanine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This project examined receptive vocabulary treatment outcomes in the two languages of a bilingual preschooler with moderate to severe language impairment. Method: A series of single-subject experimental designs was used to compare English-only (EO) and bilingual (BI) approaches to receptive vocabulary treatment. The participant, Nam, was…

  16. Perceptions of Cataloguers and End-Users towards Bilingual Authority Files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoulaye, Kaba

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes and describes bilingual authority files at the main library of the International Islamic University of Malaysia. Highlights include a review of multilingual research; perceptions of end users and catalogers; problems with bilingual files; and use of the OPAC (online public access catalog) by users. (Author/LRW)

  17. Designing Bilingual Scenarios to Promote English Language Learning at a Public School in Monteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Yanilis; Manjarres, Milton Pájaro

    2016-01-01

    This research study examines the assumptions of creating bilingual scenarios to promote English language learning for 384 students of ninth, tenth and eleventh grade of a public school in Monteria Colombia. An action research methodology was carried out in this study. The findings of this research suggested that the creation of bilingual scenarios…

  18. Highly Proficient Bilinguals Implement Inhibition: Evidence from N-2 Language Repetition Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declerck, Mathieu; Thoma, Aniella M.; Koch, Iring; Philipp, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    Several, but not all, models of language control assume that highly proficient bilinguals implement little to no inhibition during bilingual language production. In the current study, we tested this assumption with a less equivocal marker of inhibition (i.e., n-2 language repetition costs) than previous language switching studies have. N-2…

  19. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Differences in Executive Control between Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Raluca; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined executive control in sixty-two 5-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual using behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) measures. All children performed equivalently on simple response inhibition (gift delay), but bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on interference suppression and complex response…

  20. Does Language Proficiency Modulate Oculomotor Control? Evidence from Hindi-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Niharika; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Though many previous studies have reported enhanced cognitive control in bilinguals, few have investigated if such control is modulated by language proficiency. Here, we examined the inhibitory control of high and low proficient Hindi-English bilinguals on an oculomotor Stroop task. Subjects were asked to make a saccade as fast as possible towards…

  1. 34 CFR 429.1 - What is the Bilingual Vocational Materials, Methods, and Techniques Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Bilingual Vocational Materials, Methods, and Techniques Program? 429.1 Section 429.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION BILINGUAL VOCATIONAL MATERIALS, METHODS, AND...

  2. Input and Output in Code Switching: A Case Study of a Japanese-Chinese Bilingual Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hairong; Miyamoto, Tadao

    2012-01-01

    Code switching (CS) (or language mixing) generally takes place in bilingual children's utterances, even if their parents adhere to the "one parent-one language" principle. The present case study of a Japanese-Chinese bilingual infant provides both quantitative and qualitative analyses on the impact of input on output, as manifested in CS. The…

  3. Bilingual Education and Career Awareness Program. Project BECA, 1987-88. OREA Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berney, Tomi D.; Alvarez, Rosalyn

    Project BECA (the Bilingual Education and Career Awareness program) served 346 students at Adlai E. Stevenson High School in New York City in its second year of extension funding. Participating students received instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL), native language arts (NLA), content area subjects, bilingual industrial arts, and…

  4. Bilingual Chinese, Malay and Tamil Children's Language Choices in a Multi-lingual Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Vanithamani

    1999-01-01

    Examined language choice for three bilingual families in the context of Singapore's bilingual policy for preschool children. Found that Chinese families prefer English for all activities; Malay families prefer the Malayan language for worship and interaction with family; and Tamil families choose the Tamil language for worship but prefer English…

  5. G.-M. de Schryver (Editor. Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Zulu and English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Prinsloo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Zulu and English (henceforth OZSD is the latest addition to the bidirectional English–isiZulu bilingual dictionary market and is based on the same successful and prize-winning formula used for the Oxford Northern Sotho School Dictionary (ONSD published in 2007.

  6. G.-M. de Schryver (Editor). Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Zulu and English

    OpenAIRE

    D.J. Prinsloo

    2011-01-01

    The Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Zulu and English (henceforth OZSD) is the latest addition to the bidirectional English–isiZulu bilingual dictionary market and is based on the same successful and prize-winning formula used for the Oxford Northern Sotho School Dictionary (ONSD) published in 2007.

  7. Assessing the Role of Book Reading Practices in Indian Bilingual Children's English Language and Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Vrinda

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the role of Indian bilingual parents' book reading practices on the development of the children's oral language, narrative and literacy skills in English, their second language. About 24 bilingual children from two preschools in Bangalore, India were tested in schools in English on receptive vocabulary,…

  8. A Systemic-Dynamic Lurian Approach to Aphasia in Bilingual Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotik-Friedgut, Bella

    2001-01-01

    This article presents an approach to a variety of syndromes and patterns of language disorders in bilingual speakers and polyglots. This framework demands that in neuropsychological analysis, all the variables and dynamics of bilingual development have to be taken into consideration, along with details of the neurological syndrome. (Contains…

  9. Effects of Age of English Exposure, Current Input/Output, and Grade on Bilingual Language Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Griffin, Zenzi M.; Hixon, J. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of Age of Exposure to English (AoEE) and Current Input/Output on language performance in a cross-sectional sample of Spanish-English bilingual children. First- (N = 586) and third-graders (N = 298) who spanned a wide range of bilingual language experience participated. Parents and teachers provided information…

  10. The Effects of Bilingualism on Infant Language Development : The Acquisition of Sounds and Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Liquan

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation reports on the influence of bilingualism on infants’ sound and word acquisition in the first two years of life. It targets the question of whether mono- and bilingual infants follow the same developmental trajectory of language acquisition, it displays similarities and differences

  11. The Impact of the "First Language First" Model on Vocabulary Development among Preschool Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the role of the "First Language First" model for preschool bilingual education in the development of vocabulary depth. The languages studied were Russian (L1) and Hebrew (L2) among bilingual children aged 4-5 years in Israel. According to this model, the children's first language of…

  12. Cognitive Representation of Colour in Bilinguals: The Case of Greek Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulos, Panos

    2009-01-01

    A number of recent studies demonstrate that bilinguals with languages that differ in grammatical and lexical categories may shift their cognitive representation of those categories towards that of monolingual speakers of their second language. The current paper extended that investigation to the domain of colour in Greek-English bilinguals with…

  13. The Relationship between Applied Linguistic Research and Language Policy for Bilingual Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David Cassels

    2010-01-01

    Currently, restrictive-language policies seem to threaten bilingual education throughout the USA. Anti-bilingual education initiatives have passed easily in California, Arizona, and Massachusetts, while one was closely defeated in Colorado, and federal education policy has re-invigorated the focus on English education for English language…

  14. How Deaf American Sign Language/English Bilingual Children Become Proficient Readers: An Emic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounty, Judith L.; Pucci, Concetta T.; Harmon, Kristen C.

    2014-01-01

    A primary tenet underlying American Sign Language/English bilingual education for deaf students is that early access to a visual language, developed in conjunction with language planning principles, provides a foundation for literacy in English. The goal of this study is to obtain an emic perspective on bilingual deaf readers transitioning from…

  15. Relating Input Factors and Dual Language Proficiency in French-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    The input factors that may cause variation in bilingual proficiency were investigated in 38 French-English bilinguals aged six to eight, of middle-to-high socio-economic status, attending an international state school in France. Data on children's current and cumulative language exposure and family background were collected through questionnaires…

  16. Morphological Awareness and Bilingual Word Learning: A Longitudinal Structural Equation Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko; Leong, Che Kan

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of morphological awareness to bilingual word learning of Malay-English bilingual children in Singapore where English is the medium of instruction. Participants took morphological awareness and lexical inference tasks in both English and Malay twice with an interval of about half a year, the first…

  17. A Comparison of English Language Acquisition Patterns in English Monolingual and Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glad, Diana; And Others

    English monolingual and Spanish/English bilingual children in kindergarten and first grade in 11 states were administered two tests from the EL CIRCO (CIRCUS) battery. The purpose of the study was to determine comparative acquisition of English grammar for kindergarteners and first graders and for bilingual and English monolingual children. Data…

  18. "Recuperando La Dignidad Humana" [Recovering Human Dignity]: Shuar Mothers Speak out on Intercultural Bilingual Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Susan Roberta; Chumpi Nantip, Cornelia Lupe

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from interviews conducted in December 2011, with seven Shuar mothers of children in an intercultural bilingual school in the southern Amazon region of Ecuador. This study had two objectives: (1) to foreground the perspectives of Shuar parents towards intercultural bilingual education (IBE) as implemented in the Shuar…

  19. Cross-Language Activation in Children's Speech Production: Evidence from Second Language Learners, Bilinguals, and Trilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poarch, Gregory J.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals,…

  20. The Role of Bilingualism in Creative Performance on Divergent Thinking and Invented Alien Creatures Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkhurin, Anatoliy V.

    2009-01-01

    This study continues the effort to investigate the possible influence of bilingualism on an individual's creative potential. The performances of Farsi-English bilinguals living in the UAE and Farsi monolinguals living in Iran were compared on the Culture Fair Intelligence Test battery and two creativity tests: divergent thinking test (the…

  1. Cognitive control and word recognition speed influence the Stroop effect in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruiming; Fan, Xiaoyue; Liu, Cong; Cai, Zhenguang G

    2016-04-01

    Bilinguals have been shown to be less susceptible to Stroop interference in their first language than monolinguals, though the cause is currently being debated. In two experiments, we explored how cognitive control and word recognition contribute to the Stroop effect by contrasting cognitive control (via a Simon arrow task), word recognition speed (via a Chinese/English word recognition task) and Stroop susceptibility (via a verbal Stroop task) between proficient and non-proficient Chinese-English bilinguals. Compared to non-proficient bilinguals, proficient bilinguals showed better cognitive control at inhibiting irrelevant information, and they were slower at recognising Chinese words but quicker at recognising English words. Critically, we also showed that proficient bilinguals showed a smaller Stroop effect than non-proficient bilinguals in Chinese but a comparable Stroop effect as non-proficient bilinguals in English. The results cannot be accounted for by cognitive control or word recognition speed alone; instead, they are best accommodated by assuming that cognitive control and word recognition speed jointly determine the Stroop effect. Thus, we conclude that enhanced cognitive control and delayed word recognition combine to reduce Stroop effect in bilinguals as compared to monolinguals. PMID:25418783

  2. Dynamic Bilingualism as the Norm: Envisioning a Heteroglossic Approach to Standards-Based Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Nelson; Schissel, Jamie L.

    2014-01-01

    Standards-based reforms in many Anglophone nations have been informed by "monoglossic language ideologies" that marginalize the dynamic bilingualism of emergent bilinguals. Recent developments in applied linguistics that advocate for "heteroglossic language ideologies" offer an alternative for standards-based reform. This…

  3. Constructions of Bilingualism in Finnish Government Programmes and a Newspaper Discussion Site Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöyhönen, Sari; Saarinen, Taina

    2015-01-01

    The concept of bilingualism in Finnish political discourse is predominantly used in the meaning of official or state bilingualism, focusing on the two constitutionally defined "national languages;" that is, Finnish and Swedish. Legally, both Finnish and Swedish-speakers have a right for public services, such as schooling or health care,…

  4. Raising Bilingual Children: A Qualitative Study of Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Intended Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Barina, Alexis; Tillitski, John; Flores, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    We examined parental preferences in raising Spanish/English bilingual children. We identified factors influencing their decisions, and the strategies used to promote bilingualism. Focus groups were conducted with Spanish-primary-language parents of children 3 to 7 years old. These groups were audiotaped and transcribed. Three reviewers…

  5. Playful Dialogues of a Bilingual Child in Everyday Conversations: Foundations of Early Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Huerta, Mary Esther; Riojas-Cortez, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Many young children of Mexican heritage enter U.S. schools with knowledge of two language systems and emergent biliterate abilities. Bilingualism in young children may go unnoticed when instructional practices favor English. This case study describes how Lucía's bilingualism and emergent biliteracy parallel competencies essential to literacy…

  6. The Influence of Bilingualism on Third Language Acquisition: Focus on Multilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenoz, Jasone

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the advantages that bilinguals have over monolinguals when acquiring an additional language. Bilinguals are more experienced language learners and have potentially developed learning strategies to a larger extent than monolinguals. They also have a larger linguistic and intercultural repertoire at their disposal. In this…

  7. The Effects of Bilingualism on Efficiency and Lateralization of Attentional Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzecova, Anna; Asanowicz, Dariusz; Kriva, L'Uba; Wodniecka, Zofia

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of bilingualism on efficiency of alerting, orienting and executive attention by means of the Lateralized Attention Network Test (LANT). Young adult bilinguals who had been exposed to their second language before the age of four years showed a reduced conflict cost and a larger alerting effect in terms of…

  8. Gender Differences in Young Latino Adults' Status Attainment: Understanding Bilingualism in the Familial Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Sampson Lee; Cobas, Jose A.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that bilingualism among Latinos in the United States may not necessarily result in negative status attainment consequences. Such studies have typically overlooked gender differences in the consequences of bilingualism. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (N=866 females; 737 males), we…

  9. Official Bilingualism and Field Narratives: Does School Practice Echo Policy Discourse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nana, Genevoix

    2013-01-01

    This research builds on several layers of meaning representing views from education officials, head teachers, teachers and pupils to investigate the discourse and implementation of official bilingualism policy in primary schools in Cameroon. While at the macro-level, the celebration of the "National Bilingualism Day" in schools has tended to…

  10. Sign"geist": Promoting Bilingualism through the Linguistic Landscape of School Signage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Roswita

    2015-01-01

    This study is an examination of signage and sign-making practices in one elementary (Kindergarten to sixth grade) public school which offers a German Bilingual Program (GBP) for the development of German-English bilingualism. Schools are public spaces in which the visible language choice on signs reveals the circulating discourses around language…

  11. Exploring Bilinguals' Social Use of Language inside and out of the Minority Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Enlli Mon; Roberts, Dylan Bryn

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines bilingual children's use of language inside and out of the minority language classroom. A total of 145 children between 8 and 11 years of age, attending 16 bilingual Welsh-English primary schools in North Wales, responded to questionnaires (supplemented by classroom observations) requesting information about their language…

  12. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive Correlates of Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesope, Olusola O.; Lavin, Tracy; Thompson, Terri; Ungerleider, Charles

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies have documented the cognitive outcomes associated with bilingualism. To gain a clear understanding of the extent and diversity of these cognitive outcomes, the authors conducted a meta-analysis of studies that examined the cognitive correlates of bilingualism. Data from 63 studies (involving 6,022 participants) were extracted…

  13. Perceptions of Higher Education Faculty Members on Bilingual Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Dilek; Aydin, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, bilingual education has been a crucial phenomenon in the educational community in Turkey. This study aims to investigate whether academics have positive perceptions towards bilingual education or not. Regarding this issue, it is important to get the opinions of academics that are responsible for training future teachers. An online…

  14. Toward a Culture-Sensitive Pedagogy: Emergent Literacy Learning in Chinese-English Bilinguals in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jiening

    2003-01-01

    Reports findings of a case study of three bilingual Chinese-English-speaking children in a mainstream American kindergarten. Focuses on the literacy experiences of the children and cultural beliefs of the teacher. Results suggest several patterns of bilingual children's literacy learning, and demonstrate the connection between the cultural beliefs…

  15. Language Alternation among Arabic and English Youth Bilinguals: Reflecting or Constructing Social Realities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Hayat

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect on bilingual performance and specifically language alternation in informal contexts. In this reflection I have focused on the language choice of bilingual speakers when they are not restricted by the social factors of formal settings to adopt one code or the other. I have adopted Poplack's framework in…

  16. ESL, EFL and Bilingual Education: Exploring Historical, Sociocultural, Linguistic, and Instructional Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Lynn W.

    2010-01-01

    This collection of essays examines the historical, social, cultural, and educational foundations of ESL/EFL/Bilingual Education. The four themes of this book are: (1) Historical, Legal and Political Foundations of Bilingual/ESL Education; (2) Linguistic and Sociocultural Issues in ESL/EFL Education; (3) Educational Reform and English Language…

  17. High Proficiency across Two Languages Is Related to Better Mental State Reasoning for Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Katherine R.

    2016-01-01

    Past research suggests that bilingualism positively affects children's performance in false belief tasks. However, researchers have yet to fully explore factors that are related to better performance in these tasks within bilingual groups. The current study includes an assessment of proficiency in both languages (which was lacking in past work)…

  18. Cultural, Linguistic and Cognitive Issues in Teaching the Language of Literature for Emergent Bilingual Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleroy, Vicky

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the premise that literary texts use language in aesthetic, imaginative and engaging ways that have considerable potential to extend the learning of bilingual pupils. It draws on research findings from a qualitative study that examined the value of developing pedagogic practices for emergent bilingual learners at the…

  19. Reclassification Patterns among Latino English Learner Students in Bilingual, Dual Immersion, and English Immersion Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umansky, Ilana M.; Reardon, Sean F.

    2014-01-01

    Schools are under increasing pressure to reclassify their English learner (EL) students to "fluent English proficient" status as quickly as possible. This article examines timing to reclassification among Latino ELs in four distinct linguistic instructional environments: English immersion, transitional bilingual, maintenance bilingual,…

  20. Young Adults' Perceptions and Use of Bilingualism as a Function of an Early Immersion Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotti, Maura; Gutierrez, Anna; Klein, Eric; Mahamame, Salif

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine whether perceptions of bilingualism differed between two bilingual groups, those whose elementary education was shaped by a Spanish immersion program and those who had received an English-focused education. A structured interview was administered to gather information about self-perceived language…

  1. Bilingual Education vs. English Immersion: Which Is Better for English Language Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obudo, Francis

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which model of instruction is better for English Language Learners (ELL), English immersion or bilingual education. Two research articles were selected, compared, and analyzed. One was for English immersion and the other for bilingual education. Results are inconclusive, but it is important for educators…

  2. Opportunities and Challenges of Bilingualism. Contributions to the Sociology of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.; Dewaele, Jean-Marc, Ed.; Housen, Alex, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines, from an international perspective, opportunities and challenges of societal bilingualism in the new millennium. The 18 papers include the following: "Introduction: Opportunities and Challenges of Bilingualism" (Li Wei, Jean-Marc Dewaele, and Alex Housen); "'Holy Languages' in the Context of Societal…

  3. We Are One, We Are Many: Portraits of Australian Bilingual Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hones, Donald F.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a study that addresses the cultural, historical and political contexts of immigrant bilingual education in Australia and particularly, Victoria. Data was collected through participant observation, audiotaped interviews, and library research to build ethnographic portraits of three schools containing four bilingual programs,…

  4. Advertising to Italian English Bilinguals in Australia: Attitudes and Response to Language Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santello, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This article explores attitudes and response to language selection in advertising targeting Italian bilinguals who belong to a defined speech community. The research builds upon (i) research on multilingual advertising by investigating its attitudinal correlates, and (ii) studies on advertising to bilinguals through the verification of the…

  5. Bilingual Mothers' Language Choice in Child-Directed Speech: Continuity and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Houwer, Annick; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of Family Language Policy in bilingual families is parental language choice. Little is known about the continuity in parental language choice and the factors affecting it. This longitudinal study explores maternal language choice over time. Thirty-one bilingual mothers provided reports of what language(s) they spoke with their…

  6. Individual Differences in the Lexical Development of French-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Annabelle; Wei, Li

    2008-01-01

    The large and rapidly expanding body of literature on bilingual acquisition is mostly comprised of either single-case or cross-sectional studies. While these studies have made major contributions to our understanding of bilingual children's language development, they do not allow researchers to compare and contrast results with regard to…

  7. Multiple literacies: Linking the research on bilingualism and biliteracies to the practical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, Therese; Masny, Diana

    2006-11-01

    The present article addresses the fundamental developmental differences between monolingualism and bilingualism, as outlined in the literature. It takes into account research using qualitative and quantitative methodologies and reviews the advantages and possible disadvantages of bilingualism in preschool children. It then moves on to biliteracies in early childhood education. The questions addressed are: Will the early learning of a second language delay a child's language development? What effect does bilingualism have on the development of phonemic awareness, and does that have an impact on reading development? Do bilingual children have an advantage over monolingual children? What happens when a child with language impairment is called upon to develop two languages? What are some challenges regarding the acquisition of biliteracies? The present article concludes with recommendations for physicians who counsel bilingual families regarding early childhood literacy promotion and development. PMID:19030328

  8. Is there a bilingual advantage in the ANT task? Evidence from children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon AndoniDunabeitia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bilinguals have been shown to outperform monolinguals in a variety of tasks that do not tap into linguistic processes. The origin of this bilingual advantage has been questioned in recent years. While some authors argue that the reason behind this apparent advantage is bilinguals’ enhanced executive functioning, inhibitory skills and/or monitoring abilities, other authors suggest that the locus of these differences between bilinguals and monolinguals may lie in uncontrolled factors or incorrectly matched samples. In the current study we tested a group of 180 bilingual children and a group of 180 carefully matched monolinguals in a child-friendly version of the ANT task. Following recent evidence from similar studies with children, our results showed no bilingual advantage at all, given that the performance of the two groups in the task and the indices associated with the individual attention networks were highly similar and statistically indistinguishable.

  9. Elite Vs. Folk Bilingualism: The Mismatch between Theories and Educational and Social Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Helena Guerrero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at contributing to the ongoing discussion about how bilingualism is understood in the current National Bilingualism Plan (PNB for its initials in Spanish. Based on previous research and discussions held at academic events, it is evident that the promoters of the PNB use the term “bilingualism” in a rather indiscriminate way, without adopting a clear approach or definition. This ambiguity in conceptualization has serious consequences in the way the PNB is implemented around the country. The main contribution of this reflection article is, then, to explore from a theoretical perspective two opposite types of bilingualism: elite/folk bilingualism to show that even though on the surface the PNB seems to aim at an elite bilingualism, the educational and social conditions show otherwise.

  10. The Complex Nature of Bilinguals' Language Usage Modulates Task-Switching Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hwajin; Hartanto, Andree; Yang, Sujin

    2016-01-01

    In view of inconsistent findings regarding bilingual advantages in executive functions (EF), we reviewed the literature to determine whether bilinguals' different language usage causes measureable changes in the shifting aspects of EF. By drawing on the theoretical framework of the adaptive control hypothesis-which postulates a critical link between bilinguals' varying demands on language control and adaptive cognitive control (Green and Abutalebi, 2013), we examined three factors that characterize bilinguals' language-switching experience: (a) the interactional context of conversational exchanges, (b) frequency of language switching, and (c) typology of code-switching. We also examined whether methodological variations in previous task-switching studies modulate task-specific demands on control processing and lead to inconsistencies in the literature. Our review demonstrates that not only methodological rigor but also a more finely grained, theory-based approach will be required to understand the cognitive consequences of bilinguals' varied linguistic practices in shifting EF. PMID:27199800

  11. Influence of music lessons on the vocabulary of bilingual children : a study among 16 bilingual children living in mixed communicative environment in Oslo, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies in the field of bilingualism and early childhood education have been made. Very few studies, from the ones I found, focus specifically on using music activities with the bilingual children, which raises interest for this particular research. Being a teacher of music myself it made me especially interested in such kind of research. The study may lead to a better understanding of influence of music lessons on extending of vocabulary of children living in mixed commu...

  12. Another Type of Bilingual Advantage? Tense-Mood-Aspect Frequency, Verb-Form Regularity and Context-Governed Choice in Bilingual vs. Monolingual Spanish Speakers with Agrammatism

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Ann O'Connor Wells; Obler, Loraine K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study asks whether Spanish-English bilinguals with agrammatism perform better than comparable monolingual Spanish speakers on a test of copular verb production. We chose the Spanish dual-copula system, because its two copula verbs: ser and estar (meaning ‘be’ in English), differ semantically (depending on the context of the sentence), as well as in overall frequency and form-regularity. We asked: Do bilingual Spanish-English speakers with agrammatism perform diffe...

  13. What can speech production errors tell us about cross-linguistic processing in bilingual aphasia? Evidence from four English/Afrikaans bilingual individuals with aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Kendall

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study is contribute to clinical practice of bilinguals around the globe, as well as to add to our understanding of bilingual aphasia processing, by analysing confrontation naming data from four Afrikaans/English bilingual individuals with acquired aphasia due to a left hemisphere stroke.Methods: This is a case series analysis of four Afrikaans/English bilingual aphasic individuals following a left cerebrovascular accident. Error analysis of confrontation naming data in both languages was performed. Research questions were directed toward the between language differences in lexical retrieval abilities, types of errors produced and degree of cognate overlap.Results: Three of the four participants showed significantly higher naming accuracy in first acquired language (L1 relative to the second acquired language (L2 and the largest proportion of error type for those three participants in both L1 and L2 was omission. One of the four participants (linguistically balanced showed no between language accuracy difference. Regarding cognate overlap, there was a trend for higher accuracy for higher cognate words (compared to low.Discussion: This study showed that naming performance in these four individuals was reflective of their relative language proficiency and use patterns prior to their stroke. These findings are consistent with the hierarchical model, in normal bilingual speakers and with persons with bilingual aphasia.

  14. The making of a bilingual science educator: An autobiographical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Hugo Alejandro

    This qualitative study explores the journey of a Latino educator in becoming a bilingual high school science teacher and university professor. It focuses on discovering how the practice of teaching and learning is shaped through social, psychological, and cultural factors. Through the use of an autobiographical method known as currere, the researcher recounts personal and educational experiences that address important issues in education related to language, science, culture, and social class through the perspective of one doing the work. The study reviews the literature on autobiographical forms of research in the field of education and suggests how autobiography in education, an emerging genre, holds the promise for creating new meanings of the self while at the same time attempts to develop a theory of autobiography that acknowledges the importance of people of color and other marginalized groups. Data collected include 22 hours of audiotaped recordings, conversations, and educational artifacts including notes from innovative classroom projects, lesson plans, conference presentations, computer files, graduate coursework, classroom videotaping, university course evaluations, and department memos. Findings of this study revealed that: (a) the process of becoming a transformative educator involves critical self-reflection on one's cultural/ethnic identity and linguistic heritage; (b) the importance of self-reflection on one's teaching is a critical component in moving towards a more culturally and linguistically responsive curriculum; (c) the bilingual educator can achieve a greater understanding of the important role in the maintenance, implementation, and promotion of minority language education through a reflective practice; and (d) the development of the underrepresented voice in education and the awakening to one's personal and philosophical worldviews is as important as the preparation one receives in becoming a bilingual teacher.

  15. Cognitive and electrophysiological correlates of the bilingual Stroop effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NicoleY.Y.Wicha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The bilingual color-word Stroop effect is commonly half the magnitude when naming and reading languages are different than the same. This between-within language Stroop difference (BWLS is likened to a response set effect, with greater response conflict for response relevant than irrelevant words. The BWLS was analyzed in 2 experiments. Color congruent and incongruent words (Exp 1 appeared in the naming language or not (single, or randomly in both languages (mixed. The BWLS effect was observed in both balanced and unbalanced bilinguals. However, color congruent trials during mixed-language blocks led to slower times between than within languages, indicating that response irrelevant stimuli interfered with processing. To investigate the neural timing of the BWLS effect (Exp 2, event related potentials were recorded while balanced bilinguals named silently. Replicating monolingual findings, an N450 effect was observed with larger negative amplitude for color incongruent than congruent trials (350-550 ms post stimulus onset. This effect was equivalent within and between languages, indicating that color words from both languages created response conflict, contrary to a response set effect. A sustained negativity followed with larger amplitude for color incongruent than congruent trials, resolving earlier for between than within language Stroop. The effect shared timing (550-700 ms, but not morphology or distribution with a previously reported sustained potential. Finally, a larger early negativity (200-350 ms was observed for between than within languages independent of color congruence. This no-go N2-like negativity may reflect processes of inhibitory control that facilitate the resolution of conflict at the sustained negativity, while the N450 reflects parallel processing of distracter words, independent of response set. In sum, the BWLS reflects brain activity over time with contributions from language and color conflict at different points.

  16. Language dominance shapes non-linguistic rhythmic grouping in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Monika; Carreiras, Manuel; Gervain, Judit

    2016-07-01

    To what degree non-linguistic auditory rhythm perception is governed by universal biases (e.g., Iambic-Trochaic Law; Hayes, 1995) or shaped by native language experience is debated. It has been proposed that rhythmic regularities in spoken language, such as phrasal prosody affect the grouping abilities of monolinguals (e.g., Iversen, Patel, & Ohgushi, 2008). Here, we assessed the non-linguistic tone grouping biases of Spanish monolinguals, and three groups of Basque-Spanish bilinguals with different levels of Basque experience. It is usually assumed in the literature that Basque and Spanish have different phrasal prosodies and even linguistic rhythms. To confirm this, first, we quantified Basque and Spanish phrasal prosody (Experiment 1a) and duration patterns used in the classification of languages into rhythm classes (Experiment 1b). The acoustic measurements revealed that regularities in phrasal prosody systematically differ across Basque and Spanish; by contrast, the rhythms of the two languages are only minimally dissimilar. In Experiment 2, participants' non-linguistic rhythm preferences were assessed in response to non-linguistic tones alternating in either intensity (Intensity condition) or in duration (Duration condition). In the Intensity condition, all groups showed a trochaic grouping bias, as predicted by the Iambic-Trochaic Law. In the Duration Condition the Spanish monolingual and the most Basque-dominant bilingual group exhibited opposite grouping preferences in line with the phrasal prosodies of their native/dominant languages, trochaic in Basque, iambic in Spanish. The two other bilingual groups showed no significant biases, however. Overall, results indicate that duration-based grouping mechanisms are biased toward the phrasal prosody of the native and dominant language; also, the presence of an L2 in the environment interacts with the auditory biases. PMID:27062227

  17. Parallel language activation and cognitive control during spoken word recognition in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K; Marian, Viorica

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of bilingual cognitive advantages suggest an associative link between cross-linguistic competition and inhibitory control. We investigate this link by examining English-Spanish bilinguals' parallel language activation during auditory word recognition and nonlinguistic Stroop performance. Thirty-one English-Spanish bilinguals and 30 English monolinguals participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants heard words in English (e.g., comb) and identified corresponding pictures from a display that included pictures of a Spanish competitor (e.g., conejo, English rabbit). Bilinguals with higher Spanish proficiency showed more parallel language activation and smaller Stroop effects than bilinguals with lower Spanish proficiency. Across all bilinguals, stronger parallel language activation between 300-500ms after word onset was associated with smaller Stroop effects; between 633-767ms, reduced parallel language activation was associated with smaller Stroop effects. Results suggest that bilinguals who perform well on the Stroop task show increased cross-linguistic competitor activation during early stages of word recognition and decreased competitor activation during later stages of word recognition. Findings support the hypothesis that cross-linguistic competition impacts domain-general inhibition. PMID:24244842

  18. Bilingual effects on deployment of the attention system in linguistically and culturally homogeneous children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sujin; Yang, Hwajin

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the impact of early childhood and adulthood bilingualism on the attention system in a group of linguistically and culturally homogeneous children (5- and 6-year olds) and young adults. We administered the child Attention Network Test (ANT) to 63 English monolingual and Korean-English bilingual children and administered the adult ANT to 39 language- and culture-matched college students. Advantageous bilingual effects on attention were observed for both children and adults in global processing levels of inverse efficiency, response time, and accuracy at a magnitude more pronounced for children than for adults. Differential bilingualism effects were evident at the local network level of executive control and orienting in favor of the adult bilinguals only. Notably, however, bilingual children achieved an adult level of accuracy in the incongruent flanker condition, implying enhanced attentional skills to cope with interferences. Our findings suggest that although both child and adult bilinguals share cognitive advantages in attentional functioning, age-related cognitive and linguistic maturation differentially shapes the outcomes of attentional processing at a local network level. PMID:26930166

  19. Neural processing of speech in children is influenced by extent of bilingual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizman, Jennifer; Slater, Jessica; Skoe, Erika; Marian, Viorica; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-12

    Language experience fine-tunes how the auditory system processes sound. Bilinguals, relative to monolinguals, have more robust evoked responses to speech that manifest as stronger neural encoding of the fundamental frequency (F0) and greater across-trial consistency. However, it is unknown whether such enhancements increase with increasing second language experience. We predict that F0 amplitude and neural consistency scale with dual-language experience during childhood, such that more years of bilingual experience leads to more robust F0 encoding and greater neural consistency. To test this hypothesis, we recorded auditory brainstem responses to the synthesized syllables 'ba' and 'ga' in two groups of bilingual children who were matched for age at test (8.4 ± 0.67 years) but differed in their age of second language acquisition. One group learned English and Spanish simultaneously from birth (n=13), while the second group learned the two languages sequentially (n=15), spending on average their first four years as monolingual Spanish speakers. We find that simultaneous bilinguals have a larger F0 response to 'ba' and 'ga' and a more consistent response to 'ba' compared to sequential bilinguals and we demonstrate that these neural enhancements track with years of bilingual experience. These findings support the notion that bilingualism enhances subcortical auditory processing. PMID:25445377

  20. The effects of bilingualism on conflict monitoring, cognitive control, and garden-path recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubner-Rhodes, Susan E; Mishler, Alan; Corbett, Ryan; Andreu, Llorenç; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Trueswell, John C; Novick, Jared M

    2016-05-01

    Bilinguals demonstrate benefits on non-linguistic tasks requiring cognitive control-the regulation of mental activity to resolve information-conflict during processing. This "bilingual advantage" has been attributed to the consistent management of two languages, yet it remains unknown if these benefits extend to sentence processing. In monolinguals, cognitive control helps detect and revise misinterpretations of sentence meaning. Here, we test if the bilingual advantage extends to parsing and interpretation by comparing bilinguals' and monolinguals' syntactic ambiguity resolution before and after practicing N-back, a non-syntactic cognitive-control task. Bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on a high-conflict but not a no-conflict version of N-back and on sentence comprehension, indicating that the advantage extends to language interpretation. Gains on N-back conflict trials also predicted comprehension improvements for ambiguous sentences, suggesting that the bilingual advantage emerges across tasks tapping shared cognitive-control procedures. Because the overall task benefits were observed for conflict and non-conflict trials, bilinguals' advantage may reflect increased cognitive flexibility. PMID:26918741

  1. Cognitive and electrophysiological correlates of the bilingual stroop effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Lavelda J; Stanley, Emily M; Wicha, Nicole Y Y

    2012-01-01

    The color word Stroop effect in bilinguals is commonly half the magnitude when the written and naming languages are different (between) than when they are the same (within). This between-within language Stroop difference (BWLS) is likened to a response set effect, with greater response conflict for response relevant than irrelevant words. The nature of the BWLS was examined using a bilingual Stroop task. In a given block (Experiment 1), color congruent and incongruent words appeared in the naming language or not (single), or randomly in both languages (mixed). The BWLS effect was present for both balanced and unbalanced bilinguals, but only partially supported a response set explanation. As expected, color incongruent trials during single language blocks, lead to slower response times within than between languages. However, color congruent trials during mixed language blocks led to slower times between than within languages, indicating that response-irrelevant stimuli interfered with processing. In Experiment 2, to investigate the neural timing of the BWLS effect, event related potentials were recorded while balanced bilinguals named silently within and between languages. Replicating monolingual findings, an N450 effect was observed with larger negative amplitude for color incongruent than congruent trials (350-550 ms post-stimulus onset). This effect was equivalent within and between languages, indicating that color words from both languages created response conflict, contrary to a strict response set effect. A sustained negativity (SN) followed with larger amplitude for color incongruent than congruent trials, resolving earlier for between than within language Stroop. This effect shared timing (550-700 ms), but not morphology or scalp distribution with the commonly reported sustained potential. Finally, larger negative amplitude (200-350 ms) was observed between than within languages independent of color congruence. This negativity, likened to a no-go N2

  2. Unsupervised Chunking Based on Graph Propagation from Bilingual Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach for unsupervised shallow parsing model trained on the unannotated Chinese text of parallel Chinese-English corpus. In this approach, no information of the Chinese side is applied. The exploitation of graph-based label propagation for bilingual knowledge transfer, along with an application of using the projected labels as features in unsupervised model, contributes to a better performance. The experimental comparisons with the state-of-the-art algorithms show that the proposed approach is able to achieve impressive higher accuracy in terms of F-score.

  3. An Autoencoder Approach to Learning Bilingual Word Representations

    OpenAIRE

    P, Sarath Chandar A; Lauly, Stanislas; Larochelle, Hugo; Khapra, Mitesh M.; Ravindran, Balaraman; Raykar, Vikas; Saha, Amrita

    2014-01-01

    Cross-language learning allows us to use training data from one language to build models for a different language. Many approaches to bilingual learning require that we have word-level alignment of sentences from parallel corpora. In this work we explore the use of autoencoder-based methods for cross-language learning of vectorial word representations that are aligned between two languages, while not relying on word-level alignments. We show that by simply learning to reconstruct the bag-of-w...

  4. OPTIMIZING CLUSTERS ALIGNMENT FOR BILINGUAL MALAY-ENGLISH CORPORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asni Tahir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilingual corpora, containing the same documents in two different languages, are becoming an essential resource for natural language processing. Clustering bilingual corpora provides us with an insight into the differences between languages when term frequency-based Information Retrieval (IR tools are used. It also allows one to use the Natural Language Processing (NLP and IR tools in one language to implement IR for another language. This study reports on our work on applying Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering (HAC to a large corpus of documents where each appears both in Malay and English languages. These documents are clustered for each language and both results are compared with respect to the content of clusters produced. Further, the effects of using different methods of computing the inter-clusters distance on the cluster results is also studied. These methods include Single, Complete and Average links. Finally, this study describes an experiment employing a genetic algorithm to fine-tune individual term’s weight in order to reproduce more closely a predefined set of clusters. In this way, clustering becomes a supervised learning technique that is trained to better reproduce known clusters in Malay language when applied to the corresponding documents in English language. On the data available, the results of clustering one language resemble the other, provided the number of clusters required is relatively small. The method used to compute the inter-clusters distance also influences the cluster results. The result actually showed an increase in the percentage of aligned clusters, when we applied the genetic algorithm to fine-tune weights of terms considered in clustering the bilingual Malay-English corpora. This study concludes that with a smaller number of clusters, k = 5, all of the clusters from English texts can be mapped into the clusters of Malay texts, by using the Complete link distance measure in clustering the bilingual

  5. Development of false memories in bilingual children and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, M. L.; Gagnon, N.; Thouas, L.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of within- versus between-languages (English–French) study and test on rates of bilingual children’s and adults’ true and false memories were examined. Children aged 6 through 12 and university-aged adults participated in a standard Deese–Roediger–McDermott false memory task using free recall and recognition. Recall results showed that: (1) both true and false memories increased with age, (2) true recall was higher in within- than between-languages conditions for all ages, and (3)...

  6. Can you say it another way? Cognitive factors in bilingual children’s pragmatic language skills

    OpenAIRE

    Tare, Medha; Gelman, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    Pragmatic differentiation in bilinguals is the ability to use two languages appropriately with different speakers. Although some sensitivity emerges by 2 years, the effect of context on these skills and their relation to other developing metacognitive capacities have not been examined. The current study compared the language use of 28 bilingual children (2;7 to 3;10 and 4;1 to 4;11) across two tasks. All children were bilingual in English and Marathi, an Indian language. Theory-of-mind measur...

  7. Extraction and Presentation of Bilingual Correspondences from Slovak-Bulgarian Parallel Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Garabík

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction and Presentation of Bilingual Correspondences from Slovak-Bulgarian Parallel CorpusIn this paper the results of the automatic extraction and presentation of bilingual correspondences from Slovak-Bulgarian Parallel corpus are described. The equivalent phrases are extracted from sentence and word level automatically aligned corpus, filtered, indexed and presented in a dictionary-like interface. The bilingual dictionary database contains 80 thousand phrase pairs consisting of approximately 350 thousand words (per each language. Counting unique word forms, the size is 31 thousand in the Slovak part of the dictionary, 26 thousand in the Bulgarian part.

  8. Cognitive Reserve in Parkinson’s Disease: The Effects of Welsh-English Bilingualism on Executive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John V. Hindle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Bilingualism has been shown to benefit executive function (EF and delay the onset of Alzheimer’s disease. This study aims at examining whether a bilingual advantage applies to EF in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Method. In a cross-sectional outpatient cohort of monolingual English (n=57 and bilingual Welsh/English (n=46 speakers with PD we evaluated the effects of bilingualism compared with monolingualism on performance on EF tasks. In bilinguals we also assessed the effects of the degree of daily usage of each language and the degree of bilingualism. Results. Monolinguals showed an advantage in performance of language tests. There were no differences in performance of EF tests in monolinguals and bilinguals. Those who used Welsh less in daily life had better performance on one test of English vocabulary. The degree of bilingualism correlated with one test of nonverbal reasoning and one of working memory but with no other tests of EF. Discussion. The reasons why the expected benefit in EF in Welsh-English bilinguals with PD was not found require further study. Future studies in PD should include other language pairs, analysis of the effects of the degree of bilingualism, and longitudinal analysis of cognitive decline or dementia together with structural or functional neuroimaging.

  9. BiLingual Information Retrieval System for English and Tamil

    CERN Document Server

    Saraswathi, S; K, Kalaimagal; M, Kalaiyarasi

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the design and implementation of BiLingual Information Retrieval system on the domain, Festivals. A generic platform is built for BiLingual Information retrieval which can be extended to any foreign or Indian language working with the same efficiency. Search for the solution of the query is not done in a specific predefined set of standard languages but is chosen dynamically on processing the user's query. This paper deals with Indian language Tamil apart from English. The task is to retrieve the solution for the user given query in the same language as that of the query. In this process, a Ontological tree is built for the domain in such a way that there are entries in the above listed two languages in every node of the tree. A Part-Of-Speech (POS) Tagger is used to determine the keywords from the given query. Based on the context, the keywords are translated to appropriate languages using the Ontological tree. A search is performed and documents are retrieved based on the keywords. With...

  10. BEST: Bilingual environmental science training, Grades 3--4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English for each lesson. A bilingual glossary, alphabetized by English entries, with Spanish equivalents and definitions in both English and Spanish, follows the lesson descriptions, and is itself followed by a bibliography of English-language references with annotations in English. This booklet includes descriptions of ten lessons that cover the following topics: the identification of primary and secondary colors in the environment; recognizing the basic food tastes; the variety of colors that can be made by crushing plant parts; the variety of animal life present in common soil; animal tracks; evidence of plant and animal life in the local environment; recycling, reducing, and composting as alternative means of garbage disposal; waste associated with packaging; paper- recycling principles; and how organic waste can be composted into usable soil. 2 figs.

  11. Empowering minority students: An analysis of the bilingual education debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Cummins Ontario

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the nature of the bilingual education debate, represents a drama of societal self-definition. On one hand the commitment to preserve traditional power structures, and on the other, the desire to live up to theideals upon which the U.S.was founded. The latter implies the creation of a society where equality, freedom and justice represent more than just empty rhetoric. In order to build his case, the author examines the historical context of minority education in the U.S. and the surface text of the arguments both for and against the effectiveness of bilingual education. He concludes that the fundamental causes of minority students' school failure are rooted in socio historical processes of minority group disempowerment. The ways are outlined in which schools have traditionally reflected the societal power structure and rationalized the education disablement of minority students. An invention framework designed to reverse this pattern and prevent minority student academic failure is proposed. However, the author cautions that the implementation of empowerment pedagogy is unlikely to be facilitated by the dominant group because, almost by definition. empowerment pedagogy requires educators as individuals and schools as institutions to challenge the institutionalized racism that still persists in many aspects of society.

  12. Language shift, bilingualism and the future of Britain's Celtic languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Anne; Unger, Roman; Steele, James

    2010-12-12

    'Language shift' is the process whereby members of a community in which more than one language is spoken abandon their original vernacular language in favour of another. The historical shifts to English by Celtic language speakers of Britain and Ireland are particularly well-studied examples for which good census data exist for the most recent 100-120 years in many areas where Celtic languages were once the prevailing vernaculars. We model the dynamics of language shift as a competition process in which the numbers of speakers of each language (both monolingual and bilingual) vary as a function both of internal recruitment (as the net outcome of birth, death, immigration and emigration rates of native speakers), and of gains and losses owing to language shift. We examine two models: a basic model in which bilingualism is simply the transitional state for households moving between alternative monolingual states, and a diglossia model in which there is an additional demand for the endangered language as the preferred medium of communication in some restricted sociolinguistic domain, superimposed on the basic shift dynamics. Fitting our models to census data, we successfully reproduce the demographic trajectories of both languages over the past century. We estimate the rates of recruitment of new Scottish Gaelic speakers that would be required each year (for instance, through school education) to counteract the 'natural wastage' as households with one or more Gaelic speakers fail to transmit the language to the next generation informally, for different rates of loss during informal intergenerational transmission. PMID:21041210

  13. BEST: Bilingual environmental science training: Grades 5--6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English. A bilingual glossary, alphabetized by English entries, with Spanish equivalents and definitions in both English and Spanish, follows the lesson descriptions, and is itself followed by a bibliography of English-language references. This booklet includes descriptions of ten lessons that cover the following topics: safe and unsafe conditions for chemical combinations; growth rates and environmental needs of plants; photosynthesis and effects of ozone-layer depletion; the circulatory system, the importance of exercise to the heart, and selected circulatory diseases; the nervous system; specific nutritional values of the different food groups; significance of including, reducing, or eliminating certain foods for a healthy diet; effects of some common chemicals on plant growth and animal life; plants` and animals` natural habitats; and dangers of non-biodegradable garbage.

  14. Acquisition of Turkish of Russian-Turkish bilingual children in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha Yazıcı

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this empirical study focuses on acquisition of Turkish of Russian-Turkish bilingual children in early   childhood. The population of the study includes bilingual children at the age of 5 – 6 living in Turkey/Antalya. The sampling of the study consisted of 40 Russian-Turkish bilingual children in total. (20 children are for control group and 20 children are for experiment group. During the collection of data have been used Descoeudres Dictionary Test (DDT and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT.  Both of the groups were applied pre test and post test.  Language – Focused Curriculum (LFC was applied to experiment group for 16 weeks. Two factor ANOVA and t test were used in the analyses of data.  As a conclusion, it was understood that LFC is effective at developing Turkish receptive, expressive language and mean length of utterance of bilingual children

  15. Acquisition of Turkish of Russian-Turkish bilingual children in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha Yazıcı

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this empirical study focuses on acquisition of Turkish of Russian-Turkish bilingual children in early childhood. The population of the study includes bilingual children at the age of 5 – 6 living in Antalya/Turkey. The sampling of the study consisted of 40 Russian-Turkish bilingual children in total (20 children are for control group and 20 children are for experiment group. During the collection of data have been used Descoeudres Dictionary Test (DDT and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT. Both of the groups were applied pre test and post test. Language – Focused Curriculum (LFC was applied to experiment group for 16 weeks. Two factor ANOVA and t test were used in the analyses of data. As a conclusion, it was understood that LFC is effective at developing Turkish receptive and expressive language of bilingual children.

  16. Independent effects of bilingualism and socioeconomic status on language ability and executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-03-01

    One hundred and seventy-five children who were 6-years old were assigned to one of four groups that differed in socioeconomic status (SES; working class or middle class) and language background (monolingual or bilingual). The children completed tests of nonverbal intelligence, language tests assessing receptive vocabulary and attention based on picture naming, and two tests of executive functioning. All children performed equivalently on the basic intelligence tests, but performance on the language and executive functioning tasks was influenced by both SES and bilingualism. Middle-class children outperformed working-class children on all measures, and bilingual children obtained lower scores than monolingual children on language tests but higher scores than monolingual children on the executive functioning tasks. There were no interactions with either group factors or task factors. Thus, each of SES and bilingualism contribute significantly and independently to children's development irrespective of the child's level on the other factor. PMID:24374020

  17. Bilingual Babel: Cuneiform Texts in Two or More Languages from Ancient Mesopotamia and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jerrold

    1993-01-01

    Discusses bilingualism in written cuneiform texts from ancient Babylonia and Sumeria. Describes the development of formats and techniques that enabled two or more languages on a single document to coexist harmoniously and productively. (SR)

  18. Bilingualism and linguistic politics in Brazil: From monolingual unreality to plurilingual reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ortiz Preuss

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Current article discusses the linguistic policies inBrazil and problematizes explicit or underlying notions of bilingualism in official documents. Different concepts of bilingualism over time are analyzed from a bibliographic and documental study. Further, the types of bilingualism contemplated by linguistic policies are investigated. The status of Portuguese, indigenous, foreign, sign and immigrant languages in these documents is discussed, as well as the legal attitudes related to bilingualism in communities of immigrants, indigenous, deaf and descendants of Negro slaves. An initial legal ambiguity may be noted when essentially monolingual linguistic policies are prioritized. A mild progress has occurred during the last few years, mainly, those related to the acknowledgement of indigenous communities as bi/multilingual. In fact, Brazil’s plurilingual condition and its pluricultural characteristics have not been yet acknowledged.

  19. Impact of Bilingual Education Programs on Limited English Proficient Students and Their Peers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Chin, Aimee; Imberman, Scott

    2013-01-01

    bilingual education above this 20-student cutoff. Using this discontinuity as an instrument for district bilingual education provision, we find that providing bilingual education programs (relative to providing only English as a Second Language programs) does not significantly impact the standardized test......Texas requires a school district to offer bilingual education when its enrollment of limited English proficient (LEP) students in a particular elementary grade and language is twenty or higher. Using school panel data, we find a significant increase in the probability that a district provides...... scores of students with Spanish as their home language (comprised primarily of ever-LEP students). However, we find significant positive impacts on non-LEP students’ achievement, which indicates that education programs for LEP students have spillover effects to non-LEP students....

  20. Bilingualism in Song: The Rabbit Song of the Fulaan Nara Huzhu Mongghul

    OpenAIRE

    Qi Huimin; Burgel RM Levy

    2015-01-01

    Qi Huimin and Burgel RM Levy. 2015. Bilingualism in Song: The Rabbit Song of the Fulaan Nara Huzhu Mongghul IN Gerald Roche and CK Stuart (eds) Asian Highlands Perspectives 36: Mapping the Monguor, 106-113, 301-332. Musical notation, and musical and linguistic characteristics of a Chinese-Huzhu Mongghul bilingual song in the Fulaan Nara dialect of Huzhu Mongghul are given. Huzhu Mongghul is an endangered language of the Monguor (Tu) subgroup of the Mongolic language family, spoken in th...

  1. Bilingualism and creativity: Benefits in convergent thinking come with losses in divergent thinking

    OpenAIRE

    LorenzaSColzato; RicoFischer

    2011-01-01

    Bilingualism is commonly assumed to improve creativity but the mechanisms underlying creative acts, and the way these mechanisms are affected by bilingualism, are not very well understood. We hypothesize that learning to master multiple languages drives individuals toward a relatively focused cognitive-control state that exerts strong top-down impact on information processing and creates strong local competition for selection between cognitive codes. Considering the control requirements posed...

  2. Methodological reflections on gesture analysis in second language acquisition and bilingualism research

    OpenAIRE

    Gullberg, M.

    2010-01-01

    Gestures, the symbolic movements speakers perform while they speak, form a closely inter-connected system with speech where gestures serve both addressee-directed (‘communicative’) and speaker-directed (’internal’) functions. This paper aims (1) to show that a combined analysis of gesture and speech offers new ways to address theoretical issues in SLA and bilingualism studies, probing SLA and bilingualism as product and process; and (2) to outline some methodological concerns and desiderata t...

  3. Handling Ambivalence : A Grounded Theory of Bilingualism in the everyday life

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Josefin

    2011-01-01

    During the last decades, immigration to Sweden has increased. As a result of this, a larger number of individuals are growing up with two languages. This means that the field of bilingualism has emerged as topic of relevance in Sociology, as well as other disciplines of Social Sciences. Bilingualism has been studied from different perspectives in Linguistics. However, in Sociology, focus has been mostly on the questions of integration, culture and ethnicity, where language has been seen as on...

  4. Elite Vs. Folk Bilingualism: The Mismatch between Theories and Educational and Social Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Helena Guerrero

    2010-01-01

    This article aims at contributing to the ongoing discussion about how bilingualism is understood in the current National Bilingualism Plan (PNB for its initials in Spanish). Based on previous research and discussions held at academic events, it is evident that the promoters of the PNB use the term “bilingualism” in a rather indiscriminate way, without adopting a clear approach or definition. This ambiguity in conceptualization has serious consequences in the way the PNB is implemented around ...

  5. The modulation of reading strategies by language opacity in early bilinguals: an eye movement study

    OpenAIRE

    de León Rodríguez, Diego; Buetler, C,, Karin A.; Eggenberger, Noëmi; Preisig, Basil C.; Schumacher, Rahel; Laganaro, Marina; Nyffeler, Thomas; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Müri, René M.

    2016-01-01

    Converging evidences from eye movement experiments indicate that linguistic contexts influence reading strategies. However, the question of whether different linguistic contexts modulate eye movements during reading in the same bilingual individuals remains unresolved. We examined reading strategies in a transparent (German) and an opaque (French) language of early, highly proficient French–German bilinguals: participants read aloud isolated French and German words and pseudo- words whil...

  6. Costs and advantages in bimodal bilingual language production: Language-switching and dual-task paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of unimodal (spoken–spoken) language switching have often found longer reaction times and higher error rates in switch trials than in repeat trials, particularly for unbalanced bilinguals. Studies of hearing signers (bimodal bilinguals) have found that they often produce ‘code-blends’ rather than sequential code-switches; such simultaneous production is generally not possible in unimodal utterances. The present study explored sequential language switching and simultaneous lan...

  7. Learning and processing of nonverbal symbolic information in bilinguals and monolinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K; Adams, Ashley M

    2014-01-01

    Bilinguals have been shown to outperform monolinguals on word learning and on inhibition tasks that require competition resolution. Yet the scope of such bilingual advantages remains underspecified. We compared bilinguals and monolinguals on nonverbal symbolic learning and on competition resolution while processing newly-learned material. Participants were trained on 12 tone-to-symbol mappings, combining timbre, pitch, and duration of tones. During subsequent processing, participants viewed a display with four symbols, and were instructed to identify the symbol that matched a simultaneously-presented tone. On competition trials, two symbols matched the tone in timbre and pitch, but only one matched the tone on timbre, pitch, and duration. No learning differences emerged between 27 Spanish-English bilinguals and 27 English monolinguals, and more successful learners performed better on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary task. During the processing task, competition trials yielded responses with lower accuracies and longer latencies than control trials. Further, in both groups, more successful learning of tone-to-symbol mappings was associated with more successful retrieval during processing. In monolinguals, English receptive vocabulary scores also influenced retrieval efficiency during processing, with English/Spanish vocabulary less related to the novel processing task in bilinguals. Finally, to examine inhibition of competing stimuli, priming probes were presented after each tone-symbol processing trial. These probes suggested that bilinguals, and to a lesser extent monolinguals, showed residual inhibition of competitors at 200 ms post-target identification. Together, findings suggest that learning of novel symbolic information may depend in part on previous linguistic knowledge (not bilingualism per se), and that, during processing of newly-learned material, subtle differences in retrieval and competition resolution may emerge between bilinguals and monolinguals

  8. Translation Procedures of Cultural Terms Found In Sejarah Bilingual For Students of Senior High School

    OpenAIRE

    Silalahi, Mery; Lubis, Syahron

    2015-01-01

    This study is translation product oriented, aimed at investigating: 1) the cultural category of the Indonesian cultural terms found in Sejarah Bilingual into English; 2) the translation procedures applied in the translation; and 3) the tendency of the applied translation procedures. The source of the data is the bilingual text book (Indonesian-English). This research was conducted by using the qualitative descriptive method The data used in this research are the cultural terms which are in...

  9. Performance Monitoring and Response Inhibition in a Saccadic Countermanding Task in High and Low proficient bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niharika eSingh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared Hindi-English bilinguals differing in their L2 fluency on a saccadic countermanding task which taps inhibitory control as well as monitoring. We particularly explored whether response inhibition and performance monitoring within the oculomotor domain are affected by language proficiency in bilinguals. There were two different oculomotor redirect tasks: Visually Guided Redirect (VGR task (Experiment1 and Memory Guided Redirect (MGR task (Experiment 2. In this task typically a target is presented to which subject must make saccade (No step trials, unless a new target appears on the other location after some delay from the first target onset (Step trials. On such trials participants are required to inhibit and cancel the saccade to the first instead program a saccade to the new target. Using trial switch reaction time (TSRT, which is the time taken to inhibit the initiated saccade to the first target, as a measure of response inhibition, and post-stop slowing as a measure of performance monitoring, we observed two important results. It was found that high proficiency bilinguals showed more post-stop slowing on the no-step trials as compared to the low proficiency bilinguals for both VGR and MGR. Secondly, high and low proficiency bilingual exhibited comparable TSRT in both VGR and MGR, showing no altering effect of language proficiency on the response inhibition in bilinguals. These results suggest that bilingualism impacts performance monitoring which is modulated by language proficiency if not the inhibitory control system. Higher fluency may lead to superior cognitive flexibility, and ability to adjust behaviour that facilitates attainment of cognitive goal. These findings are in consonance with other current studies that suggest a top-down effect of bilingualism on action control systems.

  10. Partially Overlapping Mechanisms of Language and Task Control in Young and Older Bilinguals

    OpenAIRE

    Weissberger, Gali H.; Wierenga, Christina E.; Bondi, Mark W; Gollan, Tamar H.

    2012-01-01

    The current study tested the hypothesis that bilinguals rely on domain-general mechanisms of executive control to achieve language control by asking if linguistic and nonlinguistic switching tasks exhibit similar patterns of aging-related decline. Thirty young and 30 aging bilinguals completed a cued language-switching task and a cued color-shape switching task. Both tasks demonstrated significant aging effects, but aging-related slowing and the aging-related increase in errors were significa...

  11. Assessment of bilingual children with inattention, over activity and impulsivity –Challenges and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Meral R. ÖZERK; Jan Arne HANDORFF; Kamil ÖZERK

    2011-01-01

    ADHD is one of the widespread neurological disorders among children. While a substantial amount of research have addressed the issues related to assessment practices and diagnosis criteria among majority language speaking children, ADHD among bilingual children or linguistic minority children has not yet been addressed and discussed so much in the research circles. The percentage of bilingual children with immigrant background in main stream schools in many countries is quite high. Despite th...

  12. Research on Bilingual Teaching of Graduates for Computer Specialty in Financial and Economical Colleges

    OpenAIRE

    Limin Wang; Xuming Han; Ming Li

    2009-01-01

    To achieve higher education internationalization and improve the comprehensive ability of graduates, according to the education characteristics and development model of graduates for computer specialty in financial and economical colleges, the intrinsic relation between computer and English, and the importance of graduates for implementing bilingual teaching in financial and economical colleges, an effective training project of bilingual teaching for computer graduates in financial and econom...

  13. Comparing the Effect of Using Monolingual versus Bilingual Dictionary on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Saeideh Ahangari; Shokoufeh Abbasi Dogolsara

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of using two types of dictionaries (monolingual and bilingual) on Iranian intermediate EFL learners’ vocabulary learning. An OPT (Oxford placement test, 2001) was administered among 90 students 60 of whom were selected as the participants of this study. They were sophomore students studying English as a foreign language, with the age range of 19-27. They were then divided into two comparison groups: Monolingual Dictionary (MD) and Bilingual Dictionar...

  14. Consolidating the Bilingual Education in the Major of Finance:Existing Defects and Corrective Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛蓓蓓

    2013-01-01

    Under the trend of globalization and international financial integration, Chinese scholars have argued that executing bi-lingual education in the major of finance is necessary to advance the comprehensive quality and competitive ability of college stu-dents. However, universities attempting to implement bilingual education are procrastinated with many obstacles. To resolve this issue, corrective measures are to be given in the aspects of textbook publishing, professor training and curriculum adjustments.

  15. Asymmetrical Language Switching Costs in Chinese-English Bilinguals' Number Naming and Simple Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jamie I. D.

    2005-01-01

    Meuter and Allport (1999) demonstrated greater RT (response time) costs for bilinguals to switch to their first language (L1) from their second language (L2) relative to switching to L2 from L1. Here, analyses of digit naming and simple arithmetic (from 2+2 to 9+9 and from 2x2 to 9x9) by Chinese-English bilinguals demonstrated that these…

  16. Inquiry based learning in science education and mathematics for developing bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya H. Pavlova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the problem of teaching bilingual children. A definition of “developing bilingual” is proposed. The article presents an example of the application of inquiry based learning through which students develop not only math skills but also lexical capabilities. This study offers levels of differentiation in different groups of students. The paper determines advantages and disadvantages of the use of Inquiry Based Learning in developing bilingual groups.

  17. Constructions of bilingualism in Finnish Government programmes and a newspaper discussion site debate

    OpenAIRE

    Pöyhönen, Sari; Saarinen, Taina

    2015-01-01

    The concept of bilingualism in Finnish political discourse is predominantly used in the meaning of official or state bilingualism, focussing on the two constitutionally defined ‘national languages’; i.e. Finnish and Swedish. Legally, both Finnish and Swedish speakers have a right for public services, such as schooling or health care, in their first language. On the other hand, several language ideological debates have taken place in recent years, challenging especially...

  18. Rethinking bilingualism : a sociolinguistic analysis of language planning and education legislation in Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Ivalu Søvndahl

    2009-01-01

    Many indigenous peoples’ languages in the world are endangered. But the special case in Greenland is the fact that Greenlandic is not an endangered language, even though less than 56,000 people speak Greenlandic. In fact, Greenlandic is spreading in Greenlandic society. The challenge in Greenland is rather how to educate Greenlanders to become functionally bilingual in Greenlandic and Danish, considering the vast varieties of bilingual skills that exist. Greenland has been a Danish colon...

  19. Canada's bilingualism ideal: a case study of intensive French in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Wendy Anne

    2007-01-01

    The Federal Government’s ideal of strengthening national unity through official bilingualism has been reawakened by its recently announced goal of doubling the proportion of bilingual graduates by 2013. The underlying objectives of French second language education have not changed since the Official Languages Act of 1969, but the routes to achieve them have undergone a significant evolution. The two major pan-Canadian approaches to teaching and learning French (core French and French immersio...

  20. Exeter at CLEF 2003: Experiments with machine translation for monolingual, bilingual and multilingual retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Lam-Adesina, Adenike M.; Jones, Gareth J.F.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Exeter group participated in the monolingual, bilingual and multilingual-4 retrieval tasks this year. The main focus of our investigation this year was the small multilingual task comprising four languages, French, German, Spanish and English. We adopted a document translation strategy and tested four merging techniques to combine results from the separate document collections, as well as a merged collection strategy. For both the monolingual and bilingual tasks we explored ...