Full Text Available Research suggests that being bilingual results in advantages on executive control processes and disadvantages on language tasks relative to monolinguals. Furthermore, the executive function advantage is thought to be larger in older than younger adults, suggesting that bilingualism may buffer against age-related changes in executive function. However, there are potential confounds in some of the previous research, as well as inconsistencies in the literature. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the presence of a bilingual advantage in executive control and a bilingual disadvantage on language tasks in the same sample of young and older monolingual anglophones, monolingual francophones, and French/English bilinguals. Participants completed a series of executive function tasks, including a Stroop task, a Simon task, a sustained attention to response task (SART, the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST, and the digit span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and language tasks, including the Boston Naming Test (BNT, and category and letter fluency. The results do not demonstrate an unequivocal advantage for bilinguals on executive function tasks and raise questions about the reliability, robustness and/or specificity of previous findings. The results also did not demonstrate a disadvantage for bilinguals on language tasks. Rather, they suggest that there may be an influence of the language environment. It is concluded that additional research is required to fully characterize any language group differences in both executive function and language tasks.
Chung-Fat-Yim, Ashley; Sorge, Geoff B; Bialystok, Ellen
Previous research has shown that bilinguals outperform monolinguals on a variety of tasks that have been described as involving executive functioning, but the precise mechanism for those effects or a clear definition for "executive function" is unknown. This uncertainty has led to a number of studies for which no performance difference between monolingual and bilingual adults has been detected. One approach to clarifying these issues comes from research with children showing that bilinguals were more able than their monolingual peers to perceive both interpretations of an ambiguous figure, an ability that is more tied to a conception of selective attention than to specific components of executive function. The present study extends this notion to adults by assessing their ability to see the alternative image in an ambiguous figure. Bilinguals performed this task more efficiently than monolinguals by requiring fewer cues to identify the second image. This finding has implications for the role of selective attention in performance differences between monolinguals and bilinguals.
Pilotti, Maura; Gutierrez, Anna; Klein, Eric; Mahamame, Salif
The main aim of the present study was to examine whether perceptions of bilingualism differed between two bilingual groups, those whose elementary education was shaped by a Spanish immersion program and those who had received an English-focused education. A structured interview was administered to gather information about self-perceived language…
Anderson, John A E; Grundy, John G; De Frutos, Jaisalmer; Barker, Ryan M; Grady, Cheryl; Bialystok, Ellen
Bilingualism can delay the onset of dementia symptoms and has thus been characterized as a mechanism for cognitive or brain reserve, although the origin of this reserve is unknown. Studies with young adults generally show that bilingualism is associated with a strengthening of white matter, but there is conflicting evidence for how bilingualism affects white matter in older age. Given that bilingualism has been shown to help stave off the symptoms of dementia by up to four years, it is crucial that we clarify the mechanism underlying this reserve. The current study uses diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to compare monolinguals and bilinguals while carefully controlling for potential confounds (e.g., I.Q., MMSE, and demographic variables). We show that group differences in Fractional Anisotropy (FA) and Radial Diffusivity (RD) arise from multivariable interactions not adequately controlled for by sequential bivariate testing. After matching and statistically controlling for confounds, bilinguals still had greater axial diffusivity (AD) in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus than monolingual peers, supporting a neural reserve account for healthy older bilinguals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Previous research suggests that bilinguals demonstrate superior cognitive control processes than monolinguals. The goal of the current investigation was to examine whether this bilingual advantage is observed in a language processing task that requires inhibition, i.e., lexical ambiguity processing. Monolingual and bilingual participants read sentences that biased the reading of a terminal homonym toward the subordinate or dominant reading (e.g., The doctor asked her to step onto the scale.. A relatedness judgement was made on target words that were related to the contextually appropriate (e.g., balance or inappropriate meaning (e.g., skin, or unrelated to either meaning (e.g., shoe while electrophysiological recording took place. The results revealed subtle processing differences between monolinguals and bilinguals that were evident in electrophysiological measures, but not in behavioural measures. These findings suggest that monolinguals rely on context to access the contextually appropriate meaning of a homonym to a greater extent than bilinguals, while bilinguals demonstrate simultaneous activation of both meanings.
Dahlgren, SvenOlof; Almén, Helena; Dahlgren Sandberg, Annika
Few studies have explored the relationship between theory of mind (ToM), executive function (EF), and bilingualism at the same time. In this study 14 young bilingual children were compared with monolingual children on a test battery composed of 5 ToM tests, 5 EF tests, and 1 test of general language ability. The result showed that despite significantly lower verbal ability, the bilingual children outperformed the monolingual ones on tests of EF. There were no differences in ToM performance. The authors argue that there is a strong relationship between bilingualism and EF, but, contrary to results from earlier studies, they could not find any relationship between bilingualism and ToM. EF did not predict ToM performance. Lack of a significant relationship could be due to the children's young age and consequently their low scores on the ToM tasks.
Sandoval Brotons, Alfonso Victor
Bilingualism and its reference methodology: CLIL are spreading at a very fast pace all through educative systems from some years on. The young status of bilingual programmes leads to little research about how bilingualism is influencing real learning contexts and which factors play important roles in that influence. In this way, this study aims to…
Siegal, Michael; Iozzi, Laura; Surian, Luca
The purpose of the two experiments reported here was to investigate whether bilingualism confers an advantage on children's conversational understanding. A total of 163 children aged 3-6 years were given a Conversational Violations Test to determine their ability to identify responses to questions as violations of Gricean maxims of conversation…
Hautopp, Heidi; Hanghøj, Thorkild
experiences with the central goals in communicative language teaching (CLT). The paper is based on a study of The Danish Simulator when integrated in a game‐based language course with 15 students at a language center in Copenhagen during spring, 2013. The Danish Simulator consists of language drills......, the analysis presents preliminary findings in relation to students’ different experiences of The Danish Simulator and the teacher’s redesign of the game based teaching. It is concluded that the meaningful use of The Danish Simulator in a game‐based language course for bilingual adults depends on the students......What happens when a single‐player training game enters a classroom context? The use of training activities in game‐based learning (GBL) has often been criticized for letting players perform mechanical operations with no reflection upon the learning experiences involved (e.g. Egenfeldt‐Nielsen, 2005...
It is commonly assumed in the print media that bilingual young adults in Bangladesh are subjugated by the colonial legacy of English and they are "polluting" Bangla, the national language of Bangladesh, by their indiscriminate insertion of English in it. However, this ethnographic study on a group of young adults in a university in…
Full Text Available This study examines the grammatical knowledge of adult second language (L2 learners and heritage speakers. Given the differences in the mode and age of acquisition between L2 learners (late bilinguals and heritage speakers (early bilinguals, the question arises as to whether and how these groups differ from each other in their knowledge of Korean. To address this question, the present study looks at the production of Korean relative clauses by three groups of learners (26 L2 learners, 11 simultaneous bilinguals, and 38 early sequential bilinguals. The results of a written production task showed that all three groups made similar types of errors such as those involving the use of incorrect word order and case markers. Yet differences were also observed in the nature of errors made by these three groups. Based on the findings, pedagogical implications are drawn for classroom instruction.
Howe, Mark L.; Gagnon, Nadine; Thouas, Lisa
The effects of within- versus between-languages (English-French) study and test on rates of bilingual children's and adults' true and false memories were examined. Children aged 6 through 12 and university-aged adults participated in a standard Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory task using free recall and recognition. Recall results showed…
Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia
Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer…
Epstein, Connie C.
Considers the similarities between science fiction writing and young adult literature, and points out that several well-known authors, such as Robert Heinlein and Jane Yolen, write in both genres. (NKA)
Carlson, Stephanie M; Meltzoff, Andrew N
Advanced inhibitory control skills have been found in bilingual speakers as compared to monolingual controls (Bialystok, 1999). We examined whether this effect is generalized to an unstudied language group (Spanish-English bilingual) and multiple measures of executive function by administering a battery of tasks to 50 kindergarten children drawn from three language groups: native bilinguals, monolinguals (English), and English speakers enrolled in second-language immersion kindergarten. Despite having significantly lower verbal scores and parent education/income level, Spanish-English bilingual children's raw scores did not differ from their peers. After statistically controlling for these factors and age, native bilingual children performed significantly better on the executive function battery than both other groups. Importantly, the relative advantage was significant for tasks that appear to call for managing conflicting attentional demands (Conflict tasks); there was no advantage on impulse-control (Delay tasks). These results advance our understanding of both the generalizability and specificity of the compensatory effects of bilingual experience for children's cognitive development.
Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Bauermeister, Jose Arturo; Grodzinski, Alison; Zimmerman, Marc
Purpose Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of young adults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Methods Using an adapted web version of Respondent-Driven Sampling (webRDS) we recruited a sample of U.S. young adults (ages 18 to 24; N=3447). We examined participant sexting behavior using 4 categories of sexting: 1) Non-Sexters, 2) Receivers, 3) Senders, and 4) Two-way Sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Results Over half (57%) of respondents were Non-Sexters, 28.2% of the sample were Two-way Sexters, 12.6% were Receivers, and 2% were Senders. Males were more likely to be Receivers than females. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be Two-way Sexters than non-sexually active respondents. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in number of sexual partners, or number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Conclusions Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting. PMID:23299018
Drawing on the work of Celia Genishi, this article discusses data from an ethnographic case study of young Latina/o children, starting in their four-year-olds classroom in a Head Start Program through their first grade year in a dual-language program in a public school. The children attended a bilingual Head Start program that followed a…
This study explored how an audience-focused writing curriculum mediated the literacy development of bilingual Latina/o first-grade students. Drawing on translingual theories of literacy and scholarship describing the role of audience and audience awareness in skilled writing, this study qualitatively documented and analyzed students' writing and…
Edmonds, Lisa A; Donovan, Neila J
Virtually no valid materials are available to evaluate confrontation naming in Spanish-English bilingual adults in the U.S. In a recent study, a large group of young Spanish-English bilingual adults were evaluated on An Object and Action Naming Battery (Edmonds & Donovan in Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 55:359-381, 2012). Rasch analyses of the responses resulted in evidence for the content and construct validity of the retained items. However, the scope of that study did not allow for extensive examination of individual item characteristics, group analyses of participants, or the provision of testing and scoring materials or raw data, thereby limiting the ability of researchers to administer the test to Spanish-English bilinguals and to score the items with confidence. In this study, we present the in-depth information described above on the basis of further analyses, including (1) online searchable spreadsheets with extensive empirical (e.g., accuracy and name agreeability) and psycholinguistic item statistics; (2) answer sheets and instructions for scoring and interpreting the responses to the Rasch items; (3) tables of alternative correct responses for English and Spanish; (4) ability strata determined for all naming conditions (English and Spanish nouns and verbs); and (5) comparisons of accuracy across proficiency groups (i.e., Spanish dominant, English dominant, and balanced). These data indicate that the Rasch items from An Object and Action Naming Battery are valid and sensitive for the evaluation of naming in young Spanish-English bilingual adults. Additional information based on participant responses for all of the items on the battery can provide researchers with valuable information to aid in stimulus development and response interpretation for experimental studies in this population.
Levesque, Elizabeth; Brown, P. Margaret; Wigglesworth, Gillian
This study explores the impact of bimodal bilingual parental input on the communication and language development of a young deaf child. The participants in this case study were a severe-to-profoundly deaf boy and his hearing parents, who were enrolled in a bilingual (English and Australian Sign Language) homebased early intervention programme. The…
Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Bauermeister, Jose Arturo; Grodzinski, Alison; Zimmerman, Marc
Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of young adults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Using an adapted Web version of respondent-driven sampling, we recruited a sample of U.S. young adults (aged 18-24 years, N = 3,447). We examined participant sexting behavior using four categories of sexting: (1) nonsexters, (2) receivers, (3) senders, and (4) two-way sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, and psychological well-being. More than half (57%) of the respondents were nonsexters, 28.2% were two-way sexters, 12.6% were receivers, and 2% were senders. Male respondents were more likely to be receivers than their female counterparts. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be two-way sexters than non-sexually active ones. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in the number of sexual partners or the number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Scott R. Schroeder
Full Text Available Learning how to speak a second language (i.e., becoming a bilingual and learning how to play a musical instrument (i.e., becoming a musician are both thought to increase executive control through experience-dependent plasticity. However, evidence supporting this effect is mixed for bilingualism and limited for musicianship. In addition, the combined effects of bilingualism and musicianship on executive control are unknown. To determine whether bilingualism, musicianship, and combined bilingualism and musicianship improve executive control, we tested 219 young adults belonging to one of four groups (bilinguals, musicians, bilingual musicians, and controls on a nonlinguistic, nonmusical, visual-spatial Simon task that measured the ability to ignore an irrelevant and misinformative cue. Results revealed that bilinguals, musicians, and bilingual musicians showed an enhanced ability to ignore a distracting cue relative to controls, with similar levels of superior performance among bilinguals, musicians, and bilingual musicians. These results indicate that bilingualism and musicianship improve executive control and have implications for educational and rehabilitation programs that use music and foreign language instruction to boost cognitive performance.
Schroeder, Scott R; Marian, Viorica; Shook, Anthony; Bartolotti, James
Learning how to speak a second language (i.e., becoming a bilingual) and learning how to play a musical instrument (i.e., becoming a musician) are both thought to increase executive control through experience-dependent plasticity. However, evidence supporting this effect is mixed for bilingualism and limited for musicianship. In addition, the combined effects of bilingualism and musicianship on executive control are unknown. To determine whether bilingualism, musicianship, and combined bilingualism and musicianship improve executive control, we tested 219 young adults belonging to one of four groups (bilinguals, musicians, bilingual musicians, and controls) on a nonlinguistic, nonmusical, visual-spatial Simon task that measured the ability to ignore an irrelevant and misinformative cue. Results revealed that bilinguals, musicians, and bilingual musicians showed an enhanced ability to ignore a distracting cue relative to controls, with similar levels of superior performance among bilinguals, musicians, and bilingual musicians. These results indicate that bilingualism and musicianship improve executive control and have implications for educational and rehabilitation programs that use music and foreign language instruction to boost cognitive performance.
Young adults are especially distressed by skin conditions that are uncomfortable, ... treatment are as for teenage acne. ... sive cases are treated with low to medium ... This is usually mild and self-limiting, ... loss of confidence, and depression,.
The aim of this article is to describe young children's beliefs about language and bilingualism as they are expressed in verbal utterances. The data is from Swedish-medium preschool units in three different sites in Finland. It was generated through ethnographic observations and recordings of the author's interactions with the children. The…
Full Text Available The increasing number of young people participating in adult education programmes has, in the recent years, raised the question of transfer from regular education system to labour market where a large proportion of young people remain socially marginalized and isolated. Young people in adult education are a special target group; in order to plan educational programmes properly, we need to be familiar with their specific characteristics. The article, on the level of a statistical data outline and its paradoxes, introduces the category of young people in adult education as an impact of system factors, and defines related problems in the register, which - for more thorough understanding - dictates sociologically and anthropologically directed analytical approach. The first effect of this, not solely pedagogical view, is presented in the second part of the article, where Mrgole proposes an analysis of educational needs definition and its dangerous consequences in original planning of educational programmes. The concluding part takes a wider perspective and treats the factors of early school-leaving of young people, taking into consideration direct experience in experimental educational programmes for the young. The article ends with an outline of basic elements which the planners of andragogical educational programmes intended for young people should consider in their planning to achieve effective curricula.
Petitto, Laura Ann; Holowka, Siobhan
Examines whether early simultaneous bilingual language exposure causes children to be language delayed or confused. Cites research suggesting normal and parallel linguistic development occurs in each language in young children and young children's dual language developments are similar to monolingual language acquisition. Research on simultaneous…
Nance, Jennifer G; Quinn Griffin, Mary T; McNulty, Sister Rita; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J
Prayer is the most common complementary and alternative intervention used by most Americans. Yet, little is known about the prayer practices of young adults. In this exploratory study, 4 types of prayer practices of 62 young adults (21-30 years old) are described. The 4 different categories of prayer were: contemplative-meditative, ritualistic, petitionary, and colloquial. Participants most often used colloquial prayer practice, that is, asking God to provide guidance or talking to God in their own words. Recommendations for future research are included.
Garraffa, Maria; Obregon, Mateo; Sorace, Antonella
This study explores the effects of bilingualism in Sardinian as a regional minority language on the linguistic competence in Italian as the dominant language and on non-linguistic cognitive abilities. Sardinian/Italian adult speakers and monolingual Italian speakers living in the same geographical area of Sardinia were compared in two kinds of tasks: (a) verbal and non-verbal cognitive tasks targeting working memory and attentional control and (b) tasks of linguistic abilities in Italian focused on the comprehension of sentences differing in grammatical complexity. Although no difference was found between bilinguals and monolinguals in the cognitive control of attention, bilinguals performed better on working memory tasks. Bilinguals with lower formal education were found to be faster at comprehension of one type of complex sentence (center embedded object relative clauses). In contrast, bilinguals and monolinguals with higher education showed comparable slower processing of complex sentences. These results show that the effects of bilingualism are modulated by type of language experience and education background: positive effects of active bilingualism on the dominant language are visible in bilinguals with lower education, whereas the effects of higher literacy in Italian obliterate those of active bilingualism in bilinguals and monolinguals with higher education. PMID:29163288
López de Victoria Rodríguez, Patria C.
As the boom in the older adult population continues to grow, so too grows the number of persons suffering from cognitive diseases, such as dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT). Older Latinos diagnosed with the disease make up 4 percent (200,000) of the current population; however, little research on bilinguals with DAT has been carried out…
Groenke, Susan; Maples, Joellen; Henderson, Jill
While young adult literature increases adolescents' motivation to read, and adolescents choose to read young adult novels over more canonical works when given opportunities to choose, the authors present yet another reason for teaching young adult literature in the middle school classroom: it provides a medium through which adolescents and their…
...-HA-0029] TRICARE Young Adult AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This... 2011 (NDAA for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE Young Adult (TYA) program to provide an extended... TRICARE Program coverage made available for purchase worldwide. TYA is similar to young adult coverage...
Top of the News, 1984
This 22-item filmography of 16mm films recommended for use in programs planned for young adults was compiled by the Selected Films for Young Adults Committee, Young Adult Services Division, American Library Association. Producers, directors, distributors, length, price, and brief annotations are provided. Addresses for 12 distributors are…
Gollan, Tamar H.; Weissberger, Gali H.; Runnqvist, Elin; Montoya, Rosa I.; Cera, Cynthia M.
This study investigated correspondence between different measures of bilingual language proficiency contrasting self-report, proficiency interview, and picture naming skills. Fifty-two young (Experiment 1) and 20 aging (Experiment 2) Spanish-English bilinguals provided self-ratings of proficiency level, were interviewed for spoken proficiency, and…
Brander, Birgitte Gade
Research questions: How do the young students relate to their community? How do young students position themselves as agents in their own lives and in the places they live – which discourse is used?......Research questions: How do the young students relate to their community? How do young students position themselves as agents in their own lives and in the places they live – which discourse is used?...
Kokorelias, Kristina M; Ryan, Ellen B; Elliot, Gail
Regression to mother tongue is common in those with dementia. In two long-term care facilities, we explored the use of bilinguals' two languages for five older adults with mild-moderate dementia who have begun to regress to Greek. We also examined the role of Montessori DementiAbility Methods: The Montessori Way-based English language activities in fostering conversational use of English. Over 10 sessions, participants' vocabulary or grammatical structure in English did not improve. However, four of the five participants were able to maintain a conversation in English for longer periods of time. This study contributes to strategies for optimizing meaningful conversation for bilingual long-term care residents with dementia. Moreover, the data suggest a change in the policy and practice for dementia care so that there are more opportunities for residents to speak English in non-English mother-tongue facilities. Greater attention to the specific language needs of bilinguals in English-dominant settings would also be advisable.
Foster, Harold M.
Discusses films based on young adult novels and why they are often considered failures. Describes various films about young adults and their problems that have proven to be artistic successes. Gives close attention to film versions of S. E. Hinton's novels and of Robert Cormier's "The Chocolate War." (HB)
Warren C. Sanderson
Full Text Available Many young working age adults in developed countries are failing to thrive in economic, demographic and social terms. Their failure to thrive is a relatively new phenomenon that has not been widely recognized, but it affects young adults in virtually all the more developed countries for which we have relevant data. Young adults nowadays are more often in poverty. They are leaving their parental homes at ever later ages and in some countries the frequency of psychological problems increased. The seriousness of failure to thrive syndrome is reflected in the relationship between relative economic conditions and increased suicide rates. The syndrome is important because young adults are at the prime ages for finding employment, establishing long-run career paths and building an economic basis for founding a family. Developing strategies to arrest the spread of failure to thrive syndrome among young adults, in order to keep them vibrant contributors to our societies, should be a priority for policy makers.
Marzecova, Anna; Asanowicz, Dariusz; Kriva, L'Uba; Wodniecka, Zofia
The present study investigated the impact of bilingualism on efficiency of alerting, orienting and executive attention by means of the Lateralized Attention Network Test (LANT). Young adult bilinguals who had been exposed to their second language before the age of four years showed a reduced conflict cost and a larger alerting effect in terms of…
Henkel, Ayoe Qvist
Abstract (in English): The digital turn brings about not only changes in young adult literature considered as aesthetic artifacts and literary works but also changes in the perception and reception of the reader. Digital young adult literature is increasingly multimodal and interactive...... will be the focal point here. The pivotal point of this paper will be exploring how transgressing analytical categories, e.g. rhythm, sequentiality, time, space and dialogue with the reader, can shed light on the formation of meaning in a specific digital young adult literary work, i.e. Tavs (Camilla Hübbe, Rasmus......, the paper will investigate the ‘denaturalization’ of the reading process and it will attempt to investigate and offer analytical categories which can be used also by young readers so that they can become competent cross media readers of young adult literature in a digitalized and medialized landscape...
Uecker, Jeremy E.
Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this relationship may vary across the life course. Early marriage—which is non-normative—could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 11,743), I find that married young adults exhibit similar levels of psychological distress as young adults who are in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults report lower rates of drunkenness than others. Married young adults—especially those who first married at age 22–26—report higher life satisfaction than those in other types of relationships or no relationship at all, as well as those who married at younger ages. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed. PMID:22328171
Ling, Pamela M; Neilands, Torsten B; Glantz, Stanton A
Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18-25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR=4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking.
Full Text Available Dževdet Smajlović Department of Neurology, University Clinical Centre Tuzla, School of Medicine, University of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Abstract: Strokes in young adults are reported as being uncommon, comprising 10%–15% of all stroke patients. However, compared with stroke in older adults, stroke in the young has a disproportionately large economic impact by leaving victims disabled before their most productive years. Recent publications report an increased incidence of stroke in young adults. This is important given the fact that younger stroke patients have a clearly increased risk of death compared with the general population. The prevalence of standard modifiable vascular risk factors in young stroke patients is different from that in older patients. Modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as dyslipidemia, smoking, and hypertension, are highly prevalent in the young stroke population, with no significant difference in geographic, climatic, nutritional, lifestyle, or genetic diversity. The list of potential stroke etiologies among young adults is extensive. Strokes of undetermined and of other determined etiology are the most common types among young patients according to TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria. Prevention is the primary treatment strategy aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality related to stroke. Therefore, primary prevention is very important with regard to stroke in young adults, and aggressive treatment of risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, is essential. The best form of secondary stroke prevention is directed toward stroke etiology as well as treatment of additional risk factors. However, there is a lack of specific recommendations and guidelines for stroke management in young adults. In conclusion, strokes in young adults are a major public health problem and further research, with standardized methodology, is needed in order to give us more
In this article, the author invites teachers of children who are bilingual, multilingual, and at promise for bi-/multilingualism to honor and build on their rich literacy practices. To do so, she challenges ideas and labels that continuously disempower bilingual and multilingual learners. Souto-Manning establishes the understanding that education…
Schillings, AM; Mulder, T; Duysens, J
Falls are a major problem in older adults. Many falls occur because of stumbling. The aim of the present study is to investigate stumbling reactions of older adults and to compare them with young adults. While subjects walked on a treadmill, a rigid obstacle unexpectedly obstructed the forward sway
Evans, Gary W; Otto, Siegmar; Kaiser, Florian G
Prospective, longitudinal analyses revealed that over a 12-year period from ages 6 to 18, individuals who grew up with mothers with more proenvironmental attitudes engaged in more proenvironmental behavior as young adults. A similar marginal association was uncovered between mothers' proenvironmental behaviors and the proenvironmental behavior of their young adult offspring. Maternal educational attainment, but not political ideology, was also associated with more proenvironmental behavior as children matured. Moreover, childhood time spent outdoors was positively associated with increased environmentally responsible behavior in young adulthood. Interestingly, one's own childhood proenvironmental behavior and attitude, at least as assessed at age 6, bear little on one's eventual proenvironmental behavior as a young adult. Finally, among this set of childhood factors, maternal education and childhood time spent outdoors were independent predictors of positive changes in environmental behavior from early childhood to young adulthood.
Cancer researchers, advocates, and a cancer survivor introduce the topic of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers, covering distinct aspects of cancer in these patients and research questions to answer.
General significance: This review focuses on the main causes of genetically-based ischemic stroke in young adults, often classified as indeterminate, investigating also the recent findings of the GWAS, in order to improve diagnostic and therapeutic management.
Yow, W. Quin; Li, Xiaoqian
Recent studies revealed inconsistent evidences of a bilingual advantage in executive processing. One potential source of explanation is the multifaceted experience of the bilinguals in these studies. This study seeks to test whether bilinguals who engage in language selection more frequently would perform better in executive control tasks than those bilinguals who engage in language selection less frequently. We examined the influence of the degree of bilingualism (i.e., language proficiency, frequency of use of two languages, and age of second language acquisition) on executive functioning in bilingual young adults using a comprehensive battery of executive control tasks. Seventy-two 18- to 25-years-old English–Mandarin bilinguals performed four computerized executive function (EF) tasks (Stroop, Eriksen flanker, number–letter switching, and n-back task) that measure the EF components: inhibition, mental-set shifting, and information updating and monitoring. Results from multiple regression analyses, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping supported the positive association between age of second language acquisition and the interference cost in the Stroop task. Most importantly, we found a significant effect of balanced bilingualism (balanced usage of and balanced proficiency in two languages) on the Stroop and number–letter task (mixing cost only), indicating that a more balanced use and a more balanced level of proficiency in two languages resulted in better executive control skills in the adult bilinguals. We did not find any significant effect of bilingualism on flanker or n-back task. These findings provided important insights to the underlying mechanisms of the bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, demonstrating that regular experience with extensive practice in controlling attention to their two language systems results in better performance in related EFs such as inhibiting prepotent responses and global set-shifting. PMID:25767451
Yow, W Quin; Li, Xiaoqian
Recent studies revealed inconsistent evidences of a bilingual advantage in executive processing. One potential source of explanation is the multifaceted experience of the bilinguals in these studies. This study seeks to test whether bilinguals who engage in language selection more frequently would perform better in executive control tasks than those bilinguals who engage in language selection less frequently. We examined the influence of the degree of bilingualism (i.e., language proficiency, frequency of use of two languages, and age of second language acquisition) on executive functioning in bilingual young adults using a comprehensive battery of executive control tasks. Seventy-two 18- to 25-years-old English-Mandarin bilinguals performed four computerized executive function (EF) tasks (Stroop, Eriksen flanker, number-letter switching, and n-back task) that measure the EF components: inhibition, mental-set shifting, and information updating and monitoring. Results from multiple regression analyses, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping supported the positive association between age of second language acquisition and the interference cost in the Stroop task. Most importantly, we found a significant effect of balanced bilingualism (balanced usage of and balanced proficiency in two languages) on the Stroop and number-letter task (mixing cost only), indicating that a more balanced use and a more balanced level of proficiency in two languages resulted in better executive control skills in the adult bilinguals. We did not find any significant effect of bilingualism on flanker or n-back task. These findings provided important insights to the underlying mechanisms of the bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, demonstrating that regular experience with extensive practice in controlling attention to their two language systems results in better performance in related EFs such as inhibiting prepotent responses and global set-shifting.
W. Quin eYow
Full Text Available Recent studies revealed inconsistent evidences of a bilingual advantage in executive processing. One potential source of explanation is the multifaceted experience of the bilinguals in these studies. This study seeks to test whether bilinguals who engage in language selection more frequently would perform better in executive control tasks than those bilinguals who engage in language selection less frequently. We examined the influence of the degree of bilingualism (i.e., language proficiency, frequency of use of two languages, and age of second language acquisition on executive functioning in bilingual young adults using a comprehensive battery of executive control tasks. Seventy-two 18- to 25-year-old English-Mandarin bilinguals performed four computerized executive function tasks (Stroop, Eriksen flanker, number-letter switching and n-back task that measure the executive function components: inhibition, mental-set shifting, and information updating and monitoring. Results from multiple regression analyses, structural equation modeling, and bootstrapping supported the positive association between age of second language acquisition and the interference cost in the Stroop task. Most importantly, we found a significant effect of balanced bilingualism (balanced usage of and balanced proficiency in two languages on the Stroop and number-letter task (mixing cost only, indicating that a more balanced use and a more balanced level of proficiency in two languages resulted in better executive control skills in the adult bilinguals. We did not find any significant effect of bilingualism on flanker or n-back task. These findings provided important insights to the underlying mechanisms of the bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, demonstrating that regular experience with extensive practice in controlling attention to their two language systems results in better performance in related executive functions such as inhibiting prepotent responses and global
Nyamathi, Adeline; Slagle, Alexandra; Thomas, Alexandra; Hudson, Angela; Kahilifard, Farinaz; Avila, Glenna; Orser, Julie; Cuchilla, Manuel
Art has been shown to be an empowering and engaging entity with numerous benefits to vulnerable populations, including the homeless persons and young adults. However, little is known how homeless young adults perceive the use of art as messages that can communicate the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to solicit perspectives of homeless, drug-using young adults as to how art can be used to design messages for their peers about the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. Qualitative methodology via focus group discussions was utilized to engage 24 homeless young adults enrolled from a drop-in site in Santa Monica, California. The findings revealed support for a myriad of delivery styles, including in-person communication, flyers, music, documentary film, and creative writing. The young adults also provided insight into the importance of the thematic framework of messages. Such themes ranged from empowering and hopeful messages to those designed to scare young homeless adults into not experimenting with drugs. The findings indicate that in addition to messages communicating the need to prevent or reduce drug and alcohol use, homeless young adults respond to messages that remind them of goals and dreams they once had for their future, and to content that is personal, real, and truthful. Our research indicates that messages that reinforce protective factors such as hope for the future and self-esteem may be as important to homeless young adults as information about the risks and consequences of drug use.
Hossain, Farhana; Terwelp, Emily
In the past four decades, profound changes in the U.S. economy--including falling wages, widening inequality, and the polarization of jobs at the top and bottom of the education and wage distributions--have had dramatic implications for the labor-market fortunes of young adults. Only about half of young people ages 16 to 24 held jobs in 2014, and…
Schwanitz, Katrin; Mulder, Clara H.
Comparative research suggests that there are great cross-national and cross-temporal differences in living arrangements of young adults aged 18-34 in Europe. In this paper, we examine young adults’ living arrangements (1) across several European countries and different national contexts, and (2) by
... a Doctor and Hospital View this video on YouTube. Experts in the field of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers and cancer survivors answer the ... trials. Fertility Preservation Options View this video on YouTube. ... on fertility is a special concern for young cancer patients. It is important to talk with ...
Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Kaseva, Nina; Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Miettola, Satu; Eriksson, Johan G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Kajantie, Eero
Young adults born preterm have higher levels of cardiometabolic risk factors than their term-born peers. Muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness have important cardiometabolic and other health benefits. We assessed muscular, cardiorespiratory, and self-rated fitness in preterm-born young adults. We studied unimpaired participants of the ESTER (Ennenaikainen syntymä ja aikuisiän terveys [Preterm Birth and Early-Life Programming of Adult Health and Disease]) birth cohort study at age 23.3 (SD: 1.2) years: 139 born early preterm (EPT; Young adults born EPT (-0.8; 95% confidence interval: -1.5 to -0.1; adjusted for gender, age, and source cohort) and LPT (-0.8; -1.4 to -0.3) performed fewer modified push-ups than controls. Handgrip strength was 23.8 (0.9-46.8) N lower in EPT participants. Cardiorespiratory fitness, measured by submaximal step test, was similar. On a self-rated fitness scale (1-5), the EPT adults reported 0.2 (0.0-0.4) lower scores than controls. After adjustment for early-life confounders, the results remained. They attenuated after further adjustment for mediating factors. Young adults born EPT and LPT had lower muscular fitness than controls, which may predispose them to cardiometabolic and other chronic diseases. Adults born EPT also perceived themselves as less fit than controls. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
After graduating from college and entering the work force, young adult athletes often struggle with the task of fueling themselves optimally for top performance and weight control. The stresses and time constraints of work, family, and social responsibilities often result in eating fast foods on the run. These young adults can benefit from nutrition education programs in the worksite, at health clubs, in the community, and via the media. Dietitians who specialize in sport nutrition have particular appeal to these athletes, who are struggling to each well, exercise well, and stay lean yet put little time or effort into their food program. This article includes two case studies of young adults and the dietary recommendations that taught them how to make wise food choices, fuel themselves well for high energy, and control their weight.
Ischemic stroke is not rare in young adults since one in ten stroke patients are less than 50 years old. This incidence increased over the past last years, mainly due to the rise in the prevalence of traditional vascular risk factors in this sub-group of age but also of illegal drug use. Even though both survival and functional outcome of young stroke patients are better than those observed in older patients, socio-economic and quality of life consequences make this disease a main objective in terms of primary and secondary prevention. Identifying the cause of ischemic stroke in young adults is of major importance to prevent stroke recurrence. However, given the wide variety of potential underlying causes, the etiologic work-up of stroke in young adults requires a different approach from that in the elderly. In this context, a sequential diagnostic work-up is needed in order to optimize the yield of diagnostic tests, to reduce their cost and risks for the patient. Arterial dissection is the most frequent cause of stroke in young adults but other less frequent causes are numerous. Despite a comprehensive work-up, about one third of cases remains unexplained leading to the diagnosis of cryptogenic ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Desjardins, Jamie L.; Fernandez, Francisco
Purpose: Bilingual individuals have been shown to be more proficient on visual tasks of inhibition compared with their monolingual counterparts. However, the bilingual advantage has not been evidenced in all studies, and very little is known regarding how bilingualism influences inhibitory control in the perception of auditory information. The…
Full Text Available This article examines the ways in which Young Adult dystopian film Divergent (2014 successfully repurposes dystopia for a young demographic, making dystopia an aesthetically appealing space for heroic adventure. The film recombines Young Adult literary tropes with film conventions including those of science fiction. Divergent and other Young Adult dystopian films modify the potential for social critique associated with canonic dystopian fiction. The article’s critical framework includes theories of dystopia and of Young Adult dystopian literature, the Freudian uncanny, studies of the post-apocalyptic film city and new media theory. In Divergent, the dystopian division of society into factions is made enjoyable through production design, particularly in ‘Dauntless’, the faction joined by heroine Tris. This extends to transmedia marketing. The book’s violence is reduced to increase audience engagement, while lack of contextual detail precludes a critical dystopia. In Divergent, the spaces and ideologies of the post-apocalyptic film city are reframed as youth culture. Chicago is gamified, connoting an adventure playground. The space of the Dauntless ‘Pit’ offers symbolic rebirth, community and romance, yet its appeal is uncanny, as with communal spaces in The Host (2013 and The Maze Runner (2014. Divergent’s mirror simulation foregrounds spectacle but other simulations construct immediacy, appearing dream-like not immersive. Like the visions in Young Adult dystopian adaptations How I Live Now (2013 and Ender’s Game (2013, simulations convey individual awareness and supernatural communication. The film combines pleasurable classification and a divergence motif with its heroine’s development, revising dystopian cinematic space. Divergent represents a new form of dystopian cinema.
Axelrod, Ysaaca; Cole, Mikel W.
In this paper, we utilize the theory of "translanguaging" to make sense of the biliterate activities of young emergent bilinguals in a before-school program for Latinx students at an elementary school. Our findings show that even early writers are able to draw from their full linguistic repertoire, utilizing orthographic and syntactic…
Al-Hazmi, Manal; Wooldrage, Kate; Anthonisen, Nicholas R.
OBJECTIVE: Airflow obstruction is relatively uncommon in young adults, and may indicate potential for the development of progressive disease. The objective of the present study was to enumerate and characterize airflow obstruction in a random sample of Canadians aged 20 to 44 years. SETTING: The ...
Prince-Embury, Sandra; Saklofske, Donald H.; Nordstokke, David W.
The Resiliency Scale for Young Adults (RSYA) is presented as an upward extension of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA). The RSYA is based on the "three-factor model of personal resiliency" including "mastery," "relatedness," and "emotional reactivity." Several stages of scale…
Larsen, Maiken K; Nissen, Peter H; Kristensen, Ingrid B
pathogenic mutations. Lipid profiles and genetic testing for FH could be considered when autopsy reveals significant atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries in young adults. First-degree family members are advised to seek medical advice and testing to determine their own risks of atherosclerosis to prevent...
Gold, Rinat; Segal, Osnat
In the present study, we compared the processing of both conventional and novel metaphors by deaf versus hearing young adults. Eighteen deaf participants with severe-to-profound hearing loss and 18 controls matched for age, sex, and years of education were presented with word pairs of 4 types (literal, conventional metaphors, novel metaphors, and…
Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.
The effects of bilateral kidney irradiation were compared in young and adult rats. During a 1 year period after a single dose of 0, 7.5, 10, 12.5, or 15 Gy on both kidneys, renal function (glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow), urine composition, and systolic blood pressure were measured periodically. The first changes after irradiation were observed in the glomerular filtration rate and urine osmolality. One month after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine osmolality had declined below control values in the young rats. After this initial decline, renal function increased at control rate or even more during the third and fourth month after irradiation but decreased progressively thereafter. In the adult rats, GFR and urine osmolality started to decrease 3 months after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy. A rise in systolic blood pressure and proteinuria started 2-3 months after 12.5 and 15 Gy in both age groups. Early changes in the glomerular filtration rate with a drop in urine osmolality in young rats, occurring during a period of rapid renal development indicated an irradiation-induced inhibition of glomerular and tubular development. Although renal function deteriorated at a later time in adult rats, dose-response relationships obtained in young and adult rats did not show significant differences
Kathleen L. Wolf; Elizabeth Housley
Decades of research studies demonstrate links between healthy environment, healthy lifestyles, and healthy people. This study evaluated the correlations between young adult conservation workersâ perceived stress, personal effectiveness, and nature experience using quantitative and qualitative social science methods. The study cohort numbered nearly 300 individuals...
Method: HIV screening was performed on all (n = 673) young adults referred to the retrovirology unit of the Haematology Department of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between January 2003 to December 2003 comprising of 205 males and 432 females were screened for HIV using a double ELISA ...
Bach, Jacqueline; Choate, Laura Hensley; Parker, Bruce
As the body of high quality young adult literature (YAL) continues to grow, what role might these texts play in professional development for educators? This article describes ways in which schools can develop book study programs that use this literature to promote meaningful dialogue and understanding of contemporary adolescent issues. Based on…
Eaves, Linda C.; Ho, Helena H.
To learn about the lives of young adults with ASD, families with children born 1974-1984, diagnosed as preschoolers and followed into adolescence were contacted by mail. Of 76 eligible, 48 (63%) participated in a telephone interview. Global outcome scores were assigned based on work, friendships and independence. At mean age 24, half had good to…
Worthy, Jo; Nuñez, Idalia; Espinoza, Katherine
Much research has focused on the reasons and mechanisms for immigrant language loss. However, there is a scarcity of research about influences on language maintenance over time, and much of this work employs survey data. With the current study, we aim to contribute to this body of research with a qualitative study of a bilingual individual,…
During the first decade of the twenty-first century there have been increasing numbers of bilingual children entering early years settings, many of whom are new to English. Twelve percent of school children in the UK are identified as having a mother tongue other than English and this number rises to 50% in urban areas such as inner London. In…
Parke, Tim; Drury, Rose
Examines the linguistic complexity and functional variety of the speech and writing of 2 bilingual children in year 2 of a British infant school. Focuses on the contexts of language use and shows the children making causal connections between separate episodes of the observation phase, considered proof of learning. (JPB)
Full Text Available Stroke is in second place on a mortality list in the world. Also, stroke is a leading cause of disability. Approximately 20% of all strokes occur in Children and young adults. The etiology of stroke in Children and young adults is different from that in older patients, and has an influence on diagnostic evaluation and treatment, so knowledge about older patients cannot always be applied to these patients. The list of stroke etiologies among young adults and children is extensive. Ischemic stroke are more frequent than hemorrhagic strokes in both groups. Stroke in young adults had been thought to be associated with risk factors, including arterial (such as dissection, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, inflammatory arteritis ,moyamoya ,migraine - induced stroke, genetic or inherted arteriopathy, premature atherosclerosis cardiac (such as patent foramen ovale, cardiomyopathy , congenital heart disease and hematologic (such as deficiencies of protein S,protein C,or antithrombin;factor V lieden mutation . Common risk factors for stroke in children include: Sickle-cell disease, diseases of the arteries, abnormal blood clotting, head or neck trauma. There are no specific recommendations or guidelines for primary or secondary stroke prevention in young adults. Primary prevention focused on identifying and managing known vascular risk factors, such as hypertension, disorders of lipid metabolism, and diabetes, and non-drug strategies and lifestyle changes, including smoking, reducing body weight, increasing regular aerobic physical activity, and adopting a healthy diet with more fruit and vegetables and less salt. For secondary stroke prevention, identification of the etiologic mechanism of the initial stroke and the presence of any additional risk factors is most important. It consists of optimal treatment of vascular risk factors administering antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy, and if indicated, invasive surgical or
Adibi, Peyman; Behzad, Ebrahim; Shafieeyan, Mohammad; Toghiani, Ali
Functional Gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are common disorders in gastroenterology which are common in young adults. The aim of this study is evaluating the prevalence of upper FGID in iranian young adults. This was a cross-sectional study which was on 995 persons who were going to marry. A ROME III based questionnaire was used to determine the frequency of upper GI Syndromes among the sample population. Our results determined 74 subjects had functional dyspepsia (36 subjects diagnosed as postprandial distress syndrome patient and Epigastric pain syndrome was seen in 38 subjects). Functional heartburn was diagnosed in 52 participants. Globus was seen in 35 subjects and 41 had unspecified excessive belching. Many epidemiologic studies were done all around the world but there are different reports about prevalence and incidence of FGIDs. Our results were agreed with reported prevalence of FGIDs in Iran in adults. And our findings were agreed with some other Asian studies.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Teens & Young Adults KidsHealth / For Parents / Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Teens & Young Adults What's in this article? ...
Quinteros Baumgart, Cibel; Billick, Stephen Bates
A review of the current literature regarding bilingualism demonstrates that bilingualism is linked to higher levels of controlled attention and inhibition in executive control and can protect against the decline of executive control in aging by contributing to cognitive reserve. Bilinguals may also have smaller vocabulary size and slower lexical retrieval for each language. The joint activation theory is proposed to explain these results. Older trilingual adults experience more protection against cognitive decline and children and young adults showed similar cognitive advantages to bilinguals in inhibitory control. Second language learners do not yet show cognitive changes associated with multilingualism. The Specificity Principle states that the acquisition of multiple languages is moderated by multiple factors and varies between experiences. Bilingualism and multilingualism are both associated with immigration but different types of multilingualism can develop depending on the situation. Cultural cues and language similarity also play a role in language switching and multiple language acquisition.
Walton, AnnMarie L; Albrecht, Tara A; Lux, Lauren; Judge Santacroce, Sheila
Social media use is ubiquitous among young adults. Young adults with cancer must make important decisions about where, what, and how to share information on social media. Oncology nurses are in a unique position to start conversations about the risks and benefits of social media use. This column aims to review a variety of social media platforms that may be used by young adults with cancer and provide guidance to nurses on initiating open dialogue with young adults about social media usage. .
Rybakova, Katie; Roccanti, Rikki
In this article we discuss the respective roles of young adult literature and literary texts in the secondary level English Language Arts classroom and explore the connections that can be made between popular young adult books and the traditional canon. We provide examples showing how young adult literature bestsellers such as "The Book…
Stroke Among Young Adults at the LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. AF Mustapha, EO Sanya, TO Bello. Abstract. Background: Stroke in young adults is relatively rare and there are very few hospital reports about it in Nigeria. The aetiologic mechanisms of stoke among young adults are quite distinct from ...
Jorgensen, Bryce L.; Savla, Jyoti
This article tests a conceptual model of perceived parental influence on the financial literacy of young adults. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether (a) parents were perceived to influence young adults' financial knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and (b) the degree to which young adults' financial attitudes mediated financial…
As high school enrollment continues to rise, the need for effective librarianship serving young adults is greater than ever before. "Young Adults Deserve the Best: Competencies for Librarians Serving Youth," developed by Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), is a document outlining areas of focus for providing quality library service…
School Library Journal, 2010
The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2010 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the list of titles that were released in January 2010 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Boston,…
School Library Journal, 2009
The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2009 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the titles that were released in January 2009 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Denver,…
Beaty, Lee A.
In this paper, development during the adolescent period is considered from a counseling perspective. Although many of the issues of young adults continue to confront older adults, this paper discusses the issues that are special to this age group. It suggests that the emotional and social domain is best represented by the theory of Erikson, which…
Weimer, Amy A; Gasquoine, Philip G
Belief reasoning and emotion understanding were measured among 102 Mexican American bilingual children ranging from 4 to 7 years old. All children were tested in English and Spanish after ensuring minimum comprehension in each language. Belief reasoning was assessed using 2 false and 1 true belief tasks. Emotion understanding was measured using subtests from the Test for Emotion Comprehension. The influence of family background variables of yearly income, parental education level, and number of siblings on combined Spanish and English vocabulary, belief reasoning, and emotion understanding was assessed by regression analyses. Age and emotion understanding predicted belief reasoning. Vocabulary and belief reasoning predicted emotion understanding. When the sample was divided into language-dominant and balanced bilingual groups on the basis of language proficiency difference scores, there were no significant differences on belief reasoning or emotion understanding. Language groups were demographically similar with regard to child age, parental educational level, and family income. Results suggest Mexican American language-dominant and balanced bilinguals develop belief reasoning and emotion understanding similarly.
Full Text Available Uwe Wollina1, Alberto Goldman21Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Clinica Goldman, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande du Sul, BrazilAbstract: Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on young adults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asymmetries, correction after body modifying procedures, and facial sculpturing are important issues for young adults. The implication of aesthetic medicine as part of preventive medicine is a major ethical challenge that differentiates aesthetic medicine from fashion.Keywords: acne scars, ice pick scars, boxcar scars, fillers
Traulsen, Lisbet Krogh; Halling, Anders; Bælum, Jesper
Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate determinants for the prognosis of asthma in a population-based cohort of young adults. Design: The study was a nine-year clinical follow up of 239 asthmatic subjects from an enriched population-based sample of 1,191 young adults, aged 20-44 years, who...... participated in an interviewer-administered questionnaire and clinical examination at baseline in 2003-2006. From the interview, an asthma score was generated as the simple sum of affirmative answers to five main asthma-like symptoms in order to analyse symptoms of asthma as a continuum. The clinical...... examination comprised spirometry, bronchial challenge or bronchodilation, and skin prick test. Results: Among the 239 individuals with asthma at baseline 164 (69%) had persistent asthma at follow up, while 68 (28%) achieved remission of asthma and seven (3%) were diagnosed with COPD solely. Determinants...
of consumer competence in actual consumption decisions, however more competent approaches were reported when respondents were faced with hypothetical purchase situations. The young consumers' own understanding of what consumer competence requires showed some degree of correspondence with traditional notions...... of 'desirable consumer socialization', but also added a fundamental consumer competence to the list: to carefully consider one's need to make a purchase. Research limitations/implications The study included only a certain segment of young consumers. Future studies of consumer competence may include consumers......, particularly with respect to how new, complex buying decisions are managed. Findings Guidance from family and friends was found to be of major significance as regards complex consumer decisions made in the transition period from home to first household. The young adults did not display very high levels...
Stephens, Janna; Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K.
Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have ver...
Full Text Available The present review shows that infants begin picking up elements of what will be their first language in the womb, and certainly long before their first coo according to the current guidelines and it presents a descriptive approach to bilingualism and multilingualism. This article is the outcome of a thorough survey of literature and primarily it aims to present the similarities and differences between the L1 and L2 acquisition in light of linguistics, neurolinguistics and findings from brain research. This Review will illustrate various thought and new hypotheses on first and second language development, bilingualism and multilingualism derived from studies in linguistics, neurolinguistics and brain research. In the context of our paper we shall try to describe aspects and stages of first language acquisition from even before birth especially the 20th week of the fetal development of the baby to 60th week of life, as well as the second language acquisition process, which is divided into three types: simultaneous, consecutive and adult. In particular, we will present and discuss some of the main results of the brain researchers like Franceschini and De Bleser and we shall interpret them.
In the chapter forming of religiousness in young adults in the view of current concepts, both normative (stadial concepts of religiousness) and non-normative, will be presented. The majority of research on religiousness of youth is carried out in the normative understanding of development, which refers to general trends of human psychological development, especially cognitive development (cognitive developmental concepts of religiousness), personality development (humanistic concepts of the d...
Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto
Uwe Wollina1, Alberto Goldman21Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Clinica Goldman, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande du Sul, BrazilAbstract: Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on young adults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asy...
Andre L. eSouza
Full Text Available Adults and young children prefer to affiliate with some individuals rather than others. Studies have shown that monolingual children show in-group biases for individuals who speak their native language without a foreign accent (Kinzler, Dupoux, & Spelke, 2007. Some studies have suggested that bilingual children are less influenced than monolinguals by language variety when attributing personality traits to different speakers (Anisfeld & Lambert, 1964, which could indicate that bilinguals have fewer in-group biases and perhaps greater social flexibility. However, no previous studies have compared monolingual and bilingual children’s reactions to speakers with unfamiliar foreign accents. In the present study, we investigated the social preferences of 5-year-old English and French monolinguals and English-French bilinguals. Contrary to our predictions, both monolingual and bilingual preschoolers preferred to be friends with native-accented speakers over speakers who spoke their dominant language with an unfamiliar foreign accent. This result suggests that both monolingual and bilingual children have strong preferences for in-group members who use a familiar language variety, and that bilingualism does not lead to generalized social flexibility.
Souza, André L; Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Poulin-Dubois, Diane
Adults and young children prefer to affiliate with some individuals rather than others. Studies have shown that monolingual children show in-group biases for individuals who speak their native language without a foreign accent (Kinzler et al., 2007). Some studies have suggested that bilingual children are less influenced than monolinguals by language variety when attributing personality traits to different speakers (Anisfeld and Lambert, 1964), which could indicate that bilinguals have fewer in-group biases and perhaps greater social flexibility. However, no previous studies have compared monolingual and bilingual children's reactions to speakers with unfamiliar foreign accents. In the present study, we investigated the social preferences of 5-year-old English and French monolinguals and English-French bilinguals. Contrary to our predictions, both monolingual and bilingual preschoolers preferred to be friends with native-accented speakers over speakers who spoke their dominant language with an unfamiliar foreign accent. This result suggests that both monolingual and bilingual children have strong preferences for in-group members who use a familiar language variety, and that bilingualism does not lead to generalized social flexibility.
Stephens, Janna; Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K
Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have very little knowledge on the use of Smartphone technology for weight loss but would like to use this type of technology to help them lose weight. Results also indicated that young adults struggle to make healthy food choices and have priorities that outweigh exercise and they need support and guidance to make better decisions. In conclusion, young adults would be open to using Smartphone technology for weight loss but also need feedback and guidance to help make healthy decisions.
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work participation in these young adults and the support they need to achieve suitable employment is needed. Interventions to improve the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities were lacking. The...
Humoud Alqashan; Hayfaa Alkandari
This study investigates whether parental marital status affects young adults’ attitudes toward marriage and divorce. There exists a vast amount of literature on the impact of divorce on young adults in Western cultures; however, no previous empirical studies have been conducted on the attitudes of young adults from intact and divorced families in the Gulf region or in Arab countries in the Middle East. The sample of the study consisted of 661 young adults from Kuwait University (from divorced...
Willoughby, Brian J; Hall, Scott S; Goff, Saige
Marriage, once a gateway to adulthood, is no longer as widely considered a requirement for achieving adult status. With declining marriage rates and delayed marital transitions, some have wondered whether current young adults have rejected the traditional notion of marriage. Utilizing a sample of 571 young adults, the present study explored how marital centrality (the expected importance to be placed on the marital role relative to other adult roles) functioned as a unique and previously unexplored marital belief among young adults. Results suggested that marriage remains an important role for many young adults. On average, young adults expected that marriage would be more important to their life than parenting, careers, or leisure activities. Marital centrality profiles were found to significantly differ based on both gender and religiosity. Marital centrality was also associated with various outcomes including binge-drinking and sexual activity. Specifically, the more central marriage was expected to be, the less young adults engaged in risk-taking or sexual behaviors.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Bilingualism, as one of the discussing issues of psychology and linguistics, can influence the speech processing. Of several tests for assessing auditory processing, dichotic digit test has been designed to study divided auditory attention. Our study was performed to compare the auditory attention between Iranian bilingual and monolingual young adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 students including 30 Turkish-Persian bilinguals and 30 Persian monolinguals aged between 18 to 30 years in both genders. Dichotic digit test was performed on young individuals with normal peripheral hearing and right hand preference. Results: No significant correlation was found between the results of dichotic digit test of monolinguals and bilinguals (p=0.195, and also between the results of right and left ears in monolingual (p=0.460 and bilingual (p=0.054 groups. The mean score of women was significantly more than men (p=0.031. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between bilinguals and monolinguals in divided auditory attention; and it seems that acquisition of second language in lower ages has no noticeable effect on this type of auditory attention.
Dr. J.A.C. Verhoef
This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work participation in these young adults and the
Whitford, Veronica; Titone, Debra
This study addressed a central yet previously unexplored issue in the psychological science of aging, namely, whether the advantages of healthy aging (e.g., greater lifelong experience with language) or disadvantages (e.g., decreases in cognitive and sensory processing) drive L1 and L2 reading performance in bilingual older adults. To this end, we used a gaze-contingent moving window paradigm to examine both global aspects of reading fluency (e.g., reading rates, number of regressions) and the perceptual span (i.e., allocation of visual attention into the parafovea) in bilingual older adults during L1 and L2 sentence reading, as a function of individual differences in current L2 experience. Across the L1 and L2, older adults exhibited reduced reading fluency (e.g., slower reading rates, more regressions), but a similar perceptual span compared with matched younger adults. Also similar to matched younger adults, older adults' reading fluency was lower for L2 reading than for L1 reading as a function of current L2 experience. Specifically, greater current L2 experience increased L2 reading fluency, but decreased L1 reading fluency (for global reading measures only). Taken together, the dissociation between intact perceptual span and impaired global reading measures suggests that older adults may prioritize parafoveal processing despite age-related encoding difficulties. Consistent with this interpretation, post hoc analyses revealed that older adults with higher versus lower executive control were more likely to adopt this strategy. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Comparative research suggests that there are great cross-national and cross-temporal differences in living arrangements of young adults aged 18-34 in Europe. In this paper, we examine young adults’ living arrangements (1 across several European countries and different national contexts, and (2 by taking into account cross-time variability. In doing so, we pay careful attention to a comprehensive conceptualisation of living arrangements (including extended and non-family living arrangements. The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of family structure and household arrangements in Europe by examining and mapping the cross-national and cross-temporal variety of young adults’ living arrangements. For our analysis we use data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series International (IPUMSi for the census rounds 1980, 1990, and 2000 for eight European countries (Austria, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal, Romania, and Switzerland. We employ log-linear models to ascertain the influence of individual and contextual factors on living arrangements. The analyses lend further support to a North/West – South/East divide in living arrangements and general gender differentials in extended family living. Other interesting results are the heterogeneity in the living arrangements of single mothers across geographic areas, and the upward trend of extended household living for young men and women between 1980 and 2000.
D'Souza, Annalise A; Moradzadeh, Linda; Wiseheart, Melody
The current study investigated whether long-term experience in music or a second language is associated with enhanced cognitive functioning. Early studies suggested the possibility of a cognitive advantage from musical training and bilingualism but have failed to be replicated by recent findings. Further, each form of expertise has been independently investigated leaving it unclear whether any benefits are specifically caused by each skill or are a result of skill learning in general. To assess whether cognitive benefits from training exist, and how unique they are to each training domain, the current study compared musicians and bilinguals to each other, plus to individuals who had expertise in both skills, or neither. Young adults ( n = 153) were categorized into one of four groups: monolingual musician; bilingual musician; bilingual non-musician; and monolingual non-musician. Multiple tasks per cognitive ability were used to examine the coherency of any training effects. Results revealed that musically trained individuals, but not bilinguals, had enhanced working memory. Neither skill had enhanced inhibitory control. The findings confirm previous associations between musicians and improved cognition and extend existing evidence to show that benefits are narrower than expected but can be uniquely attributed to music compared to another specialized auditory skill domain. The null bilingual effect despite a music effect in the same group of individuals challenges the proposition that young adults are at a performance ceiling and adds to increasing evidence on the lack of a bilingual advantage on cognition.
Anderson, John A E; Mak, Lorinda; Keyvani Chahi, Aram; Bialystok, Ellen
Research examining the cognitive consequences of bilingualism has expanded rapidly in recent years and has revealed effects on aspects of cognition across the lifespan. However, these effects are difficult to find in studies investigating young adults. One problem is that there is no standard definition of bilingualism or means of evaluating degree of bilingualism in individual participants, making it difficult to directly compare the results of different studies. Here, we describe an instrument developed to assess degree of bilingualism for young adults who live in diverse communities in which English is the official language. We demonstrate the reliability and validity of the instrument in analyses based on 408 participants. The relevant factors for describing degree of bilingualism are: (1) the extent of non-English language proficiency and use at home, and (2) non-English language use socially. We then use the bilingualism scores obtained from the instrument to demonstrate their association with: (1) performance on executive function tasks, and (2) previous classifications of participants into categories of monolinguals and bilinguals.
In response to the growing suicide rate among adolescents and young adults, researchers have noted the importance of peer responses to suicidal disclosures in this population. The most adaptive response is to inform a responsible adult about the suicidal peer, but existing data indicate that most adolescents and young adults choose to talk to the…
Greenwood, Peter W.; And Others
This document analyzes the sentencing of young adult defendants in comparison with older adult and younger juvenile offenders, and disputes prior research which held that young adults received more lenient sentencing, perhaps because of the restrictions on disclosing juvenile delinquency histories. The document presents data from samples of young…
Bauermeister, José A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos
Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195
J.A.C. Verhoef (Joan)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work
Sosnowy, Collette; Silverman, Chloe; Shattuck, Paul
Existing research shows that young adults with autism spectrum disorder have poorer outcomes than their peers with other developmental disabilities in the key areas of independent living, postsecondary education, and employment. However, we understand little about how young adults with autism and their families understand and value outcomes and whether these indicators match their goals and aspirations. We interviewed parents (n = 21) and young adults with autism spectrum disorder (n = 20) about their experiences with the transition to adulthood to understand what they consider to be desirable outcomes and how they seek to achieve them. Understanding these perspectives will help identify areas of need as well as disconnections between service objectives and the goals of young adults and their families. Participants described outcomes as more complex and nuanced than current conceptions and measures account for. They defined and evaluated outcomes in relation to their or their child's individual abilities, needs, and desires. These findings provide important insight into challenges to and facilitators of desired outcomes, which has implications for programming, service delivery, and policy.
Nichols, Mary Anne
By addressing the concept of merchandising, this handbook shows librarians how to turn their young adult collection into one that will attract teenagers. Delivering an introduction to marketing and merchandising concepts, the author shares years of experience as a teen services librarian, combined with the latest studies and research findings on…
According to some estimates, more than half of the world’s population is multilingual to some extent. Because of the centrality of language use to human experience and the deep connections between linguistic and nonlinguistic processing, it would not be surprising to find that there are interactions between bilingualism and cognitive and brain processes. The present review uses the framework of experience-dependent plasticity to evaluate the evidence for systematic modifications of brain and cognitive systems that can be attributed to bilingualism. The review describes studies investigating the relation between bilingualism and cognition in infants and children, younger and older adults, and patients, using both behavioral and neuroimaging methods. Excluded are studies whose outcomes focus primarily on linguistic abilities because of their more peripheral contribution to the central question regarding experience-dependent changes to cognition. Although most of the research discussed in the review reports some relation between bilingualism and cognitive or brain outcomes, several areas of research, notably behavioral studies with young adults, largely fail to show these effects. These discrepancies are discussed and considered in terms of methodological and conceptual issues. The final section proposes an account based on “executive attention” to explain the range of research findings and to set out an agenda for the next steps in this field. PMID:28230411
Toni Yvette Sims-Muhammad
This study explores the perception and attitude of young adults toward conspicuous consumption portrayed in mass media and their conception of poverty. Many young adults may not realize the cadre of consumerist ideologies portrayed throughout the culture and mass media such as buy more, buy newer and improved, buy wants over needs, buy comparatively, buy exclusively and buy to prove. In light of such mass media portrayal, young adult consumption habits may reflect unrealistic ideas about what...
Kansagra, Ankit; Litzow, Mark
Young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are a distinctive category of patients, with substantial difference in disease biology and response to therapy; hence, they pose unique challenges and issues beyond those faced by children and older adults. Despite inferior survival compared to children, there is growing evidence to suggest that young adults have improved outcomes when treated with pediatric-based approaches. With better supportive care and toxicity management and multidisciplinary team and approach, we have made great improvement in outcomes of young adults with ALL. However, despite significant progress, patients with persistence of minimal residual disease have a poor prognosis. This review discusses current controversies in the management of young adults with ALL, outcomes following pediatric and adult protocols, and the role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We also explore recent advances in disease monitoring and highlight our approach to incorporation of novel therapies in the management of young adults with ALL.
Zimlichman, Eyal; Kochba, Ilan; Mimouni, Francis B; Shochat, Tzippora; Grotto, Itamar; Kreiss, Yitshak; Mandel, Dror
The aim of this work was to study the association between obesity and smoking habits in young adults. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that obesity does not prevent young adults from smoking and conversely smoking does not protect against obesity. Trained nurses interviewed participants concerning demographic data and health behaviors such as smoking. At the time of the interview, weight and height were measured. Data were analyzed retrospectively. A representative sample of Israel Defense Force (IDF) personnel upon discharge from compulsory service, usually at the age of 20-21 years. Overall, 29 745 participants were included during the 13-year study (16,363 males and 13,382 females). Smoking rates were higher among obese participants than among overweight and non-obese participants (34.9%, 37.1%, 43.6% for non-obese, overweight and obese, respectively; P < 0.001). Mean number of cigarettes smoked per day were also higher among smokers that were obese and overweight compared to the non-obese (15.2 +/- 9.2, 15.6 +/- 10.7, 18.0 +/- 9.8, respectively; P < 0.001). Overweight and obesity were associated with the father's lower academic educational level. In logistic regression analysis, obesity, year of study and parental academic education were correlated independently with smoking (P < 0.001). The positive association between obesity and smoking suggests that obesity is not a deterrent to smoking and also that smoking does not help to prevent obesity.
Park, In Sook; Kim, Bo Young; Jeon, Doo Sung; Kim, Hong Soo; Rhee, Hak Song; Oh, Sung Soo
Of patients examined during the 24 years from January 1963 to December 1986, we have reviewed 6116 cases of gastric cancer. We found 126 cases of gastric carcinoma in patients below 30 years of age among 6116 cases of gastric malignancy, which were confirmed by histopathological study at PMC in Chonju. In an attempt to identify further the natural history of carcinoma of the stomach in young adults, we reviewed 126 cases of stomach carcinoma in patients below 30 years of age at PMC. The results were as follows: 1.Among the gastric malignancies the incidence of gastric carcinoma in young adults was 2.1%. 2.The age ranged from 13 years to 29 years, and the peak incidence occurred in the 3rd decade. 3.Male to female ratio was 1:1.03. 4.Common symptoms included epigastric pain, indigestion, weight loss, and vomiting. The mean time interval between onset of symptoms and the 1st visit to a physician was 12 months. 5.Usually diagnostic aids were UGI series, endoscopic examination and biopsy. 6.In the endoscopic finding Borrmamn type III was predominant. 7.The majority of tumors occurred in the antrum and Pyloric portion. 8.Histologic diagnosis were adenocarcinoma, signet ring cell carcinoma, and mucinous cardinoma, in orders
Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Byers, E Sandra; Shaughnessy, Krystelle
Sexual interest and capacity can extend far into later life and result in many positive health outcomes. Yet there is little support for sexual expression in later life, particularly among young adults. This study assessed and compared young adults' explicit and implicit attitudes towards older adult sexuality. A sample of 120 participants (18-24 years; 58% female) completed a self-report (explicit) measure and a series of Implicit Association Tests capturing attitudes towards sexuality among older adults. Despite reporting positive explicit attitudes, young people revealed an implicit bias against the sexual lives of older adults. In particular, young adults demonstrated implicit biases favouring general, as compared to sexual, activities and young adults as compared to older adults. Moreover, the bias favouring general activities was amplified with regard to older adults as compared to younger adults. Our findings challenge the validity of research relying on self-reports of attitudes about older adult sexuality.
Mays, Darren; Atkins, Michael B; Ahn, Jaeil; Tercyak, Kenneth P
Background: There is mounting evidence that young people can develop a dependence on indoor tanning, but research on factors associated with indoor tanning dependence remains limited. Methods: This cross-sectional study investigated factors associated with indoor tanning dependence in a community sample of 389 non-Hispanic white young adult women ages 18 to 30 who had indoor tanned ≥1 time in the past year. Participants completed measures of indoor tanning dependence, including the modified CAGE and modified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV psychiatric screening assessments, indoor tanning behavior and beliefs, and behavioral and psychiatric comorbidity. Results: Overall, 22.6% of the sample screened positive for indoor tanning dependence. In multivariable analyses, indoor tanning dependence was associated with younger age of indoor tanning initiation [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.79; P = 0.017], indoor tanning ≥20 times in the past year (aOR = 3.03; P = 0.015), stronger beliefs about the benefits of tanning (aOR = 2.15; P = 0.004), greater perceived susceptibility to indoor tanning risks (aOR = 2.72; P tanning dependence among young, non-Hispanic white women is associated with behaviors that increase the risk of skin cancer, beliefs favoring the perceived benefits of tanning, and comorbid risks such as stronger beliefs about physical appearance and depressed mood. Impact: Comprehensive skin cancer prevention efforts should address indoor tanning dependence among young women and its leading risk factors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(11); 1636-43. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
Aarnio, Karoliina; Joensuu, Heikki; Haapaniemi, Elena; Melkas, Susanna; Kaste, Markku; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Putaala, Jukka
Cancer is a risk factor for ischemic stroke. Little is known about cancer among young adults with ischemic stroke. We studied the frequency of cancer and its association with long-term risk of death among young patients with first-ever ischemic stroke. 1002 patients aged 15 to 49 years, registered in the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry, and with a median follow-up of 10.0 years (interquartile range 6.5-13.8) after stroke were included. Historical and follow-up data were derived from the Finnish Care Register and Statistics Finland. Survival between groups was compared with the Kaplan-Meier life-table method, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify factors associated with mortality. One or more cancer diagnosis was made in 77 (7.7%) patients, of whom 39 (3.9%) had cancer diagnosed prestroke. During the poststroke follow-up, 41 (53.2%) of the cancer patients died. Median time from prestroke cancer to stroke was 4.9 (1.0-9.5) years and from stroke to poststroke cancer was 6.7 (2.7-10.9) years. Poststroke cancer was associated with age>40 years, heavy drinking, and cigarette smoking. The cumulative mortality was significantly higher among the cancer patients (68.6%, 95% confidence interval 52.0%-85.3%) compared with patients without cancer (19.7%, 95% confidence interval 16.3%-23.2%). Active cancer at index stroke, melanoma, and lung/respiratory tract cancer had the strongest independent association with death during the follow-up when adjusted for known poststroke mortality prognosticators. Cancer, and especially active cancer and no other apparent cause for stroke, is associated with unfavorable survival among young stroke patients. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
young adult offsprings of Nigeria hypertensive adults. Background: On the premise that micro-albuminuria is a predictor of early stage hypertensive disease and the fact that heredity plays an important role in the aetiology of essential hypertension, ...
Yeung, Caleb M; St John, Philip D; Menec, Verena; Tyas, Suzanne L
The aim of this study was to determine whether bilingualism is associated with dementia in cross-sectional or prospective analyses of older adults. In 1991, 1616 community-living older adults were assessed and were followed 5 years later. Measures included age, sex, education, subjective memory loss (SML), and the modified Mini-mental State Examination (3MS). Dementia was determined by clinical examination in those who scored below the cut point on the 3MS. Language status was categorized based upon self-report into 3 groups: English as a first language (monolingual English, bilingual English) and English as a Second Language (ESL). The ESL category had lower education, lower 3MS scores, more SML, and were more likely to be diagnosed with cognitive impairment, no dementia at both time 1 and time 2 compared with those speaking English as a first language. There was no association between being bilingual (ESL and bilingual English vs. monolingual) and having dementia at time 1 in bivariate or multivariate analyses. In those who were cognitively intact at time 1, there was no association between being bilingual and having dementia at time 2 in bivariate or multivariate analyses. We did not find any association between speaking >1 language and dementia.
We conducted three experiments investigating in more detail the interaction between the two effects of bilingualism and L1-L2 similarity in the speech performance of balanced and unbalanced bilinguals. In Experiment 1, L1 Mandarin monolinguals and two groups of Hakka and Minnan balanced bilinguals (Hakka: more similar to Mandarin) performed a non-contextual single-character reading task in Mandarin, which required more inhibitory control. The two bilingual groups outperformed the monolinguals, regardless of their L1 background. However, the bilingual advantage was not found in a contextual multi-word task (Experiment 2), but instead the effect of cross-linguistic similarity emerged. Furthermore, in Experiment 3, the Hakka unbalanced bilinguals showed an advantage in the non-contextual task, while their Minnan counterparts did not, and the impact of L1-L2 similarity emerged in both tasks. These results unveiled the way the two effects dynamically interplayed depending on the task contexts and the relative degrees of using L1 and L2.
Ruiz, Sarah K; Harris, Susan J; Martinez, Pedro; Gold, Philip M; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie
The quality of our early attachment relationships with primary caregivers is carried forward to new developmental domains, including interpersonal contexts in adulthood. One of the factors that can disrupt early attachment is maternal depression, which may be associated with less responsive care and may impede the development of a secure attachment. Moreover, this disruption in secure attachment may act as a mechanism by which offspring of depressed mothers are more likely to experience their own psychopathology. In this study we predicted that attachment anxiety and avoidance would mediate the relationship between maternal depression diagnosis and functional impairment predicting young adult offspring's functional impairment. This study utilized longitudinal data from 98 families with clinically diagnosed depressed and well mothers, and two of their young adult children, an older and younger sibling (N = 123, Female = 75, Mage = 22.09, SD = 2.57). Mother's and young adult children's functioning was based on clinical ratings on the Global Assessment Scale. Attachment was based on the young adult's self-report on the Experiences in Close Relationships. Results indicate that maternal diagnosis and functional impairment predicted offspring's functional impairment. This relationship was partially mediated through offspring's attachment anxiety, but not attachment avoidance. The mediator and outcome variable were measured concurrently, thus causal implications are limited. Our study provides critical evidence that early experiences with depressed mothers may have influence into young adulthood in typical and atypical domains of development. This work extends our understanding of the impact of early experiences in long-term development, and may have treatment implications for intervening on both maternal and romantic relationships to improve attachment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jasińska, K K; Berens, M S; Kovelman, I; Petitto, L A
How does bilingual exposure impact children's neural circuitry for learning to read? Theories of bilingualism suggests that exposure to two languages may yield a functional and neuroanatomical adaptation to support the learning of two languages (Klein et al., 2014). To test the hypothesis that this neural adaptation may vary as a function of structural and orthographic characteristics of bilinguals' two languages, we compared Spanish-English and French-English bilingual children, and English monolingual children, using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy neuroimaging (fNIRS, ages 6-10, N =26). Spanish offers consistent sound-to-print correspondences ("phonologically transparent" or "shallow"); such correspondences are more opaque in French and even more opaque in English (which has both transparent and "phonologically opaque" or "deep" correspondences). Consistent with our hypothesis, both French- and Spanish-English bilinguals showed hyperactivation in left posterior temporal regions associated with direct sound-to-print phonological analyses and hypoactivation in left frontal regions associated with assembled phonology analyses. Spanish, but not French, bilinguals showed a similar effect when reading Irregular words. The findings inform theories of bilingual and cross-linguistic literacy acquisition by suggesting that structural characteristics of bilinguals' two languages and their orthographies have a significant impact on children's neuro-cognitive architecture for learning to read. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Ooi, Carmen C-W; Wong, Anita M-Y
One reason why specific language impairment (SLI) is grossly under-identified in Malaysia is the absence of locally- developed norm-referenced language assessment tools for its multilingual and multicultural population. Spontaneous language samples provide quantitative information for language assessment, and useful descriptive information on child language development in complex language and cultural environments. This research consisted of two studies and investigated the use of measures obtained from English conversational samples among bilingual Chinese-English Malaysian preschoolers. The research found that the language sample measures were sensitive to developmental changes in this population and could identify SLI. The first study examined the relationship between age and mean length of utterance (MLU(w)), lexical diversity (D), and the index of productive syntax (IPSyn) among 52 typically-developing (TD) children aged between 3;4-6;9. Analyses showed a significant linear relationship between age and D (r = .450), the IPsyn (r = .441), and MLU(w) (r = .318). The second study compared the same measures obtained from 10 children with SLI, aged between 3;8-5;11, and their age-matched controls. The children with SLI had significantly shorter MLU(w) and lower IPSyn scores than the TD children. These findings suggest that utterance length and syntax production can be potential clinical markers of SLI in Chinese-English Malaysian children.
María Martina Casullo
Full Text Available The study sought to identify the relation between gender and age on mate pre- ferences using an intentional sample drawn in Buenos Aires city and its suburban area. A questionnaire adapted from a previous study developed by D.Buss (1990 requested subjects to rank each of 19 characteristics on its desirability in a mate. Subjects for this study were 900 adolescents and young adults aging 13 to 30 years old. Means and standard deviations were calculated as well as Spearman ́s Rho coefficients. High correlations between gender, age, and ordering were found. Mutual attraction and love, kindness and understanding and trust are cho- sen as the most important criteria. Phisically attractive is important for younger males. Similar political and religious background as well as chastity are conside- red among the less important criteria.
Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel; Twetman, Svante
BACKGROUND: To validate baseline caries risk classifications according to the Cariogram model with the actual caries development over a 3-year period in a group of young adults living in Sweden. METHODS: The study group consisted of 1,295 19-year-old patients that completed a comprehensive clinical...... baseline examination, including radiographs and salivary tests. An individual caries risk profile was computed and the patient was placed in one of five risk categories. After 3 years, 982 patients (75.8%) were re-examined and caries increment for each patient was calculated. The outcome was expressed...... as sensitivity, specificity and predictive values and compared with a risk assessment scheme used in Public Dental Service. RESULTS: The drop-outs displayed more risk factors and a significantly higher caries burden at baseline compared with those that remained in the project (p
Thompson, Sanna J.; Ryan, Tiffany N.; Montgomery, Katherine L.; Lippman, Angie Del Prado; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin
This study explored the perceptions of resilience and coping among homeless young adults, a focus that differs from previous research by considering the unconventional resilience and coping of this high-risk population. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 homeless young adults. Individual interviews were audio recorded,…
Webley, Paul; Nyhus, Ellen K.
We analyze the role economic socialization plays in the economic behavior and asset accumulation of young adults by parents using data from European young adults and teenagers. We study the role of four distinct strands of economic socialization (providing pocket money, jobs at home, work for others, and parental encouragement) using a Dutch…
Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn
Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability (ID) is poorly documented and largely unmet. By using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Follow-Up Study, we assessed factors associated with at least one or two dental visits per year among young adults with and without ID. Significantly fewer…
Govindarajoo, Mallika V.; Mukundan, Jayakaran
This article presents the results of a study on the experience of the Malaysian secondary school student with Young Adult Literature in the English language classroom. The study aimed to determine the extent to which the Malaysian secondary school student identified with the young adult protagonists and issues in the novels which have been…
Cothran, Donetta; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges
The authors present two beginning studies. One investigated the teaching-style preferences of young adults, and the other looked at physical activity trends within this age group. One key to understanding young adults and physical activity is to recognize the importance of participant cognition on physical activity patterns. From this…
Ischemic stroke is rare in young adults, but it is genuinely a serious situation giving the fact that it touch a very active part of our society. We report a series of 128 cases. The purpose is to analyze the risk factors, etiologies and outcomes of ischemic stroke in young adults in Marrakesh. Retrospective study performed at the ...
Hu, Jessie; Kent, Paul; Lennon, Joshua M; Logan, Latania K
Acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis is an acute onset disease characterised by ulceration, necrosis, pain and bleeding in gingival surfaces. It is predominantly seen in severely malnourished children and young adults with advanced HIV infection. We present a unique presentation in a young adult with high-grade osteogenic sarcoma. PMID:26376700
Teasley, Alan B.; Wilder, Ann
Discusses how films portraying the lives of young adults can serve as the basis for a "viewer response" study of film and filmmaking. Lists and summarizes 50 films found to be suitable for teaching to young adults. Provides criteria by which the films were selected. (HB)
Conclusion: We observed significant gender differences in the prevalence of obesity among young adults in Uganda. Contrary to expectation, we did not observe significant rural-urban differences in the prevalence of overweight. Keywords: Obesity; overweight; prevalence; Uganda; young adults. African Health Sciences ...
Barf, H. A.; Post, M. W. M.; Verhoef, M.; Jennekens-Schinkel, A.; Gooskens, R. H. J. M.; Prevo, A. J. H.
This study concerns life satisfaction and its determinants in Dutch young adults with spina bifida (SB). Data on life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire [LiSat-9]) were related to hydrocephalus, lesion level, disabilities, and demographic variables. In total, 179 young adults with SB
Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.
Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…
Langeveld, N. E.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Voûte, P. A.; de Haan, R. J.; van den Bos, C.
Clinical reports suggest that many survivors of childhood cancer experience fatigue as a long-term effect of their treatment. To investigate this issue further, we assessed the level of fatigue in young adult survivors of childhood cancer. We compared the results with a group of young adults with no
Casals-Coll, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Quintana, M; Manero, R M; Rognoni, T; Calvo, L; Palomo, R; Aranciva, F; Tamayo, F; Peña-Casanova, J
Lexical fluency tests are frequently used in clinical practice to assess language and executive function. As part of the Spanish normative studies project in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project), we provide age- and education-adjusted normative data for 3 semantic fluency tasks (animals, fruits and vegetables, and kitchen tools), three formal lexical fluency tasks (words beginning with P, M and R), three excluded-letter fluency tasks (words excluding A, E and S) and a verb fluency task. The sample consisted of 179 participants who are cognitively normal and range in age from 18 to 49 years. Tables are provided to convert raw scores to scaled scores. Age- and education-adjusted scores are provided by applying linear regression techniques. The results show that education impacted most of the verbal fluency test scores, with no effects related to age and only minimal effects related to sex. The norms obtained will be extremely useful in the clinical evaluation of young Spanish adults. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Functional literacy is interpreted as the ability of the individual to apply skills in reading, writing, calculation and basic problem-solving in those activities in which literacy is required for effective functioning in his/her own group and community. The paper describes the rationale, development and administration of the test used for measuring levels (high, moderate, low) of achievement in functional literacy in three domains (document, prose and quantitative). An assumption of the study was that a high level of functional literacy was required for the individual to function effectively in his/her own group and community. The context of the study is Guyana the most underdeveloped and impoverished country in the English-speaking Caribbean. The subjects are out of school youth in Guyana aged 14-25. Amongst the main findings are: only approximately 11% of the young people show a high level of functional literacy; females tend to have a higher level of functional literacy than males: and most of those at the low level never went beyond primary and low status secondary schools and usually end up unemployed or in semi- or unskilled jobs. Attention is drawn to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate which is reported for Guyana in international statistics. While they credit Guyana with an adult literacy rate of 97.5%, the study suggests that a more realistic figure is in the 70s. The importance of adult and continuing education is underscored in view of the need to help those who are out of school to meet the ever-changing demands of society for improved skills in literacy and numeracy.
Sosnowy, Collette; Silverman, Chloe; Shattuck, Paul
Existing research shows that young adults with autism spectrum disorder have poorer outcomes than their peers with other developmental disabilities in the key areas of independent living, postsecondary education, and employment. However, we understand little about how young adults with autism and their families understand and value outcomes and…
Roux, Anne M.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Anderson, Kristy A.; Wagner, Mary; Narendorf, Sarah C.
Objective We examined postsecondary employment experiences of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and compared these outcomes with those of young adults with different disabilities. Method Data were from Wave 5 of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2), a nationally representative survey of young adults who had received special education services during high school. We examined the prevalence of ever having had—and currently having—a paid job at 21–25 years of age. We analyzed rates of full employment, wages earned, number of jobs held since high school, and job types. Results About half (53.4%) of young adults with an ASD had ever worked for pay outside the home since leaving high school, the lowest rate among disability groups. Young adults with an ASD earned an average of $8.10 per hour, significantly lower than average wages for young adults in the comparison groups, and held jobs that clustered within fewer occupational types. Odds of ever having had a paid job were higher for those who were older, from higher-income households, and with better conversational abilities or functional skills. Conclusions Findings of worse employment outcomes for young adults with an ASD suggest this population is experiencing particular difficulty in successfully transitioning into employment. Research is needed to determine strategies for improving outcomes as these young adults transition into adulthood. PMID:23972695
Copland, Fiona; Yonetsugi, Eli
The growing number of young children around the world learning English has resulted in an increase in research in the field. Many of the studies have investigated approaches to learning and teaching, with a particular emphasis on effective pedagogies (e.g. Harley 1998; Shak and Gardner 2008). Other studies have focused on the linguistic gains of…
Adam E. Green
Conclusions: In this sample of young adult smokers, GWLs promoted neural activation in brain regions involved in cognitive and affective decision-making and memory formation and the effects of GWLs did not differ on branded or plain cigarette packaging. These findings complement other recent neuroimaging GWL studies conducted with older adult smokers and with adolescents by demonstrating similar patterns of neural activation in response to GWLs among young adult smokers.
Chen, Liang; Yan, Ruixia
This study compares the development and use of evaluative expressions in the English narratives elicited from 80 Chinese-English bilinguals and 80 American monolingual peers at four ages--five, eight, ten, and young adults--using the wordless picture book "Frog, where are you?" (Mayer, 1969). Results revealed both similarities and differences…
Presents case study of 4.5-year-old to highlight aspects of socialization for young bilingual children learning English as a second language. Identifies social rules/routines, child-adult interaction, and the stage of English language development as areas providing important educational insights. Highlights how children in early stages of second…
Weil, B J; Martens, P B; Harte, J S
Review a case of Salmonella infection in a young adult related to handling of an infected iguana. Case report. Most cases of Salmonella infection related to handling of reptiles have occurred in children. We report a case of Salmonella diarrhea in a 19-year-old male who kept a pet iguana. The iguana was asymptomatic, but Salmonella grew from stool specimens. Those who keep iguanas as pets, which are particularly attractive to adolescents and young adults, should be aware that iguanas frequently carry Salmonella. Those caring for adolescents and young adults should always inquire into the pet-keeping habits of their patients when illnesses develop.
Richardson, George B; Chen, Ching-Chen; Dai, Chia-Liang; Swoboda, Christopher M
This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS) and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment.
George B. Richardson
Full Text Available This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment.
Stone, Dawn S; Ganz, Patricia A; Pavlish, Carol; Robbins, Wendie A
Sixty-three percent of cancer survivors continue to work, or return to work after treatment. Among this population, work ability and challenges encountered in the workplace by young adult cancer survivors have not been well established. The purposes of the study are to describe what is currently known about work-related issues for young adult cancer survivors diagnosed between ages 15 and 39, to identify gaps in the research literature, and to suggest interventions or improvements in work processes and occupational settings. A narrative review of articles using PubMed, CINAHL, and PsychInfo was conducted without date limitations. Search phrases included young adult cancer survivors, long-term cancer survivors, young adults affected by cancer, further combined with key terms employment, work, and occupationally active. Inclusion criteria for publications were young adult cancer survivors initially diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 39, data about work or employment was presented, and articles written in English. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. Work-related issues included the potential for reduced work productivity from cancer-changed physical and cognitive functional ability that affected income, and resulted in distress. Coping style, support systems, and changing perspectives about work and life in general were also influential on career decisions among young adult cancer survivors. More research is needed to study interventions to better manage health changes in young adult cancer survivors within the context of the workplace. Since financial hardship has been shown to be especially high among young cancer survivors, employment is essential to ensure payment of cancer-associated costs and continued medical care. While young adult cancer survivors may initially grapple with cancer-related physical and psychosocial changes that impact work productivity or influence choice of occupation, employment appears to enhance overall quality of life.
Harrell, M.B.; Weaver, S.R.; Loukas, A.; Creamer, M.; Marti, C.N.; Jackson, C.D.; Heath, J.W.; Nayak, P.; Perry, C.L.; Pechacek, T.F.; Eriksen, M.P.
The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of flavored e-cigarettes varies between youth (12?17?years old), young adults (18?29?years old), and older adults (30?+ years old). Cross-sectional surveys of school-going youth (n?=?3907) and young adult college students (n?=?5482) in Texas, and young adults and older adults (n?=?6051) nationwide were administered in 2014?2015. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the percentage of e-cigarette use at initiation...
Hoeve, M.; McReynolds, L.S.; Wasserman, G.A.
This study examined the influence of adolescent psychiatric disorder on young adult recidivism and compared findings with earlier studies of juvenile recidivism. Logistic regression analysis examined subsequent adulthood recidivism (through age 23 years) by disorder profile, adjusting for prior
Tønnesen, Rune; Hovind, Peter Hambak; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn
BACKGROUND: Very few studies have investigated the determinants of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) in young adults (18-25 years old) using a set of variables that include lifestyle, sociodemographic, and anthropometric data. Our aim was to investigate the association between...... these variables and vitamin D status in a sample of untreated young adults. METHODS: A total of 738 young adults were enrolled in a (June cross-sectional study 2012 to May 2014) and were recruited from educational institutions in the Copenhagen area. For multivariate logistic regression subjects was categorized.......68). For vitamin D insufficiency, the highest RR was again for men 1.31 (1.06, 1.61); obese subjects 1.57 (1.17, 2.11); and subjects who exercised 0-½ hours a week 1.51 (1.11, 2.06). CONCLUSION: In this study of young adults, vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent. Modifiable factors such as smoking...
Evidence suggests that some adolescent and young adult cancers may have unique genetic and biological features. Researchers are trying to better understand the biology of these cancers in order to identify potential therapeutic targets.
Apr 4, 2013 ... In a business context, marketing is used to recruit new customers. Similarly, the .... church can be used as a basis for young adults to experience the church .... the spatial relationships (distances) between the items, whereas ...
Østerballe, Morten; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Hansen, Tine Kjær
by questionnaire, skin prick test (SPT) and histamin release (HR) followed by oral challenge to the most common allergenic foods. FHS was divided into primary and secondary FHS. Primary FHS was defined as being independent of pollen sensitization, whereas secondary FHS was defined as reactions to pollen related......Osterballe M, Mortz CG, Hansen TK, Andersen KE, Bindslev-Jensen C. The Prevalence of food hypersensitivity in young adults. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2009. (c) 2009 The Authors Journal compilation (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/SA rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity (FHS) and severe allergic...... reactions to foods have been reported in the last decade. However, little is known on the prevalence in young adults. This study estimated the prevalence of FHS to the most common allergenic foods in an unselected population of young adults. We investigated a cohort of 1272 young adults 22 years of age...
have any influence on the smoking behaviour of adolescents and young adults. The participants ... music to risky areas such as drugs, sex, and smoking, and ..... Nakamuk, Takano, 2005), work stress ..... Anger management for families. Parent.
Behrens, Timothy K.; Dinger, Mary K.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether young adults changed their physical activity (PA) behavior when wearing motion sensors. PA patterns of 119 young adults (M age = 20.82 years, SD = 1.50, M body mass index = 23.93 kg/m[superscript 2] , SD = 4.05) were assessed during 2 consecutive weeks. In Week 1, participants wore an accelerometer.…
Tervo, Raymond; O'Leary, Donal
The disabled young adult strives to be independent when preparing to leave home and family. This article provides a checklist that can help the disabled young adult and his/her family to make this transition. In some cases, a transitional rehabilitation program may also be of help. The family physician who is familiar with the issues that pertain to adolescent development can play a central part in addressing patient and family problems that present at this time.
Larsson, IngBeth; Svedin, Carl-Göran
Childhood sexuality and children's sexual experiences have become increasingly important to study because our knowledge on the impact of sexually abusive experiences on children's developing sexuality has increased. The main aim of this paper was to study aspects of young adults' recollections of their sexual experiences before the age of 13, solitary and shared, mutual as well as coercive. Anonymous questionnaires were answered by 269 final year, senior high-school students, mean age 18.6 years; 82.9% of the students reported solitary sexual experiences and 82.5% had mutual experiences together with another child. Most of the children had their experiences together with a same-age friend. Girls had more same-sex experiences than boys did. Thirteen percent reported coercive experiences where they had been tricked, bribed, threatened, or physically forced into participation. Some children, 8.2%, had coerced another child into participation in sexual activities. The majority thought of their childhood experiences as normal. There were also 6.3% of the respondents who had had inappropriate sexual experiences with someone at least 5 years older, the majority being girls. Gender differences were evident in several respects: girls were more often coerced, they felt more guilt, and they had far less experience of masturbation, whereas boys were somewhat more active in explorative activities on their own as well as with peers. Some kind of coercive sexual experiences appears to be part of growing up for quite a few children, although in general the years before puberty seem to be years of frequent mutual sexual exploration and experimentation.
Boumans, Nicolle P G; Dorant, Elisabeth
Most young carer studies on parentification, resilience and coping concentrated on child carers up to age 18 years, whereas the group of young adult caregivers (18-24 years) has been neglected. In our study, we focused on these young adult caregivers, who are in a life phase in which young people usually are distancing themselves from their families and are striving for autonomy and freedom. To explore young adult carers' perceptions of parentification, resilience and coping compared to young adult noncarers. Cross-sectional. In 2014/2015, data were collected on 297 healthcare students from a school for vocational education and a university in the Netherlands. A fully structured questionnaire was used. Young adult carers were compared with young adult noncarers on parentification, resilience and coping. Fifty-six students identified themselves as a carer: 40 vocational education students and 16 university students. Carers scored significantly higher than noncarers on three out of six parentification dimensions. No differences were found for resilience and problem-focused coping behaviour, whereas results for emotion-focused coping demonstrated a higher score for the carers compared to the noncarers. Although it is important to take care of the needs of all young carers, special attention should be given to those who are at the start of their adult lives, undergoing extensive changes and taking major decisions on study and career issues. Home-care professionals and school counsellors should be able to recognise this group and their needs and activate support from specialised services and significant others. © 2018 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic College of Caring Science.
Friis, Karina; Lasgaard, Mathias Kamp; Larsen, Finn Breinholt
-demographic factors and health behaviour with energy drink consumption among young adults (16-24 years) in Denmark. Methods The study is based on a public health survey from 2010 (n = 3923). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to analyse the association between weekly consumption of energy drink...... and the potential explanatory factors of interest. Results In total, 15.8 % of the young adults drink energy drinks on a weekly basis. Men have higher odds of weekly energy drink consumption than women. The study also shows that young age, being employed and having a low educational level are associated with weekly...
Naslund, John A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Scherer, Emily A; Pratt, Sarah I; Bartels, Stephen J
Young adulthood represents a critical time to address elevated obesity rates and the risk of early mortality, particularly among people with serious mental illness. Few studies have assessed the benefits of lifestyle interventions targeting weight loss among these young adults. This study examined the impact of the 12-month In SHAPE lifestyle intervention on weight loss and fitness among overweight and obese young adults with serious mental illness (ages 21-30) compared with participants over age 30. Data were combined from three trials of the 12-month In SHAPE program delivered through community mental health centers. In SHAPE includes weekly fitness trainer meetings, a gym membership, and nutrition education. Primary outcomes were weight loss and change in fitness at 12 months. Participants (N=194) had a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (53%) or a mood disorder (47%). The overall sample achieved significant weight loss and improved fitness; differences between young adults (N=29) and participants over age 30 (N=165) were not significant. An important finding was that 42% of young adults achieved clinically significant reductions in cardiovascular risk, defined as ≥5% weight loss or improved fitness (>50-m increase on the 6-Minute Walk Test), compared with 54% of adults over age 30 (a nonsignificant difference between age groups). Among persons enrolled in a lifestyle intervention, overweight and obese young adults experienced benefits comparable with those of adults over age 30. Young adults with serious mental illness face high risk of gaining weight, but a meaningful proportion of these individuals can achieve clinically significant cardiovascular risk reduction, thus highlighting the need to promote lifestyle intervention participation in this group.
... 0720-AB48] Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS); TRICARE Young Adult... Year 2011 (NDAA for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE Young Adult (TYA) program to provide an extended.... The TRICARE Young [[Page 23480
Presents the viewpoints of a tenth grader on novels for young adults that portray troubled teens dealing with alcoholism, drugs, depression, suicide, sexual abuse, and violence. Suggests that contrary to adult opinions that these novels are not always age-appropriate, they in fact broaden teens' outlooks and prepare them for the real world. (LRW)
Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois
Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…
Pijnappels, M.; Kingma, I.; Van Dieën, J. H.
Reduced ability to circumvent an obstacle, which is noticed only shortly before collision, could be a cause of falls and injury, especially in older adults. In this study, we investigated differences in strategies and their characteristics between young and older adults when circumventing a suddenly
Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Arntz, R.M.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de
Data on determinants of prognosis after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in young adults are scarce. Our aim was to identify clinical determinants of prognosis after ICH in adults aged 18-50. We investigated 98 consecutive patients with an ICH, aged 18-50 years, admitted to our hospital between 1980
Bonti, Eleni; Bampalou, Christina E.; Kouimtzi, Eleni M.; Kyritsis, Zacharias
The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons why Greek young adults with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) seek learning assessments. The study sample consisted of 106 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for SLD. Data were collected through self-report records (clinical interview) of adults…
Poobalan, Amudha; Aucott, Lorna
This article discusses the overweight/obesity situation among young adults in developing countries. For this target population, obesity prevalence ranges from 2.3 to 12 %, and overweight is 28.8 %, mostly affecting females. Weight is now increasing during this life stage of transition at a higher rate, 1 kg/year, than in developed countries. Maternal factors and early childhood socioeconomic status are associated with BMI in young adults along with changing environmental and behavioural factors in some low and middle income countries, brought about by demographic and socioeconomic transitions. Young adults with 'normal weight' obesity need identification using other convenient low cost measures (skin folds or waist circumference) along with BMI. Obesity prevention or management interventions were not identified, but clearly needed to help stem the obesity pandemic. Young people generally give little priority to their future health, so such interventions need to be conducted at some optimal age, be innovative, country specific and culturally acceptable.
Liu, Hsiu Tan; Squires, Bonita; Liu, Chun Jung
We can gain a better understanding of short-term memory processes by studying different language codes and modalities. Three experiments were conducted to investigate: (a) Taiwanese Sign Language (TSL) digit spans in Chinese/TSL hearing bilinguals (n = 32); (b) American Sign Language (ASL) digit spans in English/ASL hearing bilinguals (n = 15);…
Eklund, Hanna; Findon, James; Cadman, Tim; Hayward, Hannah; Murphy, Declan; Asherson, Philip; Glaser, Karen; Xenitidis, Kiriakos
This study used the Camberwell Assessment of Need for adults with Developmental and Intellectual Disabilities (CANDID) to examine the social, physical health and mental health needs of 168 young people (aged 14-24 years) with neurodevelopmental disorders and compared young person and parent ratings of need. Agreement was poor in 21 out of 25…
Smith, Teresa R.
This Child Development Associate (CDA) module, the fourteenth in a series of 16, suggests ways concepts can be taught by involving preschool children in carefully planned classroom cooking activities. Designed for bilingual/bicultural preschool teacher trainees, the module provides tips on food preparation as a learning experience. Required…
Atkinson, Meredith A; Lestz, Rachel M; Fivush, Barbara A; Silverstein, Douglas M
Published data on the comparative achievement of The Kidney Disease Dialysis Outcome Quality Initiative (KDOQI) recommended clinical performance targets between children and young adults on dialysis are scarce. To characterize the achievement of KDOQI targets among children (young adults (18-24 years) with prevalent end stage renal disease (ESRD), we performed a cross-sectional analysis of data collected by the Mid-Atlantic Renal Coalition, in conjunction with the 2007 and 2008 ESRD Clinical Performance Measures Projects. Data on all enrolled pediatric dialysis patients, categorized into three age groups (0-8, 9-12, 13-17 years), and on a random sample of 5% of patients ≥ 18 years in ESRD Network 5 were examined for two study periods: hemodialysis (HD) data were collected from October to December 2006 and from October to December 2007 and peritoneal dialysis (PD) data were collected from October 2006 to March 2007 and from October 2007 to March 2008. In total, 114 unique patients were enrolled the study, of whom 41.2% (47/114) were on HD and 58.8% (67/114) on PD. Compared to the pediatric patients, young adults were less likely to achieve the KDOQI recommended serum phosphorus levels and serum calcium × phosphorus product values, with less than one-quarter demonstrating values at or below each goal. Multivariate analysis revealed that both young adults and 13- to 17-year-olds were less likely to achieve target values for phosphorus [young adults: odds ratio (OR) 0.04, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.01-0.19, p young adults: OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.002-0.09, p young adult ESRD patients.
Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether young adults with bipolar disorder are able to benefit from early intervention combining optimised pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation. The aim of the present report was to compare the effects of early intervention among patients with bipolar...... disorder aged 18-25 years to that of patients aged 26 years or older. METHODS: Patients were randomised to early treatment in a specialised outpatient mood disorder clinic versus standard care. The primary outcome was risk of psychiatric re-hospitalisation. RESULTS: A total of 158 patients with mania/bipolar...... different, the observed differences of the point estimates was surprisingly larger for young adults suggesting that young adults with bipolar disorder may benefit even more than older adults from early intervention combining pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation....
It finally seems that wine suffers from its nearly sacred image. The young seem not to allow themselves to consume this product, whose image is associated with coded practices that obviously, are different from those of other spirits.
Lee, H. R.; Lee, Y. H.; Kim, K. W.
Carcinoma of the stomach is usually considered a disease of middle aged or elderly patients and is rarely suspected in young adults. However carcinoma of the stomach in the young adults is an aggressive malignant disease with nonspecific symptoms and worse prognosis than older age group because of late diagnosis and increased incidence of undifferentiated form. In an attempt to identify further the natural history of carcinoma of the stomach in the young adults, we reviewed 68 cases of stomach cancers in patients 30 years of age and less at Severance hospital. The results were as follows: 1. The over-all male to female ratio in the young adult was 1:1.34 and in order age group was 2.44:1. 2. Common symptoms included epigastric pain, weight loss and vomiting. The mean time interval between onset of symptoms and the first visit to a physician was 3 months. 3. Usually diagnostic aids were UGI series and endoscopic examination. 38 patients underwent an exploratory laparatomy, and lesions were amenable to curative or palliative resection. 4. In the young age Bormann type III and IV were predominant, while in the older age group Bormann type II and III were common. 5. The majority of tumors occurred in the cardia, fundus and upper body. 6. Histologic diagnosis were poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, signet ring cell carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma in orders. 7. A relatively high incidence of pregnancy and Krukenberg tumor in the young age were noted
Limperg, Perrine F.; Haverman, Lotte; van Oers, Hedy A.; van Rossum, Marion A. J.; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Grootenhuis, Martha A.
The purpose of this study is to provide Dutch norm data and to assess internal consistency and construct validity for the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Young Adult Generic Core Scales (PedsQL_YA) in Dutch young adults aged 18-30 years. A sample of 649 young adults from the general Dutch
Kaltenbrunner Bernitz, Brita; Grees, Nadja; Jakobsson Randers, Marie; Gerner, Ulla; Bergendorff, Sisko
This article, based on a study by the Swedish Social Insurance Inspectorate, describes the development of young adults receiving disability benefits due to reduced working capability, and the disability benefit systems in seven European countries; Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the UK. This comparative study mainly uses Sweden as a benchmark. Apart from a documentary and legal data collection and analysis, 26 semi-structured interviews were conducted with representatives of the responsible ministries and authorities in the studied countries. In addition, national and European data was collected. There is an increasing trend of young adults, aged 19-29, on disability benefits in all studied countries. The most common diagnosis group among young adults on disability benefits is mental and behavioural disorders, ranging from 58% in the UK to 80% in Denmark. The comparison of the different disability benefit systems shows that there are relatively large national differences in terms of rules and regulations, the handling of disability benefit cases, and offered rehabilitation activities and other measures to support young adults on disability benefits to strengthen their working capability, and hence enable them to approach the labour market in the future. However, it is clear that these countries face similar challenges, and therefore there could be a lot to learn from European exchange of experiences and expertise in this area. This article identifies a number of measures of special interest to study and discusses further with regard to the further development of the Swedish system for disability benefits for young adults.
Full Text Available This study investigates whether parental marital status affects young adults’ attitudes toward marriage and divorce. There exists a vast amount of literature on the impact of divorce on young adults in Western cultures; however, no previous empirical studies have been conducted on the attitudes of young adults from intact and divorced families in the Gulf region or in Arab countries in the Middle East. The sample of the study consisted of 661 young adults from Kuwait University (from divorced and intact families. The findings reveal that adults whose parents divorced show fewer positive attitudes toward marriage than do those individuals from intact marriages. The study also suggests that adults whose parents were divorced carry more positive attitudes toward divorce compared with individuals from intact marriages. Furthermore, gender was found to be an important factor in shaping attitudes toward marriage and divorce. A longitudinal study is recommended to look at the changes in young adults’ attitudes toward marriage and divorce over time, which will help to identify the influence of other factors of attitudes toward marriage and divorce.
Full Text Available Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as facial trustworthiness. In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Engell, Todorov & Haxby, 2010; Todorov, 2008. Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Chaby & Narme, 2009; Ruffman, Henry, Livingstone et al., 2008; Firestone, Turk-Browne & Ryan, 2007; Calder, Keane, Manly et al., 2003. Based on Todorov’s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004 reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment, from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness.
Bergström, E; Stenlund, H; Svedjehäll, B
To assess body perception in adolescents and young adults without anorexia nervosa. Using a visual size estimation technique, perceived body size was estimated in four groups of Swedish adolescents and young adults without anorexia nervosa (86 males and 95 females). Perceived body size was estimated at nine different body sites comparing these estimations to real body size. The results show that 95% of males and 96% of females overestimated their body size (mean overestimation: males +22%, females +33%). The overestimations were greatest in females. The greatest overestimations were made of the waist (males +31%, females +46%), buttocks (males +22%, females +42%), and thighs (males +27%, females +41%). The results indicate that overestimation of body size may be a general phenomenon in adolescents and young adults in a country such as Sweden, implying a similar, but less pronounced distortion of body image as in individuals with anorexia nervosa.
Ling, Pamela M; Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B; Jordan, Jeffrey W; Glantz, Stanton A
We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for "hipster" young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons.
Metzinger, Courtney; Berg, Christine
Young adults with chronic health conditions can experience barriers to work performance, ability, and their present and future worker roles. Work readiness resources can expand individuals' work skills, abilities, and interests. Five work readiness tools are presented (1) building an occupational profile, (2) generating environmental strategies, (3) on-the-job strategy use, and exploration of online tools (4) O*NET® and (5) O*NET® Interest Profiler, along with two theories (Knowles's Andragogy and Lawton's Ecological Model) to guide tool use. Use of these tools can assist young adults to better manage their health and expand their vocational identities for success at work. These approaches and tools support health professionals, community partners, and vocational organizations in their efforts to help young adults with chronic conditions.
Obradovic, Jelena; Masten, Ann S.
Civic engagement was studied in relation to overall development in adolescence, emerging adulthood, and young adulthood to examine how earlier activity involvement and success in prior and concurrent age-salient domains of competence may contribute to 2 forms of civic engagement in adulthood (citizenship and volunteering). Data on 163 youth were…
Varona, Jose F.
There is limited information about long-term prognosis of ischemic stroke in young adults. Giving the potentially negative impact in physical, social, and emotional aspects of an ischemic stroke in young people, providing early accurate long-term prognostic information is very important in this clinical setting. Moreover, detection of factors associated with bad outcomes (death, recurrence, moderate-to-severe disability) help physicians in optimizing secondary prevention strategies. The prese...
George B. Richardson; Ching-Chen Chen; Chia-Liang Dai; Patrick H. Hardesty; Christopher M. Swoboda
This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS) and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict...
Nowosielski, Krzysztof; Sipiński, Adam; Kuczerawy, Ilona; Kozłowska-Rup, Danuta; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta
Body piercing and tattooing are accepted by a growing number of teenagers and young adults as a way of self-expressing. Some authors suggest association between body piercings/tattoos and early sexual initiation, higher number of sexual partners, or risky sexual behaviors. The aim of the study was to evaluate sexual behaviors among young adults with body modifications (BMs)--tattoos and piercings. One hundred twenty young healthy adults, ages between 20 and 35, were included in the population study. The study group was divided into three subgroups: controls (N = 60), adults with tattoos (N = 28), and adults with piercings (N = 32). The research instrument was a self-prepared questionnaire containing 59 questions assessing socioepidemiological parameters, sexual behaviors, incidents of sexual harassment in the past, and self-attractiveness evaluation, as well as questions concerning tattoos and piercings. Socioepidemiological variables and sexual behaviors were compared between subgroups. To assess and describe the correlation between having BM--tattoos and piercing--and sexual behaviors in the population of young adults by using the logistic regression model. Adults with BMs have had their first intercourse statistically earlier and were more sexually active compared with controls. There were no statically significant differences in sexual orientation, sexual preferences, engaging in risky sexual behaviors, frequency of masturbation, and history of sexual abuse between the groups. In contrast, the frequency of sexual intercourses was statistically higher and oral sex was more likely to be a dominant sexual activity in adults with BM compared with controls. The multivariate logistic model revealed that adults with BM were four times less likely to participate in religious practices and twice more likely to have early sexual initiation. Having BM is associated with early sexual initiation and more liberal attitudes toward sexual behaviors but not with engaging in
Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Smith, Ashley W.; Block, Rebecca G.; Keyton, Joann
A case of a young adult patient in the days immediately after a cancer diagnosis illustrates the critical importance of three interrelated core coordinating mechanisms—closed-loop communication, shared mental models, and mutual trust—of teamwork in an adolescent and young adult multidisciplinary oncology team. The case illustrates both the opportunities to increase team member coordination and the problems that can occur when coordination breaks down. A model for teamwork is presented, which highlights the relationships among these coordinating mechanisms and demonstrates how balance among them works to optimize team function and patient care. Implications for clinical practice and research suggested by the case are presented. PMID:27624944
Johnson, Rebecca H; Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Smith, Ashley W; Block, Rebecca G; Keyton, Joann
A case of a young adult patient in the days immediately after a cancer diagnosis illustrates the critical importance of three interrelated core coordinating mechanisms-closed-loop communication, shared mental models, and mutual trust-of teamwork in an adolescent and young adult multidisciplinary oncology team. The case illustrates both the opportunities to increase team member coordination and the problems that can occur when coordination breaks down. A model for teamwork is presented, which highlights the relationships among these coordinating mechanisms and demonstrates how balance among them works to optimize team function and patient care. Implications for clinical practice and research suggested by the case are presented.
Berndt, Nadine C; O'Riordan, David L; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville
Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis (n = 48) completed a sun habits survey. Almost half (n = 113) of the participants used sunscreen inadequately and 30% (n = 70) reported not using sunscreen. In fully adjusted models, social cognitive attributes significantly (p competitors and as a result may be useful in informing behavior change interventions within the sporting context.
Green, Adam E; Mays, Darren; Falk, Emily B; Vallone, Donna; Gallagher, Natalie; Richardson, Amanda; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Abrams, David B; Niaura, Raymond S
The study examined young adult smokers' neural response to graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nineteen young adult smokers ( M age 22.9, 52.6% male, 68.4% non-white, M 4.3 cigarettes/day) completed pre-scan, self-report measures of demographics, cigarette smoking behavior, and nicotine dependence, and an fMRI scanning session. During the scanning session participants viewed cigarette pack images (total 64 stimuli, viewed 4 seconds each) that varied based on the warning label (graphic or visually occluded control) and pack branding (branded or plain packaging) in an event-related experimental design. Participants reported motivation to quit (MTQ) in response to each image using a push-button control. Whole-brain blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional images were acquired during the task. GWLs produced significantly greater self-reported MTQ than control warnings ( p branded versus plain cigarette packages. In this sample of young adult smokers, GWLs promoted neural activation in brain regions involved in cognitive and affective decision-making and memory formation and the effects of GWLs did not differ on branded or plain cigarette packaging. These findings complement other recent neuroimaging GWL studies conducted with older adult smokers and with adolescents by demonstrating similar patterns of neural activation in response to GWLs among young adult smokers.
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J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available Adaptive functioning of 149 hyperactive (H group and 72 control children (CC group in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, followed for at least 13 years to young adulthood (mean 20 years, range 19-25, was evaluated by interviews with participants, employer ratings, and high school records, and reported by researchers from Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston; Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; and University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester.
Blomkvist, Andreas W; Eika, Fredrik; de Bruin, Eling D
) was investigated in a test-retest design with seven days between sessions. Ten young and thirty older adults were recruited and handgrip steadiness was tested at 5%, 10% and 25% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) using Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB). Coefficients of variation were calculated from the mean...... force produced (CVM) and the target force (CVT). Area between the force curve and the target force line (Area) was also calculated. For the older adults we explored reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and agreement using standard error of measurement (SEM), limits of agreement......, CVT and Area was 0.815, 0.806 and 0.464, respectively. Averaged ICC on 5%, 10%, and 25% of MVC was 0.751, 0.667 and 0.668, respectively. Measures of agreement showed similar trends with better results for CVM and CVT than for Area. Young adults had better handgrip steadiness than older adults across...
Chamberlain, Samuel R; Derbyshire, Katherine L; Leppink, Eric; Grant, Jon E
Obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality, and young people are increasingly affected. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between obesity and dissociable forms of impulsivity in young adults. A group of young adults (511) was recruited from city areas in the United States using media advertisements. These young adults were administered careful and extensive clinical and neurocognitive assessment in order to quantify different aspects of impulsivity (behavioral/phenomenological-, cognitive-, and personality-related measures). Associations between obesity and impulsivity were explored using multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant function analysis. 10.8% of the sample was obese, and 21.5% was overweight. Compared to controls, subjects with obesity showed significantly elevated rates of maladaptive gambling behaviors, monetary amounts lost to gambling, nicotine consumption, impulsive action (prolonged stop-signal reaction times in the Stop-Signal Test), and impulsive decision-making (reduced modulation of behavior as a function of risk in the Cambridge Gamble Test). Even accounting for potential confounding variables, obesity was significantly predicted by female gender, older age, more maladaptive gambling behaviors, and worse inhibitory control (stop-signal reaction times). Obesity is associated with several dissociable forms of impulsivity in young people, especially gambling and impulse dyscontrol. Family doctors should screen for gambling problems in obese young adults. Successful treatment of nicotine dependence in young obese people is likely to require intensive weight management support. Neuropsychological deficits relating to impulsivity occur in obese people in early adulthood, and may represent vulnerability markers rather than being due to chronic untoward metabolic effects on brain function.
Harrell, M B; Weaver, S R; Loukas, A; Creamer, M; Marti, C N; Jackson, C D; Heath, J W; Nayak, P; Perry, C L; Pechacek, T F; Eriksen, M P
The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of flavored e-cigarettes varies between youth (12-17 years old), young adults (18-29 years old), and older adults (30 + years old). Cross-sectional surveys of school-going youth ( n = 3907) and young adult college students ( n = 5482) in Texas, and young adults and older adults ( n = 6051) nationwide were administered in 2014-2015. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the percentage of e-cigarette use at initiation and in the past 30 days that was flavored, among current e-cigarette users. Chi-square tests were applied to examine differences by combustible tobacco product use and demographic factors. Most e-cigarette users said their first and "usual" e-cigarettes were flavored. At initiation, the majority of Texas school-going youth (98%), Texas young adult college students (95%), and young adults (71.2%) nationwide said their first e-cigarettes were flavored to taste like something other than tobacco, compared to 44.1% of older adults nationwide. Fruit and candy flavors predominated for all groups; and, for youth, flavors were an especially salient reason to use e-cigarettes. Among adults, the use of tobacco flavor at initiation was common among dual users (e-cigarettes + combustible tobacco), while other flavors were more common among former cigarette smokers (P = 0.03). Restricting the range of e-cigarette flavors (e.g., eliminating sweet flavors, like fruit and candy) may benefit youth and young adult prevention efforts. However, it is unclear what impact this change would have on adult smoking cessation.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of flavored e-cigarettes varies between youth (12–17 years old, young adults (18–29 years old, and older adults (30+ years old. Cross-sectional surveys of school-going youth (n = 3907 and young adult college students (n = 5482 in Texas, and young adults and older adults (n = 6051 nationwide were administered in 2014–2015. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the percentage of e-cigarette use at initiation and in the past 30 days that was flavored, among current e-cigarette users. Chi-square tests were applied to examine differences by combustible tobacco product use and demographic factors. Most e-cigarette users said their first and “usual” e-cigarettes were flavored. At initiation, the majority of Texas school-going youth (98%, Texas young adult college students (95%, and young adults (71.2% nationwide said their first e-cigarettes were flavored to taste like something other than tobacco, compared to 44.1% of older adults nationwide. Fruit and candy flavors predominated for all groups; and, for youth, flavors were an especially salient reason to use e-cigarettes. Among adults, the use of tobacco flavor at initiation was common among dual users (e-cigarettes + combustible tobacco, while other flavors were more common among former cigarette smokers (P = 0.03. Restricting the range of e-cigarette flavors (e.g., eliminating sweet flavors, like fruit and candy may benefit youth and young adult prevention efforts. However, it is unclear what impact this change would have on adult smoking cessation.
Full Text Available This article is a synthesis of conducted researches in field of loneliness psychology, in order to reveal the feeling of loneliness and its manifestation at young adults. At this age, the main hazard represent the excessive self-concern or avoidance of interpersonal relationships. The inability to establish personal relationships of trust leads to loneliness. The causes and factors findings that could trigger loneliness, as well as their effects on young adults reflect a multi-featured phenomenon of this complex and ambiguous condition. The clear depiction deficiency of loneliness approach among young adults shows that this phenomenon may have different distinctions. As a prerequisite for personal development, as well as a multitude of causes, these can be expressed through various contexts of social isolation disclosure (voluntary or forced and life consequences of young individual. All of the above represent an additional need of developing the loneliness concept of young, based on an integrated approach and oriented towards structuring the control of loneliness and empirical data-bases.
Murphy, Patricia Ann
Examined relationship between self-esteem and reported mourning behavior as it pertains to loneliness in young adults who, as children, had experienced parental death. Subjects (N=184) aged 18 to 25 completed four questionnaires. Revealed that self-esteem was the single best predictor of loneliness; reported mourning behaviors significantly added…
Sultana, Shaila; Dovchin, Sender
Based on virtual conversations drawn from two separate intensive ethnographic studies in Bangladesh and Mongolia, we show that popular cultural texts play a significant role in young adults' heteroglossic language practices. On the one hand, they borrow voices from cultural texts and cross the boundaries of language, i.e., codes, modes, and…
Turner, Heather A.; Kopiec, Kathleen
This article examines the effect of exposure to interparental conflict on the mental health of young adults. Based on a diverse sample of 649 students from three New England colleges, the authors investigate the association between nonviolent interparental conflict during childhood, subsequent distress and disorder, and identified factors that…
Dresler, Emma; Anderson, Margaret
Purpose: Young adult's drinking is about pleasure, a communal practice of socialising together in a friendship group. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the evolving support practices of drinking groups for better targeting of health communications messages. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative descriptive study examined the…
Hughes, Janette; Laffier, Jennifer Lynn
In this article, the authors examine how bullying is portrayed in three recent young adult novels, focusing specifically on whether the information about bullying is accurate, biased, or represents old myths in comparison to current research. The authors conduct a systematic analysis of the following four themes: (1) What is bullying?; (2) Who are…
Varatharajoo, Chandrakala; Asmawi, Adelina Binti; Abdallah, Nabeel; Abedalaziz, Mohammad
The study explored the awareness of morphemic knowledge among young adult learners in the ESL context. Morphological Relatedness Test and Morphological Structure Test (adapted from Curinga, 2014) were two important tools used to assess the students' morphemic knowledge in this study. The tests measured the students' ability to reflect and…
Onat Kocabiyik, Oya; Kulaksizoglu, Adnan
Moral identity can orient one's behaviors when exhibiting any kind of moral behavior. In this study, the moral identities of young adults are analyzed to a certain extent. For this purpose, the "interpretative phenomenological pattern" and "grounded theory" models are used as qualitative survey models. The study group for…
M. H. Harirchian
Full Text Available Numerous etiologies are responsible for cases of stroke in young adults. This study reviews the causes of two types of stroke (ischemic and intracerebral hemorrhage in young adults aged 15 to 40years, admitted to our center (a tertiary care center from 1997 to 2002. The purpose of this study is to determine the relative frequency of causes of stroke in young adults and compare this with published data in the literature. Using the codes 46.0 to 46.8 of the International Classification of Diseases- 10th Edition (ICD-10, cases were identified from the records of the stroke patients admitted in Imam Khomeini Hospital and the data were collected from their files using a comprehensive questionnaire. Forty-two cases of ischemic stroke (62% and 26 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage (38% were identified. The leading cause of ischemic stroke was cardioembolism (38.1%, followed by atherosclerosis in 5 cases (11.9%. Among cardiac causes infarction was attributable to consequences of rheumatic heart disease in 8 cases. In 3 cases a cessation or decrease in dose of warfarin was followed directly by an ischemic stroke. The most leading cause of intracerebral hemorrhage was hypertension (30.8%. Other causes were anticoagulant therapy, intratumoral hemorrhage, aplastic anemia, leukemia, arteriovenous malformations, and chronic active hepatitis. In conclusion, cardioembolism and hypertension were the most leading causes of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in young adults admitted in our hospital.
Mathews-Bradshaw, Beth; Johnson, Rebecca; Kaplan, Stuart; Craddock, Kelli; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon
This article outlines the history, background, and accomplishments of the LIVESTRONG Young Adult Alliance. The LIVESTRONG Young Adult Alliance, a program of the Lance Armstrong Foundation, was developed as a vehicle for a strategic plan designed to implement the Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology Progress Review Group (AYAO PRG) recommendations. The AYAO PRG was co-sponsored by Lance Armstrong Foundation and the National Cancer Institute (NCI); both LIVESTRONG and NCI provide strategic oversight and guidance to the Alliance. Highlights and accomplishments: The Alliance accomplishments include the publication of disease-specific retrospective analyses, funding of an AYA cohort study and biorepository proposal, publication of two position statements on guidelines for care of AYAs with cancer and training for AYA oncology health professionals, promotion of an international charter of rights for AYA cancer patients, creation and distribution of a survey to college health professionals, creation and implementation of a Cancer Centers Working Group and Institutional Review Board Toolkit, and continued growth and collaboration through an annual meeting. The growth and success of the Alliance has coincided with the growth of AYA oncology as a field. The collaborative environment of the Alliance draws together a diverse group of individuals united in the effort to increase survival rates and improve the quality of life for adolescents and young adults diagnosed with cancer.
Vrijlandt, EJLE; Gerritsen, J; Boezen, HM; Grevink, RG; Duiverman, EJ
Rationale: Limited information is available about the long-term outcome of lung function and exercise capacity in young adults born prematurely. Objective: To determine long-term effects of prematurity on lung function (volumes, diffusing capacity) and exercise capacity in expreterms compared with
Li, Qing; Pustaka, Arkhadi
Background: Cyberbullying is connected with online gaming in complex ways. Although cyberbullying can occur while people play games, it is also the case that gaming may have the potential to address cyberbullying and bullying problems. Purpose: This study examines young adults' beliefs and experiences related to cyberbullying and gaming. Sample:…
Blomkvist, Andreas W; Eika, Fredrik; de Bruin, Eling D
) was investigated in a test-retest design with seven days between sessions. Ten young and thirty older adults were recruited and handgrip steadiness was tested at 5%, 10% and 25% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) using Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB). Coefficients of variation were calculated from the mean...
Eidson, R. Cole; Coley, John D.
We examined young adults' essentialist reasoning about gender categories. Previous developmental results suggest that until age 9 or 10, children show marked essentialist reasoning about gender, but this disappears by early adulthood. In contrast, results from social cognition suggest that essentialist thinking about social categories persists…
This article examines the way in which social networks operate within small groups. The study examines the social networks of teens and young adults. Groups of friends were recruited for the study and thus the unit of analysis is the group as opposed to the individual. The members of each group...
Carter, Erik W.; Swedeen, Beth; Walter, Martha J.; Moss, Colleen K.; Hsin, Ching-Ting
Increasingly, researchers have linked greater self-determination capacities to improved postsecondary outcomes for youth with disabilities. Although leadership is one component of self-determination, little is known about how youth and young adults with disabilities define, develop, and demonstrate leadership. In this qualitative interview study,…
Research on the dynamics of cigarette smoking and cessation though scarce in Nigeria are needed for successful tobacco control. The study evaluated cigarette smoking and quitting among young adults inEnugu, Nigeria. This was a cross sectional questionnaire-based survey undertaken in March 2007. There were 714 ...
Felsher, Jennifer R.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina
Childhood maltreatment has been thought to be a significant risk factor in the development of gambling problems. Incorporating a developmental psychopathology perspective, 1,324 adolescents and young adults, age 17-22 years completed self-report measures on gambling behaviors, gambling severity, and childhood maltreatment. Problem gamblers…
R.H.J.M. Staring (Richard)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Young adults heading for Syria to join the jihad and the safety risks associated with their return are currently a topic of debate in the Netherlands and in many other European countries. Around 120 Dutch citizens have gone abroad to join the jihad and the Dutch
Wilson, Stephan M.; Peterson, Gary W.
Examined possible predictors of life satisfaction among 322 low-income young adults from rural Appalachia. Both objective and subjective conditions of life were predictors of life satisfaction: financial resources, self-esteem, and proximity to childhood home were positive predictors; frustrations about limited job opportunities and community size…
Burke, Lorraine; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Young, Honor
Sexually active young adults are at an increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or experiencing an unplanned pregnancy. Sexual behaviours such as inconsistent condom use, multiple partners and casual sex are known risk factors for negative sexual health outcomes. Sexually active higher education students are classified as…
In this article, the author argues that whiteness remains an overwhelmingly absent dimension in literacy teaching that addresses systems of power from a critical perspective. One way literacy teachers may bring this dimension more explicitly into the classroom is by facilitating critical conversations on whiteness with young adult literature. As…
Hill, Katherine Jane Roney
The project addressed the debate over supplemental literature: young adult or classic selections to better support teaching ninth graders Tennessee's English I curriculum standards. Research supported both classical and contemporary literature for teaching ninth graders, making it difficult to determine which type of literature might produce the…
Bull, Kelly Byrne
Preparing teachers to understand their students' reading processes so that they can guide their students toward connecting with texts in meaningful and personal ways are goals that can be met through the study of young adult literature. Twenty-first century learners live in an increasingly interconnected world and have access to countless texts…
Fiedler, Phyllis E.; And Others
This study focuses on reducing the hostility of hospitalized adolescent and young adult psychiatric patients through assertive training techniques designed to teach appropriate responses to interpersonal conflict. It was predicted that, after treatment, the assertive group would show greater assertiveness, less hostility, and a more positive…
Michelle C. van der Merwe
Full Text Available Worldwide, church membership is decreasing. A decline in the number of young adults that attend church services is also evident. The purpose of the research was to determine whether the application of a well-established body of knowledge of marketing theories and principles could be used by churches to encourage young adults to return to the church. The application of services marketing to the church as a non-profit organisation is discussed by focussing on non-physical and physical atmospheric cues in the church’s servicescape that could enhance church attendance. A quantitative approach was used by testing the opinions of 200 church service attendees of different denominations. The findings indicated that certain elements in the servicescape of a church may be useful in attracting young adults. It was found that music is a strong determinant of whether young adults attend church services, followed by layout and design of the church and then by the signs and symbols used in the church. Females reported significantly higher levels of positive perceptions concerning the layout and design. Although the research showed that some marketing elements, such as a positive servicescape, could improve church attendance, other personal elements such as forming personal relationships with fellow Christians and God need to be further explored.
Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Atlanta, GA.
Intended for the young adult with cystic fibrosis, the booklet provides information on dealing with problems and on advances in treatment and detection related to the disease. Addressed are the following topics: description of cystic fibrosis; inheritance of cystic fibrosis; early diagnosis; friends, careers, and other matters; treatment;…
Background: Studies in most countries have shown an increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus in children and young adults. Double diabetes is a newly recognized problem in children with different diagnostic and therapeutic measures. Methods: A review of over 30 literature obtained from Google, PUBMED search and ...
Locke, Bill J.; And Others
Thirty-six mildly mentally retarded young adults were exposed to one of three training arrangements for vigilance performance, a monitoring task that some professionals consider uniquely appropriate for such persons because they are assumed to be less susceptible to boredom. (Author)
Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van der Zee, Eddy A.
This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5 +/- 2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration
Barf, H. A.; Post, M. W. M.; Verhoef, M.; Jennekens-Schinkel, A.; Gooskens, R. H. J. M.; Prevo, A. J. H.
Purpose. To determine participation restrictions of young adults with spina bifida (SB) in relation to health condition and activity limitations. Method. A total of 179 persons aged 16-25 years and born with SB participated in a cross-sectional study. The main outcome on four domains of
Obesity and associated factors in young adults attending tertiary institutions ... and associated factors in a group of university undergraduates in south-east Nigeria. ... being a female (X2 = 47.91), first year student (X2 = 41.82), and having high ...
Gahler, Michael; Hong, Ying; Bernhardt, Eva
This article analyzes the impact of parental divorce on the disruption of marital and nonmarital unions among young adults in Sweden, using longitudinal data from repeated mail questionnaire surveys (1999 and 2003) with 1,321 respondents (aged 26, 30, and 34 in 2003). The study takes into account several possible mechanisms governing the…
van Pelt, Philomine A.; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Dolhain, Radboud J.E.M.; Kruize, Aike A.; Huisman, Jaap; Wulffraat, Nico M.
Background/Purpose: Internet-use is increasing since it is an efficient way to find information. Information obtained via Health Related Internet (HRI) sites, or online peer support groups might increase knowledge and self-management in adolescents and young adults with Juvenile IdiopathicArthritis
Abstract Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is rarely associated with antiphospholipid syndrome. The treatment of these patients is a clinical challenge. We report the observations of 2 young adults (1 woman and 1 man), admitted in our acute care unit for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A coagulopathy work-up concludes ...
Bollok, Sandor; Takacs, Johanna; Kalmar, Zsuzsanna; Dobay, Beata
Study aim: To determine and evaluate the spectrum of sport motivation of young adults. Material and methods: A group of 600 subjects, aged 17-19 years, participated in the study. An "ad hoc" questionnaire was applied to assess the 4 motivational factors: competition and success-oriented motivation, external accommodation, physical…
Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.
Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…
Discusses a public library film literacy program offered to adolescents and young adults which incorporates films that are not curriculum-oriented and center around specific themes such as self-identity, creativity, speculations, and lifestyles. Seven films selected for program on social issues and viewers' evaluations are highlighted.…
Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia
In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs.
Splete, Howard; Freeman-George, Ann
This article (1) reviews family influences on career development (geographic location, genetic inheritance, family background, socioeconomic status, family composition, parenting style, parental work-related attitudes) and (2) suggests counselor interventions to aid young adults in becoming autonomous in their career development (e.g., review…
Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Higbee, Cheryl
Objectives: To measure relative effectiveness of tobacco countermarketing advertisements by category and emotive execution style among young adults. Methods: Participants (n = 1011) from 2 US 4-year colleges, one southern and one northern were surveyed before and after viewing advertisements in one of 3 categories: social norms, health…
James, Chrissy; Asscher, Jessica J.; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Van Der Laan, Peter H.
This study examined the New Perspectives Aftercare Program (NPAP) for serious juvenile and young adult offenders in The Netherlands. Participants (n = 127) were randomly assigned to NPAP (n = 66) or existing aftercare services ("treatment as usual" [TAU], n = 61). The aim was to determine whether
James, Chrissy; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M; van der Laan, Peter H.
This study examined the New Perspectives Aftercare Program (NPAP) for serious juvenile and young adult offenders in The Netherlands. Participants (n = 127) were randomly assigned to NPAP (n = 66) or existing aftercare services ("treatment as usual" [TAU], n = 61). The aim was to determine whether
Hall, Scott S.
The purpose of the study is to examine the meaning that the institution of marriage can hold for young, unmarried adults, based on their systems (or collections) of beliefs about marriage. Based on symbolic interactionism, it is argued that marital meaning has implications for how people behave prior to and during marriage that may relate to…
Academy for Educational Development, 2012
This cross-site analysis presents findings about the implementation, impact, and outcomes of the Young Adult Capacity Initiative (YACI), at 13 community-based organizations in New York City. These agencies received technical assistance and small incentive grants from the Fund for the City of New York Youth Development Institute (YDI) to build…
Heikkinen, Sirpa A M; Mäkikyrö, Elina M S; Hugg, Timo T; Jaakkola, Maritta S; Jaakkola, Jouni J K
According to our systematic literature review, no previous study has assessed potential effects of regular exercise on asthma control among young adults. We hypothesized that regular exercise improves asthma control among young adults. We studied 162 subjects with current asthma recruited from a population-based cohort study of 1,623 young adults 20-27 years of age. Asthma control was assessed by the occurrence of asthma-related symptoms, including wheezing, shortness of breath, cough, and phlegm production, during the past 12 months. Asthma symptom score was calculated based on reported frequencies of these symptoms (range: 0-12). Exercise was assessed as hours/week. In Poisson regression, adjusting for gender, age, smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and education, the asthma symptom score reduced by 0.09 points per 1 hour of exercise/week (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.17). Applying the "Low exercise" quartile as the reference, "Medium exercise" reduced the asthma symptom score by 0.66 (-0.39 to 1.72), and "High exercise" reduced it significantly by 1.13 (0.03 to 2.22). The effect was strongest among overweight subjects. Our results provide new evidence that regular exercising among young adults improves their asthma control. Thus, advising about exercise should be included as an important part of asthma self-management in clinical practice.
Thyroid Dysfunction among Young Adults in Uganda. ... The mean age of participants was 23 years, there were slightly more males 1.3:1. ... The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in this cohort was low but falls in the range found elsewhere.
Schmitz, Rachel M; Sanchez, Julissa; Lopez, Bianca
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer/questioning (LGBTQ+) young people of colour are exposed to intersecting dynamics of social prejudice and discrimination related to sexuality and gender as well as race/ethnicity. In particular, Latinx-identifying LGBTQ+ young people face unique challenges in their lives, due to cultural stressors that stigmatise expansive gender and sexual identities. While it is crucial to examine the effects of multiple stressors on the well-being of LGBTQ+ young people of colour, this risk-based focus can overshadow the resilient capacities of multiply marginalised groups. Guided by an intersectional minority stress resilience framework, we asked: how do self-identified LGBTQ+ Latinx young adults manage cultural messages of prejudice and discrimination in relation to their health? Findings underscore how LGBTQ+ Latinx young adults established a strong sense of health autonomy to resist cultural stigma related to their intersecting identities. Young people actively educated themselves on health-related concerns, engaged in health-promoting tactics, and practised cultural negativity management to effectively navigate exposure to prejudice and discrimination.
Biller, José; Elkind, Mitchell S.; Fullerton, Heather J.; Jauch, Edward C.; Kittner, Steven J.; Levine, Deborah A.; Levine, Steven R.
Approximately 15% of all ischemic strokes (IS) occur in young adults and adolescents. To date, only limited prior public health and research efforts have specifically addressed stroke in the young. Early diagnosis remains challenging because of the lack of awareness and the relative infrequency of stroke compared with stroke mimics. Moreover, the causes of IS in the young are heterogeneous and can be relatively uncommon, resulting in uncertainties about diagnostic evaluation and cause-specific management. Emerging data have raised public health concerns about the increasing prevalence of traditional vascular risk factors in young individuals, and their potential role in increasing the risk of IS, stroke recurrence, and poststroke mortality. These issues make it important to formulate and enact strategies to increase both awareness and access to resources for young stroke patients, their caregivers and families, and health care professionals. The American Academy of Neurology recently convened an expert panel to develop a consensus document concerning the recognition, evaluation, and management of IS in young adults and adolescents. The report of the consensus panel is presented herein. PMID:23946297
Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess
Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies. PMID:22810954
Rabin, Carolyn; Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess
Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies.
Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Tae-Hun; Shim, Ki-Nam; Jung, Sung-Ae; Cho, Min-Sun; Yoo, Kwon; Chung, Kyu Won
Infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection sometimes causes acute hepatitis, which is usually self-limiting with mildly elevated transaminases, but rarely with jaundice. Primary EBV infection in children is usually asymptomatic, but in a small number of healthy individuals, typically young adults, EBV infection results in a clinical syndrome of infectious mononucleosis with hepatitis, with typical symptoms of fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. EBV is rather uncommonly confirmed as an etiologic agent of acute hepatitis in adults. Here, we report two cases: the first case with acute hepatitis secondary to infectious mononucleosis and a second case, with acute hepatitis secondary to infectious mononucleosis concomitantly infected with hepatitis A. Both cases involved young adults presenting with fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and atypical lymphocytosis confirmed by serologic tests, liver biopsy and electron microscopic study.
Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.
Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental
Holwerda, A.; Brouwer, S.; de Boer, M.R.; Groothoff, J.W.; van der Klink, J.J.L.
Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental
Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.
Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental
M. Moors-Tielen (Mirjam); A.L. van Staa (AnneLoes); S. Jedeloo (Susan); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); W. Weimar (Willem)
textabstractBACKGROUND. Young adult renal transplant recipients may display patterns of behavior that affect graft survival. The present study aimed to identify young adults at risk for nonadherent behavior by investigating their attitudes about posttransplant health lifestyle. METHOD. A
Getting young adults back to church: A marketing approach. ... A decline in the number of young adults that attend church services is also evident. The purpose of the research ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
Christine H.K. Ou, RN, BN, MSN
Conclusion: Chinese young adults share similar issues with other young adults in relation to not having a primary care provider and accessing preventive care but their health beliefs and practices make their needs for care unique from other young adults.
Ribera, Josep-Maria; Oriol, Albert
Today, long-term survival is achieved in more than 80% of children 1 to 10 years old with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, cure rates for adults and adolescents and young adults (AYA) with ALL remain relatively low, at only 40% to 50%. Age is a continuous prognostic variable in ALL, with no single age at which prognosis deteriorates markedly. Within childhood ALL populations, older children have shown inferior outcomes, whereas younger adults have shown superior outcomes among adult ALL patients. The type of treatment (pediatric-based versus adult-based) for AYA has recently been a matter of debate. In this article the biology and treatment of ALL in AYA is reviewed.
Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.
Objectives: Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method: We examined risk…
Ten young adults with an intellectual disability whose parents, too, have an intellectual disability were interviewed and completed questionnaires for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of everyday life. Most of the participants reported high life satisfaction, especially with the domains of friends, leisure time, and…
Bullis, Michael; And Others
Comparison of hearing (n=222) and deaf (n=217) young adults on employment, independent living, and social experience outcomes found that the hearing group was generally more successful than deaf persons from mainstream or residential schools. Gender differences did not uniformly favor men. Suggestions for improving transition programs for the deaf…
Patrone R. Risenga; Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele
Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate perceptions of young adults regarding HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) and the factors contributing to either negative or positive perceptions towards the programme. This article is a report of a concept analysis of young adults' perceptions of HCT that were collected during the study. Background: Perception forms the core of HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) use by young adults, because it is from these perceptions that young adults will decid...
Beaty, Narlin B; Le, Thomas T
To measure thicknesses in clinical landmark areas of the dentate mandibles of young men and women. Using standard radiologic software, we obtained mean (SD) thickness measurements at the inferior or posterior borders of the mandible at the following 7 surgically useful sites: (1) the symphysis, (2) a point halfway between the symphysis and the mental nerve, (3) the mental nerve, (4) a point halfway between the mental nerve and the facial artery notch, (5) the facial artery notch, (6) the angle vertex, and (7) the ramus-condylar neck border. University hospital. A total of 150 dentate men and 75 dentate women aged 18 to 30 years who had undergone computed tomography of the head and neck region during the period of December 20, 2006 to February 20, 2007. Thicknesses of 7 mandibular sites. Mean (SD) thicknesses at the 7 mandibular sites were as follows: symphysis, 14.03 (1.53) mm for men and 13.21 (1.46) mm for women; halfway between the symphysis and the mental nerve, 11.17 (1.37) mm for men and 10.00 (1.08) mm for women; mental nerve, 9.48 (1.28) mm for men and 8.72 (1.00) mm for women; halfway between the mental nerve and the facial artery notch, 10.33 (1.24) mm for men and 9.45 (0.92) mm for women; facial artery notch, 7.27 (0.82) mm for men and 7.10 (0.88) mm for women; angle vertex, 5.42 (0.90) mm for men and 5.39 (0.66) mm for women; and ramus-condylar neck border, 5.90 (0.86) mm for men and 5.85 (0.71) mm for women. Clinical landmark areas in young dentate mandibles have mean thicknesses with limited SDs. The thickness measurements obtained at the sites in this study provide practical reference information for mandibular reconstruction and bicortical screw length estimation.
Zebrack, Brad J
Theories of human development suggest that, although all cancer patients experience a common set of life disruptions, they experience them differently, focus on different issues, and attach different levels of importance to different aspects of the experience depending on the time in life at which they were diagnosed. During the critical developmental transition from childhood to adulthood, older adolescents and young adults in particular have typical concerns with establishing identity, developing a positive body image and sexual identity, separating from parents, increasing involvement with peers and dating, and beginning to make decisions about careers or employment, higher education, and/or family. Accordingly, cancer-related issues such as premature confrontation with mortality, changes in physical appearance, increased dependence on parents, disruptions in social life and school/employment because of treatment, loss of reproductive capacity, and health-related concerns about the future may be particularly distressing for adolescents and young adults. Psychosocial and behavioral interventions for young adult cancer patients and survivors often involve assisting these individuals in retaining or returning to function in significant social roles, such as spouse, parent, student, worker, or friend. Successful interventions will enable these young people to overcome the detrimental impact of a health crisis and strengthen the internal and external coping resources available to them. © 2011 American Cancer Society
Wackowski, Olivia A; Delnevo, Cristine D
Objectives Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method We examined risk perception responses among a nationally representative sample of young adults (age 18-34 years; n = 2,871, including tobacco and non-tobacco users) from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey. Results Most (57.8%) respondents believed that e-cigarettes were less risky than cigarettes. Respondents were more likely to rate combustible products hookah (24.5%) and cigars (13.9%) as being less risky compared to noncombustible snus (10%) and other smokeless tobacco (SLT) products (7.1%) relative to cigarettes. Few (2.5%) rated menthol cigarettes as less risky. For e-cigarettes, hookah, and SLT, less risky beliefs were significantly higher among ever or current versus never product users. Between 22% and 33% of all respondents believed that SLT, snus, menthol cigarettes, and cigars were more risky than cigarettes, but differences in this belief between current and nonusers of these products were small and insignificant. Younger young adults were more likely to rate e-cigarettes and hookah as being "less risky" and rate cigars and SLT as being "more risky" than older young adults. Conclusion The public's views of comparative tobacco risk perceptions vary widely by tobacco product type and age-group. While "less risky" perceptions may be associated with product use, perceptions that products are "more risky" than cigarettes may not necessarily dissuade people from their use. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Zhong, Nanzhe; Yang, Xinghai; Yang, Jian; Meng, Tong; Yang, Cheng; Yan, Wangjun; Xiao, Jianru
Retrospective study. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes between adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients and old adult patients with cervical chordoma who were treated surgically and present the surgical consideration for adolescents and young adults with cervical chordoma. With predominance in senior patients, chordoma is distinctively rare in AYAs. Because of the rarity of AYA chordoma, individual case report represents most of the literature on this disease entity on mobile spine and lack of long-term follow up, which leads to the paucity of clinical evidence for treatment planning and prognosis prediction. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the prognosis of AYA patients with cervical chordoma who were treated surgically. We collected the clinical data of these patients and their older counterparts, and further compared the prognosis of the patients in different age groups. To estimate survival curves, Kaplan-Meier method was used, and significance was assessed using a log-rank test. Forty consecutive patients with chordoma of the cervical spine treated in our institution were included in the study. Two groups were identified according to age. Group 1 comprised children and adolescents (age ≤ 25 yrs; n = 9) and Group 2 comprised adults (age > 25 years; n = 31). In comparison, Group 1 was featured by significantly higher rate of recurrence and shorter overall survival, although no difference found in the surgical modality between two groups. There is a dismal prognosis in young patients with chordoma, and thus support the notion that as radical a total en bloc spondylectomy (TES) of the lesions as possible may benefit the overall survival of these young patients. Although the ensuing neurological deficits may be devastating, it will be worth sacrificing if the life expectancy of these young patients is prolonged. 4.
The National Fund for Workforce Solution's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study will focus on challenges and…
Soenen, Sarah; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina; Scholte, Evert
Young adults with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) have varying profiles of cognitive, adaptive and behavioural functioning. There is also variability in their educational and therapeutic needs. This study compares recommended and actual provision of support for two groups of young adults with MBID and looks at young adults'…
The National Fund's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from automotive and…
The National Fund for Workforce Solution's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from…
Menard, Lauren A.
Age and Time disparities in young adult research populations are common because young adults are defined by varying age spans; members of Generation X and Millennial generations may both be considered young adults; study years vary, affecting populations; and qualitative methods with limited age/year samples are frequently utilized. The current…
Feldman, Daniel C.; Whitcomb, Kathleen M.
Purpose: The present paper examines the effects of two decision-framing inductions on young adults' set of career options: first, whether young adults use abilities or interests as the grounds for their vocational choices and, second, whether young adults approach the decision-making task by including all career options to which they feel…
Drill, Rebecca L.
Examined long-term effects of divorce in young adult children by comparing young adults of divorce (N=104) and those of intact families (N=172). When non-custodial parent was perceived as "lost" the young adult was more depressed. After-divorce perception of non-custodial father changed negatively, while perception of mother remained…
Systems of bilingual education in three neighboring countries, Singapore, Malaysia, and Brunei Darussalam are examined in an attempt to understand basic issues. These are all Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries that fall into the category of Small Young Countries as discussed in Pakir (1992a). (Contains 43 references.) (JL)
Aoki, Tomoko; Fukuoka, Yoshiyuki
The maximum isometric force production capacity of the fingers decreases with age. However, little information is available on age-related changes in dynamic motor capacity of individual fingers. The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic motor function of individual fingers between elderly and young adults using rapid single-finger and double-finger tapping. Fourteen elderly and 14 young adults performed maximum frequency tapping by the index, middle, ring, or little finger (single-finger tapping) and with alternate movements of the index-middle, middle-ring, or ring-little finger-pair (double-finger tapping). The maximum pinch force between the thumb and each finger, tactile sensitivity of each fingertip, and time taken to complete a pegboard test were also measured. Compared with young subjects, the older subjects had significantly slower tapping rates in all fingers and finger-pairs in the tapping tasks. The age-related decline was also observed in the tactile sensitivities of all fingers and in the pegboard test. However, there was no group difference in the pinch force of any finger. The tapping rate of each finger did not correlate with the pinch force or tactile sensitivity for the corresponding finger in the elderly subjects. Maximum rate of finger tapping was lower in the elderly adults compared with the young adults. The decline of finger tapping ability in elderly adults seems to be less affected by their maximum force production capacities of the fingers as well as tactile sensitivities at the tips of the fingers.
Yanez, Betina; Garcia, Sofia F; Victorson, David; Salsman, John M
Being diagnosed with cancer as a young adult can lead to significant psychological distress and impaired quality of life. Compared to children and older adults diagnosed with cancer, fewer studies have addressed psychological distress among young adult cancer survivors. This study sought to identify the prevalence of, and factors associated with, distress among young adult cancer survivors (ages 18-39). Young adult cancer survivors (N = 335, mean age = 31.8, women = 68.4%) were recruited from an online research panel and stratified by cohort (time postactive treatment: 0-12, 13-24, and 25-60 months). Participants completed measures assessing demographic and clinical characteristics, global impact of cancer, cancer-related education and work interruption, and cancer-specific distress using the impact of event scale (IES). The mean score on the IES (M = 31.0, range = 0-75) was above the cut point of 20, suggesting clinically elevated distress. Analysis of covariance revealed significant main effects for cohort, global impact and cancer-related education/work interruption, and an interaction between cohort and cancer-related education/work interruption on distress. Although there was no significant effect of education/work interruption on distress for those in the 0-12 month cohort (p = .88), survivors in the 13-24 and 25-60 month cohorts reporting education/work interruption were significantly more distressed than those not reporting education/work interruption in the respective cohorts (p cancer survivors face unique challenges. These data underscore the importance of attending to cancer-related distress beyond the completion of treatment and may help inform targeted interventions to prevent or reduce significant distress and related sequelae in this population.
Badham, Stephen P.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.
Schema-consistent material that is aligned with an individual’s knowledge and experience is typically more memorable than abstract material. This effect is often more extreme in older adults and schema use can alleviate age deficits in memory. In three experiments, young and older adults completed memory tasks where the availability of schematic information was manipulated. Specifying nonobvious relations between to-be-remembered word pairs paradoxically hindered memory (Experiment 1). Highlighting relations within mixed lists of related and unrelated word pairs had no effect on memory for those pairs (Experiment 2). This occurred even though related word pairs were recalled better than unrelated word pairs, particularly for older adults. Revealing a schematic context in a memory task with abstract image segments also hindered memory performance, particularly for older adults (Experiment 3). The data show that processing schematic information can come with costs that offset mnemonic benefits associated with schema-consistent stimuli. PMID:25980799
perkembangan dan usia kronologis pemustaka. Kata Kunci: fiksi remaja terjemahan, pengembangan koleksi fiksi, perkembangan remaja, Pitimoss Fun Library Abstract. Library has to provide fiction as one of its collection. There are two kind of fictions; national fiction and translated fiction. Its selection is not only based on amusement function, but also its role to help readers developing themselves. This research aims to describe the roles of translated young adult fiction in achievement of three aspects of young adult development. Those aspects are cognitive, social, and affective. Theoritically, this research gives advantages for library and information science, especially for developing selection theory and bibliotheraphy. Practically, the advantages those are given by this research are tended to caretakers of Pitimoss Fun Library and other researchers. This reasearch is done by using qualitative approach.Meanwhile, descriptive method is chosen with case study interpretative as its model. The answers of research questions are based on explanation of six informants and key informant. Six informants are chosen by purposive sampling technique. Meanwhile, key informant is a bibliotheraphist. Observation, interview, document study, and online searching are techniques those are used for collecting data. Research data are analyzed by narrative analysis technique. The result shows the two-way relation between translated young adult fiction and developmental achievement. Translated young adult fictions those are provided by Pitimoss Library have roles in achievement of three aspects of young adult development. Even so, developmental achievement also determines the effectiveness of translated fiction roles for young adults. It also helps them to react to controversial issues. The roles of translated young adult fiction can be maximized if Pitimoss Fun Library doing some efforts, such us involving developmental needs as one of selection criteria, also giving guidance and books
Knight, Andrea M; Trupin, Laura; Katz, Patricia; Yelin, Edward; Lawson, Erica F
To compare major depression risk among young adults with juvenile-onset and adult-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and to determine demographic and health-related predictors of depression. Young adults with SLE ages 18-45 years (n = 546) in the Lupus Outcomes Study completed annual telephone surveys from 2002-2015, including assessment of depression using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and self-report measures of sociodemographics and health characteristics. Juvenile-onset SLE was defined as age adult-onset SLE. Older age, lower educational attainment, and physical function, higher disease activity, and a history of smoking were associated with an increased depression risk. Juvenile-onset SLE patients had a higher risk of major depression across all educational groups. Young adults with SLE, particularly those with juvenile-onset disease, are at high risk for major depression, which is associated with increased disease activity, poorer physical functioning, and lower educational attainment. Early depression intervention in young adults with SLE has the potential to improve both medical and psychosocial outcomes. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.
This study investigated the durational features of English word-initial /s/+stop clusters produced by bilingual Mandarin (L1)-English (L2) children and monolingual English children and adults. The participants included two groups of five- to six-year-old bilingual children: low proficiency in the L2 (Bi-low) and high proficiency in the L2 (Bi-high), one group of age-matched English children, and one group of English adults. Each participant produced a list of English words containing /sp, st, sk/ at the word-initial position followed by /a, i, u/, respectively. The absolute durations of the clusters and cluster elements and the durational proportions of elements to the overall cluster were measured. The results revealed that Bi-high children behaved similarly to the English monolinguals whereas Bi-low children used a different strategy of temporal organization to coordinate the cluster components in comparison to the English monolinguals and Bi-high children. The influence of language experience and continuing development of temporal features in children were discussed.
Dani, K K; Oswal, K; Maudgal, S; Saranath, D
The use of tobacco has been on the rise globally including in India, posing a grave public health problem. Recently, tobacco use through hookah smoking has increased among young adults in India, Middle East, Southwest Asia, Africa, Europe and North America. Hookah prevalence of 0.4-15% has been reported in India. The aim of the study was to understand perception of hookah use among young adults in Mumbai. A total of 500 college students, with/without hookah habit, were given a self-administered questionnaire to indicate their perception of hookah use, using yes/no responses. The responses were analyzed in the users/non-users and considered significantly different at P Mumbai, toward hookah use, indicates an increased trend to use hookah. We recommend deterrents for hookah use by display of health warnings on hookah assembly and the tobacco products, implementation of government policies on hookah and tobacco use and punitive measures for offenders.
Ramtekkar, Ujjwal P.; Striley, Catherine W; Cottler, Linda B
These analyses assess contextual profiles of 612 young adult Ecstasy users, 18–30 years of age, from St. Louis (USA), Miami (USA) and Sydney (Australia). Bivariate analyses revealed different contextual factors influencing Ecstasy use. Friends were the most common sources of Ecstasy at all sites and most used with friends. St. Louis and Miami use mostly occurred in residences, whereas in Sydney use was mostly at clubs, bars or restaurants. Ecstasy consumption at public places and in cars, trains or ferries was significantly higher in Miami (89% and 77%) than in St. Louis (67% and 65%) and Sydney (67% and 61%). At all sites, simultaneous use of LSD/mushroom and nitrous oxide with Ecstasy was common; concurrent amphetamines predominated in Sydney and heroin/opiates in St. Louis Contextual factors influencing Ecstasy use among young adults vary by geographic region. Their inclusion may help tailor effective prevention programs to reduce or ameliorate Ecstasy use. PMID:21094585
Bui, Eric; Rodgers, Rachel; Simon, Naomi M; Jehel, Louis; Metcalf, Christina A; Birmes, Philippe; Schmitt, Laurent
Body piercing, which is prevalent in young adults, has been suggested to be associated with features usually related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) such as high-risk behaviours and psychopathological symptoms and might be motivated by a wish to deal with prior traumatic experiences. However, to date, no research has investigated the relationship between this practice and PTSD symptoms. The present research aims to investigate the possible relationship between body piercing and PTSD symptoms in French-speaking young adults. According to our results, having two or more body piercings was associated with a twofold increased risk for scoring above the cut-off score for PTSD on the PTSD checklist. Our findings suggest that two or more body piercings might serve as an identifiable marker for PTSD symptoms and may have important implications for clinical screening. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available As the number of global internet users increases, companies’ online advertisement expenditure also grows rapidly. Companies face challenges in targeting the right customers. Understanding which websites are often visited by target users and what they do on the internet will help companies direct their online advertisement to the right target. Using questionnaires, this study examines which sites are most often visited by Indonesian young adult internet users and what they do on the internet. It aims to understand the patterns of behavior of these users. The findings of this study provide some understanding to the marketers. Of consequence, such understanding would help them to select where and what to do with their advertisements when they are targeting the young adult internet users in Indonesia.
Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine; Van der Linden, Martial; Weekes, Brendan S.
Studies of monolingual speakers have shown a strong association between lexical learning and short-term memory (STM) capacity, especially STM for serial order information. At the same time, studies of bilingual speakers suggest that phonological knowledge is the main factor that drives lexical learning. This study tested these two hypotheses…
Xue, Jin; Jiang, Xiaoming
The present research aimed to explore the developmental relationship between bilingual morphological awareness and reading for Chinese natives learning English as a foreign language (EFL learners). Pre- and post-tests were conducted with in an interval of 9 months. Morphological and reading measures in Chinese and English were administered to 139…
Dugas, E N; Sylvestre, M P; O'Loughlin, E K; Brunet, J; Kakinami, L; Constantin, E; O'Loughlin, J
More cigarette smokers report poor sleep quality than non-smokers, but the association between nicotine dependence (ND) and sleep quality has not been well-characterized. The objective of this study was to describe the associations among frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, ND symptoms, and sleep quality in young adults. Data on past-year smoking frequency, number of cigarettes smoked in the past month, five ND indicators (i.e., withdrawal, craving, self-medication symptoms, mFTQ, ICD-10 criteria for tobacco dependence), and sleep quality (measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)) were collected in 2011-12 in self-report questionnaires completed by 405 young adult smokers (mean age 24 (0.6) years; 45% male; 45% daily smokers) participating in a longitudinal investigation of the natural course of ND. Associations between indicators of cigarette smoking, ND symptoms, and sleep quality were examined in multivariable logistic regression analyses controlling for age, sex, mother's education, and alcohol use. Thirty-six percent of participants reported poor sleep quality (PSQI>5). Higher cigarette consumption (OR(95% CI), 1.03(1.001-1.05)) but not frequency of past-year smoking, more frequent withdrawal symptoms (1.05(1.004-1.10)), more frequent cravings (1.05(1.004-1.10)), higher mFTQ scores (1.14(1.02-1.27)), and endorsing more ICD-10 criteria for tobacco dependence (1.19(1.04-1.36)) were also associated with poor sleep quality. Cigarette smoking and ND symptoms are associated with poor sleep quality in young adult smokers. Advice from practitioners to cut back on number of cigarettes smoked per day and treatment of ND symptoms may improve sleep quality in young adult smokers. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leyk, Dieter; Rüther, Thomas; Witzki, Alexander; Sievert, Alexander; Moedl, Anne; Blettner, Maria; Hackfort, Dieter; Löllgen, Herbert
The health and physical fitness of adolescents and young adults are important not just to the individuals concerned, but also to society as a whole. Many studies from many different countries have dealt with the prevalence of overweight, the risk factors for it, and the morbidity it causes, but no more than a few have addressed the effects of unhealthy lifestyles on physical fitness. In this study, we show that young adults' physical performance depends on the number of risk factors they possess. We also compare the young adults' physical performance with that of adolescents aged 10 to 17. We obtained cross-sectional data on the weight, smoking status, athletic activity, time to run 1 km, and ability to perform a chin-up on a horizontal bar of 8048 subjects aged 10 to 25. The young adults were divided into groups depending on the number of risk factors they possessed from the following list: overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. 28.4% of the men and 35.4% of the women aged 18 to 25 had none of these risk factors and exhibited the best physical performance. The more risk factors were present, the worse physical performance became. The 24- and 25-year-olds performed at the same level as the 14- and 15-year-olds. Unhealthy lifestyles can impair physical fitness even before any chronic disease arises. Possession of even a single risk factor is associated with significantly worse performance. Unless comprehensive and effective interventions are introduced in school and at work, the further cementation and worsening of unhealthy lifestyles will be hard to stop.
Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D
Energy drink consumption, with or without concurrent alcohol use, is common among young adults. This study sought to clarify risk for negative alcohol outcomes related to the timing of energy drink use. The authors interviewed a community sample of 481 young adults, aged 18-25, who drank alcohol in the last month. Past-30-day energy drink use was operationalized as no-use, use without concurrent alcohol, and concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol ("within a couple of hours"). Negative alcohol outcomes included past-30-day binge drinking, past-30-day alcohol use disorder, and drinking-related consequences. Just over half (50.5%) reported no use of energy drinks,18.3% reported using energy drinks without concurrent alcohol use, and 31.2% reported concurrent use of energy drinks and alcohol. Relative to those who reported concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol, and controlling for background characteristics and frequency of alcohol consumption, those who didn't use energy drinks and those who used without concurrent alcohol use had significantly lower binge drinking, negative consequences, and rates of alcohol use disorder (P energy drink without concurrent alcohol groups on any alcohol-related measure (P > .10 for all outcomes). Concurrent energy drink and alcohol use is associated with increased risk for negative alcohol consequences in young adults. Clinicians providing care to young adults could consider asking patients about concurrent energy drink and alcohol use as a way to begin a conversation about risky alcohol consumption while addressing 2 substances commonly used by this population.
Twig, Gilad; Afek, Arnon; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Cukierman-Yaffe, Tali; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Tirosh, Amir
To determine diabetes incidence over time among obese young adults without metabolic risk factors. Incident diabetes during a median follow-up of 6.1 years was assessed among 33,939 young men (mean age 30.9 ± 5.2 years) of the Metabolic, Lifestyle and Nutrition Assessment in Young Adults cohort who were stratified for BMI and the number of metabolic abnormalities (based on the Adult Treatment Panel-III). Metabolically healthy (MH) obesity was defined as BMI ≥30 kg/m2 in the presence of normoglycemia, normal blood pressure, and normal levels of fasting triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels (n = 631). A total of 734 new cases of diabetes were diagnosed during 210,282 person-years of follow-up. The incidence rate of diabetes among participants with no metabolic risk factors was 1.15, 2.10, and 4.34 cases per 1,000 person-years among lean, overweight, and obese participants, respectively. In a multivariable model adjusted for age, region of origin, family history of diabetes, physical activity, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride level, HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and white blood cell count, a higher diabetes risk was observed among MH-overweight (hazard ratio [HR] 1.89 [95% CI 1.25-2.86]; P young adults from incident diabetes associated with overweight and obesity. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
Pezzini, Alessandro; Del Zotto, Elisabetta; Giossi, Alessia; Volonghi, Irene; Costa, Paolo; Dalla Volta, Giorgio; Padovani, Alessandro
In spite of the strong epidemiologic evidence linking migraine and ischemic stroke in young adults, the mechanisms explaining this association remain poorly understood. The observation that stroke occurs more frequently during the interictal phase of migraine prompts to speculation that an indirect relation between the two diseases might exist. In this regard, four major issues might be considered which may be summarized as follows: (1) the migraine-ischemic stroke relation is influenced by s...
Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A.
This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5 +/- 2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on ...
Lee, Juyoung; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Takayama, Norimasa; Park, Bum-Jin; Li, Qing; Song, Chorong; Komatsu, Misako; Ikei, Harumi; Tyrväinen, Liisa; Kagawa, Takahide; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi
Background. Despite increasing attention toward forest therapy as an alternative medicine, very little evidence continues to be available on its therapeutic effects. Therefore, this study was focused on elucidating the health benefits of forest walking on cardiovascular reactivity. Methods. Within-group comparisons were used to examine the cardiovascular responses to walking in forest and urban environments. Forty-eight young adult males participated in the two-day field research. Changes in ...
Serafini, Kelly A.; Stewart, David G.
Perceptions of family alcohol use have been linked to adolescent alcohol use behaviors, yet there have been no studies that have assessed this relationship in young adults. This study examined perceptions of family alcohol use and their association with participants’ self-reported alcohol use. Participants included 171 undergraduate students (mean age = 21.67, 71.9 percent female, 75.4 percent Caucasian). Participants completed measures assessing quantity and frequency of alcohol use, negativ...
Baalwa, J; Byarugaba, B B; Kabagambe, E K; Kabagambe, K E; Otim, A M
Obesity in young adults is rising and predicts diabetes and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Data on prevalence and determinants of obesity in developing countries are needed for primary prevention. To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in urban (Kampala city) and rural areas (Kamuli District) of Uganda. Cross-sectional survey of 683 randomly selected young adults aged 18-30 years. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) and overweight as BMI > 25 kg/m(2). Distribution of BMI by socio-demographic characteristics was determined. Of the 683 participants, 50.5% were female and 53.2% were from Kampala. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 2.3% and 10.4%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was 4.4% in Kampala and 0% in Kamuli while the prevalence of overweight was 10.2% and 10.6% in Kampala and Kamuli, respectively. Compared to males, females were more likely to be obese (2.9% vs. 1.8%) or overweight (17.4% vs. 3.3%). Residing in the city, alcohol consumption, smoking, non-engagement in sports activities, commuting to school by taxi or private vehicle and being from a rich family were the main factors significantly associated (Pobesity. Being female (p = 0.0001) and not engaging in any sports activities (P = 0.002) were two factors significantly associated with being overweight. We observed significant gender differences in the prevalence of obesity among young adults in Uganda. Contrary to expectation, we did not observe significant rural-urban differences in the prevalence of overweight.
McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine
Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging…
Jeffries, Jayne K; Lytle, Leslie; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Golden, Shelley; Aiello, Allison E; Linnan, Laura
To address chronic disease risk holistically from a behavioral perspective, insights are needed to refine understanding of the covariance of key health behaviors. This study aims to identify distinct typologies of young adults based on 4 modifiable risk factors of chronic disease using a latent class analysis approach, and to describe patterns of class membership based on demographic characteristics, living arrangements, and weight. Overall, 441 young adults aged 18-35 attending community colleges in the Minnesota Twin Cities area completed a baseline questionnaire for the Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings study, a RCT. Behavioral items were used to create indicators for latent classes, and individuals were classified using maximum-probability assignment. Three latent classes were identified: 'active, binge-drinkers with a healthy dietary intake' (13.1%); 'non-active, moderate-smokers and non-drinkers with poor dietary intake' (38.2%); 'moderately active, non-smokers and non-drinkers with moderately healthy dietary intake' (48.7%). Classes exhibited unique demographic and weight-related profiles. This study may contribute to the literature on health behaviors among young adults and provides evidence that there are weight and age differences among subgroups. Understanding how behaviors cluster is important for identifying groups for targeted interventions in community colleges.
Evans, S E; Radford, M
The aim of this study was to look at the current lifestyle of young adult survivors of childhood cancer between the ages of 16 and 30 years to document their achievements and expose any psychosocial problems. Sixty six young adult survivors were contacted and asked if they and their siblings (16-30 years) would take part in a lifestyle study; 48 patients and 38 sibling controls were interviewed. This took the form of a structured lifestyle questionnaire, a self esteem questionnaire (Oxford Psychologists Press), and an unstructured interview. Fifty five per cent of patients achieved five or more A-C grades at 'O' level/GCSE compared with 62% of siblings and a national average of 30%. Despite that these patients were significantly less likely to go on to higher education than their siblings. The two groups were equally employable and earning similar salaries. There were three cases of known employer prejudice. A slightly higher percentage of patients than siblings had their driving licence. Seventeen patients felt their appearance had changed and eight felt that they had a residual physical mobility problem. Both groups were socially active and equally likely to partake in competitive sports. There was no overall difference in the self esteem of the two groups. In general the survivors of childhood cancer were coping well in their young adult life and achieving the same lifestyle goals as their siblings. However, significant problems have been identified.
Sheng, Li; Byrd, Courtney T; McGregor, Karla K; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee
The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list recall experiment. Participants listened to 12-item word lists that converged on a nonpresented critical item (e.g., rain) semantically (umbrella, drench, weather, hail), phonologically (train, main, ran, wren), or dually in a hybrid list (umbrella, train, drench, main) and recalled words in no particular order. Group comparisons were made on veridical recall (i.e., words that were presented) and false recall of nonpresented critical items. Recall performance was analyzed by list type and list position to examine potential differences in the quality of memorial processes. The LLD group produced fewer veridical recalls than the controls. Both groups demonstrated list type and list position effects in veridical recall. False recall of the critical items was comparable in the 2 groups and varied by list type in predictable ways. Young adults with LLD have verbal memory limitations characterized by quantitatively low levels of accurate recall. Qualitative patterns of recall are similar to those of unaffected peers. Therefore, the memory problem is characterized by limited capacity; memorial processes appear to be intact.
Harakeh, Zeena; Vollebergh, Wilma A M
The aim of this experimental observational study is to examine whether, in a group setting (same-sex triads), passive peer influence (imitation) in the context of homogeneous and heterogeneous (contradictory) behavior of peer models affects young adults' smoking behavior. An experiment was conducted among 48 daily-smoking college and university students aged 17-25. Participants had to complete a 30-min music task with two same-sex confederates. We tested the following three conditions: (a) neither of the confederates is smoking, (b) one confederate is smoking and the other is not, and (c) both confederates are smoking. The primary outcome tested was the total number of cigarettes smoked during the task. Students in the condition with two smoking peer models and in the condition with one smoking peer model and one nonsmoking peer model smoked significantly more cigarettes than those in the condition with two nonsmoking peer models. However, results for the condition with two smoking peer models did not differ significantly from the condition with one smoking peer model and one nonsmoking peer model. Our findings show that in a group setting, the impact of the homogeneity of smoking peers on young adults' smoking behavior is not greater than the impact of the heterogeneity of smoking and nonsmoking peers. This would suggest that the smoking peer in the group has a greater impact on the daily-smoking young adult, thus reducing or even eliminating the protective effect of the nonsmoking peer model.
Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Glantz, Stanton A.
Objectives. We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for “hipster” young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. Methods. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. Results. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P < .001). There were significant interactions between hipster affiliation and alcohol use on smoking. Among hipster binge drinkers, the odds of daily smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30, 0.63) and nondaily smoking (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.77) decreased significantly at follow-up 3. Binge drinking also decreased significantly at follow-up 3 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.78). Conclusions. Social Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons. PMID:24524502
Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C; Longmore, Monica A; Flanigan, Christine M
Young adult involvement in sexual behavior typically occurs within a relationship context, but we know little about the ways in which specific features of romantic relationships influence sexual decision-making. Prior work on sexual risk taking focuses attention on health issues rather than relationship dynamics. We draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 475) to examine the association between qualities and dynamics of current/most recent romantic relationships such as communication and emotional processes, conflict, demographic asymmetries, and duration and the management of sexual risk. We conceptualize 'risk management' as encompassing multiple domains, including (1) questioning the partner about previous sexual behaviors/risks, (2) using condoms consistently, and (3) maintaining sexual exclusivity within the relationship. We identify distinct patterns of risk management among dating young adults and find that specific qualities and dynamics of these relationships are linked to variations in risk management. Results from this paper suggest the need to consider relational dynamics in efforts to target and influence young adult sexual risk-taking and reduce STIs, including HIV.
Full Text Available Background: In China, suicide is one of the major causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 34 years. Aim: The current study examines how risk factors vary by age groups in rural China, referring to those aged 15 to 24 years and those aged 25 to 34 years. Method: A case-control psychological autopsy (PA study is conducted in sixteen counties from three Chinese provinces, including 392 suicide cases and 416 community living controls in the sample. Results: In China, young adults aged 25 to 34 years have a higher risk for suicide than adolescents aged 15 to 24 years, and it holds true even controlling for relevant social factors. In addition, age-related factors such as education, marital status, whether having children, status in the family, physical health, and personal income all have varying degrees of impact on suicide risks for rural youth. Conclusions: This study shows that there are some age-related risk factors for suicide at certain life stages and emphasizes that young adults in rural China aged 25 to 34 years have an increased risk of suicide as a result of experiencing more psychological strains with age.
Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.; Flanigan, Christine M.
Young adult involvement in sexual behavior typically occurs within a relationship context, but we know little about the ways in which specific features of romantic relationships influence sexual decision-making. Prior work on sexual risk taking focuses attention on health issues rather than relationship dynamics. We draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 475) to examine the association between qualities and dynamics of current/most recent romantic relationships such as communication and emotional processes, conflict, demographic asymmetries, and duration and the management of sexual risk. We conceptualize ‘risk management’ as encompassing multiple domains, including (1) questioning the partner about previous sexual behaviors/risks, (2) using condoms consistently, and (3) maintaining sexual exclusivity within the relationship. We identify distinct patterns of risk management among dating young adults and find that specific qualities and dynamics of these relationships are linked to variations in risk management. Results from this paper suggest the need to consider relational dynamics in efforts to target and influence young adult sexual risk-taking and reduce STIs, including HIV. PMID:23805015
Frederick, Natasha N; Bober, Sharon L; Berwick, Lexie; Tower, Mary; Kenney, Lisa B
Childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) remain at risk for developing treatment-associated health conditions as they age; however, many do not obtain recommended follow-up, putting them at unnecessary risk for morbidity. Educational interventions targeted at providing survivors with the knowledge and skills necessary for healthcare independence might improve adherence and outcomes as they transition care to the adult medical system. To identify informational needs, educational preferences, and support that young adult CCSs perceive as beneficial for transition from pediatric to adult medical care. Sixteen young adult CCSs (ages 22-39 years) who have transitioned to adult care participated in focus groups led by a trained moderator and analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Four major themes emerged: (1) education preferences-pediatric oncology provider as the primary source of information and guidance, enhanced by other formats, and early and ongoing engagement in education; (2) family role in transition-desire for independence and acknowledgement of need for ongoing parental support; (3) expectations for adult providers, such as close relationships, open communication, and care coordination; and (4) knowledge deficits regarding disease/treatment history, risk for long-term complications, and navigation of the adult medical system. Transition education as described by young adult CCSs should be a developmentally appropriate process beginning in early adolescents, primarily administered by pediatric oncology providers, and delivered in multiple formats. While healthcare independence is a goal for young adult CCSs, all stakeholders must recognize that families and providers continue to have an important role supporting survivors with transition logistics and medical decision-making. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Felix F. Widjaja
Full Text Available Background: The increase number of the metabolic syndrome (MetS among young adults was mostly caused by obesity. MetS increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD which can be estimated by Framingham risk score (FRS. The study was aimed to know the prevalence of MetS and FRS in obese young adults and to associate them with the components of MetS. Methods: A total of 70 male and female students aged 18 to 25 years with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia were selected consecutively. The blood samples used to test fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride were examined in Department of Clinical Pathology, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital after fasting for 14 to 16 hours. International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition was used to diagnose MetS. Univariate and bivariate analysis were done. Results: The prevalence of MetS based on IDF definition was 18.6% among obese young adults. The most associated MetS components was hypertriglyceridemia (OR 12.13; 95% CI 2.92-50.46; p = 0.001, followed with high blood pressure (OR 9.33; 95% CI 2.26-38.56; p = 0.001, low-HDL (OR 8.33; 95% CI 2.17-32.05; p = 0.003, and impaired fasting glucose (p = 0.03. Four subjects had FRS ≥ 1% and 66 subjects had risk < 1%. Increased FRS was not associated with MetS (p = 0.154. There was no component of MetS associated with increased FRS. Conclusion: Prevalence of MetS in obese young adults was similar with obese children and adolescents. Although no association of MetS and FRS was found, they are significant predictors for CHD which should not be used separately. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:100-6Keywords: Abdominal obesity, Framingham risk score, metabolic syndrome, young adults
Diesen, Plata Sofie
If persons with phenylketonuria (PKU) do not start a protein restricted diet in early infancy, they will suffer severe brain damage. Previous qualitative research on adults and adolescents with PKU has identified stigmatization, uncertain risk perceptions, considerable time spent on preparing food, and incongruence between the PKU diet and certain lifestyle demands. The aim of this study was to explore young and early treated Norwegian adults' experiences, by conducting in-depth interviews in 2011 with 11 adults with PKU, aged 20-30. Being the first qualitative study on people with PKU in Norway, the process was inspired by grounded theory. All participants reflected on their own health and existence by expressing positive counterfactual thoughts. They considered themselves lucky to have had parents who had managed the diet, they were grateful for the time and place they were born, and for information and treatment availability, although the results also show some ambiguous attitudes towards the hospital which provided the treatment. The expression of gratitude in association with having PKU suggests a major positive coping strategy. It contributes to a more holistic understanding of the experiences and attitudes of young, Norwegian adults with PKU, as it provides a counterweight to the negative experiences.
Full Text Available The primary objective of this review was to update and discuss the current concepts andthe results of the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL in adolescents and young adults(AYA. After a brief consideration of the epidemiologic and clinicobiologic characteristics of ALLin the AYA population, the main retrospective comparative studies stating the superiority ofpediatric over adult-based protocols were reviewed. The most important prospective studies inyoung adults using pediatric inspired or pediatric unmodified protocols were also reviewedemphasizing their feasibility at least up to the age of 40 yr and their promising results, with eventfreesurvival rates of 60-65% or greater. Results of trials from pediatric groups have shown that theunfavourable prognosis of adolescents is no more adequate. The majority of the older adolescentswith ALL can be cured with risk-adjusted and minimal residual disease-guided intensivechemotherapy, without stem cell transplantation. However, some specific subgroups, which aremore frequent in adolescents than in children (e.g., early pre-T, iAMP21, and BCR-ABL-like,deserve particular attention. In summary, the advances in treatment of ALL in adolescents havebeen translated to young adults, and that explains the significant improvement in survival of thesepatients in recent years.
Dalglish, Sarah L; Melchior, Maria; Younes, Nadia; Surkan, Pamela J
Job insecurity, unemployment, and job strain can predict psychological distress and suicide risk. Young people, who are particularly at risk of suicide, may be especially vulnerable to the deterioration of labor market conditions as a result of the current economic crisis in Europe. We aimed to examine the effects of work and employment characteristics on suicidal ideation in a contemporary sample of young adults. Using data from a sample of French young adults surveyed in 2011 (TEMPO study, N = 1,214, 18-37 years old) and their parents who took part in a longitudinal cohort study, we used multiple logistic regression to examine the relationship between job insecurity, lifetime and recent unemployment and suicidal ideation in the past 12 months. Our analyses were adjusted for factors associated with suicidal risk including age, sex, educational attainment, living with a partner, insufficient social support, alcohol abuse, depression and parental history of depression. Five percent of the sample reported suicidal ideation in the preceding 12 months. Controlling for all covariates, the likelihood of suicidal ideation was associated with job insecurity (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.08-4.63), lifetime unemployment (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.17-4.29), and recent unemployment (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.04-4.25). After stratifying by educational attainment, the association between suicidal ideation and job insecurity was particularly notable for participants with low educational attainment (OR 9.28, 95% CI 1.19-72.33). Young adults who have unstable and unfavorable employment characteristics are disproportionately likely to be suicidal, which should be monitored, particularly in times of economic downturn.
Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.
The mechanism of a rise in blood pressure after kidney irradiation is unclear but most likely of renal origin. We have investigated the role of the renin-angiotensin system and dietary salt restriction in the development of systolic hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats. Three to 12 months after a single X-ray dose of 7.5 or 12.5 Gy to both kidneys of young and adult rats, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and plasma renin concentration (PRC) were measured regularly. A single X-ray dose of 12.5 Gy caused a moderate rise in SBP and a slight reduction in PRC in both young and adult rats. A dose of 7.5 Gy did not significantly alter the SBP or PRC during the follow-up period of 1 year. In a second experiment, the kidneys of young rats received an X-ray dose of 20 Gy. Subsequently, rats were kept on a standard diet (110 mmol sodium/kg) or a sodium-poor diet (10 mmol sodium/kg). On both diets, SBP started to rise rapidly 3 months after kidney irradiation. Sodium balance studies carried out at that time revealed an increased sodium retention in the irradiated rats compared to controls on the same diet. In rats on a low sodium intake, there was neither a delay nor an alleviation in the development of hypertension. Compared to controls, the PRC tended to be lower in irradiated rats up to 4 months after irradiation. Subsequently, malignant hypertension developed in all 20 Gy rats, resulting in pressure natriuresis, stimulating the renin-angiotensin system. Our findings indicated that hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation was not primarily the result of an activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Although there were some indications that sodium retention played a role, dietary sodium restriction did not influence the development of hypertension
Full Text Available Abstract Background Disc degeneration (DD is a common condition that progresses with aging. Although the events leading to DD are not well understood, a significant genetic influence has been found. This study was undertaken to assess the association between relevant candidate gene polymorphisms and moderate DD in a well-defined and characterized cohort of young adults. Focusing on young age can be valuable in determining genetic predisposition to DD. Methods We investigated the associations of existing candidate genes for DD among 538 young adults with a mean age of 19 belonging to the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort. Nineteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in 16 genes were genotyped. We evaluated lumbar DD using the modified Pfirrmann classification and a 1.5-T magnetic resonance scanner for imaging. Results Of the 538 individuals studied, 46% had no degeneration, while 54% had DD and 51% of these had moderate DD. The risk of DD was significantly higher in subjects with an allele G of IL6 SNPs rs1800795 (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.07-1.96 and rs1800797 (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.02-1.85 in the additive inheritance model. The role of IL6 was further supported by the haplotype analysis, which resulted in an association between the GGG haplotype (SNPs rs1800797, rs1800796 and rs1800795 and DD with an OR of 1.51 (95% CI 1.11-2.04. In addition, we observed an association between DD and two other polymorphisms, SKT rs16924573 (OR 0.27 95% CI 0.07-0.96 and CILP rs2073711 in women (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.07-3.89. Conclusion Our results indicate that IL6, SKT and CILP are involved in the etiology of DD among young adults.
Burke, Patrick W; Douer, Dan
The cure rate of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children is 80%, compared to less than half in adults. A major proportion of this cure rate drop occurs in adolescents and young adults (AYAs). The age range defining this population varies between studies, biological characteristics are different from both younger children and older adults, and AYAs are treated either by pediatric or adult oncologists, who often apply different treatment approaches to the same ALL patient population. The outcome of AYAs aged 15-21 years treated by more contemporary pediatric protocols is similar to that of younger children but is inferior when using adult regimens. This motivated studying AYA patients, including those above the age of 21 years, with pediatric or 'pediatrics-inspired' regimens that intensified nonmyelosuppressive drugs such as vincristine, steroids and asparaginase, with very promising preliminary results. Discovering new mutations in AYA ALL will help stratify patients into risk subgroups and identify targets for novel agents. This, together with fine-tuning pediatric chemotherapy principles will hopefully finally decrease the cure rate gap between children and AYAs - and even older adults. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a perception that kidney transplant recipients transferred from pediatric centers to adult care have an increased risk of graft loss. It is not clear whether young adults transplanted in adult centers also suffer from high graft loss rates. Methods We examined death censored graft survival in 3 cohorts of young patients transplanted at a single center. Pediatric (PED patients transplanted at the pediatric center were compared to a cohort of young adults (YAD; age 18- Results In a multivariate Cox model for death-censored graft survival, PED survival was statistically similar to the YAD (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.44, 1.7, p = 0.66, however the ADL cohort (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.25, 0.82, p = 0.009 demonstrated better survival. Admitted non-adherence rates were not different among cohorts. Patients were transferred within a narrow age window (18.6 ± 1.0 age in years but at a wide range of times from the date of transplantation (5.1 ± 3.5 years and with a wide range of graft function (serum creatinine 182 ± 81 μmol/L. Conclusions The perception that pediatric transfers do poorly reflects advanced graft dysfunction in some at the time of transfer. The evidence also suggests that it is not the transfer of care that is the critical issue but rather recipients, somewhere between the ages of 11-14 and 25, are a unique and vulnerable cohort. Effective strategies to improve outcomes across this age group need to be identified and applied consistently.
McVey, Alana J.; Dolan, Bridget K.; Willar, Kirsten S.; Pleiss, Sheryl; Karst, Jeffrey S.; Casnar, Christina L.; Caiozzo, Christina; Vogt, Elisabeth M.; Gordon, Nakia S.; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan
Young adults with ASD experience difficulties with social skills, empathy, loneliness, and social anxiety. One intervention, "PEERS® for Young Adults," shows promise in addressing these challenges. The present study replicated and extended the original study by recruiting a larger sample (N = 56), employing a gold standard ASD assessment…
Capitão, L P; Murphy, S E; Browning, M; Cowen, P J; Harmer, C J
Fluoxetine is generally regarded as the first-line pharmacological treatment for young people, as it is believed to show a more favourable benefit:risk ratio than other antidepressants. However, the mechanisms through which fluoxetine influences symptoms in youth have been little investigated. This study examined whether acute administration of fluoxetine in a sample of young healthy adults altered the processing of affective information, including positive, sad and anger cues. A total of 35 male and female volunteers aged between 18 and 21 years old were randomized to receive a single 20 mg dose of fluoxetine or placebo. At 6 h after administration, participants completed a facial expression recognition task, an emotion-potentiated startle task, an attentional dot-probe task and the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation. Subjective ratings of mood, anxiety and side effects were also taken pre- and post-fluoxetine/placebo administration. Relative to placebo-treated participants, participants receiving fluoxetine were less accurate at identifying anger and sadness and did not show the emotion-potentiated startle effect. There were no overall significant effects of fluoxetine on subjective ratings of mood. Fluoxetine can modulate emotional processing after a single dose in young adults. This pattern of effects suggests a potential cognitive mechanism for the greater benefit:risk ratio of fluoxetine in adolescent patients.
Heckman, Carolyn J; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Darlow, Susan; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Manne, Sharon L; Munshi, Teja
Indoor tanning (IT) increases risk for melanoma and is particularly common among young adult women. IT has also been linked with some psychiatric symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction) associated with endorphin release during ultraviolet radiation exposure. The objective of the current study was to investigate associations between IT, tanning dependence, and psychiatric and substance use symptoms in young adult women. Cross-sectional survey and psychiatric interview. Online, except for the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), which was completed over the telephone. Participants were 306 female university students aged 18 to 25 years. MINI, Seasonal Scale Index, tanning dependence scales, reporting ever having used a tanning bed or booth with tanning lamps (single item), reporting smoking a cigarette in the last 30 days (single item). Descriptive statistics, χ(2) analysis, multivariate logistic regression. Forty-six percent of the sample reported a history of IT, and 25% were classified as tanning dependent. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that IT was significantly associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders, generalized anxiety, and not having social anxiety. Tanning dependence was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders. Tanning is of concern not only for its association with skin cancer but for its association with psychiatric and substance use symptoms. Young women with certain psychological problems may seek relief from their symptoms by IT. These findings suggest that indoor tanners may benefit from health behavior and other psychosocial interventions.
Ciardo, Francesca; Marino, Barbara F M; Actis-Grosso, Rossana; Rossetti, Angela; Ricciardelli, Paola
Gaze-following behaviour is considered crucial for social interactions which are influenced by social similarity. We investigated whether the degree of similarity, as indicated by the perceived age of another person, can modulate gaze following. Participants of three different age-groups (18-25; 35-45; over 65) performed an eye movement (a saccade) towards an instructed target while ignoring the gaze-shift of distracters of different age-ranges (6-10; 18-25; 35-45; over 70). The results show that gaze following was modulated by the distracter face age only for young adults. Particularly, the over 70 year-old distracters exerted the least interference effect. The distracters of a similar age-range as the young adults (18-25; 35-45) had the most effect, indicating a blurred own-age bias (OAB) only for the young age group. These findings suggest that face age can modulate gaze following, but this modulation could be due to factors other than just OAB (e.g., familiarity).
Marcinow, Michelle L.; Randall Simpson, Janis A.; Whiting, Susan J.; Jung, Mary E.; Buchholz, Andrea C.
Many young Canadian adults are not meeting dietary calcium recommendations. This is concerning as adequate calcium is important throughout young adulthood to maximize peak bone mass for osteoporosis prevention. There are limited studies that have explored young adults' perceptions toward calcium and health. Our objectives were to determine young…
Arntz, R.M.; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the incidence and risk of seizures after stroke in young adults. Especially in the young seizures might dramatically influence prognosis and quality of life. We therefore investigated the long-term incidence and risk of post-stroke epilepsy in young adults with a
Stroud, Clare; Walker, Leslie R; Davis, Maryann; Irwin, Charles E
Contrary to popular perception, young adults-ages approximately 18-26 years-are surprisingly unhealthy. They are less healthy than adolescents, and they also show a worse health profile than those in their late 20s and 30s. The Affordable Care Act provisions to extend coverage for young adults are well known, and some states had already been pursuing similar efforts before the Affordable Care Act was enacted. These initiatives have resulted in important gains in young adults' heath care coverage. However, too little attention has been paid to the care that young adults receive once they are in the system. Given young adults' health problems, this is a critical omission. The Institute of Medicine and National Research Council recently released a report titled Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. The report concludes that young adulthood is a critical developmental period and recommends that young adults ages 18-26 years be treated as a distinct subpopulation in policy, planning, programming, and research. The report also recommends action in three priority areas to improve health care for young adults: improving the transition from pediatric to adult medical and behavioral health care, enhancing preventive care for young adults, and developing evidence-based practices. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sharon L. Manne
Full Text Available Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement, lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ.
Heckman, Carolyn J; Darlow, Susan; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Manne, Sharon L; Munshi, Teja; Perlis, Clifford S
Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement), lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ.
Moschos, M M; Chatziralli, I P; Siasou, G; Papazisis, L
Computer use can cause visual problems. The purpose of our study was to evaluate visual problems due to computer use in young adults. Participants in our study were 87 adults, 48 male and 39 female, mean aged 31.3 years old (SD 7.6). All the participants completed a questionnaire regarding visual problems detected after computer use. The mean daily use of computers was 3.2 hours (SD 2.7). 65.5 % of the participants complained for dry eye, mainly after more than 2.5 hours of computer use. 32 persons (36.8 %) had a foreign body sensation in their eyes, while 15 participants (17.2 %) complained for blurred vision which caused difficulties in driving, after 3.25 hours of continuous computer use. 10.3 % of the participants sought medical advice for their problem. There was a statistically significant correlation between the frequency of visual problems and the duration of computer use (p = 0.021). 79.3 % of the participants use artificial tears during or after long use of computers, so as not to feel any ocular discomfort. The main symptom after computer use in young adults was dry eye. All visual problems associated with the duration of computer use. Artificial tears play an important role in the treatment of ocular discomfort after computer use. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Alonso, Irene; Dellacherie, Delphine; Samson, Séverine
The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009), but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008) or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013) may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24 h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24 h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and dementia. PMID
Alonso, Irene; Dellacherie, Delphine; Samson, Séverine
The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009), but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008) or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013) may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24 h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24 h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and dementia.
Full Text Available The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009, but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008 or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013 may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of to the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and
Montiel-Company, José M.; Manzanera-Pastor, David; Almerich-Silla, José M.
Objectives: Orthodontic treatment need has often been assessed in child populations, but few studies employing internationally-recognized indices have been conducted in adult or young adult populations. The aim of this study was to determine the orthodontic treatment need of a young adult population in Spain by means of the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI), the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and the need perceived by the patients. Study design: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in a broad, representative sample of 671 adults aged between 35 and 44 years using health centers in the Valencia Region of Spain, following the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO). Results: Orthodontic treatment was required by 31.3% of the sample according to the DAI and 19.2% according to the IOTN (DHC). The orthodontic treatment need perceived by the patients was 21.1%. On relating treatment need to different variables, significant differences in patient perception were encountered by gender, as women perceived a greater need (23.9%) than men (14.4%). Significant differences in previous orthodontic treatment history were found between middle/high (15%) and low (9%) social class and between secondary/tertiary (14%) and primary (3.3%) education. Conclusions: There was no agreement between the treatment need assessed objectively by the indices and that perceived by the patient, or between the indices themselves. The decision to undergo orthodontic treatment can depend on socioeconomic and psychological factors and on values and principles that do not easily lend themselves to objective measurement. Key words:Orthodontics, epidemiology, adult, malocclusion. PMID:22322504
Yitshak Sade, Maayan; Novack, Victor; Ifergane, Gal; Horev, Anat; Kloog, Itai
Studies have demonstrated consistent associations between cardiovascular illness and particulate matter (PM) stroke received less attention. We hypothesized that air pollution, an inflammation progenitor, can be associated with stroke incidence in young patients in whom the usual risk factors for stroke are less prevalent. We aimed to evaluate the association between stroke incidence and exposure to PM stroke between 2005 and 2012. Exposure assessment was based on a hybrid model incorporating daily satellite remote sensing data at 1-km spatial resolution. We performed case-crossover analysis, stratified by personal characteristics and distance from main roads. We identified 4837 stroke cases (89.4% ischemic stroke). Interquartile range of PM ischemic stroke and increases of interquartile range average concentrations of particulate matter ischemic stroke associated with PM among young adults. This finding can be explained by the inflammatory mechanism, linking air pollution and stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Hoff, Erika; Core, Cynthia
Language skills in young bilingual children are highly varied as a result of the variability in their language experiences, making it difficult for speech-language pathologists to differentiate language disorder from language difference in bilingual children. Understanding the sources of variability in bilingual contexts and the resulting variability in children's skills will help improve language assessment practices by speech-language pathologists. In this article, we review literature on bilingual first language development for children under 5 years of age. We describe the rate of development in single and total language growth, we describe effects of quantity of input and quality of input on growth, and we describe effects of family composition on language input and language growth in bilingual children. We provide recommendations for language assessment of young bilingual children and consider implications for optimizing children's dual language development. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Wellman, Robert J; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; Montreuil, Annie; Dutczak, Hartley; O'Loughlin, Jennifer
Although most young adult smokers want to quit smoking, few can do so successfully. Increased understanding of reasons to quit in this age group could help tailor interventions, but few studies document reasons to quit in young adults or examine reasons to quit by smoker characteristics. In 2011-12, 311 current smokers (age 22-28, M=24.1; 48.9% male, 51.1% female; 50.4% daily smokers) from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study completed the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting scale. We assessed differences in the importance of 15 reasons to quit by sex, education, smoking frequency, quit attempt in the past year, perceived difficulty in quitting, and motivation to quit. We also examined differences between participants who discounted the importance of long-term health risks and those who acknowledged such risks. Concerns about getting sick or still smoking when older were considered very important by >70% of participants. Median scores were higher among daily smokers, those who had tried to quit or who expressed difficulty quitting, and those with strong motivation to quit. Discounters (14.5% of participants) were primarily nondaily, low-consumption smokers. Their Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence scores did not differ from non-discounters', and 11% (vs. 35.7% of non-discounters) were ICD-10 tobacco dependent. Novel smoking cessation interventions are needed to help young adult smokers quit by capitalizing on their health concerns. Discounters may need educational intervention to better understand the impact of even "light" smoking on their health before or in conjunction with quit interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mimouni, Michael; Zoller, Lilach; Horowitz, Josefa; Wygnanski-Jaffe, Tamara; Morad, Yair; Mezer, Eedy
The precise correction of refractive error is especially important in young adults. It is unclear whether cycloplegic refraction is necessary in this age group. The purpose of this study was to compare the non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE) refractive error measured in young adults. This was a prospective study of 1400 eyes (n = 700) of enlisted soldiers aged 18 to 21 years who were consecutively evaluated in an outpatient army ophthalmology clinic. One drop of cyclopentolate 1 % was installed twice 10 min apart, and cycloplegic refraction was performed in both eyes 40 min later using an auto-refractor. The difference between non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic refractive measurements was analyzed. The mean difference in SE between non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic measurements was 0.68 ± 0.83 D (95 % CI, 0.64-0.72). Significantly greater differences were observed in hypermetropes than myopes (1.30 ± 0.90 D versus 0.46 ± 0.68 D, p 5 D) hypermetropes (1.71 ± 1.18 D versus 1.19 ± 0.74 D and 1.16 ± 1.08 D respectively, p pseudomyopia of -0.5 D. Cycloplegic refraction should be performed in young hypermetropic adults complaining of various signs of asthenopia.
Full Text Available Background: Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. Objectives: This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. Methods: A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool’sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults. Results: 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA. Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Discussion: Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters. The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. Conclusion: The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour as well as the definition and empirical validation
Limpawattana, Panita; Kengkijkosol, Thepkhachi; Assantachai, Prasert; Krairit, Orapitchaya; Pimporm, Jiraporn
Obesity is a worldwide medical condition that leads to physical and psychological impairment. Specific ethnicity, gender and age group are related to different performances of anthropometric indices to predict obesity. The objectives of this study were to estimate the performance of the anthropometric indices for detecting obesity based on percentage of body fat (PBF), to study the correlation among those indices, and to determine the optimal cut-off point of the indices among young Thai adults. This is a cross-sectional study of healthy urban subjects in Khon Kaen, Thailand who were aged 20-39 years. Baseline characteristics and anthropometric measures were collected. PBF was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Demographic data and anthropometric variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the performance of anthropometric measures as predictors of obesity. One-hundred men and 100 women were recruited for this study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-stature ratio (WSR) were significantly correlated to PBF. BMI demonstrated the best performance according to the area under the ROC curves in both sexes at cut-off points of 22.5 in women or 25 kg/m(2) in men. WC and WSR showed better performance than WHR to detect obesity. In conclusion, anthropometric indices in young Thai adults were correlated well with PBF to predict obesity as shown in prior reports. Different cut-off points of these indices to define obesity in young Thai adults are recommended. The global cut-off points of WSR in women regardless of ethnicity are supported.
Chrysanthakopoulos, Nikolaos A
The aim of the current research was to assess the prevalence of gingival recession and to investigate possible associations among this condition, periodontal and epidemiological variables in a sample of young Greek adults in a general dental practice. A total of 1,430 young adults was examined clinically and interviewed regarding several periodontal and epidemiological variables. Collected data included demographic variables, oral hygiene habits and smoking status. Clinical examination included the recording of dental plaque, supragingival calculus presence, gingival status and buccal gingival recession. Multivariate logistic regression analysis model was performed to access the possible association between gingival recession and several periodontal and epidemiological variables as potential risk factors. The overall prevalence of gingival recession was 63.9%. The statistical analysis indicated that higher educational level [OR= 2.12, 95% CI= 0.53-8.51], cigarette smoking [OR= 1.97, 95% CI= 1.48-7.91], frequent tooth brushing [OR= 0.98, 95% CI= 0.56-1.96], presence of oral piercing [OR= 0.92, 95% CI= 0.38-1.58], presence of gingival inflammation [OR= 4.54, 95% CI= 1.68-7.16], presence of dental plaque [OR= 1.67, 95% CI= 0.68-2.83] and presence of supragingival calculus [OR=1.34, 95% CI= 0.59-1.88], were the most important associated factors of gingival recession. The observations of the current research supported the results from previous authors that several periodontal factors, educational level and smoking were significantly associated with the presence of gingival recession, while presence of oral piercing was a new factor that was found to be associated with gingival recession. Key words:Gingival recession, prevalence, risk factors, young adults.
Korczak, Dieter; Steinhauser, Gerlinde; Dietl, Markus
Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool'sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults. 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA). Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters). The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour) as well as the definition and empirical validation of risky alcohol consumption. The efficacy of prevention activities should be proven
Phillips, Abigail Leigh
Cyberbullying is a problem many young adults ages 12 to 18 have experienced on a daily basis. Adult support is critical in both the prevention and intervention of cyberbullying. Although parents, teachers, and school administrators have been highlighted as sources of support for cyberbullied young adults, librarians have not been studied as a…
Aquilino, William S.
Explored implications of later life parental divorce and widowhood for relationship between parents and young adult children among 3,281 young adults who grew up in intact families. Family disruption that occurred after children were grown had sizable effects on parent-adult child relations, with later life divorce lowering relationship quality…
Aquilino, William S.
Explored implications of childhood family disruption for parent-adult child relations in sample of 4,516 young adults. Among young adults raised in single-parent families, relationships with custodial mothers and custodial fathers remained quite positive into early adulthood. Becoming noncustodial parent resulted in severe deterioration of…
Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Postma, Dirkje S; Backer, Vibeke
Objective assessment of airway function is important in epidemiologic studies of asthma to facilitate comparison between studies. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability, and bronchodilator reversibility (BR) are widely used as markers of airway lability in such s...... in such studies. Data from a survey of a population sample of adolescents and young adults (n = 609; 288 males), aged 13-23 years, were analyzed to investigate whether AHR, PEF variability, and BR can be used interchangeably as markers of asthma in an epidemiological setting....
Tangpricha, Vin; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Chen, Tai C.; Holick, Michael F.
Long-term vitamin D insufficiency can cause secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia (1). In addition, there is increasing evidence that vitamin D may protect against common cancers, such as cancer of the colon (2–4), prostate (5), and breast (6). Young adults aged 17 to 35 years drink inadequate amounts of milk (7) and are concerned about exposure to the sun because of the fear of developing skin cancer (8,9), which increases the risk of vitamin D insufficiency (10). We sought to exami...
Balasubramaniam, M; Sivapalan, K; Thuvarathipan, R
To establish reference norms of lung function parameters for healthy Sri Lankan Tamil young adults. Cross sectional study of Tamil students at the Faculty of Medicine, Jaffna. Healthy non smoking students of Sri Lankan Tamil ethnic group were enrolled. Age, height, weight, BMI and spirometric measurements (Micro Quark) were recorded in 267 participants (137 females and 130 males). Height was significantly correlated with (pTamils. When mean values were compared, these parameters were significantly higher in Tamil males (pTamil females (pTamils. However, our study sample was confined to medical students of 20-28 years which may explain the differences with Sinhalese.
Kamada, Tomoari; Shiotani, Akiko; Haruma, Ken
Nodular gastritis is a popular endoscopic gastritis in H. pylori-positive children and young adults. The endoscopic findings of nodular gastritis were mainly characterized by a unique, small granulated pattern in the antrum of the stomach. The cases of gastric cancer with nodular gastritis showed the same characteristics: all were diagnosed histologically as the diffuse-type and were located in the corpus with H. pylori infection. We recommended that endoscopists should carefully examine not only the antrum but also the corpus in patients with nodular gastritis, and H. pylori should be eradicated as soon as possible to prevent gastric cancer.
Murray, I P.C. [Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine
The sensitivity of the radionuclide bone scan in identifying osteoblastic reaction in bone and in detecting local alterations in blood flow is valuable in many benign diseases involving bone, particularly those which are more common in children and young adults, and in which early detection may be critical to future health. Bone scanning offers a simple yet reliable means for establishing an early diagnosis, evaluating the extent of the disease, and assessing the therapeutic response in disorders resulting from infection, trauma, or vascular insult. Useful information may also be obtained in disturbances of growth and development, and in congenital lesions.
Nurul Retno Nurwulan
Full Text Available Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1 texting impaired postural stability, (2 the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3 performing texting is perceived to be more difficult.
Schwartz, Jaime; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol
The incidence of obesity has increased in parallel with increasing portion sizes of individually packaged and ready-to-eat prepared foods as well as foods served at restaurants. Portion distortion (perceiving large portion sizes as appropriate amounts to eat at a single eating occasion) may contribute to increasing energy intakes and expanding waistlines. The purpose of this study was to determine typical portion sizes that young adults select, how typical portion sizes compare with reference portion sizes (based in this study on the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act's quantities of food customarily eaten per eating occasion), and whether the size of typical portions has changed over time. Young adults (n=177, 75% female, age range 16 to 26 years) at a major northeastern university. Participants served themselves typical portion sizes of eight foods at breakfast (n=63) or six foods at lunch or dinner (n=62, n=52, respectively). Typical portion-size selections were unobtrusively weighed. A unit score was calculated by awarding 1 point for each food with a typical portion size that was within 25% larger or smaller than the reference portion; larger or smaller portions were given 0 points. Thus, each participant's unit score could range from 0 to 8 at breakfast or 0 to 6 at lunch and dinner. Analysis of variance or t tests were used to determine whether typical and reference portion sizes differed, and whether typical portion sizes changed over time. Mean unit scores (+/-standard deviation) were 3.63+/-1.27 and 1.89+/-1.14, for breakfast and lunch/dinner, respectively, indicating little agreement between typical and reference portion sizes. Typical portions sizes in this study tended to be significantly different from those selected by young adults in a similar study conducted 2 decades ago. Portion distortion seems to affect the portion sizes selected by young adults for some foods. This phenomenon has the potential to hinder weight loss, weight maintenance, and
The fifth edition of this bestselling book provides a comprehensive introduction to bilingualism and bilingual education. In a compact and clear style, its 19 chapters cover all the crucial issues in bilingualism at individual, group and national levels. These include: (1) defining who is bilingual and multilingual; (2) testing language abilities…
Saliasi, Emi; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Maurits, Natasha M.
While some elderly show deteriorations in cognitive performance, others achieve performance levels comparable to young adults. To examine whether age-related changes in brain activity varied with working memory performance efficiency, we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) from young and older
Leroy, C; Cortet-Rudelli, C; Desailloud, R
Endocrine complications (particularly gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary and metabolic) of childhood cancer treatments are common in young adults. Gonadal damage may be the result of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Fertility preservation must be systematically proposed before initiation of gonadotoxic treatment if only the child is eligible. Hypothalamic-pituitary deficiency is common after brain or total-body irradiation, the somatotropic axis is the most sensitive to irradiation. Pituitary deficiency screening must be repeated since this endocrine consequence can occur many years after treatment. Hormone replacement must be prudent particularly in case of treatment with growth hormone or steroids. Metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular damage resulting from cancer treatments contribute to the increase of morbidity and mortality in this population and should be screened routinely even if the patient is asymptomatic. The multidisciplinary management of these adults must be organized and the role of the endocrinologist is now well established. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Lissner, Michelle M; Thomas, Brandon J; Wee, Kathleen; Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R; Smale, Stephen T
A variety of age-related differences in the innate and adaptive immune systems have been proposed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection of human neonates and older adults. The emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides an opportunity to obtain an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view of gene expression differences in defined cell types from different age groups. An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults, and older adults, with an unexpectedly small number of genes exhibiting statistically significant age-dependent differences. By examining the differentially induced genes in the context of transcription factor binding motifs and RNA-seq data sets from mutant mouse strains, a previously described deficiency in interferon response factor-3 activity could be implicated in most of the differences between newborns and young adults. Contrary to these observations, older adults exhibited elevated expression of inflammatory genes at baseline, yet the responses following stimulation correlated more closely with those observed in younger adults. Notably, major differences in the expression of constitutively expressed genes were not observed, suggesting that the age-related differences are driven by environmental influences rather than cell-autonomous differences in monocyte development.
Lau, Sunny Man Chu
Despite the growing importance of intercultural education, literature is still lacking in related research with young learners. This study reports on a yearlong university-school collaborative research project that aimed to promote students' intercultural competence and critical bi-literacy skills through their exploration of the issue of…
Pezzini, Alessandro; Grassi, Mario; Lodigiani, Corrado; Patella, Rosalba; Gandolfo, Carlo; Casoni, Federica; Musolino, Rossella; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Bovi, Paolo; Adami, Alessandro; Delodovici, Maria Luisa; Del Zotto, Elisabetta; Rota, Lidia Luciana; Rasura, Maurizia; Del Sette, Massimo; Giossi, Alessia; Volonghi, Irene; Zini, Andrea; Cerrato, Paolo; Costa, Paolo; Magoni, Mauro; Iacoviello, Licia; Padovani, Alessandro
the mechanisms underlying the relationship between migraine and ischemic stroke remain uncertain. The aim of the present study was to investigate the predictive value of major cardiovascular risk factors, cardiac interatrial abnormalities, and additional biological markers on migraine subtypes in young adults with ischemic stroke. ischemic stroke patients aged 45 years or younger were consecutively enrolled as part of the Italian Project on Stroke in Young Adults. A comprehensive evaluation was performed including assessment of self-reported migraine and cardiovascular risk factors, interatrial right-to-left shunt, and genotyping to detect factor V Leiden and the G20210A mutation in the prothrombin gene. nine hundred eighty-one patients (mean age, 36.0 ± 7.6 years; 50.7% women) were included. The risk of migraine with aura increased with decreasing number of cardiovascular risk factors (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.24-0.99 for 2 factors or more), increasing number of thrombophilic variants (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.05-4.68 for carriers of at least 1 of the 2), and the presence of right-to-left shunt (OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.37-3.45), as compared to patients without migraine. None of these factors had influence on the risk of migraine without aura. in young adults with ischemic stroke, low cardiovascular risk profile, right-to-left shunt, and an underlying procoagulant state are predictors of migraine with aura. The biological effects of these factors should be considered in future studies aimed at investigating the mechanisms linking migraine to brain ischemia.
Buchanan, Limin; Kelly, Bridget; Yeatman, Heather
Young adults experience faster weight gain and consume more unhealthy food than any other age groups. The impact of online food marketing on "digital native" young adults is unclear. This study examined the effects of online marketing on young adults' consumption behaviours, using energy drinks as a case example. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion was used as the theoretical basis. A pre-test post-test experimental research design was adopted using mixed-methods. Participants (age...
Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat
[Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (...
Incera, Sara; McLennan, Conor T
We analyzed the effects of bilingualism and age on executive function. We examined these variables along a continuum, as opposed to dichotomizing them. We investigated the impact that bilingualism and age have on two measures of executive control (Stroop and Flanker). The mouse-tracking paradigm allowed us to examine the continuous dynamics of the responses as participants completed each trial. First, we found that the Stroop effect was reduced with younger age and higher levels of bilingualism; however, no Bilingualism by Age interaction emerged. Second, after controlling for baseline, the Flanker effect was not influenced by bilingualism or age. These results support the notion that bilingualism is one way of enhancing some aspects of executive function - specifically those related to the Stroop task - across the adult life span. In sum, different levels of bilingualism, and different ages, result in varying degrees of executive function as measured by the Stroop task.
Henkel, Ayoe Qvist
The digital turn does not bring about changes in young adultliterature considered as aesthetic artifacts and literary works but it changes the perception and reception of the reader. Digital young adult literature is increasingly multimodal, including interactivity and the integration of elements...... of game aesthetics. The way the young person is articulated within such texts must be presumed to be new, and the pivotal point of this paper will be to explore how the young adult reader is thematized in content, form, and medium in digital young adult literature....
Hébert, Emily T; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Businelle, Michael S; Harrell, Melissa B; Kelder, Steven H; Perry, Cheryl L
We used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine young adults' attitudes towards pro-tobacco messages encountered in real time and their association with intentions to use tobacco. Young adults (N = 92, ages 18-29) recorded sightings of marketing or social media related to tobacco in real time via mobile app for 28 days. Participants reported message characteristics, their attitudes towards the message, and intentions to use the depicted product for each submission. We used generalized linear mixed models to examine factors related to attitude towards message and intentions to use tobacco. Messages depicting e-cigarettes (p < .001) or hookah (p < .05) were associated with significantly more favorable attitudes compared with traditional cigarettes. Positive attitude towards the message was significantly associated with intention to use the depicted product (p < .001). Messages depicting e-cigarettes and hookah were significantly associated with higher intention to use. Message source was not significantly related to attitudes towards the message or product use intentions. Marketing featuring e-cigarettes and hookah is an important target for future regulation. Given that pro-tobacco and e-cigarette messages are prevalent online, future research should consider the Internet and social media as important venues for counter-marketing and intervention efforts.
Raísa Coutinho Vitcel
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To obtain reference values of chewing time of several food textures in young adults. METHOD: descriptive study with a quantitative approach that was developed in a clinical reference, being the population composed of 40 young adults between 18-30 years of age, of both genres. As exclusion criteria: those with neuromuscular and / or degenerative diseases or consequences thereof, as well as subjects who were making use of any orthodontic / orthopedic resource. We conducted a dental evaluation, followed by a clinical assessment. One at a time, the following foods were offered: French bread, wafer biscuit, roasted cashews, for voluntary chewing. To measure the food chewing time, we used a stopwatch, and this collection procedure was filmed. Data analysis was performed by means of the SPSS statistics 20.0 (IBM® program. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 between the medians of chewing time of French bread, wafer biscuit and cashew nuts, which were 33.0s (interquartile amplitude 29.0 - 40.0, 10.0s (interquartile amplitude 8.25-12.0 and 18.5s (interquartile amplitude 15.0-23.75, respectively. CONCLUSION: The texture of foods influences the length of mastication. The more rigid is the food, the more cycles and mandibular movements, and therefore the longer the duration of chewing.
Hoek, Janet; Wong, Christiane; Gendall, Philip; Louviere, Jordan; Cong, Karen
Tobacco industry documents illustrate how packaging promotes smoking experimentation and reinforces existing smokers' behaviour. Plain packaging reduces the perceived attractiveness of smoking and creates an opportunity to introduce larger pictorial warnings that could promote cessation-linked behaviours. However, little is known about the effects such a combined policy measure would have on smokers' behaviour. A 3 (warning size) *4 (branding level) plus control (completely plain pack) best-worst experiment was conducted via face-to-face interviews with 292 young adult smokers from a New Zealand provincial city. The Juster Scale was also used to estimate cessation-linked behaviours among participants. Of the 13 options tested, respondents were significantly less likely to choose those featuring fewer branding elements or larger health warnings. Options that featured more branding elements were still preferred even when they also featured a 50% health warning, but were significantly less likely to be chosen when they featured a 75% warning. Comparison of a control pack representing the status quo (branded with 30% front of pack warning) and a plain pack (with a 75% warning) revealed the latter would be significantly more likely to elicit cessation-related behaviours. Plain packs that feature large graphic health warnings are significantly more likely to promote cessation among young adult smokers than fully or partially branded packs. The findings support the introduction of plain packaging and suggest use of unbranded package space to feature larger health warnings would further promote cessation.
Rosenthal, Samantha R; Buka, Stephen L; Marshall, Brandon D L; Carey, Kate B; Clark, Melissa A
To examine whether negative Facebook (FB) experiences were independently associated with depressive symptoms among young adults in a longitudinal family cohort. Negative FB experiences were measured by type (e.g., bullying or meanness, unwanted contact, misunderstandings, or any), recency, number of experiences, and severity of upset. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for sibling correlation; adjusted models were constructed for each negative FB experience measure accounting for sex, race/ethnicity, social support, adolescent depressive symptoms, parental psychological distress, average monthly income, educational attainment, and employment. In a sample of 264 young adults, all negative FB experience measures were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. There is a clear association between negative FB experience and depressive symptoms. Future work should examine: (1) whether negative FB experiences cause incident depression or exacerbate preexisting depression; and (2) who is most prone to being upset by negative FB experiences. With further research, recommendations for limiting or altering FB use among high-risk subpopulations could be useful in reducing depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maria Regina Rachmawati
Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand, posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007. The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.
Maria Regina Rachmawati
Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand, posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007. The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.
Minna K Salonen
Full Text Available Low physical activity (PA is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS, its components and body composition among young Finnish adults.The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET.The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours or intensity (MET were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS.MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS.
Test, M A; Wallisch, L S; Allness, D J; Ripp, K
Use of nonprescribed mood altering substances is pervasive and problematic in young adults with serious mental illnesses in community care. Fifty-eight percent of young adult clients with clearly defined schizophrenia or schizophrenia-related disorders participating in a long-term community treatment study were rated by staff or themselves as using alcohol, cannabis, or other street drugs several times a week or more. We interviewed in depth a random sample of these "significant users" to obtain their perspective on their frequencies, patterns, histories, contributing factors to, and effects of substance use and their related treatment experiences. Results revealed these clients' substance use to be of long duration and deeply entrenched, with current use often involving multiple substances including both street drugs and substances of "everyday life" (e.g., caffeine, nicotine). Clients reported compelling reasons for use including anxiety reduction, relief of boredom, and a means for social contact. Staff and clients clearly view substance use quite differently, with the latter focusing at least as much on consequences of symptom relief as symptom exacerbation. Treatment implications are discussed.
G Ruben H Regterschot
Full Text Available This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT, Stroop Difference Score (SDS and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20 and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16 performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.
Regterschot, G Ruben H; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Zeinstra, Edzard B; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A
This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20) and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.
Cortese, Daniel K.; Lewis, M. Jane; Ling, Pamela M.
Purpose This is the first study describing the tobacco industry’s objectives developing and publishing lifestyle magazines, linking them to tobacco marketing strategies, and how these magazines may encourage smoking. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and content analysis of 31 lifestyle magazines to understand the motives behind producing these magazines and the role they played in tobacco marketing strategies. Results Philip Morris (PM) debuted Unlimited in 1996 to nearly 2 million readers and RJ Reynolds (RJR) debuted CML in 1999 targeting young adults with their interests. Both magazines were developed as the tobacco companies faced increased advertising restrictions Unlimited contained few images of smoking, but frequently featured elements of the Marlboro brand identity in both advertising and article content. CML featured more smoking imagery and fewer Camel brand identity elements. Conclusions Lifestyle promotions that lack images of smoking may still promote tobacco use through brand imagery. The tobacco industry still uses the “under the radar” strategies used in development of lifestyle magazines in branded websites. Prohibiting lifestyle advertising including print and electronic media that associate tobacco with recreation, action, pleasures, and risky behaviors or that reinforces tobacco brand identity may be an effective strategy to curb young adult smoking. PMID:19699423
Cortese, Daniel K; Lewis, M Jane; Ling, Pamela M
This is the first study describing the tobacco industry's objectives developing and publishing lifestyle magazines, linking them to tobacco marketing strategies, and how these magazines may encourage smoking. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and content analysis of 31 lifestyle magazines to understand the motives behind producing these magazines and the role they played in tobacco marketing strategies. Philip Morris (PM) debuted Unlimited in 1996 to nearly 2 million readers and RJ Reynolds (RJR) debuted CML in 1999, targeting young adults with their interests. Both magazines were developed as the tobacco companies faced increased advertising restrictions. Unlimited contained few images of smoking, but frequently featured elements of the Marlboro brand identity in both advertising and article content. CML featured more smoking imagery and fewer Camel brand identity elements. Lifestyle promotions that lack images of smoking may still promote tobacco use through brand imagery. The tobacco industry still uses the "under-the-radar" strategies used in development of lifestyle magazines in branded Websites. Prohibiting lifestyle advertising including print and electronic media that associate tobacco with recreation, action, pleasures, and risky behaviors or that reinforces tobacco brand identity may be an effective strategy to curb young adult smoking.
Full Text Available The paper examines young adult dystopian novels written in the first decade of the 21st century, as heirs to the tradition of the bildungsroman, and the great dystopias. The focus of this new genre has shifted from maintaining "the best of all worlds" – where the young person adjusts and fits into the existing world, to the shaping of the hero’s critical spirit which is supposed to result in the hero/heroine growing up, but also in changes in the world which they inhabit. Two other important characteristics of these novels are the critical relationship toward ancestors and tradition on the one hand, and on the other the positive assessment of non-rational decisions which are made impulsively and are based on emotions, which points to the abandonment of different aspects of the heritage of modernity (the traditions of rationalism and romanticism. Thus they set the stage for a new, different view of the world and the role which the individual is to fulfill by growing from a child into an adult in such a world.
Mitchell, Andrew B; Cole, John W; McArdle, Patrick F; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Ryan, Kathleen A; Sparks, Mary J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J
Body mass index has been associated with ischemic stroke in older populations, but its association with stroke in younger populations is not known. In light of the current obesity epidemic in the United States, the potential impact of obesity on stroke risk in young adults deserves attention. A population-based case-control study design with 1201 cases and 1154 controls was used to investigate the relationship of obesity and young onset ischemic stroke. Stroke cases were between the ages of 15 and 49 years. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between body mass index and ischemic stroke with and without adjustment for comorbid conditions associated with stroke. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity, obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m(2)) was associated with an increased stroke risk (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-1.94) although this increased risk was highly attenuated and not statistically significant after adjustment for smoking, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. These results indicate that obesity is a risk factor for young onset ischemic stroke and suggest that this association may be partially mediated through hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or other variables associated with these conditions. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Wilson, Kathryn; Fornasier, Stephanie; White, Katherine M
Young people are increasingly using social networking sites (SNSs) like MySpace and Facebook to engage with others. The use of SNSs can have both positive and negative effects on the individual; however, few studies identify the types of people who frequent these Internet sites. This study sought to predict young adults' use of SNSs and addictive tendency toward the use of SNSs from their personality characteristics and levels of self-esteem. University students (N = 201), aged 17 to 24 years, reported their use of SNSs and addictive tendencies for SNSs use and completed the NEO Five-Factor Personality Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Multiple regression analyses revealed that, as a group, the personality and self-esteem factors significantly predicted both level of SNS use and addictive tendency but did not explain a large amount of variance in either outcome measure. The findings indicated that extroverted and unconscientious individuals reported higher levels of both SNS use and addictive tendencies. Future research should attempt to identify which other psychosocial characteristics explain young people's level of use and propensity for addictive tendencies for these popular Internet sites.
Juho M. Strömmer
Full Text Available Aging is associated with cognitive decline and alterations in early perceptual processes. Studies in the auditory and visual modalities have shown that the mismatch negativity (or the mismatch response, MMR, an event-related potential (ERP elicited by a deviant stimulus in a background of homogenous events, diminishes with aging and cognitive decline. However, the effects of aging on the somatosensory MMR are not known. In the current study, we recorded ERPs to electrical pulses to different fingers of the left hand in a passive oddball experiment in young (22–36 years and elderly (66–95 years adults engaged in a visual task. The MMR was found to deviants as compared to standards at two latency ranges: 180–220 ms and 250–290 ms post-stimulus onset. At 180–220 ms, within the young, the MMR was found at medial electrode sites, whereas aged did not show any amplitude difference between the stimulus types at the same latency range. At 250–290 ms, the MMR was evident with attenuated amplitude and narrowed scalp distribution among aged (Fz compared to young (fronto-centrally and lateral parietal sites. Hence, the results reveal that the somatosensory change detection mechanism is altered in aging. The somatosensory MMR can be used as a reliable measure of age-related changes in sensory-cognitive functions.
Jaffre, A; Guidolin, B; Ruidavets, J-B; Nasr, N; Larrue, V
Up to 50% of ischaemic strokes in young adults are classified as cryptogenic despite extensive work-up. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of non-obstructive carotid atherosclerosis (NOCA) and its association with patent foramen ovale (PFO) in young adults with cryptogenic stroke (CS). Patients aged 18-54 years, consecutively treated for first-ever CS in an academic stroke service, were included. NOCA was assessed using carotid ultrasound examination and was defined as carotid plaque with young adults with CS. NOCA is negatively associated with PFO. Detecting NOCA is an important component of stroke investigation in young adults. © 2017 EAN.
Lanoye, Autumn; Gorin, Amy A; LaRose, Jessica Gokee
Young adults are underrepresented in standard behavioral weight loss trials, and evidence suggests that they differ from older adults on many weight-related constructs. The aim of this review is to explore young adults' attitudes toward obesity and weight management, with particular attention to those factors that may play a role in the development of future treatment efforts. Both intrapersonal and interpersonal considerations unique to young adulthood are assessed; in addition, we examine young adults' perceptions of specific weight-related behaviors such as dieting, physical activity, and self-weighing. Conclusions are consistent with other findings suggesting that weight management interventions should be adapted and designed specifically for this age group.
Gorman, Jessica R; Whitcomb, Brian W; Standridge, Daniel; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Romero, Sally A D; Roberts, Samantha A; Su, H Irene
We compared adoption consideration between female young adult cancer survivors and women of the same age in the general US population, hypothesizing that cancer survivors who desired children would report greater interest in adoption than an age-adjusted general population sample who desired children. After age-standardizing the cancer survivor cohort to match the age distribution of the 2006-2010 National Survey for Family Growth (NSFG), we estimated adoption consideration among women age 18-35 years who wanted a (another) child in the two cohorts overall and within age groups. We assessed characteristics and concerns related to adoption consideration among cancer survivors. Among cancer survivors, 81.6 % (95 % CI 75.7-87.6) reported that they would consider adoption compared to 40.3 % (95 % CI 40.3-40.3) of women in the general population. While over 80 % of the cancer survivor sample reported that they would consider adoption, only 15 % of cancer survivors reported no concerns about adoption. The most common concerns were desire for a biological child (48 %), expense (45 %), adoption agency candidacy (41 %), and needing more information (39 %). We observed a twofold higher interest in adoption when comparing the cancer survivor with the general population, suggesting that adoption is a consideration for many young women who have survived cancer. Adoption is an important family-building option for those who want to have a child but are unable to or choose not to have a biological child. However, young adult survivors may need more support to understand and navigate this process.
Lustgarten, Michael S; Price, Lori L; Phillips, Edward M; Kirn, Dylan R; Mills, John; Fielding, Roger A
Lustgarten, MS, Price, LL, Phillips, EM, Kirn, DR, Mills, J, and Fielding, RA. Serum predictors of percent lean mass in young adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2194-2201, 2016-Elevated lean (skeletal muscle) mass is associated with increased muscle strength and anaerobic exercise performance, whereas low levels of lean mass are associated with insulin resistance and sarcopenia. Therefore, studies aimed at obtaining an improved understanding of mechanisms related to the quantity of lean mass are of interest. Percent lean mass (total lean mass/body weight × 100) in 77 young subjects (18-35 years) was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Twenty analytes and 296 metabolites were evaluated with the use of the standard chemistry screen and mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling, respectively. Sex-adjusted multivariable linear regression was used to determine serum analytes and metabolites significantly (p ≤ 0.05 and q ≤ 0.30) associated with the percent lean mass. Two enzymes (alkaline phosphatase and serum glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransferase) and 29 metabolites were found to be significantly associated with the percent lean mass, including metabolites related to microbial metabolism, uremia, inflammation, oxidative stress, branched-chain amino acid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, glycerolipid metabolism, and xenobiotics. Use of sex-adjusted stepwise regression to obtain a final covariate predictor model identified the combination of 5 analytes and metabolites as overall predictors of the percent lean mass (model R = 82.5%). Collectively, these data suggest that a complex interplay of various metabolic processes underlies the maintenance of lean mass in young healthy adults.
Hvid, Carmit Romano
In Today’s Israel the school system is divided by nationality and language. Jews study in Jewish only schools and the medium of instruction is Hebrew, while Arabs study in Arab only schools and the medium of instruction is Arabic. The first initiative of Arab-Jewish bilingual education is from...... schools throughout the country. In those schools, pupils from the two populations, Jews and Arabs receive their primary schooling in the two languages concurrently. This unique educational phenomenon has attracted considerable attention in the media and the published press, and both documentary films...
Amandine eVan Rinsveld
Full Text Available Solving arithmetic problems is a cognitive task that heavily relies on language processing. One might thus wonder whether this language-reliance leads to qualitative differences (e.g. greater difficulties, error types, etc. in arithmetic for bilingual individuals who frequently have to solve arithmetic problems in more than one language. The present study investigated how proficiency in two languages interacts with arithmetic problem solving throughout language acquisition in adolescents and young adults. Additionally, we examined whether the number word structure that is specific to a given language plays a role in number processing over and above bilingual proficiency. We addressed these issues in a German-French educational bilingual setting, where there is a progressive transition from German to French as teaching language. Importantly, German and French number naming structures differ clearly, as two-digit number names follow a unit-ten order in German, but a ten-unit order in French. We implemented a transversal developmental design in which bilingual pupils from grades 7, 8, 10, 11, and young adults were asked to solve simple and complex additions in both languages. The results confirmed that language proficiency is crucial especially for complex addition computation. Simple additions in contrast can be retrieved equally well in both languages after extended language practice. Additional analyses revealed that over and above language proficiency, language-specific number word structures (e.g. unit-ten vs. ten-unit also induced significant modulations of bilinguals’ arithmetic performances. Taken together, these findings support the view of a strong relation between language and arithmetic in bilinguals.
Porter, Jerlym S; Wesley, Kimberly M; Zhao, Mimi S; Rupff, Rebecca J; Hankins, Jane S
The aim of this study was to explore perspectives of transition and transition readiness of young adult patients (YAs) with sickle cell disease (SCD) who have transitioned to adult health care. In all, 19 YAs with SCD (ages 18-30 years) participated in one of three focus groups and completed a brief questionnaire about transition topics. Transcripts were coded and emergent themes were examined using the social-ecological model of adolescent and young adult readiness for transition (SMART). Themes were consistent with most SMART components. Adult provider relationships and negative medical experiences emerged as salient factors. YAs ranked choosing an adult provider, seeking emergency care, understanding medications/medication adherence, knowing SCD complications, and being aware of the impact of health behaviors as the most important topics to include in transition programming. The unique perspectives of YAs can inform the development and evaluation of SCD transition programming by incorporating the identified themes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
This paper examines the adult gaze on children’s literature through the lens of Eric Tribunella’s article “From Kiddie Lit to Kiddie Porn” (2008) which explores the implications of child sexuality through an examination of Chris Kent’s parodies of The Coral Island by R. M. Ballantyne and Tom Brown’s Schooldays by Thomas Hughes. Introducing Kincaid’s term ‘child-loving,’ I explore the implications of the types of ‘child-loving’ as they are examined in children’s and young adult literature. Thi...
Full Text Available Although there is wide variation in the prevalence of nasal allergies internationally, the extent to which this is due to variation in etiological factors is not known. The purpose of the present study was to define the relative importance of atopy and other risk factors for nasal allergies, including hayfever, among young adults in Melbourne. The subjects were participants in the second phase of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey; 876 adults between 20 and 45 years of age completed a detailed respiratory questionnaire, 745 had skin prick testing with common aeroallergens and 675 underwent methacholine challenge. Total and allergen-specific IgE levels were measured in 701 and 693 subjects by radioimmunoassay and RAST, respectively. Nasal allergies, including hayfever, were reported by 47.5% of randomly selected participants. Females, non- smokers, subjects with a family history of allergies, those with current asthma, a history of eczema and nasal symptoms induced by dust, pollen or food were significantly more likely to have nasal allergies. Oral antihistamines had been used by 45.7% of those reporting nasal allergies and 12.4% had received allergen immunotherapy. The risk of nasal allergies, including hayfever, was increased 6.1-fold by atopy, particularly by positive skin tests to outdoor allergens such as Birch, Timothy grass, plantain, olive, Cladosporium and Rye grass pollen. Total serum IgE was significantly higher in subjects reporting nasal allergies than in those who did not report such allergies. There were significant trends in the prevalence of nasal allergies with increasing titers of specific IgE directed against all allergens tested. In conclusion, the significant independent risk factors for nasal allergies, including hayfever, in young adults were atopy, particularly sensitization to Timothy grass, house dust mites and plantain, current asthma, not smoking, a history of eczema and female gender. Future research
Hoppmann, Christiane A; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda
In the present study, we examined the link between goal and problem-solving strategy preferences in 130 young and older adults using hypothetical family problem vignettes. At baseline, young adults preferred autonomy goals, whereas older adults preferred generative goals. Imagining an expanded future time perspective led older adults to show preferences for autonomy goals similar to those observed in young adults but did not eliminate age differences in generative goals. Autonomy goals were associated with more self-focused instrumental problem solving, whereas generative goals were related to more other-focused instrumental problem solving in the no-instruction and instruction conditions. Older adults were better at matching their strategies to their goals than young adults were. This suggests that older adults may become better at selecting their strategies in accordance with their goals. Our findings speak to a contextual approach to everyday problem solving by showing that goals are associated with the selection of problem-solving strategies.
Sanford, Stacy D; Zhao, Fengmin; Salsman, John M; Chang, Victor T; Wagner, Lynne I; Fisch, Michael J
Cancer incidence has increased among young adults (YAs) and survival rates have not improved compared with other age groups. Patient-reported outcomes may enhance our understanding of this vulnerable population. In a multisite prospective study, patients completed a cancer symptom inventory at the time of enrollment (T1) and 4 weeks to 5 weeks later (T2). YAs (those aged ≤ 39 years) with breast or colorectal cancer were compared with older adults (those aged ≥ 40 years) with breast or colorectal cancer with regard to symptom severity, symptom interference, changes over time, and medical care. Participants included 1544 patients with breast cancer (96 of whom were YAs) and 718 patients with colorectal cancer (37 of whom were YAs). Compared with older adults, YAs with breast cancer were more likely to report moderate/severe drowsiness, hair loss, and symptom interference with relationships at T1. YAs with colorectal cancer were more likely to report moderate/severe pain, fatigue, nausea, distress, drowsiness, shortness of breath, and rash plus interference in general activity, mood, work, relationships, and life enjoyment compared with older adults. Compared with older adults, shortness of breath, appetite, and sore mouth were more likely to improve in YAs with breast cancer; vomiting was less likely to improve in YAs with colorectal cancer. Referrals for supportive care were few, especially among patients with colorectal cancer. YAs with breast cancer were somewhat more likely to be referred to nutrition and psychiatry services than older patients. YAs reported symptom severity, symptom interference, and variations over time that were distinct from older patients. Distinctions were found to differ by diagnostic group. These findings enhance the understanding of symptom burden in YAs and inform the development of targeted interventions and future research. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
Schmitz, Rachel M; Tyler, Kimberly A
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and other sexual and gender minority (LGBTQ+) young adults face unique identity-related experiences based on their immersion in distinctive social contexts. The predominant framework of performing separate analyses on samples of LGBTQ+ young people by their primary social status obfuscates more holistic understandings of the role of social context. Using 46 in-depth interviews with LGBTQ+ college students and LGBTQ+ homeless young adults, we ask: How are LGBTQ+ young adults' capacities for "doing" their gender and sexual identities shaped by their distinctive social contexts? In developing their identities, both groups of LGBTQ+ young adults navigated their social environments to seek out resources and support. Most college students described their educational contexts as conducive to helping them develop their identities, or "undo" rigid norms of gender and sexuality. Homeless young adults' social environments, meanwhile, imposed complex barriers to self-expression that reinforced more normative expectations of "doing" gender and sexual identities.
Altintzoglou, T.; Sveinsdottir, K.; Einarsdottir, G.; Schelvis, R.; Luten, J.B.
This article describes the results of a study that tested the responses to 14 seafood concepts among young adults and families with young children in Denmark, Norway, and Iceland. This study was aimed at gaining insight into the evaluation of new seafood product concepts by individuals with low
Gough, Aisling; Linden, Mark A; Spence, Dale; Halliday, Henry L; Patterson, Christopher C; McGarvey, Lorcan
To assess long-term impairments of executive functioning in adult survivors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Participants were assessed on measures of executive functioning, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and social functioning. Survivors of BPD (n = 63; 34 males; mean age 24.2 years) were compared with groups comprising preterm (without BPD) (executive functioning relating to problem solving (OR: 5.1, CI: 1.4-19.3), awareness of behavior (OR: 12.7, CI: 1.5-106.4) and organization of their environment (OR: 13.0, CI: 1.6-107.1). Birth weight, HRQoL and social functioning were predictive of deficits in executive functioning. This study represents the largest sample of survivors into adulthood of BPD and is the first to show that deficits in executive functioning persist. Children with BPD should be assessed to identify cognitive impairments and allow early intervention aimed at ameliorating their effects. Implications for Rehabilitation Adults born preterm with very-low birth weight, and particularly those who develop BPD, are at increased risk of exhibiting defects in executive functioning. Clinicians and educators should be made aware of the impact that BPD can have on the long-term development of executive functions. Children and young adults identified as having BPD should be periodically monitored to identify the need for possible intervention.
Le Tuan, Thanh; Nguyen, Ngoc Minh; Demoulin, Bruno; Bonabel, Claude; Nguyen-Thi, Phi Linh; Ioan, Iulia; Schweitzer, Cyril; Nguyen, H T T; Varechova, Silvia; Marchal, Francois
In healthy Vietnamese children the respiratory resistance has been suggested to be similar at 110 cm height but larger at 130 cm when compared with data in Caucasians from the literature, suggesting smaller airways in older Vietnamese children (Vu et al., 2008). The hypothesis tested here is whether the difference in airway resistance remains consistent throughout growth, and if it is larger in adult Vietnamese than in Caucasians. Airway resistance and Functional Residual Capacity were measured in healthy young Caucasian and Vietnamese adults in their respective native country using identical equipment and protocols. Ninety five subjects in Vietnam (60 males) and 101 in France (41 males) were recruited. Airway resistance was significantly larger in Vietnamese than in Caucasians and in females than in males, consistent with difference in body dimensions. Specific airway resistance however was not different by ethnicity or gender. The findings do not support the hypothesis that airway size at adult age - once normalized for lung volume - differs between Vietnamese and Caucasians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bogolyubova, Olga; Skochilov, Roman; Smykalo, Lyubov
The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of childhood victimization experiences in a sample of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia. The study sample included 743 students aged 19 to 25 from 15 universities in St. Petersburg, Russia. All of the study participants completed a reliable questionnaire assessing the following types of childhood victimization: conventional crime, child maltreatment, peer victimization, sexual victimization, and witnessing violence. Participation in the study was anonymous. High rates of victimization and exposure to violence were reported by the study participants. The majority of the sample experienced at least one type of victimization during childhood or adolescence, and poly-victimization was reported frequently. The most common type of victimization reported was peer or sibling assault (66.94%), followed by witnessing an assault without weapon (63.91%), personal theft (56.19%), vandalism (56.06%), and emotional bullying (49.99%). Sexual assault by a known adult was reported by 1.45% males and 5.16% of females. This study provides new information on the scope of childhood victimization experiences in Russia. Further research is warranted, including epidemiological research with representative data across the country and studies of the impact of trauma and victimization on mental health and well-being of Russian adults and children. © The Author(s) 2014.
Martinez-Roldan, Carmen M.
This article presents a case study of young bilingual students' discussions of literature in a second-grade Spanish/English bilingual classroom in the US. Sociocultural, critical, and Chicana feminist perspectives informed an analysis of the ways the children worked at understanding, marking, and resisting gender boundaries. This critical…
Bergman, Yoav S; Bodner, Ehud
Upon encountering older adults, individuals display varying degrees of prosocial attitudes and behaviors. While some display compassion and empathy, others draw away and wish to maintain their distance from them. The current study examined if and how ageist attitudes influence the association between the sight of physical incapacity in older age and compassionate reactions toward them. We predicted that ageist attitudes would interfere with the ability to respond to them with compassion. Young adults (N = 149, ages 19-29) were randomly distributed into two experimental conditions, each viewing a short video portraying different aspects of older adult physicality; one group viewed older adults displaying incapacitated behavior, and the other viewed fit behavior. Participants subsequently filled out scales assessing aging anxieties, and ageist and compassionate attitudes. Ageism was associated with reduced compassion toward the figures. Moreover, viewing incapacitated older adults led to increased concern toward them and perceived efficacy in helping them. However, significant interactions proved that higher scores of ageism in response to the videos led to increased need for distance and reduced efficacy toward incapacitated adults, an effect not observed among subjects with lower ageism scores. Ageism seems to be a factor which disengages individuals from older adults displaying fragility, leading them to disregard social norms which dictate compassion. The results are discussed from the framework of terror management theory, as increased mortality salience and death-related thoughts could have led to the activation of negative attitudes which, in turn, reduce compassion.
Berge, Jerica M; Bauer, Katherine W; Eisenberg, Marla E; Denny, Kara; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Previous research has shown a relationship between childhood/adolescent chronic conditions and negative health behaviors, psychological outcomes, and social outcomes. Less is known about whether these negative outcomes are experienced by young adults with chronic health conditions. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how young adults' BMI, health behaviors, and psychological and social outcomes differ depending on whether they have diabetes, asthma, or neither of these chronic conditions. Data were drawn from the third wave of Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Young Adults, a population-based study of 2287 young adults (mean age = 25.3; range 19.8 - 31.2). General linear models were used to test differences in BMI, health behaviors (e.g., fast food intake) and psychosocial outcomes (e.g. depressive symptoms) by young adults' chronic disease status. Young adults with diabetes had higher BMIs, engaged in less physical activity and more unhealthy weight control behaviors and binge eating, had lower self-esteem and lower body satisfaction, and experienced more depressive symptoms and appearance-based teasing compared to young adults with asthma or no chronic conditions, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and, when relevant, for BMI. There were no significant differences between young adults with asthma and young adults with no chronic condition on all of the psychosocial and health behavior outcomes. Young adults with diabetes reported higher prevalence of negative health behaviors and psychosocial outcomes. Providers may find it useful to assess for negative health behaviors and psychosocial variables with young adults with diabetes in order to improve treatment and quality of life for these individuals.
Dhir, Amandeep; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Pallesen, Ståle; Andreassen, Cecilie S.
Selfies, or self-portraits, are often taken and shared on social media for online self-presentation reasons, which are considered essential for the psychosocial development and well-being of people in today’s culture. Despite the growing popularity and widespread sharing of selfies in the online space, little is known about how privacy concerns moderate selfie behavior. In addition to this, it is also not known whether privacy concerns across age and gender groups influence selfie behavior. To address this timely issue, a survey assessing common selfie behaviors, that is, frequency of taking (individual and group selfies), editing (cropping and filtering), and posting selfies online, and social media privacy concerns (over personal data being accessed and misused by third parties) was conducted. The web-survey was administered to 3,763 Norwegian social media users, ranging from 13 to 50 years, with a preponderance of women (n = 2,509, 66.7%). The present study investigated the impact of privacy concerns on selfie behaviors across gender and age groups (adolescent, young adult, and adult) by use of the structural equation modeling approach. The results suggest that young adults have greater privacy concerns compared to adolescents and adults. Females have greater privacy concerns than males. Greater privacy concerns among female social media users were linked to lower engagement in selfie behavior, but privacy concerns did not influence selfie behavior in the case of male adolescents and young adults. Overall, privacy concerns were more consistently and inversely related to selfie behavior (taking and posting) among females than males. The study results have theoretical as well as practical implications for both researchers and policy makers. PMID:28588530
Dhir, Amandeep; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Pallesen, Ståle; Andreassen, Cecilie S
Selfies, or self-portraits, are often taken and shared on social media for online self-presentation reasons, which are considered essential for the psychosocial development and well-being of people in today's culture. Despite the growing popularity and widespread sharing of selfies in the online space, little is known about how privacy concerns moderate selfie behavior. In addition to this, it is also not known whether privacy concerns across age and gender groups influence selfie behavior. To address this timely issue, a survey assessing common selfie behaviors, that is, frequency of taking (individual and group selfies), editing (cropping and filtering), and posting selfies online, and social media privacy concerns (over personal data being accessed and misused by third parties) was conducted. The web-survey was administered to 3,763 Norwegian social media users, ranging from 13 to 50 years, with a preponderance of women ( n = 2,509, 66.7%). The present study investigated the impact of privacy concerns on selfie behaviors across gender and age groups (adolescent, young adult, and adult) by use of the structural equation modeling approach. The results suggest that young adults have greater privacy concerns compared to adolescents and adults. Females have greater privacy concerns than males. Greater privacy concerns among female social media users were linked to lower engagement in selfie behavior, but privacy concerns did not influence selfie behavior in the case of male adolescents and young adults. Overall, privacy concerns were more consistently and inversely related to selfie behavior (taking and posting) among females than males. The study results have theoretical as well as practical implications for both researchers and policy makers.
Full Text Available Selfies, or self-portraits, are often taken and shared on social media for online self-presentation reasons, which are considered essential for the psychosocial development and well-being of people in today’s culture. Despite the growing popularity and widespread sharing of selfies in the online space, little is known about how privacy concerns moderate selfie behavior. In addition to this, it is also not known whether privacy concerns across age and gender groups influence selfie behavior. To address this timely issue, a survey assessing common selfie behaviors, that is, frequency of taking (individual and group selfies, editing (cropping and filtering, and posting selfies online, and social media privacy concerns (over personal data being accessed and misused by third parties was conducted. The web-survey was administered to 3,763 Norwegian social media users, ranging from 13 to 50 years, with a preponderance of women (n = 2,509, 66.7%. The present study investigated the impact of privacy concerns on selfie behaviors across gender and age groups (adolescent, young adult, and adult by use of the structural equation modeling approach. The results suggest that young adults have greater privacy concerns compared to adolescents and adults. Females have greater privacy concerns than males. Greater privacy concerns among female social media users were linked to lower engagement in selfie behavior, but privacy concerns did not influence selfie behavior in the case of male adolescents and young adults. Overall, privacy concerns were more consistently and inversely related to selfie behavior (taking and posting among females than males. The study results have theoretical as well as practical implications for both researchers and policy makers.
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Full Text Available InP.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 Input control Adult Germline containing young adult...X495061,SRX495102,SRX495062,SRX495066 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/InP.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...
Sepede, Gianna; Tavino, Margherita; Santacroce, Rita; Fiori, Federica; Salerno, Rosa Maria; Di Giannantonio, Massimo
To report the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies pertaining internet addiction disorder (IAD) in young adults. We conducted a systematic review on PubMed, focusing our attention on fMRI studies involving adult IAD patients, free from any comorbid psychiatric condition. The following search words were used, both alone and in combination: fMRI, internet addiction, internet dependence, functional neuroimaging. The search was conducted on April 20(th), 2015 and yielded 58 records. Inclusion criteria were the following: Articles written in English, patients' age ≥ 18 years, patients affected by IAD, studies providing fMRI results during resting state or cognitive/emotional paradigms. Structural MRI studies, functional imaging techniques other than fMRI, studies involving adolescents, patients with comorbid psychiatric, neurological or medical conditions were excluded. By reading titles and abstracts, we excluded 30 records. By reading the full texts of the 28 remaining articles, we identified 18 papers meeting our inclusion criteria and therefore included in the qualitative synthesis. We found 18 studies fulfilling our inclusion criteria, 17 of them conducted in Asia, and including a total number of 666 tested subjects. The included studies reported data acquired during resting state or different paradigms, such as cue-reactivity, guessing or cognitive control tasks. The enrolled patients were usually males (95.4%) and very young (21-25 years). The most represented IAD subtype, reported in more than 85% of patients, was the internet gaming disorder, or videogame addiction. In the resting state studies, the more relevant abnormalities were localized in the superior temporal gyrus, limbic, medial frontal and parietal regions. When analyzing the task related fmri studies, we found that less than half of the papers reported behavioral differences between patients and normal controls, but all of them found significant differences in cortical
Oliveira, Carlos R.; Rock, Robert M.; Shapiro, Eugene D.; Xu, Xiao; Lundsberg, Lisbet; Zhang, Liye B.; Gariepy, Aileen; Illuzzi, Jessica L.; Sheth, Sangini S.
BACKGROUND Despite the availability of a safe and efficacious vaccine against human papillomavirus, uptake of the vaccine in the United States is low. Missed clinical opportunities to recommend and to administer human papillomavirus vaccine are considered one of the most important reasons for its low uptake in adolescents; however, little is known about the frequency or characteristics of missed opportunities in the young adult (18–26 years of age) population. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to assess both the rates of and the factors associated with missed opportunities for human papillomavirus immunization among young adult women who attended an urban obstetrics and gynecology clinic. STUDY DESIGN In this cross-sectional study, medical records were reviewed for all women 18–26 years of age who were underimmunized (<3 doses) and who sought care from Feb. 1, 2013, to January 31, 2014, at an urban, hospital-based obstetrics and gynecology clinic. A missed opportunity for human papillomavirus immunization was defined as a clinic visit at which the patient was eligible to receive the vaccine and a dose was due but not administered. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between sociodemographic variables and missed opportunities. RESULTS There were 1670 vaccine-eligible visits by 1241 underimmunized women, with a mean of 1.3 missed opportunities/person. During the study period, 833 of the vaccine eligible women (67.1%) had at least 1 missed opportunity. Overall, the most common types of visits during which a missed opportunity occurred were postpartum visits (17%) or visits for either sexually transmitted disease screening (21%) or contraception (33%). Of the patients with a missed opportunity, 26.5% had a visit at which an injectable medication or a different vaccine was administered. Women who identified their race as black had higher adjusted odds of having a missed opportunity compared with white women (adjusted odds ratio, 1
Ruebner, Rebecca L; Laney, Nina; Kim, Ji Young; Hartung, Erum A; Hooper, Stephen R; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Furth, Susan L
Neurocognitive dysfunction is a known complication in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, less is known about putative mechanisms or modifiable risk factors. The objective of this study was to characterize and determine risk factors for cognitive dysfunction in children, adolescents, and young adults with CKD compared with controls. Cross-sectional study. The Neurocognitive Assessment and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis of Children and Young Adults With Chronic Kidney Disease (NiCK) Study included 90 individuals aged 8 to 25 years with CKD compared with 70 controls. CKD versus control, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), ambulatory blood pressure. Performance on neurocognitive assessment with relevant tests grouped into 11 domains defined a priori by expert opinion. Results of tests were converted to age-normalized z scores. Each neurocognitive domain was analyzed through linear regression, adjusting for eGFR and demographic and clinical variables. For domains defined by multiple tests, the median z score of tests in that domain was used. We found significantly poorer performance in multiple areas of neurocognitive function among individuals with CKD compared with controls. Particular deficits were seen in domains related to attention, memory, and inhibitory control. Adjusted for demographic and clinical factors, we found lower performance in multiple domains with decreasing eGFRs (attention: β=0.053, P=0.02; visual spatial: β=0.062, P=0.02; and visual working memory: β=0.069, P=0.04). Increased diastolic load and decreased diastolic nocturnal dipping on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were independently associated with impairments in neurocognitive performance. Unable to assess changes in neurocognitive function over time, and neurocognitive tests were grouped into predetermined neurocognitive domains. Lower eGFR in children, adolescents, and young adults is associated with poorer neurocognitive performance, particularly in
Dyke, Paula; Bourke, Jenny; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Leonard, Helen
Background: The transition from school to adulthood for young adults with an intellectual disability involves movement from a generally secure and supported school environment to an emerging adult life that may be characterised by a wide variation in adoption of adult roles related to employment, independent living, friendships, and day…
Bowman, Stephanie L.; Plourde, Lee A.
Teens and young adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) meet the criteria of teen and adult learners chronologically, but may be deficient in many other areas of teen and adult learning. The spectrum of intellectual and adaptive capabilities among teens and adults with ID is vast, with each individual being unique. There are specific teaching…
Harmoinen, Merja; Niiranen, Kaisa; Niiranen, Vuokko; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Suominen, Tarja
Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the phenomenon of management by way of the ideas by secondary school students and young nurses. Background: Young adults are changing workplaces more than ever before, yet their work expectations and perspectives of management differ to those of previous generations. Methods: The data was collected from upper secondary school students and professionally educated nurses (n = 68), some of whom were immigrants (n = 41). Framed essays were used as a research method and emergent data was analysed using content analysis. Results: According to the results, good management involves systematic management, equality, appreciation of know-how, and the promotion of wellbeing at work. Conclusion: New perspectives on management were drawn from the study, in particular the multiple dimensions of equality in workplace organization and the manager's role in an employee's professional development process. Implication for nursing management: The interactive skills of the manager are emphasized in promoting wellbeing at work. This is especially so in multi-cultural teams, where the manager is expected to be adept at understanding intercultural communication and the values of young employees.
Harmoinen, Merja; Niiranen, Kaisa; Niiranen, Vuokko; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Suominen, Tarja
Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the phenomenon of management by way of the ideas of secondary school students and young nurses. Young adults are changing workplaces more than ever before, yet their work expectations and perspectives of management differ to those of previous generations. The data was collected from upper secondary school students and professionally educated nurses (N = 68), some of whom were immigrants (N = 41). Framed essays were used as a research method and emergent data was analyzed using content analysis. According to the results, good management involves systematic management, equality, appreciation of know-how, and the promotion of wellbeing at work. New perspectives on management were drawn from the study, in particular the multiple dimensions of equality in workplace organization and the manager's role in an employee's professional development process. The interactive skills of the manager are emphasized in promoting wellbeing at work. This is especially so in multi-cultural teams, where the manager is expected to be adept at understanding intercultural communication and the values of young employees.
Park, M Jane; Scott, Jazmyn T; Adams, Sally H; Brindis, Claire D; Irwin, Charles E
Adolescence and young adulthood are unique developmental periods that present opportunities and challenges for improving health. Health at this age can affect health throughout the lifespan. This review has two aims: (1) to examine trends in key indicators in outcomes, behaviors, and health care over the past decade for U.S. adolescents and young adults; and (2) to compare U.S. adolescents and young adults on these indicators. The review also assesses sociodemographic differences in trends and current indicators. Guided by our aims, previous reviews, and national priorities, the present review identified 21 sources of nationally representative data to examine trends in 53 areas and comparisons of adolescents and young adults in 42 areas. Most health and health care indicators have changed little over the past decade. Encouraging exceptions were found for adolescents and young adults in unintentional injury, assault, and tobacco use, and, for adolescents, in sexual/reproductive health. Trends in violence and chronic disease and related behaviors were mixed. Review of current indicators demonstrates that young adulthood continues to entail greater risk and worse outcomes than adolescence. Young adults fared worse on about two-thirds of the indicators examined. Differences among sociodemographic subgroups persisted for both trends and current indicators. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The way adults perceive and regulate learning (metamemory is an important indicator of how they perform on memory tasks. This study assessed memory monitoring, control and performance in young and intermediate-age adults according to item type (with or without semantic relation, type of judgment of learning (JOL - immediate or delayed, and age. Twenty-six young adults (M = 22 years old and 18 intermediate-age adults (M = 47 years old participated, who responded to an experimental paradigm to evaluate metamemory. Results showed that related word-pairs received higher magnitude for the JOLs and better cued-recall scores. JOLs’ accuracy was similar between the age groups, delayed JOLs being more accurate only for young adults. Intermediate-age adults apparently based their allocation of study time less on JOLs or cued-recall than young adults.
Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Boice, John D
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease has emerged as a serious late effect in survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer, but risk has not been quantified comprehensively in a population-based setting. METHODS: In the Danish Cancer Registry, we identified 43153 1-year survivors of cancer diagnosed...... at ages 15 to 39 years (1943-2009) and alive in 1977; from the Danish Civil Registration System, we randomly selected a comparison cohort of the same age and sex. Subjects were linked to the Danish Patient Register, and observed numbers of first hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease (International......-sided. RESULTS: During follow-up, 10591 survivors (24.5%) were discharged from the hospital with cardiovascular disease, whereas 8124 were expected (RR = 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI)] = 1.28 to 1.33; P cardiovascular disease per 100000...
Full Text Available Currently, evidence concerning electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use in the West Indies is unavailable. This study examines the prevalence and associated factors of e-cigarette use in young Trinidadian adults, 6 years after e-cigarettes were introduced in Trinidad. Young adults between the ages of 18 and 40 years were surveyed from May–June 2016. Based on the survey results, descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to identify correlations in e-cigarette use. The prevalence of those who had used e-cigarettes was 24.6%, and 41.9% of these people had used both e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes. A high proportion (16.95% of those who had never used tobacco cigarettes had used e-cigarettes. Males were twice as likely as females to have used e-cigarettes (odds ratio [OR]: 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.85–3.68, and participants aged 18–25 years were more likely than those aged 36–40 years to use e-cigarettes (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14–0.81. The predictors of e-cigarette use as assessed by univariate analysis were current tobacco cigarette smoking (OR: 9.34; 95% CI: 6.14–14.39; p<0.001 and the belief that e-cigarettes are dangerous to health (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.44–0.85; p=0.004. The predictors as assessed by multivariate logistic regression (adjusted OR were ethnicity (p=0.043, education (p=0.012, and age group (p=0.007. Those who quit using tobacco cigarettes were 7.98 times more likely to use e-cigarettes (95% CI: 4.21–15.45, and those who knew that e-cigarettes contain nicotine were 2.70 times more likely to use them (95% CI: 1.53–4.86; p<0.001. Two summative scales were constructed that measured knowledge and perception. The perception scale, but not the knowledge scale (Cronbach’s alpha=0.736, was a significant predictor of e-cigarette use. The number of e-cigarette users is high (24.6% in young adults in Trinidad and in those who have never smoked tobacco (16.95%. Current smokers, as well as
Chintan Madhusudan Raval
Full Text Available Dissociative fugue is a rare disorder which has been described as sudden, unexpected, travel away from home or one′s customary place of daily activities, with the inability to recall some or all of one′s past. There is no systematic data existing on it and very few cases reported in the literature. Here we report a case of fugue in a young adult male who travelled 8 times away from his home during last 1 year. He has a loss of memory for episodes with patchy recall of few events. Longest duration of fugue episode was of 1-month. The case describes mode of presentation to hospital and treatment given to restore his identity and reunite him in society and family.
Full Text Available In spite of the strong epidemiologic evidence linking migraine and ischemic stroke in young adults, the mechanisms explaining this association remain poorly understood. The observation that stroke occurs more frequently during the interictal phase of migraine prompts to speculation that an indirect relation between the two diseases might exist. In this regard, four major issues might be considered which may be summarized as follows: (1 the migraine-ischemic stroke relation is influenced by specific risk factors such as patent foramen ovale or endothelial dysfunction and more frequent in particular conditions like spontaneous cervical artery dissection; (2 migraine is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors; (3 the link is caused by migraine-specific drugs; (4 migraine and ischemic vascular events are linked via a genetic component. In the present paper, we will review epidemiological studies, discuss potential mechanisms of migraine-induced stroke and comorbid ischemic stroke, and pose new research questions.
Pezzini, Alessandro; Del Zotto, Elisabetta; Giossi, Alessia; Volonghi, Irene; Costa, Paolo; Dalla Volta, Giorgio; Padovani, Alessandro
In spite of the strong epidemiologic evidence linking migraine and ischemic stroke in young adults, the mechanisms explaining this association remain poorly understood. The observation that stroke occurs more frequently during the interictal phase of migraine prompts to speculation that an indirect relation between the two diseases might exist. In this regard, four major issues might be considered which may be summarized as follows: (1) the migraine-ischemic stroke relation is influenced by specific risk factors such as patent foramen ovale or endothelial dysfunction and more frequent in particular conditions like spontaneous cervical artery dissection; (2) migraine is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors; (3) the link is caused by migraine-specific drugs; (4) migraine and ischemic vascular events are linked via a genetic component. In the present paper, we will review epidemiological studies, discuss potential mechanisms of migraine-induced stroke and comorbid ischemic stroke, and pose new research questions. PMID:21197470
Muffly, Lori S; Reizine, Natalie; Stock, Wendy
Substantial interest in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in young adults (YAs) and investigations focused on this patient population have resulted in therapeutic advancements that are changing the management paradigm and improving outcomes. The pediatric ALL approach is feasible and effective when administered by medical oncologists. Advanced diagnostics and minimal residual disease measurements aid in prognostication and have resulted in shifting recommendations regarding allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant in first remission. Blinatumomab, inotuzumab, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapies are transforming the treatment of relapsed/refractory ALL. This comprehensive review of the current management of ALL in YAs summarizes recent scientific developments and clinical trial findings related to ALL biology, frontline management approaches, novel therapies, and supportive care specific to this patient population. Finally, a practical guide to modern YA management for practicing clinicians is provided.
Full Text Available Uniones libres or consensual union formation has increased in Mexico and this is not an exception in its Northern region. Information from the Mexican Population and Household Census of 2010 and the Survey on Reproductive Health of Adolescents in Baja California, 2006 show that unión libre as an preferential type of conjugal arrangement is more clearly manifested among the Baja California’s youth of both sexes in general and particularly among those residing in Tijuana and Rosarito. Also, union libre formation among the Baja California’s youth is extensively associated with childbearing what seems to indicate continuity in its traditional role in the Mexican family formation process, but this is happening in higher proportions among the young adults of the new generations.
Hayslip, Bert; Reinberg, Julie; Williams, Jennifer
The present study examined the effectiveness of educational interventions in altering tolerance for and behavioral intentions of elder abuse among college student young adults. Participants were 225 undergraduates who were assigned to one of four educational groups: Elder Abuse Education, Aging Education, Family Education, and a Pre- and Posttest only condition. While the Elder Abuse Education group reported less tolerance and intentions for elder abuse compared to the other groups at the immediate posttest, a decrement in such positive changes at 1-month follow-up was observed in such persons. These mixed findings suggest that while specific interventions may reduce elder abuse tolerance, supplemental educational efforts over time may be necessary to maintain intervention-specific gains in intentions and behaviors particular to elder abuse.
Gao, Kenneth; Boyd, Chelsie; Wiederhold, Mark D; Wiederhold, Brenda K
Chronic stress in young adults has become a growing problem within recent decades and many are unable to find cost-effective and accessible treatment for psychological stress in their daily lives. We analyze the market of using a mobile application, Positive Technology, as a solution. Eleven participants, aged between 18 and 24, participated in the exercise. Self-reported stress reduction was measured via an online marketing survey, while physiological measurements were monitored via peripheral devices. Secondary goals assessed the app's ease-of-use, accessibility, and cost. Results indicate that participants enjoyed the availability of the mobile solution and found the app to be fun and easy to learn. Stress levels were reduced in 73% of the participants, with higher effects in females and in participants aged 18-24. We conclude that the mobile platform is an effective means of delivering psychological stress reduction, and could provide an accessible, cost-effective solution.
Murray, I P.C. [Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine
Radionuclide bone scanning will identify readily areas of the skeleton where vascularity or osteogenesis is disturbed. Frequently, this will be achieved with a greater sensitivity than orthodox radiology by reflecting altered local physiology of bone. This procedure is, therefore, valuable not only for identifying metastatic disease, but also in benign skeletal disorders characterised by altered blood flow or osteoblastic reaction. These changes occur in many diseases involving bone which are more common in children and young adults. Special attention to the performance of the study and to its interpretation is, however, required in these age groups. The bone scan is invaluable in detecting metastatic disease related to either primary bone tumours or other neoplasia, both in the initial investigation and in the evaluation of therapy. Extra-osseous uptake may also occur, providing useful information relevant to the care of these patients.
Serafini, Kelly A; Stewart, David G
Perceptions of family alcohol use have been linked to adolescent alcohol use behaviors, yet there have been no studies that have assessed this relationship in young adults. This study examined perceptions of family alcohol use and their association with participants' self-reported alcohol use. Participants included 171 undergraduate students (mean age = 21.67, 71.9 percent female, 75.4 percent Caucasian). Participants completed measures assessing quantity and frequency of alcohol use, negative consequences of use, and sibling relationship quality. They also reported their perceptions of alcohol use for siblings and parents during a typical week. Perceptions of siblings' quantity of weekly alcohol use were significantly associated with participants' quantity of alcohol use (r = .21, p = .006) and frequency of alcohol use (r = .23, p = .002). Perceptions of parental alcohol use were not related to the participants' alcohol use patterns.
Mallon, W J; Brown, H R; Nunley, J A
Analysis of the range of motion of fingers was done in young (eighteen to thirty-five year old) adult volunteers with no history of previous injury to their hands. The data show that there are slight differences between the individual digits. Notably, metacarpophalangeal flexion and total active motion increase linearly in proceeding from the index to the small finger. There were also minor differences in comparing sexes. Women have greater extension at the metacarpophalangeal joint in both active and passive motion and have a greater total active motion at all digits as a result. A significant tenodesis effect was found at the distal interphalangeal joint in normal subjects. No differences were found that could be attributable to handedness.
Vargas, Perla A
The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically over the past decade. Although an imbalance between caloric intake and physical activity is considered a key factor responsible for the increase, there is emerging evidence suggesting that other factors may be important contributors to weight gain, including inadequate sleep. Overall research evidence suggests that inadequate sleep is associated with obesity. Importantly, the strength and trajectory of the association seem to be influenced by multiple factors including age. Although limited, the emerging evidence suggests young adults might be at the center of a "perfect health storm," exposing them to the highest risk for obesity and inadequate sleep. Unfortunately, the methods necessary for elucidating the complex relationship between sleep and obesity are lacking. Uncovering the underlying factors and trajectories between inadequate sleep and weight gain in different populations may help to identify the windows of susceptibility and to design targeted interventions to prevent the negative impact of obesity and related diseases.
Sneha Sameer Ganu
Full Text Available Background: Excessive increases in weight bearing forces caused by obesity may negatively affect the lower limbs and feet but minimal research has examined the long-term loading effects of obesity on the musculoskeletal system, particularly in reference to the feet. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of obesity on medial longitudinal arch of foot in young adults. Method: 60 subjects, 30 obese & 30 non obese were assessed for height & weight using standard technique. Radiographic images under static condition were used for calculating the arch index. Result: The arch index of obese subjects was significantly lower than the non obese subjects & there is a negative correlation between the BMI & the arch index. Conclusion: These results suggests that obesity lowers the medial longitudinal arch of foot.
Lloyd, R.D.; Mays, C.W.; Atherton, D.R.
Revised equations are presented for the skeletal dose to young adult beagles from 226 Ra injection. For 0.1 kg of skel/kg body and given 1 μCi 226 Ra/kg with 210 Pb/ 226 Ra = 0.05, the average skeletal dose in rad at 6 yr is 226 Ra = 1200, 222 Rn -> 214 Po = 1050, injected 210 Pb = 56 and 210 Pb from Rn decay in bone = 22. For a Pb/Ra ratio = 0.4, dose from injected 210 Pb is about 20% of that from 226 Ra -> 214 Po. A similar but not numerically indentical relationship obtains for ingested 226 Ra, so the dose from 210 Pb should be included in any study of 226 Ra effects. (orig.)
Alvarez, Amanda A.; Wildsoet, Christine F.
Exposure to bright light appears to be protective against myopia in both animals (chicks, monkeys) and children, but quantitative data on human light exposure are limited. In this study, we report on a technique for quantifying light exposure using wearable sensors. Twenty-seven young adult subjects wore a light sensor continuously for two weeks during one of three seasons, and also completed questionnaires about their visual activities. Light data were analyzed with respect to refractive error and season, and the objective sensor data were compared with subjects' estimates of time spent indoors and outdoors. Subjects' estimates of time spent indoors and outdoors were in poor agreement with durations reported by the sensor data. The results of questionnaire-based studies of light exposure should thus be interpreted with caution. The role of light in refractive error development should be investigated using multiple methods such as sensors to complement questionnaires.
Teixido-Tura, Gisela; Almeida, Andre L C; Choi, Eui-Young; Gjesdal, Ola; Jacobs, David R; Dietz, Harry C; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen; Lewis, Cora E; Garcia-Dorado, David; Evangelista, Artur; Gidding, Samuel; Lima, João A C
Aortic size increases with age, but factors related to such dilatation in healthy young adult population have not been studied. We aim to evaluate changes in aortic dimensions and its principal correlates among young adults over a 20-year time period. Reference values for aortic dimensions in young adults by echocardiography are also provided. Healthy Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study participants aged 23 to 35 years in 1990-1991 (n=3051) were included after excluding 18 individuals with significant valvular dysfunction. Aortic root diameter (ARD) by M-mode echocardiography at year-5 (43.7% men; age, 30.2 ± 3.6 years) and year-25 CARDIA exams was obtained. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to assess associations of ARD with clinical data at years-5 and -25. ARD from year-5 was used to establish reference values of ARD in healthy young adults. ARD at year-25 was greater in men (33.3 ± 3.7 versus 28.7 ± 3.4 mm; Pyoung adulthood. Our study also provides reference values for ARD in young adults. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Farrelly, Matthew C.; Loomis, Brett R.; Kuiper, Nicole; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joseph; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Pechacek, Terry F.; Couzens, G. Lance
Purpose We examined the influence of tobacco control program funding, smoke-free air laws, and cigarette prices on young adult smoking outcomes. Methods We use a natural experimental design approach that uses the variation in tobacco control policies across states and over time to understand their influence on tobacco outcomes. We combine individual outcome data with annual state-level policy data to conduct multivariable logistic regression models, controlling for an extensive set of sociodemographic factors. The participants are 18- to 25-year-olds from the 2002–2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. The three main outcomes are past-year smoking initiation, and current and established smoking. A current smoker was one who had smoked on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. An established smoker was one who had smoked 1 or more cigarettes in the past 30 days and smoked at least 100 cigarettes in his or her lifetime. Results Higher levels of tobacco control program funding and greater smoke-free-air law coverage were both associated with declines in current and established smoking (p smoke-free air laws was associated with lower past year initiation with marginal significance (p = .058). Higher cigarette prices were not associated with smoking outcomes. Had smoke-free-air law coverage and cumulative tobacco control funding remained at 2002 levels, current and established smoking would have been 5%–7% higher in 2009. Conclusions Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing young adult smoking. PMID:24268360
Mizutani, S; Ekuni, D; Tomofuji, T; Azuma, T; Kataoka, K; Yamane, M; Iwasaki, Y; Morita, M
Xerostomia is a subjective symptom of dryness in the mouth. Although a correlation between xerostomia and oral conditions in the elderly has been reported, there are few such studies in the young adults. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of xerostomia with the gingival condition in university students. A total of 2077 students (1202 male subjects and 875 female subjects), 18-24 years of age, were examined. The disease activity and severity of the gingival condition were assessed as the percentage of teeth with bleeding on probing (%BOP) and the presence of teeth with probing pocket depth of ≥ 4 mm, respectively. Additional information on xerostomia, oral health behaviors, coffee/tea intake and nasal congestion was collected via a questionnaire. Path analysis was used to test pathways from xerostomia to the gingival condition. One-hundred and eighty-three (8.8%) students responded that their mouths frequently or always felt dry. Xerostomia was related to %BOP and dental plaque formation, but was not related to the presence of probing pocket depth ≥ 4 mm. In the structural model, xerostomia was related to dental plaque formation (p Xerostomia was associated with coffee/tea intake (p Xerostomia was indirectly related to gingival disease activity through the accumulation of dental plaque. Nasal congestion and coffee/tea intake also affected xerostomia. These findings suggest that xerostomia should be considered in screening for gingivitis risk in young adults. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Maria Cristina Salfa
Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs include a large group of widespread infectious diseases, which may cause acute symptoms, chronic infections and severe long term complications.The control and prevention of these infections are public health priorities for several reasons: • the large number of people that acquire an STI per year; • the major proportion of asymptomatic infected individuals; • the high circulation in patients with sexual risk behavior (young adults, pluripartner, men who have sex with men, foreigners, commercial sex workers; • increased biological susceptibility of some subjects, such as young adults (immature genital tissues and more receptive to pathogens, women (genital apparatus more complex and extended in which pathogens are more likely to settle, or individuals carrying states of severe immunodeficiency; • the serious complications in the event of failure or incorrect diagnosis and treatment (chronic disease, infertility, oncogenic transformation, synergy with HIV infection; • the possibility of preventing and treating many of these infections. Therefore, recent guidelines from international agencies have recommended countries from the European Union to improve epidemiological STI surveillance systems in order to standardize data collection to facilitate their comparability between different geographical areas and to improve the information flow for faster tracking of the impact; furthermore, to extend surveillance to widespread, but often asymptomatic, disease (e.g. Chlamydia trachomatis, to conduct behavioural surveillance in patients with STIs, to increase public awareness of the role of STIs in the transmission/acquisition of HIV, and to increase the commitment of institutions in the prevention and control of STIs.
Cahajlova, R.; Kasan, P.; Cerna, M.; Martak, M.; Vesela, M.; Denkova, L.; Svihelova-Liskova, Z.; Dordayova, L.; Cavarga, I.
Purpose: We create characteristics of lung cancer in young adults using the own group of patients and published data. Patients and methods: 23 young adults (from 23 to 39 years old) were treated at our oncology department from May 2006 till february 2016. Monitored characteristics were mean age, gender, histological type of tumor, mutation status, anatomical location, the incidence of cancer in the family and abuse of cigarettes. Results: The group consists of 23 patients aged from 23 to 39 years, including 12 women and 11 men. Histologically, 21 patients had diagnosis of adenocarcinoma (91.3 %), one squamous cell cancer and one small cell lung cancer. In 4 patients was found ALK mutation, one patient had an activating EGFR mutation (deletion of exon 19), 1 patient had detected ROS-1 mutation. The mutation status was unknown in 13 cases. 16 subjects were diagnosed at stage IV of disease. Nevertheless, the majority of them were in good performance status. 8 patients were smokers (34.8 %). Lung cancer were documented in relatives of 2 patients. Except for one subject, all patients had at least one treatment regimen (surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy). Conclusion: Lung adenocarcinoma was strongly dominant histological type of cancer in our patients´ group. The superiority of adenocarcinoma histology has been confirmed by other published studies, too. 8 patients were smokers, there was slight women prevalence. The mutation status was examined in the low percentage of patients. However, we can see 4 ALK positive tumors, 1EGFR and one ROS-1 positive tumor. 16 patients were in stage IV at the time of diagnosis. Despite of this fact, their performance status was satisfactory to start the oncology treatment. (author)
Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Plotnikova, Maria; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert
Young adults' Ecstasy use trajectories have important implications for individual and population-level consequences of Ecstasy use, but little relevant research has been conducted. This study prospectively examines Ecstasy trajectories in a population-based sample. Data are from the Natural History Study of Drug Use, a retrospective/prospective cohort study conducted in Australia. Population screening identified a probability sample of Ecstasy users aged 19-23 years. Complete data for 30 months of follow-up, comprising 4 time intervals, were available for 297 participants (88.4% of sample). Trajectories were derived using cluster analysis based on recent Ecstasy use at each interval. Trajectory predictors were examined using a generalized ordered logit model and included Ecstasy dependence (World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Instrument), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), aggression (Young Adult Self Report) and contextual factors (e.g. attendance at electronic/dance music events). Three Ecstasy trajectories were identified (low, intermediate and high use). At its peak, the high-use trajectory involved 1-2 days Ecstasy use per week. Decreasing frequency of use was observed for intermediate and high-use trajectories from 12 months, independently of market factors. Intermediate and high-use trajectory membership was predicted by past Ecstasy consumption (>70 pills) and attendance at electronic/dance music events. High-use trajectory members were unlikely to have used Ecstasy for more than 3 years and tended to report consistently positive subjective effects at baseline. Given the social context and temporal course of Ecstasy use, Ecstasy trajectories might be better understood in terms of instrumental rather than addictive drug use patterns. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Markowitz, Jessica T; Cousineau, Tara; Franko, Debra L; Schultz, Alan T; Trant, Meredith; Rodgers, Rachel; Laffel, Lori M B
Adolescents and young adults use text messaging as their primary mode of communication, thus providing an opportunity to use this mode of communication for mobile health (mHealth) interventions. Youth with diabetes are an important group for these mHealth initiatives, as diabetes management requires an enormous amount of daily effort and this population has difficulty achieving optimal diabetes management. Goal setting and self-efficacy are 2 factors in the management of diabetes. We examined the feasibility of a healthy lifestyle text messaging program targeting self-efficacy and goal setting among adolescents and young adults with diabetes. Participants, ages 16-21, were assigned to either a text messaging group, which received daily motivational messages about nutrition and physical activity, or a control group, which received paper-based information about healthy lifestyle. Both groups set goals for nutrition and physical activity and completed a measure of self-efficacy. Participants' mean age was 18.7 ± 1.6 years old, with diabetes duration of 10.0 ± 4.6 years, and A1c of 8.7 ± 1.7%. The text messaging intervention was rated highly and proved to be acceptable to participants. Self-efficacy, glycemic control, and body mass index did not change over the course of the short, 1-month pilot study. Positive, daily, motivational text messages may be effective in increasing motivation for small goal changes in the areas of nutrition and physical activity. These interventions may be used in the future in youth with diabetes to improve diabetes care. Utilizing more targeted text messages is an area for future research. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.
Benotsch, Eric G; Snipes, Daniel J; Martin, Aaron M; Bull, Sheana S
Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most previous research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in youth. Young adults (N = 763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared with their nonsexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior, after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks after sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to risk behavior. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Benotsch, Eric G.; Snipes, Daniel J.; Martin, Aaron M.; Bull, Sheana S.
Purpose Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most prior research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in youth. Methods Young adults (N=763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Results Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared to their non-sexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Conclusions Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks subsequent to sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to risk behavior. PMID:23299017
Full Text Available Background: With the availability of better treatment regimen, life span of thalassemic patients is increasing. Chronic nature of thalassemia and its intensive and demanding treatment result in significant psychologic burden on the patients and their families. A lot has been studied about beta-thalassemia major but little attention has been paid to the psychological aspect of this disease. Hence, the study was planned to analyse the psychosocial problems in thalassemic adolescents and young adults. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted from January 2007 to March 2008 in thalassemic day-care centre of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Fifty four thalassemic children and controls above 9 years of age were enrolled. Psychosocial assessment done with assessment of Finer Psychopathology using ICMR Symptom checklist (ICMR task force, 1983. The prevalence of various problems was calculated and compared with controls. Student′s t-test and Chi-square test were used for testing differences in variables. Results: Patients were divided into three groups - Group A (10-15 years, 30 patients; Group B (15-20 years, 18 patients, and Group C (20-25 years, 6 patients. In group A, behavior problems were common (12 patients -40% (P< 0.001, significant. In group B, mood disorders were common (8 patients, 44% (P< 0.001, significant. In group C, psychotic symptoms were common (3 patients, 50% (P< 0.05, significant. Conclusion: Our findings support the hypothesis that psychosocial problems are more in thalassemic adolescents and young adults. Psychosocial aspects need to be addressed in the overall treatment of children with thalassemia.
Massey, Emma K; Meys, Karlijn; Kerner, Roy; Weimar, Willem; Roodnat, Joke; Cransberg, Karlien
The aim of this study was to investigate (a) the extent to which age at first renal replacement therapy, achievement of developmental milestones, satisfaction of psychological needs, and coping were related to subjective well-being and medication adherence among young adult kidney transplant recipients; and (b) the relationship between subjective well-being and immunosuppressive medication adherence. A cross-sectional, interview study was conducted among renal transplant patients aged 20 to 30 years. In addition to sociodemographic and medical characteristics, concepts measured were: subjective well-being (Positive And Negative Affect Schedule; Satisfaction With Life Scale), medication adherence (Basel Assessment of Adherence to Immunosuppressive Medication Scale), dispositional coping (Brief COPE), achievement of developmental milestones (Course of Life Questionnaire), and satisfaction of psychological needs (Basic Psychological Needs Scale). Sixty-two patients participated (66% men; mean age, 26 years). Sixty-five percent were classified as nonadherent in the past month. In contrast, subjective self-rated overall adherence was high. None of the variables measured were related to nonadherence. Higher feelings of competence and autonomy, and timely achievement of social and psychosexual developmental milestones were related to higher subjective well-being. Well-being and adherence did not differ according to age at diagnosis or first renal replacement therapy. Two thirds of participants were classified as nonadherent which conflicts with participants' own high rating of medication adherence. This emphasizes the need for continued adherence support among young adult transplant recipients; however, no targets for interventions were found in this study. Potential targets for interventions aimed at improving well-being include competence and autonomy.
Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James; Tanski, Susanne
To assess the extent to which multiple tobacco product use among adolescents and young adults falls outside current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory authority. We conducted a web-based survey of 1596 16-26-year-olds to assess use of 11 types of tobacco products. We ascertained current (past 30 days) tobacco product use among 927 respondents who ever used tobacco. Combustible tobacco products included cigarettes, cigars (little filtered, cigarillos, premium) and hookah; non-combustible tobacco products included chew, dip, dissolvables, e-cigarettes, snuff and snus. We then fitted an ordinal logistic regression model to assess demographic and behavioural associations with higher levels of current tobacco product use (single, dual and multiple product use). Among 448 current tobacco users, 54% were single product users, 25% dual users and 21% multiple users. The largest single use category was cigarettes (49%), followed by hookah (23%), little filtered cigars (17%) and e-cigarettes (5%). Most dual and multiple product users smoked cigarettes, along with little filtered cigars, hookah and e-cigarettes. Forty-six per cent of current single, 84% of dual and 85% of multiple tobacco product users consumed a tobacco product outside FDA regulatory authority. In multivariable analysis, the adjusted risk of multiple tobacco use was higher for males, first use of a non-combustible tobacco product, high sensation seeking respondents and declined for each additional year of age that tobacco initiation was delayed. Nearly half of current adolescent and young adult tobacco users in this study engaged in dual and multiple tobacco product use; the majority of them used products that fall outside current FDA regulatory authority. This study supports FDA deeming of these products and their incorporation into the national media campaign to address youth tobacco use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a
González-Iglesias, Beatriz; Gómez-Fraguela, José António; Sobral, Jorge
The main purposes of this study were to examine the usefulness of the variables of the theory of planned behavior (viz. attitudes, social norms, and self-efficacy) and to explore the relationship between optimism bias and drink driving in young adults. In addition, we explored gender differences in drink driving with provision for the effect of variables such as driving frequency and alcohol consumption. Data were collected via a questionnaire administered to 274 drivers (59.9% females) aged 18-30 years (24.36 ± 2.96). The results obtained with provision for driving frequency revealed substantial differences in driving behaviors between genders. Thus, males were more prone to drink driving, perceived less disapproval by their significant others (parents and peers), and felt less able to avoid drinking-and-driving situations. In addition, they self-reported more frequent alcohol consumption and driving under the influence. The results also confirm the significance of peers' subjective norms and attitudes to drink driving in males. Overconfidence in their own driving skills for driving drunk and perceived behavioral control were found to be significant predictors for drink driving in females. Optimism bias also played a slightly significant role in predicting drink driving but only in females. The important practical implications of these results with a view to designing effective interventions to prevent the risks associated with drink driving in the young population are discussed. Interventions should focus on young people's perceptions of group norms and promoting cautionary driving choices and alternatives to drink driving.
Rudelli, A; Vialette, G; Brazier, F; Seurat, P L; Capron, D; Dupas, J L
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is involved in the pathogenesis of gastric inflammatory disorders. Both antral chronic gastritis and H. pylori infection prevalence increase with age. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of H. pylori infection in young adults and to study the relationship between endoscopical and histological features and H. pylori infection. The study concerned 547 young patients (age: 18-25 years), undergoing endoscopy for upper gastrointestinal symptoms. The severity and the activity of chronic gastritis was graded by histological examination of antral biopsies. The diagnosis of H. pylori infection was based on histology and culture or urease test. Fifty-three percent of the patients had a normal endoscopy; 44 ulcers were found: 34 duodenal ulcers and 10 gastric ulcers. H. pylori infection was detected in 34% of cases. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 29.8% in non-ulcer patients, 50% in gastric ulcers and 91% in duodenal ulcers (P < 0.01). Duodenal ulcer, aspect of antral mosaic mucosa and nodular gastritis, were closely related to the presence of H. pylori. There was a significant relationship between H. pylori infection and both the severity (P < 0.01) and the activity (P < 0.01) of the antral chronic gastritis. The prevalence of follicular gastritis was 22% : it was present in 60% of H. pylori positive patients and 2.4% of H. pylori negative patients. H. pylori infection was more frequent in patients from Africa than in Europeans (P < 0.01). There was no significant association between H. pylori infection and different types of diets, settlements (rural vs urban) or symptoms. These results show that in the young population studied, duodenal ulcer, nodular gastritis, antral mosaic mucosa, active chronic gastric and follicular gastritis are closely related to H. pylori infection. They suggest that in the subgroup of non ulcer symptomatic patients, H. pylori prevalence is higher than in the general population.
Venie Viktoria Rondang Maulina
Full Text Available In young adulthood most people begin to realize the meaning of health. The amount of costs to be incurred for the treatment of a person when they are suffering from a disease also affects a person's health concern. According to Taylor and Asmundson (2004, most people feel anxious about their health. Anxiety about health can differ from one person to another. Through this study a general overview of health anxiety for young adults in Indonesia, especially in Jakarta, can be seen. Participants in this study consisted of 263 people, aged 20-40 years (M = 27.23 , SD = 5.50. Sociodemographic variables include ages, gender, and marital status, level of education, employment status, and ethnicity. Researcher used Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI; Salkovskis, Rimes, & Warwick, 2002, Patient Health Questionnaire Somatic Symptom Severity Scale (PHQ-15; Kroenke, Spitzer, & William, 2002. For data analysis, researcher used The Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The results showed significant correlation between health anxiety and somatic symptoms.
Lalithambigai, G; Rao, Ashwini; Rajesh, G; Ramya, Shenoy; Pai, B H Mithun
The tobacco epidemic is a heralding health menace, particularly among college students. Tobacco usage among young can have an especially devastating effect as they can be exposed for longer periods. Data to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use in young adults will be a valuable addition to the existing resources. An analytical cross-sectional study was therefore carried out in Mangalore city using a pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) with a representative sample of 720 students aged 18-20 years selected from degree colleges by multi-stage random sampling. Prevalence of 'ever users' and 'current users' of smoking were 20.4% and 11.4%, respectively. The mean age at initiation of cigarette smoking was 16 years and the majority (31 %) smoked in public places. Interestingly, 84% of them knew about the harmful effects of cigarette smoking. About one half of smokers had some or most of their friends smoking. Multivariate analysis revealed gender (OR=8.585: CI-3.26-22.5), pocket money (OR=4.165; CI=1.76-9.82) and peer's smoking habit (OR= 5.15; CI-2.21-11.9) have higher odds as correlates of tobacco usage among college students. It is of prime importance to highlight the role of prevention of smoking initiation rather than subsequently trying to stop the habit. Comprehensive interventions embracing family, friends and social milieu are needed to reduce tobacco use among students in India.
Pedersen, Eric R.; Naranjo, Diana; Marshall, Grant N.
The objective of this study was to describe the feasibility of using Facebook as a platform to recruit and retain young adult veteran drinkers into an online-alcohol use intervention study. Facebook’s wide accessibility and popularity among the age group that comprises the majority of veterans from the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan make it a compelling resource through which research can extend its reach to this otherwise hard-to-reach group. We developed a series of Facebook advertisement campaigns to reach veteran drinkers not specifically searching for alcohol treatment. In doing so, we recruited 793 valid veteran participants in approximately two weeks for an advertising cost of $4.53 per obtained participant. The study sample consisted primarily of male veterans, between 19 and 34 years of age, who were drinking at moderate to heavy levels. Although about half of the sample reported mental health comorbidity, few had received any mental health or substance use treatment in the past year. Facebook appears to be a valuable mechanism through which to recruit young veterans with unmet behavioral health needs, although more specific efforts may be needed to engage certain types of veterans after initial study enrollment. PMID:28249027
Pedersen, Eric R; Naranjo, Diana; Marshall, Grant N
The objective of this study was to describe the feasibility of using Facebook as a platform to recruit and retain young adult veteran drinkers into an online-alcohol use intervention study. Facebook's wide accessibility and popularity among the age group that comprises the majority of veterans from the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan make it a compelling resource through which research can extend its reach to this otherwise hard-to-reach group. We developed a series of Facebook advertisement campaigns to reach veteran drinkers not specifically searching for alcohol treatment. In doing so, we recruited 793 valid veteran participants in approximately two weeks for an advertising cost of $4.53 per obtained participant. The study sample consisted primarily of male veterans, between 19 and 34 years of age, who were drinking at moderate to heavy levels. Although about half of the sample reported mental health comorbidity, few had received any mental health or substance use treatment in the past year. Facebook appears to be a valuable mechanism through which to recruit young veterans with unmet behavioral health needs, although more specific efforts may be needed to engage certain types of veterans after initial study enrollment.
Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Thomson, George; Edwards, Richard; Pene, Gina; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith
Marketers have long recognized the power and importance of branding, which creates aspirational attributes that increase products' attractiveness. Although brand imagery has traditionally been communicated via mass media, packaging's importance in promoting desirable brand-attribute associations has increased. Knowledge of how groups prone to smoking experimentation interpret tobacco branding would inform the debate over plain packaging currently occurring in many countries. We conducted 12 group discussions and four in-depth interviews with 66 young adult smokers and nonsmokers of varying ethnicities from two larger New Zealand cities and one provincial city. Participants evaluated 10 familiar and unfamiliar tobacco brands using brand personality attributes and discussed the associations they had made. Participants ascribed very different images to different brands when exposed to the packaging alone, regardless of whether they had seen or heard of the brands before. Perceptual mapping of brands and image attributes highlighted how brand positions varied from older, more traditional, and male oriented to younger, feminine, and "cool." Our findings emphasize the continuing importance of tobacco branding as a promotion tool, even when communicated only by packaging. The ease with which packaging alone enabled young people to identify brand attributes and the desirable associations these connoted illustrate how tobacco packaging functions as advertising. The results support measures such as plain packaging of tobacco products to reduce exposure to these overt behavioral cues.
Eric R Pedersen
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the feasibility of using Facebook as a platform to recruit and retain young adult veteran drinkers into an online-alcohol use intervention study. Facebook's wide accessibility and popularity among the age group that comprises the majority of veterans from the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan make it a compelling resource through which research can extend its reach to this otherwise hard-to-reach group. We developed a series of Facebook advertisement campaigns to reach veteran drinkers not specifically searching for alcohol treatment. In doing so, we recruited 793 valid veteran participants in approximately two weeks for an advertising cost of $4.53 per obtained participant. The study sample consisted primarily of male veterans, between 19 and 34 years of age, who were drinking at moderate to heavy levels. Although about half of the sample reported mental health comorbidity, few had received any mental health or substance use treatment in the past year. Facebook appears to be a valuable mechanism through which to recruit young veterans with unmet behavioral health needs, although more specific efforts may be needed to engage certain types of veterans after initial study enrollment.
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Richardson, Hannah B.; Downing, Jordan B.
Little research has examined the perspectives of young adults with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) parents, particularly in relation to their identification with the LGBTQ community. To address this gap, we conducted a qualitative study of 42 young adults (ages 18-29) who were raised by LGBQ parents. We found that…
Wages, Alan, Jr.
The purpose of this study was to describe the meanings of good nonresidential fathering from the recollections of young adults with a childhood experience of divorce. An additional purpose was to identify barriers and contributions to good nonresidential fathering from the viewpoint of young adults. A phenomenological perspective was used to…
Anderson, Connie; Butt, Catherine
There is limited information on outcomes for young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including achievement at college. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 18 families reporting a degree-seeking college experience for their young adult with ASD. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Four themes…
de Valk, H.A.G.; Billari, F.
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the family of origin on whether migrant and Dutch young adults live in the parental home. Using a sample of 1,678 young adults aged between 15 and 30 years from 847 families with five different ethnic backgrounds, we identified patterns of
Lisha, Nadra E.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Holmes, Louisa M.; Ling, Pamela M.
Social benefits likely play a role in young adult tobacco use. The Social Prioritization Index (SPI) was developed to measure the degree to which young adults place a great importance on their social lives. We examined the usefulness of this measure as a potential predictor of tobacco use controlling for demographics and tobacco-related attitudes.…
Altena, Astrid M.; Krabbenborg, Manon A M; Boersma, Sandra N.; Beijersbergen, Mariëlle D.; van den Berg, Yvonne H. M.; Vollebergh, Wilma A.M.; Wolf, Judith R.L.M.
The development of a strong working alliance between homeless young adults and their social workers is seen as a critical component in the recovery process. The purpose of this study was to examine the composition of the working alliance between homeless young adults and their social workers, and
Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin; Toseeb, Umar; Botting, Nicola; Pickles, Andrew
Background: Developmental language disorder (DLD) presents a considerable barrier for young adults to engage in further education and training. Early studies with young adults with DLD revealed poor educational achievement and lack of opportunities to progress in education. More recent studies have provided more positive findings. Relatively…
Rossetti, Zachary; Lehr, Donna; Lederer, Leslie; Pelerin, Dana; Huang, Shuoxi
This article describes a qualitative study that examined how 23 young adults with pervasive support needs and limited functional communication spent their time and how their parents (n = 23) and direct support professionals (DSPs; n = 2) defined meaningfulness in relation to the young adults' experiences. Data were collected through…
Houle, Jason N.
In an era of rising college costs and stagnant grant-based student aid, many young adults rely on their parents' resources and student loans to pay for their postsecondary education. In this study I ask how parents' income and education are linked to young adults' student loan debt. I develop and test two perspectives regarding the…
Özbek, E.; Bongers, I.L.; Lobbestael, J.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.
This study investigated the relationship between acculturation and psychological problems in Turkish and Moroccan young adults living in the Netherlands. A sample of 131 healthy young adults aged between 18 and 24 years old, with a Turkish or Moroccan background was recruited using snowball
Soons, J.P.M.; Liefbroer, A.C.
This study examines differences in well-being among young adults across relationship status. Multilevel regression analyses on two waves of data of the Dutch Panel Study of Social Integration (N = 2818) show that singles have the lowest level of well-being, followed by young adults who are steady
Russell, Rhonda L.
This research focused on young adults who have disabilities and their transition and career planning for post-secondary life. The study sought to identify best practices in transition planning, transition planning services, and to determine the types of resources and support needed by young adults who have disabilities. For youth who have…
Miller, David James
Young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) face unique social skills challenges as they transition into independent living environments and seek fulfilling relationships within their communities. Research has focused on social education and interventions for children with autism, while transitioning young adults with ASD have received…
Chenot, David; Kim, Hansung
Spirituality and religion predicted the development of social justice orientation (SJO) among young adults in a previous study (Chenot & Kim, 2013). The current study explores the manner in which the effects of spirituality and religion on social justice orientation vary depending on the career aspirations of young adults. The longitudinal…
Learning and Work Institute, 2016
"The Really Useful Book of Learning and Earning for Young Adult Carers" is aimed at young adults (aged 16-25) in England who are looking after somebody else. The first edition of the book was printed in 2011. This third edition is full of new and up-to-date useful information about looking after your health and wellbeing, job hunting,…
Roux, Anne M; Shattuck, Paul T; Cooper, Benjamin P; Anderson, Kristy A; Wagner, Mary; Narendorf, Sarah C
We examined postsecondary employment experiences of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and compared these outcomes with those of young adults with different disabilities. Data were from Wave 5 of the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2), a nationally representative survey of young adults who had received special education services during high school. We examined the prevalence of ever having had, and currently having, a paid job at 21 to 25 years of age. We analyzed rates of full-time employment, wages earned, number of jobs held since high school, and job types. Approximately one-half (53.4%) of young adults with an ASD had ever worked for pay outside the home since leaving high school, the lowest rate among disability groups. Young adults with an ASD earned an average of $8.10 per hour, significantly lower than average wages for young adults in the comparison groups, and held jobs that clustered within fewer occupational types. Odds of ever having had a paid job were higher for those who were older, from higher-income households, and with better conversational abilities or functional skills. Findings of worse employment outcomes for young adults with an ASD suggest that this population is experiencing particular difficulty in successfully transitioning into employment. Research is needed to determine strategies for improving outcomes as these young adults transition into adulthood. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bal, M.I.; Sattoe, J.N.T.; Schaardenburgh, N.R. van
Background: Finding and maintaining employment is a major challenge for young adults with physical disabilities and their work participation rate is lower than that of healthy peers. This paper is about a program that supports work participation amongst young adults with chronic physical
Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra
Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among young adults with ID is lacking altogether.…
Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline
Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…