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Sample records for bile pigments

  1. Structure of plant bile pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenleber, R.W.

    1983-12-01

    Selective peptide cleavage has provided a general procedure for the study of the structure, including stereochemistry, of plant bile pigments. The information derived from the synthesis and spectral analysis of a series of 2,3-dihydrodioxobilins allows the determination of the trans relative stereochemistry for ring A of the ..beta../sub 1/-phycocyanobilin from C-phycocyanin as well as for ring A of phytochrome. A complete structure proof of the five phycoerythrobilins attached to the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of B-phycoerythrin is described. One of these tetrapyrroles is doubly-peptide linked to a single peptide chain through two thioethers at the C-3' and C-18' positions. The four remaining phycoerythrobilins are singly-linked to the protein through thioethers at the C-3' position and all possess the probable stereochemistry C-2(R), C-3(R), C-3'(R), and C-16(R).

  2. Effects of Choleretics on Bile Compositions Drained from Patients with Pigment Gallstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Bai-jun; CUI Nai-qiang; LI Dong-hua; WANG Qian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To provide evidence for three-level prevention of cholelithiasis by means of observing the effects of some choleretics on bile compositions drained from patients with pigment gallstone.Methods: Twenty-seven patients suffering from primary pigment gallstones and having received treatment of choledochostomies plus T-tube or endoscopic nasal bile drainage (ENBD) were divided equally into three UDA group) and combination of LDL and UDA (the LDL+ UDA group) through oral intake(7 patients in each group). Besides, 6 post-operational patients got no treatment with any drug were allocated in the control group. Bile of all the patients was collected before treatment and on the 1, 3, 5, 7th day after the treatment started to detect levels of total bile acid (TBA), glycocholic acid (GCA), taurocholic acid (TCA), glycocholic cheno-desoxycholic acid (GCDCA), total bilirubin (TBIL), uncombined bilirubin (UCB), concentration of calcium ion (Ca2+ ) as well as the bacterio-genetic and endogenous β-glucuronidase activity for comparing.Results: Levels of TBA, GCA, TCA and GCDCA got gradually increased in the UDA group and the LDL+ UDA group after treatment ( P<0.05), while those in the LDL group remained unchanged, showing an insignificant difference as compared with those in the control group. In the LDL group and the LDL + UDA group, TBIL gradually increased while UCB gradually decreased in the course of treatment ( P<0.05). Moreover, levels of Ca2+ and endogenous β-glucuronidase activity got significantly lowered (P<0.05). Conclusion: Combined use of LDL and UDA could elevate levels of TBA, GCA, TCA, GCDCA, enhance the excretion of TBIL in patients with pigment gallstone after bile drainage, lower levels of UCB and Ca2+ and the activity of endogenous β-glucuronidase in the bile, so as to reduce the possibility of stone formation of bile, and therefore, it could be used to prevent the production of pigment gallstone, especially to prevent post

  3. Influence of Phosphatidylcholine and Calcium on Self-Association and Bile Salt Mixed Micellar Binding of the Natural Bile Pigment, Bilirubin Ditaurate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubrand, Michael W; Carey, Martin C; Laue, Thomas M

    2015-11-17

    Recently [Neubrand, M. W., et al. (2015) Biochemistry 54, 1542-1557], we determined a concentration-dependent monomer-dimer-tetramer equilibrium in aqueous bilirubin ditaurate (BDT) solutions and explored the nature of high-affinity binding of BDT monomers with monomers and micelles of the common taurine-conjugated bile salts (BS). We now investigate, employing complementary physicochemical methods, including fluorescence emission spectrophotometry and quasi-elastic light scattering spectroscopy, the influence of phosphatidylcholine (PC), the predominant phospholipid of bile and calcium, the major divalent biliary cation, on these self-interactions and heterointeractions. We have used short-chain, lyso and long-chain PC species as models and contrasted our results with those of parallel studies employing unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) as the fully charged dianion. Both bile pigments interacted with the zwitterionic headgroup of short-chain lecithins, forming water-soluble (BDT) and insoluble ion-pair complexes (UCB), respectively. Upon micelle formation, BDT monomers apparently remained at the headgroup mantle of short-chain PCs, but the ion pairs with UCB became internalized within the micelle's hydrophobic core. BDT interacted with the headgroups of unilamellar egg yolk (EY) PC vesicles; however, with the simultaneous addition of CaCl2, a reversible aggregation took place, but not vesicle fusion. With mixed EYPC/BS micelles, BDT became bound to the hydrophilic surface (as with simple BS micelles), and in turn, both BDT and BS bound calcium, but not other divalent cations. The calcium complexation of BDT and BS was enhanced strongly with increases in micellar EYPC, suggesting calcium-mediated cross-bridging of hydrophilic headgroups at the micelle's surface. Therefore, the physicochemical binding of BDT to BS in an artificial bile medium is influenced not only by BS species and concentration but also by long-chain PCs and calcium ions that exert a specific rather

  4. Influence of Phosphatidylcholine and Calcium on Self-Association and Bile Salt Mixed Micellar Binding of the Natural Bile Pigment, Bilirubin Ditaurate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubrand, Michael W; Carey, Martin C; Laue, Thomas M

    2015-11-17

    Recently [Neubrand, M. W., et al. (2015) Biochemistry 54, 1542-1557], we determined a concentration-dependent monomer-dimer-tetramer equilibrium in aqueous bilirubin ditaurate (BDT) solutions and explored the nature of high-affinity binding of BDT monomers with monomers and micelles of the common taurine-conjugated bile salts (BS). We now investigate, employing complementary physicochemical methods, including fluorescence emission spectrophotometry and quasi-elastic light scattering spectroscopy, the influence of phosphatidylcholine (PC), the predominant phospholipid of bile and calcium, the major divalent biliary cation, on these self-interactions and heterointeractions. We have used short-chain, lyso and long-chain PC species as models and contrasted our results with those of parallel studies employing unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) as the fully charged dianion. Both bile pigments interacted with the zwitterionic headgroup of short-chain lecithins, forming water-soluble (BDT) and insoluble ion-pair complexes (UCB), respectively. Upon micelle formation, BDT monomers apparently remained at the headgroup mantle of short-chain PCs, but the ion pairs with UCB became internalized within the micelle's hydrophobic core. BDT interacted with the headgroups of unilamellar egg yolk (EY) PC vesicles; however, with the simultaneous addition of CaCl2, a reversible aggregation took place, but not vesicle fusion. With mixed EYPC/BS micelles, BDT became bound to the hydrophilic surface (as with simple BS micelles), and in turn, both BDT and BS bound calcium, but not other divalent cations. The calcium complexation of BDT and BS was enhanced strongly with increases in micellar EYPC, suggesting calcium-mediated cross-bridging of hydrophilic headgroups at the micelle's surface. Therefore, the physicochemical binding of BDT to BS in an artificial bile medium is influenced not only by BS species and concentration but also by long-chain PCs and calcium ions that exert a specific rather

  5. Self-assembly of aqueous bilirubin ditaurate, a natural conjugated bile pigment, to contraposing enantiomeric dimers and M(-) and P(+) tetramers and their selective hydrophilic disaggregation by monomers and micelles of bile salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubrand, Michael W; Carey, Martin C; Laue, Thomas M

    2015-02-24

    The solution behavior of bilirubin ditaurate (BDT), the first naturally occurring conjugated bile pigment to be physically and chemically characterized, was assessed in aqueous solution and in monomeric and micellar solutions of common taurine-conjugated bile salts (BS). Analytical ultracentrifugation revealed that BDT self-associates in monomer-dimer equilibria between 1 and 500 μM, forming limiting tetramers at low millimolar concentrations. Self-association was enthalpically driven with ΔG values of ≈5 kcal/mol, suggesting strong hydrophobic interactions. Added NaCl and decreases in temperature shifted the oligomerization to lower BDT concentrations. On the basis of circular dichroism spectra and the limiting size of the self-aggregates, we infer that the tetramers are composed of 2P(+) and 2M(-) enantiomeric BDT pairs in "ridge-tile" conformations interacting in a "double-bookend" structure. With added monomeric BS, blue shifts in the UV-vis spectra and tight isosbestic points revealed that BDT/BS heterodimers form, followed by BDT "decorating" BS micelles mostly via hydrophilic interactions. Conformational enantiomerism, fluorescence intensities, and anisotropy, as well as resistance of the hybrid particles to disaggregation in 6 M urea, suggested that two or three hydrogen-bonding sites bound BDT monomers to the hydroxyl groups of BS, possibly via pyrrole-π-orbital-OH interactions. BDT stabilized these interactions by enveloping the BS in its "ridge-tile" pincers with variable strain that maximized van der Waals interactions. Possibly because the BDT molecule becomes highly strained with BS subtending a 7β-hydroxyl group, BDT became totally resistant to oxidation in air. This work predicts that, because of BS dissolution of the BDT self-aggregates, BS/bilirubin hybrid particles, which are stabilized hydrophilically, are likely to be the dominant mode of transport for all conjugated bilirubins in bile. PMID:25671490

  6. Self-assembly of aqueous bilirubin ditaurate, a natural conjugated bile pigment, to contraposing enantiomeric dimers and M(-) and P(+) tetramers and their selective hydrophilic disaggregation by monomers and micelles of bile salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubrand, Michael W; Carey, Martin C; Laue, Thomas M

    2015-02-24

    The solution behavior of bilirubin ditaurate (BDT), the first naturally occurring conjugated bile pigment to be physically and chemically characterized, was assessed in aqueous solution and in monomeric and micellar solutions of common taurine-conjugated bile salts (BS). Analytical ultracentrifugation revealed that BDT self-associates in monomer-dimer equilibria between 1 and 500 μM, forming limiting tetramers at low millimolar concentrations. Self-association was enthalpically driven with ΔG values of ≈5 kcal/mol, suggesting strong hydrophobic interactions. Added NaCl and decreases in temperature shifted the oligomerization to lower BDT concentrations. On the basis of circular dichroism spectra and the limiting size of the self-aggregates, we infer that the tetramers are composed of 2P(+) and 2M(-) enantiomeric BDT pairs in "ridge-tile" conformations interacting in a "double-bookend" structure. With added monomeric BS, blue shifts in the UV-vis spectra and tight isosbestic points revealed that BDT/BS heterodimers form, followed by BDT "decorating" BS micelles mostly via hydrophilic interactions. Conformational enantiomerism, fluorescence intensities, and anisotropy, as well as resistance of the hybrid particles to disaggregation in 6 M urea, suggested that two or three hydrogen-bonding sites bound BDT monomers to the hydroxyl groups of BS, possibly via pyrrole-π-orbital-OH interactions. BDT stabilized these interactions by enveloping the BS in its "ridge-tile" pincers with variable strain that maximized van der Waals interactions. Possibly because the BDT molecule becomes highly strained with BS subtending a 7β-hydroxyl group, BDT became totally resistant to oxidation in air. This work predicts that, because of BS dissolution of the BDT self-aggregates, BS/bilirubin hybrid particles, which are stabilized hydrophilically, are likely to be the dominant mode of transport for all conjugated bilirubins in bile.

  7. Protection of Dachaihu Granule on guinea pigs with bile pigment stones and its mechanism%大柴胡颗粒对胆色素结石豚鼠保护作用机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻斌; 阮鸣; 张志芬; 王兆龙; 卢金福; 吕高红; 许惠琴

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察大柴胡颗粒对胆色素结石豚鼠胆囊黏膜表皮生长因子(EGF)表达水平,肝、胆超微结构,肝组织胆固醇7α-羟化酶(CYP7Al)mRNA水平以及胆盐转运子BSEP、MRP2表达水平的影响,明确其对胆色素结石豚鼠的保护作用机制.方法 采用饲料法复制胆色素结行豚鼠模型,免疫组化法观察大柴胡颗粒(11、2.2、4.4 g/kg)对胆色素结石豚鼠的胆囊EGF水平的影响,透射电镜观察肝胆组织超微结构的改变,RT-PCR法检测肝组织CYP7A1基因表达水平,Westernblotting法检测肝脏中BSEP、MRP2表达水平,以熊去氧胆酸作为阳性对照.结果 大柴胡颗粒对胆结石豚鼠胆囊黏膜EGF表达影响不明显,但较好地改善其肝胆超微结构,其2.2、4.4 g/kg剂量组还能增加肝脏组织CYP7A1的基因转录(P<0.05、0.01)和BSEP、MRP2蛋白表达水平(P<0.05).结论 大柴胡颗粒抑制豚鼠胆色素结石形成可能与其影响豚鼠胆汁酸代谢、促进胆盐转运子功能、保护肝胆细胞器结构有关,而与胆囊黏膜EGF功能无明显关系.%Objective To study the effect of Dachaihu Granules (DG) on the expression of epidermal growth factors (EGF) of gallbladder mucosa in guinea pigs with bile pigment stones (BPS),the ultrastructure of liver and gallbladder epithelial cells,the level of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydrolase (CYP7A1) mRNA,and the expression of bile salt transporters,BSEP and MRP2,in liver cells for explaining the protective mechanism of the drug further.Methods The guinea pigs with BPS were established by fodder method.With the interference of DG (1.1,2.2,and 4.4 g/kg),the expression of EGF locating on the bile gallbladder was detected by immunohistochemistry.The ultrastructure of liver and gallbladder epithelial cells was detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).The CYP7A1 mRNA expression level in liver was detected by RT-PCR and the expression levels of BSEP and MRP2 in liver were detected by Western blotting

  8. Skin Pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This Article Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Vitiligo (Video) Hives Additional Content Medical News Overview of ... Version Pigment Disorders Overview of Skin Pigment Albinism Vitiligo Hyperpigmentation Melasma Melanin is the brown pigment that ...

  9. Microbiology of gallbladder bile in uncomplicated symptomatic cholelithiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vasitha Abeysuriya; Kemal Ismil Deen; Tamara Wijesuriya; Sujatha Senadera Salgado

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed microlfora and their antibiotic sensitivity in normal bile and lithogenic bile with different types of gallstones. METHODS: We performed a case control study of 70 bile samples (35 cholesterol and 35 pigment stones from 51 females and 19 males, aged 21-72 years with a median age of 37 years) from patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for uncomplicated cholelithiasis, and 20 controls (14 females and 6 males, aged 33-70 years with a median age of 38 years) who underwent laparotomy and had no gallbladder stone shown by ultrasound scan. The bile samples were aerobically cultured to assess microlfora and their antibiotic susceptibility. The procedures were undertaken under sterile conditions. RESULTS: Thirty-eight (54%) of the 70 patients with gallstones had bacterial isolates. Nine isolates (26%) were from cholesterol stone-containing bile and 29 isolates (82%) from pigment stone-containing bile (P=0.01, t test). Twenty-eight of these 38 (74%) bile samples were shown positive only after enrichment in brain heart infusion medium (BHI) (P=0.02, t test). The overall bacterial isolates from bile samples revealed E. coli predominantly, followed by P. aeruginosa, Enterococcus spp., Klebsiella spp. and S. epidermidis. There were no bacterial isolates in the bile of controls after either direct inoculation or enrichment in BHI. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial isolates were found in pigment stone-containing bile. Non-lithogenic bile revealed no bacteria, showing an association between gallstone formation and the presence of bacteria in bile. Antibiotic sensitivity patterns of isolated organisms were similar irrespective of the type of stone.

  10. Bile duct obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the liver. It contains cholesterol, bile salts, and waste products such as bilirubin . Bile salts help your ... can lead to life-threatening infection and a dangerous buildup of bilirubin. If the blockage lasts a ...

  11. Gallbladder bile composition in patients with Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Annika Lapidus; Jan-Erik (A)kerlund; Curt Einarsson

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To further elucidate the pathogenesis and mechanisms of the high risk of gallstone formation in Crohn's disease.METHODS: Gallbladder bile was obtained from patients with Crohn's disease who were admitted for elective surgery (17 with ileallileocolonic disease and 7 with Crohn's colitis). Fourteen gallstone patients served as controls. Duodenal bile was obtained from ten healthy subjects before and after the treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid. Bile was analyzed for biliary lipids,bile acids, bilirubin, crystals, and crystal detection time (CDT). Cholesterol saturation index was calculated.RESULTS: The biliary concentration of bilirubin was about 50% higher in patients with Crohn's disease than in patients with cholesterol gallstones. Ten of the patients with Crohn's disease involving ileum and three of those with Crohn's colitis had cholesterol saturated bile. Four patients with ileal disease and one of those with colonic disease displayed cholesterol crystals in their bile. About 1/3 of the patients with Crohn's disease had a short CDT. Treatment of healthy subjects with ursodeoxycholic acid did not increase the concentration of bilirubin in duodenal bile. Several patients with Crohn's disease,with or without ileal resection/disease had gallbladder bile supersaturated with cholesterol and short CDT and contained cholesterol crystals. The biliary concentration of bilirubin was also increased in patients with Crohn's colitis probably not due to bile acid malabsorption.CONCLUSION: Several factors may be of importance for the high risk of developing gallstones of both cholesterol and pigment types in patients with Crohn's disease.

  12. [Macular pigments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canovas, Renata; Cypel, Marcela; Farah, Michel Eid; Belfort, Rubens

    2009-01-01

    Lutein and Zeaxanthin are yellow pigments located at the macula. Because of your location macular pigments decrease and filter the amount of blue light that reach photoreceptors, protect the outer retina from oxidative stress and may improve the vision quality. This is a review regarding incorporation mechanism, function and knowledge update. PMID:20098912

  13. Early bile duct cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae Myung Cha; Myung-Hwan Kim; Se Jin Jang

    2007-01-01

    Bile duct cancers are frequently diagnosed as advanced diseases. Over half of patients with advanced bile duct cancer present with unresectable malignancies and their prognosis has been very poor even after curative resections. Although there has been a need to diagnose bile duct cancer at its early stage, it has been a difficult goal to achieve due to our lack of knowledge regarding this disease entity. Early bile duct cancer may be defined as a carcinoma whose invasion is confined within the fibromuscular layer of the extrahepatic bile duct or intrahepatic large bile duct without distant metastasis irrespective of lymph node involvement. Approximately 3%-10% of resected bile duct cancers have been reported to be early cancers in the literature. The clinicopathological features of patients with early bile duct cancer differ from those of patients with advanced bile duct cancer, with more frequent asymptomatic presentation, characteristic histopathological findings,and excellent prognosis. This manuscript is organized to emphasize the need for convening an international consensus to develop the concept of early bile duct cancer.

  14. Bile acid sequestrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David P; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and have traditionally been recognized for their role in absorption of lipids and in cholesterol homeostasis. In recent years, however, bile acids have emerged as metabolic signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of lipid...... and glucose metabolism, and possibly energy homeostasis, through activation of the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) constitute a class of drugs that bind bile acids in the intestine to form a nonabsorbable complex resulting in interruption...... of the enterohepatic circulation. This increases bile acid synthesis and consequently reduces serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Also, BASs improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite a growing understanding of the impact of BASs on glucose metabolism, the mechanisms behind their glucose...

  15. Painful Bile Extraction Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It was only in the past 20 years that countries in Asia began to search for an alternative to protect moon bears from being killed for their bile and other body parts. In the early 1980s, a new method of extracting bile from living bears was developed in North Korea. In 1983, Chinese scientists imported this technique from North Korea. According to the Animals Asia Foundation, the most original method of bile extraction is to embed a latex catheter, a narrow rubber

  16. The Frequency of Bacterial Agents in the Bile Juice of Patients with Bile Stones and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajeddin E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Bile in healthy people is a sterile fluid andpresence of any microorganism can be a marker for a disorder likecholelithiasis. The aim of this study was to determine the frequencyof bacterial agents in the bile of patients with bilestone, malignant pancreaticand biliary diseases.Material and Methods: One hundred and two bile samples were obtained,during six months in 2011, from patients subjected to ERCP in Taleghanihospital, Tehran. First, Patient's clinical data, the type stone, and their diseasestatus were studied, and then the microbiological investigations, such asculture, identification of the bacteria and detection of their counts, drugsusceptibility testing and molecular tests (16s rDNA PCR performed on allthe samples. Higher than 103 bacteria counts for each sample, in the absence ofunderlying infections, was considered as stable colonization. We run SPSSversion 13 to analyze the data.Results: Out of 42(41.1% positive bile culture samples, 59 bacterial isolatesare detected by conventional methods. Of culture negative samples, sevenhave bacterial DNA indicated by PCR method. The most isolated bacteria areE. coli (%34.4, Enterococcus spp. (%19.7, Klebsiella pneumoniae (%18 andPseudomonas aeruginos (18%. The most frequent stones are cholesterol,black pigment and brown pigment, respectively. There is no significantassociation between the diseases, stones and types of bacteria. Previousantibiotic usage (44.6% is meaningfully more than that of other biliaryproblems (p=0.01.Conclusion: The presence of bacteria, Escherchi coli and Entrococcus whichare the most in bile samples, is considered as a risk factor in pathogenesis ofbiliary disorders. Further studies on the pathogenesis and pathophysiologicaleffects of bacteria can help us to clarify the role of bacteria in producing bilestones.Key words: Bile stones, Bacteria, ERCP, Antibiotics.

  17. Physiology of bile secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alejandro Esteller

    2008-01-01

    The formation of bile depends on the structural and functional integrity of the bile-secretory apparatus and its impairment,in different situations,results in the syndrome of cholestasis.The structural bases that permit bile secretion as well as various aspects related with its composition and flow rate in physiological conditions will first be reviewed.Canalicular bile is produced by polarized hepatocytes that hold transporters in their basolateral (sinusoidal) and apical (canalicular) plasma membrane.This review summarizes recent data on the molecular determinants of this primary bile formation.The major function of the biliary tree is modification of canalicular bile by secretory and reabsorptive processes in bileduct epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) as bile passes through bile ducts.The mechanisms of fluid and solute transport in cholangiocytes will also be discussed.In contrast to hepatocytes where secretion is constant and poorly controlled,cholangiocyte secretion is regulated by hormones and nerves.A short section dedicated to these regulatory mechanisms of bile secretion has been included.The aim of this revision was to set the bases for other reviews in this series that will be devoted to specific issues related with biliary physiology and pathology.

  18. Bile culture (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tract. A specimen of bile is placed in culture media and observed for growth of microorganisms. If there ... no infection. If there is growth in the culture media, the growth is then isolated and identified to ...

  19. Gallbladder and bile duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008457 Relationship between pigment gallstone and intestinal barrier function: experiment with guinea pigs and clinical observations. WU Shuodong(吴硕东), et al.1st Dept Micro-invasive Bili Surg, Shengjing Hosp, China Med Univ, Shenyang 110004, Natl Med J China 2008;88(21):1498-1502. Objective To investigate the relationship between the intestinal barrier function and pigment gallstone formation.

  20. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  1. [Bile acids in the bile in diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slivka, O Ia; Zelinskiĭ, B A; Zelinskiĭ, S Ts

    1979-01-01

    Hepatic and gall bladder bile of healthy persons (8) and of patients with severe form of diabetes mellitus (17) was studied. Paer chromatography was applied for determination of cholic, chenodeoxycholic, deoxycholic bile acids and their conjugates with glycin and taurine. An absolute content and percentage of glycodeoxycholic and glycochenodeoxycholic bile acids were increased, and glycochenodeoxycholic acid content and taurates proportion were decreased in the gall bladder and hepatic bile of diabetic patients. The data obtained pointed to disturbed hepatic function in severe diabetes mellitus; it was expressed in suppression of bile acids synthesis and conjugation, and also in depression of transformation of deoxycholic into cholic acid.

  2. Gallblader and bile duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009215 Construction of the specific MUC5AC-siRNA expression plasmid and effect of siRNA on proliferation and apoptosis in human bile duct cancer line HCCC-9810.HUANG Qing(黄强),et al.Dept General Surg,Affili Prov Hosp,Anhui Med Univ,Hefei 230001.World Chin J Digestol.2009;17(6):566-572.

  3. Bile acid interactions with cholangiocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuefeng Xia; Heather Francis; Shannon Glaser; Gianfranco Alpini; Gene LeSage

    2006-01-01

    Cholangiocytes are exposed to high concentrations of bile acids at their apical membrane. A selective transporter for bile acids, the Apical Sodium Bile Acid Cotransporter (ASBT) (also referred to as Ibat; gene name Slc10a2)is localized on the cholangiocyte apical membrane. On the basolateral membrane, four transport systems have been identified (t-ASBT, multidrug resistance (MDR)3,an unidentified anion exchanger system and organic solute transporter (Ost) heteromeric transporter, OstαOstβ. Together, these transporters unidirectionally move bile acids from ductal bile to the circulation. Bile acids absorbed by cholangiocytes recycle via the peribiliaryplexus back to hepatocytes for re-secretion into bile.This recycling of bile acids between hepatocytes and cholangiocytes is referred to as the cholehepatic shunt pathway. Recent studies suggest that the cholehepatic shunt pathway may contribute in overall hepatobiliary transport of bile acids and to the adaptation to chronic cholestasis due to extrahepatic obstruction. ASBT is acutely regulated by an adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent translocation to the apical membrane and by phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination and proteasome degradation. ASBT is chronically regulated by changes in gene expression in response to biliary bile acid concentration and inflammatory cytokines.Another potential function of cholangiocyte ASBT is to allow cholangiocytes to sample biliary bile acids in order to activate intracellular signaling pathways. Bile acids trigger changes in intracellular calcium, protein kinase C (PKC), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), mitogenactivated protein (MAP) kinase and extracellular signalregulated protein kinase (ERK) intracellular signals.Bile acids significantly alter cholangiocyte secretion,proliferation and survival. Different bile acids have differential effects on cholangiocyte intracellular signals,and in some instances trigger opposing effects on cholangiocyte secretion

  4. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  5. Amylase activity in human bile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, L A; Joffe, S N; McIntosh, W; Brodie, M J

    1979-03-01

    The mean amylase level in 42 human bile samples was 154 IU/l and there was no significant difference in the amylase activity of 32 paired serum and bile samples. Estimation of the amylase thermolability of bile showed it to be similar to that of serum. This suggests that the amylase activity in bile may have filtered through the liver from the hepatic circulation rather than refluxed from the pancreatic duct. The presence of amylase in human bile provides further evidence that the liver might have a role in the regulation of serum amylase.

  6. Bile pigments: newcomers to the cell signaling arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maines, Mahin D

    2003-01-01

    The article highlighted in this issue is "2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-Induced Accumulation of Biliverdin and Hepatic Peliosis in Rats," by Marjo Nittynen, Jouni T. Tuomisto, Seppo Auriola, Raimo Pohjanvirta, Paula Syrjälä, Ulla Simanainen, Matti Viluksela, and Jouko Tuomisto (pp. 112-123).

  7. Therapeutic targeting of bile acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gores, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The first objectives of this article are to review the structure, chemistry, and physiology of bile acids and the types of bile acid malabsorption observed in clinical practice. The second major theme addresses the classical or known properties of bile acids, such as the role of bile acid sequestration in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; the use of ursodeoxycholic acid in therapeutics, from traditional oriental medicine to being, until recently, the drug of choice in cholestatic liver diseases; and the potential for normalizing diverse bowel dysfunctions in irritable bowel syndrome, either by sequestering intraluminal bile acids for diarrhea or by delivering more bile acids to the colon to relieve constipation. The final objective addresses novel concepts and therapeutic opportunities such as the interaction of bile acids and the microbiome to control colonic infections, as in Clostridium difficile-associated colitis, and bile acid targeting of the farnesoid X receptor and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 with consequent effects on energy expenditure, fat metabolism, and glycemic control. PMID:26138466

  8. Bile duct malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucek, S; Tomasek, J; Halámkova, J; Kiss, I; Andrasina, T; Hemmelová, B; Adámková-Krákorová, D; Vyzula, R

    2010-01-01

    Bile duct malignancies include intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC), gall bladder carcinoma (GC) and carcinoma of Vater's ampulla (ampulloma). Bile duct neoplasms are rare tumours with overall poor prognosis. The overall incidence affects up to 12.5 per 100,000 persons in the Czech Republic. The mortality rate has risen recently to 9.5 per 100,000 persons. The incidence and mortality have been remarkably stable over the past 3 decades. The survival rate of patients with these tumours is poor, usually not exceeding 12 months. The diagnostic process is complex, uneasy and usually late. Most cases are diagnosed when unresectable, and palliative treatment is the main approach of medical care for these tumours. The treatment remains very challenging. New approaches have not brought much improvement in this field. Standards of palliative care are lacking and quality of life assessments are surprisingly not common. From the scarce data it seems, however, that multimodal individually tailored treatment can prolong patients'survival and improve the health-related quality of life. The care in specialized centres offers methods of surgery, interventional radiology, clinical oncology and high quality supportive care. These methods are discussed in the article in greater detail. Improvements in this field can be sought in new diagnostic methods and new procedures in surgery and interventional radiology. Understanding the tumour biology on the molecular level could shift the strategy to a more successful one, resulting in more cured patients. Further improvements in palliative care can be sought by defining new targets and new drug development. The lack of patients with bile duct neoplasms has been the limiting factor for any improvements. A new design of larger randomized international multicentric clinical trials with prompt data sharing could help to overcome this major problem. Defining standards of palliative care is a necessity

  9. Gallbladder and bile duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930559 An experimental study on effective hep-atic blood flow and hepatic energy metabolismfollowing acute obstructive cholangitis and bil-iary obstruction.SUN Wenbing (孙文兵),et al.Hepatobili Surg,Center,Southwest Hosp,Chongqing 630000.Chin J Digest 1992;12(5):261—263.The changes of effective hepatic blood flow(E-HBF)and hepatic energy metabolism were stud-ied following acutc obstructive cholangitis(AOC)and bile duct ligation(BDL)in rats.The resultsshowed that EHBF was significantly decreased at24hs after and further decreased at 48hs afterBDL.And EHBF was significantly decreased at

  10. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  11. Animal pigment bilirubin discovered in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirone, Cary; Quirke, J Martin E; Priestap, Horacio A; Lee, David W

    2009-03-01

    The bile pigment bilirubin-IXalpha is the degradative product of heme, distributed among mammals and some other vertebrates. It can be recognized as the pigment responsible for the yellow color of jaundice and healing bruises. In this paper we present the first example of the isolation of bilirubin in plants. The compound was isolated from the brilliant orange-colored arils of Strelitzia nicolai, the white bird of paradise tree, and characterized by HPLC-ESMS, UV-visible, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, as well as comparison with an authentic standard. This discovery indicates that plant cyclic tetrapyrroles may undergo degradation by a previously unknown pathway. Preliminary analyses of related plants, including S. reginae, the bird of paradise, also revealed bilirubin in the arils and flowers, indicating that the occurrence of bilirubin is not limited to a single species or tissue type. PMID:19206232

  12. Oral pigmentation: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, C; Ramakrishnan, K; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B

    2015-08-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  13. Pigmented Bowen's disease*

    OpenAIRE

    Mota, Amanda Nascimento Cavalleiro de Macedo; Piñeiro-Maceira, Juan; Alves, Maria de Fatima Guimarães Scotelaro; Tarazona, Mónica Jidid Mateus

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented Bowen's disease is rare, though more prevalent in men. It presents as a well-delineated plaque in areas unexposed to sun. There are reports of association with seborrheic keratosis, solar lentigo or exuberant pigmentation of genital and intertriginous regions. A specific dermoscopy finding is the presence of brown or gray dots in regular arrangement and coiled or dotted vessels. Thus, we aim to raise awareness of the diagnosis of pigmented Bowen's disease in pigmented lesions.

  14. Therapeutic uses of animal biles in traditional Chinese medicine: an ethnopharmacological, biophysical chemical and medicinal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David Q-H; Carey, Martin C

    2014-08-01

    Forty-four different animal biles obtained from both invertebrates and vertebrates (including human bile) have been used for centuries for a host of maladies in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) beginning with dog, ox and common carp biles approximately in the Zhou dynasty (c. 1046-256 BCE). Overall, different animal biles were prescribed principally for the treatment of liver, biliary, skin (including burns), gynecological and heart diseases, as well as diseases of the eyes, ears, nose, mouth and throat. We present an informed opinion of the clinical efficacy of the medicinal uses of the different animal biles based on their presently known principal chemical components which are mostly steroidal detergent-like molecules and the membrane lipids such as unesterified cholesterol and mixed phosphatidylcholines and sometimes sphingomyelin, as well as containing lipopigments derived from heme principally bilirubin glucuronides. All of the available information on the ethnopharmacological uses of biles in TCM were collated from the rich collection of ancient Chinese books on materia medica held in libraries in China and United States and the composition of various animal biles was based on rigorous separatory and advanced chemical identification techniques published since the mid-20(th) century collected via library (Harvard's Countway Library) and electronic searches (PubMed and Google Scholar). Our analysis of ethnomedical data and information on biliary chemistry shows that specific bile salts, as well as the common bile pigment bilirubin and its glucuronides plus the minor components of bile such as vitamins A, D, E, K, as well as melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) are salutary in improving liver function, dissolving gallstones, inhibiting bacterial and viral multiplication, promoting cardiac chronotropsim, as well as exhibiting anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, anti-oxidant, sedative, anti-convulsive, anti-allergic, anti-congestive, anti-diabetic and anti

  15. Bile acid transporters in health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kosters, Astrid; Karpen, Saul J

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the discovery of a number of major transporter proteins expressed in the liver and intestine specifically involved in bile acid transport has led to improved understanding of bile acid homeostasis and the enterohepatic circulation. Na+-dependent bile acid uptake from portal blood into the liver is mediated primarily by the Na+ taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP), while secretion across the canalicular membrane into bile is carried out by the Bile salt export pump (...

  16. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  17. Ion transport in pigmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Bellono, Nicholas W.; Oancea, Elena V.

    2014-01-01

    Skin melanocytes and ocular pigment cells contain specialized organelles called melanosomes, which are responsible for the synthesis of melanin, the major pigment in mammals. Defects in the complex mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and regulation result in vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired development of the visual system,, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Ion transport across cellular membranes is critical for many biological processes, including pigmenta...

  18. Endocrine and paracrine role of bile acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Verena Keitel; Ralf Kubitz; Dieter H(a)ussinger

    2008-01-01

    Bile acids are not only important for the absorption of dietary lipids and fat soluble vitamins but are signalling molecules with diverse endocrine and paracrine functions.Bile acids regulate bile acid,lipid and glucose metabolism and modulate temperature and energy homeostasis.Furthermore,bile acids can not only promote cell proliferation and liver regeneration but can also induce programmed cell death.Bile acid functions are mediated through different pathways which comprise the activation of nuclear hormone receptors,of intracellular kinases and of the plasma membranebound,G-protein coupled bile acid receptor TGR5/Gpbar-1.

  19. Bile acids for primary sclerosing cholangitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    Bile acids have been used for treating primary sclerosing cholangitis, but their beneficial and harmful effects remain unclear.......Bile acids have been used for treating primary sclerosing cholangitis, but their beneficial and harmful effects remain unclear....

  20. Can pigment gallstones be induced by biliary stricture and prevented by medicine in Guinea pigs?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Xu; Xiao-Feng Ling; Wan-Hua Zhang; Xiao-Si Zhou

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine the relationship between biliary stricture and pigment gallstone formation, and the prevention of pigment gallstones with medicine.METHODS: One hundred and eighteen male guinea pigs were randomly divided into four groups: stricture group (S, n = 30) underwent partial ligation of common bile duct, and fed on regular chow; S plus medicine group (S+M, n = 27) underwent the same operation but fed on medicinal chow (0.3 g chenodeoxycholic acid, 0.5 g glucurolactone, and 0.5 g aspirin were mixed up in 1.2 kg regular chow); medicinal control group (C+M, n = 30) was free of operation, and fed on medicinal chow; and control group (C, n = 31) was free of operation and fed on regular chow. One week later, laparotomy was performed, and the bile of gallbladder was collected, measured, and cultured.RESULTS: Gallstones were identified. Pigment gallstones were induced by biliary stricture in 95% (22/23) of S group. In the S+M group, the incidence of gallstone was reduced to 55% (11/20, vs S group, P<0.01). The changes of indirect bilirubin and ionized calcium in the bile were consistent with gallstone incidences.CONCLUSION: Biliary stricture can cause pigment gallstone formation in guinea pigs, and the medicines used can lower the incidence of gallstones. The bilirubin and ionized calcium play important roles in pigment gallstone formation.

  1. Bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keating, Niamh

    2009-10-01

    In addition to their roles in facilitating lipid digestion and absorption, bile acids are recognized as important regulators of intestinal function. Exposure to bile acids can dramatically influence intestinal transport and barrier properties; in recent years, they have also become appreciated as important factors in regulating cell growth and survival. Indeed, few cells reside within the intestinal mucosa that are not altered to some degree by exposure to bile acids. The past decade saw great advances in the knowledge of how bile acids exert their actions at the cellular and molecular levels. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the role of bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

  2. Laugier-hunziker pigmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ajith C; Handa Sanjeev

    2005-01-01

    Laugier-Hunziker pigmentation (LHP) is an acquired disorder of hypermelanosis characterized by mucocutaneous hyperpigmentation. LHP may resemble various disorders characterized by mucocutaneous pigmentation. A 58-year-old lady presented with progressively increasing number of variable sized, hyperpigmented macules over the lips, fingers, toes and nails. There was no family history of similar illness. Systemic examination and all relevant investigations were within normal limits. Histopatholog...

  3. Spontaneous Bile Duct Rupture in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Piotrowski, Joseph J.; Greg Van Stiegmann; R. Dale Liechty

    1990-01-01

    Spontaneous bile duct rupture occurred in a 23-year-old who required emergency Cesarean section for fetal distress. This condition has not been reported in association with pregnancy. Only forty cases of spontaneous bile duct perforation in adults have been previously reported. Seventy percent of these perforations were related to biliary calculi. Sites of perforation were evenly distributed between common hepatic duct and common bile duct. Recommended treatment includes cholecystectomy, comm...

  4. Pigmentos maculares Macular pigments

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Canovas; Marcela Cypel; Michel Eid Farah; Rubens Belfort Jr

    2009-01-01

    A luteína e a zeaxantina são pigmentos amarelos que se localizam na mácula. Devido à sua localização, diminuem e filtram a quantidade de luz principalmente azul que chega aos fotorreceptores, atuam como antioxidantes e podem melhorar a qualidade visual. Esta é uma revisão do seu mecanismo de incorporação, ação, possíveis aplicações e conhecimento científico a respeito.Lutein and Zeaxanthin are yellow pigments located at the macula. Because of your location macular pigments decrease and filter...

  5. Laugier-hunziker pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajith C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Laugier-Hunziker pigmentation (LHP is an acquired disorder of hypermelanosis characterized by mucocutaneous hyperpigmentation. LHP may resemble various disorders characterized by mucocutaneous pigmentation. A 58-year-old lady presented with progressively increasing number of variable sized, hyperpigmented macules over the lips, fingers, toes and nails. There was no family history of similar illness. Systemic examination and all relevant investigations were within normal limits. Histopathology of a skin lesion had features consistent with LHP. The diagnosis of LHP must be made only after relevant investigations to rule out any associated systemic involvement. This case further highlights that LHP is not restricted to European countries.

  6. Raman af hvide pigmenter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeler, Nini Elisabeth Abildgaard; Nielsen, Ole Faurskov; Sauer, Stephan P. A.;

    2013-01-01

    Et samspil mellem kunst og kemi. I et samarbejde mellem Statens Museum for Kunst og Kemisk Institut på KU er Ramanspek-troskopi brugt til at definere sammensætningen af blandinger af blyhvidt og calcit i maleriers hvide pigmenter.......Et samspil mellem kunst og kemi. I et samarbejde mellem Statens Museum for Kunst og Kemisk Institut på KU er Ramanspek-troskopi brugt til at definere sammensætningen af blandinger af blyhvidt og calcit i maleriers hvide pigmenter....

  7. Possible relationship between intestinal barrier function and formation of pigment gallstones in hamsters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Fan; Shuo-Dong Wu; Lei Sun; Bei-Bei Fu; Yang Su

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The presence of bacteria in bile is an important factor in the formation of pigment gallstones. The bile of healthy people is sterile and bacteria in the biliary system come from endogenous infection from the gut. Yet, the route of bacterial translocation into the bile duct is still unclear. Theoretically, two routes exist:one is through the intestinal barrier and the other is by direct relfux from the sphincter of Oddi. This study was undertaken to explore the relationship between the effectiveness of intestinal barrier and the formation of pigment gallstones in hamsters. METHODS: Thirty-two hamsters were divided into an experimental and a control group, with 16 hamsters in each group. A low protein and high cellulose diet was given for 6 weeks to induce the formation of pigment gallstones in the experimental group (PS) and a normal diet was given to the control group (CON). Morphological changes, changes in the levels of serum endotoxin and diamine oxidase, and changes in the numbers of B lymphocytes, plasma cells and secretory immunoglobin A (sIgA) in the intestinal mucosa were assessed after 6 weeks. RESULTS:Four hamsters died during lithogenesis and body weight decreased in the PS group. Pigment gallstones were found in 11 hamsters at the end of the experiment, giving a lithogenesis rate of 91.67%. The serum endotoxin level before and after gallstone formation in the PS group was 0.2960±0.1734 U/ml and 8.2964±4.6268 U/ml, respectively (P CONCLUSIONS:A low protein and high cellulose diet can markedly reduce intestinal barrier function and facilitate the formation of pigment gallstones. The decrease of intestinal barrier function may take part in the formation of pigment gallstones.

  8. True bursal pigmented villonodular synovitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry [Department of Radiology, New York Methodist Hospital, Affiliated with New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Kenan, Samuel [Department of Orthopedics, New York University Medical Center, NY (United States); Steiner, German C. [Department of Pathology, Hospital for Joint Diseases/Orthopedic Institute, New York, NY (United States); Abdul-Quader, Mohammed [Department of Radiology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2002-06-01

    We describe two cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis affecting true bursae. This study was also designed to discuss the term ''pigmented villonodular bursitis'', not confined to true synovial bursae, sometimes creating misunderstanding. (orig.)

  9. Bacteriological analysis of bile in cholecystectomy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik M. Parekh

    2015-11-01

    Methods: The study was a prospective study carried out in SSG Hospital. A total of 78 patients undergone cholecystectomy who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. 3cc bile was aspirated from all patients, this collected bile from gallbladder before cholecystectomy was transported to the laboratory in sterile test-tube. The specimen was evaluated to find out whether it is sterile or has any bacteria present. The types of bacteria are determined and whether the amount of isolate is significant or not. And sensitivity to antibacterial agents against antibiotics was determined. Results: 19 patients showed positive bile culture in which Escherichia coli was the most common isolated bacteria (63.16% among positive bile culture and 15.38% among all patients and bile was sterile in 59 patients (75.64%. Other organisms isolated were Pseudomonas (3.85%, Klebsiella (2.56%, coagulase negative Staphylococcus and Staphylococcus viridans (1.28%. Positive bile culture was a more common finding (50% of patients were bile culture positive in patients with acute cholecystitis in this study. Post-operative wound infection is more common (15.79% in group of patients with isolated organism from bile. There is a strong correlation between bile culture and wound culture (75%. Conclusions: It was found that sensitivity to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins was higher as compared to aminoglycoside in acute as well as chronic cholecystitis. In this study levofloxacin also shows good sensitivity against isolated organism from bile. Piperacilin and tazobactum also shows good sensitivity against isolated organism from bile and they are more effective against pseudomonas. The resistance to second-generation cephalosporins and aminoglycoside has increased. For preoperative prophylaxis third and fourth-generation cephalosporins and levofloxacin show better promise and may be used as the first line of preoperative prophylaxis in operations for acute and chronic

  10. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract

    Microalgal pigments are regarded as natural alternatives for food colorants. To facilitate optimization of microalgae-based pigment production, this thesis aimed to obtain key insights in the pigment metabolism of phototrophic microalgae, with the main  focus

  11. Bile salts of the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris: novel bile alcohol sulfates and absence of bile acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, S; Schteingart, C D; Hagey, L R; Cohen, B I; Mosbach, E H; Rossi, S S; Hofmann, A F; Matoba, N; Une, M; Hoshita, T

    1988-04-01

    The bile salts present in gallbladder bile of the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, an herbivorous marine mammal of the tropical and subtropical margins of the Atlantic Ocean, were found to consist of a mixture of bile alcohol sulfates. Bile acids, previously believed to be present in all mammals, were not detected. Using chromatography, mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the major bile alcohol was identified as 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,6 beta,7 alpha-25,26-pentol; that is, it had the nuclear structure of alpha-muricholic acid and the side chain structure of bufol. This compound has not been described previously and the trivial name "alpha-trichechol" is proposed. The second most abundant compound was 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,25,26-tetrol. Other bile alcohols were tentatively identified as 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,6 beta,7 beta,25,26-pentol (named beta-trichechol), 3 alpha,6 alpha,7 beta, 25-26-pentol (named omega-trichechol) and 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,6 beta,7 alpha,26-tetrol. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of the four 6,7 epimers of 3,6,7 trihydroxy bile acids are described and discussed. All bile alcohols were present as ester sulfates, the sulfate group being tentatively assigned to the 26-hydroxy group. 12-Hydroxy compounds were not detected. The manatee is the first mammal found to lack bile acids, presumably because it lacks the enzymes required for oxidation of the 26-hydroxy group to a carboxylic acid. Trichechols, like other bile salts, are water-soluble end products of cholesterol metabolism; whether they also function as biological surfactants in promoting biliary cholesterol secretion or lipid digestion is unknown. PMID:3392467

  12. Successful Endoscopic Therapy of Traumatic Bile Leaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Spinn

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic bile leaks often result in high morbidity and prolonged hospital stay that requires multimodality management. Data on endoscopic management of traumatic bile leaks are scarce. Our study objective was to evaluate the efficacy of the endoscopic management of a traumatic bile leak. We performed a retrospective case review of patients who were referred for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP after traumatic bile duct injury secondary to blunt (motor vehicle accident or penetrating (gunshot trauma for management of bile leaks at our tertiary academic referral center. Fourteen patients underwent ERCP for the management of a traumatic bile leak over a 5-year period. The etiology included blunt trauma from motor vehicle accident in 8 patients, motorcycle accident in 3 patients and penetrating injury from a gunshot wound in 3 patients. Liver injuries were grade III in 1 patient, grade IV in 10 patients, and grade V in 3 patients. All patients were treated by biliary stent placement, and the outcome was successful in 14 of 14 cases (100%. The mean duration of follow-up was 85.6 days (range 54-175 days. There were no ERCP-related complications. In our case review, endoscopic management with endobiliary stent placement was found to be successful and resulted in resolution of the bile leak in all 14 patients. Based on our study results, ERCP should be considered as first-line therapy in the management of traumatic bile leaks.

  13. Iatrogenic bile duct injuries – clinical problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Głuszek Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures in surgical wards. Iatrogenic bile duct injuries (IBDI incurred during the procedures are among postoperative complications that are most difficult to treat. The risk of bile duct injury is 0.2-0.4%, and their consequences are unpleasant both for the surgeon and for the patient.

  14. Bile acids for liver-transplanted patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poropat, Goran; Giljaca, Vanja; Stimac, Davor;

    2010-01-01

    Liver transplantation has become a widely accepted form of treatment for numerous end-stage liver diseases. Bile acids may decrease allograft rejection after liver transplantation by changing the expression of major histocompatibility complex class molecules in bile duct epithelium and central vein...

  15. Bile acids for liver-transplanted patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Gluud, C

    2005-01-01

    Liver transplantation has become a widely accepted form of treatment for numerous end-stage liver diseases. Bile acids may decrease the degree of allograft rejection after liver transplantation by changing the expression of major histocompatibility complex class molecules in bile duct epithelium...

  16. Bile acid biosynthesis and its regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areta Hebanowska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Bile acid biosynthesis is the main pathway of cholesterol catabolism. Bile acids are more soluble than cholesterol so are easier to excrete. As amphipathic molecules they participate in lipid digestion and absorption in the intestine and they help to excrete free cholesterol with bile. They are also ligands for nuclear receptors regulating the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. Interconversion of cholesterol into bile acids is an important point of its homeostasis. Seventeen enzymes are engaged in this process and many of them are cytochromes P450. Bile acid synthesis initiation may proceed with the “classical” pathway (starting with cholesterol hydroxylation at the C7α position or the “alternative” pathway (starting with cholesterol hydroxylation at the C27 position. Two additional pathways are possible, though their quantitative significance is small (initiated with cholesterol hydroxylations of C24 and C25 positions. Oxysterols produced are not only intermediates of bile acid biosynthesis but also important regulators of metabolism. Bile acid biosynthesis takes place in the liver, but some enzymes are also present in other organs, where they participate in regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Those enzymes are potential targets for new drugs against cholesterol metabolism disturbances. This article is a brief description of the bile acid biosynthesis pathway and participating enzymes.

  17. A rare case of bile duct cyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Gang Wang; Shu-Tian Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Choledochal cyst is an uncommon disease usually seen in young women and can be divided into five types. We report a 66-year-old woman who was diagnosed with types Ⅱ and Ⅱ bile duct cyst simultaneously after surgery, which is a rare type of bile duct cyst.

  18. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... not to exceed 0.45 percent by weight of the pigment. The pigmented articles may contact all foods... pigment. The pigmented polymeric films may contact all food under conditions of use D, E, F, and G....45 percent by weight of the pigment. The pigmented articles may contact all food under conditions...

  19. Bile acid dissolution therapy of gallbladder stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, H; Malavolti, M

    1992-11-01

    Oral cholelitholytic bile acid therapy has become established treatment for selected patients with cholesterol gallstones. The treatment finds its clinical application both alone and in combination with ESWL. UDCA alone or, less commonly, a combination of this bile acid with CDCA is used. Optimal results can be expected only in carefully selected patients. Bile acid dissolution therapy is most successful in patients with radiolucent gallstones which are OCG to be floating. Dissolution is seldom seen when the stones are > 1 cm in size. Cholelitholytic treatment in combination with ESWL yields optimal results in single radiolucent gallstones which are not greater than 2 cm. ESWL thus makes it possible to use medical treatment effectively in single 1-2 cm gallstones when bile acids alone would not be successful. Bile acid treatment is extremely safe, especially if UDCA is given without the addition of CDCA. PMID:1486209

  20. Bile acids in health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, E; Thaysen, E H

    1996-01-01

    improved. Important physiological research on the mechanisms of hepatic bile flow was conducted. An intestinal perfusion model served as a tool providing information on absorption kinetics and on transmucosal water and electrolyte movements. The gallstone disease, liver diseases, inflammatory bowel disease...... to the understanding of the factors involved in the solubility of cholesterol in bile. The growing international understanding of the potential importance of the bile acids in health and disease gave raise to a substantial Danish contribution in the 1970s and 1980s in parallel with international achievements. Emphasis...... was on the possible clinical implications of bile acids. Studies on physiology and pathophysiology were in focus. Patients who have had an intestinal bypass operation for obesity served as a model for obtaining new knowledge on various aspects of the properties of the bile acids. Also the analytical methods were...

  1. Acute bile nephropathy secondary to anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhunaizi, Ahmed M; ElTigani, Mohamed A; Rabah, Rola S; Nasr, Samih H

    2016-02-01

    Renal dysfunction in cholestatic liver disease is multifactorial. Acute kidney injury may develop secondary to renal vasoconstriction in the setting of peripheral vasodilation and relative hypovolemia, tubular obstruction by bile casts, and direct tubular toxicity from bile. Anabolic steroids are frequently used by athletes to boost endurance and increase muscle mass. These agents are a recently recognized cause of hepatotoxicity and jaundice and may lead to acute kidney injury. To increase awareness about this growing problem and to characterize the pathology of acute kidney injury in this setting, we report on a young male who developed acute kidney injury in the setting of severe cholestatic jaundice related to ingestion of anabolic steroids used for bodybuilding. Kidney biopsy showed bile casts within distal tubular lumina, filamentous bile inclusions within tubular cells, and signs of acute tubular injury. This report supports the recently re-emerged concept of bile nephropathy cholemic nephrosis. PMID:26587777

  2. Acute bile nephropathy secondary to anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhunaizi, Ahmed M; ElTigani, Mohamed A; Rabah, Rola S; Nasr, Samih H

    2016-02-01

    Renal dysfunction in cholestatic liver disease is multifactorial. Acute kidney injury may develop secondary to renal vasoconstriction in the setting of peripheral vasodilation and relative hypovolemia, tubular obstruction by bile casts, and direct tubular toxicity from bile. Anabolic steroids are frequently used by athletes to boost endurance and increase muscle mass. These agents are a recently recognized cause of hepatotoxicity and jaundice and may lead to acute kidney injury. To increase awareness about this growing problem and to characterize the pathology of acute kidney injury in this setting, we report on a young male who developed acute kidney injury in the setting of severe cholestatic jaundice related to ingestion of anabolic steroids used for bodybuilding. Kidney biopsy showed bile casts within distal tubular lumina, filamentous bile inclusions within tubular cells, and signs of acute tubular injury. This report supports the recently re-emerged concept of bile nephropathy cholemic nephrosis.

  3. Bile resistance mechanisms in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena eRuiz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Most of the probiotic bacteria currently available in the market belong to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and specific health-promoting activities, such as treatment of diarrhea or amelioration of gastrointestinal discomfort, have been attributed to them. In order to be able to survive the gastrointestinal transit and transiently colonise our gut, these bacteria must be able to counteract the deleterious action of bile salts, which are the main components of bile. Bile salts are detergent-like biological substances synthesised in the liver from cholesterol. Host enzymes conjugate the newly synthesised free bile acids in the liver with the amino acids glycine or taurine, generating conjugated bile salts. These compounds are stored in the gall bladder and they are released into the duodenum during digestion to perform their physiological function, which is the solubilisation of fat coming from diet. These bile salts possess strong antimicrobial activity, since they are able to disorganize the structure of the cell membrane, as well as trigger DNA damage. This means that bacteria inhabiting our intestinal tract must have intrinsic resistance mechanisms to cope with bile salts. To do that, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium display a variety of proteins devoted to the efflux of bile salts or protons, to modify sugar metabolism or to prevent protein misfolding. In this manuscript, we review and discuss specific bile resistance mechanisms, as well as the processes responsible for the adaptation of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli to bile.

  4. Bile resistance mechanisms in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Lorena; Margolles, Abelardo; Sánchez, Borja

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Most of the probiotic bacteria currently available in the market belong to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and specific health-promoting activities, such as treatment of diarrhea or amelioration of gastrointestinal discomfort, have been attributed to them. In order to be able to survive the gastrointestinal transit and transiently colonize our gut, these bacteria must be able to counteract the deleterious action of bile salts, which are the main components of bile. Bile salts are detergent-like biological substances synthesized in the liver from cholesterol. Host enzymes conjugate the newly synthesized free bile acids in the liver with the amino acids glycine or taurine, generating conjugated bile salts. These compounds are stored in the gall bladder and they are released into the duodenum during digestion to perform their physiological function, which is the solubilization of fat coming from diet. These bile salts possess strong antimicrobial activity, since they are able to disorganize the structure of the cell membrane, as well as trigger DNA damage. This means that bacteria inhabiting our intestinal tract must have intrinsic resistance mechanisms to cope with bile salts. To do that, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium display a variety of proteins devoted to the efflux of bile salts or protons, to modify sugar metabolism or to prevent protein misfolding. In this manuscript, we review and discuss specific bile resistance mechanisms, as well as the processes responsible for the adaptation of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli to bile. PMID:24399996

  5. Gallbladder inflammation is associated with increase in mucin expression and pigmented stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkin, Alexander; Nudelman, Israel; Morgenstern, Sara; Geller, Alex; Bar Dayan, Yosefa; Levi, Zohar; Rodionov, Galina; Hardy, Britta; Konikoff, Fred; Gobbic, Diana; Niv, Yaron

    2007-07-01

    Mucin is a high molecular weight glycoprotein that plays an important role in protecting the gallbladder epithelium from the detergent effect of bile. However, it also participates in gallstone formation. There is little information about a possible relationship between gallbladder inflammation and mucin expression or gallbladder stones' characteristics. The aims of this study were to investigate stone characteristics and patterns of mucin expression in the gallbladder epithelium and bile of gallstone patients, in relation to inflammation. Gallbladder bile and tissue samples from 21 patients were obtained at surgery. Mucin content was evaluated by gel filtration on a Sepharose CL-4B column. Dot blot for bile mucin apoproteins and immunohistochemistry staining for gallbladder mucosal mucin apoproteins were performed with antibodies to MUC2, MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC5B and MUC6. Staining intensity score (0-3) was used for assessment of antigen expression and the level of inflammation. Gallstone cholesterol content was determined in 16 patients. MUC 5AC and MUC 5B were demonstrated in 95.4 and 100% of gallbladder bile samples, respectively. Immunohistochemistry staining with antibodies to MUC 2, MUC 3, MUC 5AC, MUC 5B and MUC 6 were positive in 0, 100, 85.7, 100 and 95.4% of the gallbladder mucosal samples, respectively. Pigmented brown stones were associated with a higher level of gallbladder inflammation. Mucin species expressed in gallbladder epithelium are MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC5B and MUC6. MUC5AC and MUC5B are secreted into bile. Inflammation of the gallbladder is accompanied by a higher level of MUC5AC expression and is associated with pigmented brown stones. PMID:17385041

  6. Pigmentos maculares Macular pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Canovas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A luteína e a zeaxantina são pigmentos amarelos que se localizam na mácula. Devido à sua localização, diminuem e filtram a quantidade de luz principalmente azul que chega aos fotorreceptores, atuam como antioxidantes e podem melhorar a qualidade visual. Esta é uma revisão do seu mecanismo de incorporação, ação, possíveis aplicações e conhecimento científico a respeito.Lutein and Zeaxanthin are yellow pigments located at the macula. Because of your location macular pigments decrease and filter the amount of blue light that reach photoreceptors, protect the outer retina from oxidative stress and may improve the vision quality. This is a review regarding incorporation mechanism, function and knowledge update.

  7. Chlorophyll: The wonder pigment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.R.

    -in antioxidants. Inside, hidden by the dark green of the chlorophyll, vitamins, the SCIENCE REPORTER, July 2005 29 Feature Article Cluster of pigment molecules embedded in membrane Granum (stack of thylakoids) Porphyrin ring (light-absorbing "heod" of molecule... of enzymes that organize physiology inside a plant's body, turn glucose into all kinds of vitamins, antioxidants, and other chemical moieties and various biochemical reactions inside our body use glucose as fundamental source of energy! Chlorophyll is often...

  8. Anthocyanin pigments in strawberry

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes-da-Silva, M.F.; Escribano-Bailón, M.T.; Perez-Alonso, J.J.; Rivas-Gonzalo, J.C.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2007-01-01

    The anthocyanin composition was analysed in strawberry fruits from five different cultivars (cv. Eris, Oso Grande, Carisma, Tudnew and Camarosa). Twenty-five defined anthocyanin pigments were detected, most of them containing Pelargonidin (Pg) as aglycone; some cyanidin (Cy) derivatives were also found. Glucose and rutinose were the usual substituting sugars, although arabinose and rhamnose were also tentatively identified; some minor anthocyanins showed acylation with aliphatic acids. A rele...

  9. Hair Follicle Pigmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Slominski, Andrzej; Wortsman, Jacobo; Plonka, Przemyslaw M.; Schallreuter, Karin U.; Paus, Ralf; Tobin, Desmond J.

    2005-01-01

    Hair shaft melanin components (eu- or/and pheomelanin) are a long-lived record of precise interactions in the hair follicle pigmentary unit, e.g., between follicular melanocytes, keratinocytes, and dermal papilla fibroblasts. Follicular melanogenesis (FM) involves sequentially the melanogenic activity of follicular melanocytes, the transfer of melanin granules into cortical and medulla keratinocytes, and the formation of pigmented hair shafts. This activity is in turn regulated by an array of...

  10. Microspectrophotometry of respiratory pigments

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanagh, Karen Yvonne, (Thesis)

    2003-01-01

    This research thesis describes the design, construction and optical testing of three fibre-optic microspectrophotometer systems to monitor the reduction of mitochondrial respiratory pigments. The optical and biochemical characteristics of mitochondrial respiration are discussed and the current optical techniques employed in the biochemical analysis of respiratory enzymes are presented. The primary focus of this study is the system parameters surrounding the spectrophotometric determination of...

  11. Pigment dispersion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Sandhya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report of the rare occurrence of pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS with posterior subcapsular cataract in both eyes in a young male patient. The patient presented with complaints of progressive decrease in vision of one year duration. The patient also had high myopia with mild iridodonesis, phacodonesis and anterior insertion of zonules. Classical signs of PDS like Krukenberg's spindle on the posterior corneal surface were evident on slit lamp examination; transillumination defects in the iris could not be elicited by retroillumination as the iris was heavily pigmented. Gonioscopy revealed heavy and uniform pigmentation of trabecular meshwork. Evidence of a characteristic iris configuration on optical coherence tomography (OCT, namely, posterior bowing of iris in the mid periphery suggested the diagnosis of PDS. This case highlights the importance of OCT in identifying the iris configuration characteristically seen in PDS even in the absence of transillumination defects in the iris and reiterates the need to look for subtle signs like phacodonesis which are important when surgical intervention is planned.

  12. Bile Duct Adenoma with Oncocytic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Johannesen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bile duct adenomas are benign bile duct proliferations usually encountered as an incidental finding. Oncocytic bile duct neoplasms are rare and the majority are malignant. A 61-year-old male with a diagnosis of colorectal adenocarcinoma was undergoing surgery when a small white nodule was discovered on the surface of the right lobe of his liver. This lesion was composed of cytologically bland cells arranged in tightly packed glands. These cells were immunopositive for cytokeratin 7, negative for Hep Par 1, contained mucin, and had a Ki67 proliferation index of 8%. The morphology, immunophenotype, presence of mucin, and normal appearing bile ducts, as well as the increased Ki67 proliferation rate, were consistent with a bile duct adenoma with oxyphilic (oncocytic change. Oncocytic tumors in the liver are rare; the first described in 1992. Only two bile duct adenomas with oncocytic change have been reported and neither of them had reported mucin production or the presence of normal appearing bile ducts within the lesion.

  13. The first case of pediatric bile duct adenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi Li; Xiaoyi Sun; Jiexiong Feng

    2015-01-01

    Intrahepatic bile duct adenoma (BDA) is a rare benign epithelial liver tumor derived from bile duct cells. We report the first case of pediatric bile duct adenoma in the world. Furthermore, we review the diagnosis, pathology, treatment and prognosis of bile duct adenoma.

  14. Nonphotosynthetic Pigments as Potential Biosignatures

    CERN Document Server

    Schwieterman, Edward W; Meadows, Victoria S

    2015-01-01

    Previous work on possible surface reflectance biosignatures for Earth-like planets has typically focused on analogues to spectral features produced by photosynthetic organisms on Earth, such as the vegetation red edge. Although oxygenic photosynthesis, facilitated by pigments evolved to capture photons, is the dominant metabolism on our planet, pigmentation has evolved for multiple purposes to adapt organisms to their environment. We present an interdisciplinary study of the diversity and detectability of nonphotosynthetic pigments as biosignatures, which includes a description of environments that host nonphotosynthetic biologically pigmented surfaces, and a lab-based experimental analysis of the spectral and broadband color diversity of pigmented organisms on Earth. We test the utility of broadband color to distinguish between Earth-like planets with significant coverage of nonphotosynthetic pigments and those with photosynthetic or nonbiological surfaces, using both 1-D and 3-D spectral models. We demonstr...

  15. Allelic variation of bile salt hydrolase genes in Lactobacillus salivarius does not determine bile resistance levels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fang, Fang

    2009-09-01

    Commensal lactobacilli frequently produce bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) enzymes whose roles in intestinal survival are unclear. Twenty-six Lactobacillus salivarius strains from different sources all harbored a bsh1 allele on their respective megaplasmids. This allele was related to the plasmid-borne bsh1 gene of the probiotic strain UCC118. A second locus (bsh2) was found in the chromosomes of two strains that had higher bile resistance levels. Four Bsh1-encoding allele groups were identified, defined by truncations or deletions involving a conserved residue. In vitro analyses showed that this allelic variation was correlated with widely varying bile deconjugation phenotypes. Despite very low activity of the UCC118 Bsh1 enzyme, a mutant lacking this protein had significantly lower bile resistance, both in vitro and during intestinal transit in mice. However, the overall bile resistance phenotype of this and other strains was independent of the bsh1 allele type. Analysis of the L. salivarius transcriptome upon exposure to bile and cholate identified a multiplicity of stress response proteins and putative efflux proteins that appear to broadly compensate for, or mask, the effects of allelic variation of bsh genes. Bsh enzymes with different bile-degrading kinetics, though apparently not the primary determinants of bile resistance in L. salivarius, may have additional biological importance because of varying effects upon bile as a signaling molecule in the host.

  16. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma in extrahepatic bile duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Seok Tae; Ham, Soo Youn; Park, Cheol Min; Kim, Jung Hyuk; Cha, In Ho; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Woon Hyuck; Lee, Chang Hong [College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    Obstructive jaundice due to hepatocellular carcinoma in an extrahepatic bile duct, without a mass lesion in the liver parenchyma, is extremely rare. We experienced two cases of primary hepatocellular carcinoma arising from an extrahepatic bile duct: one in a 53-year-old man whose {alpha} -fetoprotein value was 800 ng/ml, and another in a 39-year-old woman, in whom the mass lesion was found to be attached to an extrahepatic bile duct. These tumors had a well-marginated sausage-like shape on CT and US, and the contrast media passed freely along their margins on both PTC and ERCP. Recurrences of these tumors were observed in the extrahepatic bile duct 6 and 2 months after surgery, respectively.

  17. The Role of the Sodium-Taurocholate Cotransporting Polypeptide (NTCP) and of the Bile Salt Export Pump (BSEP) in Physiology and Pathophysiology of Bile Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Stieger, B

    2011-01-01

    Bile formation is an important function of the liver. Bile salts are a major constituent of bile and are secreted by hepatocytes into bile and delivered into the small intestine, where they assist in fat digestion. In the small intestine, bile salts are almost quantitatively reclaimed and transported back via the portal circulation to the liver. In the liver, hepatocytes take up bile salts and secrete them again into bile for ongoing enterohepatic circulation. Uptake of bile salts into hepato...

  18. Black-pigmented sputum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Martínez-Girón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Black-pigmented sputum, also called "melanoptysis," is a symptom that may be observed in certain pathologies such us coal workers′ pneumoconiosis (anthracosis. The cavitation and liquefaction of a fibrosed mass by an infectious process (tuberculosis, infections by anaerobes, etc. or by ischemic necrosis may cause expectoration of a blackish secretion. We report the case of a patient with labor precedents as a coal worker, from whom abundant black sputum was obtained in the course of an incidental expectoration. Cyto-histological findings are shown and a differential diagnosis is established.

  19. Differential expression of cholangiocyte and ileal bile acid transporters following bile acid supplementation and depletion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Sertac Kip; Konstantinos N. Lazaridis; Anatoliy I. Masyuk; Patrick L. Splinter; Robert C. Huebert; Nicholas F. LaRusso

    2004-01-01

    AIM: We have previously demonstrated that cholangiocytes,the epithelial cells lining intrahepatic bile ducts, encode two functional bile acid transporters via alternative splicing of a single gene to facilitate bile acid vectorial transport.Cholangiocytes possess ASBT, an apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter to take up bile acids, and t-ASBT, a basolateral alternatively spliced and truncated form of ASBT to efflux bile acids. Though hepatocyte and ileal bile acid transporters are in part regulated by the flux of bile acids,the effect of alterations in bile acid flux on the expression of t-ASBT in terminal ileocytes remains unclear. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that expression of ASBT and t-ASBT in cholangiocytes and ileocytes was regulated by bile acid flux. METHODS: Expression of ASBT and t-ASBT message and protein in cholangiocytes and ileocytes isolated from pairfed rats given control (C) and 1% taurocholate (TCA) or 5% cholestyramine (CY) enriched diets, were assessed by both quantitative RNase protection assays and quantitative immunoblotting. The data obtained from each of the control groups were pooled to reflect the changes observed following TCA and CY treatments with respect to the control diets.Cholangiocyte taurocholate uptake was determined using a novel microperfusion technique on intrahepatic bile duct units (IBDUs) derived from C, TCA and CY fed rats.RESULTS: In cholangiocytes, both ASBT and t-ASBT message RNA and protein were significantly decreased in response to TCA feeding compared to C diet. In contrast,message and protein of both bile acid transporters significantly increased following CY feeding compared to C diet. In the ileum, TCA feeding significantly up-regulated both ASBT and t-ASBT message and protein compared to C diet, while CY feeding significantly down-regulated message and protein of both bile acid transporters compared to C diet. As anticipated from alterations in cholangiocyte ASBT expression, the uptake of

  20. Pharmacology of bile acid receptors: Evolution of bile acids from simple detergents to complex signaling molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copple, Bryan L; Li, Tiangang

    2016-02-01

    For many years, bile acids were thought to only function as detergents which solubilize fats and facilitate the uptake of fat-soluble vitamins in the intestine. Many early observations; however, demonstrated that bile acids regulate more complex processes, such as bile acids synthesis and immune cell function through activation of signal transduction pathways. These studies were the first to suggest that receptors may exist for bile acids. Ultimately, seminal studies by many investigators led to the discovery of several bile acid-activated receptors including the farnesoid X receptor, the vitamin D receptor, the pregnane X receptor, TGR5, α5 β1 integrin, and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2. Several of these receptors are expressed outside of the gastrointestinal system, indicating that bile acids may have diverse functions throughout the body. Characterization of the functions of these receptors over the last two decades has identified many important roles for these receptors in regulation of bile acid synthesis, transport, and detoxification; regulation of glucose utilization; regulation of fatty acid synthesis and oxidation; regulation of immune cell function; regulation of energy expenditure; and regulation of neural processes such as gastric motility. Through these many functions, bile acids regulate many aspects of digestion ranging from uptake of essential vitamins to proper utilization of nutrients. Accordingly, within a short time period, bile acids moved beyond simple detergents and into the realm of complex signaling molecules. Because of the important processes that bile acids regulate through activation of receptors, drugs that target these receptors are under development for the treatment of several diseases, including cholestatic liver disease and metabolic syndrome. In this review, we will describe the various bile acid receptors, the signal transduction pathways activated by these receptors, and briefly discuss the physiological processes that

  1. PSP type radioactive luminous pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical requirements are described on radioactive luminous pigments with 147Pm. The specific activity of the luminous pigments and their nominal initial brightness are tabulated. Technical inspection determines the specific and total activity, total salt content and content of radionuclide impurities. (E.S.)

  2. Taurolithocholate impairs bile canalicular motility and canalicular bile secretion in isolated rat hepatocyte couplets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Norihito Watanabe; Tatehiro Kagawa; Sei-ichiro Kojima; Shinji Takashimizu; Naruhiko Nagata; Yasuhiro Nishizaki; Tetsuya Mine

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of taurolithocholate (TLC)on the canalicular motility in isolated rat hepatocyte couplets (IRHC).METHODS: TLC was added to IRHC at concentrations of 10 and 50 μmol/L, respectively. In each group, five time-lapse movies containing 3 representative bile canaliculi were taken under phase-contrast microscopy for 12 h. The number of bile canalicular contractions and the intervals between consecutive canalicular contractions were calculated. Furthermore, the effects of TLC on IRHC were examined by transmission electron microscopy.RESULTS: The bile canalicular contractions were spontaneous and forceful in the controls. Active vesicular movement was observed in the pericanalicular region. Immediately after the addition of TLC, the bile canaliculi were deformed, and canalicular bile was incorporated into the vacuoles. The canaliculi were gradually dilated, and canalicular contractions were markedly inhibited by TLC. The vesicular movements became extremely slow in the pericanalicular region. The number of canalicular contractions significantly decreased in the TLC-treated groups, as compared with that in the controls. The time intervals were prolonged, as the TLC dosage increased,indicating that bile secretion into the canaliculi was impaired with TLC. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the lamellar transformation of the canalicular membranes in IRHC treated with TLC.CONCLUSION: TLC impairs both the bile canalicular contractions and the canalicular bile secretion, possibly by acting directly on the canalicular membranes in TLCinduced cholestasis.

  3. Role of Bile Acids and Bile Acid Receptors in Metabolic Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefebvre, Philippe; Cariou, Bertrand; Lien, Fleur; Kuipers, Folkert; Staels, Bart

    2009-01-01

    Lefebvre P, Cariou B, Lien F, Kuipers F, Staels B. Role of Bile Acids and Bile Acid Receptors in Metabolic Regulation. Physiol Rev 89: 147-191,2009; doi: 10.1152/physrev.00010.2008. - The incidence of the metabolic syndrome has taken epidemic proportions in the past decades, contributing to an incre

  4. [INHERITANCE OF EPIDERMIS PIGMENTATION IN SUNFLOWER ACHENES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorohivets, N A; Vedmedeva, E V

    2016-01-01

    Inheritance of epidermis pigmentation in the pericarp of sunflower seeds was studied. Inheritance of pigmentation was confirmed by three alleles Ew (epidermis devoid of pigmentation), Estr (epidermal pigmentation in strips), Edg (solid pigmentation). Dominance of the lack of epidermis pigmentation over striped epidermis and striped epidermis over solid pigmentation was established. It was shown that the striped epidermis pigmentation and the presence of testa layer are controlled by two genes, expression of which is independent from each other. Yellowish hypodermis was discovered in the sample I2K2218, which is inherited monogenically dominantly. PMID:27281924

  5. Hepatic bile acids and bile acid-related gene expression in pregnant and lactating rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong N. Zhu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Significant physiological changes occur during pregnancy and lactation. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP is a liver disease closely related to disruption of bile acid homeostasis. The objective of this study was to examine the regulation of bile acid synthesis and transport in normal pregnant and lactating rats. Materials and Methods. Livers from timed pregnant SD rats were collected on gestational days (GD 10, 14 and 19, and postnatal days (PND 1, 7, 14 and 21. Total bile acids were determined by the enzymatic method, total RNA was isolated and subjected to real time RT-PCR analysis. Liver protein was extracted for western-blot analysis. Results. Under physiological conditions hepatic bile acids were not elevated during pregnancy but increased during lactation in rats. Bile acid synthesis rate-limiting enzyme Cyp7a1 was unchanged on gestational days, but increased on PND14 and 21 at mRNA and protein levels. Expression of Cyp8b1, Cyp27a1 and Cyp7b1 was also higher during lactation. The mRNA levels of small heterodimer partner (SHP and protein levels of farnesoid X receptor (FXR were increased during pregnancy and lactation. Bile acid transporters Ntcp, Bsep, Mrp3 and Mrp4 were lower at gestation, but increased during lactation. Hepatic Oatp transporters were decreased during pregnancy and lactation. Conclusion. Hepatic bile acid homeostasis is maintained during normal pregnancy in rats, probably through the FXR-SHP regulation. The expression of bile acid synthesis genes and liver bile acid accumulation were increased during lactation, together with increased expression of bile acid efflux transporter Bsep, Mrp3 and Mrp4.

  6. Natural pigments and sacred art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelekian, Lena, ,, Lady

    2010-05-01

    Since the dawn of mankind, cavemen has expressed himself through art. The earliest known cave paintings date to some 32,000 years ago and used 4 colours derived from the earth. These pigments were iron oxides and known as ochres, blacks and whites. All pigments known by the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans and Renaissance man were natural and it was not until the 18th century that synthetic pigments were made and widely used. Until that time all art, be it sacred or secular used only natural pigments, of which the preparation of many have been lost or rarely used because of their tedious preparation. As a geologist, a mineralogist and an artist specializing in iconography, I have been able to rediscover 89 natural pigments extracted from minerals. I use these pigments to paint my icons in the traditional Byzantine manner and also to restore old icons, bringing back their glamour and conserving them for years to come. The use of the natural pigments in its proper way also helps to preserve the traditional skills of the iconographer. In the ancient past, pigments were extremely precious. Many took an exceedingly long journey to reach the artists, and came from remote countries. Research into these pigments is the work of history, geography and anthropology. It is an interesting journey in itself to discover that the blue aquamarines came from Afghanistan, the reds from Spain, the greens Africa, and so on. In this contribution I will be describing the origins, preparation and use of some natural pigments, together with their history and provenance. Additionally, I will show how the natural pigments are used in the creation of an icon. Being a geologist iconographer, for me, is a sacrement that transforms that which is earthly, material and natural into a thing of beauty that is sacred. As bread and wine in the Eucharist, water during baptism and oil in Holy Union transmit sanctification to the beholder, natural pigments do the same when one considers an icon. The

  7. Bile acid formation in primary human hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Curt Einarsson; Ewa Ellis; Anna Abrahamsson; Bo-G6ran Ericzon; Ingemar Bj rkhem; Magnus Axelson

    2000-01-01

    AIM To evaluate a culture system for bile acid formation in primary human hepatocytes in comparison with HepG2 cells. METHODS Hepatocytes were isolated from normal human liver tissue and were cultured in serum-free William's E medium. The medium was collected and renewed every 24 h. Bile acids and their precursors in media were finally analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS Cholic acid ( CA ) andchenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) conjugated with glycine or taurine accounted for 70% and 25% of total steroids. A third of CDCA was also conjugated with sulphuric acid. Dexamathasone and thyroid hormorm alone or in combination did not significantly effect bile acid formation. The addition of cyclosporin A (10 μmol/L) inhibited the synthesis of CA and CDCA by about 13% and 30%, respectively. CONCLUSION Isolated human hepatocytes in primary culture behave as in the intact liver by converting cholesterol to conjugated CA and CDCA. This is in contrast to cultured HepG2 cells, which release large amounts of bile acid precursors and unconjugated bile acids into the medium.

  8. [Isolated neurofibroma of the common bile duct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbia, S; Pagola, J; Flaster, N; Guida, A; Jufe, L; González, B; Caniparoli, A

    1995-01-01

    The neurogenic tumors in the biliary tract are rare and usually are amputation neuroma that occur after cholecystectomy. We describe a case of isolated neurofibroma of the common bile duct in a young man not cholecystectomized. The patient suffered recurrent episodes of abdominal pain, vomiting and weight loss without clinical signs of Von Recklinghausen's disease or jaundice. The hepatogram was normal. The echography indicated a solid formation with obstruction of the proximal common bile duct. In the ERCP the stenosis was found. Surgical excision of the tumor and anastomosis of bilateral hepatic ducts and jejunum were carried out. At microscopic examination intraparietal neurofibroma of the common bile duct was found. As isolated entity, we know of only one reported case. PMID:8731581

  9. Classiifcation of iatrogenic bile duct injur y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Yee Lau; Eric C.H. Lai

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic bile duct injury continues to be an important clinical problem, resulting in serious morbidity, and occasional mortality, to patients. The ease of management, operative risk, and outcome of bile duct injuries vary considerably, and are highly dependent on the type of injury and its location. This article reviews the various classiifcation systems of bile duct injury. DATA SOURCES: A Medline, PubMed database search was performed to identify relevant articles using the keywords"bile duct injury", "cholecystectomy", and “classiifcation”. Additional papers were identiifed by a manual search of the references from the key articles. RESULTS: Traditionally, biliary injuries have been classiifed using the Bismuth's classiifcation. This classiifcation, which originated from the era of open surgery, is intended to help the surgeons to choose the appropriate technique for the repair, and it has a good correlation with the ifnal outcome after surgical repair. However, the Bismuth's classiifcation does not encompass the whole spectrum of injuries that are possible. Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy tends to be more severe than those with open cholecystectomy. Strasberg’s classiifcation made Bismuth’s classiifcation much more comprehensive by including various other types of extrahepatic bile duct injuries. Our group, Bergman et al, Neuhaus et al, Csendes et al, and Stewart et al have also proposed other classiifcation systems to complement the Bismuth's classiifcation. CONCLUSIONS:None of the classiifcation system is universally accepted as each has its own limitation. Hopefully, a universally accepted comprehensive classiifcation system will be published in the near future.

  10. Selenium- or tellurium- containing bile acids and derivatives thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to the preparation of selenium and tellurium derivatives, particularly γ-emitting radioactive derivatives of bile acids and bile salts. Such compounds are valuable in the examination of body function, especially small bowel function. (author)

  11. Bile acids: emerging role in management of liver diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Asgharpour, Amon; Kumar, Divya; Sanyal, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are well known for their effects on cholesterol homeostasis and lipid digestion. Since the discovery of bile acid receptors, of which there are farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor, and the plasma membrane G-protein receptor, as well as Takeda G-protein coupled receptor clone 5, further roles have been elucidated for bile acids including glucose and lipid metabolism as well as inflammation. Additionally, treatment with bile acid receptor agonists has shown a decrease in t...

  12. A pigmented calcifying odontogenic cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soames, J V

    1982-04-01

    A case of the pigmented variant of the calcifying odontogenic cyst occurring in a 15-year-old West Indian girl is reported. Melanin pigment was widely distributed and appeared in greatest amount in cells exhibiting the appearance of stellate reticulum. Ultrastructural examination demonstrated large numbers of melanosomes in these cells but relatively few in epithelial ghost cells. The latter contained thick bundles of tonofilaments. Melanocytes were identified and two forms were distinguished, depending on their content of premelanosomes and fully melanized melanosomes.

  13. Pigmented Lesions of the Vulva

    OpenAIRE

    Gürol Açıkgöz; Çağlayan Çağdaş Demirci; Ercan Arca

    2012-01-01

    Pigmented lesions on the vulva are rare and their non specific features cause difficulties in their diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Because of their localization, it is difficult to follow up vulvar lesions, which are generally noticed coincidentally by patients. Vulvar pigmented lesions are classified clinically as macules/papules and patches/plaques to provide ease of the diagnosis. Nevi, angiokeratomas, seborrheic keratosis, melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma ...

  14. Nonphotosynthetic Pigments as Potential Biosignatures

    OpenAIRE

    Schwieterman, Edward W.; Cockell, Charles S.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous work on possible surface reflectance biosignatures for Earth-like planets has typically focused on analogues to spectral features produced by photosynthetic organisms on Earth, such as the vegetation red edge. Although oxygenic photosynthesis, facilitated by pigments evolved to capture photons, is the dominant metabolism on our planet, pigmentation has evolved for multiple purposes to adapt organisms to their environment. We present an interdisciplinary study of the diversit...

  15. The effect of dietary psyllium hydrocolloid and lignin on bile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydon, W G; Borup-Christensen, S; Van der Linden, W; Eastwood, M A

    1979-07-01

    Animal experiments suggest that supplementing the diet with either psyllium seed husk or lignin alters the ratio of deoxycholic acid to chenodeoxycholic in bile. In this study dosages of psyllium seed husk or lignin acceptable to patients with gallstones do not appear to alter the relative amounts of cholesterol, or individual bile acids in the bile. PMID:524929

  16. A case of fascioliasis in common bile duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Soo Youn; Park, Cheol Min; Chung, Kyu Byung; Lee, Chang Hong; Park, Seung Chul; Choi, Sang Yong; Lim, Han Jong [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-10-15

    A case of Fascioliasis of common bile duct is confirmed by visualization of adult fluke. Fascioliasis caused by Fasciola hepatica, is common parasitic disease in cattle and sheep. Human is an accidental host. ERCP demonstrated irregular linear conglomerated filling defects in common bile duct. Through surgical intervention, we found adult flukes of F. hepatica and adenomatous hyperplasia of common bile duct.

  17. The "flying" bile duct: avulsion of the common bile duct in a plane crash survivor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, H

    2012-02-01

    Blunt trauma is an unusual cause of extrahepatic bile duct injury. This is a case of a 51-year-old gentleman who sustained a significant seatbelt injury in a plane crash. Laparotomy, performed due to persistent abdominal pain, revealed that the common bile duct (CBD) was completely avulsed from the duodenum. Following insertion of drains and transfer to a hepatobiliary centre, the devascularised CBD was excised and replaced with a roux-en-y hepaticojejunostomy. Necrotic tissue was debrided from the pancreatic head. A persistent bile leak developed from the sub-hepatic drain. Repeat laparotomy revealed a bile leak from small ducts on the liver surface. Ligation of the ducts and bioglue sealing of the area were successfully performed. Subsequent to this a pancreatic fistula developed from the main pancreatic duct, which has since resolved. This unusual case illustrates the need for prompt recognition and early repair to optimise outcomes in traumatic CBD injury.

  18. Double common bile duct: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Srdjan P Djuranovic; Milenko B Ugljesic; Nenad S Mijalkovic; Viktorija A Korneti; Nada V Kovacevic; Tamara M Alempijevic; Slaven V Radulovic; Dragan V Tomic; Milan M Spuran

    2007-01-01

    Double common bile duct (DCBD) is a rare congenital anomaly in which two common bile ducts exist. One usually has normal drainage into the papilla duodeni major and the other usually named accessory common bile duct (ACBD) opens in different parts of upper gastrointestinal tract (stomach, duodenum, ductus pancreaticus or septum). This anomaly is of great importance since it is often associated with biliary lithiasis, choledochal cyst, anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction (APBJ) and upper gastrointestinal tract malignancies. We recently recognized a rare case of DCBD associated with APBJ with lithiasis in better developed common bile duct. The opening site of ACBD was in the pancreatic duct. The anomaly was suspected by transabdominal ultrasonography and finally confirmed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) followed by endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone extraction. According to the literature, the existence of DCBD with the opening of ACBD in the pancreatic duct is most frequently associated with APBJ and gallbladder carcinoma. In case of DCBD, the opening site of ACBD is of greatest clinical importance because of its close implications with concomitant pathology. The adequate diagnosis of this rare anomaly is significant since the operative complications may occur in cases with DCBD which is not recognized prior to surgical treatment.

  19. Bile acids for primary sclerosing cholangitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poropat, Goran; Giljaca, Vanja; Stimac, Davor;

    2011-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a progressive chronic cholestatic liver disease that usually leads to the development of cirrhosis. Studies evaluating bile acids in the treatment of primary sclerosing cholangitis have shown a potential benefit of their use. However, no influence on patients...

  20. Low retinol levels differentially modulate bile salt-induced expression of human and mouse hepatic bile salt transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.O. Hoeke; J.R.M. Plass; J. Heegsma; M. Geuken; D. van Rijsbergen; J.F.W. Baller; F. Kuipers; H. Moshage; P.L.M. Jansen; K.N. Faber

    2009-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor/retinoid X receptor-alpha (FXR/RXRalpha) complex regulates bile salt homeostasis, in part by modulating transcription of the bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11) and small heterodimer partner (SHP/NR0B2). FXR is activated by bile salts, RXRalpha by the vitamin A derivative 9-

  1. Low Retinol Levels Differentially Modulate Bile Salt-Induced Expression of Human and Mouse Hepatic Bile Salt Transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeke, Martijn O.; Plass, Jacqueline R. M.; Heegsma, Janette; Geuken, Mariska; van Rijsbergen, Duncan; Baller, Julius F. W.; Kuipers, Folkert; Moshage, Han; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Faber, Klaas Nico

    2009-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor/retinoid X receptor-alpha (FXR/RXR alpha) complex regulates bile salt homeostasis, in part by modulating transcription of the bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11 I) and small heterodimer partner (SHP/NR0B2). FXR is activated by bile salts, RXR alpha by the vitamin A derivativ

  2. Bile Acids Trigger GLP-1 Release Predominantly by Accessing Basolaterally Located G Protein-Coupled Bile Acid Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brighton, Cheryl A.; Rievaj, Juraj; Kuhre, Rune E.;

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are well-recognized stimuli of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. This action has been attributed to activation of the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor GPBAR1 (TGR5), although other potential bile acid sensors include the nuclear farnesoid receptor and the apical sodium...

  3. Hepatic bile acids and bile acid-related gene expression in pregnant and lactating rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Qiong N.; Xie, Hong M.; Dan Zhang; Jie Liu; Yuan F. Lu

    2013-01-01

    Background. Significant physiological changes occur during pregnancy and lactation. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a liver disease closely related to disruption of bile acid homeostasis. The objective of this study was to examine the regulation of bile acid synthesis and transport in normal pregnant and lactating rats. Materials and Methods. Livers from timed pregnant SD rats were collected on gestational days (GD) 10, 14 and 19, and postnatal days (PND) 1, 7, 14 and 21. T...

  4. Differential sensitivity of pigmented and non-pigmented marine bacteria to metals and antibiotics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    and Hg were less toxic to pigmented bacteria than Cd. Pigmented strains were resistant to antibiotics, particularly at higher concentrations. All the strains, irrespective of their pigments, showed multiple metal and drug resistance...

  5. Novel, major 2α- and 2β-hydroxy bile alcohols and bile acids in the bile of Arapaima gigas, a large South American river fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato née Okihara, Rika; Saito, Tetsuya; Ogata, Hiroaki; Nakane, Naoya; Namegawa, Kazunari; Sekiguchi, Shoutaro; Omura, Kaoru; Kurabuchi, Satoshi; Mitamura, Kuniko; Ikegawa, Shigeo; Raines, Jan; Hagey, Lee R; Hofmann, Alan F; Iida, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    Bile alcohols and bile acids from gallbladder bile of the Arapaima gigas, a large South American freshwater fish, were isolated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The structures of the major isolated compounds were determined by electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance using (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra. The novel bile salts identified were six variants of 2-hydroxy bile acids and bile alcohols in the 5α- and 5β-series, with 29% of all compounds having hydroxylation at C-2. Three C27 bile alcohols were present (as ester sulfates): (24ξ,25ξ)-5α-cholestan-2α,3α,7α,12α,24,26-hexol; (25ξ)-5β-cholestan-2β,3α,7α,12α,26,27-hexol, and (25ξ)-5α-cholestan-2α,3α,7α,12α,26,27-hexol. A single C27 bile acid was identified: (25ξ)-2α,3α,7α,12α-tetrahydroxy-5α-cholestan-26-oic acid, present as its taurine conjugate. Two novel C24 bile acids were identified: the 2α-hydroxy derivative of allochenodeoxycholic acid and the 2β-hydroxy derivative of cholic acid, both occurring as taurine conjugates. These studies extend previous work in establishing the natural occurrence of novel 2α- and 2β-hydroxy-C24 and C27 bile acids as well as C27 bile alcohols in both the normal (5β) as well as the (5α) "allo" A/B-ring juncture. The bile salt profile of A. gigas appears to be unique among vertebrates. PMID:26768415

  6. Bile Acids Trigger GLP-1 Release Predominantly by Accessing Basolaterally Located G Protein–Coupled Bile Acid Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Brighton, Cheryl A.; Rievaj, Juraj; Kuhre, Rune E; Glass, Leslie L; Schoonjans, Kristina; Holst, Jens J.; Gribble, Fiona M.; Reimann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are well-recognized stimuli of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. This action has been attributed to activation of the G protein–coupled bile acid receptor GPBAR1 (TGR5), although other potential bile acid sensors include the nuclear farnesoid receptor and the apical sodium-coupled bile acid transporter ASBT. The aim of this study was to identify pathways important for GLP-1 release and to determine whether bile acids target their receptors on GLP-1–secreting L-cells from t...

  7. Effect of the bile-acid sequestrant colestipol on postprandial serum bile-acid concentration: evaluation by bioluminescent enzymic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, S S; Wayne, M L; Smith, R B; Wright, C E; Andreadis, N A; Hofmann, A F

    1989-02-01

    Chronic ingestion of bile-acid sequestrants has been shown to decrease the serum cholesterol concentration and coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients. To develop improved sequestrants, a rapid, convenient method for testing the bile-acid binding efficacy of sequestrants is needed. Serum bile-acid concentrations could be used to detect bile-acid binding by an administered sequestrant, since the serum bile-acid concentration is determined largely by the rate of intestinal absorption in healthy individuals. To test this, serum bile-acid concentrations were measured at frequent intervals over 24 h in five otherwise healthy hypercholesterolaemic subjects during the ingestion of three standard meals, with or without the addition of 5 g colestipol granules administered 30 min before each meal. Total serum bile-acid concentration was measured with a previously reported bioluminescent enzymic assay, that uses a 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, an oxido-reductase, and a bacterial luciferase co-immobilized on to Sepharose beads. Bile acids in 1 ml of serum were isolated by solid-phase extraction chromatography with reversed-phase C18 cartridges. Colestipol lowered the postprandial elevation of serum bile acids by one half, with a subsequent decrease in the cumulative area under the curve. The data suggest that measurement of serum bile-acid concentrations by bioluminescence is a rapid, simple way to document the efficacy of bile-acid sequestrants.

  8. Colesevelam: a new bile acid sequestrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, N N

    2001-01-01

    Coronary heart disease is the most prevalent form of cardiovascular disease in the United States. Hyperlipidemia--specifically, increased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels--positively correlates with the development of coronary heart disease. Colesevelam, a nonabsorbed, water-insoluble polymer, is a new bile acid sequestrant that is effective in lowering total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In several short-term, placebo-controlled studies, colesevelam has decreased total cholesterol levels by approximately 6 to 10% and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by approximately 9 to 20%. When given in combination with atorvastatin, lovastatin, or simvastatin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were decreased more than with colesevelam alone. Its unique hydrogel formulation may also minimize the potential for gastrointestinal adverse effects, which are common with other bile acid sequestrants. There have been few published studies available concerning this drug; no long-term studies and few large-scale studies have been published.

  9. Effect of Nicotine on Gallbladder Bile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anglo-Dutch Nicotine Intestinal Study Group

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that symptomatic gallstones are largely a disease of nonsmokers, which raises the possibility that nicotine may protect against the formation of gallstones. To examine the effect of nicotine on the gallbladder, 32 rabbits were allocated to four groups: controls and three treatment groups in which nicotine tartarate at low, medium and high doses was administered subcutaneously via an osmotic minipump. After 14 days’ treatment the gallbladder was removed and measurements made of gallbladder mucin synthesis, bile mucin concentration, bile acid concentration and cholesterol saturation. Serum nicotine concentrations (ng/mL were (± SE 0.4±0.1, 3.5±0.4, 8.8±0.8 and 16.2±1.8 in the controls and three treatment groups, respectively. Total bile acid concentration increased significantly in all three treated groups with the greatest increase in the group given low dose nicotine (P<0.001. Cholesterol saturation did not differ significantly in any group but soluble mucin concentration in gallbladder bile was significantly reduced (P=0.013, 95% CI: 16 to 111 with high dose nicotine. Gallbladder mucin synthesis, measured by 3H-glucosamine incorporation, did not change significantly with nicotine treatment. Subcutaneous nicotine 2.0 mg/kg/day for 14 days significantly reduced the concentration of biliary mucin, which could potentially reduce cholesterol nucleation and subsequent gallstone formation. This may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the relative reduction in gallstone disease among smokers.

  10. Percutaneous treatment of benign bile duct strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koecher, Martin [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: martin.kocher@seznam.cz; Cerna, Marie [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Havlik, Roman [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kral, Vladimir [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Gryga, Adolf [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Duda, Miloslav [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2007-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term results of treatment of benign bile duct strictures. Materials and methods: From February 1994 to November 2005, 21 patients (9 men, 12 women) with median age of 50.6 years (range 27-77 years) were indicated to percutaneous treatment of benign bile duct stricture. Stricture of hepatic ducts junction resulting from thermic injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy was indication for treatment in one patient, stricture of hepaticojejunostomy was indication for treatment in all other patients. Clinical symptoms (obstructive jaundice, anicteric cholestasis, cholangitis or biliary cirrhosis) have appeared from 3 months to 12 years after surgery. Results: Initial internal/external biliary drainage was successful in 20 patients out of 21. These 20 patients after successful initial drainage were treated by balloon dilatation and long-term internal/external drainage. Sixteen patients were symptoms free during the follow-up. The relapse of clinical symptoms has appeared in four patients 9, 12, 14 and 24 months after treatment. One year primary clinical success rate of treatment for benign bile duct stricture was 94%. Additional two patients are symptoms free after redilatation (15 and 45 months). One patient is still in treatment, one patient died during secondary treatment period without interrelation with biliary intervention. The secondary clinical success rate is 100%. Conclusion: Benign bile duct strictures of hepatic ducts junction or biliary-enteric anastomosis are difficult to treat surgically and endoscopically inaccessible. Percutaneous treatment by balloon dilatation and long-term internal/external drainage is feasible in the majority of these patients. It is minimally invasive, safe and effective.

  11. Bile acids: Chemistry, physiology, and pathophysiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria J Monte; Jose JG Marin; Alvaro Antelo; Jose Vazquez-Tato

    2009-01-01

    The family of bile acids includes a group of molecular species of acidic steroids with very peculiar physicalchemical and biological characteristics. They are synthesized by the liver from cholesterol through several complementary pathways that are controlled by mechanisms involving fine-tuning by the levels of certain bile acid species. Although their bestknown role is their participation in the digestion and absorption of fat, they also play an important role in several other physiological processes. Thus, genetic abnormalities accounting for alterations in their synthesis, biotransformation and/or transport may result in severe alterations, even leading to lethal situations for which the sole therapeutic option may be liver transplantation. Moreover, the increased levels of bile acids reached during cholestatic liver diseases are known to induce oxidative stress and apoptosis, resulting in damage to the liver parenchyma and, ventually, extrahepatic tissues. When this occurs during pregnancy, the outcome of gestation may be challenged. In contrast, the physical-chemical and biological properties of these compounds have been used as the bases for the development of drugs and as pharmaceutical tools for the delivery of active agents.

  12. Endopancreatic Bile Duct Cholangiocarcinoma in a Patient with Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros K. Charalabopoulos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disease characterized by a special type of hamartomatous gastrointestinal polyps combined with mucocutaneous melanin pigmentations. Patients with the syndrome have a high risk of developing neoplasia, with colon, small bowel, and stomach being the most common gastrointestinal sites. Herein, we present the occurrence of a rare tumor in patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome; a cholangiocarcinoma of the endopancreatic bile duct. A minireview is also presented. It can be concluded that cholangiocarcinoma remains a possible diagnosis in PJS patients, as in others that present with biliary obstruction. PJS patients may be at higher risk than others in view of their propensity for malignancy.

  13. Optimal number of pigments in photosynthetic complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Jesenko, Simon

    2012-01-01

    We study excitation energy transfer in a simple model of photosynthetic complex. The model, described by Lindblad equation, consists of pigments interacting via dipole-dipole interaction. Overlapping of pigments induces an on-site energy disorder, providing a mechanism for blocking the excitation transfer. Based on the average efficiency as well as robustness of random configurations of pigments, we calculate the optimal number of pigments that should be enclosed in a pigment-protein complex of a given size. The results suggest that a large fraction of pigment configurations are efficient as well as robust if the number of pigments is properly chosen. We compare optimal results of the model to the structure of pigment-protein complexes as found in nature, finding good agreement.

  14. Profile of hepatocyte apoptosis and bile lakes before and after bile duct decompression in severe obstructive jaundice patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ToarJMLalisang; RadenSjamsuhidajat; NurjatiCSiregar; AkmalTaher

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive hepatocyte apoptosis and bile lakes in severe obstructive jaundice might impair liver functions. Although decompression of the bile duct has been reported to improve liver functions in animal studies, the mechanism of obstruction differs from that in humans. This study aimed to determine the profiles of hepatocyte apoptosis and bile lakes following bile duct decompression in patients with severe obstructive jaundice in the clinical setting. METHODS: We conducted a "before and after study" on severe obstructive jaundice patients as a model of inhibition of the excessive process by bile duct decompression. Specimens of liver biopsies were taken before and after decompression of the bile duct and then stained by terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) to identify hepatocyte apoptosis and by hematoxilin-eosin (HE) to identify bile lakes. All measurements were independently done by 2 observers. RESULTS: Twenty-one severe obstructive jaundice patients were included. In all patients, excessive hepatocyte apoptosis and bile lakes were apparent. After decompression, the hepatocyte apoptosis index decreased from 53.1 (SD 105) to 11.7 (SD 13.6) (P CONCLUSION: Bile duct decompression improves hepatocyte apoptosis and bile lakes in cases of severe obstructive jaundice, similar to the findings in animal studies.

  15. Key factors for UV curable pigment dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV oligomers with good pigment dispersion are needed to allow good formulation flexibility and possibility to apply thinner films. Pigment dispersion mainly depends on three phenomena: the wetting of agglomerates, the breakage of agglomerates by mechanical stress and the stabilization of smaller agglomerates and primary particles against flocculation. It has been shown that oligomers with low viscosity and low surface tension induce a good pigment wetting. Examples of monomers and oligomers for good pigment dispersion are given

  16. A Case of Pigmented Bowen's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jung Woo; Hur, Jae; Yeo, Kwang Yeoll; Yu, Hee Joon; Kim, Joung Soo

    2009-01-01

    Pigmented Bowen's disease is characterized by increased melanin pigment in the epidermis or papillary dermis, in addition to the typical findings of Bowen's disease. This disorder has been infrequently reported and it represents less than 2% of all cases of Bowen's disease. Thus far, there has been only 1 case of pigmented Bowen's disease on the umbilicus in the medical literature, and no such case has been reported in Korea. Pigmented Bowen's disease develops on sun-exposed areas of the face...

  17. Thyroid gland pigmentation and minocycline therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, G.; Sparano, B. M.; Kramer, A.W.; Kelly, R. G.; Iatropoulos, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    Thyroid pigments in black thyroid glands from minocycline-treated patients were compared by light and electron microscopy, histochemistry, and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis with minocycline-induced pigment in thyroid glands of laboratory animals, and with naturally occurring lipofuscins in untreated laboratory animals and humans. All thyroid samples examined contained nonbirefringent, Schmorl-positive pigment. However, the pigments in black thyroids from minocycline-treated patients resemb...

  18. Clofazimine-induced Hair Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Mariam; Samson, Joan Felicita; Simi, Puthenveedu Salahudeen

    2012-07-01

    A 45-year-old man was treated with WHO multibacillary multidrug therapy for borderline leprosy and high dose daily Clofazimine for lepra reaction. Along with the expected side effect of skin pigmentation, the patient also noticed darkening of previously grey hair. This colour persisted eight months after completing multibacillary multidrug therapy.

  19. Pigmented Lesions of the Vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürol Açıkgöz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented lesions on the vulva are rare and their non specific features cause difficulties in their diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Because of their localization, it is difficult to follow up vulvar lesions, which are generally noticed coincidentally by patients. Vulvar pigmented lesions are classified clinically as macules/papules and patches/plaques to provide ease of the diagnosis. Nevi, angiokeratomas, seborrheic keratosis, melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are classified under the macules/papules, and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, physiological hyperpigmentation, melanosis and acanthosis nigricans are classified under the patch/plaque. Dermatoscopic examination, which is increasing recently, is very valuable for avoiding possible cosmetic and functional complications of surgical procedures. However, epidermal pigmentations such as vulvar melanosis and vulvar intraepitelyal neoplazi are dermatoscopically indistinguishable. It may also be difficult to diagnose vulvar melanoma clinically and dermatoscopically. Histological examination is the gold standard for the diagnosis of pigmented vulvar lesions, which are clinically and dermatoscopically indistinguishable. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 39-44

  20. Role of the bile salt export pump, BSEP, in acquired forms of cholestasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Stieger

    2010-01-01

    Generation of bile is a key function of the liver. Its impairment leads to accumulation of cytotoxic bile salts in hepatocytes and, consequently, to liver disease. The bile salt export pump, BSEP, is critically involved in the secretion of bile salts into bile. Its function can be disturbed or aboli

  1. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain...

  2. In vivo multiphoton imaging of bile duct ligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Li, Feng-Chieh; Chen, Hsiao-Chin; Chang, Po-shou; Yang, Shu-Mei; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2008-02-01

    Bile is the exocrine secretion of liver and synthesized by hepatocytes. It is drained into duodenum for the function of digestion or drained into gallbladder for of storage. Bile duct obstruction is a blockage in the tubes that carry bile to the gallbladder and small intestine. However, Bile duct ligation results in the changes of bile acids in serum, liver, urine, and feces1, 2. In this work, we demonstrate a novel technique to image this pathological condition by using a newly developed in vivo imaging system, which includes multiphoton microscopy and intravital hepatic imaging chamber. The images we acquired demonstrate the uptake, processing of 6-CFDA in hepatocytes and excretion of CF in the bile canaliculi. In addition to imaging, we can also measure kinetics of the green fluorescence intensity.

  3. The Adsorption Effect of Quaternized Chitosan Derivatives on Bile Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Xian MENG; Ya Qing FENG; Wen Jin LI; Cai Xia YIN; Jin Ping DENG

    2006-01-01

    Three quaternized chitosan derivatives were synthesized and their adsorption performance of bile acid from aqueous solution was studied. The adsorption capacities and rates of bile acid onto quaternized chitosan derivatives were evaluated. The kinetic experimental data properly correlated with the second-order kinetic model, which indicated that the chemical sorption is the rate-limiting step. The results showed that the quaternized chitosan derivatives are favorable adsorbents for bile acid.

  4. Management of excluded segmental bile duct leakage following liver resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honoré, Charles; Vibert, Eric; Hoti, Emir; Azoulay, Daniel; Adam, René; Castaing, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Background: Postoperative bile leak secondary to a fistula is a known complication of hepatic surgery. Four different biliary fistula sub-types have been described: type A refers to minor leakage from the bile duct stump; type B to major leakage caused by insufficient closure of the bile duct stump; type C to major leakage caused by injury to the bile duct, and type D (the rarest) to the division and exclusion of a bile duct. This complication results from functional liver parenchyma in which bile drainage is excluded from the main duct. Methods: A retrospective review of the database for 163 patients diagnosed with post-hepatic surgery bile leak from April 1992 to June 2007 was performed. Results: Three patients were found to have type D biliary fistula, with durations of 3–21 months. The bile leak developed after a right hepatectomy in two patients and a right hepatectomy extending to segment IV in one patient. All three patients were rescheduled for surgical exploration, following failure of medical treatment. The procedure consisted of repeat resection of the independent liver parenchyma containing the fistula. One patient developed a postoperative leak from a hepaticojejunal anastomosis (treated conservatively) and the other two patients had an uneventful recovery. No recurrence of bile leak was encountered during their follow-up. Conclusions: Our experience indicates that conservative treatment is deceptive and not efficacious. For this condition, surgical intervention is the treatment of choice because it is very effective and is associated with a low morbidity. PMID:19718366

  5. Effect of bile salts and bile acids on human gastric mucosal epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinxue Song; Jun Gong

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of bile salt and bile acid on cultured eternalized human gastric mucosa epithelium GES-1 cells.Methods:Cultured eternalized human gastric mucosa epithelium GES-1 cells were treated with media containing 6 different kinds of bile salts and 3 different kinds of bile acids and their mixture with different concentrations: GCDC(glycochenodeoxycholate), GDC (glycodeoxycholate), GC(glycocholate), TCDC(taurochenodeoxycholate), TDC(taurodeoxycholate), TC (taurocholate), LCA (lithocholicacid), CA(cholic acid), DCA(deoxycholic acid)(50 μ mol/L,250 μ mol/L,500 μ mol/L, 1000 μ mol/L), DY(mixture of bile salts) and DS(mixture of bile acids)(250 μ mol/L,500 μ mol/L,1000 μ mol/L,1500 μ mol/L, 2000 μ mol/L), in comparison with thecontrol group(in normal media without bile salts and bile acids).Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT(3-[4,5-Dimethylthiaolyl]-2,5- diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay for 72 hours with different concentrations and the apoptotic cells were assayed by flow cytometry (FCM) with Annex V-FITC conjugated with propidium iodide(PI) staining for 24 hours with different concentrations(1500,2000 μ mol/L).Results:There was no significant difference in morphology and cell proliferation in GC group after 24-72 h.Low concentration(50 μ mol/L) of GCDC, GDC, TCDC, TDC and TC accelerated gastric epithelial cell growth in a dosage-time dependent manner.At middle concentration (250-500 μ mol/L), it showed positive effect after 24-48 h, while negative effect after 72 h.At high concentration(1000 μ tool/L), it accelerated gastric epithelial cell growth after 24h and show consistent inhibition even leading to necrosis after 48-72 h.LCA and CA showed a positive effect on the concentration of 50 μ mol/L after 24-72 h, while 250-1000 It mol/L showed a trend towards apoptosis after 24-72 h.At 50-500 μ mol/L, DCA showed proliferation after 24 h and apoptosis after 48-72 h, but showed necrosis after 24-72 h at 1000 μ moiFL.DY and DS

  6. In liver transplantation, T tube bile represents total bile flow: physiological and scintigraphic studies on biliary secretion of organic anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, R; Bähr, A; Eichstädt, H; Marschall, U; Bechstein, W O; Neuhaus, P

    1999-01-01

    The present study was performed to clarify the recovery of hepatocellular uptake and the biliary secretion of bile acids during the first 14 days after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and to determine the fraction of bile flow appearing outside through the T tube and entering the duodenum. Therefore, we determined primary and secondary bile acids in bile samples obtained from the T tube at day 5 after OLT, while the T tube was permanently open, and at days 10 and 14 after OLT, i.e., 4 and 9 days after closure of the T tube, respectively, thus restoring enterohepatic bile acid circulation. In addition, we performed hepatobiliary scintigraphy using technetium 99m-labeled [2,4,6 trimethyl-3-bromo]imino-diacetic acid (technetium 99m-BRIDA) in 12 patients between days 4 and 17 after OLT. Chromatographic analyses of biliary bile acids showed no secondary bile acids during the first 5 days after OLT, as opposed to 10 and 14 days after OLT when enterohepatic circulation was restored. Eleven patients with an uncomplicated postoperative course after OLT showed a significantly reduced hepatic uptake and biliary secretion of 99mTc-BRIDA during the first days after OLT with progressive recovery. One patient with an acute allograft rejection episode showed almost no uptake and only minimal secretion. The bile fraction appearing outside through the inserted T tube represented 94.6% +/- 6.2% of the injected 99mTc-BRIDA. We conclude that OLT results in markedly impaired hepatocellular uptake and biliary secretion of organic anions. Simultaneously, bile acid synthesis is significantly reduced, which, in addition, diminishes bile secretion of the graft. We show that T tube bile is a valid tool for bile physiological studies in patients in whom transplantation was successfully performed. PMID:9873086

  7. Availability and Utilization of Pigments from Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Hasina; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Khatoon, Helena; Shariff, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Microalgae are the major photosynthesizers on earth and produce important pigments that include chlorophyll a, b and c, β-carotene, astaxanthin, xanthophylls, and phycobiliproteins. Presently, synthetic colorants are used in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. However, due to problems associated with the harmful effects of synthetic colorants, exploitation of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors becomes an attractive option. There are various factors such as nutrient availability, salinity, pH, temperature, light wavelength, and light intensity that affect pigment production in microalgae. This paper reviews the availability and characteristics of microalgal pigments, factors affecting pigment production, and the application of pigments produced from microalgae. The potential of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors is enormous as an alternative to synthetic coloring agents, which has limited applications due to regulatory practice for health reasons. PMID:25674822

  8. Determination of conjugated bile acids in human bile and duodenal fluid by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, C A; Watkins, J B

    1978-05-01

    A simple mehtod using reverse-phase liquid chromatography is presented for resolution and quantitation of the major conjugated bile acids of man, including the glycine and taurine conjugates of the dihydroxy bile acids, chenodeoxycholic and deoxycholic acid. Using modern, high-performance chromatographic equipment, analysis time is less than 30 minutes. The quantitative range of the method, with detection by refractive index, is 0.05 to 0.1 mumol of bile acid and the limit of detection for an injection sample is 0.01 mumol. This provides a sensitivity sufficient for analysis of dilute duodenal and gallbladder bile with minimal sample preparation.

  9. Role of nucleation of bile liquid crystal in gallstone formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Ming Yang; Jie Wu; Jin-Yi Li; Lin Gu; Min-Fei Zhou

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore the role of bile liquid crystal in the process of gallbladder stone formation and to provide bases for preventing and treating cholelithiasis.METHODS: 46 guinea pigs, half males and half females,were randomly divided into control group and stone-causing group. Normal feed and stoneleading feed were used respectively to raise guinea pigs in the control group and stone-causing group. The guinea pigs were killed in three batches during the raising period. Under polarizing microscope, the pattern changes of bile liquid crystal in the gallbladder biles of the guinea pigs in the control group and stone-causing group were dynamicly observed respectively in single-blind trial.RESULTS: It was found that there were few crystals in the guinea pigs′biles of the control group, and their Malta cross was small and scattered, and existed in single form. With the increase of the feeding days, bile liquid crystals grew and Malta cross became bigger with their distribution densified, denser somewhere, but always existed in single form. While those of the stone-causing group had more bile liquid crystals, Malta cross was big and merged in strings.With the increase of the feeding days, bile liquid crystals grew in amount and strings of Malta cross increased and became bigger. The crosses in strings were arranged more and more regularly and they gradually changed into stone crystals.CONCLUSION: Formation of gallbladder stone is a process of nucleation from different substances, and the causing-stone gallbladder bile is a constantly supersaturated solution, and bile liquid crystal is a nucleation factor in the formation of gallbladder stones. The process of nucleation includes gathering, merging and phase-changing of bile liquid crystals.The process of gathering, merging of bile liquid crystal is the key to nucleation.

  10. [Liver, bile ducts and pancreatic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, T

    1995-06-01

    A fundamental guideline for the use of test results concerning liver, bile duct and pancreatic diseases was proposed in 1991 from the Japan Society of Clinical Pathology (JSCP). This guideline was principally based on the document of 1988 from the Committee on liver function tests of the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology (JSG). The document from the JSG was revised in May, 1994. Also a guideline for selection of markers of hepatitis virus in hepatic disorders, was proposed in January, 1994 from the same Committee of JSG. Here, we reevaluated and discussed the JSCP guideline as taking into consideration the two 1994 JSG documents. PMID:7602802

  11. Holographic films from carotenoid pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Lecona-Sánchez, J. F.; Santacruz-Vázquez, C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    Carotenoids pigments presents in pineapple can be more than just natural dyes, which is one of the applications that now at day gives the chemical industry. In this research shown that can be used in implementing of holographic recording Films. Therefore we describe the technique how to obtain this kind of pigments trough spay drying of natural pineapple juice, which are then dissolved with water in a proportion of 0.1g to 1mL. The obtained sample is poured into glass substrates using the gravity method, after a drying of 24 hours in laboratory normal conditions the films are ready. The films are characterized by recording transmission holographic gratings (LSR 445 NL 445 nm) and measuring the diffraction efficiency holographic parameter. This recording material has good diffraction efficiency and environmental stability.

  12. Biosynthesis and Trafficking of the Bile Salt Export Pump, BSEP: Therapeutic Implications of BSEP Mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Soroka, Carol J.; Boyer, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The bile salt export pump (BSEP, ABCB11) is the primary transporter of bile acids from the hepatocyte to the biliary system. This rate-limiting step in bile formation is essential to the formation of bile salt dependent bile flow, the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, and the digestion of dietary fats. Mutations in BSEP are associated with cholestatic diseases such as progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 (PFIC2), benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 (BRIC2),...

  13. Differential diagnosis in patients with suspected bile acid synthesis defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dorothea Haas; Hongying Gan-Schreier; Claus-Dieter Langhans; Tilman Rohrer; Guido Engelmann; Maura Heverin; David W Russell

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the clinical presentations associated with bile acid synthesis defects and to describe identification of individual disorders and diagnostic pitfalls.METHODS:Authors describe semiquantitative determination of 16 urinary bile acid metabolites by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.Sample preparation was performed by solid-phase extraction.The total analysis time was 2 min per sample.Authors determined bile acid metabolites in 363 patients with suspected defects in bile acid metabolism.RESULTS:Abnormal bile acid metabolites were found in 36 patients.Two patients had bile acid synthesis defects but presented with atypical presentations.In 2 other patients who were later shown to be affected by biliary atresia and cystic fibrosis the profile of bile acid metabolites was initially suggestive of a bile acid synthesis defect.Three adult patients suffered from cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis.Nineteen patients had peroxisomal disorders,and 10 patients had cholestatic hepatopathy of other cause.CONCLUSION:Screening for urinary cholanoids should be done in every infant with cholestatic hepatopathy as well as in children with progressive neurological disease to provide specific therapy.

  14. Activation of CFTR by ASBT-mediated bile salt absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijvelds, MJC; Jorna, H; Verkade, HJ; Bot, AGM; Hofmann, F; Agellon, LB; Sinaasappel, M; de Jonge, HR

    2005-01-01

    In cholangiocytes, bile salt (BS) uptake via the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) may evoke ductular flow by enhancing cAMP-mediated signaling to the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel. We considered that ASBT-mediated BS uptake in the distal

  15. What Are the Risk Factors for Bile Duct Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are the risk factors for bile duct cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... to top » Guide Topics What Is Bile Duct Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  16. Bile signalling promotes chronic respiratory infections and antibiotic tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reen, F Jerry; Flynn, Stephanie; Woods, David F; Dunphy, Niall; Chróinín, Muireann Ní; Mullane, David; Stick, Stephen; Adams, Claire; O'Gara, Fergal

    2016-01-01

    Despite aggressive antimicrobial therapy, many respiratory pathogens persist in the lung, underpinning the chronic inflammation and eventual lung decline that are characteristic of respiratory disease. Recently, bile acid aspiration has emerged as a major comorbidity associated with a range of lung diseases, shaping the lung microbiome and promoting colonisation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. In order to uncover the molecular mechanism through which bile modulates the respiratory microbiome, a combination of global transcriptomic and phenotypic analyses of the P. aeruginosa response to bile was undertaken. Bile responsive pathways responsible for virulence, adaptive metabolism, and redox control were identified, with macrolide and polymyxin antibiotic tolerance increased significantly in the presence of bile. Bile acids, and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) in particular, elicited chronic biofilm behaviour in P. aeruginosa, while induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in lung epithelial cells by CDCA was Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) dependent. Microbiome analysis of paediatric CF sputum samples demonstrated increased colonisation by P. aeruginosa and other Proteobacterial pathogens in bile aspirating compared to non-aspirating patients. Together, these data suggest that bile acid signalling is a leading trigger for the development of chronic phenotypes underlying the pathophysiology of chronic respiratory disease. PMID:27432520

  17. Do We Know What Causes Bile Duct Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Can bile duct cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes bile duct cancer? We don’t know the exact cause of most ... genes – the instructions for how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are ...

  18. Bile Acid Diarrhea: Prevalence, Pathogenesis, and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Bile acid diarrhea (BAD) is usually seen in patients with ileal Crohn’s disease or ileal resection. However, 25% to 50% of patients with functional diarrhea or diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) also have evidence of BAD. It is estimated that 1% of the population may have BAD. The causes of BAD include a deficiency in fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), a hormone produced in enterocytes that regulates hepatic bile acid (BA) synthesis. Other potential causes include genetic variations that affect the proteins involved in BA enterohepatic circulation and synthesis or in the TGR5 receptor that mediates the actions of BA in colonic secretion and motility. BAs enhance mucosal permeability, induce water and electrolyte secretion, and accelerate colonic transit partly by stimulating propulsive high-amplitude colonic contractions. There is an increased proportion of primary BAs in the stool of patients with IBS-D, and some changes in the fecal microbiome have been described. There are several methods of diagnosing BAD, such as 75selenium homotaurocholic acid test retention, serum C4, FGF-19, and fecal BA measurement; presently, therapeutic trials with BA sequestrants are most commonly used for diagnosis. Management involves the use of BA sequestrants including cholestyramine, colestipol, and colesevelam. FXR agonists such as obeticholic acid constitute a promising new approach to treating BAD. PMID:25918262

  19. Optic properties of bile liquid crystals in human body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Ming Yang; Jie Wu; Jian Li Zhou; Li Jun He; Xian Fang Xu; Jin Yi Li

    2000-01-01

    AIM To further study the properties of bile liquid crystals, and probe into the relationship between bile liquid crystals and gallbladder stone formation, and provide evidence for the prevention and treatment of cholecystolithissis. METNODS The optic properties of bile liquid crystals in human body were determined by the method of crystal optics under polarizing microscope with plane polarized light and perpendicular polarized light. RESULTS Under a polarizing microscope with plane polarized light, bile liquid crystals scattered in bile appeared round, oval or irregularly round. The color of bile liquid crystals was a little lighter than that of the bile around. When the stage was turned round, the color of bile liquid crystals or the darkness and lightness of the color did not change obviously. On the border between bile liquid crystals and the bile around, brighter Becke-Line could be observed. When the microscope tube is lifted, Becke. Line moved inward, and when lowered,Becke-Line moved outward. Under a perpendicular polarized light, bile liquid crystals showd some special interference patterns, called Malta cross. When the stage was tuming round at an angle of 360°, the Malta cross showed four times of extinction. In the vibrating direction of 45° angle of relative to upper and lower polarizing plate, gypsum test-board with optical path difference of 530 nm was inserted, the first and the third quadrants of Malta cross appeared to be blue, and the second and the fourth quadrants appeared orange. When mica test-board with optical path difference of 147 nm was inserted, the first and the third quadrants of Malta cross appeared yellow, and the second and the fourth quadrants appeared dark grey. CONCLUSION The bile liquid crystals were distributed in bile in the form of global grains. Their polychroism and absorption were slight,but the edge and Becke-Line were very clear. Its refractive index was larger than that of the bile.These liquid crystals were uniaxial

  20. Impaired Bile Acid Homeostasis in Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhang

    Full Text Available Severe acute malnutrition (SAM is a major cause of mortality in children under 5 years and is associated with hepatic steatosis. Bile acids are synthesized in the liver and participate in dietary fat digestion, regulation of energy expenditure, and immune responses. The aim of this work was to investigate whether SAM is associated with clinically relevant changes in bile acid homeostasis.An initial discovery cohort with 5 healthy controls and 22 SAM-patients was used to identify altered bile acid homeostasis. A follow up cohort of 40 SAM-patients were then studied on admission and 3 days after clinical stabilization to assess recovery in bile acid metabolism. Recruited children were 6-60 months old and admitted for SAM in Malawi. Clinical characteristics, feces and blood were collected on admission and prior to discharge. Bile acids, 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4 and FGF-19 were quantified.On admission, total serum bile acids were higher in children with SAM than in healthy controls and glycine-conjugates accounted for most of this accumulation with median and interquartile range (IQR of 24.6 μmol/L [8.6-47.7] compared to 1.9 μmol/L [1.7-3.3] (p = 0.01 in controls. Total serum bile acid concentrations did not decrease prior to discharge. On admission, fecal conjugated bile acids were lower and secondary bile acids higher at admission compared to pre- discharge, suggesting increased bacterial conversion. FGF19 (Fibroblast growth factor 19, a marker of intestinal bile acid signaling, was higher on admission and was associated with decreased C4 concentrations as a marker of bile acid synthesis. Upon recovery, fecal calprotectin, a marker of intestinal inflammation, was lower.SAM is associated with increased serum bile acid levels despite reduced synthesis rates. In SAM, there tends to be increased deconjugation of bile acids and conversion from primary to secondary bile acids, which may contribute to the development of liver disease.

  1. Aberrant bile ducts, 'remnant surface bile ducts,' and peribiliary glands: descriptive anatomy, historical nomenclature, and surgical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gharbawy, Ramadan M; Skandalakis, Lee J; Heffron, Thomas G; Skandalakis, John E

    2011-05-01

    The term "aberrant bile ducts" has been used to designate three heterogeneous groups of biliary structures: (1) bile ducts degenerating or disappearing (unknown etiology, diverse locations); (2) curious biliary structures in the transverse fissure; and (3) aberrant right bile ducts draining directly into the common hepatic duct. We report our observations on these three groups. Twenty-nine fresh human livers of stillborns and adults were injected differentially with colored latex and dissected. Adult livers showed portal venous and hepatic arterial branches, and bile ducts not associated with parenchyma, subjacent to and firmly adherent with the liver capsule: elements of ramifications of normal sheaths were present on the liver's surface. These ramifications, having lost parenchyma associated with them, then sequentially lost their portal branches, bile ducts and arterial branches. This process affected the ramifications of the sheaths in the left triangular ligament, adjacent to the inferior vena cava, in the gallbladder bed and anywhere else on the liver's surface and resulted in the presence of bile ducts accompanied by portal venous and/or hepatic arterial branches and not associated with parenchyma for a period of time. This first group represented normal bile ducts that do not meet the criteria of aberration and could be appropriately designated "remnant surface bile ducts." Such changes were not found in the transverse fissures and review of the literature revealed that the curious biliary structures are the microscopic peribiliary glands. The third group met the criteria of aberration and the anatomy of a representative duct is described.

  2. Ursodeoxycholate modulates bile flow and bile salt pool independently from the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (Cftr) in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewes, Frank A. J. A.; Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjan; Bijvelds, Marcel J.; Havinga, Rick; de Jonge, Hugo R.; Verkade, Henkjan J.

    2012-01-01

    Bodewes FAJA, Wouthuyzen-Bakker M, Bijvelds MJ, Havinga R, de Jonge HR, Verkade HJ. Ursodeoxycholate modulates bile flow and bile salt pool independently from the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (Cftr) in mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 302: G1035-G1042, 2012. First published F

  3. Substitutes for Bear Bile for the Treatment of Liver Diseases: Research Progress and Future Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Tan, Hor Yue; Wang, Ning; Hong, Ming; Li, Lei; Cheung, Fan; Feng, Yibin

    2016-01-01

    Bear bile has been a well-known Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Because of the endangered species protection, the concept on substitutes for bear bile was proposed decades ago. Based on their chemical composition and pharmacologic actions, artificial bear bile, bile from other animals, synthetic compounds, and medicinal plants may be the promising candidates to replace bear bile for the similar therapeutic purpose. Accumulating research evidence has indicated that these potential substitutes for bear bile have displayed the same therapeutic effects as bear bile. However, stopping the use of bear bile is a challenging task. In this review, we extensively searched PubMed and CNKI for literatures, focusing on comparative studies between bear bile and its substitutes for the treatment of liver diseases. Recent research progress in potential substitutes for bear bile in the last decade is summarized, and a strategy for the use of substitutes for bear bile is discussed carefully. PMID:27087822

  4. Substitutes for Bear Bile for the Treatment of Liver Diseases: Research Progress and Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bear bile has been a well-known Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Because of the endangered species protection, the concept on substitutes for bear bile was proposed decades ago. Based on their chemical composition and pharmacologic actions, artificial bear bile, bile from other animals, synthetic compounds, and medicinal plants may be the promising candidates to replace bear bile for the similar therapeutic purpose. Accumulating research evidence has indicated that these potential substitutes for bear bile have displayed the same therapeutic effects as bear bile. However, stopping the use of bear bile is a challenging task. In this review, we extensively searched PubMed and CNKI for literatures, focusing on comparative studies between bear bile and its substitutes for the treatment of liver diseases. Recent research progress in potential substitutes for bear bile in the last decade is summarized, and a strategy for the use of substitutes for bear bile is discussed carefully.

  5. Dermoscopy Clues in Pigmented Bowen's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Gutiérrez-Mendoza; Roberto Narro-Llorente; Marcia Karam-Orantes; Verónica Fonte-Avalos; Eduwiges Martínez-Luna; Sonia Toussaint-Caire; Judith Domíguez-Cherit

    2010-01-01

    Pigmented tumors have similar clinical features that overlap and hamper diagnosis. Dermoscopy increases the diagnostic accuracy of doubtful melanocytic lesions and has been used as a noninvasive tool in the detection of pigmented lesions (PLs) like melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and pigmented Bowen's disease (pBD). Our objective was to show the dermoscopic features of 2 cases of pBD and compare with the findings reported in the literature. Two dermoscopic images of biopsy proven pBD were ret...

  6. PRODUCTION OF MONASCUS-LIKE AZAPHILONE PIGMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of biotechnological production of polyketide based colorants from filamentous fungi, in particular a method for preparing a biomass comprising a Monascus-like pigment composition from a nontoxigenic and non-pathogenic fungal source. The present invention...... further relates to use of the Monascus-like pigment composition as a colouring agent for food items and/or non-food items, and a cosmetic composition comprising the Monascus-like pigment composition....

  7. Argon Laser Photoablation for Postburn Conjunctival Pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Joon Ahn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of an ocular burn injury from boiling water which resulted in conjunctival pigmentation, 1 week following injury. For cosmetic purposes, 2 sessions of argon laser photoablation were performed. One month after laser treatment, conjunctival pigmentation had been successfully removed and the patient was very satisfied with the results. Argon laser photoablation may be an effective way to remove postburn conjunctival pigmentation.

  8. Non-photosynthetic pigments as potential biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieterman, E. W.; Cockell, C. S.; Meadows, V. S.

    2014-03-01

    Photosynthetic organisms on Earth produce potentially detectable surface reflectance biosignatures due in part to the spectral location and strength of pigment absorption. However, life on Earth uses pigments for a multitude of purposes other than photosynthesis, including coping with extreme environments. Macroscopic environments exist on Earth where the surface reflectance is significantly altered by a nonphotosynthetic pigment, such as the case of hypersaline lakes and ponds (Oren et al. 1992). Here we explore the nature and potential detectability of non-photosynthetic pigments in disk-averaged planetary observations using a combination of laboratory measurements and archival reflectance spectra, along with simulated broadband photometry and spectra. The in vivo visible reflectance spectra of a cross section of pigmented microorganisms are presented to illustrate the spectral diversity of biologically produced pigments. Synthetic broadband colors are generated to show a significant spread in color space. A 1D radiative transfer model (Meadows & Crisp 1996; Crisp 1997) is used to approximate the spectra of scenarios where pigmented organisms are widespread on planets with Earth-like atmospheres. Broadband colors are revisited to show that colors due to surface reflectivity are not robust to the addition of scattering and absorption effects from the atmosphere. We consider a èbest case' plausible scenario for the detection of nonphotosynthetic pigments by using the Virtual Planetary Laboratory's 3D spectral Earth model (Robinson et al. 2011) to explore the detectability of the surface biosignature produced by pigmented halophiles that are widespread on an Earth-analog planet.

  9. Intestinal bile acid physiology and pathophysiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olga Mart(I)nez-Augustin; Ferm(I)n Sánchez de Medina

    2008-01-01

    Bile acids (Bas) have a long established role in fat digestion in the intestine by acting as tensioactives,due to their amphipatic characteristics.Bas are reabsorbed very efficiently by the intestinal epithelium and recycled back to the liver v/a transport mechanisms that have been largely elucidated.The transport and synthesis of Bas are tightly regulated in part by specific plasma membrane receptors and nuclear receptors.In addition to their primary effect,Bas have been claimed to play a role in gastrointestinal cancer,intestinal inflammation and intestinal ionic transport.Bas are not equivalent in any of these biological activities,and structural requirements have been generally identified.In particular,some Bas may be useful for cancer chemoprevention and perhaps in inflammatory bowel disease,although further research is necessary in this field.This review covers the most recent developments in these aspects of BA intestinal biology.

  10. 13.7.Gallbladder and bile duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    950323 CT in predicting the efficacy of oralcholelitholysis with bile acids.FU Xianbo (傅贤波),et al.Dept Surg,3rd Teach Hosp,BeijingMed Univ,Beijing,100083.Natl Med J China1993;73(2):81—83.The efficacy of oral cholelitholytic therapywith chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and ur-sodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in 137 patients withgallstones was compared with their CT pat-terns.The best dissolving results were obtainedfrom patients with the stones in isodense andfaint category (<50Hu) on CT.All the stoneswith high density or heterogeneous calcificationon CT were insoluble.Therefore,they were con-traindicated for oral cholelitholytie therapy.Ac-cording to the abovr,criteria,the rates for disso-lution ranged from 27.7%(38/137).to 66.7%(38/57),and those for complete dissolutionranged from 9.49%(13/137) to 40.7%(11/

  11. Bile acids: emerging role in management of liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharpour, Amon; Kumar, Divya; Sanyal, Arun

    2015-10-01

    Bile acids are well known for their effects on cholesterol homeostasis and lipid digestion. Since the discovery of bile acid receptors, of which there are farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor, and the plasma membrane G-protein receptor, as well as Takeda G-protein coupled receptor clone 5, further roles have been elucidated for bile acids including glucose and lipid metabolism as well as inflammation. Additionally, treatment with bile acid receptor agonists has shown a decrease in the amount of atherosclerosis plaque formation and decreased portal vascular resistance and portal hypotension in animal models. Furthermore, rodent models have demonstrated antifibrotic activity using bile acid receptor agonists. Early human data using a FXR agonist, obeticholic acid, have shown promising results with improvement of histological activity and even a reduction of fibrosis. Human studies are ongoing and will provide further information on bile acid receptor agonist therapies. Thus, bile acids and their derivatives have the potential for management of liver diseases and potentially other disease states including diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:26320013

  12. Equilibrium and kinetic factors influencing bile sequestrant efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luner, P E; Amidon, G L

    1992-05-01

    In vitro bile salt binding equilibria and kinetic studies were performed with cholestyramine to determine how these factors influence bile sequestrant efficacy in vivo. Chloride ion at physiologic concentrations caused more than a twofold reduction in glycocholate (GCH) binding, compared to binding in the absence of salt, over a range of GCH concentrations and was also observed to displace bound GCH. In addition, chloride ion displaced from cholestyramine as a result of bile salt binding was measured using a chloride selective electrode, and the results show that bile salt binding is due to ion exchange. Comparison of the results of the equilibrium binding experiments to human data shows that the effect of anion binding competition alone cannot account for the lack of efficacy of cholestyramine. Consideration of other effects, such as additional binding competition or poor availability for binding, based on data from the literature, shows that adequate bile salt binding potential exists and that these interferences are not major factors influencing resin efficacy. In kinetic studies, both binding uptake of GCH and displacement of GCH from cholestyramine by chloride ion were relatively rapid, indicating that cholestyramine should equilibrate rapidly with bile salts in the GI tract. Based on these findings, it is suggested that the low efficacy of cholestyramine is a result mainly of its relatively poor ability to prevent bile salt reabsorption in the ileum.

  13. Human bile sorption by cancrinite-type zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, Carlos F. [Laboratorio de Catalisis y Metales de Transicion, Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologia, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia. Edo. Carabobo, Apartado Postal 3336 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)], E-mail: clinares@uc.edu.ve; Colmenares, Maryi; Ocanto, Freddy [Laboratorio de Catalisis y Metales de Transicion, Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologia, Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia. Edo. Carabobo, Apartado Postal 3336 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Valbuena, Oscar [Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologia, Departamento de Biologia, Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia. Edo. Carabobo, Apartado Postal 3336 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)], E-mail: ovalbuena@uc.edu.ve

    2009-01-01

    A nitrated cancrinite-type zeolite was synthesized from zeolite X, NaOH and NaNO{sub 3} solutions under autogeneous pressure at 80 deg. C for 48 h. This zeolite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR-spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and BET surface area. XRD, SEM and FT-IR confirmed the presence of nitrated cancrinite-type zeolite without other collateral phases as sodalite. Then, this sodium zeolite was exchanged with potassium and calcium cations and finally, these modified zeolites were reacted with biliar solutions from human gallbladder. Several factors such as: mass of used cancrinite, nature of the exchanged cation and reaction time of the cancrinite-bile solution interactions were studied. The composition of bile solutions (bile acids, phospholipids and bilirubin) was analyzed before and after the cancrinite-bile solution reaction. Results showed that the components of the bile were notably reduced after the contact with solids. Ca-cancrinite, 120 min of reaction time and 500 mg of solids were the best conditions determined for the bile acid reduction in human bile. When the modified zeolites were compared with the commercial cholestyramine, it was found that zeolites were more active than the latter. These zeolites may be an alternative choice to diminish cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic patients.

  14. Human bile sorption by cancrinite-type zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nitrated cancrinite-type zeolite was synthesized from zeolite X, NaOH and NaNO3 solutions under autogeneous pressure at 80 deg. C for 48 h. This zeolite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR-spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and BET surface area. XRD, SEM and FT-IR confirmed the presence of nitrated cancrinite-type zeolite without other collateral phases as sodalite. Then, this sodium zeolite was exchanged with potassium and calcium cations and finally, these modified zeolites were reacted with biliar solutions from human gallbladder. Several factors such as: mass of used cancrinite, nature of the exchanged cation and reaction time of the cancrinite-bile solution interactions were studied. The composition of bile solutions (bile acids, phospholipids and bilirubin) was analyzed before and after the cancrinite-bile solution reaction. Results showed that the components of the bile were notably reduced after the contact with solids. Ca-cancrinite, 120 min of reaction time and 500 mg of solids were the best conditions determined for the bile acid reduction in human bile. When the modified zeolites were compared with the commercial cholestyramine, it was found that zeolites were more active than the latter. These zeolites may be an alternative choice to diminish cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic patients

  15. Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment of vanishing bile duct syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Pusl; Ulrich Beuers

    2006-01-01

    Vanishing bile duct syndromes (VBDS) are characterized by progressive loss of small intrahepatic ducts caused by a variety of different diseases leading to chronic cholestasis, cirrhosis, and premature death from liver failure. The majority of adult patients with VBDS suffer from primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a hydrophilic dihydroxy bile acid, is the only drug currently approved for the treatment of patients with PBC, and anticholestatic effects have been reported for several other cholestatic syndromes. Several potential mechanisms of action of UDCA have been proposed including stimulation of hepatobiliary secretion, inhibition of apoptosis and protection of cholangiocytes against toxic effects of hydrophobic bile acids.

  16. Bile acid-induced virulence gene expression of Vibrio parahaemolyticus reveals a novel therapeutic potential for bile acid sequestrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Gotoh

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a bacterial pathogen, causes human gastroenteritis. A type III secretion system (T3SS2 encoded in pathogenicity island (Vp-PAI is the main contributor to enterotoxicity and expression of Vp-PAI encoded genes is regulated by two transcriptional regulators, VtrA and VtrB. However, a host-derived inducer for the Vp-PAI genes has not been identified. Here, we demonstrate that bile induces production of T3SS2-related proteins under osmotic conditions equivalent to those in the intestinal lumen. We also show that bile induces vtrA-mediated vtrB transcription. Transcriptome analysis of bile-responsive genes revealed that bile strongly induces expression of Vp-PAI genes in a vtrA-dependent manner. The inducing activity of bile was diminished by treatment with bile acid sequestrant cholestyramine. Finally, we demonstrate an in vivo protective effect of cholestyramine on enterotoxicity and show that similar protection is observed in infection with a different type of V. parahaemolyticus or with non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae strains of vibrios carrying the same kind of T3SS. In summary, these results provide an insight into how bacteria, through the ingenious action of Vp-PAI genes, can take advantage of an otherwise hostile host environment. The results also reveal a new therapeutic potential for widely used bile acid sequestrants in enteric bacterial infections.

  17. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of Chlorophyll Pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, procedures used, and discussion of typical results are provided for an experiment on the thin layer chromatography of chlorophyll pigments. The experiment works well in high school, since the chemicals used are the same as those used in paper chromatography of plant pigments. (JN)

  18. Skin pigmentation kinetics after UVB exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbak, M.H.; Philipsen, P.A.; Wiegell, S.R.;

    2008-01-01

    There have been few previous studies of the kinetics of pigmentation following ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure, and these have included only fair-skinned persons. The current study investigated pigmentation increase to steady state and fading in 12 Scandinavians and 12 Indians/Pakistanis. Over...

  19. Synthesis of nucleoside and nucleotide conjugates of bile acids, and polymerase construction of bile acid-functionalized DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonen, Satu; Macícková-Cahová, Hana; Pohl, Radek; Sanda, Miloslav; Hocek, Michal

    2010-03-01

    Aqueous Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions of 5-iodopyrimidine or 7-iodo-7-deazaadenine nucleosides with bile acid-derived terminal acetylenes linked via an ester or amide tether gave the corresponding bile acid-nucleoside conjugates. Analogous reactions of halogenated nucleoside triphosphates gave directly bile acid-modified dNTPs. Enzymatic incorporation of these modified nucleotides to DNA was successfully performed using Phusion polymerase for primer extension. One of the dNTPs (dCTP bearing cholic acid) was also efficient for PCR amplification. PMID:20165813

  20. Hormesis in Cholestatic Liver Disease; Preconditioning with Low Bile Acid Concentrations Protects against Bile Acid-Induced Toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther M Verhaag

    Full Text Available Cholestasis is characterized by accumulation of bile acids and inflammation, causing hepatocellular damage. Still, liver damage markers are highest in acute cholestasis and drop when this condition becomes chronic, indicating that hepatocytes adapt towards the hostile environment. This may be explained by a hormetic response in hepatocytes that limits cell death during cholestasis.To investigate the mechanisms that underlie the hormetic response that protect hepatocytes against experimental cholestatic conditions.HepG2.rNtcp cells were preconditioned (24 h with sub-apoptotic concentrations (0.1-50 μM of various bile acids, the superoxide donor menadione, TNF-α or the Farsenoid X Receptor agonist GW4064, followed by a challenge with the apoptosis-inducing bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA; 200 μM for 4 h, menadione (50 μM, 6 h or cytokine mixture (CM; 6 h. Levels of apoptotic and necrotic cell death, mRNA expression of the bile salt export pump (ABCB11 and bile acid sensors, as well as intracellular GCDCA levels were analyzed.Preconditioning with the pro-apoptotic bile acids GCDCA, taurocholic acid, or the protective bile acids (tauroursodeoxycholic acid reduced GCDCA-induced caspase-3/7 activity in HepG2.rNtcp cells. Bile acid preconditioning did not induce significant levels of necrosis in GCDCA-challenged HepG2.rNtcp cells. In contrast, preconditioning with cholic acid, menadione or TNF-α potentiated GCDCA-induced apoptosis. GCDCA preconditioning specifically reduced GCDCA-induced cell death and not CM- or menadione-induced apoptosis. The hormetic effect of GCDCA preconditioning was concentration- and time-dependent. GCDCA-, CDCA- and GW4064- preconditioning enhanced ABCB11 mRNA levels, but in contrast to the bile acids, GW4064 did not significantly reduce GCDCA-induced caspase-3/7 activity. The GCDCA challenge strongly increased intracellular levels of this bile acid, which was not lowered by GCDCA

  1. Hepatocyte transplantation in bile salt export pump-deficient mice: selective growth advantage of donor hepatocytes under bile acid stress

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Huey-Ling; Chen, Hui-Ling; Yuan, Ray-Hwang; Wu, Shang-Hsin; Chen, Ya-Hui; Chien, Chin-Sung; Chou, Shi-Ping; Wang, Renxue; Ling, Victor; Chang, Mei-Hwei

    2012-01-01

    The bile salt export pump (Bsep) mediates the hepatic excretion of bile acids, and its deficiency causes progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis. The current study aimed to induce bile acid stress in Bsep −/− mice and to test the efficacy of hepatocyte transplantation in this disease model. We fed Bsep −/− and wild-type mice cholic acid (CA) or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Both CA and UDCA caused cholestasis and apoptosis in the Bsep −/− mouse liver. Wild-type mice had minimal liver inj...

  2. Production of Monascus-like pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for producing one or more Monascus-like pigment composition from Penicillium species comprising: a) providing a cultivation medium comprising a high concentration of C-and N-sources and a high C/N molar ratio, b) adjusting pH to about 5 to 8, c) inoculating...... the cultivation medium with an inoculum of Penicillium to form a cultivation composition; d) cultivating the inoculated cultivation composition of (c); e) separating the one or more produced pigment compositions. The method of the invention may be used for producing Monascus-like pigment compositions for use...... as colouring agents in food items or non food items. The inventions further relates to Monascus-like pigment composition obtainable by a method of the inventions as well as use of the pigments....

  3. Mechanism by which bile salt disrupts the gastric mucosal barrier in the dog.

    OpenAIRE

    Duane, W C; Wiegand, D M

    1980-01-01

    Bile salts disrupt a functional "gastric mucosal barrier" increasing net forward-diffusion (+) of Na+ and back-diffusion (-) of H+. Studying canine Heidenhain pouches, we attempted to distinguish between two possible mechanisms for this effect: (a) mucosal uptake of bile salt with subsequent cellular injury or (b) dissolution of mucosal lipids by intralumenal bile salt. A 10 mM mixture of six conjugated bile salts simulating the proportions found in human bile induced net Na+ flux of 15.5 +/-...

  4. Role of the bile salt export pump, BSEP, in acquired forms of cholestasis

    OpenAIRE

    Stieger, B

    2010-01-01

    Generation of bile is a key function of the liver. Its impairment leads to accumulation of cytotoxic bile salts in hepatocytes and, consequently, to liver disease. The bile salt export pump, BSEP, is critically involved in the secretion of bile salts into bile. Its function can be disturbed or abolished by inherited mutations. This will lead to progressive intrahepatic cholestais and severe liver disease. In addition to mutations, BSEP can be inhibited by acquired factors, such as xenobiotics...

  5. Hepatobiliary Scan in Infantile Spontaneous Perforation of Common Bile Duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeon, Seok Kil; Ryu, Jong Gul; Lee, Eun Young [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Gil [Taegu Fatima Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-15

    Spontaneous perforation of CBD in infant is a rare but fatal disease. We report a case of bile leakage from common bile duct in 11 months old girl with progressive abdominal distension and vomiting, preoperatively diagnosed by hepatobiliary scan with Tc-99m-DISIDA, which was confirmed by surgery. Operative cholangiogram showed a small perforation at the confluence of cystic duct and common bile duct with mild fusiform dilatation, and no definite abnormality in confluence of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct. Simple drainage of the free peritoneal bilous fluid and T-tube drainage were performed without any evidence of the complication. Patient was inevitable for 6 months OPD follow-up examination.

  6. Dissolution rate of griseofulvin in bile salt solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Smidt, J H; Offringa, J C; Crommelin, D J

    1991-04-01

    Bile salts increase the apparent solubility of lipophilic poorly water-soluble drugs like griseofulvin. In this study, the dissolution kinetics of griseofulvin in solutions of bile salts (sodium taurocholate and sodium cholate) were investigated. A rotating disk apparatus was chosen to monitor dissolution kinetics; it well-defined hydrodynamic conditions allowed for analysis of the behavior of bile salt micelles under different conditions. Griseofulvin solubility and dissolution rate increased with increasing bile salt concentration in the dissolution medium. The enhancement of the dissolution rate was not linearly related to the solubility increase, as diffusional transport of the solubilized drug proved to be less efficient than transport of the unsolubilized ("free") drug. The dissolution process proved to be controlled by convective diffusion. An analysis of the data with the phase separation model provided results for the micellar diffusion coefficient comparable with literature data obtained with different techniques. PMID:1865343

  7. Genetics Home Reference: congenital bile acid synthesis defect type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DEFECT, CONGENITAL, 2 Sources for This Page Clayton PT. Disorders of bile acid synthesis. J Inherit Metab ... J, Duran M, Overmars H, Scambler PJ, Clayton PT. Mutations in SRD5B1 (AKR1D1), the gene encoding delta( ...

  8. Influence of bile flow interruption on acute experimental pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarli, L; Gafà, M; Lupi, M; Peracchia, A

    1984-01-01

    The influence of bile flow interruption on the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis has been evaluated in the rat. The pancreatitis was induced by Pfeffer's technique and the severity of the disease was assessed by a macroscopic examination of the pancreatic damage and the calculation of amylase-to-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) as well. The results showed that the bile reflux into the pancreas made the pancreatic lesions caused by stasis in the gland associated with hyperstimulation of exocrine secretion more severe. On the other hand the bile reflux had no influence when the pancreatitis was due to flowing back of duodenal contents into the pancreas (closed duodenal loop). It was concluded that the bile effect is probably consistent with a pressure mechanism. In addition the reliability of ACCR in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was confirmed, and the test was effective in detecting even milder pancreatic damages. PMID:6206023

  9. Role of endoscopic ultrasound in common bile duct stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljebreen Abdulrahman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When the clinical features strongly suggest the presence of bile duct stones, management is fairly straightforward; diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC may in some cases constitute the entire strategy. Unfortunately, the clinical picture is often equivocal or uncertain. Although stones are unlikely to be present in the bile duct when the clinical index of suspicion is low, their presence can never be completely ruled out based on clinical and biochemical parameters. Thus, an accurate, noninvasive, reliable, and safe method for bile duct imaging would be highly advantageous. Low-risk tests, such as endoscopic ultrasound (EUS, are emerging as reliable substitutes for diagnostic ERC. This review highlights the technical aspects of examining the extra-hepatic biliary duct system and the performance and results of EUS in diagnosing patients who present with possible common bile duct stones.

  10. Bile Duct Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bile Duct Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bileductdiseases.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  11. Effects of feeding bile acids and a bile acid sequestrant on hepatic bile acid composition in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youcai; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2010-11-01

    An improved ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) method was established for the simultaneous analysis of various bile acids (BA) and applied to investigate liver BA content in C57BL/6 mice fed 1% cholic acid (CA), 0.3% deoxycholic acid (DCA), 0.3% chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), 0.3% lithocholic acid (LCA), 3% ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), or 2% cholestyramine (resin). Results indicate that mice have a remarkable ability to maintain liver BA concentrations. The BA profiles in mouse livers were similar between CA and DCA feedings, as well as between CDCA and LCA feedings. The mRNA expression of Cytochrome P450 7a1 (Cyp7a1) was suppressed by all BA feedings, whereas Cyp7b1 was suppressed only by CA and UDCA feedings. Gender differences in liver BA composition were observed after feeding CA, DCA, CDCA, and LCA, but they were not prominent after feeding UDCA. Sulfation of CA and CDCA was found at the 7-OH position, and it was increased by feeding CA or CDCA more in male than female mice. In contrast, sulfation of LCA and taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) was female-predominant, and it was increased by feeding UDCA and LCA. In summary, the present systematic study on BA metabolism in mice will aid in interpreting BA-mediated gene regulation and hepatotoxicity.

  12. Regulation of human class I alcohol dehydrogenases by bile acids

    OpenAIRE

    Langhi, Cédric; Pedraz-Cuesta, Elena; Haro, Diego; Marrero, Pedro F; Rodríguez, Joan C.

    2013-01-01

    Class I alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH1s) are the rate-limiting enzymes for ethanol and vitamin A (retinol) metabolism in the liver . Because previous studies have shown that human ADH1 enzymes may participate in bile acid metabolism, we investigated whether the bile acid-activated nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates ADH1 genes. In human hepatocytes, both the endogenous FXR ligand chenodeoxycholic acid and synthetic FXR-specific agonist GW4064 increased ADH1 mRNA, protein, and ...

  13. The Role of Diet1 in Bile Acid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jessica Mei-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Elevated cholesterol levels are associated with increased risk for atherosclerosis, heart disease and stroke. Variations in plasma cholesterol levels among individuals are determined by the interaction of environmental and genetic factors, many of which remain to be identified. This dissertation presents the initial characterization of a novel gene Diet1, the product of which influences plasma cholesterol levels through its effects on bile acid metabolism. Bile acids are synthesized from c...

  14. Pancreatitis complicating mucin-hypersecreting common bile duct adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Panagiotis Katsinelos; George Basdanis; Grigorios Chatzimavroudis; Giorgia Karagiannoulou; Taxiarchis Katsinelos; George Paroutoglou; Basilios Papaziogas; George Paraskevas

    2006-01-01

    Villous adenomas of the bile ducts are extremely uncommon. We describe a 58-year-old man presenting with clinical signs and laboratory findings of acute pancreatitis and obstructive jaundice. Preoperative investigation demonstrated a dilated papillary orifice with mucus exiting (fish-mouth sign) and a filling defect in the distal common bile duct. He underwent a modified Whipple operation and histological examination of the surgical specimen showed villous adenoma with rich secretion of mucus.

  15. Optimizing Human Bile Preparation for Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Hao-Tsai Cheng; Sen-Yung Hsieh; Chang-Mu Sung; Betty Chien-Jung Pai; Nai-Jen Liu; Carl PC Chen

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Bile is an important body fluid which assists in the digestion of fat and excretion of endogenous and exogenous compounds. In the present study, an improved sample preparation for human bile was established. Methods and Material. The method involved acetone precipitation followed by protein extraction using commercially available 2D Clean-Up kit. The effectiveness was evaluated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) profiling quality, including number of protein spots and spot distribut...

  16. Regulation of hepatic bile acid transporters Ntcp and Bsep expression

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Xingguo; Buckley, David; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2007-01-01

    Sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) and bile salt export pump (Bsep) are two key transporters for hepatic bile acid uptake and excretion. Alterations in Ntcp and Bsep expression have been reported in pathophysiological conditions. In the present study, the effects of age, gender, and various chemicals on the regulation of these two transporters were characterized in mice. Ntcp and Bsep mRNA levels in mouse liver were low in the fetus, but increased to its highest expression ...

  17. Function and regulation of the human bile salt export pump

    OpenAIRE

    Plass, Jacqueline Regina Maria

    2005-01-01

    During the past decade, important progress has been made in our understanding of the pathophysiology of cholestasis. Inherited disorders have been explained at the molecular level and were shown to be the result of mutations in enzymes involved in bile salt biosynthesis or transmembrane transporters involved in bile formation. Acquired cholestasis, for instance due to inflammation, is linked to disregulation of these proteins. The challenge of future research is to use this knowledge to devel...

  18. Bile salts and their importance for drug absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, René; Müllertz, Anette; Mu, Huiling

    2013-01-01

    in different animal species and an overview of the literature investigating the influence of bile salts on the in vivo performance of different compounds and drug formulations. Generally, there is a positive effect on bioavailability when bile is present in the gastro-intestinal tract, independent...... of the formulation systems, e.g. suspensions, solutions, cyclodextrin complexes or lipid based formulations, but a few exceptions have also been reported....

  19. A case of peribiliary cysts accompanying bile duct carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fumihiko Miura; Tadahiro Takada; Hodaka Amano; Masahiro Yoshida; Takahiro Isaka; Naoyuki Toyota; Keita Wada; Kenji Takagi; Kenichiro Karo

    2006-01-01

    A rare case of peribiliary cysts accompaying bile duct carcinoma is presented. A 54-year-old man was diagnosed as having lower bile duct carcinoma and peribiliary cysts by diagnostic imaging. He underwent pylorus preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. As for the peribiliary cysts, a course of observation was taken.Over surgery due to misdiagnosis of patients with biliary malignancy accompanied by peribiliary cysts should be avoided.

  20. Urinary excretion of bile acid glucosides and glucuronides in extrahepatic cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietholtz, H; Marschall, H U; Reuschenbach, R; Matern, H; Matern, S

    1991-04-01

    Recently the formation of bile acid glucosides has been described as a novel conjugation mechanism in vitro and in vivo. In 10 patients with extrahepatic cholestasis caused by carcinoma of the head of the pancreas we investigated excretion rates and profiles of urinary bile acid glucosides. Urinary bile acid glucosides and, for comparison, bile acid glucuronides were extracted and characterized according to established methods. In controls total urinary bile acid glucoside excretion was 0.22 +/- 0.03 mumol/24 hr (mean +/- S.E.M.)-in the range of bile acid glucuronide excretion (0.41 +/- 0.06 mumol/24 hr; mean +/- S.E.M.). A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-characterized trihydroxy bile acid glucoside of still-unknown hydroxyl positions accounted for 65% of total urinary bile acid glucosides. In extrahepatic cholestasis total urinary bile acid glucoside excretion was 0.52 +/- 0.13 mumol/24 hr (mean +/- SEM), yet significantly lower than bile acid glucuronide excretion (1.53 +/- 0.13 mumol/24 hr; mean +/- SEM; p less than 0.001). In cholestasis the primary bile acid derivatives cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid glucosides amounted to 90%, whereas the trihydroxy bile acid glucoside had decreased to 5% of total bile acid glucoside excretion, indicating its alteration during enterohepatic circulation. The data establish the composition and quantity of urinary bile acid glucosides in healthy controls and cholestasis and constitute a quantitative comparison with another glycosidic conjugation reaction, bile acid glucuronidation.

  1. Bile Stress Response in Listeria monocytogenes LO28: Adaptation, Cross-Protection, and Identification of Genetic Loci Involved in Bile Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Begley, Máire; Gahan, Cormac G. M.; Hill, Colin

    2002-01-01

    Bile is one of many barriers that Listeria monocytogenes must overcome in the human gastrointestinal tract in order to infect and cause disease. We demonstrated that stationary-phase cultures of L. monocytogenes LO28 were able to tolerate concentrations of bovine, porcine, and human bile and bile acids well in excess of those encountered in vivo. Strain LO28 was relatively bile resistant compared with other clinical isolates of L. monocytogenes, as well as with Listeria innocua, Salmonella en...

  2. Contribution of Three Bile-Associated Loci, bsh, pva, and btlB, to Gastrointestinal Persistence and Bile Tolerance of Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Begley, Máire; Sleator, Roy D.; Gahan, Cormac G. M.; Hill, Colin

    2005-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes must resist the deleterious actions of bile in order to infect and subsequently colonize the human gastrointestinal tract. The molecular mechanisms used by the bacterium to resist bile and the influence of bile on pathogenesis are as yet largely unexplored. This study describes the analysis of three genes—bsh, pva, and btlB—previously annotated as bile-associated loci in the sequenced L. monocytogenes EGDe genome (lmo2067, lmo0446, and lmo0754, respectively). Analysis o...

  3. Individual bile acids have differential effects on bile acid signaling in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Peizhen, E-mail: songacad@gmail.com; Rockwell, Cheryl E., E-mail: rockwelc@msu.edu; Cui, Julia Yue, E-mail: juliacui@uw.edu; Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: curtisklaassenphd@gmail.com

    2015-02-15

    Bile acids (BAs) are known to regulate BA synthesis and transport by the farnesoid X receptor in the liver (FXR-SHP) and intestine (FXR-Fgf15). However, the relative importance of individual BAs in regulating these processes is not known. Therefore, mice were fed various doses of five individual BAs, including cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxoycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA), and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in their diets at various concentrations for one week to increase the concentration of one BA in the enterohepatic circulation. The mRNA of BA synthesis and transporting genes in liver and ileum were quantified. In the liver, the mRNA of SHP, which is the prototypical target gene of FXR, increased in mice fed all concentrations of BAs. In the ileum, the mRNA of the intestinal FXR target gene Fgf15 was increased at lower doses and to a higher extent by CA and DCA than by CDCA and LCA. Cyp7a1, the rate-limiting enzyme in BA synthesis, was decreased more by CA and DCA than CDCA and LCA. Cyp8b1, the enzyme that 12-hydroxylates BAs and is thus responsible for the synthesis of CA, was decreased much more by CA and DCA than CDCA and LCA. Surprisingly, neither a decrease in the conjugated BA uptake transporter (Ntcp) nor increase in BA efflux transporter (Bsep) was observed by FXR activation, but an increase in the cholesterol efflux transporter (Abcg5/Abcg8) was observed with FXR activation. Thus in conclusion, CA and DCA are more potent FXR activators than CDCA and LCA when fed to mice, and thus they are more effective in decreasing the expression of the rate limiting gene in BA synthesis Cyp7a1 and the 12-hydroxylation of BAs Cyp8b1, and are also more effective in increasing the expression of Abcg5/Abcg8, which is responsible for biliary cholesterol excretion. However, feeding BAs do not alter the mRNA or protein levels of Ntcp or Bsep, suggesting that the uptake or efflux of BAs is not regulated by FXR at physiological and

  4. Elemental diet and bile induced pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstein, M D; Tonkens, R M

    1976-08-01

    The effectiveness of an elemental diet was investigated as both a prophylactic and therapeutic agent in experimental canine pancreatitis. Pancreatitis was induced by operative injection of a bile -saline solution mixture under pressure retrograde into the main pancreatic duct. In addition to a preinjection control sample, serial biopsies were obtained at 30 minute intervals for 90 minutes after injection and fixed for light and electron microscopic examinations. In addition, preoperative and postoperative blood samples were drawn and analyzed for amylase. After operation, half of the dogs from each original group were fed Vivonex-100, the other half from each group, regular laboratory chow, yielding four ultimate groups based on preoperative and postoperative diets. Successful induction of pancreatitis was evaluated by the difference between preoperative and postoperative amylase values, all of which were significant by group at the p less than 0.01 level. No ultrastructural evidence was found for the modification of zymogen granules with the pretreatment elemental diet nor were differences evident, histologically or ultrastructurally, in the severity of pancreatitis between the pretreated and nonpretreated groups. Finally, gross mortality figures demonstrated no efficacy of elemental diet for pretreatment prophylaxis of acute pancreatitis.

  5. Benign disease of the common bile duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R; Pradeep, R; Chander, J; Kumar, P; Wig, J D; Yadav, R V; Kaushik, S P

    1988-08-01

    The incidence of common bile duct (CBD) pathology in a group of patients with benign biliary disease (n = 505) was found to be 23.2 per cent. The spectrum included 111 patients (90.2 per cent) with CBD stones, 37 of whom (33.3 per cent) had no symptoms or findings pre-operatively indicating CBD involvement. Five patients had papillary stenosis, three had postoperative CBD strictures, one had a choledochal cyst and one had an external biliary fistula. Of the 100 CBDs measuring more than 10 mm in diameter, 90 harboured calculi. In the remaining 23 CBDs measuring less than 10 mm, calculi were present in 21. The presence of CBD calculi was demonstrated by intra-operative cholangiography in 49 patients. In the remaining patients (n = 74), the diagnosis of CBD pathology was made either by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography, T-tube cholangiography or peroperative palpation. The surgical procedures performed included choledochotomy and T-tube drainage (n = 74), transduodenal sphincteroplasty (n = 27) and choledochoduodenostomy (n = 18). The overall mortality and morbidity of CBD exploration was 3.3 per cent and 24.4 per cent respectively, which was significantly greater than that for cholecystectomy alone (0.3 per cent and 8.6 per cent respectively). Transduodenal sphincteroplasty carried a much higher mortality (11 per cent) and morbidity (52 per cent) when compared with other procedures. PMID:3167536

  6. Differentiation of various traditional Chinese medicines derived from animal bile and gallstone: simultaneous determination of bile acids by liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xue; Ye, Min; Pan, De-lin; Miao, Wen-juan; Xiang, Cheng; Han, Jian; Guo, De-an

    2011-01-01

    Animal biles and gallstones are popularly used in traditional Chinese medicines, and bile acids are their major bioactive constituents. Some of these medicines, like cow-bezoar, are very expensive, and may be adulterated or even replaced by less expensive but similar species. Due to poor ultraviolet absorbance and structural similarity of bile acids, effective technology for species differentiation and quality control of bile-based Chinese medicines is still lacking. In this study, a rapid and reliable method was established for the simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of 18 bile acids, including 6 free steroids (cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid, and ursodeoxycholic acid) and their corresponding glycine conjugates and taurine conjugates, by using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). This method was used to analyze six bile-based Chinese medicines: bear bile, cattle bile, pig bile, snake bile, cow-bezoar, and artificial cow-bezoar. Samples were separated on an Atlantis dC₁₈ column and were eluted with methanol-acetonitrile-water containing ammonium acetate. The mass spectrometer was monitored in the negative electrospray ionization mode. Total ion currents of the samples were compared for species differentiation, and the contents of bile acids were determined by monitoring specific ion pairs in a selected reaction monitoring program. All 18 bile acids showed good linearity (r² > 0.993) in a wide dynamic range of up to 2000-fold, using dehydrocholic acid as the internal standard. Different animal biles could be explicitly distinguished by their major characteristic bile acids: tauroursodeoxycholic acid and taurochenodeoxycholic acid for bear bile, glycocholic acid, cholic acid and taurocholic acid for cattle bile, glycohyodeoxycholic acid and glycochenodeoxycholic acid for pig bile, and taurocholic acid for snake bile. Furthermore, cattle bile, cow

  7. Review of Prodigiosin, Pigmentation in Serratia marcescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Khanafari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Prodigiosins, a family of natural red pigments characterized by a common pyrrolylpyrromethane skeleton, are produced by various bacteria that first characterized from Serratia marcescens. This pigment is a promising drug owing to its reported characteristics of having antifungal, immunosuppressive and anti-proliferative activity. From an industrial point of view to obtain optimal conditions to enhance the growth of Serratia marcescens and the pigment production is necessity. In present study, the production condition, physicochemical and functional characteristics, structure, genetic and gene expression, apoptosis and toxigenic effects of prodigiosin will be discussed in-order to contribute to the world of Serratia marcescens with respect to its prodigiosin production property.

  8. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crittenden Elizabeth L

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. Results The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusions Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion.

  9. ["Endoscopy in a stone quarry"--multiple pigment stones 6 weeks after delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmann, M; Fähndrich, M; Heike, M

    2010-03-01

    A 29-year-old African woman without any history of diseases was referred to our clinic because of recurrent abdominal pain. 6 weeks earlier she had delivered a healthy baby. Laboratory data revealed hypochromic microcytic anemia, elevated cholestatic liver enzymes, and an elevated bilirubin level of 2.2 mg/dl. Abdominal sonography showed choledocholithiasis. The endoscopic retrograde cholangiography showed the presence of more than 100 small stones in the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts. An endoscopic papillotomy was performed and multiple small black stones were removed from the bile duct by basket into the duodenum. Because of the hypochromic microcytic anemia, the detection of pigment stones and the ethnic background of the patient we suspected a hemoglobinopathy. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed 97 % HbC. The molecular genetic analysis revealed a homozygous mutation in codon 6 GAG > AAG for the beta globin chain (HbCC). HbC is a structurally abnormal hemoglobin with typical aggregates and tetragonal crystal formation which results in mild chronic hemolytic anemia. The cholezystectomy after 6 weeks was performed without complications.

  10. Optically variable films, pigments, and inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Roger W.

    1990-12-01

    Optically variable thin film coatings have been prepared on rolls of polyester film by depositing thin multi-layers in a vacuum roll coater. Such coatings can be removed from the polyester film and ground into optically variable pigments for printing inks. Various printing inks including gravure, flexographic, and Intaglio inks have been prepared from these pigments, and printed images using these inks have been obtained from commercial printing presses. These optically variable systems have been used on various security documents to prevent counterfeiting with color copiers. Unique colors, color shifting effects, and other optical properties have been obtained by combining non-optically variable pigment and dyes with this light interference pigment. The merits of this new ink relative to other optically variable systems are color uniformity, print quality, its ready use on existing printing presses, and high security.

  11. Pigments of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stintzing, Florian; Schliemann, Willibald

    2007-01-01

    The complex pigment pattern of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) cap skins has been studied by LC-DAD and mass spectrometry. Among the betaxanthins the corresponding derivatives of serine, threonine, ethanolamine, alanine, Dopa, phenylalanine and tryptophan are reported for the first time to contribute to the pigment pattern of fly agarics. Betalamic acid, the chromophoric precursor of betaxanthins and betacyanins, muscaflavin and seco-dopas were also detected. Furthermore, the red-purple muscapurpurin and the red muscarubrin were tentatively assigned while further six betacyanin-like components could not be structurally allocated. Stability studies indicated a high susceptibility of pigment extracts to degradation which led to rapid colour loss thus rendering a complete characterization of betacyanin-like compounds impossible at present. Taking into account these difficulties the presented results may be a starting point for a comprehensive characterization of the pigment composition of fly agarics. PMID:18274277

  12. Pseudoephedrine may cause "pigmenting" fixed drug eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Esen; Elinç-Aslan, Meryem Sevinç

    2011-05-01

    Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a distinctive drug eruption characterized by recurrent well-defined lesions in the same location each time the responsible drug is taken. Two different clinical forms have been described: the common classic pigmenting form and the rare nonpigmenting form. Nonpigmenting FDE is mainly characterized by symmetrical large erythematous plaques and the dermal histopathologic reaction pattern. Pseudoephedrine is known as the major inducer of nonpigmenting FDE. Pigmenting FDE from pseudoephedrine has not been reported previously. Here, the first case of pseudoephedrine-induced pigmenting FDE is reported, showing the characteristic features of classic pigmenting FDE such as asymmetry, normal-sized lesions, and the epidermodermal histopathologic reaction pattern. Moreover, a positive occlusive patch-test reaction to pseudoephedrine could be demonstrated on postlesional FDE skin for the first time.

  13. Silica Pigments for Glossy Ink Jet Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Qi; Michael R. Sestrick; Yoshi Sugimoto; William A. Welsh

    2004-01-01

    Silica is a versatile pigment for ink jet media. Micronized silica gel is the worldwide standard for high performance matte ink jet media. For glossy ink jet media, several different forms of silica are widely used. Submicron silica gel dispersions, with either anionic or cationic surfaces, can be employed in either absorptive basecoat layers or in the glossy ink receptive top layer. Colloidal silica, with a variety of particle sizes and surface modifications, is utilized extensively in glossy top layers. It will show how various silica pigments can be utilized in glossy ink receptive coatings, both in cast based glossy media and RC based glossy media. Several novel silica pigments will be examined by relating the physical properties of the pigments and the formula variables to the print quality of the ink jet media.

  14. Dyestuffs and Organic Pigment Face Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Liming

    2007-01-01

    @@ Rapid growth of output According to statistics from the China Dyestuff Industry Association (CDIA), the product sales revenue realized in 2006 was RMB31.092 billion (including dyestuffs and organic pigments), an increase of 6.7% over 2005.

  15. Clinical pathology of primary bile reflux gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping YAO

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the clinical and pathological features of primary bile reflux gastritis(BRG.Methods Endoscopy,Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori detection,and histopathologic examination were performed in 218 patients with primary BRG(observed group and 236 patients with simple chronic gastritis(SCG,control group as identified by gastroscope in order to analyze the endoscopic abnormalities,the frequency of H.pylori infection,pathological features and scores of inflammation.Results The frequency of H.pylori infection was 39.0%(85/218 in the observed group,which was significantly lower than that in the control group [52.1%(123/236].The topographic abnormalities of the antral mucosa as detected by gastroscopy,i.e.,congestion,hemorrhagic spots,erosion were not significantly different between BRG and SCG patients(P > 0.05.The scores of chronic and active inflammation were higher in patients when H.pylori infection was present than in patients without H.pylori infection in both groups(P < 0.05.The scores of inflammation,the detection rates of the antral intestinal metaplasia,antral atrophy and atypical hyperplasia were all higher in observed group than in control group(P < 0.05.The incidence of lengthening of gastric pits,telangiectasis or interstitial edema in BRG patients was also significantly higher than those in SCG patients(P < 0.05.Conclusions Primary BRG shows features of chemical gastritis with a higher tendency toward mucosal atrophy,intestinal metaplasia and atypical hyperplasia.Gastropic examination and biopsy should be emphasized.

  16. Ambivalent property of bilirubin in human bile juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Blázovics, Péter Sípos, Ferenc Örsi,* Mervat Abdel Rahman

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Gallstones are formed as a result of many metabolic disorders e.g. chronic haemolytic anaemia, diabetes mellitus, ileal diseases, short bowel syndrome, gluten sensitive enteropathy, elevated serum lipids or Crohn's disease. The relationship between gallstone disease and free radical reactions is not known exactly even today. Free radicals are involved in many clinical conditions e.g. in hyperlipidemia and in fatty liver. Oxygen free radicals are produced and accumulated while the function of mitochondrial and microsomal electron transport or in peroxisomes and the activated arachidonic acid cascade. Spontaneous lipid peroxidation and oxygen free radical products of respiratory burst of Kupffer cells can be added to peroxide pool of liver tissue. Tissues, cells and subcellular particles exhibit different specific defence activities in pathological processes, which involve free radicals. The activity of microsomal P450 enzyme system and the microsomal structure are changed during pathological free radical attack and the cholesterol/bile acid ratio in bile juice is also altered. At the same time bilirubin metabolism can also be modified. Bile samples of 88 cholecystectomysed patients in both sexes (male: 29, female: 59 were examined. HPLC analysis (HP1090 liquid chromatograph with diode array detector was used for the detection of free bilirubin and bilirubin derivates. HP5890 gas chromatograph and flame ionization detector was used for fatty acid analysis. The induced chemiluminescence intensity was also determined in bile juice with (Berthold Lumat 9501 luminometer. As results show, the occurrence of C18:1 9, C18:2 6, C20:4 6 fatty acids were in high percentage in gallbladder bile in every case of randomly chosen 17 cholecystectomysed patients in both sexes suffered from cholecystitis chronica with gallstone. Lipid peroxidation products (diene conjugates and malondialdehyde were detected in all cases of bile as well. Mathematical statistical

  17. Digestion of phospholipids after secretion of bile into the duodenum changes the phase behavior of bile components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birru, Woldeamanuel A; Warren, Dallas B; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Williams, Hywel D; Benameur, Hassan; Porter, Christopher J H; Chalmers, David K; Pouton, Colin W

    2014-08-01

    Bile components play a significant role in the absorption of dietary fat, by solubilizing the products of fat digestion. The absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs from the gastrointestinal tract is often enhanced by interaction with the pathways of fat digestion and absorption. These processes can enhance drug absorption. Thus, the phase behavior of bile components and digested lipids is of great interest to pharmaceutical scientists who seek to optimize drug solubilization in the gut lumen. This can be achieved by dosing drugs after food or preferably by formulating the drug in a lipid-based delivery system. Phase diagrams of bile salts, lecithin, and water have been available for many years, but here we investigate the association structures that occur in dilute aqueous solution, in concentrations that are present in the gut lumen. More importantly, we have compared these structures with those that would be expected to be present in the intestine soon after secretion of bile. Phosphatidylcholines are rapidly hydrolyzed by pancreatic enzymes to yield equimolar mixtures of their monoacyl equivalents and fatty acids. We constructed phase diagrams that model the association structures formed by the products of digestion of biliary phospholipids. The micelle-vesicle phase boundary was clearly identifiable by dynamic light scattering and nephelometry. These data indicate that a significantly higher molar ratio of lipid to bile salt is required to cause a transition to lamellar phase (i.e., liposomes in dilute solution). Mixed micelles of digested bile have a higher capacity for solubilization of lipids and fat digestion products and can be expected to have a different capacity to solubilize lipophilic drugs. We suggest that mixtures of lysolecithin, fatty acid, and bile salts are a better model of molecular associations in the gut lumen, and such mixtures could be used to better understand the interaction of drugs with the fat digestion and absorption pathway.

  18. Metabolism of Cholesterol and Bile Acids by the Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Gérard

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The human gastro-intestinal tract hosts a complex and diverse microbial community, whose collective genetic coding capacity vastly exceeds that of the human genome. As a consequence, the gut microbiota produces metabolites from a large range of molecules that host’s enzymes are not able to convert. Among these molecules, two main classes of steroids, cholesterol and bile acids, denote two different examples of bacterial metabolism in the gut. Therefore, cholesterol is mainly converted into coprostanol, a non absorbable sterol which is excreted in the feces. Moreover, this conversion occurs in a part of the human population only. Conversely, the primary bile acids (cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids are converted to over twenty different secondary bile acid metabolites by the gut microbiota. The main bile salt conversions, which appear in the gut of the whole human population, include deconjugation, oxidation and epimerization of hydroxyl groups at C3, C7 and C12, 7-dehydroxylation, esterification and desulfatation. If the metabolisms of cholesterol and bile acids by the gut microbiota are known for decades, their consequences on human health and disease are poorly understood and only start to be considered.

  19. Optimizing Human Bile Preparation for Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Tsai Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Bile is an important body fluid which assists in the digestion of fat and excretion of endogenous and exogenous compounds. In the present study, an improved sample preparation for human bile was established. Methods and Material. The method involved acetone precipitation followed by protein extraction using commercially available 2D Clean-Up kit. The effectiveness was evaluated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE profiling quality, including number of protein spots and spot distribution. Results. The total protein of bile fluid in benign biliary disorders was 0.797 ± 0.465 μg/μL. The sample preparation method using acetone precipitation first followed by 2D Clean-Up kit protein extraction resulted in better quality of 2DE gel images in terms of resolution as compared with other sample preparation methods. Using this protocol, we obtained approximately 558 protein spots on the gel images and with better protein spots presentation of haptoglobin, serum albumin, serotransferrin, and transthyretin. Conclusions. Protein samples of bile prepared using acetone precipitation followed by 2D Clean-Up kit exhibited high protein resolution and significant protein profile. This optimized protein preparation protocol can effectively concentrate bile proteins, remove abundant proteins and debris, and yield clear presentation of nonabundant proteins and its isoforms on 2-dimensional electrophoresis gel images.

  20. Bile acids as endogenous etiologic agents in gastrointestinal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harris Bernstein; Carol Bernstein; Claire M Payne; Katerina Dvorak

    2009-01-01

    Bile acids are implicated as etiologic agents in cancer of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, including cancer of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, liver, biliary tract, pancreas and colon/rectum. Deleterious effects of bile acid exposure, likely related to carcinogenesis,include: induction of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species; induction of DNA damage; stimulation of mutation; induction of apoptosis in the short term,and selection for apoptosis resistance in the long term.These deleterious effects have, so far, been reported most consistently in relation to esophageal and colorectal cancer, but also to some extent in relation to cancer of other organs. In addition, evidence is reviewed for an association of increased bile acid exposure with cancer risk in human populations, in specific human genetic conditions, and in animal experiments. A model for the role of bile acids in GI carcinogenesis is presented from a Darwinian perspective that offers an explanation for how the observed effects of bile acids on cells contribute to cancer development.

  1. Posttraumatic bile leaks: role of diagnostic imaging and impact on patient outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Keith W; Lucey, Brian C; Soto, Jorge A; Oates, M Elizabeth

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of bile leaks on patient morbidity and hospital course following blunt and penetrating liver trauma. Forty patients who underwent hepatobiliary scintigraphy after trauma were included. Scintigraphic results were classified as follows: free intraperitoneal bile leak, contained bile leak, and no bile leak. Outcomes measured were length of hospital stay, number of procedures required, and number of subsequent imaging studies. Bile leaks were identified in 25% of patients. Eight percent had free intraperitoneal leaks, 18% contained bile leaks, and 73% had no bile leak. One study was nondiagnostic due to poor hepatic function. Mean hospitalization was as follows: free bile leak group, 53 days; contained bile leak group, 10 days; no bile leak group, 14 days. Patients with free intraperitoneal bile leak had more imaging studies and procedures than patients without free bile leak. Patients with liver injury and free intraperitoneal bile leak have longer hospitalizations and undergo more therapeutic procedures than those without, who respond to conservative management. PMID:16369810

  2. Functional analysis of four bile salt hydrolase and penicillin acylase family members in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, J. M.; Bongers, R.S.; Vos; Kleerebezem, M.

    2008-01-01

    Bile salts play an important role in the digestion of lipids in vertebrates and are synthesized and conjugated to either glycine or taurine in the liver. Following secretion of bile salts into the small intestine, intestinal microbes are capable of deconjugating the glycine or taurine from the bile salts, using an enzyme called bile salt hydrolase (Bsh). Intestinal lactobacilli are regarded as major contributors to bile salt hydrolysis in vivo. Since the bile salt-hydrolyzing strain Lactobaci...

  3. Functional Analysis of Four Bile Salt Hydrolase and Penicillin Acylase Family Members in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, J M; Bongers, R.S.; Vos, de, R.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2008-01-01

    Bile salts play an important role in the digestion of lipids in vertebrates and are synthesized and conjugated to either glycine or taurine in the liver. Following secretion of bile salts into the small intestine, intestinal microbes are capable of deconjugating the glycine or taurine from the bile salts, using an enzyme called bile salt hydrolase (Bsh). Intestinal lactobacilli are regarded as major contributors to bile salt hydrolysis in vivo. Since the bile salt-hydrolyzing strain Lactobaci...

  4. Gelation of self-assembed bile acid-PEG conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandman, Satu; Le Devedec, Frantz; Zhu, X. X.

    2012-02-01

    The aggregation of macromolecules and low-molar-mass compounds into elongated self-assemblies such as wormlike micelles, fibers, or tubules increases the viscosity of the solutions and often leads to gelation due to network formation, even in organic solvents. Such one-dimensional nanostructures are promising candidates for drug delivery vehicles, packing materials for separation, templates for metal nanowires, biocides, and photo- or biocatalysis. An interesting group of compounds capable of this type of self-organization are bile acids, which are endogeneous steroids known to form gels at high concentrations and appropriate pH conditions. Grafting poly(ethylene oxide) on bile acids via anionic polymerization brings along thermoresponsiveness represented by lower critical solution temperature (LCST), while self-assembling occurs below another threshold temperature leading to a gelation at high concentrations, as shown by rheological experiments. The latter transition is assigned to the nanotube formation of pegylated bile acids, visualized by electron microscopy.

  5. Bile acid nuclear receptor FXR and digestive system diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Ding

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bile acids (BAs are not only digestive surfactants but also important cell signaling molecules, which stimulate several signaling pathways to regulate some important biological processes. The bile-acid-activated nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR, plays a pivotal role in regulating bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis as well as in regulating the inflammatory responses, barrier function and prevention of bacterial translocation in the intestinal tract. As expected, FXR is involved in the pathophysiology of a wide range of diseases of gastrointestinal tract, including inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of the roles of FXR in physiology of the digestive system and the related diseases. Better understanding of the roles of FXR in digestive system will accelerate the development of FXR ligands/modulators for the treatment of digestive system diseases.

  6. [Postoperative handling in biliodigestive derivation by iatrogenic bile duct injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, I; Mercado, M A

    2008-01-01

    Bile duct injury is a severe complication related to cholecystectomy, impacting in the long-term quality of life and functional status. Bile duct repair is the first-line treatment for complex injuries. During short-term and long-term postoperative care, it is important to bear in mind the diagnostic tools, both laboratory and imaging, that will be useful to evaluate a possible surgical complication and to plan an adequate therapeutic strategy. In addition, post-surgical classification describes patients according to their complications and clinical course. In this review we describe the principal issues of postoperative care after bile duct repair, highlighting the diagnosis, severity classification and therapeutic approach of acute cholangitis.

  7. Flagging Drugs That Inhibit the Bile Salt Export Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Floriane; Pinto, Marta; Khunweeraphong, Narakorn; Wlcek, Katrin; Sohail, M Imran; Noeske, Tobias; Boyer, Scott; Chiba, Peter; Stieger, Bruno; Kuchler, Karl; Ecker, Gerhard F

    2016-01-01

    The bile salt export pump (BSEP) is an ABC-transporter expressed at the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. Its physiological role is to expel bile salts into the canaliculi from where they drain into the bile duct. Inhibition of this transporter may lead to intrahepatic cholestasis. Predictive computational models of BSEP inhibition may allow for fast identification of potentially harmful compounds in large databases. This article presents a predictive in silico model based on physicochemical descriptors that is able to flag compounds as potential BSEP inhibitors. This model was built using a training set of 670 compounds with available BSEP inhibition potencies. It successfully predicted BSEP inhibition for two independent test sets and was in a further step used for a virtual screening experiment. After in vitro testing of selected candidates, a marketed drug, bromocriptin, was identified for the first time as BSEP inhibitor. This demonstrates the usefulness of the model to identify new BSEP inhibitors and therefore potential cholestasis perpetrators. PMID:26642869

  8. Betalain: a particular class of antioxidant pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gharras, Hasna

    2011-10-01

    We have analyzed the stability of betalains in juices prepared from Moroccan yellow cactus pears (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.) as a function of temperature and pH. The experiments were carried out at temperatures ranging from 80 to 100 degrees C with juices at pH 3.5, 5 and 6.5. The degree of pigment retention decreased when the temperature increased. The degradation constant rates were determined for thermal degradation rates of pseudo-first order. The Arrhenius plot obtained for the degradation of betaxanthin from the yellow fruits was not linear. Regardless of the temperature of treatment, the lowest degradation was obtained for pH 5. When some stabilizers were tested for the protection of pigments, the results showed that ascorbic acid was a better protective agent at pH 3.5, increasing the protection by 40%. The inhibitive action of betalain pigments extracted from cactus pears towards corrosion of stainless steel in phosphoric acid was investigated using electrochemical polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. It was found that the presence of natural pigments reduces the corrosion rate of the tested metal, especially on addition of the red pigments (97%). The inhibition efficiency increases as the pigment concentration of extracts increases. It was also found that the pigments tested act as mixed inhibitors. The inhibitive action of the extracts is discussed in term of adsorption and that such adsorption follows a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated values of the free energy of adsorption indicated that the adsorption process is spontaneous. PMID:22164774

  9. Radioisotope Study of Tegumentary Pigmentation in Insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of insect cuticle, which is made up in large part of scleroproteins, calls for the use of labelled isotopes to obtain answers to certain questions regarding pigmentation. The following method, which has the advantage of being quick and easy to apply, has been developed. The labelled substance chosen is injected into the animal at various phases of its skin-shedding cycle: before secretion of the cuticular proteins, i. e. when the cuticle is at rest; at the time these proteins are deposited; and, lastly, at the time their sclerification begins. After a suitable interval the cuticle is removed, suitably treated, and subjected to full autoradiography. Photographic comparison of the results then indicates whether or not the substance chosen has been used for any formation of pigment, due account being taken of prior chemical processes involving the substance. The findings presented in the paper relate to three labelled substances: two carbon-14 amino-acids - tyrosine and tryptophane - and inorganic sulphur-35 in the form of sodium sulphate. It has thus been possible to give direct proof of the origin of variously-coloured cuticular pigments and to discuss the role of tryptophane and sulphur in forming pigments in insect integument. All cuticular pigments spring from the metabolism of tyrosine, thus confirming the term ''melanic'' hitherto applied to them without direct proof. Tryptophane, exceptionally integrated in the cuticle, is the substratum of the ommochromic red and black pigments in the hypodermis. Inorganic sulphur plays no regular specific role in the formation of cuticular pigments, contrary to what has been suggested by various hypotheses on the role of the sulpbydryl group. From the standpoint of comparative biochemistry, the melanins appear to be purely cuticular among insects, granular melanins being confined to the vertebrates. Dark hypodermic granules in insects are ommochromic, derived from tryptophane, and not melanic. (author)

  10. Pigmentation in vitamin B12 deficiency masquerading Addison′s pigmentation: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Kumar Agrawala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-female presented with generalized weakness, weight loss, and progressive pigmentation was worked up for suspicion of Addisons disease. On examination hyper pigmentation was noted on both palmar and dorsal aspect of hands involving knuckles, creases, feet, tongue, oral mucosa and gluteal region. There was no evidence of hypocortisolemia as initially suspected, and literature search revealed a possibility of vitamin B12 deficiency. She had megaloblastic anemia with a low serum vitamin B12, mostly due to poor dietary intake. Her hyper pigmentation resolved with vitamin B12 supplementation. Skin biopsy showed increased pigmentation at stratum spinosum and basal-layer. The mechanism of hyper pigmentation in vitamin B12 deficiency was due to an increase in melanin synthesis.

  11. SK&F 97426-A: a novel bile acid sequestrant with higher affinities and slower dissociation rates for bile acids in vitro than cholestyramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, G M; Alston, D R; Hickey, D M; Jaxa-Chamiec, A A; Whittaker, C M; Haynes, C; Glen, A; Blanchard, S; Cresswell, S R; Suckling, K E

    1997-01-01

    SK&F 97426-A is a novel bile acid sequestrant that is threefold more potent than cholestyramine at increasing bile acid excretion in the hamster. SK&F 97426-A is a quaternary alkylammonium polymethacrylate that was selected for comparison with cholestyramine in vivo because of its superior in vitro bile acid binding properties. Association, dissociation, affinity, and capacity experiments were performed under physiologically relevant conditions with the most abundant bile acids found in human bile. The bile acids came to equilibrium with SK&F 97426-A and cholestyramine within approximately 30 min and 6 min, respectively. SK&F 97426-A and cholestyramine had similar capacities for all the bile acids (between 2.5 and 4 mmol/g) and both had similar, very high affinities and slow dissociation rates for the dihydroxy bile acids. However, SK&F 97426-A had much higher affinities for the trihydroxy bile acids glycocholic acid and taurocholic acid than did cholestyramine. Dissociation of glycocholic acid and taurocholic acid from SK&F 97426-A was also much slower (27 and 25%, respectively, dissociated after 60 min) than from cholestyramine (89 and 84%, respectively, dissociated after 60 min). The higher affinities and slower dissociation rates of the trihydroxy bile acids for and from SK&F 97426-A probably account for the increased potency of SK&F 97426-A over cholestyramine in vivo.

  12. In Vitro Binding Capacity of Bile Acids by Defatted Corn Protein Hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Claver Irakoze

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Defatted corn protein was digested using five different proteases, Alcalase, Trypsin, Neutrase, Protamex and Flavourzyme, in order to produce bile acid binding peptides. Bile acid binding capacity was analyzed in vitro using peptides from different proteases of defatted corn hydrolysate. Some crystalline bile acids like sodium glycocholate, sodium cholate and sodium deoxycholate were individually tested using HPLC to see which enzymes can release more peptides with high bile acid binding capacity. Peptides from Flavourzyme defatted corn hydrolysate exhibited significantly (p

  13. In Vitro Binding Capacity of Bile Acids by Defatted Corn Protein Hydrolysate

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Claver Irakoze; Jauricque Ursulla Kongo-Dia-Moukala; Hui Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Defatted corn protein was digested using five different proteases, Alcalase, Trypsin, Neutrase, Protamex and Flavourzyme, in order to produce bile acid binding peptides. Bile acid binding capacity was analyzed in vitro using peptides from different proteases of defatted corn hydrolysate. Some crystalline bile acids like sodium glycocholate, sodium cholate and sodium deoxycholate were individually tested using HPLC to see which enzymes can release more peptides with high bile acid binding capa...

  14. Recent insights into the function and regulation of the bile salt export pump (ABCB11)

    OpenAIRE

    Stieger, B

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Generation of bile is an important function of the liver. Its impairment can be caused by inherited mutations or by acquired factors and leads to cholestasis. Bile salts are an important constituent of bile and are secreted by the bile salt export pump (BSEP) from hepatocytes. RECENT FINDINGS: Significant progress was made in the understanding of mechanisms and consequences of malfunctioning BSEP. This information was gained from extensive characterization of patients with ...

  15. Prevention of Endotoxaemia in Obstructive Jaundice — a Comparative Study of Bile Salts

    OpenAIRE

    Pain, J A; Bailey, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    Systemic endotoxaemia is associated with postoperative renal dysfunction in obstructive jaundice, and can be prevented by the pre-operative administration of certain bile salts. In order to find the most effective bile salt for use in this condition, a comparison of the anti-endotoxic activities of different bile salts was performed. Bile salts were incubated in vitro with endotoxin and the resultant endotoxin level was measured with a quantitative limulus assay. The in vivo effec...

  16. Skin Pigmentation Kinetics after Exposure to Ultraviolet A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbak, M.H.; Philipsen, P.A.; Wiegell, S.R.;

    2009-01-01

    Multiple exposures to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are the norm in nature and phototherapy. However, studies of the kinetics of pigmentation following UVA exposure have included only fair-skinned persons. The aim of this study was to investigate steady-state pigmentation and fading in 12......-fold, respectively. The absolute increase in pigmentation was independent of pre-exposure pigmentation; therefore the percentage increase in pigmentation was higher in fair-skinned subjects. The absolute increase in pigmentation was higher and it took 2-3 days longer to reach steady-state after 12 UV exposures...... compared with 6 UV exposures. Days to steady-state pigmentation and fading were independent of pre-exposure pigmentation, and fading took 5-6 months. Comparing data from a narrowband UVB source and a Solar Simulator, it was shown that pigmentation built up faster and increased more after 12 UVA exposures...

  17. Bile Acids Trigger GLP-1 Release Predominantly by Accessing Basolaterally Located G Protein-Coupled Bile Acid Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighton, Cheryl A; Rievaj, Juraj; Kuhre, Rune E; Glass, Leslie L; Schoonjans, Kristina; Holst, Jens J; Gribble, Fiona M; Reimann, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Bile acids are well-recognized stimuli of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. This action has been attributed to activation of the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor GPBAR1 (TGR5), although other potential bile acid sensors include the nuclear farnesoid receptor and the apical sodium-coupled bile acid transporter ASBT. The aim of this study was to identify pathways important for GLP-1 release and to determine whether bile acids target their receptors on GLP-1-secreting L-cells from the apical or basolateral compartment. Using transgenic mice expressing fluorescent sensors specifically in L-cells, we observed that taurodeoxycholate (TDCA) and taurolithocholate (TLCA) increased intracellular cAMP and Ca(2+). In primary intestinal cultures, TDCA was a more potent GLP-1 secretagogue than taurocholate (TCA) and TLCA, correlating with a stronger Ca(2+) response to TDCA. Using small-volume Ussing chambers optimized for measuring GLP-1 secretion, we found that both a GPBAR1 agonist and TDCA stimulated GLP-1 release better when applied from the basolateral than from the luminal direction and that luminal TDCA was ineffective when intestinal tissue was pretreated with an ASBT inhibitor. ASBT inhibition had no significant effect in nonpolarized primary cultures. Studies in the perfused rat gut confirmed that vascularly administered TDCA was more effective than luminal TDCA. Intestinal primary cultures and Ussing chamber-mounted tissues from GPBAR1-knockout mice did not secrete GLP-1 in response to either TLCA or TDCA. We conclude that the action of bile acids on GLP-1 secretion is predominantly mediated by GPBAR1 located on the basolateral L-cell membrane, suggesting that stimulation of gut hormone secretion may include postabsorptive mechanisms. PMID:26280129

  18. Bile Acids Trigger GLP-1 Release Predominantly by Accessing Basolaterally Located G Protein–Coupled Bile Acid Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighton, Cheryl A.; Rievaj, Juraj; Kuhre, Rune E.; Glass, Leslie L.; Schoonjans, Kristina; Holst, Jens J.

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are well-recognized stimuli of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. This action has been attributed to activation of the G protein–coupled bile acid receptor GPBAR1 (TGR5), although other potential bile acid sensors include the nuclear farnesoid receptor and the apical sodium-coupled bile acid transporter ASBT. The aim of this study was to identify pathways important for GLP-1 release and to determine whether bile acids target their receptors on GLP-1–secreting L-cells from the apical or basolateral compartment. Using transgenic mice expressing fluorescent sensors specifically in L-cells, we observed that taurodeoxycholate (TDCA) and taurolithocholate (TLCA) increased intracellular cAMP and Ca2+. In primary intestinal cultures, TDCA was a more potent GLP-1 secretagogue than taurocholate (TCA) and TLCA, correlating with a stronger Ca2+ response to TDCA. Using small-volume Ussing chambers optimized for measuring GLP-1 secretion, we found that both a GPBAR1 agonist and TDCA stimulated GLP-1 release better when applied from the basolateral than from the luminal direction and that luminal TDCA was ineffective when intestinal tissue was pretreated with an ASBT inhibitor. ASBT inhibition had no significant effect in nonpolarized primary cultures. Studies in the perfused rat gut confirmed that vascularly administered TDCA was more effective than luminal TDCA. Intestinal primary cultures and Ussing chamber–mounted tissues from GPBAR1-knockout mice did not secrete GLP-1 in response to either TLCA or TDCA. We conclude that the action of bile acids on GLP-1 secretion is predominantly mediated by GPBAR1 located on the basolateral L-cell membrane, suggesting that stimulation of gut hormone secretion may include postabsorptive mechanisms. PMID:26280129

  19. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zargar, Shabnam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn and discuss the importance of an accurate diagnosis for prevention of amblyopia.Methods: We describe a case of an abnormal red reflex seen on a newborn exam.Results: A full-term female born via normal spontaneous vaginal delivery without any complications was seen in the newborn nursery. She was noted to have an abnormal eye exam. Pupils were large with circular dark excrescences of the iris pigment epithelium. She was referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist where she was noted to fixate and follow faces. No afferent pupillary defect was seen. OD red reflex was normal whereas OS red reflex was blocked mostly by dark excrescences. A 2– dark brown lesion was seen in the OD iris and a 3–5 mm dark brown lesion was seen in the OS iris, consistent with a pupillary iris pigment epithelial cyst. Central visual axis was clear OU. Glaucoma was not present and patching was not performed. Observations and clinical photographs were recommended with follow-up in three months.Conclusion: Iris pigment epithelial cysts are uncommonly seen in children. The primary care provider first seeing a newborn must be aware of lesions obscuring a red reflex with appropriate follow-up. Follow-up in three months with IOP measurements is recommended. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in children may be a cause of amblyopia, thus prompt evaluation is important for prognostic purposes and the prevention of amblyopia.

  20. Pigmented eccrine poroma: dermoscopic and confocal features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombonato, Caterina; Piana, Simonetta; Moscarella, Elvira; Lallas, Aimillios; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina

    2016-07-01

    Eccrine poroma is a rare benign adnexal tumor of epithelial cells originating from the terminal ductal portion of the sweat glands that is typically located on palms and soles, although other cutaneous sites can be affected [1]. It is usually nonpigmented even if there is a pigmented variant that corresponds to 17% of cases and it is usually underdiagnosed, since it is mistakenly confused with other pigmented tumors [2,3]. Dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) may assist in the correct diagnosis of this tumor. Herein, we report one case of pigmented eccrine poroma (PEP) that simulated clinically a cutaneous melanoma or a basal cell carcinoma. Dermoscopy and RCM excluded the possibilities of those two diagnoses; the overall confocal findings were suggestive for a benign epithelial tumor. Histology was fundamental to diagnose this lesion as a pigmented eccrine poroma. Even if the diagnosis of eccrine poroma remains histopathological still, as in this case report, noninvasive tools such as dermoscopy and RCM examinations can be of help to rule out the diagnosis of melanoma. Larger studies on this rare pigmented variant of eccrine poroma could shed new light on the identification of specific diagnostic dermoscopic and confocal features. PMID:27648386

  1. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Del Río, M.; Gutiérrez-León, A.; Castro, G. R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Solís, C.; Sánchez-Hernández, R.; Robles-Camacho, J.; Rojas-Gaytán, J.

    2008-01-01

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few μg of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as añil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue.

  2. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Gutierrez-Leon, A.; Castro, G.R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J. [Spanish CRG Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, SpLine, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Solis, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Sanchez-Hernandez, R. [INAH Subdireccion de Laboratorios y Apoyo Academico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Robles-Camacho, J. [INAH Centro Regional Michoacan, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Rojas-Gaytan, J. [INAH Direccion de Salvamento Arqueologico, Naucalpan de Juarez (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few {mu}g of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as anil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue. (orig.)

  3. Pigments in avocado tissue and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Ofelia B O; Wong, Marie; McGhie, Tony K; Vather, Rosheila; Wang, Yan; Requejo-Jackman, Cecilia; Ramankutty, Padmaja; Woolf, Allan B

    2006-12-27

    Pigments are important contributors to the appearance and healthful properties of both avocado fruits and the oils extracted from these fruits. This study determined carotenoid and chlorophyll pigment concentrations in the skin and three sections of the flesh (outer dark green, middle pale green, and inner yellow flesh-nearest the seed) and anthocyanin concentrations in the skin of Hass avocado during ripening at 20 degrees C. Pigments were extracted from frozen tissue with acetone and measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Pigments were also measured in the oil extracted from freeze-dried tissue sections by an accelerated solvent extraction system using hexane. Carotenoids and chlorophylls identified in the skin, flesh, and oil were lutein, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, chlorophylls a and b, and pheophytins a and b with the highest concentrations of all pigments in the skin. Chlorophyllides a and b were identified in the skin and flesh tissues only. As the fruit ripened and softened, the skin changed from green to purple/black, corresponding to changes in skin hue angle, and a concomitant increase in cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and the loss of chlorophyllide a. In flesh tissue, chroma and lightness values decreased with ripening, with no changes in hue angle. The levels of carotenoids and chlorophylls did not change significantly during ripening. As fruit ripened, the total chlorophyll level in the oil from the flesh sections remained constant but declined in the oil extracted from the skin.

  4. Improved annotation of conjugated bile acid hydrolase superfamily members in Gram-positive bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, J.M.; Siezen, R.J.; Vos, de W.M.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2008-01-01

    Most Gram-positive bacteria inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract are capable of hydrolysing bile salts. Bile salt hydrolysis is thought to play an important role in various biological processes in the host. Therefore, correct annotation of bacterial bile salt hydrolases (Bsh) in public databases (E

  5. Mutational Characterization of the Bile Acid Receptor TGR5 in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hov, Johannes R.; Keitel, Verena; Laerdahl, Jon K.; Spomer, Lina; Ellinghaus, Eva; ElSharawy, Abdou; Melum, Espen; Boberg, Kirsten M.; Manke, Thomas; Balschun, Tobias; Schramm, Christoph; Bergquist, Annika; Weismueller, Tobias; Gotthardt, Daniel; Rust, Christian; Henckaerts, Liesbet; Onnie, Clive M.; Weersma, Rinse K.; Sterneck, Martina; Teufel, Andreas; Runz, Heiko; Stiehl, Adolf; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Vatn, Morten H.; Stokkers, Pieter C. F.; Vermeire, Severine; Mathew, Christopher G.; Lie, Benedicte A.; Beuers, Ulrich; Manns, Michael P.; Schreiber, Stefan; Schrumpf, Erik; Haeussinger, Dieter; Franke, Andre; Karlsen, Tom H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: TGR5, the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1), has been linked to inflammatory pathways as well as bile homeostasis, and could therefore be involved in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) a chronic inflammatory bile duct disease. We aimed to extensively investigate TGR5 sequ

  6. Alteration of bile acid metabolism in the rat induced by chronic ethanol consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guoxiang; Zhong, Wei; Li, Houkai; Li, Qiong; Qiu, Yunping; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Chen, Huiyuan; Zhao, Xueqing; Zhang, Shucha; Zhou, Zhanxiang; Zeisel, Steven H.; Jia, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Our understanding of the bile acid metabolism is limited by the fact that previous analyses have primarily focused on a selected few circulating bile acids; the bile acid profiles of the liver and gastrointestinal tract pools are rarely investigated. Here, we determined how chronic ethanol consumption altered the bile acids in multiple body compartments (liver, gastrointestinal tract, and serum) of rats. Rats were fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet with 38% of calories as ethanol (the amount equivalent of 4–5 drinks in humans). While conjugated bile acids predominated in the liver (98.3%), duodenum (97.8%), and ileum (89.7%), unconjugated bile acids comprised the largest proportion of measured bile acids in serum (81.2%), the cecum (97.7%), and the rectum (97.5%). In particular, taurine-conjugated bile acids were significantly decreased in the liver and gastrointestinal tract of ethanol-treated rats, while unconjugated and glycine-conjugated species increased. Ethanol consumption caused increased expression of genes involved in bile acid biosynthesis, efflux transport, and reduced expression of genes regulating bile acid influx transport in the liver. These results provide an improved understanding of the systemic modulations of bile acid metabolism in mammals through the gut-liver axis.—Xie, G., Zhong, W., Li, H., Li, Q., Qiu, Y., Zheng, X., Chen, H., Zhao, X., Zhang, S., Zhou, Z., Zeisel, S. H., Jia, W. Alteration of bile acid metabolism in the rat induced by chronic ethanol consumption. PMID:23709616

  7. Cloning and regulation of Erwinia herbicola pigment genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, K L; Simonitch, T A; Harrison-Lavoie, K J; Liu, S T

    1986-01-01

    The genes coding for yellow pigment production in Erwinia herbicola Eho10 (ATCC 39368) were cloned and localized to a 12.4-kilobase (kb) chromosomal fragment. A 2.3-kb AvaI deletion in the cloned fragment resulted in the production of a pink-yellow pigment, a possible precursor of the yellow pigment. Production of yellow pigment in both E. herbicola Eho10 and pigmented Escherichia coli clones was inhibited by glucose. When the pigment genes were transformed into a cya (adenylate cyclase) E. c...

  8. PATOPHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISM OF PIGMENTED PURPURIC DERMATOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujanac Andreja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Patophysiological modeling of pigmented purpuric dermatoses based on venous hypertension. Capillaritis are considered to be patophysiological equivalent, or etiological basis of pigmented purpuric dermatoses. The exact mechanism has not been established and suggests the following: increased venous pressure, odontogenic processes, hypersensitivity to carbamezepine, meprobamate, furosemide, vitamin B1, contact dermatitis (khaki-colour dermatitis, capillary fragility and perforating vein incompetence. In this paper we presented a mechanism based on increased venous pressure. Methods: Graphic presentation of Crank, Krogh and Bessel equation. Results: In Schamberg’s disease relative and absolute hemoglobin concentrations are changed much more slowly than in Majocchi disease. Curves based on Bessel function provides better explanation for hemoglobin changes according to clinical presentation. Conclusion: This review study could be starting point for further investigation of pigmented purpuric dermatoses.

  9. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  10. Reversible Conjunctival Pigmentation Associated With Prostaglandin Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Daniel Y; Chang, Robert T; Yegnashankaran, Krishnan; Friedman, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    A 54-year-old Indian male with a diagnosis of ocular hypertension was started on a prostaglandin analog (PGA) in both eyes to lower intraocular pressure. Six years later, he developed progressively increasing bilateral limbal conjunctival hyperpigmentation. Travoprost was discontinued and replaced with brinzolamide and over the next year, the patient's conjunctival pigmentation improved significantly in both the eyes. This case report documents with slit-lamp photography the first case of conjunctival pigmentation associated with PGA use that has been shown to have reversal with discontinuation of the PGA. Because of the widespread use of PGAs, and the evolving nature of the conjunctival pigmentation, clinicians should be aware of this reversible condition when considering biopsy or removal of conjunctival melanocytic lesions. PMID:25967530

  11. Percutaneous lithotripsy for removing difficult bile duct stones using endoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, See Hyung; Sohn, Chul Ho; Kim, Young Hwan [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    To describe efficacy of percutaneous lithotripsy for removing difficult bile duct stones using endoscopy. A total of 88 patients with difficulties for the removal of bile duct stones using endoscopy (an impacted stone, stone size > 15 mm, intrahepatic duct (IHD) stone, stone size to bile duct diameter ratio > 1.0), were enrolled in this study. A 12 Fr sheath was inserted through the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tract, and then nitrol stone baskets and a 0.035' snare wire were used to capture, fragment and remove the stones. The technical and clinical success rates were analyzed, together with an analysis of any complications. The overall technical success rate of stone removal was achieved in 79 of 88 patients (89.8%). In five of nine patients with failed stone removal, small residual IHD stones were noted on a cholangiogram. Even if stone removal failed in these cases, cholangitic symptoms were improved and the drainage catheter was successfully removed. Therefore, clinical success was achieved in 84 of 88 patients (95.5%). There were no significant procedure-related complications, except for sepsis in one case. Billiary stone removal using the stone basket and guide-wire snare technique through the PTBD tract is a safe and effective procedure that can be used as a primary method in patients with difficulties for the removal of bile duct stones using endoscopy.

  12. Bile salt hydrolase of Bifidobacterium longum - Biochemical and genetic characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanaka, H; Hashiba, Honoo; Kok, Jan; Mierau, Igor

    2000-01-01

    A bile salt hydrolase (BSH) was isolated from Bifidobacterium longum SBT2928, purified, and characterized, Furthermore, we describe for the first time cloning and analysis of the gene encoding BSII (bsh) in a member of the genus Bifidobacterium. The enzyme has a native molecular weight of 125,000 to

  13. Effect of bile acid sequestrants on glycaemic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David Peick; Mikkelsen, Kristian Hallundbæk;

    2012-01-01

    In addition to the lipid-lowering effect of bile acid sequestrants (BASs), they also lower blood glucose and, therefore, could be beneficial in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Three oral BASs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: congenital bile acid synthesis defect type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 88(4):1833-41. Citation on PubMed Clayton PT. Disorders of bile acid synthesis. J Inherit Metab ... 13. Review. Citation on PubMed Subramaniam P, Clayton PT, Portmann BC, Mieli-Vergani G, Hadzić N. Variable ...

  15. Bile acid and immunosuppressive therapy in primary biliary cirrhosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H.J. Wolfhagen (Franciscus)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPrimary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic, cholestatic liver disease characterized by non-suppurative destruction of interlobular and septal bile ducts, with subsequent liver damage and eventually development of cirrhosis. The disease is relatively rare with an estimated annual incide

  16. Bile acid malabsorption in patients with chronic diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, S; Nørby Rasmussen, S; Lysgård Madsen, Jan;

    2003-01-01

    Bile acid malabsorption (BAM), a cause of chronic diarrhoea, can be diagnosed by the SeHCAT test. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of SeHCAT testing by assessing the extent of BAM and describing the clinical characteristics in a group of patients with chronic diarrhoea...

  17. Clinical application of transcriptional activators of bile salt transporters ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Baghdasaryan, Anna; Chiba, Peter; Trauner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Hepatobiliary bile salt (BS) transporters are critical determinants of BS homeostasis controlling intracellular concentrations of BSs and their enterohepatic circulation. Genetic or acquired dysfunction of specific transport systems causes intrahepatic and systemic retention of potentially cytotoxic BSs, which, in high concentrations, may disturb integrity of cell membranes and subcellular organelles resulting in cell death, inflammation and fibrosis. Transcriptional regulation of canalicular...

  18. Ventajas y desventajas del bilingüismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ardila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las personas bilingües tienen que coordinar dos sistemas lingüísticos. Esto implica algunas ganancias, pero también un costo. Las ganancias del bilingüismo incluyen: un incremento de la flexibilidad mental; una superioridad en el desarrollo de aquellas funciones cognitivas relacionadas con la atención y la inhibición; el uso de una cantidad mayor de estrategias cognoscitivas en la solución de problemas; un aumento de la llamada conciencia metalingüística; y una habilidad mayor de comunicación. Entre los costos del bilingüismo se menciona: cierto retraso aparente en la adquisición del lenguaje; una interferencia entre ambos sistemas fonológicos, léxicos y gramaticales; y un posible decremento en el vocabulario en las dos lenguas. Se concluye que existe una gran variabilidad de experiencias lingüísticas en las personas bilingües y un gran número de variables afecta su ejecución en diferentes tareas intelectuales.

  19. Bile acid-induced necrosis in primary human hepatocytes and in patients with obstructive cholestasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolbright, Benjamin L.; Dorko, Kenneth [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Antoine, Daniel J.; Clarke, Joanna I. [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Gholami, Parviz [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Li, Feng [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Kumer, Sean C.; Schmitt, Timothy M.; Forster, Jameson [Department of Surgery, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Fan, Fang [Department of Pathology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Park, B. Kevin [MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Hagenbuch, Bruno [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Olyaee, Mojtaba [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Accumulation of bile acids is a major mediator of cholestatic liver injury. Recent studies indicate bile acid composition between humans and rodents is dramatically different, as humans have a higher percent of glycine conjugated bile acids and increased chenodeoxycholate content, which increases the hydrophobicity index of bile acids. This increase may lead to direct toxicity that kills hepatocytes, and promotes inflammation. To address this issue, this study assessed how pathophysiological concentrations of bile acids measured in cholestatic patients affected primary human hepatocytes. Individual bile acid levels were determined in serum and bile by UPLC/QTOFMS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis with, or without, concurrent increases in serum transaminases. Bile acid levels increased in serum of patients with liver injury, while biliary levels decreased, implicating infarction of the biliary tracts. To assess bile acid-induced toxicity in man, primary human hepatocytes were treated with relevant concentrations, derived from patient data, of the model bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC). Treatment with GCDC resulted in necrosis with no increase in apoptotic parameters. This was recapitulated by treatment with biliary bile acid concentrations, but not serum concentrations. Marked elevations in serum full-length cytokeratin-18, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and acetylated HMGB1 confirmed inflammatory necrosis in injured patients; only modest elevations in caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 were observed. These data suggest human hepatocytes are more resistant to human-relevant bile acids than rodent hepatocytes, and die through necrosis when exposed to bile acids. These mechanisms of cholestasis in humans are fundamentally different to mechanisms observed in rodent models. - Highlights: • Cholestatic liver injury is due to cytoplasmic bile acid accumulation in hepatocytes. • Primary human hepatocytes are resistant to BA-induced injury

  20. Bile acid-induced necrosis in primary human hepatocytes and in patients with obstructive cholestasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation of bile acids is a major mediator of cholestatic liver injury. Recent studies indicate bile acid composition between humans and rodents is dramatically different, as humans have a higher percent of glycine conjugated bile acids and increased chenodeoxycholate content, which increases the hydrophobicity index of bile acids. This increase may lead to direct toxicity that kills hepatocytes, and promotes inflammation. To address this issue, this study assessed how pathophysiological concentrations of bile acids measured in cholestatic patients affected primary human hepatocytes. Individual bile acid levels were determined in serum and bile by UPLC/QTOFMS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis with, or without, concurrent increases in serum transaminases. Bile acid levels increased in serum of patients with liver injury, while biliary levels decreased, implicating infarction of the biliary tracts. To assess bile acid-induced toxicity in man, primary human hepatocytes were treated with relevant concentrations, derived from patient data, of the model bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC). Treatment with GCDC resulted in necrosis with no increase in apoptotic parameters. This was recapitulated by treatment with biliary bile acid concentrations, but not serum concentrations. Marked elevations in serum full-length cytokeratin-18, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and acetylated HMGB1 confirmed inflammatory necrosis in injured patients; only modest elevations in caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 were observed. These data suggest human hepatocytes are more resistant to human-relevant bile acids than rodent hepatocytes, and die through necrosis when exposed to bile acids. These mechanisms of cholestasis in humans are fundamentally different to mechanisms observed in rodent models. - Highlights: • Cholestatic liver injury is due to cytoplasmic bile acid accumulation in hepatocytes. • Primary human hepatocytes are resistant to BA-induced injury

  1. A prospective study of faecal bile acids and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, A; Hill, M J; Thompson, M H; Owen, R W; Williams, R E; Meade, T W; Wilkes, H; Griffin, M

    2000-10-01

    A prospective study of 7079 people aged 45-74 recruited through general practices in South Wales, Herefordshire and Edinburgh, Scotland was undertaken to test the hypothesis that faecal bile acids are implicated in the causation of large bowel cancer. The population was recruited between 1974 and 1980 and the response rate for stool collection was 67%. Bile acid analyses were performed on those cases that presented by 1990. It was decided in advance to examine the hypothesis separately for left- and right-sided bowel cancer because of known epidemiological differences between the two sites and to exclude the cases presenting within 2 years of the stool sample from the analyses because the cancer could have been present at recruitment and might have possibly affected faecal bile acid concentrations. Each case (n = 51 left-sided and 8 right-sided) was matched with three controls by age (within 5 years), sex, place of residence and time of providing the stool sample (within 3 months). Statistical analyses using conditional logistic regression showed no significant differences between the left-sided cases and controls for any of the concentrations of individual bile acids, total bile acid concentrations, faecal neutral steroids, percentage bacterial conversion and the ratio of lithocholic acid to deoxycholic acid concentrations. There was a statistically significant (P = 0.021) association of the presence of chenodeoxycholic acid (5/8 samples) in the right-sided cases compared with the controls (3/23), odds ratio 6.26 (95% confidence interval 1.19, 32.84). A high proportion of primary bile acids has also been found in other studies of patients with a genetic predisposition to proximal bowel cancer, however this pattern may also occur in low risk groups, such as Indian vegetarians, suggesting that they may predispose to right-sided bowel cancer only in the presence of other, as yet unknown factors. If bile acids are involved in the causation of large bowel cancer, they

  2. SYNTHESIS OF PLASTIC PIGMENT WITH MULTIHOLLOW STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiqiangJin; QinghuaXu; ZonglinLiu

    2004-01-01

    The polymer particle possessing hollow structure are playing an increasingly important role in industry. The latex particle with hollow structure as plastic pigment has a low density, strong spreading capacity and good glossiness. So it has been utilized for the manufacture of LWC in paper-making. In this paper, we prepared a kind of novel plastic pigment by the soapless seeded emulsion polymerization, this product with polyacrylate as core and with polystyrene as shell (PA/PS) had hollow structure after dryness. The preparation, characterization and properties of the latex were studied in detail by chemistry analysis and apparatus analysis such as TEM,FTIR,DLS.

  3. SYNTHESIS OF PLASTIC PIGMENT WITH MULTIHOLLOW STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqiang Jin; Qinghua Xu; Zonglin Liu

    2004-01-01

    The polymer particle possessing hollow structure are playing an increasingly important role in industry.The latex particle with hollow structure as plastic pigment has a low density, strong spreading capacity and good glossiness. So it has been utilized for the manufacture of LWC in paper-making. In this paper,we prepared a kind of novel plastic pigment by the soapless seeded emulsion polymerization, this product with polyacrylate as core and with polystyrene as shell (PA/PS) had hollow structure after dryness. The preparation, characterization and properties of the latex were studied in detail by chemistry analysis and apparatus analysis such as TEM,FTIR,DLS.

  4. The Role of the Enterohepatic Circulation of Bile Salts and Nuclear Hormone Receptors in the Regulation of Cholesterol Homeostasis: Bile Salts as Ligands for Nuclear Hormone Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Redinger, Richard N.

    2003-01-01

    The coordinated effect of lipid activated nuclear hormone receptors; liver X receptor (LXR), bound by oxysterol ligands and farnesoid X receptor (FXR), bound by bile acid ligands, act as genetic transcription factors to cause feed-forward cholesterol catabolism to bile acids and feedback repression of bile acid synthesis, respectively. It is the coordinated action of LXR and FXR, each dimerized to retinoid X receptor, that signal nuclear DNA response elements to encode proteins that prevent e...

  5. Current perspective in the treatment of bile duct injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jos and eacute; Granados-Romero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered the gold standard for the treatment of benign gallbladder disease, which is associated with an increased incidence of biliary injuries. These types of injuries are multicausal, and anatomical variations or anatomical perception errors are the most common risk factors. The objective of this study is to describe the evolution in the management of bile duct injuries and actual, diagnostic tools, incidence, prognosis and treatment. A literature research about diagnosis and treatment of iatrogenic bile duct injuries as well as their impact on the incidence of morbidity and mortality, based on a 30-year period, was performed on Medline, Cochrane, Embase, MedScape and PubMed database, for all studies that met the eligibility criteria. A thorough quality assessment of all included studies was performed. Synthesis of the results was achieved by narrative review. The bile duct injury is a complication that requires a complex therapy and multidisciplinary management. Reconstruction and treatment techniques have been evolving. The selection of adequate treatment will impact on the patient and acute;s quality of life. The results of the existing studies reporting on iatrogenic bile duct injuries are useful; because the iatrogenic bile duct injuries are complex alterations and constitute one of the most serious complications of a cholecystectomy and require a comprehensive approach, immediate repair, proper drainage and timely referral to adequate treatment to improve long-term prognosis. According to the literature review, currently there better treatments such as absorbable prosthesis, which improve the prognosis and patient and acute;s quality of life, and represent less risk of complications in short/long term. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(3.000: 677-684

  6. A PrfA-regulated bile exclusion system (BilE) is a novel virulence factor in Listeria monocytogenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleator, R.D.; Wemekamp-Kamphuis, H.H.; Gahan, C.G.M.; Abee, T.; Hill, C.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to colonize the gall bladder has recently been shown to be an important feature of virulent Listeria monocytogenes (J. Hardy, K. P. Francis, M. DeBoer, P. Chu, K. Gibbs, C. H. Contag. Science 303: 851853, 2004). We suggest that the cytotoxic effects of bile may be increased upon release

  7. Bile acid derivatives as ligands of the farnesoid x receptor: molecular determinants for bile acid binding and receptor modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioiello, Antimo; Cerra, Bruno; Mostarda, Serena; Guercini, Chiara; Pellicciari, Roberto; Macchiarulo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are a peculiar class of steroidal compounds that never cease to amaze. From being simple detergents with a primary role in aiding the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins, bile acids are now widely considered as crucial hormones endowed with genomic and non-genomic functions that are mediated by their interaction with several proteins including the nuclear receptor Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR). Taking advantages of the peculiar properties of bile acids in interacting with the FXR receptor, several biliary derivatives have been synthesized and tested as FXR ligands. The availability of these compounds has contributed to characterize the receptor from a structural, patho-physiological and therapeutic standpoint. Among these, obeticholic acid is a first-in-class FXR agonist that is demonstrating hepatoprotective effects upon FXR activation in patients with liver diseases such as primary biliary cirrhosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. This review provides an historical overview of the rationale behind the discovery of obeticholic acid and chemical tools generated to depict the molecular features and bio-pharmacological relevance of the FXR receptor, as well as to summarize structure-activity relationships of bile acid-based FXR ligands so far reported. PMID:25388535

  8. Impact of Dry Solids and Bile Acid Concentrations on Bile Acid Binding Capacity of Extruded Oat Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extruded breakfast cereals (EBC), processed from two oat lines, N979-5-2-4 (N979) and ‘Jim’, with beta-glucan concentrations of 8.7 and 4.9%, respectively, were used to determine the impact of dry solids (DS) and bile acid (BA) concentrations on in vitro BA binding efficiency. A full fractional fact...

  9. Effect of Bile Salt Hydrolase Inhibitors on a Bile Salt Hydrolase from Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Lin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bile salt hydrolase (BSH, a widely distributed function of the gut microbiota, has a profound impact on host lipid metabolism and energy harvest. Recent studies suggest that BSH inhibitors are promising alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP for enhanced animal growth performance and food safety. Using a high-purity BSH from Lactobacillus salivarius strain, we have identified a panel of BSH inhibitors. However, it is still unknown if these inhibitors also effectively inhibit the function of the BSH enzymes from other bacterial species with different sequence and substrate spectrum. In this study, we performed bioinformatics analysis and determined the inhibitory effect of identified BSH inhibitors on a BSH from L. acidophilus. Although the L. acidophilus BSH is phylogenetically distant from the L. salivarius BSH, sequence analysis and structure modeling indicated the two BSH enzymes contain conserved, catalytically important amino residues and domain. His-tagged recombinant BSH from L. acidophilus was further purified and used to determine inhibitory effect of specific compounds. Previously identified BSH inhibitors also exhibited potent inhibitory effects on the L. acidophilus BSH. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the BSH from L. salivarius is an ideal candidate for screening BSH inhibitors, the promising alternatives to AGP for enhanced feed efficiency, growth performance and profitability of food animals.

  10. Separation of Chloroplast Pigments Using Reverse Phase Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, R. Neil

    1997-01-01

    Presents a protocol that uses reverse phase chromatography for the separation of chloroplast pigments. Provides a simple and relatively safe procedure for use in teaching laboratories. Discusses pigment extraction, chromatography, results, and advantages of the process. (JRH)

  11. Neoplasia versus hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen; Larsen, J.N.B.; Fledelius, Hans C.;

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography......ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography...

  12. Detection of markers of hepatitis viral infection in the tissue of bile duct carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hou-bao; QIAN Zhen-yu; WANG Bing-sheng; TONG Sai-xiong

    2008-01-01

    @@ Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an admitted oncogenic virus. Many epidemiological and molecular biological studies have demonstrated that chronic infection with HBV is a major risk factor associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic bile duct cancer.1-4 Compared with hepatocytes and intrahepatic bile duct epithelial cells,extrahepatic bile duct epithelial cells have autoploid in embryogenesis,continuity in anatomy and a similar internal environment.The question arises whether extrahepatic bile duct epithelial cells can receive HBV infection or not? The role of hepatitis viral infection in the pathogenesis of bile duct carcinoma has not yet been clarified.although a causative relationship between HBV or HCV infection and extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma has been reported in the literature.5,6 In this study,we focused on the evidence of hepatitis viral infection in tissue of bile duct carcinoma.

  13. Investigating bile salt aggregation using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila Verde, Ana; Frenkel, Daan

    2010-03-01

    Bile salts are necessary for fat digestion due to their unusual surfactant properties: they assemble into small, polydisperse micelles and easily form mixed micelles with poorly soluble amphiphiles. Understanding these properties requires molecular scale information about bile salt micelles, something challenging to obtain experimentally but amenable to computational modeling. To address this issue we build a coarse-grained model of bile salts. We investigate their aggregation behavior through molecular dynamics simulations in a grand-canonical parallel tempering scheme. We validate our model against available solubility and light scattering data. Our results indicate that at physiological bile salt and counter ion concentrations, bile salts pack in many different orientations in pure bile micelles, contrary to standard surfactants. This feature may be physiologically relevant, allowing bile salts to solubilize the heterogeneous blends of fats typical of digestion.

  14. Altered intestinal bile salt biotransformation in a cystic fibrosis (Cftr(-/-)) mouse model with hepato-biliary pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewes, Frank A. J. A.; van der Wulp, Mariette Y. M.; Beharry, Satti; Doktorova, Marcela; Havinga, Rick; Boverhof, Renze; Phillips, M. James; Durie, Peter R.; Verkade, Henkjan J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cftr(-/-tm1UC) mice develop progressive hepato-biliary pathology. We hypothesize that this liver pathology is related to alterations' in biliary bile hydrophobicity and bile salt metabolism in Cftr(-/-tm1Unc) mice. Methods: We determined bile production, biliary and fecal bile salt- and

  15. Separation of the Pigment of an Amaranth

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Federico Covas; Silvia Haydeé Pattacini; Gladis Ester Scoles

    2000-01-01

    It is known that current quality requirements require the utilization of natural colorants in the foods. The objective of the present work is to extract the pigment amaranthus from fresh leaves of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. cv Don Pedro to characterize it through spectroscopic techniques, to be used as natural colorants.

  16. The peripheral clock regulates human pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Jonathan A; Tobin, Desmond J; Haslam, Iain S; Farjo, Nilofer; Farjo, Bessam; Al-Nuaimi, Yusur; Grimaldi, Benedetto; Paus, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Although the regulation of pigmentation is well characterized, it remains unclear whether cell-autonomous controls regulate the cyclic on-off switching of pigmentation in the hair follicle (HF). As human HFs and epidermal melanocytes express clock genes and proteins, and given that core clock genes (PER1, BMAL1) modulate human HF cycling, we investigated whether peripheral clock activity influences human HF pigmentation. We found that silencing BMAL1 or PER1 in human HFs increased HF melanin content. Furthermore, tyrosinase expression and activity, as well as TYRP1 and TYRP2 mRNA levels, gp100 protein expression, melanocyte dendricity, and the number gp100+ HF melanocytes, were all significantly increased in BMAL1 and/or PER1-silenced HFs. BMAL1 or PER1 silencing also increased epidermal melanin content, gp100 protein expression, and tyrosinase activity in human skin. These effects reflect direct modulation of melanocytes, as BMAL1 and/or PER1 silencing in isolated melanocytes increased tyrosinase activity and TYRP1/2 expression. Mechanistically, BMAL1 knockdown reduces PER1 transcription, and PER1 silencing induces phosphorylation of the master regulator of melanogenesis, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, thus stimulating human melanogenesis and melanocyte activity in situ and in vitro. Therefore, the molecular clock operates as a cell-autonomous modulator of human pigmentation and may be targeted for future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25310406

  17. Water permeability of pigmented waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, P.A.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Erich, S.J.F.; Reuvers, N.J.W.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Coatings are used in a variety of applications. Last decades more and more coating systems are transforming from solvent to waterborne coating systems. In this study the influence of pigments on the water permeability of a waterborne coating system is studied, with special interest in the possible i

  18. Boldine enhances bile production in rats via osmotic and Farnesoid X receptor dependent mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cermanova, Jolana [Department of Pharmacology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Kadova, Zuzana [Department of Pharmacology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Deparment of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Zagorova, Marie [Department of Pharmacology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Hroch, Milos [Department of Pharmacology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Department of Medical Biochemistry, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Tomsik, Pavel [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Nachtigal, Petr; Kudlackova, Zdenka [Department of Biological and Medical Sciences, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Pavek, Petr; Dubecka, Michaela; Ceckova, Martina; Staud, Frantisek [Deparment of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Laho, Tomas [Department of Pharmacology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Micuda, Stanislav, E-mail: micuda@lfhk.cuni.cz [Department of Pharmacology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2015-05-15

    Boldine, the major alkaloid from the Chilean Boldo tree, is used in traditional medicine to support bile production, but evidence to support this function is controversial. We analyzed the choleretic potential of boldine, including its molecular background. The acute- and long-term effects of boldine were evaluated in rats either during intravenous infusion or after 28-day oral treatment. Infusion of boldine instantly increased the bile flow 1.4-fold in healthy rats as well as in animals with Mrp2 deficiency or ethinylestradiol induced cholestasis. This effect was not associated with a corresponding increase in bile acid or glutathione biliary excretion, indicating that the effect is not related to stimulation of either bile acid dependent or independent mechanisms of bile formation and points to the osmotic activity of boldine itself. We subsequently analyzed bile production under conditions of changing biliary excretion of boldine after bolus intravenous administration and found strong correlations between both parameters. HPLC analysis showed that bile concentrations of boldine above 10 μM were required for induction of choleresis. Importantly, long-term pretreatment, when the bile collection study was performed 24-h after the last administration of boldine, also accelerated bile formation despite undetectable levels of the compound in bile. The effect paralleled upregulation of the Bsep transporter and increased biliary clearance of its substrates, bile acids. We consequently confirmed the ability of boldine to stimulate the Bsep transcriptional regulator, FXR receptor. In conclusion, our study clarified the mechanisms and circumstances surrounding the choleretic activity of boldine. - Highlights: • Boldine may increase bile production by direct as well as indirect mechanisms. • Biliary concentrations of boldine above 10 μM directly stimulate bile production. • Long-term oral boldine administration increases bile acid (BA) biliary secretion. • Boldine

  19. Boldine enhances bile production in rats via osmotic and Farnesoid X receptor dependent mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldine, the major alkaloid from the Chilean Boldo tree, is used in traditional medicine to support bile production, but evidence to support this function is controversial. We analyzed the choleretic potential of boldine, including its molecular background. The acute- and long-term effects of boldine were evaluated in rats either during intravenous infusion or after 28-day oral treatment. Infusion of boldine instantly increased the bile flow 1.4-fold in healthy rats as well as in animals with Mrp2 deficiency or ethinylestradiol induced cholestasis. This effect was not associated with a corresponding increase in bile acid or glutathione biliary excretion, indicating that the effect is not related to stimulation of either bile acid dependent or independent mechanisms of bile formation and points to the osmotic activity of boldine itself. We subsequently analyzed bile production under conditions of changing biliary excretion of boldine after bolus intravenous administration and found strong correlations between both parameters. HPLC analysis showed that bile concentrations of boldine above 10 μM were required for induction of choleresis. Importantly, long-term pretreatment, when the bile collection study was performed 24-h after the last administration of boldine, also accelerated bile formation despite undetectable levels of the compound in bile. The effect paralleled upregulation of the Bsep transporter and increased biliary clearance of its substrates, bile acids. We consequently confirmed the ability of boldine to stimulate the Bsep transcriptional regulator, FXR receptor. In conclusion, our study clarified the mechanisms and circumstances surrounding the choleretic activity of boldine. - Highlights: • Boldine may increase bile production by direct as well as indirect mechanisms. • Biliary concentrations of boldine above 10 μM directly stimulate bile production. • Long-term oral boldine administration increases bile acid (BA) biliary secretion. • Boldine

  20. Mucin and phospholipids determine viscosity of gallbladder bile in-patients with gallstones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dieter Jungst; Anna Niemeyer; Iris Muller; Benedikta Zundt; Gunther Meyer; Martin Wilhelmi; Reginald del Pozo

    2001-01-01

    AIM An increased viscosity of gallbladder bile has been considered an important factor in the pathogenesis of gallstone disease. Besides lipids and proteins, mucin has been suggested to affect the viscosity of bile. To further clarify these issues we compared mucin, protein and the lipid components of hepatic and gallbladder bile and its viscosity in patients with gallstones.METHODS Viscosity of bile ( mpa. s ) wasmeasured using rotation viscosimetry in regard to the non-Newtonian property of bile at law shear rates.RESULTS Biliary viscosity was markedly higher in gallbladder bile of patients with cholesterol (5.00 ± 0.60 mpa. s, mean ± SEM, n --28) and mixed stones (3.50±0.68 mPa. s; n =8) compared to hepatic bile (0.92 ± 0.06 mpa. s,n -6). A positive correlation between mucin and viscosity was found in gallbladder biles (r=0.65; P<0.001) but not in hepatic biles. The addition of physiologic and supraphysiologic amounts of mucin to gallbladder bile resulted in a dose dependent non linear increase of its viscosity. A positive correlation was determined between phospholipid concentration and viscosity (r = 0.34, P<0.005) in gallbladder biles. However, no correlation was found between total protein or the other lipid concentrations and viscosity in both gallbladder and hepatic biles.CONCLUSION The viscosity of gallbladder bile is markedly higher than that of hepatic bile in patients with gallstones. The concentration of mucin is the major determinant of biliary viscosity and may contribute by this mechanism to the role of mucin in the pathogenesis of gallstones.

  1. ENZYMIC ACTIVITIES OF PIGMENTED AND NON- PIGMENTED STRAINS OF TRICHOPHYTON VIOLACEUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zaini M.Zarchi

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of pigmented T.Violaceum from a patient with endothrix infection associated with the inflammatory and kerion symptoms and also isolation of the non- pigmented strain from another patient with non-inflammatory symptoms, led us to investigate the enzymic activities in both strains. Most of the studies on dermatophyte compoxition have shown the relationship between proteolytic enzymes and their pathogenisity. Both strains showed high enzymic activity for phosphatase acid, naphtha-AS-Bl phosphohydropase, N-acetil-β galactosidase, α- manosidase, α- phocosidase, the pigmented strain lacked all of those enzymic activities and showed activity for α- glucosidase. Besides all enzymic activities of phosphatase alkaline, esterase (C4, Estrase lipase (C8, leucin arylamidase, valine arylamidase, β glucosidas were higher than the activities in pigmented strain. None of the strains showed lipase (C14, β glucoronidase and urease activities.

  2. ENZYMIC ACTIVITIES OF PIGMENTED AND NON- PIGMENTED STRAINS OF TRICHOPHYTON VIOLACEUM

    OpenAIRE

    F. Zaini M.Zarchi

    1988-01-01

    Isolation of pigmented T.Violaceum from a patient with endothrix infection associated with the inflammatory and kerion symptoms and also isolation of the non- pigmented strain from another patient with non-inflammatory symptoms, led us to investigate the enzymic activities in both strains. Most of the studies on dermatophyte compoxition have shown the relationship between proteolytic enzymes and their pathogenisity. Both strains showed high enzymic activity for phosphatase acid, naphtha-AS-Bl...

  3. Dimerization of visual pigments in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Cao, Li-Hui; Kumar, Sandeep; Enemchukwu, Nduka O; Zhang, Ning; Lambert, Alyssia; Zhao, Xuchen; Jones, Alex; Wang, Shixian; Dennis, Emily M; Fnu, Amrita; Ham, Sam; Rainier, Jon; Yau, King-Wai; Fu, Yingbin

    2016-08-01

    It is a deeply engrained notion that the visual pigment rhodopsin signals light as a monomer, even though many G protein-coupled receptors are now known to exist and function as dimers. Nonetheless, recent studies (albeit all in vitro) have suggested that rhodopsin and its chromophore-free apoprotein, R-opsin, may indeed exist as a homodimer in rod disk membranes. Given the overwhelmingly strong historical context, the crucial remaining question, therefore, is whether pigment dimerization truly exists naturally and what function this dimerization may serve. We addressed this question in vivo with a unique mouse line (S-opsin(+)Lrat(-/-)) expressing, transgenically, short-wavelength-sensitive cone opsin (S-opsin) in rods and also lacking chromophore to exploit the fact that cone opsins, but not R-opsin, require chromophore for proper folding and trafficking to the photoreceptor's outer segment. In R-opsin's absence, S-opsin in these transgenic rods without chromophore was mislocalized; in R-opsin's presence, however, S-opsin trafficked normally to the rod outer segment and produced functional S-pigment upon subsequent chromophore restoration. Introducing a competing R-opsin transmembrane helix H1 or helix H8 peptide, but not helix H4 or helix H5 peptide, into these transgenic rods caused mislocalization of R-opsin and S-opsin to the perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum. Importantly, a similar peptide-competition effect was observed even in WT rods. Our work provides convincing evidence for visual pigment dimerization in vivo under physiological conditions and for its role in pigment maturation and targeting. Our work raises new questions regarding a potential mechanistic role of dimerization in rhodopsin signaling. PMID:27462111

  4. Remote sensing of vertical phytoplankton pigment distributions in the Baltic: new mathematical expressions. Part 3: Nonphotosynthetic pigment absorption factor:

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Woźniak; Roman Majchrowski; Mirosława Ostrowska; Dariusz Ficek; Justyna Kunicka; Jerzy Dera

    2007-01-01

    This paper, part 3 of the description of vertical pigment distributions in the Baltic Sea, discusses the mathematical expression enabling the vertical distributions of the non-photosynthetic pigment absorption factor fa to be estimated. The factor fa is directly related to concentrations of the several groups of phytoplankton pigments and describes quantitatively the ratio of the light energy absorbed at given depths by photosynthetic pigments to the light energy absorbed by all the phytoplan...

  5. An in-vitro study to compare the force degradation of pigmented and non-pigmented elastomeric chains

    OpenAIRE

    Palathottungal Joseph Antony; Joby Paulose

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to compare the force delivery and force decay property of pigmented and non-pigmented elastomeric chains, widely used in orthodontic practice. Materials and Methods: Force delivered by the samples consisting of pigmented and non-pigmented elastomeric chains obtained from 3 manufacturers were tested at 3 time intervals (as received, after 24 hours and 21 days of stretching) to measure the force delivered by the test samples, as well as the force decay over...

  6. Bile Salt Export Pump is Dysregulated with Altered Farnesoid X Receptor Isoform Expression in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yuan; Song, Xiulong; Valanejad, Leila; Vasilenko, Alexander; More, Vijay; Qiu, Xi; Chen, Weikang; Lai, Yurong; Slitt, Angela; Stoner, Matthew; Yan, Bingfang; Deng, Ruitang

    2013-01-01

    As a canalicular bile acid effluxer, bile salt export pump (BSEP) plays a vital role in maintaining bile acid homeostasis. BSEP deficiency leads to severe cholestasis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in young children. Regardless of the etiology, chronic inflammation is the common pathological process for HCC development. Clinical studies showed that bile acid homeostasis is disrupted in HCC patients with elevated serum bile acid level as a proposed marker for HCC. However, the underlying m...

  7. DNA damage in isolated rat hepatocytes exposed to C.I. pigment orange 5 and C.I. pigment yellow 12 by the alkaline comet assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Wallin, Håkan; Grunnet, N;

    1998-01-01

    The induction of DNA damage by commonly used printing ink pigments, C.I. pigment orange 5 (C.I. 12075) and C.I. pigment yellow 12 (C.I. 21090), was investigated in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes with the comet assay. C.I. pigment yellow 12 is a 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine-based diarylide pigment......, and C.I. pigment orange 5 is a naphthol-azo pigment. The pigments are virtually insoluble in aqueous solutions, and they have not been tested extensively for toxicological effects. C.I. pigment orange 5 increased the levels of DNA damage at 5 microg/ml (P C.I. pigment yellow 12 at 20 microg......]quinoxaline. Our data indicate that both C.I. pigment orange 5 and C.I. pigment yellow 12 are genotoxic in hepatocytes with metabolizing capacities. However, further investigation of the metabolism and disposition are required for the evaluation of the safety of these pigments....

  8. Lower Rate of Major Bile Duct Injury and Increased Intraoperative Management of Common Bile Duct Stones after Implementation of Routine Intraoperative Cholangiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buddingh, K. Tim; Weersma, Rinse K.; Savenije, Rolf A. J.; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our university medical center is the only center in The Netherlands that has adopted a policy of routine intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) during cholecystectomy. This study aimed to describe the rate of bile duct injury (BDI) and management of common bile duct (CBD) stones before and

  9. Analysis of ileal sodium/bile acid cotransporter and related nuclear receptor genes in a family with multiple cases of idiopathic bile acid malabsorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marco Montagnani; Anna Abrahamsson; Cecilia G(a)lman; G(o)sta Eggertsen; Hanns-Ulrich Marschall; Elisa Ravaioli; Curt Einarsson; Paul A Dawson

    2006-01-01

    The etiology of most cases of idiopathic bile acid malabsorption (TBAM) is unknown. Tn this study, a Swedish family with bile acid malabsorption in three consecutive generations was screened for mutations in the ileal apical sodium-bile acid cotransporter gene (ASBT; gene symbol, SLC10A2) and in the genes for several of the nuclear receptors known to be important for ASBT expression: the farnesoid X receptor (FXR)and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα). The patients presented with a clinical history of idiopathic chronic watery diarrhea, which was responsive to cholestyramine treatment and consistent with IBAM. Bile acid absorption was determined using 75Se-homocholic acid taurine(SeHCAT); bile acid synthesis was estimated by measuring the plasma levels of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4). The ASBT,FXR, and PPARα genes in the affected and unaffected family members were analyzed using single stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP), denaturing HPLC,and direct sequencing. No ASBT mutations were identified and the ASBT gene did not segregate with the bile acid malabsorption phenotype. Similarly, no mutations or polymorphisms were identified in the FXR or PPARα genes associated with the bile acid malabsorption phenotype. These studies indicate that the intestinal bile acid malabsorption in these patients cannot be attributed to defects in ASBT. In the absence of apparent ileal disease, alternative explanations such as accelerated transit through the small intestine may be responsible for the IBAM.

  10. Bile layering: a cause for false-positive cholescintiscans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, B.K.; Lieberman, L.M.

    1980-06-01

    A number of /sup 99m/Tc-labeled pharmaceuticals have been introduced recently for evaluation and diagnosis of hepatobiliary disease. Pyridoxylidene glutamate (PG) and iminodiacetic acid derivatives have evolved as the most useful agents due to excellent biliary excretion with rapid visualization of the gallbladder and the biliary ducts. These radiopharmaceuticals offer substantial advantages over /sup 131/I-rose bengal. In our experience of over 80 patients evaluated for various hepatobiliary disorders with /sup 99m/Tc PG or paraisopropyl acetanilidoiminodiacetic acid (PIPIDA), two patients had early cholescintigrams suggestive of intraluminal defects. These were not confirmed on delayed imaging. The cholescintigrams in these two patients were similar and suggested bile layering. Although demonstration of this phenomenon by oral cholecystography and intravenous cholangiography has been reported, we found no description of bile layering with radiopharmaceuticals.

  11. Primary sclerosing cholangitis – The arteriosclerosis of the bile duct?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trauner Michael

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown aetiology affecting the large bile ducts and characterized by periductal fibrosis and stricture formation, which ultimately result in biliary cirrhosis and liver failure. Arteriosclerosis involves the accumulation of altered lipids and lipoproteins in large arteries; this drives inflammation and fibrosis and ultimately leads to narrowing of the arteries and hypoperfusion of dependent organs and tissues. Knowledge of the causative factors is crucial to the understanding of disease mechanisms and the development of specific treatment. Based on pathogenetic similarities between PSC and arteriosclerosis, we hypothesize that PSC represents "arteriosclerosis of the bile duct" initiated by toxic biliary lipids. This hypothesis is based on common molecular, cellular, and morphological features providing the conceptual framework for a deeper understanding of their pathogenesis. This hypothesis should stimulate translational research to facilitate the search for novel treatment strategies for both diseases.

  12. Role of bile acids in carcinogenesis of pancreatic cancer: An old topic with new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hui-Yi; Chen, Yang-Chao

    2016-09-01

    The role of bile acids in colorectal cancer has been well documented, but their role in pancreatic cancer remains unclear. In this review, we examined the risk factors of pancreatic cancer. We found that bile acids are associated with most of these factors. Alcohol intake, smoking, and a high-fat diet all lead to high secretion of bile acids, and bile acid metabolic dysfunction is a causal factor of gallstones. An increase in secretion of bile acids, in addition to a long common channel, may result in bile acid reflux into the pancreatic duct and to the epithelial cells or acinar cells, from which pancreatic adenocarcinoma is derived. The final pathophysiological process is pancreatitis, which promotes dedifferentiation of acinar cells into progenitor duct-like cells. Interestingly, bile acids act as regulatory molecules in metabolism, affecting adipose tissue distribution, insulin sensitivity and triglyceride metabolism. As a result, bile acids are associated with three risk factors of pancreatic cancer: obesity, diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia. In the second part of this review, we summarize several studies showing that bile acids act as cancer promoters in gastrointestinal cancer. However, more question are raised than have been solved, and further oncological and physiological experiments are needed to confirm the role of bile acids in pancreatic cancer carcinogenesis. PMID:27672269

  13. Specific Osmolyte Transporters Mediate Bile Tolerance in Listeria monocytogenes▿

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Debbie; Sleator, Roy D.; Casey, Pat G.; Hill, Colin; Gahan, Cormac G. M.

    2009-01-01

    The food-borne pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes has the potential to adapt to an array of suboptimal growth environments encountered within the host. The pathogen is relatively bile tolerant and has the capacity to survive and grow within both the small intestine and the gallbladder in murine models of oral infection. We have previously demonstrated a role for the principal carnitine transport system of L. monocytogenes (OpuC) in gastrointestinal survival of the pathogen (R. Sleato...

  14. Iatrogenic bile duct injuries from biliar y tract surger y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Umar Ali; Zhen-Hua Ma; Cheng-En Pan; Qing-Yong Ma

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Cholecystectomy is the most commonly performed procedure in general surgery. However, bile duct injury is a rare but still one of the most common complications. These injuries sometimes present variably after primary surgery. Timely detection and appropriate management decrease the morbidity and mortality of the operation. METHODS:Five cases of iatrogenic bile duct injury (IBDI) were managed at the Department of Surgery, First Afifliated Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University. All the cases who underwent both open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy had persistent injury to the biliary tract and were treated accordingly. RESULTS: Recovery of the patients was uneventful. All patients were followed-up at the surgical outpatient department for six months to three years. So far the patients have shown good recovery. CONCLUSIONS:In cases of IBDI it is necessary to perform the operation under the supervision of an experienced surgeon who is specialized in the repair of bile duct injuries, and it is also necessary to detect and treat the injury as soon as possible to obtain a satisfactory outcome.

  15. Bile acid receptors and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    With the high prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and otherfeatures of the metabolic syndrome in United States,nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has inevitablybecome a very prevalent chronic liver disease and isnow emerging as one of the leading indications for livertransplantation. Insulin resistance and derangementof lipid metabolism, accompanied by activation ofthe pro-inflammatory response and fibrogenesis, areessential pathways in the development of the moreclinically significant form of NAFLD, known as nonalcoholicsteatohepatitis (NASH). Recent advances inthe functional characterization of bile acid receptors,such as farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and transmembraneG protein-coupled receptor (TGR) 5, have providedfurther insight in the pathophysiology of NASH andhave led to the development of potential therapeutictargets for NAFLD and NASH. Beyond maintaining bileacid metabolism, FXR and TGR5 also regulate lipidmetabolism, maintain glucose homeostasis, increaseenergy expenditure, and ameliorate hepatic inflammation.These intriguing features have been exploitedto develop bile acid analogues to target pathways inNAFLD and NASH pathogenesis. This review providesa brief overview of the pathogenesis of NAFLD andNASH, and then delves into the biological functions ofbile acid receptors, particularly with respect to NASHpathogenesis, with a description of the associatedexperimental data, and, finally, we discuss the prospectsof bile acid analogues in the treatment of NAFLD andNASH.

  16. Nevus of ota with buccal mucosal pigmentation: a rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Shishir Ram; Subhas, Babu G; Rao, Kumuda Arvind; Castellino, Renita

    2011-01-01

    Nevus of Ota is a condition wherein the typical pattern of the bluish black pigmentation is noticed along with the cutaneous distribution of the trigeminal nerve. This condition is most prevalent in Japanese population but comparatively rare among Indians. We report a case of 23-year-old female presented with unilateral pigmented areas over the skin of forehead, malar area, ear and periorbital area. Blackish-blue pigmented areas were also noticed on the sclera. Brownish-black diffuse pigmented areas were also noticed on the buccal mucosa of the same side. The presence of pigmentation on the skin over pinna and oral pigmentation made our case a rare incidence. Oral pigmentations associated with nevus of Ota especially on the buccal mucosa have rarely been reported in the past.

  17. Nevus of Ota with buccal mucosal pigmentation: A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishir Ram Shetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nevus of Ota is a condition wherein the typical pattern of the bluish black pigmentation is noticed along with the cutaneous distribution of the trigeminal nerve. This condition is most prevalent in Japanese population but comparatively rare among Indians. We report a case of 23-year-old female presented with unilateral pigmented areas over the skin of forehead, malar area, ear and periorbital area. Blackish-blue pigmented areas were also noticed on the sclera. Brownish-black diffuse pigmented areas were also noticed on the buccal mucosa of the same side. The presence of pigmentation on the skin over pinna and oral pigmentation made our case a rare incidence. Oral pigmentations associated with nevus of Ota especially on the buccal mucosa have rarely been reported in the past.

  18. Comparative study on the incidence and outcomes of pigmented versus non pigmented keratomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Sengupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the incidence, outcomes and establish factors determining visual prognosis of keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi in comparison with nonpigmented fungi. Materials and Methods: All culture-proven cases of fungal keratitis from January 2006 to August 2008 were drawn from a computerized database and cases with adequate documentation were analyzed for predisposing factors, clinical characteristics, microbiology and treatment methods. Outcomes of keratitis due to pigmented and nonpigmented fungi were compared using t-test and χ2 test. Results: Of 373 cases of keratomycosis during the study period, pigmented fungi were etiological agents in 117 eyes (31.3% and nonpigmented fungi in 256 eyes (68.7%. Eyes with nonpigmented keratitis had significantly larger ulcers (14.96 mm 2 and poorer vision (1.42 logMAR at presentation compared to those with keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi (P=0.01. The characteristic macroscopic pigmentation was seen in only 14.5% in the pigmented keratitis group. Both groups responded favorably to medical therapy (78.1% vs. 69.1% with scar formation (P=0.32 and showed a significant improvement in mean visual acuity compared with that at presentation (P<0.01. Visual improvement in terms of line gainers and losers in the subgroup of eyes that experienced healing was also similar. Location of the ulcer was the only factor that had significant predictive value for visual outcome (P=0.021. Conclusion: Incidence of keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi may be increasing as compared to previous data. These eyes have similar response to medical therapy and similar visual outcome compared to nonpigmented keratitis. Central ulcers have a poor visual outcome.

  19. Potency of individual bile acids to regulate bile acid synthesis and transport genes in primary human hepatocyte cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Lu, Hong; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Lei, Xiaohong; Cui, Julia Yue; Ellis, Ewa; Strom, Stephen C; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-10-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are known to regulate their own homeostasis, but the potency of individual bile acids is not known. This study examined the effects of cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on expression of BA synthesis and transport genes in human primary hepatocyte cultures. Hepatocytes were treated with the individual BAs at 10, 30, and 100μM for 48 h, and RNA was extracted for real-time PCR analysis. For the classic pathway of BA synthesis, BAs except for UDCA markedly suppressed CYP7A1 (70-95%), the rate-limiting enzyme of bile acid synthesis, but only moderately (35%) down-regulated CYP8B1 at a high concentration of 100μM. BAs had minimal effects on mRNA of two enzymes of the alternative pathway of BA synthesis, namely CYP27A1 and CYP7B1. BAs increased the two major target genes of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), namely the small heterodimer partner (SHP) by fourfold, and markedly induced fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) over 100-fold. The BA uptake transporter Na(+)-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide was unaffected, whereas the efflux transporter bile salt export pump was increased 15-fold and OSTα/β were increased 10-100-fold by BAs. The expression of the organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3; sixfold), ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter G5 (ABCG5; sixfold), multidrug associated protein-2 (MRP2; twofold), and MRP3 (threefold) were also increased, albeit to lesser degrees. In general, CDCA was the most potent and effective BA in regulating these genes important for BA homeostasis, whereas DCA and CA were intermediate, LCA the least, and UDCA ineffective.

  20. Hormesis in Cholestatic Liver Disease; Preconditioning with Low Bile Acid Concentrations Protects against Bile Acid-Induced Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Verhaag, Esther M.; Manon Buist-Homan; Martijn Koehorst; Groen, Albert K; Han Moshage; Klaas Nico Faber

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cholestasis is characterized by accumulation of bile acids and inflammation, causing hepatocellular damage. Still, liver damage markers are highest in acute cholestasis and drop when this condition becomes chronic, indicating that hepatocytes adapt towards the hostile environment. This may be explained by a hormetic response in hepatocytes that limits cell death during cholestasis. Aim To investigate the mechanisms that underlie the hormetic response that protect hepatocytes agai...

  1. An in-vitro study to compare the force degradation of pigmented and non-pigmented elastomeric chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palathottungal Joseph Antony

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of the study was to compare the force delivery and force decay property of pigmented and non-pigmented elastomeric chains, widely used in orthodontic practice. Materials and Methods: Force delivered by the samples consisting of pigmented and non-pigmented elastomeric chains obtained from 3 manufacturers were tested at 3 time intervals (as received, after 24 hours and 21 days of stretching to measure the force delivered by the test samples, as well as the force decay over time. Results: The force delivered by the non-pigmented samples was significantly greater than the pigmented ones at all 3 time intervals irrespective of the brand. Force decay was more significant in case of pigmented samples. Force decay was greater noticed in first 24 hours of testing and a gradual decrease in force was observed from 24 hours to 21 days in all test samples irrespective of the brand or color. Conclusion: Non-pigmented elastomeric chains exhibited better force delivery and less force decay percentage when compared to pigmented chains. Though colored elastomeric chains are widely used in present day orthodontic practice to satisfy the younger age group patients, the study ascertains the prudential use of pigmented and non-pigmented chains for efficient and faster orthodontic treatment.

  2. Pigment Melanin: Pattern for Iris Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini, Mahdi S.; Araabi, Babak N; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2009-01-01

    Recognition of iris based on Visible Light (VL) imaging is a difficult problem because of the light reflection from the cornea. Nonetheless, pigment melanin provides a rich feature source in VL, unavailable in Near-Infrared (NIR) imaging. This is due to biological spectroscopy of eumelanin, a chemical not stimulated in NIR. In this case, a plausible solution to observe such patterns may be provided by an adaptive procedure using a variational technique on the image histogram. To describe the ...

  3. The analysis of pigments on rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A limestone slab of roof fall coated with a red pigment was recovered from a Rockshelter in the Napier Ranges of the Kimberley region, Western Australia. Next to the roof fall fragment in the same stratigraphic layer was a piece of ochre. Three questions were presented: (1) is the red substance an ochre? (2) is the piece of ochre identical to the red substance on the roof fall? and (3) are the layers of pigment on the top and bottom of the limestone slab the same? In addition, as an extension from these questions, a general method was developed for the in situ analysis of ochre pigments on substrates to determine likely compositions and ochre sources. The analysis of the red pigment presented an analytical problem because the substance was intimately associated with the rock slab and therefore the analysis had to be done in situ. Not only was the red layer thin, but on a micro level it was uneven. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) penetrated the red layer, simultaneously analysing this layer and the rock substrate to different degrees depending upon the thickness of the red layer. Determining if the substance was actually ochre involved a comparison of elemental analyses between the background (slab) and background with red coating. Coatings of other ochres with known elemental concentrations on the same limestone background gave a comparison of the effect of simultaneously analysing a thin layer and background with different compositions. Three graphical methods useful for insitu analysis are demeonstrated. The find dates (around 40,000 BP) add to a growing body of data in support of the widespread use of ochre accompanying the earliest documented use of widely separated and environmentally diverse regions of Australia by Aboriginal people

  4. Macular Pigment and Percentage of Body Fat.

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Nolan, Dr.; O'Donovan, O.; Kavanagh, Heather; BEATTY, S

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. To Investigate the relationship between percentage of body fat and macular pigment (MP) optical density. Methods. One hundred healthy subjects of ages between 22 and 60 years volunteered to participate in this study. MP optical density was measured psychophysically, serum lutein and zeaxanthin were quantified by HPLC, and dietary intake of lutein and zeaxanthin was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Body fat was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (D...

  5. Individual bile acids have differential effects on bile acid signaling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peizhen; Rockwell, Cheryl E; Cui, Julia Yue; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2015-02-15

    Bile acids (BAs) are known to regulate BA synthesis and transport by the farnesoid X receptor in the liver (FXR-SHP) and intestine (FXR-Fgf15). However, the relative importance of individual BAs in regulating these processes is not known. Therefore, mice were fed various doses of five individual BAs, including cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxoycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA), and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in their diets at various concentrations for one week to increase the concentration of one BA in the enterohepatic circulation. The mRNA of BA synthesis and transporting genes in liver and ileum were quantified. In the liver, the mRNA of SHP, which is the prototypical target gene of FXR, increased in mice fed all concentrations of BAs. In the ileum, the mRNA of the intestinal FXR target gene Fgf15 was increased at lower doses and to a higher extent by CA and DCA than by CDCA and LCA. Cyp7a1, the rate-limiting enzyme in BA synthesis, was decreased more by CA and DCA than CDCA and LCA. Cyp8b1, the enzyme that 12-hydroxylates BAs and is thus responsible for the synthesis of CA, was decreased much more by CA and DCA than CDCA and LCA. Surprisingly, neither a decrease in the conjugated BA uptake transporter (Ntcp) nor increase in BA efflux transporter (Bsep) was observed by FXR activation, but an increase in the cholesterol efflux transporter (Abcg5/Abcg8) was observed with FXR activation. Thus in conclusion, CA and DCA are more potent FXR activators than CDCA and LCA when fed to mice, and thus they are more effective in decreasing the expression of the rate limiting gene in BA synthesis Cyp7a1 and the 12-hydroxylation of BAs Cyp8b1, and are also more effective in increasing the expression of Abcg5/Abcg8, which is responsible for biliary cholesterol excretion. However, feeding BAs do not alter the mRNA or protein levels of Ntcp or Bsep, suggesting that the uptake or efflux of BAs is not regulated by FXR at physiological and

  6. Novel Approach to Bile Duct Damage in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: Participation of Cellular Senescence and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Sasaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC is characterized by antimitochondrial autoantibodies (AMAs in patients' sera and histologically by chronic nonsuppurative destructive cholangitis in small bile ducts, eventually followed by extensive bile duct loss and biliary cirrhosis. The autoimmune-mediated pathogenesis of bile duct lesions, including the significance of AMAs, triggers of the autoimmune process, and so on remain unclear. We have reported that cellular senescence in biliary epithelial cells (BECs may be involved in bile duct lesions and that autophagy may precede the process of biliary epithelial senescence in PBC. Interestingly, BECs in damaged bile ducts show characteristicsof cellular senescence and autophagy in PBC. A suspected causative factor of biliary epithelial senescence is oxidative stress. Furthermore, senescent BECs may modulate the microenvironment around bile ducts by expressing various chemokines and cytokines called senescence-associated secretory phenotypes and contribute to the pathogenesis in PBC.

  7. Solubilization and Interaction Studies of Bile Salts with Surfactants and Drugs: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Nisar Ahmad

    2016-05-01

    In this review, bile salt, bile salt-surfactant, and bile salt-drug interactions and their solubilization studies are mainly focused. Usefulness of bile salts in digestion, absorption, and excretion of various compounds and their rare properties in ordering the shape and size of the micelles owing to the presence of hydrophobic and hydrophilic faces are taken into consideration while compiling this review. Bile salts as potential bio-surfactants to solubilize drugs of interest are also highlighted. This review will give an insight into the selection of drugs in different applications as their properties get modified by interaction with bile salts, thus influencing their solution behavior which, in turn, modifies the phase-forming behavior, microemulsion, and clouding phenomenon, besides solubilization. Finally, their future perspectives are taken into consideration to assess their possible uses as bio-surfactants without side effects to human beings. PMID:26781714

  8. Blackberry pigment (whitlockite) gallstones in uremic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariati, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Black pigment gallstones represent nearly the 15% of all gallstones and are usually related with the typical "hyperbilirubinbilia" factors as hemolysis, ineffective erythropoiesis, pathologic enterohepatic cycling of unconjugated bilirubin, cirrhosis and with gallbladder mucosa (parietal) factors as adenomyomatosis. During a prospective study on 179 patients who underwent cholecystectomy for gallstone disease a 69-year-old female with predialysis chronic kidney disease was operated for symptomatic gallstone. The removed gallstones were black pigment gallstones, with an irregular (as small blackberry) surface. Analysis of the stones revealed a great amount of whitlockite (Ca Mg)3 (PO4)2. Recent studies on chronic renal failure patients found that chronic uremia is associated with an increased risk of gallstones formation (22%) as it seems in women affected by primary hyperparathyroidism (30%). The presence of calcium phosphate gallstones in these patients have been never described. In conclusion, further studies could be necessary to establish the role of chronic renal failure and of primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism in gallstones formation and, in particular, if dialysis and predialysis patients have an higher risk to develop cholesterol and black pigment gallstones in particular of the "blackberry" (whitlockite) subtype. PMID:22959097

  9. Optical tomography of pigmented human skin biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Iris; Fischer, Peter; Kaatz, Martin; Fischer, Tobias W.; Elsner, Peter; Dimitrov, Enrico; Reif, Annette; Konig, Karsten

    2004-07-01

    The novel femtosecond NIR (near infrared) laser based high resolution imaging system DermaInspect was used for non-invasive diagnostics of pigmented skin. The system provides fluorescence and SHG images of high spatial submicron resolution (3D) and 250 ps temporal resolution (4D) based on time resolved single photon counting (TCSPC). Pigmented tissue biopsies from patients with nevi and melanoma have been investigated using the tunable 80 MHz femtosecond laser MaiTai with laser wavelengths in the range of 750 - 850 nm. The autofluorescence patterns of different intratissue cell types and structures were determined. The non-linear induced autofluorescence originates from naturally endogenous fluorophores and protein structures like NAD(P)H, flavins, elastin, collagen, phorphyrins and melanin. In addition to autofluorescence, SHG (second harmonic generation) was used to detect dermal collagen structures. Interestingly, pigmented cells showed intense luminescence signals. Further characterization of tissue components was performed via 4D measurements of the fluorescence lifetime (x, y, z, τ). The novel multiphoton technique offers the possibility of a painless high resolution non invasive diagnostic method (optical biopsy), in particular for the early detection of skin cancer.

  10. Bile Acids Reduce Endocytosis of High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) in HepG2 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Röhrl; Karin Eigner; Stefanie Fruhwürth; Herbert Stangl

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) transports lipids to hepatic cells and the majority of HDL-associated cholesterol is destined for biliary excretion. Cholesterol is excreted into the bile directly or after conversion to bile acids, which are also present in the plasma as they are effectively reabsorbed through the enterohepatic cycle. Here, we provide evidence that bile acids affect HDL endocytosis. Using fluorescent and radiolabeled HDL, we show that HDL endocytosis was reduced in the presence...

  11. Bile acid promotes liver regeneration via farnesoid X receptor signaling pathways in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Long; Yang, Yu; Qu, Yikun; Yang, Ting; Wang, Kaifeng; Liu, Weixin; Xia, Weibin

    2015-06-01

    Bile acids, which are synthesized from cholesterol in the hepatocytes of the liver, are amphipathic molecules with a steroid backbone. Studies have shown that bile acid exhibits important effects on liver regeneration. However, the mechanism underlying these effects remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of bile acid and the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) on hepatic regeneration and lipid metabolism. Rats were fed with 0.2% bile acid or glucose for 7 days and then subjected to a 50 or 70% hepatectomy. Hepatic regeneration rate, serum and liver levels of bile acid, and expression of FXR and Caveolin‑1, were detected at 24, 48 or 72 h following hepatectomy. The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the liver was measured using immunohistochemistry at the end of the study. Hepatocytes isolated from rats were treated with bile acid, glucose, FXR agonist and FXR antagonist, separately or in combination. Lipid metabolism, the expression of members of the FXR signaling pathway and energy metabolism‑related factors were measured using ELISA kits or western blotting. Bile acid significantly increased the hepatic regeneration rate and the expression of FXR, Caveolin‑1 and PCNA. Levels of total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein were increased in bile acid‑ or FXR agonist‑treated hepatocytes in vitro. Levels of triglyceride, low density lipoprotein and free fatty acid were decreased. In addition, bile acid and FXR agonists increased the expression of bile salt export pump and small heterodimer partner, and downregulated the expression of apical sodium‑dependent bile acid transporter, Na+/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and cholesterol 7α‑hydroxylase. These results suggested that physiological concentrations of bile acid may promote liver regeneration via FXR signaling pathways, and may be associated with energy metabolism. PMID:25634785

  12. Obeticholic acid, a synthetic bile acid agonist of the farnesoid X receptor, attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Peggy P. Ho; Steinman, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids bind to the nuclear hormone receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR). This bile acid–FXR interaction regulates bile acid synthesis, transport, and cholesterol metabolism. Recently, drugs targeting FXR activation have been reported to treat both liver and intestinal inflammatory diseases in both animal models and human clinical trials. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and serves as an animal model for ...

  13. Metformin interferes with bile acid homeostasis through AMPK-FXR crosstalk

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, Fleur; Berthier, Alexandre; Bouchaert, Emmanuel; Gheeraert, Céline; Alexandre, Jeremy; Porez, Geoffrey; Prawitt, Janne; Dehondt, Hélène; Ploton, Maheul; Colin, Sophie; Lucas, Anthony; Patrice, Alexandre; Pattou, François; Diemer, Hélène; Dorsselaer, Alain Van

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is an important transcriptional regulator of bile acid, lipid, and glucose metabolism. FXR is highly expressed in the liver and intestine and controls the synthesis and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. However, little is known about FXR-associated proteins that contribute to metabolic regulation. Here, we performed a mass spectrometry–based search for FXR-interacting proteins in human hepatoma cells and identified AMPK as a cor...

  14. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct with gastric and duodenal fistulas

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Man Yong; Yu, Dong Wook; Hong, Seung Goun

    2014-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the bile duct is still rare and not yet understood despite of its increased incidence and similar clinicopathologic characteristics compared with IPMN of the pancreas. The fistula formation into other organs can occur in IPMN, especially the pancreatic type. To our knowledge, only two cases of IPMN of the bile duct with a choledochoduodenal fistula were reported and we have recently experienced a case of IPMN of the bile duct penetrating into ...

  15. A stated preference investigation into the Chinese demand for farmed vs. wild bear bile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Dutton

    Full Text Available Farming of animals and plants has recently been considered not merely as a more efficient and plentiful supply of their products but also as a means of protecting wild populations from that trade. Amongst these nascent farming products might be listed bear bile. Bear bile has been exploited by traditional Chinese medicinalists for millennia. Since the 1980s consumers have had the options of: illegal wild gall bladders, bile extracted from caged live bears or the acid synthesised chemically. Despite these alternatives bears continue to be harvested from the wild. In this paper we use stated preference techniques using a random sample of the Chinese population to estimate demand functions for wild bear bile with and without competition from farmed bear bile. We find a willingness to pay considerably more for wild bear bile than farmed. Wild bear bile has low own price elasticity and cross price elasticity with farmed bear bile. The ability of farmed bear bile to reduce demand for wild bear bile is at best limited and, at prevailing prices, may be close to zero or have the opposite effect. The demand functions estimated suggest that the own price elasticity of wild bear bile is lower when competing with farmed bear bile than when it is the only option available. This means that the incumbent product may actually sell more items at a higher price when competing than when alone in the market. This finding may be of broader interest to behavioural economists as we argue that one explanation may be that as product choice increases price has less impact on decision making. For the wildlife farming debate this indicates that at some prices the introduction of farmed competition might increase the demand for the wild product.

  16. The effect of Macrotyloma uniflorum seed on bile lithogenicity against diet induced cholelithiasis on mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papiya Bigoniya

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: M. uniflorum seed exerted antilithogenic influence by decreasing the cholesterol hyper-secretion into bile and increasing the bile acid output, thus decreasing the formation of LG bile in mice. The effect was maximum in the AE as it also reduced papillary proliferation of gallbladder and fatty degeneration of the liver. The potential antilithogenic effect of the AE of M. uniflorum may be due to antioxidant property of its rich total polyphenol and tannins content.

  17. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed to test this hypothesis by assessing bile acid and calcium concentrations in fecal samples from humans after intake of cheese and butter. Methods The study was a randomized, 2 × 6 weeks crossover, die...

  18. The Role of Bile Salt Export Pump Gene Repression in Drug-Induced Cholestatic Liver Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Garzel, Brandy; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shiew-Mei; Polli, James E.; Wang, Hongbing

    2014-01-01

    The bile salt export pump (BSEP, ABCB11) is predominantly responsible for the efflux of bile salts, and disruption of BSEP function is often associated with altered hepatic homeostasis of bile acids and cholestatic liver injury. Accumulating evidence suggests that many drugs can cause cholestasis through interaction with hepatic transporters. To date, a relatively strong association between drug-induced cholestasis and attenuated BSEP activity has been proposed. However, whether repression of...

  19. The Bile Salt Export Pump: Clinical and Experimental Aspects of Genetic and Acquired Cholestatic Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Ping; Soroka, Carol J.; Boyer, James L.

    2010-01-01

    The primary transporter responsible for bile salt secretion is the bile salt export pump (BSEP, ABCB11), a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily, which is located at the bile canalicular apical domain of hepatocytes. In humans, BSEP deficiency results in several different genetic forms of cholestasis, which include progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 (PFIC2), benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 (BRIC2), as well as other acquired forms of cholestasi...

  20. Differential proteomic analysis of outer membrane enriched extracts of Bacteroides fragilis grown under bile salts stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boente, Renata F; Pauer, Heidi; Silva, Deborah N S; Filho, Joaquim Santos; Sandim, Vanessa; Antunes, Luis Caetano M; Ferreira, Rosana Barreto Rocha; Zingali, Russolina B; Domingues, Regina M C P; Lobo, Leandro A

    2016-06-01

    Bacteroides fragilis is the most commonly isolated anaerobic bacteria from infectious processes. Several virulence traits contribute to the pathogenic nature of this bacterium, including the ability to tolerate the high concentrations of bile found in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The activity of bile salts is similar to detergents and may lead to membrane permeabilization and cell death. Modulation of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) is considered a crucial event to bile salts resistance. The primary objective of the current work was to identify B. fragilis proteins associated with the stress induced by high concentration of bile salts. The outer membrane of B. fragilis strain 638R was isolated after growth either in the presence of 2% conjugated bile salts or without bile salts. The membrane fractions were separated on SDS-PAGE and analyzed by ESI-Q/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 37 proteins were identified; among them nine were found to be expressed exclusively in the absence of bile salts whereas eight proteins were expressed only in the presence of bile salts. These proteins are related to cellular functions such as transport through membrane, nutrient uptake, and protein-protein interactions. This study demonstrates the alteration of OMPs composition in B. fragilis during bile salts stress resistance and adaptation to environmental changes. Proteomics of OMPs was also shown to be a useful approach in the identification of new targets for functional analyses. PMID:26948242

  1. THE CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF CRUDE BILE ON HUMAN PANCREATIC CANCER CELL LINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To identify effects of bile acids on pancreatic cancer, The ultrastructure and growth of PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cell lines in crude bile modified medium were studied. Methods The growth of PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cells in RPMI 1640 with or without 1%, 2% and 4% of the purified crude bile (containing total bile acids 10.17mmol/L) was assessed for 2, 4, 6, 8d by using MTT assay to determine inhibitory rate. The cell surface and intracellular ultrastructure of PANC-1 cells was investigated by SEM and TEM at 24h and 48h, respectively. Re sults The proliferation of both cell lines in bile treated medium were greatly retarded (P <0.001). The inhibitory rate of 1%, 2% and 4% bile on Panc-1 cells in 4d were 38%, 60% and 66%, respectively (P <0. 05), on MIA PaCa-2 cells at 4d were 28%, 39% and 52%, respectively (P <0. 05). The cells grown in bile for 48h lost their mi crovilli, their mitochondria and other organelles became vacuolated. Conclusion The bile acids in bile has cytotoxicity on PANC-1 and MIAPACA-2 cells, which may inhibit pancreatic cancer progress in patients clinically.

  2. Effects of bile acids on proliferation and ultrastructural alteration of pancreatic cancer cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Wu; Yi Lüi; Bo Wang; Chang Liu; Zuo-Ren Wang,

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Pancreatic cancer in the head is frequently accompanied by jaundice and high bile acid level in serum. This study focused on the direct effects of bile acids on proliferation and ultrastructural alteration of pancreatic cancer.METHODS: Pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1, MIA PaCa2 and PGHAM-1 were explored in this study. The cell lines were cultured in media supplemented with certain bile acids,CA, DCA, LCA, TCDC, TDCA and GCA. Their influence on cell growth was measured with MTT assay after 72 h of incubation. Cell cycles of PANC-1 cells in 40 μM of bile acids media were analyzed by flow cytometry. Ultrastructural alteration of PANC-1 cells induced by DCA was observed using scanning and transmission electron microscope (SEM and TEM).RESULTS: At various concentrations of bile acids and incubation time, no enhanced effects of bile acids on cell proliferation were observed. Significant inhibitory effects were obtained in almost all media with bile acids. DCA and CA increased the percentage of G0+G1 phase cells, while GCA and TDCA elevated the S phase cell number. After 48 h of incubation in DCA medium, PANC-1 cells showed some structural damages such as loss of their microvilli and vacuolization of organelles in cytoplasm.CONCLUSION: Bile acids can reduce proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells due to their direct cytotoxicity. This result implies that elevation of bile acids in jaundiced serum may inhibit pancreatic cancer progression.

  3. Imaging Findings of Intrahepatic Bile Duct Adenoma (Peribiliary Gland Hamartoma): a Case Report and Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, You Sung; Rha, Sung Eun; Oh, Soon Nam; Jung, Seung Eun; Shin, Yu Ri; Choi, Byung Gil; Byun, Jae Young; Jung, Eun Sun; Kim, Dong Goo [Catholic University of Korea, Seoul St.Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Intrahepatic bile duct adenoma is a rare benign epithelial hepatic tumor derived from bile duct cells. We report the imaging findings of a patient with bile duct adenoma, which appeared as a small heterogeneously enhancing mass with focal small cystic change on CT and MRI. Follow-up images at seven months showed a slight increase in tumor size, which could be partly explained by intratumoral hemorrhage on pathologic examination. Although rare, bile duct adenoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis of a small hypervascular tumor located in the periphery of liver. Focal cystic change and intratumoral hemorrhage may occur

  4. Changes of gastrointestinal myoelectric activity and bile acid pool size after cholecystectomy in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Mei Zhang; Lei Dong; Li-Na Liu; Bi-Xia Chang; Qian He; Qian Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the bile acid pool size after cholecystectomy whether or not correlated to the gastrointestinal migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) in guinea pigs.METHODS: Gallbladder motilities were assessed before cholecystectomy. Furthermore, we continuously monitored interdigestive gastrointestinal motilities using bipolar electrodes in conscious guinea pigs before and after surgery at 4 wk in standard diet group and high cholesterol diet (cholesterol gallstone) group. Total bile acid pool sizes were measured by isotope dilution method at meantime.RESULTS: After cholecystectomy, there were parallel falls in duration of phase Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and MMC cycle duration but increase in amplitude in the guinea pigs with normal gallbladder function, and in the guinea pigs with cholesterol stones. However, There were not significantly differences. On the other hand, the bile acid pool was definitely small in the GS guinea pigs compared to normal guinea pigs and became slightly smaller after cholecystectomy. Similarly, bile acid in gallbladder bile, fecal bile acid was slightly increased in GS guinea pigs after cholecystectomy, to the same degree as normal. These differences, however, were not significant.CONCLUSION: It is concluded that in the guinea pigs with normal gallbladder function, and in the guinea pigs with cholesterol stones: (1) Cholecystectomy produce a similar but less marked trend in bile acid pool; and (2) MMC are linked to enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, rather than surgery, which is consistent with changes of the bile acid pool size. As a result, gastrointestinal dyskinesia is not involved in occurrence of postcholecystectomy syndrome.

  5. Deconjugated Bile Salts Produced by Extracellular Bile-Salt Hydrolase-Like Activities from the Probiotic Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 Inhibit Giardia duodenalis In vitro Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Marie-Agnès; Sow, Cissé; Zirah, Séverine; Deregnaucourt, Christiane; Chaouch, Soraya; Queiroz, Rayner M. L.; Charneau, Sébastien; Allain, Thibault; Florent, Isabelle; Grellier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Giardiasis, currently considered a neglected disease, is caused by the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis and is widely spread in human as well as domestic and wild animals. The lack of appropriate medications and the spread of resistant parasite strains urgently call for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Host microbiota or certain probiotic strains have the capacity to provide some protection against giardiasis. By combining biological and biochemical approaches, we have been able to decipher a molecular mechanism used by the probiotic strain Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 to prevent Giardia growth in vitro. We provide evidence that the supernatant of this strain contains active principle(s) not directly toxic to Giardia but able to convert non-toxic components of bile into components highly toxic to Giardia. By using bile acid profiling, these components were identified as deconjugated bile-salts. A bacterial bile-salt-hydrolase of commercial origin was able to mimic the properties of the supernatant. Mass spectrometric analysis of the bacterial supernatant identified two of the three bile-salt-hydrolases encoded in the genome of this probiotic strain. These observations document a possible mechanism by which L. johnsonii La1, by secreting, or releasing BSH-like activity(ies) in the vicinity of replicating Giardia in an environment where bile is present and abundant, can fight this parasite. This discovery has both fundamental and applied outcomes to fight giardiasis, based on local delivery of deconjugated bile salts, enzyme deconjugation of bile components, or natural or recombinant probiotic strains that secrete or release such deconjugating activities in a compartment where both bile salts and Giardia are present. PMID:27729900

  6. Seasonal and interannual variations in pigments in the Adriatic Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mira Morović

    2002-09-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of pigments was studied from the CZCS satellite data and from in situ chlorophyll and transparency for the period 1979-1985. The three Adriatic sites, Northern, Middle, and Southern Adriatic are differently in oceanographic parameters. The differences between seasonal in situ chlorophyll and remotely sensed pigment concentrations (from CZCS satellite data) from the Adriatic are large in winter. Through the correlation analysis, pigments were compared to meteo-oceanographic and hydrological parameters from different Adriatic sites. The PCA (principal component analysis) was applied to the pigment data series and significant components were compared. Different correlations are obtained for warm and cold periods of the year pointing to seasonal differences in the underlying mechanism of pigment variability. The first PC is in more parameters seem to in field, than in the cold period. The pigments in the Adriatic are in good correlation to a number of hydrologic and meteo-oceanographic factors.

  7. Graph-based pigment network detection in skin images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, M.; Razmara, M.; Ester, M.; Lee, T. K.; Atkins, M. S.

    2010-03-01

    Detecting pigmented network is a crucial step for melanoma diagnosis. In this paper, we present a novel graphbased pigment network detection method that can find and visualize round structures belonging to the pigment network. After finding sharp changes of the luminance image by an edge detection function, the resulting binary image is converted to a graph, and then all cyclic sub-graphs are detected. Theses cycles represent meshes that belong to the pigment network. Then, we create a new graph of the cyclic structures based on their distance. According to the density ratio of the new graph of the pigment network, the image is classified as "Absent" or "Present". Being Present means that a pigment network is detected in the skin lesion. Using this approach, we achieved an accuracy of 92.6% on five hundred unseen images.

  8. Analytical Raman spectroscopic discrimination between yellow pigments of the Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M

    2011-10-01

    The Renaissance represented a major advance in painting techniques, subject matter, artistic style and the use of pigments and pigment mixtures. However, most pigments in general use were still mineral-based as most organic dyes were believed to be fugitive; the historical study of artists' palettes and recipes has assumed importance for the attribution of art works to the Renaissance period. Although the application of diagnostic elemental and molecular spectroscopic techniques play vital and complementary roles in the analysis of art works, elemental techniques alone cannot definitively provide the data needed for pigment identification. The advantages and limitations of Raman spectroscopy for the definitive diagnostic characterisation of yellow pigments that were in use during the Renaissance is demonstrated here in consideration of heavy metal oxides and sulphides; these data will be compared with those obtained from analyses of synthetic yellow pigments that were available during the eighteenth and nineteenth Centuries which could have been used in unrecorded restorations of Renaissance paintings.

  9. Characterization of Sorolla's gouache pigments by means of spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Clodoaldo; Juanes, David; Ferrazza, Livio; Carballo, Jorgelina

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the characterization of the Joaquín Sorolla's gouache sketches for the oil on canvas series "Vision of Spain" commissioned by A. M. Huntington to decorate the library of the Hispanic Society of America in New York. The analyses were focused on the identification of the elemental composition of the gouache pigments by means of portable EDXRF spectrometry in a non-destructive mode. Additionally, SEM-EDX and FTIR analyses of a selected set of micro-samples were carried out to identify completely the pigments, the paint technique and the binding media. The obtained results have confirmed the identification of lead and zinc white, vermillion, earth pigments, ochre, zinc yellow, chrome yellow, ultramarine, Prussian blue, chromium based and copper-arsenic based green pigments, bone black and carbon based black pigments, and the use of gum arabic as binding media in the gouache pigments.

  10. Mapping pigment distribution in mud samples through hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrübeoglu, Mehrube; Nicula, Cosmina; Trombley, Christopher; Smith, Shane W.; Smith, Dustin K.; Shanks, Elizabeth S.; Zimba, Paul V.

    2015-09-01

    Mud samples collected from bodies of water reveal information about the distribution of microorganisms in the local sediments. Hyperspectral imaging has been investigated as a technology to identify phototropic organisms living on sediments collected from the Texas Coastal Bend area based on their spectral pigment profiles and spatial arrangement. The top pigment profiles identified through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) have been correlated with spectral signatures extracted from the hyperspectral data of mud using fast Fourier transform (FFT). Spatial distributions have also been investigated using 2D hyperspectral image processing. 2D pigment distribution maps have been created based on the correlation with pigment profiles in the FFT domain. Among the tested pigments, the results show match among four out of five pigment distribution trends between HPLC and hyperspectral data analysis. Differences are attributed mainly to the difference between area and volume of scale between the HPLC analysis and area covered by hyperspectral imaging.

  11. Pigment and terracotta analyses of Hellenistic figurines in Crete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the analyses performed on blue, black, brown, orange, white and purple pigments decorating Hellenistic figurines, excavated in a rock-cut tomb in the archaeological zone of Chania, Crete, Greece, are presented. Different spectroscopic techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence identified the compounds present in the chromatic layers. X-ray diffraction analysis gave complementary information and further support to the spectral assignments. Optical microscopy revealed the nature and sequence of the pigmented layer on the terracotta. Several precious pigments, such as Egyptian blue for the bluish areas, Tyrian purple for the purple ones, and the rare huntite for the white-pigmented areas were identified among the studied pigmented areas. The pigment analysis provides information on the technical aspects related to terracotta manufacture and preservation, and promotes historical indications on cultural and commercial changes among the Mediterranean civilisations

  12. Telmisartan attenuates hepatic fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    En-tong YI; Rui-xia LIU; Yan WEN; Cheng-hong YIN

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the antifibrotic effect of telmisartan,an angiotensin Ⅱ receptor blocker,in bile duct-ligated rats.Methods: Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 3 groups: sham-operated rats,model rats underwent common bile duct ligation (BDL),and BDL rats treated with telmisartan (8 mg/kg,po,for 4 weeks).The animals were sacrificed on d 29,and liver histology was examined,the Knodell and Ishak scores were assigned,and the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 was evaluated with immunohistochemical staining.The mRNAs and proteins associated with liver fibrosis were evaluated using RTQ-PCR and Western blot,respectively.Results: The mean fibrosis score of BDL rats treated with telmisartan was significantly lower than that of the model rats (1.66±0.87 vs 2.13±0.35,P=0.015).However,there was no significant difference in inflammation between the two groups,both of which showed moderate inflammation.Histologically,treatment with telmisartan significantly ameliorated BDL-caused the hepatic fibrosis.Treatment with telmisartan significantly upregulated the mRNA levels of ACE2 and MAS,and decreased the mRNA levels of ACE,angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor (AT1-R),collagen type Ⅲ,and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1).Moreover,treatment with telmisartan significantly increased the expression levels of ACE2 and MAS proteins,and inhibited the expression levels of ACE and AT1-R protein.Conclusion: Telmisartan attenuates liver fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats via increasing ACE2 expression level.

  13. Repression of Salmonella enterica phoP expression by small molecules from physiological bile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, L Caetano M; Wang, Melody; Andersen, Sarah K; Ferreira, Rosana B R; Kappelhoff, Reinhild; Han, Jun; Borchers, Christoph H; Finlay, B Brett

    2012-05-01

    Infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in humans causes the life-threatening disease typhoid fever. In the laboratory, typhoid fever can be modeled through the inoculation of susceptible mice with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Using this murine model, we previously characterized the interactions between Salmonella Typhimurium and host cells in the gallbladder and showed that this pathogen can successfully invade gallbladder epithelial cells and proliferate. Additionally, we showed that Salmonella Typhimurium can use bile phospholipids to grow at high rates. These abilities are likely important for quick colonization of the gallbladder during typhoid fever and further pathogen dissemination through fecal shedding. To further characterize the interactions between Salmonella and the gallbladder environment, we compared the transcriptomes of Salmonella cultures grown in LB broth or physiological murine bile. Our data showed that many genes involved in bacterial central metabolism are affected by bile, with the citric acid cycle being repressed and alternative respiratory systems being activated. Additionally, our study revealed a new aspect of Salmonella interactions with bile through the identification of the global regulator phoP as a bile-responsive gene. Repression of phoP expression could also be achieved using physiological, but not commercial, bovine bile. The biological activity does not involve PhoPQ sensing of a bile component and is not caused by bile acids, the most abundant organic components of bile. Bioactivity-guided purification allowed the identification of a subset of small molecules from bile that can elicit full activity; however, a single compound with phoP inhibitory activity could not be isolated, suggesting that multiple molecules may act in synergy to achieve this effect. Due to the critical role of phoP in Salmonella virulence, further studies in this area will likely reveal aspects of the interaction between Salmonella

  14. Suppression of the HPA Axis During Cholestasis Can Be Attributed to Hypothalamic Bile Acid Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Matthew; Frampton, Gabriel; Quinn, Matthew; Divan, Ali; Grant, Stephanie; Patel, Nisha; Newell-Rogers, Karen; DeMorrow, Sharon

    2015-12-01

    Suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been shown to occur during cholestatic liver injury. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that in a model of cholestasis, serum bile acids gain entry into the brain via a leaky blood brain barrier and that hypothalamic bile acid content is increased. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine the effects of bile acid signaling on the HPA axis. The data presented show that HPA axis suppression during cholestatic liver injury, specifically circulating corticosterone levels and hypothalamic corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) expression, can be attenuated by administration of the bile acid sequestrant cholestyramine. Secondly, treatment of hypothalamic neurons with various bile acids suppressed CRH expression and secretion in vitro. However, in vivo HPA axis suppression was only evident after the central injection of the bile acids taurocholic acid or glycochenodeoxycholic acid but not the other bile acids studied. Furthermore, we demonstrate that taurocholic acid and glycochenodeoxycholic acid are exerting their effects on hypothalamic CRH expression after their uptake through the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter and subsequent activation of the glucocorticoid receptor. Taken together with previous studies, our data support the hypothesis that during cholestatic liver injury, bile acids gain entry into the brain, are transported into neurons through the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter and can activate the glucocorticoid receptor to suppress the HPA axis. These data also lend themselves to the broader hypothesis that bile acids may act as central modulators of hypothalamic peptides that may be altered during liver disease.

  15. Boldine enhances bile production in rats via osmotic and farnesoid X receptor dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermanova, Jolana; Kadova, Zuzana; Zagorova, Marie; Hroch, Milos; Tomsik, Pavel; Nachtigal, Petr; Kudlackova, Zdenka; Pavek, Petr; Dubecka, Michaela; Ceckova, Martina; Staud, Frantisek; Laho, Tomas; Micuda, Stanislav

    2015-05-15

    Boldine, the major alkaloid from the Chilean Boldo tree, is used in traditional medicine to support bile production, but evidence to support this function is controversial. We analyzed the choleretic potential of boldine, including its molecular background. The acute- and long-term effects of boldine were evaluated in rats either during intravenous infusion or after 28-day oral treatment. Infusion of boldine instantly increased the bile flow 1.4-fold in healthy rats as well as in animals with Mrp2 deficiency or ethinylestradiol induced cholestasis. This effect was not associated with a corresponding increase in bile acid or glutathione biliary excretion, indicating that the effect is not related to stimulation of either bile acid dependent or independent mechanisms of bile formation and points to the osmotic activity of boldine itself. We subsequently analyzed bile production under conditions of changing biliary excretion of boldine after bolus intravenous administration and found strong correlations between both parameters. HPLC analysis showed that bile concentrations of boldine above 10 μM were required for induction of choleresis. Importantly, long-term pretreatment, when the bile collection study was performed 24-h after the last administration of boldine, also accelerated bile formation despite undetectable levels of the compound in bile. The effect paralleled upregulation of the Bsep transporter and increased biliary clearance of its substrates, bile acids. We consequently confirmed the ability of boldine to stimulate the Bsep transcriptional regulator, FXR receptor. In conclusion, our study clarified the mechanisms and circumstances surrounding the choleretic activity of boldine. PMID:25771127

  16. Gut microbiota, cirrhosis and alcohol regulate bile acid metabolism in the gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridlon, Jason M.; Kang, Dae-Joong; Hylemon, Phillip B.; Bajaj, Jasmohan S

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of the complex role of the bile acid-gut microbiome axis in health and disease processes is evolving rapidly. Our focus revolves around the interaction of the gut microbiota with liver diseases, especially cirrhosis. The bile acid pool size has recently been shown to be a function of microbial metabolism of bile acid and regulation of the microbiota by bile acids is important in the development and progression of several liver diseases. Humans produce a large, conjugated hydrophilic bile acid pool, maintained through positive-feedback antagonism of FXR in intestine and liver. Microbes use bile acids, and via FXR signaling this results in a smaller, unconjugated hydrophobic bile acid pool. This equilibrium is critical to maintain health. The challenge is to examine the manifold functions of gut bile acids as modulators of antibiotic, probiotic and disease progression in cirrhosis, metabolic syndrome and alcohol use. Recent studies have shown potential mechanisms explaining how perturbations in the microbiome affect bile acid pool size and composition. With advancing liver disease and cirrhosis, there is dysbiosis in the fecal, ileal and colonic mucosa, in addition to a decrease in bile acid concentration in the intestine due to the liver problems. This results in a dramatic shift toward the Firmicutes, particularly Clostridium cluster XIVa and increasing production of deoxycholic acid (DCA). Alcohol intake speeds up these processes in the subjects with and without cirrhosis without significant FXR feedback. Taken together, these pathways can impact intestinal and systemic inflammation while worsening dysbiosis. The interaction between bile acids, alcohol, cirrhosis and dysbiosis is an important relationship that influences intestinal and systemic inflammation, which in turn determines progression of the overall disease process. These interactions and the impact of commonly used therapies for liver disease can provide insight into the pathogenesis

  17. Color stability of thermochromic pigment in maxillofacial silicone

    OpenAIRE

    Kantola, Rosita; Lassila, Lippo V. J.; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Valittu, Pekka K.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Maxillofacial silicone elastomer is usually colored intrinsically with color pigments to match skin colors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the color stability of a maxillofacial silicone elastomer, colored with a thermochromic, color changing pigment. MATERIALS AND METHODS Disc-shaped maxillofacial silicone specimens were prepared and divided into 3 groups: a conventionally colored control group, one group additionally colored with 0.2 wt% thermochromic pigment , and one...

  18. Light-induced vegetative anthocyanin pigmentation in Petunia

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, Nick W.; David H Lewis; Zhang, Huaibi; Irving, Louis J.; Jameson, Paula E; Davies, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    The Lc petunia system, which displays enhanced, light-induced vegetative pigmentation, was used to investigate how high light affects anthocyanin biosynthesis, and to assess the effects of anthocyanin pigmentation upon photosynthesis. Lc petunia plants displayed intense purple anthocyanin pigmentation throughout the leaves and stems when grown under high-light conditions, yet remain acyanic when grown under shade conditions. The coloured phenotypes matched with an accumulation of anthocyanins...

  19. Distribution of unique red feather pigments in parrots

    OpenAIRE

    McGraw, Kevin J.; Nogare, Mary C

    2005-01-01

    In many birds, red, orange and yellow feathers are coloured by carotenoid pigments, but parrots are an exception. For over a century, biochemists have known that parrots use an unusual set of pigments to produce their rainbow of plumage colours, but their biochemical identity has remained elusive until recently. Here, we use high-performance liquid chromatography to survey the pigments present in the red feathers of 44 species of parrots representing each of the three psittaciform families. W...

  20. Unusual nail pigmentation following cyclophosphamide-containing chemotherapy regimen

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Santosh; Dixit Rakesh; Karmakar Saurabh; Paul Sayan

    2010-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide therapy may rarely cause pigmentation of the nails which is of different patterns. We report a patient who developed pigmentation of nails after six cycles of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-flourouracil chemotherapy, each repeated after 28 days for breast cancer. The patient developed nail pigmentation that started proximally and spread distally and involved all the nails of both hands and feet except the second and third toenails of right foot. Using Naranjo ADR Proba...

  1. Optimum bile acid treatment for rapid gall stone dissolution.

    OpenAIRE

    Jazrawi, R P; Pigozzi, M G; Galatola, G; Lanzini, A; Northfield, T. C.

    1992-01-01

    To determine the optimum bile acid regimen for rapid gall stone dissolution, 48 gall stone patients were divided into four groups of 12 according to stone diameter and were randomly allocated to receive one of four treatment regimens: bedtime or mealtime chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA, 12 mg/kg/day) and bedtime or mealtime ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, 12 mg/kg/day). An additional 10 patients treated with a combination of CDCA plus UDCA (each 6 mg/kg/day) at bedtime were matched with the 10 patien...

  2. Rare bile duct anomaly: B3 duct draining to gallbladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old girl presented with recurrent right upper abdominal pain and dyspepsia. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a dilated common channel of intrahepatic bile duct of segment 3 (B3 and segment 4 (B4 drained into the gallbladder directly. The patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and Roux-en Y hepaticojejunostomy (B3-jejunostomy. Among the anatomical variability of the biliary system, the cholecystohepatic ducts are controversial in existence and incidence. We report a very rare variant of a cholecystohepatic duct in which the B3 duct drained into gallbladder directly and to the best of our knowledge this is the first report.

  3. Treatment of bile duct carcinoma using photodynamic therapy (PDT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Biliary papillomatosis, is a rare, benign tumour characterised by extensive mucosal involvement of the bile duct with carcinoma in 30% of cases. Treatment has been largely limited to surgical resection and is often accompanied by tumour recurrence. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was used to treat a 64 year old man with mucous-secreting papillomatosis of the common bile hepatic duct which presented with obstructive jaundice and recurrent cholangitis. The successful use of PDT in treating a case of cholangiocarcinoma and the treatment of similar colonic villous tumours encourage the use of PDT in this patient. Porfimer Sodium (Photofrin), 2 mg/kg was given intravenously 64 hours prior to light exposure. A Spectra Physics argon-ion pumped dye laser was used to provide 50 mW of 630 nm wavelength light at a 3 cm long diffusing tip attached to a 3 m optical fibre. A power density of approximately 15 mW.cm-2 was provided at the tissue surface under illumination at a radial distance of approximately 1.8 mm from the diffusing tip. The dose was designed to give a necrosis depth of 3 mm. A transparent 3.6 mm outer diameter catheter was placed in the duct using fluoroscopy and the fibre and diffusing tip then manoeuvred into position. The transparent catheter was left in place during the treatment and forced a minimum inner diameter on the duct of 3.6 mm and also helped to centre the diffuser within the duct. Repeat endoscopy, 48 hours after treatment revealed little duct mucous; necrosed tissue was removed with a balloon catheter with significant increase in size of the duct lumen. Since then, the patient's bilirubin has remained normal. Repeat endoscopic cholangiography one month later has shown no diminution in the diameter of the bile duct. The use of Photodynamic Therapy in the biliary tree using endoscopic retrograde placement of light source is feasible and the results in this patient encourage a trial of its use in operable bile duct carcinoma

  4. Adenoma of the distal common bile duct -a case report-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, Young Soo; Lee, Hyun Gon; Han, Ho Seong; Ko, Gyung Hyuck; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Kim, Hyung Jin; Chung, Sung Hoon [College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-05-15

    On rare occasions, Obstructive Jaundice may be caused by a benign tumor of the biliary tract. We describe a patient in whom the diagnosis of an adenoma of the distal common bile duct (CBD) was established. The CT showed a soft tissue density mass in the distal CBD and diffuse dilatation of the intrahepatic duct, gall the bladder, and CBD. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopnacreatography showed an irregularly marginated polypoid mass in the distal CBD. The clinical, radiological, and histological features of this neoplasm are reviewed. The clinical, radiological and histological features of this neoplasm are reviewed.

  5. Oral melanoacanthoma: A rare case of diffuse oral pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Ashok Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical presentation of diffuse pigmentation can be alarming to the patient as well as the clinician. A histopathologic examination of a pigmented lesion is necessary in most of the cases in the oral cavity. Oral melanoacanthoma is a very rare diffuse pigmentation with no specific treatment required. It shows increased number of dendritic melanocytes in an acanthotic epithelium. We present a rare case of diffuse pigmentation in the oral cavity whose diagnosis was done on the basis of clinical presentation and histopathology. Also immunohistochemistry was done.

  6. Abnormal pigmentation within cutaneous scars: A complication of wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Chadwick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormally pigmented scars are an undesirable consequence of cutaneous wound healing and are a complication every single individual worldwide is at risk of. They present a challenge for clinicians, as there are currently no definitive treatment options available, and render scars much more noticeable making them highly distressing for patients. Despite extensive research into both wound healing and the pigment cell, there remains a scarcity of knowledge surrounding the repigmentation of cutaneous scars. Pigment production is complex and under the control of many extrinsic and intrinsic factors and patterns of scar repigmentation are unpredictable. This article gives an overview of human skin pigmentation, repigmentation following wounding and current treatment options.

  7. Pigments and oligomers for inks - moving towards the best combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formulation of UV curable printing inks depends on several complex factors. If the individual components of the ink are not complementary, then performance problems can arise. One critical combination is that between the pigment and the oligomer. In a new approach to improve understanding of pigment/oligomer interactions, the resources of a pigment manufacturer and an oligomer manufacturer have been combined to investigate the problem. Initial screening of process yellow pigments and several oligomer types highlighted performance variations which were then examined in more detail

  8. Pigment Ink Formulation for Inkjet Printing of Different Textile Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Marie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cotton, polyester, and cotton polyester blended woven fabrics were printed using an ink jet print using by means of a prepared pigment ink. Literature indicated that the development of insoluble pigment-based inks presents enormous challenges to the ink formulator. Meanwhile, pigments face several application problems in terms of their dispersion stability within the ink formulation, and consequently blocking the nozzles within the inkjet print head. Upon this, Two pigment colors : M.D. Blue 15:3 and Daicofast Yellow 1252 were successfully formulated and factors affecting the final color yield of inkjet printed fabrics such as, pigment concentration and other ink contents: dispersing agent, ethylene glycol and diammonium Phosphate concentrations, thermo-fixation time and temperature for the three printed substrates pretreated with binder were investigated in detail. The study was done on two route bases, first: the preparation of pigmented inks for inkjet printing and the application of the ink on the three substrates, in order to determine the optimum concentration of pigment ink contents. Second: increasing the wash and crocking fastness properties of the printed fabrics with pigment inks. In addition, the two pigment inks physical properties: density, viscosity and surface tension were measured as well as fastness levels of their prints.

  9. Dermatoscopic features of pigmented and non-pigmented basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiladze, N; Shulaia, T; Bulinska, A; Abrahamovych, L

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors, which accounts for about 75% of all skin cancers, its early diagnosis is crucial for proper treatment. In recent years, an increasingly important role in the early and differential diagnosis of skin tumors plays dermatoscopy, making possible to improve the diagnosis of pigmented and nonpigmented skin lesions, especially in the early stages of development. The aim of this work is to study the dermatoscopic criteria for pigmented and nonpigmented BCC using the algorithm of H. Kittler. Were studied 78 cases of different clinical types of BCC, diagnosis was based on clinical and dermatoscopic picture with further confirmation by cytology. The obtained data show that for pigmented BCC are characteristic five major signs of dermatoscopy - lines, dots, clods, circles and pseudopodia, whereas for non-pigmented form - pattern of blood vessels and, as an additional feature, structureless areas. Further studies are needed to evaluate specific dermoscopic hallmarks regarding different categories of BCC and sensitivity of these dermatoscopic features. PMID:25693214

  10. Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct in liver cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xu; Yasunori Sato; Kenichi Harada; Norihide Yoneda; Teruyuki Ueda; Atsushi Kawashima; Akishi Ooi; Yasuni Nakanuma

    2011-01-01

    A case of intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) arising in a patient with hepatitis B-related liver cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is reported.A 76-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with recurrent HCC.Laboratory data showed that levels of carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 were elevated.He died of progressive hepatic failure.At autopsy, in addition to HCCs, an intraductal papillary proliferation of malignant cholangiocytes with fibrovascular cores was found in the dilated large bile ducts in the left lobe, and this papillary carcinoma was associated with an invasive mucinous carcinoma (invasive IPNB).Interestingly, extensive intraductal spread of the cholangiocarcinoma was found from the reactive bile ductular level to the interlobular bile ducts and septal bile ducts and to the large bile ducts in the left lobe.Neural cell adhesion molecule, a hepatic progenitor cell marker, was detected in IPNB cells.It seems possible in this case that hepatic progenitor cells located in reactive bile ductules in liver cirrhosis may have been responsible for the development of the cholangiocarcinoma and HCC, and that the former could have spread in the intrahepatic bile ducts and eventually formed grossly visible IPNB.

  11. Fish oil increases bile acid synthesis in male patients with hypertriglyceridemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, IJAM; Smelt, AHM; Princen, HMG; Kuipers, F; Romijn, JA; Boverhof, R; Masclee, AAM; Stellaard, F

    2006-01-01

    Fibrates are drugs of choice in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG), but may increase the risk for gallstones by decreasing bile acid synthesis. Fish oil might be a therapeutic alternative, but its effect on bile acid metabolism in humans is unknown. We compared the effects of triglyceride-lowe

  12. Metabolic Effects of Bile Acids in the Gut in Health and Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesjes, Marije; Brufau Dones, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, it became clear that bile acids, in addition to their role in intestinal absorption of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins, are major regulators of metabolism. They activate signal transduction pathways through binding to the specific bile acid receptors TGR5 and FXR. Indirectly, bil

  13. A Multimodal Approach in Coil Embolization of a Bile Leak Following Cholecystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bile leak is a well-known complication of cholecystectomy. Endoscopic drainage and decompression of the biliary system including temporary insertion of a biliary stent is generally considered the treatment of choice. We report the successful obliteration of a bile leak using fibered platinum coils placed under fluoroscopic guidance after stent treatment had failed

  14. Purification and Characterization of Conjugated Bile Salt Hydrolase from Bifidobacterium longum BB536

    OpenAIRE

    Grill, J; Schneider, F.; Crociani, J.; Ballongue, J.

    1995-01-01

    Bifidobacterium species deconjugate taurocholic, taurodeoxycholic, taurochenodeoxycholic, glycocholic, glycodeoxycholic, and glycochenodeoxycholic acids. The enzyme level increases in the growth phase. No increase in activity is observed for the cytoplasmic enzyme after addition of conjugated bile acids to a stationary-phase culture. Conjugated bile salt hydrolase (BSH) was purified from Bifidobacterium longum BB536. Its apparent molecular mass in denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...

  15. Comparison of Bile Acids and Acetaminophen Protein Adducts in Children and Adolescents with Acetaminophen Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Laura; Yan, Ke; Pence, Lisa; Simpson, Pippa; Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Gill, Pritmohinder; Letzig, Lynda; Kearns, Gregory; Beger, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Metabolomics approaches have enabled the study of new mechanisms of liver injury in experimental models of drug toxicity. Disruption of bile acid homeostasis is a known mechanism of drug induced liver injury. The relationship of individual bile acids to indicators of oxidative drug metabolism (acetaminophen protein adducts) and liver injury was examined in children with acetaminophen overdose, hospitalized children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and children with no recent exposure to acetaminophen. Nine bile acids were quantified through targeted metabolomic analysis in the serum samples of the three groups. Bile acids were compared to serum levels of acetaminophen protein adducts and alanine aminotransferase. Glycodeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, and glycochenodeoxycholic acid were significantly increased in children with acetaminophen overdose compared to healthy controls. Among patients with acetaminophen overdose, bile acids were higher in subjects with acetaminophen protein adduct values > 1.0 nmol/mL and modest correlations were noted for three bile acids and acetaminophen protein adducts as follows: taurodeoxycholic acid (R=0.604; pacetaminophen than in healthy children with no recent acetaminophen exposure. Compared to bile acids, acetaminophen protein adducts more accurately discriminated among children with acetaminophen overdose, children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and healthy control subjects. In children with acetaminophen overdose, elevations of conjugated bile acids were associated with specific indicators of acetaminophen metabolism and non-specific indicators of liver injury.

  16. Bile acids modulate glucocorticoid metabolism and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in obstructive jaundice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNeilly, Alison D; Macfarlane, David P; O'Flaherty, Emmett;

    2010-01-01

    Suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis occurs in cirrhosis and cholestasis and is associated with increased concentrations of bile acids. We investigated whether this was mediated through bile acids acting to impair steroid clearance by inhibiting glucocorticoid metabolism by 5beta-reductase....

  17. Changing patterns of traumatic bile duct injuries: a review of forty years experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Qiang Huang; Xiao-Qiang Huang

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To summarize the experiences of treating bile ductinjuries in 40 years of clinical practice.METHODS: Based on the experience of more than 40 yearsof clinical work, 122 cases including a series of 61 bile ductinjuries of the Southwest Hospital, Chongqing, and 42cases (1989-1997) and 19 cases (1998-2001) of the GeneralHospital of PLA, Beijing, cases were reviewed with specialreference to the pattern of injury. A series of cases of theliver and the biliary tract injuries following interventionaltherapy for hepatic tumors, most often hemangioma of theliver, were collected. Chinese medical literature from 1995 to1999 dealing with 2742 traumatic bile duct strictures werereviewed.RESULTS: There was a changing pattern of the bile ductinjury. Although most of the cases of bile duct injuriesresulted from open cholecystectomy. Other types of traumasuch as laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and hepaticsurgery were increased in recent years. Moreover, serioushepato-biliary injuries following HAE using sclerotic agentssuch as sodium morrhuate and absolute ethanol for thetreatment of hepatic hemangiomas were encountered inrecent years. Experiences in how to avoid bile duct injuryand to treat traumatic biliary strictures were presented.CONCLUSION: Traumatic bile duct stricture is one of theserious complications of hepato-biliary surgery, itsprevalence seemed to be increased in recent years. Thepattern of bile duct injury was also changed and has becomemore complicated. Interventional therapy with sclerosingagents may cause serious hepatobiliary complications andshould be avoided.

  18. Review article: the function and regulation of proteins involved in bile salt biosynthesis and transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellicoro, Antonella; Faber, Klaas Nico

    2007-01-01

    Background Bile salts are produced and secreted by the liver and are required for intestinal absorption of fatty food components and excretion of endobiotics and xenobiotics. They are reabsorbed in the terminal ileum and transported back to the liver via the portal tract. Dedicated bile salt transpo

  19. REVERSIBILITY OF CHOLESTATIC CHANGES FOLLOWING EXPERIMENTAL COMMON BILE-DUCT OBSTRUCTION - FACT OR FANTASY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ARONSON, DC; CHAMULEAU, RAFM; FREDERIKS, WM; GOOSZEN, HG; HEIJMANS, HSA; JAMES, J

    1993-01-01

    In 36 male Wistar rats extrahepatic cholestasis was induced by ligation and transsection of the common bile duct. After 1, 2 and 3 weeks of cholestasis the bile flow was restored by means of a Roux-en-Y choledochojejunostomy. Plasma levels of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, GOT and clotting factor

  20. Zinc deficiency leads to lipofuscin accumulation in the retinal pigment epithelium of pigmented rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Julien

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is associated with lipofuscin accumulation whereas the content of melanosomes decreases. Melanosomes are the main storage of zinc in the pigmented tissues. Since the elderly population, as the most affected group for AMD, is prone to zinc deficit, we investigated the chemical and ultrastructural effects of zinc deficiency in pigmented rat eyes after a six-month zinc penury diet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult Long Evans (LE rats were investigated. The control animals were fed with a normal alimentation whereas the zinc-deficiency rats (ZD-LE were fed with a zinc deficient diet for six months. Quantitative Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX microanalysis yielded the zinc mole fractions of melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. The lateral resolution of the analysis was 100 nm. The zinc mole fractions of melanosomes were significantly smaller in the RPE of ZD-LE rats as compared to the LE control rats. Light, fluorescence and electron microscopy, as well as immunohistochemistry were performed. The numbers of lipofuscin granules in the RPE and of infiltrated cells (Ø>3 µm found in the choroid were quantified. The number of lipofuscin granules significantly increased in ZD-LE as compared to control rats. Infiltrated cells bigger than 3 µm were only detected in the choroid of ZD-LE animals. Moreover, the thickness of the Bruch's membrane of ZD-LE rats varied between 0.4-3 µm and thin, rangy ED1 positive macrophages were found attached at these sites of Bruch's membrane or even inside it. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In pigmented rats, zinc deficiency yielded an accumulation of lipofuscin in the RPE and of large pigmented macrophages in the choroids as well as the appearance of thin, rangy macrophages at Bruch's membrane. Moreover, we showed that a zinc diet reduced the zinc mole fraction of melanosomes in the RPE and modulated the thickness of the Bruch's membrane.

  1. Effects of Bile Acids and the Bile Acid Receptor FXR Agonist on the Respiratory Rhythm in the In Vitro Brainstem Medulla Slice of Neonatal Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cong Zhao; Xianbao Wang; Yuling Cong; Yi Deng; Yijun Xu; Aihua Chen; Yanru Yin

    2014-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is always accompanied by adverse fetal outcomes such as malfunctions of respiration. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays a critical role in the homeostasis of bile acids. Thus, we are determined to explore the effects of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and five bile acids on respiratory rhythm generation and modulation of neonatal rats. Spontaneous periodic respiratory-related rhythmical discharge activity (RRDA) was recorded from hypoglossal nerves during the pe...

  2. Histological Changes in the Bile Duct after Long-Term Placement of a Fully Covered Self-Expandable Metal Stent within a Common Bile Duct: A Canine Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang Soo; Song, Tae Jun; Joo, Mee; Park, Do Hyun; Seo, Dong Wan; Lee, Sung Koo; Kim, Myung-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims To date, it has been difficult to determine the optimal stenting duration of a fully covered self-expandable metal stent (FCSEMS) in a benign biliary stricture. The purpose of this study was to identify the histopathological changes in a bile duct resulting from long-term placement of a FCSEMS. Methods An FCSEMS was inserted into the common bile duct of 12 canines, and the animals were divided into four groups. Posteuthanasia, necropsy was performed to examine the histopatholo...

  3. Surgical versus endoscopic management of common bile duct stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B M; Kozarek, R A; Ryan, J A; Ball, T J; Traverso, L W

    1988-01-01

    The charts of all patients with common bile duct (CBD) stones admitted to Virginia Mason Medical Center between January 1, 1981 and July 31, 1986 were reviewed to define current methods of management and results of operative versus endoscopic therapy. Two hundred thirty-seven patients with CBD stones were treated. One hundred thirty patients had intact gallbladders. Of these patients, 76 (59%) underwent cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration (CBDE) while 54 (41%) underwent endoscopic papillotomy (EP) only. Of the 107 patients admitted with recurrent stones after cholecystectomy, all but five were treated with EP. The overall mortality rate was 3.0%. Complications, success, and death rates were all similar for CBDE and EP, but the complications of EP were often serious and directly related to the procedure (GI hemorrhage, 6; duodenal perforation, 5; biliary sepsis, 4; pancreatitis, 1). Patients undergoing EP required significantly shorter hospitalization than those undergoing CBDE. Multivariate analysis showed that age greater than 70 years, technical failure, and complications increased the risk of death, regardless of procedure performed. Twenty-one per cent of those undergoing EP with gallbladders intact eventually required cholecystectomy. The conclusion is that the results of EP and CBDE are similar, and the use of EP has not reduced the mortality rates of this disease. PMID:3341812

  4. Development of hepatorenal syndrome in bile duct ligated rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Regina M Pereira; Ana Cristina Sim(o)es e Silva; Robson AS dos Santos; Eduardo A Oliveira; Virg(i)nia HR Leite; Filipi LC Dias; Alysson S Rezende; Lincoln P Costa; Luciola S Barcelos; Mauro M Teixeira

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate in bile duct ligated rats whether there were progressive alterations of renal function without changes in histopathology.METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted to sham-surgery or bile duct ligation (BDL) and divided according to the post-procedure time (2, 4 and 6-wk).To determine renal function parameters, rats were placed in metabolic cages and, at the end of the experiment, blood and urine samples were obtained.Histology and hydroxyproline content were analyzed in liver and renal tissue.RESULTS: Rats with 2 wk of BDL increased free water clearance (P = 0.02), reduced urinary osmolality (P =0.03) and serum creatinine (P = 0.01) in comparison to the sham group. In contrast, rats at 6 wk of BDL showed features of HRS, including significant increase in serum creatinine and reductions in creatinine clearance,water excretion and urinary sodium concentration. Rats with 4 wk of BDL exhibited an intermediate stage of renal dysfunction. Progressive hepatic fibrosis according to post-procedure time was confirmed by histology.The increased levels of liver hydroxyproline contrasted with the absence of structural changes in the kidney, as assessed by histology and unchanged hydroxyproline content in renal tissue.CONCLUSION: Our data show that BDL produced progressive renal dysfunction without structural changes in the kidney, characterizing HRS. The present model will be useful to understand the pathophysiology of HRS.

  5. NMR characterization of a novel bile acid sequestrant, DMP 504.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerke, S A; Nemeth, G; Schubert, E; Hovsepian, P K

    2001-02-01

    DMP 504, a potential bile acid sequestrant for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, is a highly insoluble, cross-linked polymer which does not lend itself to ordinary means of characterization used for drug substances in the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, alternative characterization techniques have been sought. As part of an effort into extensive characterization of DMP 504 drug substance, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was employed to provide insight into details of the DMP 504 polymer structure. The primary motivation for determining the structure of the polymer chain is to relate the DMP 504 structure to its performance properties as a bile acid sequestrant. Characterization of the polymer chain and understanding of the structural basis of its properties is essential in optimizing and controlling the manufacture of reproducible drug substance. NMR has proven a versatile tool for the description of polymer structure and dynamics because of the wide range of nuclear interactions affecting the NMR signal. This allows the design of experiments to elicit information about specific polymer interactions or properties. The methods of sample preparation utilized to obtain NMR spectra of the insoluble polymer, as well as a discussion and comparison of results for the characterization of DMP 504 obtained using several different NMR techniques will be presented.

  6. Phytosterol ester constituents affect micellar cholesterol solubility in model bile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew W; Hang, Jiliang; Dussault, Patrick H; Carr, Timothy P

    2010-09-01

    Plant sterols and stanols (phytosterols) and their esters are nutraceuticals that lower LDL cholesterol, but the mechanisms of action are not fully understood. We hypothesized that intact esters and simulated hydrolysis products of esters (phytosterols and fatty acids in equal ratios) would differentially affect the solubility of cholesterol in model bile mixed micelles in vitro. Sodium salts of glycine- and taurine-conjugated bile acids were sonicated with phosphatidylcholine and either sterol esters or combinations of sterols and fatty acids to determine the amount of cholesterol solubilized into micelles. Intact sterol esters did not solubilize into micelles, nor did they alter cholesterol solubility. However, free sterols and fatty acids altered cholesterol solubility independently (no interaction effect). Equal contents of cholesterol and either campesterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol, or stigmastanol (sitostanol) decreased cholesterol solubility in micelles by approximately 50% compared to no phytosterol present, with stigmasterol performing slightly better than sitosterol. Phytosterols competed with cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner, demonstrating a 1:1 M substitution of phytosterol for cholesterol in micelle preparations. Unsaturated fatty acids increased the micelle solubility of sterols as compared with saturated or no fatty acids. No differences were detected in the size of the model micelles. Together, these data indicate that stigmasterol combined with saturated fatty acids may be more effective at lowering cholesterol micelle solubility in vivo.

  7. Bilingüismo: herramienta clave en el contexto universitario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Beatriz Araujo Quiroz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio constituye una reflexión crítica con enfoque sociocultural sobre la necesidad de repensar el bilingüismo en la educación superior. Su propósito principal se orienta hacia la comprensión de la educación actual como una práctica multilingüe o plurilingüe, en el marco de la sociedad del conocimiento. Se estructuró desde la Universidad Popular del Cesar como caso para el análisis y se desarrolló desde la metodología cualitativa de la investigación social para comprender la forma en que los actores interpretan y construyen sus propios significados y situaciones dentro y fuera del aula. Se abordan aspectos claves del bilingüismo y multilingüismo, tales como la acción sociopolítica y socioeconómica y las relaciones laborales y formativas de las diferentes profesiones. Como resultado se concluye que el uso funcional de las lenguas extranjeras implica negociación de sentidos desde la relación lengua, cultura y pensamiento.

  8. Liquid crystal based biosensors for bile acid detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Sihui; Liang, Wenlang; Tanner, Colleen; Fang, Jiyu; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2013-03-01

    The concentration level of bile acids is a useful indicator for early diagnosis of liver diseases. The prevalent measurement method in detecting bile acids is the chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, which is precise yet expensive. Here we present a biosensor platform based on liquid crystal (LC) films for the detection of cholic acid (CA). This platform has the advantage of low cost, label-free, solution phase detection and simple analysis. In this platform, LC film of 4-Cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) was hosted by a copper grid supported with a polyimide-coated glass substrate. By immersing into sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution, the LC film was coated with SDS which induced a homeotropic anchoring of 5CB. Addition of CA introduced competitive adsorption between CA and SDS at the interface, triggering a transition from homeotropic to homogeneous anchoring. The detection limit can be tuned by changing the pH value of the solution from 12uM to 170uM.

  9. Metformin protects rat hepatocytes against bile acid-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titia E Woudenberg-Vrenken

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metformin is used in the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus type II and improves liver function in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Metformin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, the cellular energy sensor that is sensitive to changes in the AMP/ATP-ratio. AMPK is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. Both AMPK and mTOR are able to modulate cell death. AIM: To evaluate the effects of metformin on hepatocyte cell death. METHODS: Apoptotic cell death was induced in primary rat hepatocytes using either the bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA or TNFα in combination with actinomycin D (actD. AMPK, mTOR and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K/Akt were inhibited using pharmacological inhibitors. Apoptosis and necrosis were quantified by caspase activation, acridine orange staining and Sytox green staining respectively. RESULTS: Metformin dose-dependently reduces GCDCA-induced apoptosis, even when added 2 hours after GCDCA, without increasing necrotic cell death. Metformin does not protect against TNFα/ActD-induced apoptosis. The protective effect of metformin is dependent on an intact PI3-kinase/Akt pathway, but does not require AMPK/mTOR-signaling. Metformin does not inhibit NF-κB activation. CONCLUSION: Metformin protects against bile acid-induced apoptosis and could be considered in the treatment of chronic liver diseases accompanied by inflammation.

  10. Use of Cassette Dosing in Sandwich-Cultured Rat and Human Hepatocytes to Identify Drugs that Inhibit Bile Acid Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina K Wolf; Vora, Sapana; Webster, Lindsey O.; Generaux, Grant T.; Polli, Joseph W; Brouwer, Kim L.R.

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular accumulation of bile acids due to inhibition of the canalicular bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11) is one proposed mechanism of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Some hepatotoxic compounds also are potent inhibitors of bile acid uptake by Na+-dependent taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP/SLC10A1). This study used a cassette dosing approach in rat and human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH) to determine whether known or suspected hepatotoxic drugs inhibit bile acid ...

  11. Combination Lopinavir and Ritonavir Alter Exogenous and Endogenous Bile Acid Disposition in Sandwich-Cultured Rat Hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, LaToya M.; Watkins, Paul B.; Perry, Cassandra H.; Robert L St Claire; Brouwer, Kim L.R.

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of the bile salt export pump (BSEP) can cause intracellular accumulation of bile acids and is a risk factor for drug-induced liver injury in humans. Antiretroviral protease inhibitors lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV) are reported BSEP inhibitors. However, the consequences of LPV and RTV, alone and combined (LPV/r), on hepatocyte viability, bile acid transport, and endogenous bile acid disposition in rat hepatocytes have not been examined. The effect of LPV, RTV, and LPV/r on cel...

  12. Transcriptional Dynamics of Bile Salt Export Pump during Pregnancy: Mechanisms and Implications in Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Xiulong; Vasilenko, Alexander; Chen, Yuan; Valanejad, Leila; Verma, Ruchi; Yan, Bingfang; Deng, Ruitang

    2014-01-01

    Bile salt export pump (BSEP) is responsible for biliary secretion of bile acids, a rate limiting step in the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids and transactivated by nuclear receptor farnesoid x receptor (FXR). Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most prevalent disorder among diseases unique to pregnancy and primarily occurs in the third trimester of pregnancy with a hallmark of elevated serum bile acids. Currently, the transcriptional regulation of BSEP during pregnancy a...

  13. Epigenetic’s role in fish pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cal Delgado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The agouti coat colour gene encodes a paracrine signalling molecule whose differential expression produces the characteristic dorsal-ventral pigment pattern observed in most mammals. We have recently demonstrated that this well-characterised mechanism from mammals also applies to fish with their much more complex pigment patterns. However, the developmental mechanism through which agouti acts to establish these colour differences remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to explore the molecular mechanisms that regulate agouti gene expression by in-vivo functional characterization of the agouti promoter and identification of possible putative regulatory elements that govern basal promoter activity. Specifically, the investigation was focused on the occurrence and role of CpG dinucleotides methylation in the agouti putative promoter sequence and on a possible epigenetic level of regulation of agouti expression. We report here expression analyses of eGFP expression from transgenic zebrafish containing an 8kb-agouti-Tol2-eGFP construct. eGFP expression was specifically found in the brain area and neural tube of Tol2 transposon vector transgenic embryos. Computer-based analysis revealed a putative CpG island immediately proximal to the translation start site. Global inhibition of methylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine promoted agouti production in association with decreasing CpG methylation. Taken together, these data identify a contributory role for DNA methylation in regulating agouti expression in zebrafish embryogenesis.

  14. Drying of Pigment-Cellulose Nanofibril Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Timofeev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A new substrate containing cellulose nanofibrils and inorganic pigment particles has been developed for printed electronics applications. The studied composite structure contains 80% fillers and is mechanically stable and flexible. Before drying, the solids content can be as low as 20% due to the high water binding capacity of the cellulose nanofibrils. We have studied several drying methods and their effects on the substrate properties. The aim is to achieve a tight, smooth surface keeping the drying efficiency simultaneously at a high level. The methods studied include: (1 drying on a hot metal surface; (2 air impingement drying; and (3 hot pressing. Somewhat surprisingly, drying rates measured for the pigment-cellulose nanofibril substrates were quite similar to those for the reference board sheets. Very high dewatering rates were observed for the hot pressing at high moisture contents. The drying method had significant effects on the final substrate properties, especially on short-range surface smoothness. The best smoothness was obtained with a combination of impingement and contact drying. The mechanical properties of the sheets were also affected by the drying method and associated temperature.

  15. Chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments of prochloron (prochlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paerl, H. W.; Lewin, R. A.; Cheng, L.

    1983-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a gradient-elution technique was utilized to separate and quantify chlorophylls a and b as well as major carotenoid pigments present in freeze-dried preprations of prochloron-didemnid associations and in Prochloron cells separated from host colonies. Results confirm earlier spectrophotometric evidence for both chlorophylls a and b in this prokaryote. Chlorophyll a:b ratios range from 4.14 to 19.71; generally good agreement was found between ratios determined in isolated cell preprations and in symbiotic colonies (in hospite). These values are 1.5 to 5-fold higher than ratios determined in a variety of eukaryotic green plants. The carotenoids in Prochloron are quantitatively and qualitatively similar to those found in various freshwater and marine blue-green algae (cyanopbytes) from high-light environments. However, Prochloron differs from cyanophytes by the absence of myxoxanthophyll and related glycosidic carotenoids. It pigment characteristics are considered sufficiently different from those of cyanophytes to justify its assignment to a separate algal division.

  16. Dispelling myths concerning pigmented skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, V; Russo, T; Giacomel, J; Lallas, A; Alfano, R; Argenziano, G

    2016-06-01

    The history of medicine is replete with examples of debunked myths, and in daily clinical dermatological practice, we must still counter many misconceptions regarding pigmented lesions, both with patients and other medical practitioners. Debunking myths and attempting to explain the reasons for these erroneous beliefs are the purposes of this review. The literature review has been partially guided by the results obtained from an online questionnaire conducted on an Italian website (www.vediamocichiara.it) from February 15, 2015 to March 15, 2015. The remaining discussed were selected on the basis of the existing literature and our personal experience. In order to explore these misconceptions, the following are the seven most salient questions that require investigation: (i) Is it dangerous to excise moles?; (ii) Is it dangerous to traumatize moles?; (iii) Are plantar moles worrisome?; (iv) Is it necessary to selectively apply sunscreen to moles?; (v) Is it inadvisable to partially biopsy a melanoma?; (vi) Do moles turn into melanoma?; and (vii) Is it necessary to perform sentinel lymph node biopsy for thin melanomas and for atypical Spitz naevi? Myths are ubiquitous, being prevalent in dermatological practice, with many of them concerning pigmented skin lesions. By encouraging critical analysis by patients and medical practitioners, the birth and perpetuation of myths can potentially be minimized, for the ultimate benefit of patients. This requires a scientific approach to be rigorously applied to dermatology, with critical questioning of unsubstantiated hypotheses including those emanating from the mass media as well as from respected sources. PMID:26840917

  17. Photoinduced changes in photosystem II pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photosynthetic apparatus in higher plants performs two seemingly opposing tasks: efficient harvest of sunlight, but also rapid and harmless dissipation of excess light energy as heat to avoid deleterious photodamage. In order to study this process in pigment-protein supercomplexes of photosystem II (PSII), 77 K fluorescence and room temperature resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy were applied to investigate the changes in structure and spectral properties of the pigments in spinach PSII membranes. The high-light treatment results in a strong quenching of the fluorescence (being largest when the excitation is absorbed by carotenoids) and a red-shift of the main maximum. Decomposition of the fluorescence spectra into four bands revealed intensive quenching of F685 and F695 bands, possible bleaching of chlorophyll a, enhanced extent of light harvesting complexes (LHCII) aggregation and increased energy transfer to aggregated LHCII. The analysis of RR spectra revealed the predominant contribution of ss-carotene (ss-Car) upon 457.8 and 488 nm excitations and lutein (Lut) at 514.5 nm. During prolonged exposure to strong light no significant bleaching of ss-Car and weak photobleaching of Lut is observed. The results will contribute to the efforts to produce more efficient and robust solar cells when exposed to fluctuations in light intensity.

  18. Biological Activities of Plant Pigments Betalains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandía-Herrero, Fernando; Escribano, Josefa; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2016-04-25

    Betalains are a family of natural pigments present in most plants of the order Caryophyllales. They provide colors ranging from yellow to violet to structures that in other plants are colored by anthocyanins. These include not only edible fruits and roots but also flowers, stems, and bracts. The recent characterization of different bioactivities in experiments with betalain containing extracts and purified pigments has renewed the interest of the research community in these molecules used by the food industry as natural colorants. Studies with multiple cancer cell lines have demonstrated a high chemopreventive potential that finds in vitro support in a strong antiradical and antioxidant activity. Experiments in vivo with model animals and bioavailability studies reinforce the possible role played by betalains in the diet. This work provides a critical review of all the claimed biological activities of betalains, showing that the bioactivities described might be supported by the high antiradical capacity of their structural unit, betalamic acid. Although more investigations with purified compounds are needed, the current evidences suggest a strong health-promoting potential. PMID:25118005

  19. Intestinal Crosstalk between Bile Acids and Microbiota and Its Impact on Host Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlström, Annika; Sayin, Sama I; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2016-07-12

    The gut microbiota is considered a metabolic "organ" that not only facilitates harvesting of nutrients and energy from the ingested food but also produces numerous metabolites that signal through their cognate receptors to regulate host metabolism. One such class of metabolites, bile acids, is produced in the liver from cholesterol and metabolized in the intestine by the gut microbiota. These bioconversions modulate the signaling properties of bile acids via the nuclear farnesoid X receptor and the G protein-coupled membrane receptor 5, which regulate numerous metabolic pathways in the host. Conversely, bile acids can modulate gut microbial composition both directly and indirectly through activation of innate immune genes in the small intestine. Thus, host metabolism can be affected through microbial modifications of bile acids, which lead to altered signaling via bile acid receptors, but also by altered microbiota composition. PMID:27320064

  20. Effects of bile salts on percolation and size of AOT reversed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Erford, Karen; Kiserow, Douglas J; McGown, Linda B

    2003-06-15

    The effects of two trihydroxy bile salts, sodium taurocholate (NaTC) and 3-[(3-cholamidylpropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate (CHAPS), on the size, shape and percolation temperature of reversed micelles formed by sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) in isooctane were studied. The percolation temperature of the reversed micelles decreased upon inclusion of bile salts, indicating increased water uptake. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements showed consistent enlargement of reversed micelles upon addition of the bile salts; the hydrodynamic radius increased sixfold in the presence of 10 mM CHAPS and doubled in the presence of 5 mM NaTC. Inclusion of the enzyme yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) increased the percolation temperature and distorted the spherical structure of the AOT reversed micelles. The spherical structure was restored upon addition of bile salt. These results may help to explain the increase in activity of YADH in AOT reversed micelles upon addition of bile salts.

  1. 5α-Bile alcohols function as farnesoid X receptor antagonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a bile acid/alcohol-activated nuclear receptor that regulates lipid homeostasis. Unlike other steroid receptors, FXR binds bile acids in an orientation that allows the steroid nucleus A to face helix 12 in the receptor, a crucial domain for coactivator-recruitment. Because most naturally occurring bile acids and alcohols contain a cis-oriented A, which is distinct from that of other steroids and cholesterol metabolites, we investigated the role of this 5β-configuration in FXR activation. The results showed that the 5β-(A/B cis) bile alcohols 5β-cyprinol and bufol are potent FXR agonists, whereas their 5α-(A/B trans) counterparts antagonize FXR transactivation and target gene expression. Both isomers bound to FXR, but their ability to induce coactivator-recruitment and thereby induce transactivation differed. These findings suggest a critical role for the A orientation of bile salts in agonist/antagonist function

  2. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in bile are associated with disease activity in primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Henrike; Weismüller, Tobias J; Negm, Ahmed A; Wlecke, Jenny; Loges, Stephanie; Strassburg, Christian P; Manns, Michael P; Lankisch, Tim O

    2013-10-01

    OBJECTIVE. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is an autoimmune cholestatic liver disease of unknown etiology. The role of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) in the serum of patients with PSC remains unclear. We hypothesized that ANCA may be detectable in bile, potentially providing diagnostic and prognostic information. METHODS. Serum and bile were prospectively collected during endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) in 72 patients with PSC and other non-PSC obstructive biliary diseases. ANCA measurements were performed by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). RESULTS. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) ANCA was detected significantly more often in the bile of PSC patients (15/39; 38%) than without (2/33; 6%) (p = 0.001). IgG ANCA in bile was associated with a ten times higher risk of PSC (p = 0.005). In addition, IgG ANCA positivity in bile was associated with the presence of dominant strictures (p = 0.03), cholangiographic severity (p = 0.004), number of ERC (p = 0.01) and interventions performed (p = 0.03). However, IgG ANCA in bile did not correlate with transplantation, cholangiocarcinoma or death. No association was observed between ANCA positivity in sera and ANA and ASCA positivity in sera or bile with the above-mentioned clinical features. CONCLUSIONS. The presence of ANCA in the bile of patients with PSC is a novel finding and highly suggestive of PSC. Biliary IgG ANCA correlates with the severity of bile duct strictures and the ensuing number of ERCs and interventions. Therefore, a positive ANCA status in bile may serve as a diagnostic and prognostic marker of the disease progression and biliary complications.

  3. Structural basis of the alternating-access mechanism in a bile acid transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Levin, Elena J.; Pan, Yaping; McCoy, Jason G.; Sharma, Ruchika; Kloss, Brian; Bruni, Renato; Quick, Matthias; Zhou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in hepatocytes and secreted through the biliary tract into the small intestine, where they aid in absorption of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins. Through a process known as enterohepatic recirculation, more than 90% of secreted bile acids are then retrieved from the intestine and returned to the liver for resecretion. In humans, there are two Na+-dependent bile acid transporters involved in enterohepatic recirculation, the Na+-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP; also known as SLC10A1) expressed in hepatocytes, and the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT; also known as SLC10A2) expressed on enterocytes in the terminal ileum. In recent years, ASBT has attracted much interest as a potential drug target for treatment of hypercholesterolaemia, because inhibition of ASBT reduces reabsorption of bile acids, thus increasing bile acid synthesis and consequently cholesterol consumption. However, a lack of three-dimensional structures of bile acid transporters hampers our ability to understand the molecular mechanisms of substrate selectivity and transport, and to interpret the wealth of existing functional data. The crystal structure of an ASBT homologue from Neisseria meningitidis (ASBTNM) in detergent was reported recently, showing the protein in an inward-open conformation bound to two Na+ and a taurocholic acid. However, the structural changes that bring bile acid and Na+ across the membrane are difficult to infer from a single structure. To understand the structural changes associated with the coupled transport of Na+ and bile acids, here we solved two structures of an ASBT homologue from Yersinia frederiksenii (ASBTYf) in a lipid environment, which reveal that a large rigid-body rotation of a substrate-binding domain gives the conserved `crossover' region, where two discontinuous helices cross each other, alternating accessibility from either side of the cell membrane. This result has implications

  4. Aspirated bile: a major host trigger modulating respiratory pathogen colonisation in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reen, F J; Woods, D F; Mooij, M J; Chróinín, M N; Mullane, D; Zhou, L; Quille, J; Fitzpatrick, D; Glennon, J D; McGlacken, G P; Adams, C; O'Gara, F

    2014-10-01

    Chronic respiratory infections are a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality. However, the molecular triggers that cause respiratory pathogens to adopt persistent and often untreatable lifestyles during infection remain largely uncharacterised. Recently, bile aspiration caused by gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) has emerged as a significant complication associated with respiratory disease, and cystic fibrosis (CF) in particular. Based on our previous finding that the physiological concentrations of bile influence respiratory pathogens towards a chronic lifestyle in vitro, we investigated the impact of bile aspiration on the lung microbiome of respiratory patients. Sputum samples (n = 25) obtained from a cohort of paediatric CF patients were profiled for the presence of bile acids using high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Pyrosequencing was performed on a set of ten DNA samples that were isolated from bile aspirating (n = 5) and non-bile aspirating (n = 5) patients. Both denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing revealed significantly reduced biodiversity and richness in the sputum samples from bile aspirating patients when compared with non-aspirating patients. Families and genera associated with the pervasive CF microbiome dominated aspirating patients, while bacteria associated with the healthy lung were most abundant in non-aspirating patients. Bile aspiration linked to GOR is emerging as a major host trigger of chronic bacterial infections. The markedly reduced biodiversity and increased colonisation by dominant proteobacterial CF-associated pathogens observed in the sputum of bile aspirating patients suggest that bile may play a major role in disease progression in CF and other respiratory diseases. PMID:24816901

  5. Chronic intermittent psychological stress promotes macrophage reverse cholesterol transport by impairing bile acid absorption in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvennoinen, Reija; Quesada, Helena; Kareinen, Ilona; Julve, Josep; Kaipiainen, Leena; Gylling, Helena; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Escola-Gil, Joan Carles; Kovanen, Petri T; Lee-Rueckert, Miriam

    2015-05-11

    Psychological stress is a risk factor for atherosclerosis, yet the pathophysiological mechanisms involved remain elusive. The transfer of cholesterol from macrophage foam cells to liver and feces (the macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport, m-RCT) is an important antiatherogenic pathway. Because exposure of mice to physical restraint, a model of psychological stress, increases serum levels of corticosterone, and as bile acid homeostasis is disrupted in glucocorticoid-treated animals, we investigated if chronic intermittent restraint stress would modify m-RCT by altering the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. C57Bl/6J mice exposed to intermittent stress for 5 days exhibited increased transit through the large intestine and enhanced fecal bile acid excretion. Of the transcription factors and transporters that regulate bile acid homeostasis, the mRNA expression levels of the hepatic farnesoid X receptor (FXR), the bile salt export pump (BSEP), and the intestinal fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) were reduced, whereas those of the ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), responsible for active bile acid absorption, remained unchanged. Neither did the hepatic expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the key enzyme regulating bile acid synthesis, change in the stressed mice. Evaluation of the functionality of the m-RCT pathway revealed increased fecal excretion of bile acids that had been synthesized from macrophage-derived cholesterol. Overall, our study reveals that chronic intermittent stress in mice accelerates m-RCT specifically by increasing fecal excretion of bile acids. This novel mechanism of m-RCT induction could have antiatherogenic potential under conditions of chronic stress. PMID:25969465

  6. Steam Cooking Significantly Improves in Vitro Bile Acid Binding of Beets, Eggplant, Asparagus, Carrots, Green Beans and Cauliflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relative healthful potential of cooked beets, okra, eggplant, asparagus, carrots, green beans, cauliflower and turnips was evaluated by determining their in vitro bile acid binding using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile at a duodenal physiological pH of 6.3. Six treatments and two...

  7. Bile salt hydrolase in Lactobacillus plantarum: functional analysis and delivery to the intestinal tract of the host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the liver of mammals, bile salts are synthesised from cholesterol and conjugated to either taurine or glycine. Following release into the intestine, conjugated bile salts can be deconjugated by members of the endogenous microbiota that produce an enzyme called bile salt hydrolase (Bsh). Bsh appea

  8. Profiling of urinary bile acids in piglets by a combination of enzymatic deconjugation and targeted LC-MRM-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bile acids (BAs) have an important role in the control of fat, glucose and cholesterol metabolism. Synthesis of bile acids is the major pathway for the metabolism of cholesterol and for the excretion of excess cholesterol in mammals. Bile acid intermediates and/or their metabolites are excreted in...

  9. Functional analysis of four bile salt hydrolase and penicillin acylase family members in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, J.M.; Bongers, R.S.; Vos, de W.M.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2008-01-01

    Bile salts play an important role in the digestion of lipids in vertebrates and are synthesized and conjugated to either glycine or taurine in the liver. Following secretion of bile salts into the small intestine, intestinal microbes are capable of deconjugating the glycine or taurine from the bile

  10. 21 CFR 73.1350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.1350 Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive is formed by depositing titanium and/or iron salts onto mica, followed...

  11. 21 CFR 73.350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.350 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive is formed by depositing titanium salts onto mica, followed by heating...

  12. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae: biological constraints and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulders, Kim J M; Lamers, Packo P; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H

    2014-04-01

    There is increasing interest in naturally produced colorants, and microalgae represent a bio-technologically interesting source due to their wide range of colored pigments, including chlorophylls (green), carotenoids (red, orange and yellow), and phycobiliproteins (red and blue). However, the concentration of these pigments, under optimal growth conditions, is often too low to make microalgal-based pigment production economically feasible. In some Chlorophyta (green algae), specific process conditions such as oversaturating light intensities or a high salt concentration induce the overproduction of secondary carotenoids (β-carotene in Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teodoresco and astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis (Flotow)). Overproduction of all other pigments (including lutein, fucoxanthin, and phycocyanin) requires modification in gene expression or enzyme activity, most likely combined with the creation of storage space outside of the photosystems. The success of such modification strategies depends on an adequate understanding of the metabolic pathways and the functional roles of all the pigments involved. In this review, the distribution of commercially interesting pigments across the most common microalgal groups, the roles of these pigments in vivo and their biosynthesis routes are reviewed, and constraints and opportunities for overproduction of both primary and secondary pigments are presented.

  13. Patients presenting with Addison's disease need not be pigmented.

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, A H; Espiner, E A; Donald, R A

    1982-01-01

    Three consecutive cases of Addison's disease without increased pigmentation are described. We suggest that the absence of this important physical sign contributed to serious delays in diagnosis and markedly increased morbidity. We emphasize that, despite the usual textbook description, excess pigmentation is not necessarily a feature of Addison's disease.

  14. Hemozoin Pigment: An Important Tool for Low Parasitemic Malarial Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Sarita; Ghosh, Arnab; Singh, Ruchi; Singh, Dhirendra Pratap; Sharma, Bhawna; Samantaray, Jyotish Chandra; Deb, Manorama; Gaind, Rajni

    2016-08-01

    Low parasitemic condition in malaria remains a diagnostic challenge; as the available diagnostic methods failed to detect. Currently, hemozoin (Hz) pigment is gaining attention in the diagnosis of malaria. The major drawback is ease of detection of Hz in routine practice. A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the role of Hz pigment and to compare the performance of quantitative buffy coat assay (QBC) and PCR in such conditions. Clinically suspected cases of malaria were examined by both Giemsa stain and immunochromatographic test (ICT). Samples positive by ICT and negative by Giemsa stain were further examined by nested PCR targeting 18S rRNA and QBC for the presence of malaria parasites and pigments. Thirty blood samples fulfilled the inclusion criteria out of which 23 were Plasmodium vivax (Pv), 4 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), and 3 mixed (Pv and Pf) by immunochromatographic test. Twenty-one out of 30 (70%) were positive by nested PCR in comparison to 25/30 (83%) by QBC. Samples containing both malaria parasites and Hz pigment by QBC completely showed concordance with the PCR result. However, 61% of total samples containing only Hz pigment were observed positive by PCR. Hz pigment remains an important tool for malaria diagnosis. Identification of leukocytes containing pigments by QBC not only indicates recent malarial infections but also puts light on severity of the disease. QBC assay is a rapid, highly sensitive, and cost-effective method to detect malaria parasites and Hz pigment especially in low parasitemic conditions. PMID:27658589

  15. Structures and colour properties of new red wine pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Anders Eckart; Pardon, K.; Hayasaka, Y.;

    2003-01-01

    the colour properties of the pigments were characterized; it could be demonstrated that the pyranoanthocyanins retained their red colour at pH 3.6 in model wine and were resistant to bisulfite-mediated bleaching. Finally, HPLC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of both anthocyanin-derived pigments in red...

  16. Growth of cultured porcine retinal pigment epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, A.K.; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nicolini, Jair;

    2003-01-01

    To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation.......To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation....

  17. An Improved Method for Extraction and Separation of Photosynthetic Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Nobuyasu; Kanaizuka, Yasuhiro; Sudarmi, Rini; Yokohama, Yasutsugu

    2003-01-01

    The method for extracting and separating hydrophobic photosynthetic pigments proposed by Katayama "et al." ("Japanese Journal of Phycology," 42, 71-77, 1994) has been improved to introduce it to student laboratories at the senior high school level. Silica gel powder was used for removing water from fresh materials prior to extracting pigments by a…

  18. [Familial cases of cutaneous myxomas and spotty pigmentation (Carney's complex)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyano, T; Satoh, T; Ohtaki, N

    1990-09-01

    In 1985, Carney et al reported a complex of myxomas, spotty pigmentation, and endocrine overactivity and subsequently demonstrated dominant inheritance of the condition. The criteria for diagnosis of the complex is the presence of two or more of the following conditions: (1) cardiac myxoma, (2) cutaneous myxoma, (3) mammary myxoma, (4) spotty mucocutaneous pigmentation, (5) primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (Cushing's syndrome), (6) testicular tumors (sexual precocity), (7) pituitary adenoma secreting growth hormone (acromegaly or gigantism). We encountered a family with an affected mother and daughter. Case 1 was a 43-year-old woman with multiple cutaneous myxomas, mammary myxomas and spotty mucocutaneous pigmentation. Case 2, the 19-year-old daughter of case 1 had multiple cutaneous myxomas and spotty cutaneous pigmentation. These two cases both met the criteria for the diagnosis of the complex. Our report is believed to be the first report on the complex in Japan. PMID:2266598

  19. Ultraviolet radiation effects on pigmentation in the cyanobacterium ''Phormidium uncinatum''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Baikal strain of the cyanobacterium Phormidium uncinatum was found to possess the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a, carotenoids, phycocyanin and allophycocyanin, while the Tuebingen strain of Phormidium contained, in addition to these, the biliprotein phycoerythrin. Sucrose gradient centrifugation of the pigment extracts resulted in a separation of the phycobiliproteins into several bands, which according to their absorption and fluorescence properties, were identified as monomers, trimers and hexamers. With increasing UV-B irradiation the heavier aggregates were broken down into smaller components. Photobleaching of these accessory pigments also occurred. FPLC gel filtration analyses of the pigments also showed loss of heavier aggregates of the phycobilins and bleaching of the pigments. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the sucrose gradient and FPLC fractions indicated loss of the biliproteins with increasing UV-B irradiation. The loss of the β- were more rapid than that of the α- subunits. Increasing levels of ultraviolet irradiation is therefore deleterious to these organism. (author)

  20. Ultraviolet radiation effects on pigmentation in the cyanobacterium ``Phormidium uncinatum``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donkor, V.A.; Haeder, D.P. [Inst. fuer Botanik und Pharmaceutische Biologie, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet, Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The Baikal strain of the cyanobacterium Phormidium uncinatum was found to possess the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a, carotenoids, phycocyanin and allophycocyanin, while the Tuebingen strain of Phormidium contained, in addition to these, the biliprotein phycoerythrin. Sucrose gradient centrifugation of the pigment extracts resulted in a separation of the phycobiliproteins into several bands, which according to their absorption and fluorescence properties, were identified as monomers, trimers and hexamers. With increasing UV-B irradiation the heavier aggregates were broken down into smaller components. Photobleaching of these accessory pigments also occurred. FPLC gel filtration analyses of the pigments also showed loss of heavier aggregates of the phycobilins and bleaching of the pigments. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the sucrose gradient and FPLC fractions indicated loss of the biliproteins with increasing UV-B irradiation. The loss of the {beta}- were more rapid than that of the {alpha}- subunits. Increasing levels of ultraviolet irradiation is therefore deleterious to these organism. (author). 41 refs, 7 figs.

  1. A melanosomal two-pore sodium channel regulates pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Escobar, Iliana E; Oancea, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular organelles mediate complex cellular functions that often require ion transport across their membranes. Melanosomes are organelles responsible for the synthesis of the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanin synthesis result in pigmentation defects, visual deficits, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Although genes encoding putative melanosomal ion transporters have been identified as key regulators of melanin synthesis, melanosome ion transport and its contribution to pigmentation remain poorly understood. Here we identify two-pore channel 2 (TPC2) as the first reported melanosomal cation conductance by directly patch-clamping skin and eye melanosomes. TPC2 has been implicated in human pigmentation and melanoma, but the molecular mechanism mediating this function was entirely unknown. We demonstrate that the vesicular signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate PI(3,5)P2 modulates TPC2 activity to control melanosomal membrane potential, pH, and regulate pigmentation. PMID:27231233

  2. Full quantum dynamics of the electronic coupling between photosynthetic pigments

    CERN Document Server

    Oviedo, María Belén

    2015-01-01

    From studying the time evolution of the single electron density matrix within a density functional tight-binding formalism we study in a fully atomistic picture the electronic excitation transfer between two photosynthetic pigments in real time. This time-dependent quantum dynamics is based on fully atomistic structural models of the photosynthetic pigment. We analyze the dependence of the electronic excitation transfer with distance and orientation between photosynthetic pigments. We compare the results obtained from full quantum dynamics with analytical ones, based on a two level system model were the interaction between the pigments is dipolar. We observed that even when the distance of the photosynthetic pigment is about $30$ \\AA\\ the deviation of the dipolarity is of about $15$ percent.

  3. Single Molecule Spectroscopy on Photosynthetic Pigment-Protein Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Jelezko, F; Schuler, S; Thews, E; Tietz, C; Wechsler, A; Wrachtrup, J

    2001-01-01

    Single molecule spectroscopy was applied to unravel the energy transfer pathway in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes. Detailed analysis of excitation and fluorescence emission spectra has been made for peripheral plant antenna LHC II and Photosystem I from cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. Optical transitions of individual pigments were resolved under nonselective excitation of antenna chlorophylls. High-resolution fluorescence spectroscopy of individual plant antenna LHC II indicates that at low temperatures, the excitation energy is localized on the red-most Chl a pool absorbing at 680 nm. More than one pigment molecule is responsible for the fluorescence emission of the LHC II trimer. The spectral lines of single Chl a molecules absorbing at 675 nm are broadened because of the Foerster energy transfer towards the red-most pigments. Low-temperature spectroscopy on single PS I trimers indicates that two subgroups of pigments, which are present in the red antenna pool, differ by the strength of t...

  4. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ruchi; Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na+ with Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  5. Research and Development of Cadmium Sulphoselenide Red Pigment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jianfeng; LI Kun; XU Xiaohong; ZHANG Yaxiang; XU Xiaoyang; LAO Xinbin

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium sulphoselenide was synthesized continuous substitution solid solution and the only known pigment to yield bright red color on ceramic decoration. Encapsulated cadmium sulphoselenide pigments could yield abundant hues from yellow to red with high opacity at high temperature. The color generation has a linear function relation with the substitution rate. The encapsulation formation process of zirconium silicate encapsulated cadmium sulphoselenide was shown. Insufifcient encapsulation efifciency and potential hazard to human and environment had limited the industrial application of cadmium sulphoselenide red pigment. Ink-jet printing decoration required ifne size cadmium sulphoselenide red pigment on ceramic decoration. The review mainly focused on the synthesis techniques and industrial application of cadmium sulphoselenide red pigment.

  6. Observations of Pigment Accumulation in the Epithelium of the Shell Gland and Superficial Pigmentation on the Egg Shell in Japanese Quail

    OpenAIRE

    SOH, Tomoki; Fujihara, Noboru; Koga, Osamu

    1993-01-01

    The pigment accumulation in the shell gland through an ovulation cycle and the pigmentation onto the surface of egg shell were observed in Japanese quail. The pigment granules and PAS-positive material in the apical cells of the epithelium of the shell gland increased progressively as time elapsed after ovulation and decreased suddenly 2-3 hrs before the expected oviposition as the pigmentation onto the egg shell occurred. The pigment granules and PAS-positive material secreted from the cells...

  7. Classification of marine diatoms using pigment ratio suites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Peng; YU Zhigang; DENG Chunmei; LIU Shuxia; ZHEN Yu

    2011-01-01

    Diatoms are widely distributed in many temperate areas and some species frequently form extensive blooms in spring.Hence,monitoring the variations of specific genera or species of diatoms is necessary for studying phytoplankton population dynamics in marine ecosystems.To test whether pigment ratios can be used to identify diatoms at a below-class taxonomic level,we analyzed 14 species/strains of diatoms isolated from Chinese seas using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).We normalized all pigment concentrations to total chlorophyll a to calculate the ratios of pigment to chlorophyll a,and calculated the ratios between accessory pigments (or pigment sums).Cluster analysis indicated that these diatoms could be classified into four clusters in terms of three accessory pigment ratios:chlorophyll c2:chlorophyll c1,fucoxanthin:total chlorophyll c and diadinoxanthin:diatoxanthin.The classification results matched well with those of biological taxonomy.To test the stability of the classification,pigment data from one species,cultured under different light intensities,and five new species/strains were calculated and used for discriminant analysis.The results show that the classification of diatom species using pigment ratio suites was stable for the variations of pigment ratios of species cultured in different light intensities.The introduction of new species,however,may confuse the classification within the current scheme.Classification of marine diatoms using pigment ratio suites is potentially valuable for the fine chemotaxonomy of phytoplankton at taxonomic levels below class and would advance studies on phytoplankton population dynamics and marine ecology.

  8. Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial cells - a possible future treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, Anne Katrine

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, retinal pigment epithelial cells, transplantation, treatment......ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, retinal pigment epithelial cells, transplantation, treatment...

  9. Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial cells - a possible future treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, Anne Katrine

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, transplantation, retinal pigment epithelial cells, treatment......ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, transplantation, retinal pigment epithelial cells, treatment...

  10. Ionochromic behavior of Grecko visual pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescitelli, F

    1977-01-14

    Digitonin extracts of the retina of Gekko gekko prepared to minimize the presence of chloride ions show the photopigment to be at about 490 nanometers rather than at 521 nanometers, the position found for the same pigment in situ. The addition of chloride to the extract causes a bathochromic shift in spectral absorbance, the magnitude of the shift being related to the concentration of chloride, within limits. The effect is a specific one, and of all the anions tested only bromide causes a similar bathochromic shift. The nature of the cation is not involved since the same action is produced by the chlorides of sodium, lithium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, calcium, magnesium, beryllium, lanthanum, and choline.

  11. High biological variability of plastids, photosynthetic pigments and pigment forms of leaf primordia in buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solymosi, Katalin; Morandi, Dominique; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla; Schoefs, Benoît

    2012-05-01

    To study the formation of the photosynthetic apparatus in nature, the carotenoid and chlorophyllous pigment compositions of differently developed leaf primordia in closed and opening buds of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) as well as in closed buds of tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima P. Mill.) were analyzed with HPLC. The native organization of the chlorophyllous pigments was studied using 77 K fluorescence spectroscopy, and plastid ultrastructure was investigated with electron microscopy. Complete etiolation, i.e., accumulation of protochlorophyllide, and absence of chlorophylls occurred in the innermost leaf primordia of common ash buds. The other leaf primordia were partially etiolated in the buds and contained protochlorophyllide (0.5-1 μg g(-1) fresh mass), chlorophyllides (0.2-27 μg g(-1) fresh mass) and chlorophylls (0.9-643 μg g(-1) fresh mass). Etio-chloroplasts with prolamellar bodies and either regular or only low grana were found in leaves having high or low amounts of chlorophyll a and b, respectively. After bud break, etioplast-chloroplast conversion proceeded and the pigment contents increased in the leaves, similarly to the greening processes observed in illuminated etiolated seedlings under laboratory conditions. The pigment contents and the ratio of the different spectral forms had a high biological variability that could be attributed to (i) various light conditions due to light filtering in the buds resulting in differently etiolated leaf primordia, (ii) to differences in the light-exposed and inner regions of the same primordia in opening buds due to various leaf folding, and (iii) to tissue-specific slight variations of plastid ultrastructure. PMID:22160501

  12. Clinicoepidemiological study of pigmented purpuric dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lata Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pigmented purpuric dermatoses (PPD are a group of vascular disorders with varied manifestations which cause concern and are resistant to treatment. The literature is still lacking in clinicoepidemiological studies. Aim: To study the epidemiology, etiological, host and environmental factors, clinical manifestations, its variations, and the type prevalent in this part of the world. Materials and Methods: All cases of PPD were selected for the study from Skin and Venereal Disease, Out Patient Department between January 2008 and June 2009. Their history, examination, hematological investigations, and, in a few, histopathology findings were also recorded and data obtained were evaluated statistically. Results: There were 100 cases of PPD of total 55 323 patients (0.18%. There were 79 males and 21 females between 11 and 66 years. They were working as police men, security guards, barber, chemist, teachers, students, farmers, businessmen, and housewives. In a majority, there was a history of prolonged standing in day-to-day work. Purpuric, brownish pigmented, lichenoid or atrophic lesions were seen depending upon the type of PPD on lower parts of one or both lower limbs. Blood investigations were normal. Schamberg′s disease was seen in ninety five, Lichen aureus in three, lichenoid dermatosis and Majocchi′s disease in one case each. Discussion: Three clinical types of PPD were diagnosed which may represent different features of the same disease. Cell-mediated immunity, immune complexes, capillary fragility, gravitational forces, venous hypertension, focal infection, clothing, contact allergy to dyes, and drug intake have been incriminating factors in the past. Patient′s occupation and environmental factors may also be considered contributory in precipitating the disease. Conclusions: The study revealed the problem of PPD in this geographical area, its magnitude, clinical presentation, the type prevalent, and possible aggravating

  13. Colesevelam: a new and improved bile acid sequestrant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Karagiannis, Asterios; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Athyros, Vasilios G

    2013-01-01

    Treatment with statins represents an essential component both of primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention strategies. However, a proportion of patients cannot reach low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets with the highest tolerable dose of a potent statin or is intolerant to statins. Several treatment options are available for these patients. Colesevelam is a relatively new bile acid sequestrant that decreases serum LDL-C levels. Moreover, colesevelam improves glycemic control and seems to be well-tolerated, at least in short-term studies. Therefore, colesevelam seems to be a useful tool for the management of high-risk patients who cannot achieve LDL-C targets with monotherapy with a potent statin.

  14. Radiologic approach to bile duct cysts in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiologic findings in 7 adult patients with bile duct cysts were reviewed. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was performed in 6 patients, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) in 4, CT and ultrasonography (US) in 4, and angiography in 6. ERCP and PTC were the only methods which exactly showed the extent of the cysts and the anomalous pancreatico-biliary junction present in 5 patients. ERCP and PTC were mandatory for surgical and treatment. Pancreas divisum was revealed in 3 patients, all of whom had suffered from acute pancreatis. Intracystic adenocarcinoma was depicted at cholangiography in 2 patients. US and CT were valuable in showing cystic masses between the pancreatic head and the hilum of the liver, but in no patient was the diagnosis made by any of these methods. Angiography was performed for preoperative vascular mapping. (orig.)

  15. Bile Acids, FXR, and Metabolic Effects of Bariatric Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier F. Noel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity represent major risk factors for diabetes and related metabolic diseases. Obesity is associated with a chronic and progressive inflammatory response leading to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D mellitus, although the precise mechanism mediating this inflammatory process remains poorly understood. The most effective intervention for the treatment of obesity, bariatric surgery, leads to glucose normalization and remission of T2D. Recent work in both clinical studies and animal models supports bile acids (BAs as key mediators of these effects. BAs are involved in lipid and glucose homeostasis primarily via the farnesoid X receptor (FXR transcription factor. BAs are also involved in regulating genes involved in inflammation, obesity, and lipid metabolism. Here, we review the novel role of BAs in bariatric surgery and the intersection between BAs and immune, obesity, weight loss, and lipid metabolism genes.

  16. Mycophenolate mofetil for drug-induced vanishing bile duct syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Amoxicillin/clavulanate is associated with liver injury,mostly of a cholestatic pattern. While outcomes are usually benign, progression to cirrhosis and death has been reported. The role of immunosuppressive therapy for patients with a protracted course is unclear. We report the case of an elderly patient who developed prolonged cholestasis secondary to amoxicillin/clavulanate. Vanishing bile duct syndrome was confirmed by sequential liver biopsies. The patient responded to prednisone treatment,but could not be weaned off corticosteroids, even when azathioprine was added. Complete withdrawal of both prednisone and azathioprine was possible by using mycophenolate mofetil, an inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor. Sustained remission has been maintained for more than 3 years with low-dose mycophenolate mofetil.

  17. Genomic and genetic characterization of the bile stress response of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Kristi; Versalovic, James; Roos, Stefan; Britton, Robert A

    2008-03-01

    Probiotic bacteria encounter various stresses after ingestion by the host, including exposure to the low pH in the stomach and bile in the small intestine. The probiotic microorganism Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 has previously been shown to survive in the human small intestine. To address how L. reuteri can resist bile stress, we performed microarray experiments to determine gene expression changes that occur when the organism is exposed to physiological concentrations of bile. A wide variety of genes that displayed differential expression in the presence of bile indicated that the cells were dealing with several types of stress, including cell envelope stress, protein denaturation, and DNA damage. Mutations in three genes were found to decrease the strain's ability to survive bile exposure: lr1864, a Clp chaperone; lr0085, a gene of unknown function; and lr1516, a putative esterase. Mutations in two genes that form an operon, lr1584 (a multidrug resistance transporter in the major facilitator superfamily) and lr1582 (unknown function), were found to impair the strain's ability to restart growth in the presence of bile. This study provides insight into the possible mechanisms that L. reuteri ATCC 55730 may use to survive and grow in the presence of bile in the small intestine. PMID:18245259

  18. Alteration of the enterohepatic recirculation of bile acids in rats after exposure to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanff, P.; Souidi, M.; Grison, S.; Griffiths, N.M.; Gourmelon, P. [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, (IRSN), Direction de la RadioProtection de l' Homme, Service de Radiobiologie et d' Epidemiologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses, CEDEX (France)]. E-mail: pascale.scanff@irsn.fr

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study acute alterations of the enterohepatic recirculation (EHR) of bile acids 3 days after an 8-Gy radiation exposure in vivo in the rat by a washout technique. Using this technique in association with HPLC analysis, the EHR of the major individual bile acids was determined in control and irradiated animals. Ex vivo ileal taurocholate absorption was also studied in Ussing chambers. Major hepatic enzyme activities involved in bile acid synthesis were also measured. Measurements of bile acid intestinal content and intestinal absorption efficiency calculation from washout showed reduced intestinal absorption with significant differences from one bile acid to another: absorption of taurocholate and tauromuricholate was decreased, whereas absorption of the more hydrophobic taurochenodeoxycholate was increased, suggesting that intestinal passive diffusion was enhanced, whereas ileal active transport might be reduced. Basal hepatic secretion was increased only for taurocholate, in accordance with the marked increase of CYP8B1 activity in the liver. The results are clearly demonstrate that concomitantly with radiation-induced intestinal bile acid malabsorption, hepatic bile acid synthesis and secretion are also changed. A current working model for pathophysiological changes in enterohepatic recycling after irradiation is thus proposed. (author)

  19. The adsorption-desorption behaviour and structure function relationships of bile salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Roger; Rigby, Neil M; Ridout, Michael J; Gunning, A Patrick; Wilde, Peter J

    2014-09-14

    The digestion of dietary components in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex, dynamic, inherently heterogeneous process. A key aspect of the digestion of lipid in the GI tract is the combined action of bile salts, lipase and colipase in hydrolysing and solubilising dispersed lipid. The bile salts are a mixture of steroid acid conjugates with surfactant properties. In order to examine whether the different bile salts have different interfacial properties their dynamic interfacial behaviour was characterised. Differences in the adsorption behaviour to solid hydrophobic surfaces of bile salt species were studied using dual polarisation interferometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM) under physiological conditions. Specifically, the cholates adsorbed more slowly and a significant proportion were irreversibly adsorbed following buffer rinsing; whereas the deoxycholates and chenodeoxycholates adsorbed more rapidly and desorbed to a greater extent following buffer rinsing. The conjugating groups (taurine, glycine) did not influence the behaviour. AFM showed that the interfacial structures that remained following buffer rinsing were also different between these two groups. In addition, the adsorption-desorption behaviour affected the adsorption of colipase to a solid surface. This supports the idea that cooperative adsorption occurs between certain bile salts and colipase to facilitate the adsorption and activity of pancreatic lipase in order to restore lipolytic activity in the presence of bile salts. This study provides insights into how differences in bile salt structure could affect lipase activity and solubilisation of lipolysis products and other lipid-soluble bioactive molecules. PMID:25008989

  20. K+ and Ca2+ modified Na-X zeolites as possible bile acids sequestrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Carlos F; Valenzuela, Elymar; Ocanto, Freddy; Pérez, Víctor; Valbuena, Oscar; Goldwasser, Mireya R

    2008-05-01

    Modified zeolite X, previously exchanged with K+ and Ca2+ cations were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, chemical analysis and BET techniques. Different masses of these solids were mixed with an ox bile solution at different reaction times. The supernatants obtained by centrifugations were submitted to bile acid and phospholipids quantitative determinations. The amount of bile acids adsorbed was 65, 28 and 77% and for phospholipids was 45, 67 and 98% for KX, NaX and CaX respectively. As expected, as the amount of mass used increases more bile acids and phospholipids are adsorbed due to a larger surface of the solid being available for adsorption. On the other hand, 120 min of reaction time were sufficient for the adsorption of both components. The solids, after incubations with bile solutions were treated with abundant distilled water and dried at room temperature. The FT-IR analysis of these solids did not detect any bile and on the zeolite surface with suggested that the bile acid adsorption on the exchanged zeolites is moderated by weak and non covalent interactions.

  1. Evaluation of Streptococcus pneumoniae in bile samples: A case series review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Naoya; Kawamura, Ichiro; Tsukahara, Mika; Mori, Keita; Kurai, Hanako

    2016-06-01

    Although Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen of humans, pneumococcal cholangitis is rare because of the rapid autolysis of S. pneumoniae. The aim of this case series was to review patients with bile cultures positive for S. pneumoniae. This study was a single center retrospective case series review of patients with S. pneumoniae in their bile at a tertiary-care cancer center between September 2002 and August 2015. Subjects consisted of all patients in whom S. pneumoniae was isolated in their bile during the study period. Bile specimens for culture were obtained from biliary drainage procedures such as endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage, endoscopic nasobiliary drainage, and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. There were 20 patients with bile cultures positive for S. pneumoniae during the study period. All patients presented with extrahepatic obstructive jaundice due to hepatopancreatobiliary tumors. Nineteen of 20 patients underwent the placement of plastic intrabiliary tubes. The mean time between the first-time drainage and the positive culture was 26 days (range 0-313 days). Although 12 of 20 patients met our definition of cholangitis, 5 were clinically treated with antibiotics based on a physician's assessment of whether there was a true infection. The present study is the largest case series of patients with S. pneumoniae in their bile. Based on our findings, the isolation of S. pneumoniae from bile may be attributed to the placement of biliary drainage devices. PMID:27025902

  2. A case of asymptomatic intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct without hepatolithiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junpei Hayashi; Hisao Kanou; Takatsugu Oida; Mitsuhiko Moriyama; Shyun-ichi Matsuoka; Makiko Inami; Shu Ohshiro; Akiyasu Ishigami; Hirotoshi Fujikawa; Masahide Miyagawa; Kenji Mimatsu; Youichi Kuboi

    2008-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman was found to have dilatation of the intrabepatic bile duct in the right anterior segment during a general health.Laboratory data were within normal ranges and no solid mass was detected in her abdominal computer tomography (CT) or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).However,endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) demonstrated an obstruction of the right bile duct.Intraoperative cholangiography showed stenosis of the intrahepatic bile duct in the anterior inferior segment (B5) and narrowness of the intrahepatic bile duct in the anterior superior segment (B8),so that we strongly suspected intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC).Histologically,surgically resected liver specimens,without tumor mass by macroscopic observation,showed intraductal papillary proliferation with fibrovascular cores and intraductal spreading of carcinoma in situ throughout a considerable area,especially in bile ductules around the peripheral small portal area.Furthermore,the immunohistochemical profile of the tumor (MUC5AC+/CK7+) was compatible with an intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPN-B).Consequently,this case was diagnosed as IPN-B with spreading CIS,stage I (pT1,pN0,P0,H1,M0).We report a case of IPN-B with interesting histopathological findings and emphasize that cholangiography is especially helpful for the diagnosis of bile duct dilatation due to infiltration of carcinoma cells.

  3. Mechanisms of pigmentation loss in subterranean fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Felice

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Troglobitic (exclusively subterranean organisms usually present, among their apomorphies related to the subterranean life (troglomorphisms, the regression of eyes and melanic pigmentation. The degree of regression varies among species, from a slight reduction to the complete loss of eyes and dark pigmentation, without a taxonomic correlation. While mechanisms of eye reduction have been intensively investigated in some troglobites such as the Mexican blind tetra characins, genus Astyanax, and the European salamander, Proteus anguinus, few studies have focused on pigmentation. The Brazilian subterranean ichthyofauna distinguishes not only by the species richness (23 troglobitic fishes so far known but also by the variation in the degree of reduction of eyes and pigmentation. This study focused on Brazilian fishes completely devoid of melanic pigmentation: the characiform Stygichthys typhlops (Characidae and the siluriforms Ancistrus formoso (Loricariidae, Rhamdiopsis sp.1 (Heptapteridae; from caves in the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia and Rhamdiopsis sp. 2 (cave in Campo Formoso, Bahia. In order to investigate if such depigmentation is the result of blockage in some step in the melanogenesis, in vitro tests of administration of L-DOPA were done, using caudal-fin fragments extracted from living fish. Except for Rhamdiopsis sp. 2, all the studied species were DOPA(+, i.e., melanin was synthesized after L-DOPA administration. This indicates these fish do have melanophores but they are unable to convert L-tyrosine to L-DOPA. On the other hand, Rhamdiopsis sp. 2, like the albino specimens of Trichomycterus itacarambiensis previously studied (which correspond to one third of the population, are DOPA(-, either because the block of melanin synthesis occurs downstream in melanogenesis, which is probably the case with T. itacarambiensis (monogenic system in view of the phenotypic discontinuity, or because the so-called albinos do no possess melanophores. The

  4. Activation of CFTR by ASBT-mediated bile salt absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijvelds, Marcel J C; Jorna, Huub; Verkade, Henkjan J; Bot, Alice G M; Hofmann, Franz; Agellon, Luis B; Sinaasappel, Maarten; de Jonge, Hugo R

    2005-11-01

    In cholangiocytes, bile salt (BS) uptake via the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) may evoke ductular flow by enhancing cAMP-mediated signaling to the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel. We considered that ASBT-mediated BS uptake in the distal ileum might also modulate intestinal fluid secretion. Taurocholate (TC) induced a biphasic rise in the short circuit current across ileal tissue, reflecting transepithelial electrogenic ion transport. This response was sensitive to bumetanide and largely abrogated in Cftr-null mice, indicating that it predominantly reflects CFTR-mediated Cl- secretion. The residual response in Cftr-null mice could be attributed to electrogenic ASBT activity, as it matched the TC-coupled absorptive Na+ flux. TC-evoked Cl- secretion required ASBT-mediated TC uptake, because it was blocked by a selective ASBT inhibitor and was restricted to the distal ileum. Suppression of neurotransmitter or prostaglandin release, blocking of the histamine H1 receptor, or pretreatment with 5-hydroxytryptamine did not abrogate the TC response, suggesting that neurocrine or immune mediators of Cl- secretion are not involved. Responses to TC were retained after carbachol treatment and after permeabilization of the basolateral membrane with nystatin, indicating that BS modulate CFTR channel gating rather than the driving force for Cl- exit. TC-induced Cl- secretion was maintained in cGMP-dependent protein kinase II-deficient mice and only partially inhibited by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor H89, suggesting a mechanism of CFTR activation different from cAMP or cGMP signaling. We conclude that active BS absorption in the ileum triggers CFTR activation and, consequently, local salt and water secretion, which may serve to prevent intestinal obstruction in the postprandial state. PMID:16037545

  5. Iatrogenic bile duct injury with loss of confluence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel-Angel; Mercado; Mario; Vilatoba; Alan; Contreras; Pilar; Leal-Leyte; Eduardo; Cervantes-Alvarez; Juan-Carlos; Arriola; Bruno-Adonai; Gonzalez

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To describe our experience concerning the surgical treatment of Strasberg E-4(Bismuth Ⅳ) bile duct injuries. METHODS: In an 18-year period, among 603 patients referred to our hospital for surgical treatment of complex bile duct injuries, 53 presented involvement of the hilar confluence classified as Strasberg E4 injuries. Imagenological studies, mainly magnetic resonance imaging showed a loss of confluence. The files of these patients were analyzed and general data were recorded, including type of operation and postoperative outcome with emphasis on postoperative cholangitis, liver function test and quality of life. The mean time of follow-up was of 55.9 ± 52.9 mo(median = 38.5, minimum = 2, maximum = 181.2). All other patients with Strasberg A, B, C, D, E1, E2, E3, or E5 biliary injuries were excluded from this study.RESULTS: Patients were divided in three groups: G1(n = 21): Construction of neoconfluence + Roux-en-Y hepatojejunostomy. G2(n = 26): Roux-en-Y portoenterostomy. G3(n = 6): Double(right and left) Rouxen-Y hepatojejunostomy. Cholangitis was recorded in two patients in group 1, in 14 patients in group 2, and in one patient in group 3. All of them required transhepatic instrumentation of the anastomosis and six patients needed live transplantation.CONCLUSION: Loss of confluence represents a surgicalchallenge. There are several treatment options at different stages. Roux-en-Y bilioenteric anastomosis(neoconfluence, double-barrel anastomosis, portoenterostomy) is the treatment of choice, and when it is technically possible, building of a neoconfluence has better outcomes. When liver cirrhosis is shown, liver transplantation is the best choice.

  6. Comparative short-term inhalation toxicity of five organic diketopyrrolopyrrole pigments and two inorganic iron-oxide-based pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Thomas; Ma-Hock, Lan; Strauss, Volker; Treumann, Silke; Rey Moreno, Maria; Neubauer, Nicole; Wohlleben, Wendel; Gröters, Sibylle; Wiench, Karin; Veith, Ulrich; Teubner, Wera; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diketopyrrolopyrroles (DPP) are a relatively new class of organic high-performance pigments. The present inhalation and particle characterization studies were performed to compare the effects of five DPP-based pigments (coarse and fine Pigment Red 254, coarse and fine meta-chloro DPP isomer and one form of mixed chlorinated DPP isomers) and compare it to coarse and fine inorganic Pigment Red 101. Wistar rats were exposed head-nose to atmospheres of the respective materials for 6 h/day on 5 consecutive days. Target concentrations were 30 mg/m3 as high dose for all compounds and selected based occupational exposure limits for respirable nuisance dust. Toxicity was determined after end of exposure and after 3-week recovery using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and microscopic examinations of the entire respiratory tract. Mixed chlorinated DPP isomers and coarse meta-chloro DPP isomer caused marginal changes in BALF, consisting of slight increases of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, and in case of coarse meta-chloro DPP increased MCP-1 and osteopontin levels. Mixed chlorinated DPP isomers, Pigment Red 254, and meta-chloro DPP caused pigment deposits and phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages, slight hypertrophy/hyperplasia of the bronchioles and alveolar ducts, but without evidence of inflammation. In contrast, only pigment deposition and pigment phagocytosis were observed after exposure to Pigment Red 101. All pigments were tolerated well and caused only marginal effects in BALF or no effects at all. Only minor effects were seen on the lung by microscopic examination. There was no evidence of systemic inflammation based on acute-phase protein levels in blood. PMID:27387137

  7. Characterization of the role of ABCG2 as a bile acid transporter in liver and placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazquez, Alba G; Briz, Oscar; Romero, Marta R; Rosales, Ruben; Monte, Maria J; Vaquero, Javier; Macias, Rocio I R; Cassio, Doris; Marin, Jose J G

    2012-02-01

    ABCG2 is involved in epithelial transport/barrier functions. Here, we have investigated its ability to transport bile acids in liver and placenta. Cholylglycylamido fluorescein (CGamF) was exported by WIF-B9/R cells, which do not express the bile salt export pump (BSEP). Sensitivity to typical inhibitors suggested that CGamF export was mainly mediated by ABCG2. In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells), coexpression of rat Oatp1a1 and human ABCG2 enhanced the uptake and efflux, respectively, of CGamF, cholic acid (CA), glycoCA (GCA), tauroCA, and taurolithocholic acid-3-sulfate. The ability of ABCG2 to export these bile acids was confirmed by microinjecting them together with inulin in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing this pump. ABCG2-mediated bile acid transport was inhibited by estradiol 17β-d-glucuronide and fumitremorgin C. Placental barrier for bile acids accounted for 14-fold increased maternal cholanemia induced by obstructive cholestasis in pregnant rats. In rat placenta, the expression of Abcg2, which was much higher than that of Bsep, was not affected by short-term cholestasis. In pregnant rats, fumitremorgin C did not affect uptake/secretion of GCA by the liver but inhibited its fetal-maternal transfer. Compared with wild-type mice, obstructive cholestasis in pregnant Abcg2(-/-) knockout mice induced similar bile acid accumulation in maternal serum but higher accumulation in placenta, fetal serum, and liver. In conclusion, ABCG2 is able to transport bile acids. The importance of this function depends on the relative expression in the same epithelium of other bile acid exporters. Thus, ABCG2 may play a key role in bile acid transport in placenta, as BSEP does in liver. PMID:22096226

  8. Postoperative bile leakage managed successfully by intrahepatic biliary ablation with ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsuya Shimizu; Takashi Tajiri; Hiroshi Yoshida; Yasuhiro Mamada; Nobuhiko Taniai; Satoshi Matsumoto; Yoshiaki Mizuguchi; Shigeki Yokomuro; Yasuo Arima; Koho Akimaru

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of postoperative refractory bile leakage managed successfully by intrahepatic biliary ablation with ethanol. A 75-year-old man diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma underwent extended posterior segmentectomy including the caudate lobe and a part of the anterior segment. The hepatic tumor attached to the anterior branch of the bile duct was detached carefully and resected. Fluid drained from the liver surface postoperatively contained high concentrations of total bilirubin, at a constant volume of 150 mL per day. On d 32 after surgery, a fistulogram of the drainage tube demonstrated an enhancement of the anterior bile duct.Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography demonstrated complete obstruction of the proximal anterior bile duct and no enhancement of the peripheral anterior bile duct.On d 46 after surgery, a retrograde transhepatic biliary drainage (RTBD) tube was inserted into the anterior bile duct under open surgery. However, a contrast study of RTBD taken 7 mo post-surgery revealed that the fistula remained patent despite prolonged conservative management, so we decided to perform ethanol ablation of the isolated bile duct. Four mL pure ethanol was injected into the isolated anterior bile duct for ten minutes, the procedure being repeated five times a week. Following 23 attempts, the volume of bile juice reached less than 10 mL per day. The RTBD was clamped and removed two days later. After RTBD removal, the patient had no complaints or symptoms. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated atrophy of the ethanol-injected anterior segment without liver abscess formation.

  9. Comparison of Bile Acids and Acetaminophen Protein Adducts in Children and Adolescents with Acetaminophen Toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura James

    Full Text Available Metabolomics approaches have enabled the study of new mechanisms of liver injury in experimental models of drug toxicity. Disruption of bile acid homeostasis is a known mechanism of drug induced liver injury. The relationship of individual bile acids to indicators of oxidative drug metabolism (acetaminophen protein adducts and liver injury was examined in children with acetaminophen overdose, hospitalized children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and children with no recent exposure to acetaminophen. Nine bile acids were quantified through targeted metabolomic analysis in the serum samples of the three groups. Bile acids were compared to serum levels of acetaminophen protein adducts and alanine aminotransferase. Glycodeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, and glycochenodeoxycholic acid were significantly increased in children with acetaminophen overdose compared to healthy controls. Among patients with acetaminophen overdose, bile acids were higher in subjects with acetaminophen protein adduct values > 1.0 nmol/mL and modest correlations were noted for three bile acids and acetaminophen protein adducts as follows: taurodeoxycholic acid (R=0.604; p<0.001, glycodeoxycholic acid (R=0.581; p<0.001, and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (R=0.571; p<0.001. Variability in bile acids was greater among hospitalized children receiving low doses of acetaminophen than in healthy children with no recent acetaminophen exposure. Compared to bile acids, acetaminophen protein adducts more accurately discriminated among children with acetaminophen overdose, children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and healthy control subjects. In children with acetaminophen overdose, elevations of conjugated bile acids were associated with specific indicators of acetaminophen metabolism and non-specific indicators of liver injury.

  10. A new insight into the physiological role of bile salt hydrolase among intestinal bacteria from the genus Bifidobacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Jarocki

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the occurrence of bile salt hydrolase in fourteen strains belonging to the genus Bifidobacterium. Deconjugation activity was detected using a plate test, two-step enzymatic reaction and activity staining on a native polyacrylamide gel. Subsequently, bile salt hydrolases from B. pseudocatenulatum and B. longum subsp. suis were purified using a two-step chromatographic procedure. Biochemical characterization of the bile salt hydrolases showed that the purified enzymes hydrolyzed all of the six major human bile salts under the pH and temperature conditions commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. Next, the dynamic rheometry was applied to monitor the gelation process of deoxycholic acid under different conditions. The results showed that bile acids displayed aqueous media gelating properties. Finally, gel-forming abilities of bifidobacteria exhibiting bile salt hydrolase activity were analyzed. Our investigations have demonstrated that the release of deconjugated bile acids led to the gelation phenomenon of the enzymatic reaction solution containing purified BSH. The presented results suggest that bile salt hydrolase activity commonly found among intestinal microbiota increases hydrogel-forming abilities of certain bile salts. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that bile salt hydrolase activity among Bifidobacterium is directly connected with the gelation process of bile salts. In our opinion, if such a phenomenon occurs in physiological conditions of human gut, it may improve bacterial ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract and their survival in this specific ecological niche.

  11. Different pathways of canalicular secretion of sulfated and non-sulfated fluorescent bile acids : a study in isolated hepatocyte couplets and TR- rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, CO; Milkiewicz, P; Muller, M; Roma, MG; Havinga, R; Coleman, R; Kuipers, F; Jansen, PLM; Elias, E

    1999-01-01

    Background/Aims: Fluorescent bile acids have proved useful for characterizing bile salt transport mechanisms, The aim of this study was to further validate the use of lysyl-fluorescein conjugated bile acid analogues as surrogate bile acids, Methods: We analyzed biliary excretion kinetics of cholyl l

  12. Polarized light microscopic examination of human bile in the diagnosis of microlithiasis of the gallbladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogna, A; Kar, P; Acharya, N R; Anand, V J; Kapoor, R

    1989-01-01

    Of the 20 cases with biliary colics who had normal OCG and ultrasound, 11 (55%) showed microlithiasis in the form of cholesterol monohydrate crystals and/or calcium bilirubinate granules on polarized light microscopy of the duodenal bile. Microlithiasis was noted in gallbladder bile of all (100%) the cases with proven gallstones but in none of the duodenal bile samples from healthy subjects. This study suggests that polarized microscopy may be a useful method to detect microlithiasis in patients with repeated biliary colics who have normal OCG and ultrasound examination. PMID:2815325

  13. Detection of bacterial DNA in bile of cats with lymphocytic cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, C M A; Gutiérrez, O Pérez; Favier, R P; Rothuizen, J; Penning, L C

    2012-04-23

    In this study, we have successfully used molecular methods based on the amplification of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene on feline bile samples to show that bile of cats with LC is not sterile. This is probably due to the fact that the inflammatory process in the biliary tree causes dilatations. As a result, bacteria can easily migrate from the intestines via the common bile duct. The diversity of species identified and the presence of Helicobacter spp. DNA in both patients and controls suggests that bacteriobilia is secondary to the disease and is not the cause of LC.

  14. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed...... with 13% energy from cheese or butter. Results After 6 weeks of intervention cheese resulted in higher amounts of calcium excreted in feces compared to butter. However, no difference was observed in fecal bile acid output despite lower serum total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations observed...

  15. Detection of bile duct leaks using MR cholangiography with mangfodipir trisodium (Teslascan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitellas, K M; El-Dieb, A; Vaswani, K; Bennett, W F; Fromkes, J; Steinberg, S; Bova, J G

    2001-01-01

    Mangafodipir trisodium (Teslascan), a hepatobiliary contrast agent, has the potential of providing functional biliary imaging similar to hepatobiliary scintigraphy. To our knowledge. the potential role of this biliary contrast agent in the detection of bile duct leaks has not been reported. In this case report, we report the first case of a bile duct leak diagnosed with enhanced MRI with mangafodipir trisodium in a patient following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Our case illustrates that functional MR cholangiography images can be successfully acquired by using a post-mangafodipir fat-suppressed GRE technique and that bile duct leaks can be detected.

  16. Liver receptor homolog 1 transcriptionally regulates human bile salt export pump expression*

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Xiulong; Kaimal, Rajani; Yan, Bingfang; Deng, Ruitang

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic conversion of cholesterol into bile acids in liver is initiated by the rate-limiting cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), whereas the bile salt export pump (BSEP) is responsible for the canalicular secretion of bile acids. Liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1) is a key transcriptional factor required for the hepatic expression of CYP7A1. We hypothesized that LRH-1 was also involved in the transcriptional regulation of BSEP. In support of our hypothesis, we found that overexpression o...

  17. Potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for cholangiocarcinoma in serum and bile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Chen, Liang; Chang, Hao-Teng

    2016-06-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a devastating malignancy that is difficult to treat because of its insensitivity to conventional therapies and the inability to detect early tumor formation. Novel molecular techniques have enabled the use of serum and bile markers for CCA diagnosis and prognosis. Herein, we summarize the principal characteristics of serum and bile markers of CCA. Biomarkers such as interleukin-6, matrix metalloproteinases, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) and bile acids have shown promise for improving CCA diagnosis. Several markers such as CYFRA 21-1, MK-1 and C-reactive protein were recently shown to be effective for CCA prognosis. PMID:27232281

  18. Acerca de la macroestructura y la microestructura en el diccionario bilingüe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polonca Kocjančič

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Los lexicógrafos producen obras de referencia de distintos tipos; el resultado más extendido de su actividad son los diccionarios generales (Ilson, 2002: 331. En la introducción los diccionarios bilingües se clasifican según la tipología general de los dicciona- rios, se presentan sus características y se explica la relación entre los tipos de diccionarios bilingües y los destinatarios. En las dos partes siguientes, se presentan varios aspectos de la macroestructura y la microestructura en el diccionario bilingüe.

  19. Heart pigmentation in the gray bichir, Polypterus senegalus (Actinopterygii: Polypteriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Moya, I; Torres-Prioris, A; Sans-Coma, V; Fernández, B; Durán, A C

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of pigment cells in the heart is well documented in amphibians, birds and mammals. By contrast, information on heart pigmentation in fish is extremely sparse. The aim is to report the presence of pigment cells over the entire surface of the heart in the gray bichir, Polypterus senegalus. The sample consisted of 12 hearts, which, after gross anatomical examination, were studied using histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques for light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The pigment cells were located in the subepicardium, showing a regular distribution pattern across the whole heart, except for the anterior end of the outflow tract, where the pigmentation was much more intense. The cells contained dark, ovoid-shaped organelles which was consistent with a melanosome cell identity. As in other vertebrates, the physiological role of the pigment cells in the heart of the gray bichir is unknown. The absence of such cells in hearts of other polypteriforms suggests that cells containing melanin are not essential for normal fish heart function. Basing on literature data concerning tetrapods, it can be inferred that the pigment cells of the heart of the gray bichir derive from the neural crest. If this were true, our findings would provide the first evidence for the presence of neural crest-derived cells in the subepicardium of adult hearts of early actinopterygians.

  20. Synthesis of chromium containing pigments from chromium galvanic sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreola, F; Barbieri, L; Bondioli, F; Cannio, M; Ferrari, A M; Lancellotti, I

    2008-08-15

    In this work the screening results of the scientific activity conducted on laboratory scale to valorise chromium(III) contained in the galvanic sludge as chromium precursor for ceramic pigments are reported. The valorisation of this waste as a secondary raw material (SRM) is obtained by achievement of thermal and chemical stable crystal structures able to color ceramic material. Two different pigments pink CaCr(0.04)Sn(0.97)SiO(5) and green Ca(3)Cr(2)(SiO(4))(3) were synthesized by solid-state reactions using dried Cr sludge as chromium oxide precursor. The obtained pigments were characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. Furthermore the color developed in a suitable ceramic glaze was investigated in comparison with the color developed by the pigments prepared from pure Cr(2)O(3). The characterization carried out corroborates the thermal and chemical stability of the synthesized pigments and, especially for the Cr-Sn pink pigment, the powders develop an intense color that is very similar to the color developed by the pigments obtained starting from pure Cr(2)O(3). PMID:18289775

  1. Synthesis of chromium containing pigments from chromium galvanic sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreola, F.; Barbieri, L. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e dell' Ambiente, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905, 41100 Modena (Italy); Bondioli, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e dell' Ambiente, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905, 41100 Modena (Italy)], E-mail: bondioli.federica@unimore.it; Cannio, M. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e dell' Ambiente, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905, 41100 Modena (Italy); Ferrari, A.M. [Dipartimento di Scienza e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Viale Amendola 2, 42100 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Lancellotti, I. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e dell' Ambiente, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905, 41100 Modena (Italy)

    2008-08-15

    In this work the screening results of the scientific activity conducted on laboratory scale to valorise chromium(III) contained in the galvanic sludge as chromium precursor for ceramic pigments are reported. The valorisation of this waste as a secondary raw material (SRM) is obtained by achievement of thermal and chemical stable crystal structures able to color ceramic material. Two different pigments pink CaCr{sub 0.04}Sn{sub 0.97}SiO{sub 5} and green Ca{sub 3}Cr{sub 2}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 3} were synthesized by solid-state reactions using dried Cr sludge as chromium oxide precursor. The obtained pigments were characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. Furthermore the color developed in a suitable ceramic glaze was investigated in comparison with the color developed by the pigments prepared from pure Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The characterization carried out corroborates the thermal and chemical stability of the synthesized pigments and, especially for the Cr-Sn pink pigment, the powders develop an intense color that is very similar to the color developed by the pigments obtained starting from pure Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  2. Pigment characterization and lovastatin content of Monascus purpureus isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERNAWATI KASIM

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on characterization of pigment and lovastatin content of M. purpureus had been done. The aim of the research was to select 19 isolates of M. purpureus which produced the highest lovastatin content, and whether there was any correlation between pigment content and the lovastatin content. The isolates were grown on slant agar of bean sprout extract agar for 14 days. The spores suspension was inoculated to sterile cooked rice IR 42, then incubated for 14 days at 27-32oC. The fermented rice called “angkak”, dried in oven at 40-45oC for two weeks. The dried “angkak” was powdered to measure the content of the pigment and lovastatin. By using spectrophotometer the content of the yellow pigment and the red pigment at 390 nm and 500 nm wavelength respectively, could be detected. The content of lovastatin could be measured by using HPLC. The result showed that all the tested isolates could produce lovastatin compound, the yellow and the red pigment. The highest lovastatin content was 0.92% which produced by JmbA isolate. There was no correlation between the pigment and the lovastatin content.

  3. Optimizing Angkak Pigments and Lovastatin Production By Monascus purpureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASIM DANURI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Angkak pigments and lovastatin had been reported very useful as natural coloring agents, as an agent to increase thrombocyte level in Dengue hemorrhagic fever, and also as a compound that was able to control blood cholesterol level. Three strains of fungus Monascus purpureus AKI, AKII, and 915 were selected to produce angkak pigments and lovastatin in potato dextrose agar (PDA medium. The best fungus strain, which is AKII, was then applied in three kinds of rice media (white rice IR-42, red rice BP-1804-IF-9, and a combination of 1:1 (w/w white IR-42 and red rice BP-1804-IF-9 for solid fermentation. The best medium and fermentation times were determined for the production of angkak pigments and lovastatin separately. Results showed that strains, media, and duration of fermentations gave significant effect on the amount of pigment produced. Strain AKII produced highest concentration of angkak pigments. The combination of rice (White IR-42 and red rice BP-1804-IF-9 produced the highest pigment than the individual white and red rie it self. The optimum duration of fermentation was 16 days for strains AKI and AKII, but only 15 days for strain 915. Therefore the strain AKII with media combination of rice and a fermentation time of 16 days were used to investigate the additional effect of various minerals. Addition of the mineral individually gave significant increased on angkak pigment production by AKII, where as the addition of minerals mixture in the forth tube did not.

  4. LIBS identification of pigments from Aula Leopoldina vault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, R.; Skrzeczanowski, W.; Marczak, J.; Sarzynski, A.

    2009-07-01

    Aula Leopoldina is the most representative, baroque hall in Wroclaw University. In 2008, LIBS measurements of paintings layers of Aula vault were done. LIBS spectra permitted identification of mineral pigments used for specific colors of painting layers. This identification could not be unambiguous in each case since simultaneous occurrence of elements that could be components of different pigments of the same color was observed in some samples. For example, in some red samples the presence of aluminum and iron was stated, and hence red ochre or Mars red could be used as a pigment. In other samples the cinnabar can be additionally responsible for red color. Similar problems were observed in case of blue pigments, where existence of copper may show that azurite was used, but the presence of aluminum, sodium, silicon and iron can point to application of ultramarine, Egyptian or Prussian blues. The greatest difficulties occurred during identification of white pigments. Because of presence of barium, zinc, lead and titanium, the potential pigments might be lithopone, barite, zinc white, lead white or titanium white. Final choice of the pigment is determined by the time of last renovation and this points out that the zinc white was used.

  5. Fluorescent thin gel films using organic dyes and pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazumi, Hiroyuki; Takashi, Tarao; Taniguchi, Shin-ichi; Nanto, Hidehito

    1997-10-01

    New organic-inorganic fluorescent thin gel films included with laser dyes or fluorescent organic pigments have been prepared for display application. The florescent dyes (benzoxazolium, pyrromethene, and rhodamine dyes) and super-fine particles of fluorescent pigments (coumarin and perylene) were successfully incorporated into thin silicate gel films prepared from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), methyltriethoxysilane (MTES), and methoxysilane oligomer (MTSO) under acid catalyzed hydrolysis. The blue, green, and red luminescence were observed from these thin films (thickness: 100 - 400 nm), respectively. Fluorescence spectra, fluorescent quantum yield and lifetime of thin gel films are examined. Fluorescent peaks for most of dyes and pigments used in gel films were similar to those in solution, and fluorescent lifetime for dyes and pigments used in gel films were 2.9 - 4.5 ns. Photostability of fluorescent gel films is dependent on fluorescent organic dyes and pigments used and/or silicate gel matrixes. Coumarin and perylene pigments have higher fluorescent quantum yield in gel film prepared from MTSO. The large Stokes shift was observed in fluorescent gel film using coumarin and benzoxazolium dyes. The coumarin and perylene pigments are significantly photo- stable in gel film prepared from MTSO, and photodegradation of perylene red after irradiation of 500 W Xi-lamp for 30 min is below 20%.

  6. Impact of Pigments on Self-Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Ivanauskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe an impact of using iron oxide pigment on self-compacting concrete (SCC properties. We have experimented with adding portions of iron oxide pigment from 3 % to 6 % into cement paste. A few alternative pigments (chromic oxide and iron oxide hydroxide were used for performing the same experiments. The impact of these pigments on a normal cement paste is described in this paper. We demonstrate that iron oxide pigment reduces the need for water in a normal cement paste. However, adding the pigment also reduces the compressive strength of concrete up to 20 %. The concrete specimens were tested in various time spans, i.e. 1 day to 28 days, by keeping them in 20 ± 2 ºC water – normal consolidation regimen. Some of the specimens were processed in steam chamber, at 60 ºC in order to make the process of the cement hydration faster, as well as to estimate an impact of active SiO2 proportion in ash on SCC properties. We show that using iron oxide pigment for SCC mixture increases the slump-flow property of concrete mix up to 5 %. Experiments with solidified concrete have demonstrated that iron oxide diminishes water absorption up to 6 % and decreases open concrete porosity that makes concrete resistant against freezing. Article in Lithuanian

  7. Effects of bile acids and the bile acid receptor FXR agonist on the respiratory rhythm in the in vitro brainstem medulla slice of neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Zhao

    Full Text Available Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is always accompanied by adverse fetal outcomes such as malfunctions of respiration. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR plays a critical role in the homeostasis of bile acids. Thus, we are determined to explore the effects of farnesoid X receptor (FXR and five bile acids on respiratory rhythm generation and modulation of neonatal rats. Spontaneous periodic respiratory-related rhythmical discharge activity (RRDA was recorded from hypoglossal nerves during the perfusion of modified Krebs solution. Group 1-6 was each given GW4064 and five bile acids of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA, deoxycholic acid (DCA, lithocholic acid (LCA, cholic acid (CA as well as ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA at different concentrations to identify their specific functions on respiratory rhythm modulations. Group 7 was applied to receive FXR blocker Z-guggulsterone and Z-guggulsterone with the above bile acids separately to explore the role of FXR in the respiratory rhythm modulation. Group 8 was given dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO as controls. Apart from UDCA, CDCA, DCA LCA and CA all exerted effects on RRDA recorded from hypoglossal nerves in a concentration-dependent manner. Respiratory cycle (RC, Inspiratory time (TI, Expiratory Time (TE and Integral Amplitude (IA were influenced and such effects could be reversed by Z-guggulsterone. FXR may contribute to the effects on the modulation of respiratory rhythm exerted by bile acids.

  8. Evolutionary diversity of bile salts in reptiles and mammals, including analysis of ancient human and extinct giant ground sloth coprolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Alan F

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bile salts are the major end-metabolites of cholesterol and are also important in lipid and protein digestion and in influencing the intestinal microflora. We greatly extend prior surveys of bile salt diversity in both reptiles and mammals, including analysis of 8,000 year old human coprolites and coprolites from the extinct Shasta ground sloth (Nothrotherium shastense. Results While there is significant variation of bile salts across species, bile salt profiles are generally stable within families and often within orders of reptiles and mammals, and do not directly correlate with differences in diet. The variation of bile salts generally accords with current molecular phylogenies of reptiles and mammals, including more recent groupings of squamate reptiles. For mammals, the most unusual finding was that the Paenungulates (elephants, manatees, and the rock hyrax have a very different bile salt profile from the Rufous sengi and South American aardvark, two other mammals classified with Paenungulates in the cohort Afrotheria in molecular phylogenies. Analyses of the approximately 8,000 year old human coprolites yielded a bile salt profile very similar to that found in modern human feces. Analysis of the Shasta ground sloth coprolites (approximately 12,000 years old showed the predominant presence of glycine-conjugated bile acids, similar to analyses of bile and feces of living sloths, in addition to a complex mixture of plant sterols and stanols expected from an herbivorous diet. Conclusions The bile salt synthetic pathway has become longer and more complex throughout vertebrate evolution, with some bile salt modifications only found within single groups such as marsupials. Analysis of the evolution of bile salt structures in different species provides a potentially rich model system for the evolution of a complex biochemical pathway in vertebrates. Our results also demonstrate the stability of bile salts in coprolites

  9. Pigments and citrinin biosynthesis by fungi belonging to genus Monascus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisareva, Emiliya; Savov, Valentin; Kujumdzieva, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Citrinin is a mycotoxin, which is produced by fungi belonging to the genus Monascus, known in biotechnology as producers of azaphilone pigments. The relation between biosynthesis of these secondary metabolites was investigated in different species of the genus Monascus in batch-culture at the following cultivation conditions: T = 28 degrees C, agitation 220 rpm, and a medium, which induce citrinin production, containing ethanol as a carbon source. The screening was carried out with 16 fungal strains and the biosynthesis of citrinin and pigments was monitored quantitatively at the standard conditions mentioned above. Some kinetic parameters of the process have been determined. The values of the growth yield coefficient Y(X/C) were between 0.32 and 0.57. The amount of the extracellular red and orange pigments at the end of cultivation varied for the different strains between 0.09 and 1.33 OU/ mg dry weight, and 0.15 and 0.96 OU/mg dry weight, respectively. The amount of the total pigments measured was between 0.16 and 3.6 OU/mg dry weight, and between 0.21 and 3.39 OU/mg dry weight. The determined ratio 500 nm/400 nm, characterizing the pigment production, ranged between 0.60 and 1.06. Twelve of the investigated strains produced citrinin and pigments, two of them produced only pigments. Two strains were not able to produce neither pigments nor citrinin. Thus, the biosynthesis of citrinin appeared to be strain-specific and does not correlate with the pigments' biosynthesis by the fungal strains belonging to the genus Monascus. PMID:15787255

  10. Mineral resource of the month: iron oxide pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses iron oxide pigments, which have been used as colorants since human began painting as they resist color change due to sunlight exposure, have good chemical resistance and are stable under normal ambient conditions. Cyprus, Italy and Spain are among the countries that are known for the production of iron oxide pigments. Granular forms of iron oxides and nano-sized materials are cited as developments in the synthetic iron oxide pigment industry which are being used in computer disk drives and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

  11. Unusual nail pigmentation following cyclophosphamide-containing chemotherapy regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Santosh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide therapy may rarely cause pigmentation of the nails which is of different patterns. We report a patient who developed pigmentation of nails after six cycles of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-flourouracil chemotherapy, each repeated after 28 days for breast cancer. The patient developed nail pigmentation that started proximally and spread distally and involved all the nails of both hands and feet except the second and third toenails of right foot. Using Naranjo ADR Probability Scale, the case revealed a "probable" association with cyclophosphamide.

  12. Effect of Amaranthus Pigments on Quality Characteristics of Pork Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Cunliu; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Hui; Chen, Conggui

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the possibility of substituting Amaranthus pigments for nitrates in the of manufacture pork sausage. Five treatments of pork sausages (5% fat) with two levels of sodium nitrite (0 and 0.015%), or three levels (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%) of pigments extracted from red Amaranthus were produced. The addition of Amaranthus pigments resulted in the significant increase of a* values, sensory color, flavor and overall acceptance scores, but the significa...

  13. The extraction of pigments from fresh Laminaria japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Liqun; LI Pengcheng; FAN Shoujin

    2008-01-01

    The pigments in Laminaria japonica was extracted with six organic solvents and analyzed in spectroscopy analysis.The extractions conditions were screened by an orthogonal test and the quantity of extracted pigments was determined spectroscopically.The results show that:(1) among the six organic solvents,acetone was the most effective one for the extraction; (2) the optimum extraction conditions were as follows:the ratio of S/M (solvent volume/ material weight) was 30ml/g; fresh seaweed was extracted 2 times in 2h; (3) the average total content of pigments was 1.85mg/g (calculated with dry L.japonica).

  14. Cholecystokinin octapeptide antagonizes apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Liu; Yueling Zhang; Zhaohui Gu; Lina Hao; Juan Du; Qian Yang; Suping Li; Liying Wang; Shilei Gong

    2014-01-01

    Although cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 is important for neurological function, its neuropro-tective properties remain unclear. We speculated that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative injury. In this study, retinal pigment epithelial cells were treated with peroxynitrite to induce oxidative stress. Peroxynitrite triggered apoptosis in these cells, and increased the expression of Fas-associated death domain, Bax, caspa-se-8 and Bcl-2. These changes were suppressed by treatment with cholecystokinin octapeptide-8. These results suggest that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epi-thelial cells against apoptosis induced by peroxynitrite.

  15. Small molecule screening identifies targetable zebrafish pigmentation pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colanesi, Sarah; Taylor, Kerrie L; Temperley, Nicholas D;

    2012-01-01

    Small molecules complement genetic mutants and can be used to probe pigment cell biology by inhibiting specific proteins or pathways. Here, we present the results of a screen of active compounds for those that affect the processes of melanocyte and iridophore development in zebrafish......, including pigment cells, are conserved between zebrafish and other vertebrates, we present these chemicals as molecular tools to study developmental processes of pigment cells in living animals and emphasize the value of zebrafish as an in vivo system for testing the on- and off-target activities...

  16. Genetic variations of bile salt transporters as predisposing factors for drug-induced cholestasis, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and therapeutic response of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Stieger, B; Geier, A.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Drug-induced cholestasis, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and viral hepatitis are acquired forms of liver disease. Cholestasis is a pathophysiologic state with impaired bile formation and subsequent accumulation of bile salts in hepatocytes. The bile salt export pump (BSEP) (ABCB11) is the key export system for bile salts from hepatocytes. AREAS COVERED: This article provides an introduction into the physiology of bile formation followed by a summary of the current knowled...

  17. Metastatic melanoma to the common bile duct causing obstructive jaundice: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Radoje B Colovic; Nikica M Grubor; Miodrag D Jovanovic; Marjan T Micev; Natasa R Colovic

    2007-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma to the common bile duct is very rare with only 18 cases reported so far. We report a 46 year old women who, 18 mo after excision of a skin melanoma, developped a painless progressive obstructive jaundice. At operation a melanoma within the distal third of the common bile duct was found. There were no other secondaries within the abdomen. The common bile duct, including the tumor, was resected and anastomosed with Roux-en-Y jejunal limb. The patient survived 31 mo without any sign of local recurrence and was submitted to three other operations for axillar and brain secondaries, from which she finally died. Radical resection of metastatic melanoma to the common bile duct may result in lifelong relief of obstructive jaundice.It is safe and relatively easy to perform. In other cases, a less aggressive approach, stenting or bypass procedures,should be adopted.

  18. Postprandial Plasma Concentrations of Individual Bile Acids and FGF-19 in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; van Nierop, F Samuel; Kulik, Willem;

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Bile acids regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by interaction with membrane or intracellular proteins including the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Postprandial activation of ileal FXR leads to secretion of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), a gut hormone that may...... be implicated in postprandial glucose metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To describe postprandial plasma concentrations of 12 individual bile acids and FGF-19 in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and healthy controls. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive study, performed at the Center for Diabetes Research, Gentofte Hospital...... controls, but differences were not statistically significant due to considerable variation. CONCLUSION: Postprandial plasma patterns of bile acids with FXR agonistic properties (CDCA, DCA, and CA) and FXR antagonistic properties (UDCA) in T2D patients support the notion of a "T2D-bile acid-FGF-19...

  19. MR-assisted bile duct drainage: a study of passive catheter visualization in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate interactive MR-assisted bile duct drainage in pigs with the passive visualization technique using near real-time imaging. Methods: 8 bile duct drainages were placed in an open low-field MR system (0.2 Tesla) in 4 pigs with surgically induced cholestasis. After planning the intervention with magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC), both the puncture and catheter placement were interactively guided using a fast T2-weighted true FISP sequence. Results: MRC enabled interventional planning in all puncture attempts. Punctures were unproblematic in all attempts, the bile ducts were punctured 6 times after the first and twice after the second attempt. Placement of the passively visible catheter was successful in all animals. The applied sequence enables interactive fluoroscopy-like positioning of the devices. Conclusion: The procedure introduced here enables reliable and fast placement of a bile duct drainage in an animal model using a low-field MR system. (orig.)

  20. Ultrasonographic assessment of gallbladder bile exchanges in healthy subjects and in gallstone patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicala, M; Guarino, M P; Vavassori, P; Alloni, R; Emerenziani, S; Arullani, A; Pallone, F

    2001-11-01

    Impaired gallbladder motility may contribute to gallstone pathogenesis by providing time for nucleation and aggregation of cholesterol crystals. Simultaneous scintigraphic-ultrasonographic techniques have been proposed to assess alternating phases of gallbladder emptying and filling. To evaluate patterns of gallbladder motility and of postprandial bile flow by means of a single ultrasonographic technique, 12 healthy volunteers and 20 gallstone patients underwent minute-by-minute gallbladder ultrasonography for 3 h postprandially. Mathematical analysis of volume measurements was used to estimate hepatic and cholecystic bile flux through the gallbladder. Compared to controls, gallstone patients showed greater amounts of unexchanged cholecystic-to-hepatic bile (11% vs. 1%, p scintigraphic-sonographic studies in comparable groups of subjects. This study provides new ultrasonographic variables, which better express gallbladder bile retention in gallstone patients and strongly discriminate gallstone patients from controls. PMID:11750742

  1. Relief of common bile duct obstruction during the course of hepatobiliary scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, A F

    1995-10-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy performed in a patient suspected of having common bile duct obstruction showed persistence of the hepatic parenchymal phase and no bile duct or gallbladder activity during the first hour of imaging. On endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography examination several hours later, an obstructing gallstone was identified in the common bile duct, and the stone was extracted in conjunction with a papillotomy. Delayed scintigraphic images at 6 hours were unchanged from the earlier views, but imaging at 24 hours showed tracer activity in the small bowel and colon along with persistent hepatic parenchymal activity. These results demonstrate that hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals remain in an excretable form in the liver in patients with complete common duct obstruction, but that resumption of bile flow and tracer excretion does not occur until a number of hours after relief of the obstruction. PMID:8616993

  2. Bile Salt Micelles and Phospholipid Vesicles Present in Simulated and Human Intestinal Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvang, Philipp A; Hinna, Askell H; Brouwers, Joachim;

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about colloidal assemblies present in human intestinal fluids (HIFs), such as bile salt micelles and phospholipid vesicles, is regarded of importance for a better understanding of the in vivo dissolution and absorption behavior of poorly soluble drugs (Biopharmaceutics Classification...

  3. A Molecular Necklace: Threading β-Cyclodextrins onto Polymers Derived from Bile Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yong-Guang; Malveau, Cedric; Mezour, Mohamed A; Perepichka, Dmitrii F; Zhu, X X

    2016-09-19

    A molecular necklace of polypseudorotaxanes was prepared by threading β-cyclodextrins (β-CD) onto biodegradable and thermoresponsive polyurethanes derived from bile acids. These polyurethanes were synthesized via a simple step condensation of bile acid-based dicarbonate with poly(ethylene glycol)-diamine. The β-CD rings slide onto the poly(ethylene glycol) segments and selectively recognize the bile acid units of the polyurethane chains, whereas the poly(ethylene glycol) segments remain crystalline with a lower crystallinity. This bio-compound-derived molecular necklace can be visualized by scanning tunneling microscopy. The polypseudorotaxanes show thermosensitivity in water and the phase transition temperature may be fine-tuned by varying the molar ratios of β-CD to the bile acid units. Such an interesting necklace model of polypseudorotaxane constructed from natural compounds may lead to the further exploration of their applications, such as as an enzyme model, due to their biological nature. PMID:27558980

  4. Impact of oral vancomycin on gut microbiota, bile acid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrieze, Anne; Out, Carolien; Fuentes, Susana;

    2014-01-01

    in humans would affect fecal microbiota composition and subsequently bile acid and glucose metabolism. METHODS: In this single blinded randomized controlled trial, 20 male obese subjects with metabolic syndrome were randomized to 7 days of amoxicillin 500 mg t.i.d. or 7 days of vancomycin 500 mg t.......i.d. At baseline and after 1 week of therapy, fecal microbiota composition (Human Intestinal Tract Chip phylogenetic microarray), fecal and plasma bile acid concentrations as well as insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp using [6,6-(2)H2]-glucose tracer) were measured. RESULTS: Vancomycin reduced...... fecal microbial diversity with a decrease of gram-positive bacteria (mainly Firmicutes) and a compensatory increase in gram-negative bacteria (mainly Proteobacteria). Concomitantly, vancomycin decreased fecal secondary bile acids with a simultaneous postprandial increase in primary bile acids in plasma...

  5. Bile salts inhibit growth and induce apoptosis of human esophageal cancer cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru Zhang; Jun Gong; Hui Wang; Li Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effect of six bile salts, including glycocholate (GC), glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC), glycodeoxycholate (GDC), taurocholate (TC), taurochenodeoxycholate (TCDC), taurodeoxycholate (TDC), and two bile acids including cholic acid (CA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) on esophageal cancer Eca109 cell line.METHODS: Eca109 cells were exposed to six bile salts, two bile acids and the mixed bile salts at different concentrations for 24-72 h. 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to detect the cell proliferation. Apoptotic morphology was observed by phase-contrast video microscopy and deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)assay. Sub-G1 DNA fragmentations and early apoptosis cells were assayed by flow cytometry (FCM) with propidium iodide (PI) staining and annexin V-FITC conjugated with PI staining. Apoptosis DNA ladders on agarose were observed. Activation of caspase-3 was assayed by FCM with FITC-conjugated monoclonal rabbit anti-active caspase3 antibody and expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins were examined immunocytochemically in 500 μmol/L-TC-induced apoptosis cells.RESULTS: Five bile salts except for GC, and two bile acids and the mixed bile salts could initiate growth inhibition of Eca109 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner.TUNEL, FCM, and DNA ladder assays all demonstrated apoptosis induced by bile salts and bile acids at 500 μmol/L,except for GC. Early apoptosis cell percentages in Eca109 cells treated with GCDC, GDC, TC, TCDC, TDC,CA at 500 μmol/L for 12 h, DCA at 500 μmol/L for 6 h,and mixed bile salts at 1 000 μmol/L for 12 h were 7.5%,8.7%, 14.8%, 8.9%, 7.8%, 9.3%, 22.6% and 12.5%,respectively, all were significantly higher than that in control (1.9%). About 22% of the cell population treated with TC at 500 μmol/L for 24 h had detectable active caspase-3, and were higher than that in the control (1%). Immunocytochemical assay suggested that TC down-regulated Bcl

  6. Normal and diseased gallbladder biles : spectral analysis by in vivo proton MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the in vivo proton MR spectra of the bile of human gallbladder in its normal and diseased states and to compare the findings between the two groups. In vivo proton MRS was performed in 88 subjects comprising 33 healthy volunteers, 41 patients with gallstone, and 14 with distal common bile duct obstruction. For this, a clinical 1.5T system with a body coil and STEAM (STipulated Echo-Acquisition Mode) was used. We analyzed the MR spectra of normal and diseased gallbladder biles and tried to categorized the findings according to the significant peaks occurring within consistent ranges of chemical shift. We also compared the spectral patterns between normal and diseased bile. Proton MRS showed four significant major peaks in normal and diseased human bile: peak 1 at 0.8-1.4 ppm, peak 2 at 3.2-3.4 ppm, peak 3 at 3.9-4.1 ppm, and peak 4 at 5.2-5.4 ppm. In each group, peak 1 was most frequent (healthy volunteers, 91%, patients with gallstone, 100%, patients with distal common bile duct obstruction, 93%), but as compared with normal bile (peak 2, 36%, peak 3, 33%), in patients with gallstone, peak 3 was more frequently seen (46%), and in those with distal common bile duct obstruction, peaks 2 (64%) and 3 (64%) were most frequent. According to the significant peak, each MR spectra was categorized as follows: pattern I: peak 1; pattern II: peaks 1 and 2; pattern III: peaks 1 and 3; pattern IV: peaks 1, 2, and 3; pattern V: peaks 1 and 4; pattern VI: peak 3. In normal bile, the common MR spectral patterns were I (36%), II (27%), III, IV, VI, and V, in decreasing order of frequency. In patients with gallstone, however pattern I (44%) and pattern IV (34%) predominated, while in those with distal common bile duct obstruction, pattern IV (57%) was most common. The spectra of normal and diseased gallbladder bile obtained by in vivo proton MR spectroscopy varied, with some differences in spectral patterns between both groups. (author)

  7. [Effects of helium-neon laser on physico-chemical properties of the bile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansurov, Kh Kh; Dzhuraev, Kh Sh; Barakaev, S B; Kharina, T P; Pulatov, L I

    1990-08-01

    The influence of helium-neon laser radiation on bile physico-chemical characteristics in healthy subjects and in patients with the physico-chemical stage of gallstone disease was studied in vitro. This type of laser was found to induce positive therapeutic effects, such as: correction of hydrogen ion concentrations, surface tension and viscosity decrease and prolonged bile nucleation in patients with gallstone disease.

  8. Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy and Serum Bile Acids in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberg, Adriana; Allshouse, Amanda; Kinzie, Kay; Cho, Alice; Davies, Jill K.; Mc Farland, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Intra-hepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is uncommon, but has severe effects on pregnancy outcomes. ICP is characterized by elevated serum bile acids and liver enzymes and preferentially affects women with liver disorders. We compared bile acids and pregnancy outcomes of HIV-infected pregnant women, who commonly have elevated live enzymes, with uninfected controls. Methods Twenty-four HIV-infected, including 2 co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), and 25 uninfected women we...

  9. Vanishing bile duct syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus: Nevirapine hepatotoxicity revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajan; Kochar; Moises; I; Nevah; Frank; J; Lukens; Michael; B; Fallon; Victor; I; Machicao

    2010-01-01

    Vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS) refers to a group of disorders characterized by prolonged cholestasis as a result of destruction and disappearance ofintrahepatic bile ducts. Multiple etiologies have been indentifi ed including infections, neoplastic disorders, autoimmune conditions and drugs. The natural history of this condition is variable and may involve resolution of cholestasis or progression with irreversible damage. VBDS is extremely rare in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients an...

  10. Bile Acid-Induced Arrhythmia Is Mediated by Muscarinic M2 Receptors in Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh Abdul Kadir, Siti H; Michele Miragoli; Shadi Abu-Hayyeh; Moshkov, Alexey V.; Qilian Xie; Verena Keitel; Viacheslav O. Nikolaev; Catherine Williamson; Julia Gorelik

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a common disease affecting up to 5% of pregnancies and which can cause fetal arrhythmia and sudden intrauterine death. We previously demonstrated that bile acid taurocholate (TC), which is raised in the bloodstream of ICP, can acutely alter the rate and rhythm of contraction and induce abnormal calcium destabilization in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM). Apart from their hepatic functions bile acids are ubiquitous signallin...

  11. Bile Acids Induce Cdx2 Expression Through the Farnesoid X Receptor in Gastric Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yingji; Watanabe, Toshio; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Machida, Hirohisa; Okazaki, Hirotoshi; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Kenji; Tominaga, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Oshitani, Nobuhide; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and experimental studies showed that the reflux of bile into the stomach contributes to the induction of intestinal metaplasia of the stomach and gastric carcinogenesis. Caudal-type homeobox 2 (Cdx2) plays a key role in the exhibition of intestinal phenotypes by regulating the expression of intestine-specific genes such as goblet-specific gene mucin 2 (MUC2). We investigated the involvement of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor for bile acids, in the chenodeoxycholic ...

  12. Impact of bile acids on the growth of human cholangiocarcinoma via FXR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yinxin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of different types of bile acids on proliferation of cholangiocarcinoma and the potential molecular mechanisms. Methods PCR assay and Western blot were performed to detect the expression of farnesoid × receptor (FXR in mRNA and protein level. Immunohistochemical analysis was carried out to monitor the expression of FXR in cholangiocarcinoma tissues from 26 patients and 10 normal controls. The effects on in vivo tumor growth were also studied in nude mouse model. Results Free bile acids induced an increased expression of FXR; on the contrary, the conjugated bile acids decreased the expression of FXR. The FXR effect has been illustrated with the use of the FXR agonist GW4064 and the FXR antagonist GS. More specifically, when the use of free bile acids combined with FXR agonist GW4064, the tumor cell inhibitory effect was even more pronounced. But adding FXR antagonist GS into the treatment attenuated the tumor inhibitory effect caused by free bile acids. Combined treatment of GS and CDCA could reverse the regulating effect of CDCA on the expression of FXR. Administration of CDCA and GW 4064 resulted in a significant inhibition of tumor growth. The inhibitory effect in combination group (CDCA plus GW 4064 was even more pronounced. Again, the conjugated bile acid-GDCA promoted the growth of tumor. We also found that FXR agonist GW4064 effectively blocked the stimulatory effect of GDCA on tumor growth. And the characteristic and difference of FXR expressions were in agreement with previous experimental results in mouse cholangiocarcinoma tissues. There was also significant difference in FXR expression between normal and tumor tissues from patients with cholangiocarcinoma. Conclusions The imbalance of ratio of free and conjugated bile acids may play an important role in tumorigenesis of cholangiocarcinoma. FXR, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, may mediate the

  13. The Regulating Effect of CCK and Gastrin on Apoptosis of Bile Duct Carcinoma Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAKuansheng; ZHANGFengshen; HEZhenping; DONGJiahong

    2002-01-01

    Objective:Probe into the influence and the mechanisms of CCK and gastrin on the apoptosis of bile duct carcinoma cells. Methods:By taking beauvericin as the revulsant to the apoptosis of bile duct carcinoma cells, the influence of CCK and gastrin on the apoptosis of bile duct carcinoma cells was investigated by using the teehniques such as TUNEL fluorescent staining, stream mode cell detecting instrument and reverse bcl-2 oligonucleotide. Techifiques of immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization,flow cytometry(FCM),RT-PCR were used to study the roles of apoptosis-related genes bcl-2 and bax Results:After beauvericin 40 μM worked for 12 h, the survival rate of QBC939 bile duct carcinoma cells was decreased by 35%-40%.About 80% of the bile duct carcinoma cells showed various degrees of apoptosis.CCK and gastrin could upregulate the threshold value of the apoptosis of bile duct carcinoma cells, which could be inhibited by L60,L18 and reverse bcl-2 oligonucleotide. In terms of both transcription and translating levels,CCK and gastrin could obviously promote the genetic expression of bel-2,but had no influence on the genetic expression of bax. Addition of CCK-A receptor or CCK-B/gastr in receptor antagonist could remarkably inhibit the expression of bel-2 boosted by gastrin-17 and CCK-8S. Conclusion:CCK and gastrin inhibited the apoptosis of bile duct carcinoma cells through upregulating the genetic expression of bcl-2.Theoretically, this research has expanded our understanding to the mechanism of CCK and gastrin in controlling the growth of tumors, enriched our view to the mechanism of apoptosis of alimentary tract tumors, and has provided a new thinking for the assistant treatment to bile duct carcinoma cells as well.

  14. Bile Salts: Natural Detergents for the Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Herold, Betsy C.; Kirkpatrick, Risa; Marcellino, Daniel; Travelstead, Anna; Pilipenko, Valentina; Krasa, Holly; Bremer, James; Dong, Li Jin; Cooper, Morris D.

    1999-01-01

    The development of new, safe, topical microbicides for intravaginal use for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases is imperative. Previous studies have suggested that bile salts may inhibit human immunodeficiency virus infection; however, their activities against other sexually transmitted pathogens have not been reported. To further explore the potential role of bile salts in preventing sexually transmitted diseases, we examined the in vitro activities and cytotoxicities of select b...

  15. Does Computed Tomography (CT) Overestimate Common-Bile-Duct Diameter in the Evaluation of Gallstone Pancreatitis?

    OpenAIRE

    Hadia Maqsood; Naeem Goussous; Madhumithaa Parthasarathy; Charlotte Horne; Guneet Kaur; Lisa Setiawan; Amanda Sautter; Stephanie James; Hamid Ferdosi; Anne Sill; Gopal C. Kowdley; Steven C Cunningham

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis is a common reason for inpatient admissions in the United States with around 300,000 admissions annually. Gallstones are the most common etiology for acute pancreatitis, and may be associated with a dilated common bile duct. The diameter of the common bile duct is commonly assessed with ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Methods A retrospective analysis of a database of patients who underwent cholecystectomy at our institution from 20...

  16. Metabolites of A Novel Antibiotic Bitespiramycin in Rat Urine and Bile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Guo SHI; Da Fang ZHONG; Yu Ming SUN; Yu Feng ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    A sensitive analytical method to identify active metabolites of bitespiramycin in rat urine and bile was developed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry(LC/ESI-MSn).Bitespiramycin and its major active metabolites in rat urine and bile were isolated and identified as M1 serial(spiramycin I,II,III),M2 serial(platenomycin A1,josamycin and leucomycin A1)and M3 serial(deisovalerylplatenomycin A1,deisovaleryl-josamycin,deisovalerylleucomycin A1).

  17. Intrahepatic Bile Duct Regeneration in Mice Does Not Require Hnf6 or Notch Signaling through Rbpj

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Teagan J.; Vanderpool, Charles; Cast, Ashley E.; Huppert, Stacey S.

    2014-01-01

    The potential for intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD) regeneration in patients with bile duct insufficiency diseases is poorly understood. Notch signaling and Hnf6 have each been shown to be important for the morphogenesis of IHBDs in mice. One congenital pediatric liver disease characterized by reduced numbers of IHBDs, Alagille syndrome, is associated with mutations in Notch signaling components. Therefore, we investigated whether liver cell plasticity could contribute to IHBD regeneration in mic...

  18. Biliary drainage of the common bile duct with an enteral metal stent

    OpenAIRE

    dek, I.M.; Elzen, van den, CMJ; Fockens, P.; Rauws, E A J

    2009-01-01

    In this case report we present an elderly patient who was referred to our hospital with recurrent episodes of cholangitis that persisted after placement of five metal stents for a distal common bile duct (CBD) stenosis. All metal stents were endoscopically removed from the CBD by forceps after balloon dilatation of the papilla. A profoundly dilated CBD with sludge and concrements was seen. To ensure adequate bile drainage an enteral metal stent was inserted in the CBD. This case shows that pr...

  19. Primary Patency of Wallstents in Malignant Bile Duct Obstruction: Single vs. Two or More Noncoaxial Stents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the primary patency of two or more noncoaxial self-expanding metallic Wallstents (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA) and to compare this with the primary patency of a single stent in malignant bile duct obstruction. From August 2002 to August 2004, 127 patients had stents placed for malignant bile duct obstruction. Forty-five patients were treated with more than one noncoaxial self-expanding metallic stents and 82 patients had a single stent placed. Two patients in the multiple-stent group were lost to follow-up. The primary patency period was calculated from the date of stenting until the first poststenting intervention for stent occlusion, death, or the time of last documented follow-up. The patency of a single stent was significantly different from that of multiple stents (P = 0.0004). In the subset of patients with high bile duct obstruction, the patency of a single stent remained significantly different from that of multiple stents (P = 0.02). In the single-stent group, there was no difference in patency between patients with high vs. those with low bile duct obstruction (P = 0.43). The overall median patency for the multistent group and the single-stent group was 201 and 261 days, respectively. In conclusion, the patency of a single stent placed for malignant low or high bile duct obstruction is similar, and significantly longer than, that of multiple stents placed for malignant high bile duct obstruction. Given the median patency of 201 days, when indicated, percutaneous stenting of multiple bile ducts is an effective palliative measure for patients with malignant high bile duct obstruction.

  20. Bacterial Bile Metabolising Gene Abundance in Crohn's, Ulcerative Colitis and Type 2 Diabetes Metagenomes

    OpenAIRE

    Labbé, Alain; Ganopolsky, Jorge G.; Martoni, Christopher J.; Prakash, Satya; Jones, Mitchell L.

    2014-01-01

    We performed an analysis to determine the importance of bile acid modification genes in the gut microbiome of inflammatory bowel disease and type 2 diabetic patients. We used publicly available metagenomic datasets from the Human Microbiome Project and the MetaHIT consortium, and determined the abundance of bile salt hydrolase gene (bsh), 7 alpha-dehydroxylase gene (adh) and 7-alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene (hsdh) in fecal bacteria in diseased populations of Crohn's disease (CD), Ulc...

  1. Effects of Huangqi and bear bile on recurrent parotitis in children: a new clinical approach*

    OpenAIRE

    Ruan, Wen-hua; Huang, Mei-Li; He, Xiao-lei; Feng ZHANG; Tao, Hai-biao

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicine, bear bile capsule and Huangqi granule, on recurrent parotitis in children. Methods: In this prospective, controlled, and randomized study, a total of 151 young children were divided into three groups: Group A included massaging the children’s parotid region and melting vitamin C in their mouth daily; Group B included swallowing bear bile capsule and Huangqi granule daily; and Group C included massages and vita...

  2. Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-Aging and Anti-Tumor Effects of Lithocholic Bile Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Arlia-Ciommo; Amanda Piano; Veronika Svistkova; Sadaf Mohtashami; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are cholesterol-derived bioactive lipids that play essential roles in the maintenance of a heathy lifespan. These amphipathic molecules with detergent-like properties display numerous beneficial effects on various longevity- and healthspan-promoting processes in evolutionarily distant organisms. Recent studies revealed that lithocholic bile acid not only causes a considerable lifespan extension in yeast, but also exhibits a substantial cytotoxic effect in cultured cancer cells deri...

  3. Reconstitution of bile acid transport in the rat hepatoma McArdle RH-7777 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchia, E C; Shapiro, R J; Agellon, L B

    1996-07-01

    The liver recovers bile acids from the portal circulation primarily via an active process that is dependent on sodium ions. Hepatocytes lose the ability to transport bile acids in culture, and, in liver-derived permanent cell lines, this ability is severely reduced or absent. To study the importance of bile acids in regulating liver-specific functions (e.g., cellular bile acid and cholesterol metabolism), we have re-established active bile acid transport in cultured cells. The complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the rat sodium/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (ntcp) was placed under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter and transfected into the rat hepatoma cell line, McArdle RH-7777. Transfected cells were screened for the ability to take up [3H]-taurocholate. Clones that displayed the ability to take up taurocholate were expanded (designated McNtcp) and further characterized. The apparent Michaelis constant (Km) for taurocholate uptake was similar among the different clones. The observed maximum velocity (Vmax), however, differed and was positively correlated with the abundance of recombinant ntcp messenger RNA (mRNA). The highest level of taurocholate uptake activity observed in McNtcp cells was comparable with that of freshly isolated hepatocytes. Efflux of accumulated taurocholate from McNtcp cells proceeded in a manner similar to primary hepatocytes, indicating that McArdle RH-7777 cells have retained the ability to secrete bile acids. Moreover, taurocholate uptake in McNtcp cells was inhibited by other bile acid species. Based on the observed kinetic parameters, the reconstituted McArdle RH-7777 cells mimic the ability of primary hepatocytes to transport bile acids.

  4. Risk Factors for Development of Biliary Stricture in Patients Presenting with Bile Leak after Cholecystectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Lokesh, Hosur Mayanna; Pottakkat, Biju; Prakash, Anand; Singh, Rajneesh Kumar; Behari, Anu; Kumar, Ashok; Kapoor, Vinay Kumar; Saxena, Rajan

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims This study was aimed at determining the factors associated with the development of benign biliary stricture (BBS) in patients who had sustained a bile duct injury (BDI) at cholecystectomy and developed bile leaks. Methods A retrospective analysis of 214 patients with BDI who were referred to our center between January 1989 and December 2009 was done. Results One hundred fifty-three (71%) patients developed BBS (group I), and 61 (29%) were normal (group II). By univariate analy...

  5. A relation between high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and bile cholesterol saturation.

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, J R; Heaton, K. W.; Macfarlane, D G

    1981-01-01

    The association of cholesterol gall stones with coronary artery disease is controversial. To investigate this possible relation at the biochemical level, bile cholesterol saturation and the plasma concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) were measured in 25 healthy, middle-aged women. Bile cholesterol saturation index was negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol. It was positively correlated with plasma triglycerides and ...

  6. High level of deoxycholic acid in human bile does not promote cholesterol gallstone formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ulf Gustafsson; Staffan Sahlin; Curt Einarsson

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study whether patients with excess deoxycholic acid (DCA) differ from those with normal percentage of DCA with respect to biliary lipid composition and cholesterol saturation of gallbladder bile.METHODS: Bile was collected during operation through puncturing into the gallbladder from 122 cholesterol gallstone patients and 46 gallstone-free subjects undergoing cholecystectomy. Clinical data, biliary lipids, bile acid composition,presence of crystals and nucleation time were analyzed.RESULTS: A subgroup of gallstone patients displayeda higher proportion of DCA in bile than gallstone free subjects.By choosing a cut-off level of the 90th percentile, a group of 13 gallstone patients with high DCA levels (mean 50percent of total bile acids) and a large group of 109 patients with normal DCA levels (mean 21 percent of total bile acids)were obtained. The mean age of the patients with high DCA levels was higher than that of the group with normal levels (mean age: 62 years vs45 years) and so was the mean BMI (28.3 vs. 24.7). Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were slightly higher in the DCA excess groups compared with those in the normal DCA group. There was no difference in biliary lipid composition, cholesterol saturation, nucleation time or occurrence of cholesterol crystals in bile between patients with high and normal levels of DCA.CONCLUSION: Gallstone patients with excess DCA were of older age and had higher BMI than patients with normal DCA. The two groups of patients did not differ with respect to biliary lipid composition, cholesterol saturation, nucleation time or occurrence of cholesterol crystals. It is concluded that DCA in bile does not seem to contribute to gallstone formation in cholesterol gallstone patients.

  7. Mechanistic Modeling Reveals the Critical Knowledge Gaps in Bile Acid–Mediated DILI

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhead, J L; Yang, K.; Brouwer, K L R; Siler, S. Q.; Stahl, S H; Ambroso, J L; Baker, D; Watkins, P B; Howell, B A

    2014-01-01

    Bile salt export pump (BSEP) inhibition has been proposed to be an important mechanism for drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Modeling can prioritize knowledge gaps concerning bile acid (BA) homeostasis and thus help guide experimentation. A submodel of BA homeostasis in rats and humans was constructed within DILIsym, a mechanistic model of DILI. In vivo experiments in rats with glibenclamide were conducted, and data from these experiments were used to validate the model. The behavior of DILIs...

  8. Estrogen and Estrogen Receptor-α-Mediated Transrepression of Bile Salt Export Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yuan; Vasilenko, Alex; Song, Xiulong; Valanejad, Leila; Verma, Ruchi; You, Sangmin; Yan, Bingfang; Shiffka, Stephanie; Hargreaves, Leeza; Nadolny, Christina; Deng, Ruitang

    2015-01-01

    Among diseases unique to pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is the most prevalent disorder with elevated serum bile acid levels. We have previously shown that estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2) transrepresses bile salt export pump (BSEP) through an interaction between estrogen receptor (ER)-α and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and transrepression of BSEP by E2/ERα is an etiological contributing factor to intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Currently the mechanistic insights into such tr...

  9. Biliary excretion of pravastatin and taurocholate in rats with bile salt export pump (Bsep) impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yaofeng; Freeden, Chris; Zhang, Yueping; Abraham, Pamela; Shen, Hong; Wescott, Debra; Humphreys, W Griffith; Gan, Jinping; Lai, Yurong

    2016-07-01

    The bile salt export pump (BSEP) is expressed on the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes regulating liver bile salt excretion, and impairment of BSEP function may lead to cholestasis in humans. This study explored drug biliary excretion, as well as serum chemistry, individual bile acid concentrations and liver transporter expressions, in the SAGE Bsep knockout (KO) rat model. It was observed that the Bsep protein in KO rats was decreased to 15% of that in the wild type (WT), as quantified using LC-MS/MS. While the levels of Ntcp and Mrp2 were not significantly altered, Mrp3 expression increased and Oatp1a1 decreased in KO animals. Compared with the WT rats, the KO rats had similar serum chemistry and showed normal liver transaminases. Although the total plasma bile salts and bile flow were not significantly changed in Bsep KO rats, individual bile acids in plasma and liver demonstrated variable changes, indicating the impact of Bsep KO. Following an intravenous dose of deuterium labeled taurocholic acid (D4-TCA, 2 mg/kg), the D4-TCA plasma exposure was higher and bile excretion was delayed by approximately 0.5 h in the KO rats. No differences were observed for the pravastatin plasma concentration-time profile or the biliary excretion after intravenous administration (1 mg/kg). Collectively, the results revealed that these rats have significantly lower Bsep expression, therefore affecting the biliary excretion of endogenous bile acids and Bsep substrates. However, these rats are able to maintain a relatively normal liver function through the remaining Bsep protein and via the regulation of other transporters. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27059119

  10. Epiphytic marine pigmented bacteria : A prospective source of natural antioxidants

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pawar, R.T.; Mohandass, C.; Sivaperumal, E.; Sabu, E.; Rajasabapathy, R.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Awareness on antioxidants and its significance in human healthcare has increased many folds in recent time. Increased demand requisite on welcoming newer and alternative resources for natural antioxidants. Seaweed associated pigmented bacteria...

  11. The New Carotenoid Pigment Moraxanthin Is Associated with Toxic Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Mangoni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The new pigment “moraxanthin” was found in natural samples from a fish mortality site in the Inland Bays of Delaware, USA. Pure cultures of the species, tentatively named Chattonella cf. verruculosa, and natural samples contained this pigment as a dominant carotenoid. The pigment, obtained from a 10 L culture of C. cf. verruculosa, was isolated and harvested by HPLC and its structure determined from MS and 1D- and 2D-NMR. The data identified this pigment as a new acylated form of vaucheriaxanthin called moraxanthin after the berry like algal cell. Its presence in pure cultures and in natural bloom samples indicates that moraxanthin is specific to C. cf. verruculosa and can be used as a marker of its presence when HPLC is used to analyze natural blooms samples.

  12. Preparation and characterization of Cr203 system optically variable pigment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Haiyan; ZHANG Hua; CHEN Qirong; SUN Jiayue; XU Wencai; MA Erjun

    2007-01-01

    An optically variable pigment was produced by wet chemical method, where TiO2-coated mica with interfer-ence colors acted as the substrate materials. The structure of the pigment was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),and its optically variable effect was investigated by X-Rite MA86 Ⅱ five angles spectrophotometer. The impact of differ-ent interference substrate materials for improving the color travel effect was studied, and the influence of white and black background on the hue and the color travel effect were stud-ied. Results showed that optically variable pigments can be prepared by coating Cr2O3 on the surface of the pretreated TiO2-coated mica. The color travel effect was sensitive to the change of substrate materials, and different backgrounds can influence the hue and the color travel effect of the pigment.

  13. Ion beam induced luminescence on white inorganic pigments for paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam induced luminescence (IBIL) has been used for studying the emission features and the radiation hardness of white pigments. In particular, ZnO, gypsum and basic lead sulphate pigments have been analyzed with a 3.0 MeV H+ beam at the AGLAE Louvre laboratory. The same pigments mixed with different binders have been also analyzed on a canvas, in order to evaluate the contribution of the binders both to the IBIL spectra and to the radiation hardness. It turns out that the binder affects both the IBIL spectra and the radiation hardness of pigments when the emission bands are related to point defects, as occurs for ZnO

  14. Ion beam induced luminescence on white inorganic pigments for paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, A.; Dran, J. C.; Salomon, J.; Tonezzer, M.; Scian, C.; Beck, L.; Carturan, S.; Maggioni, G.; Della Mea, G.

    2008-05-01

    Ion beam induced luminescence (IBIL) has been used for studying the emission features and the radiation hardness of white pigments. In particular, ZnO, gypsum and basic lead sulphate pigments have been analyzed with a 3.0 MeV H+ beam at the AGLAE Louvre laboratory. The same pigments mixed with different binders have been also analyzed on a canvas, in order to evaluate the contribution of the binders both to the IBIL spectra and to the radiation hardness. It turns out that the binder affects both the IBIL spectra and the radiation hardness of pigments when the emission bands are related to point defects, as occurs for ZnO.

  15. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used

  16. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: srio@esrf.fr; Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Somogyi, A. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Reyes-Valerio, C. [INAH, Mexico DF (Mexico); Dooryhee, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Peltier, N. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Alianelli, L. [INFM-OGG c/o ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Moignard, B. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Pichon, L. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Calligaro, T. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Dran, J.-C. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France)

    2004-10-08

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used.

  17. Culture medium optimization for pigment production with RSM method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize a medium for a red-pigmented marine bacterium S-9801 strain (Flavobacterium sp.). In the first optimization step the influence of yeast extract, peptone, glucose and sodium chloride on pigment production was evaluated using a fractional factorial design. Pigment production was positively influenced by glucose and sodium chloride while other components had no significant effect. In the second step the path of steepest ascent was used to approach the optimal region of the medium composition. In the third step the optimal concentration of glucose and sodium chloride was determined by a central composite design and response analysis. The optimized medium allowed pigment production (A 535~650) to be increased from 0.137 to0.559, being 320% higher than the original medium.

  18. Neutrophils Compromise Retinal Pigment Epithelial Barrier Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiehao Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that neutrophils and their secreted factors mediate breakdown of the integrity of the outer blood-retina-barrier by degrading the apical tight junctions of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. The effect of activated neutrophils or neutrophil cell lysate on apparent permeability of bovine RPE-Choroid explants was evaluated by measuring [H] mannitol flux in a modified Ussing chamber. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 9 in murine peritoneal neutrophils, and the effects of neutrophils on RPE tight-junction protein expression were assessed by confocal microscopy and western blot. Our results revealed that basolateral incubation of explants with neutrophils decreased occludin and ZO-1 expression at 1 and 3 hours and increased the permeability of bovine RPE-Choroid explants by >3-fold (P<.05. Similarly, basolateral incubation of explants with neutrophil lysate decreased ZO-1 expression at 1 and 3 hours (P<.05 and increased permeability of explants by 75%. Further, we found that neutrophils prominently express MMP-9 and that incubation of explants with neutrophils in the presence of anti-MMP-9 antibody inhibited the increase in permeability. These data suggest that neutrophil-derived MMP-9 may play an important role in disrupting the integrity of the outer blood-retina barrier.

  19. Age-related hair pigment loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Humans are social animals that communicate disproportionately via potent genetic signals imbued in the skin and hair, including racial, ethnic, health, gender, and age status. For the vast majority of us, age-related hair pigment loss becomes the inescapable signal of our disappearing youth. The hair follicle (HF) pigmentary unit is a wonderful tissue for studying mechanisms generally regulating aging, often before this becomes evident elsewhere in the body. Given that follicular melanocytes (unlike those in the epidermis) are regulated by the hair growth cycle, this cycle is likely to impact the process of aging in the HF pigmentary unit. The formal identification of melanocyte stem cells in the mouse skin has spurred a flurry of reports on the potential involvement of melanocyte stem cell depletion in hair graying (i.e., canities). Caution is recommended, however, against simple extrapolation of murine data to humans. Regardless, hair graying in both species is likely to involve an age-related imbalance in the tissue's oxidative stress handling that will impact not only melanogenesis but also melanocyte stem cell and melanocyte homeostasis and survival. There is some emerging evidence that the HF pigmentary unit may have regenerative potential, even after it has begun to produce white hair fibers. It may therefore be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some aging-associated changes to maintain melanin production for longer. PMID:26370651

  20. Pigment Melanin: Pattern for Iris Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Hosseini, Mahdi S; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2009-01-01

    Recognition of iris based on Visible Light (VL) imaging is a difficult problem because of the light reflection from the cornea. Nonetheless, pigment melanin provides a rich feature source in VL, unavailable in Near-Infrared (NIR) imaging. This is due to biological spectroscopy of eumelanin, a chemical not stimulated in NIR. In this case, a plausible solution to observe such patterns may be provided by an adaptive procedure using a variational technique on the image histogram. To describe the patterns, a shape analysis method is used to derive feature-code for each subject. An important question is how much the melanin patterns, extracted from VL, are independent of iris texture in NIR. With this question in mind, the present investigation proposes fusion of features extracted from NIR and VL to boost the recognition performance. We have collected our own database (UTIRIS) consisting of both NIR and VL images of 158 eyes of 79 individuals. This investigation demonstrates that the proposed algorithm is highly s...

  1. NMR characterization of the interaction of the Salmonella type III secretion system protein SipD and bile salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Nordhues, Bryce A; Zhong, Dalian; De Guzman, Roberto N

    2010-05-18

    Salmonella and Shigella bacteria require the type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject virulence proteins into their hosts and initiate infections. The tip proteins SipD and IpaD are critical components of the Salmonella and Shigella T3SS, respectively. Recently, SipD and IpaD have been shown to interact with bile salts, which are enriched in the intestines, and are hypothesized to act as environmental sensors for these enteric pathogens. Bile salts activate the Shigella T3SS but repress the Salmonella T3SS, and the mechanism of this differing response to bile salts is poorly understood. Further, how SipD binds to bile salts is currently unknown. Computer modeling predicted that IpaD binds the bile salt deoxycholate in a cleft formed by the N-terminal domain and the long central coiled coil of IpaD. Here, we used NMR methods to determine which SipD residues are affected by the interaction with the bile salts deoxycholate, chenodeoxycholate, and taurodeoxcholate. The bile salts perturbed nearly the same set of SipD residues; however, the largest chemical shift perturbations occurred away from what was predicted for the bile salt binding site in IpaD. Our NMR results indicate that that bile salt interaction of SipD will be different from what was predicted for IpaD, suggesting a possible mechanism for the differing response of Salmonella and Shigella to bile salts.

  2. Reference standard for serum bile acids in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-31

    Please cite this paper as: Egan N, Bartels A, Khashan A, Broadhurst D, Joyce C, O\\'Mullane J, O\\'Donoghue K. Reference standard for serum bile acids in pregnancy. BJOG 2012;00:000-000. DOI: 10.1111\\/j.1471-0528.2011.03245.x. Objective Obstetric cholestasis (OC) is a liver disorder characterised by pruritus and elevated serum bile acids (SBA) that affects one in 200 pregnant women. It is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes such as premature delivery and stillbirth. Mild OC is defined as SBA levels of 10-39 mumol\\/l, and severe OC is defined by levels >40 mumol\\/l. SBA levels in normal pregnancy have not been investigated. We aimed to establish reference values for SBA in healthy pregnant women across different trimesters of pregnancy. Design Cross-sectional analysis of SBA levels. Setting A large tertiary referral university teaching maternity hospital. Population Healthy pregnant women with a singleton pregnancy and a body mass index (BMI) < 40, excluding women with significant alcohol intake, history of liver disease, prior cholecystectomy and OC. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of SBA levels at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks of gestation, and on days 1-3 postpartum. Main outcome measures SBA levels in mumol\\/l. Results A total of 219 women attending for antenatal care were recruited, and SBA levels were assayed at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks of gestation, and up to 72 hours postpartum (n = 44-49 cases at each stage). The majority were white European women, with a median age of 30 years (range 17-46 years) and median BMI of 25 (range 18-38). Values of SBA ranged from 0.3 to 9.8 mumol\\/l in 216 women, with only three measurements outside this range. There were no significant changes throughout pregnancy. Conclusions SBA values in uncomplicated pregnancies are consistent, regardless of gestation, and are not elevated in pregnancy. The current reference values for the diagnosis of OC appear to be appropriate.

  3. Effect of bile on nisin-mediated antibacterial activity and the expression of nisin genes of Lactococcus lactis W8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Suranjita; Mukhopadhyay, Bidhan Chandra; Chakrabartty, Pran Krishna; Biswas, Swadesh Ranjan

    2013-12-01

    The capability of Lactococcus lactis to produce nisin in the presence of bile in the intestinal environment remains an intriguing question. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of bile on production of nisin and the mRNA expression of nisin genes of L. lactis W8. The strain L. lactis W8 was grown on glucose in the absence and presence of bile (0.005-0.08 %) and the antibacterial activities of culture supernatants were determined. In culture with 0.035 % bile, the nisin activity was significantly reduced (400 AU/mL) within 5 h compared to that in the control without bile (2000 AU/mL), while growth of the cells was only slightly affected. In the presence of 0.07 % bile no nisin activity of the strain was manifested. Consistent with these results, mRNA expression of nisin-biosynthetic genes nisZ, nisRK, nisI, and nisF was down-regulated by 7.5-, 2.5-, 1.7-, and 6.0-fold, respectively in cells grown in the presence of bile (0.07 %) as compared to control culture without bile. The present study suggested that bile inhibited transcription of nisin genes. Nisin-production in intestine by orally administered L. lactis, thus, does not occur since complete inhibition of nisin-production by bile is observed at a concentration much lower than the physiological concentration (0.3 %) of bile present in the human intestine. The molecular mechanism underlying the bile-mediated inhibition of nisin genes remains to be elucidated. This is the first report on bile-mediated inhibition of nisin genes.

  4. Impact of Inhibiting Ileal Apical Versus Basolateral Bile acid Transport on Cholesterol Metabolism and Atherosclerosis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bile acid sequestrants have been used for many years to treat hypercholesterolemia by increasing hepatic conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, thereby inducing hepatic LDL receptor expression and clearance of apoB-containing particles. In order to further understand the underlying molecular mechanisms linking gut-liver signaling and cholesterol homeostasis, mouse models defective in ileal apical membrane bile acid transport (Asbt null) and ileal basolateral membrane bile acid transport (Ostα null) were studied under basal and hypercholesterolemic conditions. Key Messages Hepatic conversion of cholesterol to bile acids is the major pathway for cholesterol catabolism and a major mechanism for cholesterol elimination. Blocking ileal apical membrane bile acid transport (Asbt null mice) increases fecal bile acid excretion, hepatic Cyp7a1 expression and the relative proportion of taurocholate in the bile acid pool, but decreases ileal FGF15 expression, bile acid pool size, and hepatic cholesterol content. In contrast, blocking ileal basolateral membrane bile acid transport (Ostα null mice) increases ileal FGF15 expression, reduces hepatic Cyp7a1 expression, and increases the proportion of tauro-β-muricholic acid in the bile acid pool. In the hypercholesterolemic apoE null background, plasma cholesterol levels and measurements of atherosclerosis were reduced in Asbt/apoE null mice but not in Ostα/apoE null mice. Conclusions Blocking intestinal absorption of bile acids at the apical versus basolateral membrane differentially affects bile acid and cholesterol metabolism, including the development of hypercholesterolemia-associated atherosclerosis. The molecular mechanism likely involves altered regulation of ileal FGF15 expression. PMID:26045273

  5. Pigmented villonodular synovitis: diagnosis with magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath) is a rare benign condition of unknown etiology, usually involving weight-bearing joints. The authors report two cases of patients with pigmented villonodular synovitis, of which one with a relapsing course. Imaging features and differential diagnosis are discussed, emphasizing the advantages of magnetic resonance imaging as a noninvasive and sensitive method for early diagnosis. (author)

  6. Multiple Pigmented Bowen's Disease: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Pratik Gahalaut; Madhur Kant Rastogi; Nitin Mishra; Sandhya Chauhan

    2012-01-01

    Bowens' disease (BD) is a precancerous condition of skin and/or mucosa with a predilection towards sun-exposed areas. Extensive literature research failed to reveal any case of multiple pigmented BD in type V Fitzpatrick skin. Multiple BD is a therapeutic challenge with a tendency to recur. Here we present an otherwise healthy Indian male having multiple pigmented lesions of BD on sun-protected sites of the body mimicking malignant melanoma. These lesions were refractory to treatment with dif...

  7. Anthocyanin Pigmentation Patternings in Petals of Hibiscus syriacus

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Hwa; Okubo, Hiroshi; Fujieda, Kunimitsu; Uemoto, Shunpei

    1989-01-01

    Petals of Hibiscus syriacus are characterized by the various colored main part ‘body’ and an intense red to mauve ‘eye’ in the base of each petal. The concentrations of each anthocyanin varied greatly in the body part by the colors of the petals, while the predominant pigments were the cyanidin 3-glucoside and 3-malonylglucoside in the eye regions of all examined culivars. These pigmentation patternings were further investigated in several flowering stages; the anthocyanin pathways were disti...

  8. A melanosomal two-pore sodium channel regulates pigmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Bellono, Nicholas W.; Escobar, Iliana E.; Elena Oancea

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular organelles mediate complex cellular functions that often require ion transport across their membranes. Melanosomes are organelles responsible for the synthesis of the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanin synthesis result in pigmentation defects, visual deficits, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Although genes encoding putative melanosomal ion transporters have been identified as key regulators of melanin synthesis, melanosome ion transport and...

  9. Melanocortin systems on pigment dispersion in fish chromatophores

    OpenAIRE

    AkiyoshiTakahashi; YumikoSaito

    2012-01-01

    Alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is responsible for pigment dispersion in the chromatophores of fish and other tetrapods such as amphibians and reptiles. Recently, we discovered that alpha-MSH did not always stimulate pigment dispersion because this hormonal peptide exerted no effects on the melanophores of flounders. We assumed that the reduction of alpha-MSH activity was related to the co-expression of different alpha-MSH receptor subtypes—termed melanocortin receptors (MC...

  10. Abnormal pigmentation within cutaneous scars: a complication of wound healing

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Chadwick; Rebecca Heath; Mamta Shah

    2012-01-01

    Abnormally pigmented scars are an undesirable consequence of cutaneous wound healing and are a complication every single individual worldwide is at risk of. They present a challenge for clinicians, as there are currently no definitive treatment options available, and render scars much more noticeable making them highly distressing for patients. Despite extensive research into both wound healing and the pigment cell, there remains a scarcity of knowledge surrounding the repigmentation of cutan...

  11. PIGMENTED BASAL CELL CARCINOMA: A RARE CLINICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL VARIANT

    OpenAIRE

    Chandralekha; Vijaya Bhaskar; Bhagyalakshmi; Sudhakar; Sumanlatha

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a common malignant tumour of skin , commonly referred to as „rodent ulcer‟. It is common in the head and neck region. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is an important risk factor. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a clinical and histological variant of basal cell carcinoma that exhibits inc reased pigmentation. It is a rare variant that can clinically mimic malignant melanoma. It is more common in males than females. Herein , we are...

  12. Enhancing bile tolerance improves survival and persistence of Bifidobacterium and Lactococcus in the murine gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Colin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of commensal gastrointestinal bacteria used as probiotics are highly adapted to the specialised environment of the large bowel. However, unlike pathogenic bacteria; they are often inadequately equipped to endure the physicochemical stresses of gastrointestinal (GI delivery in the host. Herein we outline a patho-biotechnology strategy to improve gastric delivery and host adaptation of a probiotic strain Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 and the generally regarded as safe (GRAS organism Lactococcus lactis NZ9000. Results In vitro bile tolerance of both strains was significantly enhanced (P Listeria monocytogenes bile resistance mechanism BilE. Strains harbouring bilE were also recovered at significantly higher levels (P n = 5, following oral inoculation. Furthermore, a B. breve strain expressing bilE demonstrated increased efficacy relative to the wild-type strain in reducing oral L. monocytogenes infection in mice. Conclusion Collectively the data indicates that bile tolerance can be enhanced in Bifidobacterium and Lactococcus species through rational genetic manipulation and that this can significantly improve delivery to and colonisation of the GI tract.

  13. Review: Mechanisms of How the Intestinal Microbiota Alters the Effects of Drugs and Bile Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Curtis D; Cui, Julia Yue

    2015-10-01

    Information on the intestinal microbiota has increased exponentially this century because of technical advancements in genomics and metabolomics. Although information on the synthesis of bile acids by the liver and their transformation to secondary bile acids by the intestinal microbiota was the first example of the importance of the intestinal microbiota in biotransforming chemicals, this review will discuss numerous examples of the mechanisms by which the intestinal microbiota alters the pharmacology and toxicology of drugs and other chemicals. More specifically, the altered pharmacology and toxicology of salicylazosulfapridine, digoxin, l-dopa, acetaminophen, caffeic acid, phosphatidyl choline, carnitine, sorivudine, irinotecan, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, heterocyclic amines, melamine, nitrazepam, and lovastatin will be reviewed. In addition, recent data that the intestinal microbiota alters drug metabolism of the host, especially Cyp3a, as well as the significance and potential mechanisms of this phenomenon are summarized. The review will conclude with an update of bile acid research, emphasizing the bile acid receptors (FXR and TGR5) that regulate not only bile acid synthesis and transport but also energy metabolism. Recent data indicate that by altering the intestinal microbiota, either by diet or drugs, one may be able to minimize the adverse effects of the Western diet by altering the composition of bile acids in the intestine that are agonists or antagonists of FXR and TGR5. Therefore, it may be possible to consider the intestinal microbiota as another drug target.

  14. Triple non-invasive diagnostic test for exclusion of common bile ducts stones before laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of a preoperative "triple non-invasive diagnostic test" for diagnosis and/or exclusion of common bile duct stones.METHODS: All patients with symptomatic gallstone disease, operated on by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from March 2004 to March 2006 were studied retrospectively. Two hundred patients were included and reviewed by using a triple diagnostic test including:patient's medical history, routine liver function tests and routine ultrasonography. All patients were followed up 2-24 mo after surgery to evaluate the impact of triple diagnostic test.RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were identified to have common bile duct stones. Lack of history of stones,negative laboratory tests and normal ultrasonography alone was proven to exclude common bile duct stones in some patients. However, a combination of these three components (triple diagnostic), was proven to be the most statistically significant test to exclude common bile duct stones in patients with gallstone disease.CONCLUSION: Using a combination of routinely used diagnostic components as triple diagnostic modality would increase the diagnostic accuracy of common bile duct stones preoperatively. This triple non-invasive test is recommended for excluding common bile duct stones and to identify patients in need for other investigations.

  15. Bile acids reduce endocytosis of high-density lipoprotein (HDL in HepG2 cells.

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    Clemens Röhrl

    Full Text Available High-density lipoprotein (HDL transports lipids to hepatic cells and the majority of HDL-associated cholesterol is destined for biliary excretion. Cholesterol is excreted into the bile directly or after conversion to bile acids, which are also present in the plasma as they are effectively reabsorbed through the enterohepatic cycle. Here, we provide evidence that bile acids affect HDL endocytosis. Using fluorescent and radiolabeled HDL, we show that HDL endocytosis was reduced in the presence of high concentrations of taurocholate, a natural non-cell-permeable bile acid, in human hepatic HepG2 and HuH7 cells. In contrast, selective cholesteryl-ester (CE uptake was increased. Taurocholate exerted these effects extracellularly and independently of HDL modification, cell membrane perturbation or blocking of endocytic trafficking. Instead, this reduction of endocytosis and increase in selective uptake was dependent on SR-BI. In addition, cell-permeable bile acids reduced HDL endocytosis by farnesoid X receptor (FXR activation: chenodeoxycholate and the non-steroidal FXR agonist GW4064 reduced HDL endocytosis, whereas selective CE uptake was unaltered. Reduced HDL endocytosis by FXR activation was independent of SR-BI and was likely mediated by impaired expression of the scavenger receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36. Taken together we have shown that bile acids reduce HDL endocytosis by transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. Further, we suggest that HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake are not necessarily tightly linked to each other.

  16. Complications of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in patients with dilated and nondilated intrahepatic bile ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) have been described as an effective technique to obtain biliary access. Between January 1996 and December 2006, a total of 419 consecutive patients with endoscopically inaccessible bile ducts underwent PTBD. The current retrospective study evaluated success and complication rates of this invasive technique. PTBD was successful in 410/419 patients (97%). The success rate was equal in patients with dilated and nondilated bile ducts (p = 0.820). In 39/419 patients (9%) procedure related complications could be observed. Major complications occurred in 17/419 patients (4%). Patients with nondilated intrahepatic bile ducts had significantly higher complication rates compared to patients with dilated intrahepatic bile ducts (14.5% vs. 6.9%, respectively [p = 0.022]). Procedure related deaths were observed in 3 patients (0.7%). In conclusion, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is an effective procedure in patients with dilated and nondilated intrahepatic bile ducts. However, patients with nondilated intrahepatic bile ducts showed a higher risk for procedure related complications.

  17. MICROBIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF BILE IN CHOLELITHIASIS AND THEIR IMPLICATION IN CAUSING POST OPERATIVE WOUND INFECTIONS

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    Shahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cholecystitis is a common indication for major abdominal surgeries. It may occur with or without obstruction of common bile duct. Obstruction leads to secondary bacterial infection of bile. Bactibilia is an important predisposing factor for post-operative complications. Hence, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of bacteria in bile samples of cholecystitis patients and to correlate bactibilia and post-operative wound infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bile samples collected intra-operatively were subjected to gram stain, culture, and antibiotic sensitivity testing. The patients were followed-up for post-operative complications. If post-operative wound infection was found, cultures were done and correlated with bacteria isolated from bile samples. RESULTS: Bactibilia was found in 43/100 (43% of patients. Polymicrobial flora was found in 7% of bile samples. Escherichia coli, citrobacter, Klebsiella pneumoniae and pseudomonas were the predominant organisms isolated. Post-operative wound infection was found in ten (10% patients who had bactibilia. Amikacin, gentamicin, ceftriaxone sulbatum, pipracillin tazobactum, imipenem were among most effective in prophylactic regimen. CONCLUSION: The organisms responsible for bactibilia were found to cause post-operative infections in the same patient warranting the use of prophylactic antibiotics in every patient undergoing cholecystectomy. All patients undergoing cholecystectomy should receive prophylactic antibiotic to prevent post-operative wound infections.

  18. Cholestasis progression effects on long-term memory in bile duct ligation rats

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    Nasrin Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is evidence that cognitive functions are affected by some liver diseases such as cholestasis. Bile duct ligation induces cholestasis as a result of impaired liver function and cognition. This research investigates the effect of cholestasis progression on memory function in bile duct ligation rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, which include: control group for BDL-7, control group for BDL-21, sham group (underwent laparotomy without bile duct ligation, BDL-7 group (7 days after bile duct ligation, and BDL-21 group (21 days after bile duct ligation. Step-through passive avoidance test was employed to examine memory function. In all groups, short-term (7 days after foot shock and long-term memories (21 days after foot shock were assessed. Results: Our results showed that liver function significantly decreased with cholestasis progression (P < 0.01. Also our findings indicated BDL-21 significantly impaired acquisition time (P < 0.05. Memory retrieval impaired 7 (P < 0.05 and 21 days (P < 0.001 after foot shock in BDL-7 and BDL-21 groups, respectively. Conclusion: Based on these findings, liver function altered in cholestasis and memory (short-term and long-term memory impaired with cholestasis progression in bile duct ligation rats. Further studies are needed to better insight the nature of progression of brain damage in cholestatic disease.

  19. Bile salt receptor complex activates a pathogenic type III secretion system

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    Li, Peng; Rivera-Cancel, Giomar; Kinch, Lisa N.; Salomon, Dor; Tomchick, Diana R.; Grishin, Nick V.; Orth, Kim

    2016-07-05

    Bile is an important component of the human gastrointestinal tract with an essential role in food absorption and antimicrobial activities. Enteric bacterial pathogens have developed strategies to sense bile as an environmental cue to regulate virulence genes during infection. We discovered thatVibrio parahaemolyticusVtrC, along with VtrA and VtrB, are required for activating the virulence type III secretion system 2 in response to bile salts. The VtrA/VtrC complex activates VtrB in the presence of bile salts. The crystal structure of the periplasmic domains of the VtrA/VtrC heterodimer reveals a β-barrel with a hydrophobic inner chamber. A co-crystal structure of VtrA/VtrC with bile salt, along with biophysical and mutational analysis, demonstrates that the hydrophobic chamber binds bile salts and activates the virulence network. As part of a family of conserved signaling receptors, VtrA/VtrC provides structural and functional insights into the evolutionarily conserved mechanism used by bacteria to sense their environment.

  20. Hepaticojejunostomy--analysis of risk factors for postoperative bile leaks and surgical complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolovic, Dalibor; Koch, Moritz; Galindo, Luis; Wolff, Sandra; Music, Emira; Kienle, Peter; Schemmer, Peter; Friess, Helmut; Schmidt, Jan; Büchler, Markus W; Weitz, Jürgen

    2007-05-01

    Anastomoses between the jejunum and the bile duct are an important component of many surgical procedures; however, risk factors for clinically relevant bile leaks have not yet been adequately defined. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of bile leaks after hepaticojejunostomy and to define predictive factors associated with this risk and with surgical morbidity. Between October 2001 and April 2004, hepaticojejunostomies were performed in 519 patients in a standardized way. Patient- and treatment-related data were documented prospectively. A bile leak was defined as bilirubin concentration in the drains exceeding serum bilirubin with a consecutive change of clinical management or occurrence of a bilioma necessitating drainage. Surgical morbidity occurred in 15% of patients, the incidence of a bile leak was 5.6%. Multivariate analysis confirmed preoperative radiochemotherapy, preoperative low cholinesterase levels, biliary complications after liver transplantation necessitating a hepaticojejunostomy, and simultaneous liver resection as risk factors for bile leakages, whereas biliary complications after liver transplantation necessitating hepaticojejunostomy, simultaneous liver resection, and diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with postoperative surgical morbidity. Our results demonstrate that hepaticojejunostomy is a safe procedure if performed in a standardized fashion. The above found factors may help to better predict the risk for complications after hepaticojejunostomy. PMID:17394045