Tucker, J. W.; Balcerzak, T.; Gzik, M.; Sukiennicki, A.
1998-09-01
The complete global phase diagram for a magnetic spin-1 bilayer, whose interactions are described by the Blume Emery Griffiths model (BEG), is studied by cluster variational theory within the pair approximation. The results obtained, are also the exact results pertaining to the BEG model on a Bethe lattice having coordination number, z=5. Useful analytic expressions are derived for trajectories in phase space containing the second-order (continuous) phase boundaries. The physical existence of these second-order boundaries, together with the location of the first-order phase boundaries, are determined from a Gibbs free energy analysis. Detailed comparison of the results with those of other workers on this, and closely related systems, is made.
Relaxation of Evolutionary Dynamics on the Bethe Lattice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TIAN Liang; LIN Min
2012-01-01
Realistic evolutionary systems are generally structured and are in infinite dimensions.We study the relaxation behavior of evolutionary dynamics on a Bethe lattice,which concerns the invasion of mutants into a population of wild-type individuals.Since the boundary effect plays a significant role in a finite system,with proper approximation we propose an effective method to characterize the evolutionary dynamics.The relaxation behavior of the invasion process is analytically investigated,which is confirmed by extensive simulations.This work is the first systematical investigation on evolutionary dynamics in an infinitely dimensional lattice.
Potts models with invisible states on general Bethe lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The number of so-called invisible states which need to be added to the q-state Potts model to transmute its phase transition from continuous to first order has attracted recent attention. In the q = 2 case, a Bragg–Williams (mean-field) approach necessitates four such invisible states while a 3-regular random graph formalism requires seventeen. In both of these cases, the changeover from second- to first-order behaviour induced by the invisible states is identified through the tricritical point of an equivalent Blume–Emery–Griffiths model. Here we investigate the generalized Potts model on a Bethe lattice with z neighbours. We show that, in the q = 2 case, invisible states are required to manifest the equivalent Blume–Emery–Griffiths tricriticality. When z = 3, the 3-regular random graph result is recovered, while z → ∞ delivers the Bragg–Williams (mean-field) result. (paper)
Analysis of quantum spin models on hyperbolic lattices and Bethe lattice
Daniška, Michal; Gendiar, Andrej
2016-04-01
The quantum XY, Heisenberg, and transverse field Ising models on hyperbolic lattices are studied by means of the tensor product variational formulation algorithm. The lattices are constructed by tessellation of congruent polygons with coordination number equal to four. The calculated ground-state energies of the XY and Heisenberg models and the phase transition magnetic field of the Ising model on the series of lattices are used to estimate the corresponding quantities of the respective models on the Bethe lattice. The hyperbolic lattice geometry induces mean-field-like behavior of the models. The ambition to obtain results on the non-Euclidean lattice geometries has been motivated by theoretical studies of the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence.
Hofstadter problem on the honeycomb and triangular lattices: Bethe ansatz solution
Kohmoto, M.; Sedrakyan, A.
2006-06-01
We consider Bloch electrons on the honeycomb lattice under a uniform magnetic field with 2πp/q flux per cell. It is shown that the problem factorizes to two triangular lattices. Treating magnetic translations as a Heisenberg-Weyl group and by the use of its irreducible representation on the space of theta functions, we find a nested set of Bethe equations, which determine the eigenstates and energy spectrum. The Bethe equations have simple form which allows us to consider them further in the limit p,q→∞ by the technique of thermodynamic Bethe ansatz and analyze the Hofstadter problem for the irrational flux.
Hofstadter Problem on the Honeycomb and Triangular Lattices: Bethe Ansatz Solution
Kohmoto, M.; Sedrakyan, A.
2006-01-01
We consider Bloch electrons on the honeycomb lattice under a uniform magnetic field with $2 \\pi p/q$ flux per cell. It is shown that the problem factorizes to two triangular lattices. Treating magnetic translations as Heisenberg-Weyl group and by the use of its irreducible representation on the space of theta functions, we find a nested set of Bethe equations, which determine the eigenstates and energy spectrum. The Bethe equations have simple form which allows to consider them further in the...
Spectrum and Bethe-Salpeter amplitudes of $\\Omega$ baryons from lattice QCD
Liang, Jian; Chen, Ying; Chiu, Wei-Feng; Gong, Ming; Liu, Chuan; Liu, Yu-Bin; Liu, Zhaofeng; Ma, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Jian-Bo
2015-01-01
The $\\Omega$ baryons with $J^P=3/2^\\pm, 1/2^\\pm$ are studied on the lattice in the quenched approximation. Their mass levels are ordered as $M_{3/2^+}
Exact satisfiability threshold for k -satisfiability problems on a Bethe lattice
Krishnamurthy, Supriya; Sumedha
2015-10-01
The satisfiability threshold for constraint satisfaction problems is that value of the ratio of constraints (or clauses) to variables, above which the probability that a random instance of the problem has a solution is zero in the large system limit. Two different approaches to obtaining this threshold have been discussed in the literature: using first or second moment methods which give rigorous bounds or using the nonrigorous but powerful replica-symmetry-breaking (RSB) approach, which gives very accurate predictions on random graphs. In this paper, we lay out a different route to obtaining this threshold on a Bethe lattice. We need make no assumptions about the solution-space structure, a key assumption in the RSB approach. Despite this, our expressions and threshold values exactly match the best predictions of the cavity method under the one-step RSB hypothesis. In addition we can use the same procedure to obtain other useful quantities on the Bethe lattice such as the second moment of the number of solutions. Our method hence provides alternate interpretations as well as motivations for the key equations in the RSB approach.
The algebraic Bethe ansatz for rational braid-monoid lattice models
Martins, M J
1997-01-01
In this paper we study isotropic integrable systems based on the braid-monoid algebra. These systems constitute a large family of rational multistate vertex models and are realized in terms of the B_n, C_n and D_n Lie algebra and by the superalgebra Osp(n|2m). We present a unified formulation of the quantum inverse scattering method for many of these lattice models. The appropriate fundamental commutation rules are found, allowing us to construct the eigenvectors and the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix associated to the B_n, C_n, D_n, Osp(2n-1|2), Osp(2|2n-2), Osp(2n-2|2) and Osp(1|2n) models. The corresponding Bethe Ansatz equations can be formulated in terms of the root structure of the underlying algebra.
Glassy behaviour of random field Ising spins on Bethe lattice in external magnetic field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Khalid Bannora; Galal Ismail; Wafaa Hassan
2011-01-01
The thermodynamics and the phase diagram of random field Ising model (RFIM) on Bethe lattice are studied by using a replica trick. This lattice is placed in an external magnetic field (B). A Gaussian distribution of random field (hi) with zero mean and variance = H2RF is considered. The free-energy (F), the magnetization (M) and the order parameter (q) are investigated for several values of coordination number (z). The phase diagram shows several interesting behaviours and presents tricritical point at critical temperature TC = J/k and when HRF = 0 for finite z. The free-energy (F) values increase as T increases for different intensities of random field (HRF) and finite z. The internal energy (U) has a similar behaviour to that obtained from the Monte Carlo simulations. The ground state of magnetization decreases as the intensity of random field HRF increases. The ferromagnetic (FM)-paramagnetic (PM) phase boundary is clearly observed only when z →∞. While FM-PM-spin glass (SG) phase boundaries are present for finite z. The magnetic susceptibility (X) shows a sharp cusp at TC in a small random field for finite z and rounded different peaks on increasing HRF.
Topological states in two-dimensional hexagon lattice bilayers
Zhang, Ming-Ming; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun
2016-10-01
We investigate the topological states of the two-dimensional hexagon lattice bilayer. The system exhibits a quantum valley Hall (QVH) state when the interlayer interaction t⊥ is smaller than the nearest neighbor hopping energy t, and then translates to a trivial band insulator state when t⊥ / t > 1. Interestingly, the system is found to be a single-edge QVH state with t⊥ / t = 1. The topological phase transition also can be presented via changing bias voltage and sublattice potential in the system. The QVH states have different edge modes carrying valley current but no net charge current. The bias voltage and external electric field can be tuned easily in experiments, so the present results will provide potential application in valleytronics based on the two-dimensional hexagon lattice.
Protein-lipid interactions in bilayer membranes: a lattice model.
Pink, D A; Chapman, D
1979-04-01
A lattice model has been developed to study the effects of intrinsic membrane proteins upon the thermodynamic properties of a lipid bilayer membrane. We assume that only nearest-neighbor van der Waals and steric interactions are important and that the polar group interactions can be represented by effective pressure-area terms. Phase diagrams, the temperature T(0), which locates the gel-fluid melting, the transition enthalpy, and correlations were calculated by mean field and cluster approximations. Average lipid chain areas and chain areas when the lipid is in a given protein environment were obtained. Proteins that have a "smooth" homogeneous surface ("cholesterol-like") and those that have inhomogeneous surfaces or that bind lipids specifically were considered. We find that T(0) can vary depending upon the interactions and that another peak can appear upon the shoulder of the main peak which reflects the melting of a eutectic mixture. The transition enthalpy decreases generally, as was found before, but when a second peak appears departures from this behavior reflect aspects of the eutectic mixture. We find that proteins have significant nonzero probabilities for being adjacent to one another so that no unbroken "annulus" of lipid necessarily exists around a protein. If T(0) does not increase much, or decreases, with increasing c, then lipids adjacent to a protein cannot all be all-trans on the time scale (10(-7) sec) of our system. Around a protein the lipid correlation depth is about one lipid layer, and this increases with c. Possible consequences of ignoring changes in polar group interactions due to clustering of proteins are discussed.
Bethe-Salpeter wave functions of $\\eta_c(2S)$ and $\\psi(2S)$ states from full lattice QCD
Nochi, Kazuki; Sasaki, Shoichi
2016-01-01
We discuss the internal structure of radially excited charmonium mesons based on the equal-time and Coulomb gauge Bethe-Salpeter (BS) amplitudes, which are obtained in lattice QCD. Our simulations are performed with a relativistic heavy-quark action for the charm quark on the 2+1 flavor PACS-CS gauge configurations at the lightest pion mass, $M_{\\pi}=156(7)$ MeV. The variational method is applied to the study of optimal charmonium operator for ground and first excited states of $S$-wave charmonia. We successfully calculate the BS wave functions of $\\eta_c(2S)$ and $\\psi(2S)$ states, as well as $\\eta_c(1S)$ and $J/\\psi$ states, and then estimate the root-mean-square radii of both the $1S$ and $2S$ charmonium states. We also examine whether a series of the BS wave functions from the ground state to excited states can be described by a single set of the spin-independent and spin-dependent interquark potentials with a unique quark mass. It is found that the quark kinetic mass and, both the central and spin-spin c...
Vladimirov, Igor; Jak, Eugene
2007-04-28
We study an interacting particle system on the simple cubic lattice satisfying the nearest neighbor exclusion (NNE) which forbids any two nearest sites to be simultaneously occupied. Under the constraint, we develop an edge-to-site reduction of the Bethe-Peierls entropy approximation of the cluster variation method. The resulting NNE-corrected Bragg-Williams approximation is applied to statistical mechanical modeling of a liquid silicate formed by silica and a univalent network modifier, for which we derive the molar Gibbs energy of mixing and enthalpy of mixing and compare the predictions with available thermodynamic data.
Quantum phase diagram of a frustrated antiferromagnet on the bilayer honeycomb lattice
Zhang, Hao; Lamas, Carlos A.; Arlego, Marcelo; Brenig, Wolfram
2016-06-01
We study the spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a bilayer honeycomb lattice including interlayer frustration. Using a set of complementary approaches, namely, Schwinger bosons, dimer series expansion, bond operators, and exact diagonalization, we map out the quantum phase diagram. Analyzing ground-state energies and elementary excitation spectra, we find four distinct phases, corresponding to three collinear magnetic long-range ordered states, and one quantum disordered interlayer dimer phase. We detail that the latter phase is adiabatically connected to an exact singlet product ground state of the bilayer, which exists along a line of maximum interlayer frustration. The order within the remaining three phases will be clarified.
Bound states and Cooper pairs of molecules in 2D optical lattices bilayer
Camacho-Guardian, A.; Domínguez-Castro, G. A.; Paredes, R.
2016-08-01
We investigate the formation of Cooper pairs, bound dimers and the dimer-dimer elastic scattering of ultra- cold dipolar Fermi molecules confined in a 2D optical lattice bilayer configuration. While the energy and their associated bound states are determined in a variational way, the correlated two-molecule pair is addressed as in the original Cooper formulation. We demonstrate that the 2D lattice confinement favors the formation of zero center mass momentum bound states. Regarding the Cooper pairs binding energy, this depends on the molecule populations in each layer. Maximum binding energies occur for non-zero (zero) pair momentum when the Fermi system is polarized (unpolarized). We find an analytic expression for the dimer-dimer effective interaction in the deep BEC regime. The present analysis represents a route for addressing the BCS-BEC crossover superfluidity in dipolar Fermi gases confined in 2D optical lattices within the current experimental panorama.
Off-lattice model for the phase behavior of lipid-cholesterol bilayers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Morten; Miao, Ling; Ipsen, John Hjorth;
1999-01-01
Lipid bilayers exhibit a phase behavior that involves two distinct, but coupled, order-disorder processes, one in terms of lipid-chain crystalline packing (translational degrees of freedom) and the other in terms of lipid-chain conformational ordering (internal degrees of freedom). Experiments...... and previous approximate theories have suggested that cholesterol incorporated into lipid bilayers has different microscopic effects on lipid-chain packing and conformations and that cholesterol thereby leads to decoupling of the two ordering processes, manifested by a special equilibrium phase, "liquid......-lattice model based on a two-dimensional random triangulation algorithm and represents lipid and cholesterol molecules by hard-core particles with internal (spin-type) degrees of freedom that have nearest-neighbor interactions. The phase equilibria described by the model, specifically in terms of phase diagrams...
A lattice model for the kinetics of rupture of fluid bilayer membranes
Fournier, L; Fournier, Luc; Joos, Bela
2003-01-01
We have constructed a model for the kinetics of rupture of membranes under tension, applying physical principles relevant to lipid bilayers held together by hydrophobic interactions. The membrane is characterized by the bulk compressibility (for expansion) K and the thickness of the hydrophobic part of the bilayer thickness h. The model is a lattice model which incorporates strain relaxation, and considers the nucleation of pores at constant area, constant temperature, and constant particle number. The particle number is conserved by allowing multiple occupancy of the sites. An equilibrium "phase diagram" is constructed as a function of temperature and strain with the pores total surface and distribution as the order parameters. With parameters relevant to saturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid membranes, well defined regions of "no pores", "protopores (non-critical pores)", "single hole rupture", and "multi-hole rupture" are found. The effect of edge healing (transformation from a hydrophobic to a hydrophi...
Gaudin, Michel
2014-01-01
Michel Gaudin's book La fonction d'onde de Bethe is a uniquely influential masterpiece on exactly solvable models of quantum mechanics and statistical physics. Available in English for the first time, this translation brings his classic work to a new generation of graduate students and researchers in physics. It presents a mixture of mathematics interspersed with powerful physical intuition, retaining the author's unmistakably honest tone. The book begins with the Heisenberg spin chain, starting from the coordinate Bethe Ansatz and culminating in a discussion of its thermodynamic properties. Delta-interacting bosons (the Lieb-Liniger model) are then explored, and extended to exactly solvable models associated to a reflection group. After discussing the continuum limit of spin chains, the book covers six- and eight-vertex models in extensive detail, from their lattice definition to their thermodynamics. Later chapters examine advanced topics such as multi-component delta-interacting systems, Gaudin magnets and...
Gómez Albarracín, F. A.; Rosales, H. D.
2016-04-01
In this paper we present a detailed study of the antiferromagnetic classical Heisenberg model on a bilayer honeycomb lattice in a highly frustrated regime in the presence of a magnetic field. This study shows strong evidence of entropic order-by-disorder selection in different sectors of the magnetization curve. For antiferromagnetic couplings J1=Jx=Jp/3 , we find that at low temperatures there are two different regions in the magnetization curve selected by this mechanism with different number of soft and zero modes. These regions present broken Z2 symmetry and are separated by a not fully collinear classical plateau at M =1 /2 . At higher temperatures, there is a crossover from the conventional paramagnet to a cooperative magnet. Finally, we also discuss the low-temperature behavior of the system for a less frustrated region, J1=Jx
Magnetic hysteresis, compensation behaviors, and phase diagrams of bilayer honeycomb lattices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ersin Kantar
2015-01-01
Magnetic behaviors of the Ising system with bilayer honeycomb lattice (BHL) structure are studied by using the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations. The effects of the interaction parameters on the magnetic properties of the system such as the hysteresis and compensation behaviors as well as phase diagrams are investigated. Moreover, when the hysteresis behaviors of the system are examined, single and double hysteresis loops are observed for various values of the interaction parameters. We obtain the L-, Q-, P-, and S-type compensation behaviors in the system. We also observe that the phase diagrams only exhibit the second-order phase transition. Hence, the system does not show the tricritical point (TCP).
Magnetic hysteresis, compensation behaviors, and phase diagrams of bilayer honeycomb lattices
Ersin, Kantar
2015-10-01
Magnetic behaviors of the Ising system with bilayer honeycomb lattice (BHL) structure are studied by using the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations. The effects of the interaction parameters on the magnetic properties of the system such as the hysteresis and compensation behaviors as well as phase diagrams are investigated. Moreover, when the hysteresis behaviors of the system are examined, single and double hysteresis loops are observed for various values of the interaction parameters. We obtain the L-, Q-, P-, and S-type compensation behaviors in the system. We also observe that the phase diagrams only exhibit the second-order phase transition. Hence, the system does not show the tricritical point (TCP).
Non-equilibrium dynamics and state preparation in bilayer optical lattices
Langer, Stephan; Daley, Andrew J.
2014-03-01
We study dynamical schemes to obtain low entropy ground states of strongly interacting many body systems. The focus of our work is on ultra-cold Bose and Fermi gases in bilayer optical lattice systems with separately tunable interlayer coupling, energy offset between the layers and repulsive interactions. The case of two coupled one-dimensional chains is treated in a numerically exact manner using the adaptive time-dependent density matrix renormalization group which allows us to study the change of offset and interlayer coupling in real time. We identify parameter regimes where the ground state of the coupled system in the limit of small interlayer coupling consists of a Mott insulator in one layer and a superfluid/metallic state in the other layer can serve as an entropy reservoir. We then investigate the time-dependent dynamics of this system, studying entropy transfer between layers and the emergence of characteristic many-body correlations as we change the layer offset energy and coupling strength. In addition to applications as a preparation scheme for fully interacting Mott-insulator states, feasible with available experimental techniques, the investigated protocols could be easily adapted to also allow for a controlled preparation of highly excited states.
Levkovich-Maslyuk, Fedor
2016-08-01
We give a pedagogical introduction to the Bethe ansatz techniques in integrable QFTs and spin chains. We first discuss and motivate the general framework of asymptotic Bethe ansatz for the spectrum of integrable QFTs in large volume, based on the exact S-matrix. Then we illustrate this method in several concrete theories. The first case we study is the SU(2) chiral Gross-Neveu model. We derive the Bethe equations via algebraic Bethe ansatz, solving in the process the Heisenberg XXX spin chain. We discuss this famous spin chain model in some detail, covering in particular the coordinate Bethe ansatz, some properties of Bethe states, and the classical scaling limit leading to finite-gap equations. Then we proceed to the more involved SU(3) chiral Gross-Neveu model and derive the Bethe equations using nested algebraic Bethe ansatz to solve the arising SU(3) spin chain. Finally we show how a method similar to the Bethe ansatz works in a completely different setting, namely for the 1D oscillator in quantum mechanics.
Landau levels from the Bethe Ansatz equations
Hoshi, K.; Hatsugai, Y.
2000-01-01
The Bethe ansatz (BA) equations for the two-dimensional Bloch electrons in a uniform magnetic field are treated in the weak-field limit. We have calculated energies near the lower boundary of the energy spectrum up to the first nontrivial order. It corresponds to calculating a finite size correction for the excitation energies of the BA solvable lattice models and gives the Landau levels in the present problem.
Landau Levels from the Bethe Ansatz Equations
Hoshi, K.; Hatsugai, Y.
1999-01-01
The Bethe ansatz (BA) equations for the two-dimensional Bloch electrons in a uniform magnetic field are treated in the weak field limit. We have calculated energies near the lower boundary of the energy spectrum up to the first nontrivial order. It corresponds to calculating a finite size correction for the excitation energies of the BA solvable lattice models and gives the Landau levels in the present problem.
M. Gaudin; J.-S. Caux
2014-01-01
Michel Gaudin's book La fonction d'onde de Bethe is a uniquely influential masterpiece on exactly solvable models of quantum mechanics and statistical physics. Available in English for the first time, this translation brings his classic work to a new generation of graduate students and researchers i
Gottfried, Kurt
2005-01-01
"There are a handful of people who soar, whose accompalishments are so off-scale as to nearly defy belief. Hans Bethe (2 July 1906 - 6 March 2005) was of that caliber. As just one measure of his stature, imagine the task of copying his published opus by hand, for that is how he wrote most of it" (2 pages)
Introduction to the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz
van Tongeren, Stijn J
2016-01-01
We give a pedagogical introduction to the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, a method that allows us to describe the thermodynamics of integrable models whose spectrum is found via the (asymptotic) Bethe ansatz. We set the stage by deriving the Fermi-Dirac distribution and associated free energy of free electrons, and then in a similar though technically more complicated fashion treat the thermodynamics of integrable models, focusing on the one dimensional Bose gas with delta function interaction as a clean pedagogical example, secondly the XXX spin chain as an elementary (lattice) model with prototypical complicating features in the form of bound states, and finally the SU(2) chiral Gross-Neveu model as a field theory example. Throughout this discussion we emphasize the central role of particle and hole densities, whose relations determine the model under consideration. We then discuss tricks that allow us to use the same methods to describe the exact spectra of integrable field theories on a circle, in particular ...
Bernstein, Jeremy
2012-10-01
In 1937, two years after he moved to the US to escape Nazi persecution, the physicist Hans Bethe sent a letter to his mother in Germany. In it, he wrote, "I think I am about the leading theoretician in America. [Eugene] Wigner is certainly better and [Robert] Oppenheimer and [Edward] Teller probably just as good. But I do more and talk more and that counts too."
Levkovich-Maslyuk, Fedor
2016-01-01
We give a pedagogical introduction to the Bethe ansatz techniques in integrable QFTs and spin chains. We first discuss and motivate the general framework of asymptotic Bethe ansatz for the spectrum of integrable QFTs in large volume, based on the exact S-matrix. Then we illustrate this method in several concrete theories. The first case we study is the SU(2) chiral Gross-Neveu model. We derive the Bethe equations via algebraic Bethe ansatz, solving in the process the Heisenberg XXX spin chain. We discuss this famous spin chain model in some detail, covering in particular the coordinate Bethe ansatz, some properties of Bethe states, and the classical scaling limit leading to finite-gap equations. Then we proceed to the more involved SU(3) chiral Gross-Neveu model and derive the Bethe equations using nested algebraic Bethe ansatz to solve the arising SU(3) spin chain. Finally we show how a method similar to the Bethe ansatz works in a completley different setting, namely for the 1d oscillator in quantum mechani...
Introduction to the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz
van Tongeren, Stijn J.
2016-08-01
We give a pedagogical introduction to the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, a method that allows us to describe the thermodynamics of integrable models whose spectrum is found via the (asymptotic) Bethe ansatz. We set the stage by deriving the Fermi–Dirac distribution and associated free energy of free electrons, and then in a similar though technically more complicated fashion treat the thermodynamics of integrable models, focusing first on the one-dimensional Bose gas with delta function interaction as a clean pedagogical example, secondly the XXX spin chain as an elementary (lattice) model with prototypical complicating features in the form of bound states, and finally the {SU}(2) chiral Gross–Neveu model as a field theory example. Throughout this discussion we emphasize the central role of particle and hole densities, whose relations determine the model under consideration. We then discuss tricks that allow us to use the same methods to describe the exact spectra of integrable field theories on a circle, in particular the chiral Gross–Neveu model. We moreover discuss the simplification of TBA equations to Y systems, including the transition back to integral equations given sufficient analyticity data, in simple examples.
Introduction to the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz
van Tongeren, Stijn J.
2016-08-01
We give a pedagogical introduction to the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, a method that allows us to describe the thermodynamics of integrable models whose spectrum is found via the (asymptotic) Bethe ansatz. We set the stage by deriving the Fermi-Dirac distribution and associated free energy of free electrons, and then in a similar though technically more complicated fashion treat the thermodynamics of integrable models, focusing first on the one-dimensional Bose gas with delta function interaction as a clean pedagogical example, secondly the XXX spin chain as an elementary (lattice) model with prototypical complicating features in the form of bound states, and finally the {SU}(2) chiral Gross-Neveu model as a field theory example. Throughout this discussion we emphasize the central role of particle and hole densities, whose relations determine the model under consideration. We then discuss tricks that allow us to use the same methods to describe the exact spectra of integrable field theories on a circle, in particular the chiral Gross-Neveu model. We moreover discuss the simplification of TBA equations to Y systems, including the transition back to integral equations given sufficient analyticity data, in simple examples.
Spin-1/2 XYZ model revisit: General solutions via off-diagonal Bethe ansatz
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cao, Junpeng [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Cui, Shuai [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang, Wen-Li, E-mail: wlyang@nwu.edu.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University, Xian 710069 (China); Beijing Center for Mathematics and Information Interdisciplinary Sciences, Beijing 100048 (China); Shi, Kangjie [Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University, Xian 710069 (China); Wang, Yupeng, E-mail: yupeng@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)
2014-09-15
The spin-1/2 XYZ model with both periodic and anti-periodic boundary conditions is studied via the off-diagonal Bethe ansatz method. The exact spectra of the Hamiltonians and the Bethe ansatz equations are derived by constructing the inhomogeneous T–Q relations, which allow us to treat both the even N (the number of lattice sites) and odd N cases simultaneously in a unified approach.
Wang, Qi; Sun, Shanshan; Zhang, Xiao; Pang, Fei; Lei, Hechang
2016-08-01
The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is investigated for a ferromagnetic Fe3Sn2 single crystal with a geometrically frustrated kagome bilayer of Fe. The scaling behavior between anomalous Hall resistivity ρxy A and longitudinal resistivity ρx x is quadratic and further analysis implies that the AHE in the Fe3Sn2 single crystal should be dominated by the intrinsic Karplus-Luttinger mechanism rather than extrinsic skew-scattering or side-jump mechanisms. Moreover, there is a sudden jump of anomalous Hall conductivity σxy A appearing at about 100 K where the spin-reorientation transition from the c axis to the a b plane is completed. This change of σxy A might be related to the evolution of the Fermi surface induced by the spin-reorientation transition.
Instantaneous Bethe-Salpeter equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a systematic algebraic and numerical investigation of the instantaneous Beth-Salpeter equation. Emphasis is placed on confining interaction kernels of the Lorentz scalar, time component vector, and full vector-types. We explore the stability of the solutions and Regge behavior for each of these interactions, and conclude that only time component vector confinement leads to normal Regge structure and stable solutions for all quark masses
Hans Bethe and the Global Energy Problems
Ioffe, B L
2005-01-01
Bethe's view-point on the global energy problems is presented. Bethe claimed that the nuclear power is a necessity in future. Nuclear energetic must be based on breeder reactors. Bethe considered the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons as the main problem of long-range future of nuclear energetics. The solution of this problem he saw in heavy water moderated thermal breeders, using uranium-233, uranium-238 and thorium as a fuel.
Convexifying the Bethe Free Energy
Meshi, Ofer; Globerson, Amir; Friedman, Nir
2012-01-01
The introduction of loopy belief propagation (LBP) revitalized the application of graphical models in many domains. Many recent works present improvements on the basic LBP algorithm in an attempt to overcome convergence and local optima problems. Notable among these are convexified free energy approximations that lead to inference procedures with provable convergence and quality properties. However, empirically LBP still outperforms most of its convex variants in a variety of settings, as we also demonstrate here. Motivated by this fact we seek convexified free energies that directly approximate the Bethe free energy. We show that the proposed approximations compare favorably with state-of-the art convex free energy approximations.
Bethe vectors for XXX-spin chain
Burdík, Čestmír; Fuksa, Jan; Isaev, Alexei
2014-11-01
The paper deals with algebraic Bethe ansatz for XXX-spin chain. Generators of Yang-Baxter algebra are expressed in basis of free fermions and used to calculate explicit form of Bethe vectors. Their relation to N-component models is used to prove conjecture about their form in general. Some remarks on inhomogeneous XXX-spin chain are included.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The first part of this book is a literary portrait of the great natural scientist. The book was the result of a number of personal meetings, telephone interviews and letters exchanged, which began in 1977 and lasted two years. Bethes work comprises so many aspects of modern physics and astrophysics that only a fat encyclopedia could do him justice. The author hopes to convey at least an idea of the tremendous scope of this work. But the main theme in the article in 'The New Yorker' and in the resulting book is a discussion about energy. The importance of the energy problem is such that it completely penetrates science and politics. Thus, the third chapter is concerned with energy-political options, the catastrophe of and radioactivity after Chernobyl, and the development of concepts of reactor safety. (orig./HSCH)
Bethe's quantum numbers and rigged configurations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anatol N. Kirillov
2016-04-01
Full Text Available We propose a method to determine the quantum numbers, which we call the rigged configurations, for the solutions to the Bethe ansatz equations for the spin-1/2 isotropic Heisenberg model under the periodic boundary condition. Our method is based on the observation that the sums of Bethe's quantum numbers within each string behave particularly nicely. We confirm our procedure for all solutions for length 12 chain (totally 923 solutions.
Bethe's quantum numbers and rigged configurations
Kirillov, Anatol N.; Sakamoto, Reiho
2016-01-01
We propose a method to determine the quantum numbers, which we call the rigged configurations, for the solutions to the Bethe ansatz equations for the spin-1/2 isotropic Heisenberg model under the periodic boundary condition. Our method is based on the observation that the sums of Bethe's quantum numbers within each string behave particularly nicely. We confirm our procedure for all solutions for length 12 chain (totally 923 solutions).
Supersymmetric vacua and Bethe ansatz
Nekrasov, Nikita A
2009-01-01
An announcement of some results of a longer paper where the supersymmetric vacua of two dimensional N=2 susy gauge theories with matter are shown to be in one-to-one correspondence with the eigenstates of integrable spin chain Hamiltonians. The Heisenberg spin chain is mapped to the two dimensional U(N) theory with fundamental hypermultiplets, the XXZ spin chain is mapped to the analogous three dimensional super-Yang-Mills theory compactified on a circle, the XYZ spin chain and eight-vertex model are related to the four dimensional theory compactified on a torus. The correspondence extends to any spin group, representations, boundary conditions, and inhomogeneity, it includes Sinh-Gordon and non-linear Schroedinger models as well as the dynamical spin chains such as the Hubbard model. Compactifications of four dimensional N=2 theories on a two-sphere lead to the instanton-corrected Bethe equations. We propose a completely novel way for the Yangian, quantum affine, and elliptic algebras to act as a symmetry of...
Bethe ansatz solvability and supersymmetry of the M2 model of single fermions and pairs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A detailed study of a model for strongly-interacting fermions with exclusion rules and lattice N=2 supersymmetry is presented. A submanifold in the space of parameters of the model where it is Bethe-ansatz solvable is identified. The relation between this manifold and the existence of additional, so-called dynamic, supersymmetries is discussed. The ground states are analysed with the help of cohomology techniques, and their exact finite-size Bethe roots are found. Moreover, through analytical and numerical studies it is argued that the model provides a lattice version of the N=1 super-sine-Gordon model at a particular coupling where an additional N=(2,2) supersymmetry is present. The dynamic supersymmetry is shown to allow an exact determination of the gap scaling function of the model. (paper)
Counting independent sets using the Bethe approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chandrasekaran, V [MIT; Gamarmik, D [MIT; Shah, D [MIT; Sin, J [MIT
2009-01-01
The authors consider the problem of counting the number of independent sets or the partition function of a hard-core model in a graph. The problem in general is computationally hard (P hard). They study the quality of the approximation provided by the Bethe free energy. Belief propagation (BP) is a message-passing algorithm can be used to compute fixed points of the Bethe approximation; however, BP is not always guarantee to converge. As the first result, they propose a simple message-passing algorithm that converges to a BP fixed pont for any grapy. They find that their algorithm converges within a multiplicative error 1 + {var_epsilon} of a fixed point in {Omicron}(n{sup 2}E{sup -4} log{sup 3}(nE{sup -1})) iterations for any bounded degree graph of n nodes. In a nutshell, the algorithm can be thought of as a modification of BP with 'time-varying' message-passing. Next, they analyze the resulting error to the number of independent sets provided by such a fixed point of the Bethe approximation. Using the recently developed loop calculus approach by Vhertkov and Chernyak, they establish that for any bounded graph with large enough girth, the error is {Omicron}(n{sup -{gamma}}) for some {gamma} > 0. As an application, they find that for random 3-regular graph, Bethe approximation of log-partition function (log of the number of independent sets) is within o(1) of corret log-partition - this is quite surprising as previous physics-based predictions were expecting an error of o(n). In sum, their results provide a systematic way to find Bethe fixed points for any graph quickly and allow for estimating error in Bethe approximation using novel combinatorial techniques.
First-order rigidity transition on Bethe Lattices
Cristian F. Moukarzel; Duxbury, Phillip M.; Leath, Paul L.
1997-01-01
Tree models for rigidity percolation are introduced and solved. A probability vector describes the propagation of rigidity outward from a rigid border. All components of this ``vector order parameter'' are singular at the same rigidity threshold, $p_c$. The infinite-cluster probability $P_{\\infty}$ is usually first-order at $p_c$, but often behaves as $P_{\\infty} \\sim \\Delta P_{\\infty} + (p-p_c)^{1/2}$, indicating critical fluctuations superimposed on a first order jump. Our tree models for r...
Brueckner--Bethe calculations of nuclear matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Day, B.D.
1978-01-01
The ideas of the Brueckner--Bethe hole-line expansion are briefly outlined. Four practical tests of its validity are formulated. These tests are applied to recent numerical results for the central potential v/sub 2/ and the semirealistic potential v/sub 6/ (Reid), which contains a tensor force but no spin-orbit force. The results are consistent with the validity of the hole-line expansion. The Brueckner--Bethe results are also consistent, within uncertainties of order 3 MeV, with variational results. 34 references.
Bethe vectors in GL(3)-based quantum integrable models
Pakuliak, S; Slavnov, N A
2015-01-01
We consider a composite generalized quantum integrable model solvable by the nested algebraic Bethe ansatz. Using explicit formulas of the action of the monodromy matrix elements onto Bethe vectors in the GL(3)-based quantum integrable models we prove a formula for the Bethe vectors of composite model. We show that this representation is a particular case of general coproduct property of the weight functions (Bethe vectors) found in the theory of the deformed Knizhnik--Zamolodchokov equation.
Bethe vectors of GL(3)-invariant integrable models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study GL(3)-invariant integrable models solvable by the nested algebraic Bethe ansatz. Different formulas are given for the Bethe vectors and the actions of the generators of the Yangian Y(gl3) on the Bethe vectors are considered. These actions are relevant for the calculation of correlation functions and form factors of local operators of the underlying quantum models. (paper)
Obituary: Hans Albrecht Bethe, 1906-2005
R. Wijers
2007-01-01
One of the unquestioned giants of physics and astrophysics, Hans Bethe, died on 6 March 2005, at the venerable age of 98, in his home town of Ithaca, New York. Seven decades of contributing to research and a Nobel Prize for his work on stellar hydrogen burning make a listing of his honors superfluou
Twisting singular solutions of Bethe's equations
Nepomechie, Rafael I
2014-01-01
The Bethe equations for the periodic XXX and XXZ spin chains admit singular solutions, for which the corresponding eigenvalues and eigenvectors are ill-defined. We use a twist regularization to derive conditions for such singular solutions to be physical, in which case they correspond to genuine eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian.
Obituary: Hans Albrecht Bethe, 1906-2005
Wijers, Ralph
2007-12-01
One of the unquestioned giants of physics and astrophysics, Hans Bethe, died on 6 March 2005, at the venerable age of 98, in his home town of Ithaca, New York. Seven decades of contributing to research and a Nobel Prize for his work on stellar hydrogen burning make a listing of his honors superfluous (besides being impossible in this space). Bethe was born in Strassburg, in then German Alsass Lothringen, on 2 July 1906. His father, Albrecht Julius Bethe (1872-1954), taught physiology at the University, and his mother, Anna Kuhn (1876-1966), was a musician and writer. Both his grandfathers were physicians. He spent his youth in Strassburg, Kiel, and Frankfurt, and some time in sanatoria due to tuberculosis. Hans's first scientific paper, at age 18, was with his father and a colleague, on dialysis. His education and early career in Germany brought him into contact with many top stars in the quantum revolution. Starting in Frankfurt in chemistry, Bethe soon switched to physics, taught there by Walter Gerlach and Karl Meissner, among others. In 1926, he successfully applied to join Arnold Sommerfeld's group in Munich, where he met one of his later long-term collaborators, Rudolf Peierls. Bethe considered his entry into physics to have come at an ideal time, with the new ideas of wave mechanics being developed and discussed right there; it was certainly also at an ideal place. His doctoral thesis was on the theory of electron diffraction by crystals, following the experimental work by Clinton Davisson and Lester Germer and the work on X-ray diffraction by Max von Laue and Paul Ewald. The newly minted doctor went from there briefly to Frankfurt and then to Ewald in Stuttgart, where he felt at home academically and personally. In 1939, Bethe would marry Ewald's daughter Rose. Not much later, though, Sommerfeld recalled him to Munich, where Sommerfeld created a Privatdozent position for him. There he worked out the solution for a linear chain of coupled spins by what we
Participatory management at Boston's Beth Israel Hospital.
Rabkin, M T; Avakian, L
1992-05-01
In the mid-1980s, the senior management of Boston's Beth Israel Hospital became concerned that continuous cost-cutting efforts could lower the quality of the hospital's services and the morale of its staff. This led them to investigate organizational approaches to "participatory management" to determine whether any of these might be of value to the hospital. They decided that an approach developed in the 1930s called the "Scanlon Plan" would be compatible with the workplace culture of Beth Israel, could help the hospital meet the ongoing problems of change, and could help the staff at all levels develop a sense that they owned the problems of quality, productivity, and efficiency, which would motivate them to address these problems constructively in the face of necessary budget constraints. This plan has two mechanisms to foster employees' positive participation: (1) a process to ensure that all members of the organization have the opportunity to improve productivity, primarily through an open suggestion system and a responsive committee structure, and (2) a means of providing equitable rewards for all members of the organization as productivity and quality improve. This essay describes in some detail the plan and why it was selected, explains how it was adapted, prepared for, and finally implemented in 1989, and reports its success, lessons learned, and future plans as of early 1992. The authors believe Beth Israel's experience with the Scanlon Plan is noteworthy as an example of a leading teaching hospital's taking a quality improvement program seriously and making it work. PMID:1575858
Delta and Omega electromagnetic form factors in a Dyson-Schwinger/Bethe-Salpeter approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diana Nicmorus, Gernot Eichmann, Reinhard Alkofer
2010-12-01
We investigate the electromagnetic form factors of the Delta and the Omega baryons within the Poincare-covariant framework of Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations. The three-quark core contributions of the form factors are evaluated by employing a quark-diquark approximation. We use a consistent setup for the quark-gluon dressing, the quark-quark bound-state kernel and the quark-photon interaction. Our predictions for the multipole form factors are compatible with available experimental data and quark-model estimates. The current-quark mass evolution of the static electromagnetic properties agrees with results provided by lattice calculations.
A systematic approach to sketch Bethe-Salpeter equation
Qin, Si-xue
2016-01-01
To study meson properties, one needs to solve the gap equation for the quark propagator and the Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation for the meson wavefunction, self-consistently. The gluon propagator, the quark-gluon vertex, and the quark--anti-quark scattering kernel are key pieces to solve those equations. Predicted by lattice-QCD and Dyson-Schwinger analyses of QCD's gauge sector, gluons are non-perturbatively massive. In the matter sector, the modeled gluon propagator which can produce a veracious description of meson properties needs to possess a mass scale, accordingly. Solving the well-known longitudinal Ward-Green-Takahashi identities (WGTIs) and the less-known transverse counterparts together, one obtains a nontrivial solution which can shed light on the structure of the quark-gluon vertex. It is highlighted that the phenomenologically proposed anomalous chromomagnetic moment (ACM) vertex originates from the QCD Lagrangian symmetries and its strength is proportional to the magnitude of dynamical chiral symm...
Coordinate Bethe ansatz for the string S-matrix
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leeuw, M de [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)
2007-11-30
We use the coordinate Bethe ansatz approach to derive the nested Bethe equations corresponding to the recently found S-matrix for strings in AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}, compatible with centrally extended su(2 vertical bar 2) symmetry.
Continuous representations of scalar products of Bethe vectors
Galleas, W
2016-01-01
We present families of single determinantal representations of on-shell scalar products of Bethe vectors. Our families of representations are parameterized by a continuous complex variable which can be fixed at convenience. Here we consider Bethe vectors in two versions of the six-vertex model: the case with boundary twists and the case with open boundaries.
Overlaps of Partial Neel States and Bethe States
Foda, O
2015-01-01
Partial Neel states are generalizations of the ordinary Neel (classical anti-ferromagnet) state that can have arbitrary integer spin. We study overlaps of these states with Bethe states. We first identify this overlap with a partial version of reflecting-boundary domain-wall partition function, and then derive various determinant representations for off-shell and on-shell Bethe states.
Graphene on graphene antidot lattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gregersen, Søren Schou; Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Power, Stephen;
2015-01-01
Graphene bilayer systems are known to exhibit a band gap when the layer symmetry is broken by applying a perpendicular electric field. The resulting band structure resembles that of a conventional semiconductor with a parabolic dispersion. Here, we introduce a bilayer graphene heterostructure......, where single-layer graphene is placed on top of another layer of graphene with a regular lattice of antidots. We dub this class of graphene systems GOAL: graphene on graphene antidot lattice. By varying the structure geometry, band-structure engineering can be performed to obtain linearly dispersing...
Two-body bound states & the Bethe-Salpeter equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pichowsky, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kennedy, M. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Physics Dept.; Strickland, M. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)
1995-01-18
The Bethe-Salpeter formalism is used to study two-body bound states within a scalar theory: two scalar fields interacting via the exchange of a third massless scalar field. The Schwinger-Dyson equation is derived using functional and diagrammatic techniques, and the Bethe-Salpeter equation is obtained in an analogous way, showing it to be a two-particle generalization of the Schwinger-Dyson equation. The authors also present a numerical method for solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation without three-dimensional reduction. The ground and first excited state masses and wavefunctions are computed within the ladder approximation and space-like form factors are calculated.
Norm of Bethe Wave Function as a Determinant
Korepin, Vladimir E
2009-01-01
This is a historical note. Bethe Ansatz solvable models are considered, for example XXZ Heisenberg anti-ferromagnet and Bose gas with delta interaction. Periodic boundary conditions lead to Bethe equation. The square of the norm of Bethe wave function is equal to a determinant of linearized system of Bethe equations (determinant of matrix of second derivatives of Yang action). The proof was first published in Communications in Mathematical Physics, vol 86, page 391 in l982. Also domain wall boundary conditions for 6 vertex model were discovered in the same paper [see Appendix D]. These play an important role for algebraic combinatorics: alternating sign matrices, domino tiling and plane partition. Many publications are devoted to six vertex model with domain wall boundary conditions.
Twisted Bethe equations from a twisted S-matrix
Ahn, Changrim; Bombardelli, Diego; Nepomechie, Rafael I
2010-01-01
All-loop asymptotic Bethe equations for a 3-parameter deformation of AdS5/CFT4 have been proposed by Beisert and Roiban. We propose a Drinfeld twist of the AdS5/CFT4 S-matrix, together with c-number diagonal twists of the boundary conditions, from which we derive these Bethe equations. Although the undeformed S-matrix factorizes into a product of two su(2|2) factors, the deformed S-matrix cannot be so factored. Diagonalization of the corresponding transfer matrix requires a generalization of the conventional algebraic Bethe ansatz approach, which we first illustrate for the simpler case of the twisted su(2) principal chiral model. We also demonstrate that the same twisted Bethe equations can alternatively be derived using instead untwisted S-matrices and boundary conditions with operatorial twists.
Modified Bethe-Weizsaecker mass formula for hypernuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Bethe-Weizsaecker mass formula originally designed to reproduce the gross features of nuclear binding energies for medium and heavy mass nuclei, fails for light nuclei especially away from the line of stability. To alleviate this problem a modified Bethe-Weizsaecker mass formula was suggested which explained the gross features of the binding energy versus neutron number curves of all the elements from Li to Bi
Bethe Ansatz for the Ruijsenaars Model of BC_1-Type
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oleg Chalykh
2007-02-01
Full Text Available We consider one-dimensional elliptic Ruijsenaars model of type $BC_1$. It is given by a three-term difference Schrödinger operator $L$ containing 8 coupling constants. We show that when all coupling constants are integers, $L$ has meromorphic eigenfunctions expressed by a variant of Bethe ansatz. This result generalizes the Bethe ansatz formulas known in the $A_1$-case.
Nuclear forces the making of the physicist Hans Bethe
Schweber, Silvan S
2012-01-01
On the fiftieth anniversary of Hiroshima, Nobel-winning physicist Hans Bethe called on his fellow scientists to stop working on weapons of mass destruction. What drove Bethe, the head of Theoretical Physics at Los Alamos during the Manhattan Project, to renounce the weaponry he had once worked so tirelessly to create? That is one of the questions answered by "Nuclear Forces", a riveting biography of Bethe's early life and development as both a scientist and a man of principle. As Silvan Schweber follows Bethe from his childhood in Germany, to laboratories in Italy and England, and on to Cornell University, he shows how these differing environments were reflected in the kind of physics Bethe produced. Many of the young quantum physicists in the 1930s, including Bethe, had Jewish roots, and Schweber considers how Liberal Judaism in Germany helps explain their remarkable contributions. A portrait emerges of a man whose strategy for staying on top of a deeply hierarchical field was to tackle only those problems h...
On The Ladder Bethe-Salpeter Equation
Efimov, G V
2003-01-01
The Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation in the ladder approximation is studied within a scalar theory: two scalar fields (constituents) with mass $m$ interacting via an exchange of a scalar field (tieon) with mass $\\mu$. The BS equation is written in the form of an integral equation in the configuration Euclidean $x$-space with the kernel which for stable bound states $M<2m$ is a self-adjoint positive operator. The solution of the BS equation is formulated as a variational problem. The nonrelativistic limit of the BS equation is considered. The role of so-called abnormal states is discussed. The analytical form of test functions for which the accuracy of calculations of bound state masses is better than 1% (the comparison with available numerical calculations is done) is determined. These test functions make it possible to calculate analytically vertex functions describing the interaction of bound states with constituents. As a by-product a simple solution of the Wick-Cutkosky model for the case of massless bound...
Design of Asymmetric Peptide Bilayer Membranes.
Li, Sha; Mehta, Anil K; Sidorov, Anton N; Orlando, Thomas M; Jiang, Zhigang; Anthony, Neil R; Lynn, David G
2016-03-16
Energetic insights emerging from the structural characterization of peptide cross-β assemblies have enabled the design and construction of robust asymmetric bilayer peptide membranes. Two peptides differing only in their N-terminal residue, phosphotyrosine vs lysine, coassemble as stacks of antiparallel β-sheets with precisely patterned charged lattices stabilizing the bilayer leaflet interface. Either homogeneous or mixed leaflet composition is possible, and both create nanotubes with dense negative external and positive internal solvent exposed surfaces. Cross-seeding peptide solutions with a preassembled peptide nanotube seed leads to domains of different leaflet architecture within single nanotubes. Architectural control over these cross-β assemblies, both across the bilayer membrane and along the nanotube length, provides access to highly ordered asymmetric membranes for the further construction of functional mesoscale assemblies.
Tricritical phenomena in a Z(3) lattice gauge theory
Ananikian, N S; Ananikian, N S; Shcherbakov, R R
1994-01-01
The Z(3) gauge model with double plaquette representation of the action on a generalized Bethe lattice of plaquettes is constructed. It is reduced to the spin-1 Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model. An Ising-type critical line of a second-order phase transition ending in the tricritical point is found.
Selected Works Of Hans A Bethe (With Commentary)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hans A Bethe received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1967 for his work on the production of energy in stars. A living legend among the physics community, he helped to shape classical physics into quantum physics and increased the understanding of the atomic processes responsible for the properties of matter and of the forces governing the structures of atomic nuclei. This collection of papers by Prof Bethe dates from 1928, when he received his PhD, to now. It covers several areas and reflects the many contributions in research and discovery made by one of the most important and eminent physicists of all time. Special commentaries have been written by Prof Bethe to complement the selected papers
Directed Random Walk on the Lattices of Genus Two
Nazarenko, A. V.
2011-01-01
The object of the present investigation is an ensemble of self-avoiding and directed graphs belonging to eight-branching Cayley tree (Bethe lattice) generated by the Fucsian group of a Riemann surface of genus two and embedded in the Pincar\\'e unit disk. We consider two-parametric lattices and calculate the multifractal scaling exponents for the moments of the graph lengths distribution as functions of these parameters. We show the results of numerical and statistical computations, where the ...
Constrained variational results for the new Bethe homework problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bethe has proposed two model N-N interactions, one containing a central plus sigma1.sigma2 spin dependence and the other containing in addition a tensor force, to study the convergence of various many-body techniques for calculating the bulk properties of many fermion fluids. Following the success of using constrained variational calculations in describing the behaviour of the original Bethe homework problem involving a purely central interaction, results in neutron matter and nuclear matter for the new spin-dependent potentials, are here presented. (author)
Nested Bethe ansatz for "all" closed spin chains
Belliard, S.; Ragoucy, E.
2008-01-01
We present in an unified and detailed way the Nested Bethe Ansatz for closed spin chains based on Y(gl(n)), Y(gl(m|n)), U_q(gl(n)) or U_q(gl(m|n)) (super)algebras, with arbitrary representations (i.e. `spins') on each site of the chain. In particular, the case of indecomposable representations of superalgebras is studied. The construction extends and unifies the results already obtained for spin chains based on Y(gl(n)) or U_q(gl(n)) and for some particular super-spin chains. We give the Beth...
Analytic Bethe-Salpeter description of the lightest pseudoscalar mesons
Lucha, Wolfgang; Schöberl, Franz F.
2016-03-01
Within the Bethe-Salpeter formalism for instantaneous interactions, we describe, along a totally analytic route, the lightest pseudoscalar mesons by quark-antiquark bound states which show at least three indispensable general features—namely, the (almost) masslessness required for pions and kaons to be interpretable as (pseudo-)Goldstone bosons, the suitable asymptotic behavior in the limit of large spacelike relative momenta as determined by the relationship between quark mass function and Bethe-Salpeter amplitudes, and a pointwise behavior for finite spacelike relative momenta suited for guaranteeing color confinement.
Improved Numerical Generalization of Bethe- Weizsacker Mass Formula
Mavrodiev, Strachimir
2016-01-01
In this paper is presented explicit improved numerical generalization of Bethe-Weizsacker mass formulae which describes the values of measured 2654 nuclear mass in AME2012 nuclear database with accuracy less than 2.2 MeV, starting from the number of protons Z=1 and number of neutrons N=1. In the obtained generazation of the Bethe-Weizsacker formula the influence of magic numbers and boundaries of their influence between them is defined for nine proton (2, 8, 14, 20, 28, 50, 82, 108, 124) and ten neutron (2, 8, 14, 20, 28, 50, 82, 124, 152, 202) magic numbers.
Evaluations of energy coefficients of Bethe-Weizsacker mass formula
Basu, D N
2004-01-01
A mass fit to the liquid drop model is presented. Coefficients of the volume, surface, coulomb, asymmetry and pairing energy terms of the semiemirical Bethe-Weizsacker mass formula have been determined by furnishing best fit to the observed mass excesses. Different sets of the weighting parameters for liquid drop model Bethe-Weizsacker mass formula have been obtained from minimizations of chisquare and mean square deviation. The recent exerimental and estimated mass excesses from Audi-Wapstra-Thibault atomic mass table have been used for the least square fitting procedure. Some implications of the modifications of parameters have been discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bracken, Anthony J.; Ge Xiangyu; Gould, Mark D.; Links, Jon; Zhou Huanqiang [Centre for Mathematical Physics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)
2001-06-01
Integrable extended Hubbard models arising from symmetric group solutions are examined in the framework of the graded quantum inverse scattering method. The Bethe ansatz equations for all these models are derived by using the algebraic Bethe ansatz method. (author)
Effects of cholesterol or gramicidin on slow and fast motions of phospholipids in oriented bilayers.
Peng, Z. Y.; Simplaceanu, V; Dowd, S R; Ho, C.
1989-01-01
Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation both in the rotating frame and in the laboratory frame is used to investigate the slow and fast molecular motions of phospholipids in oriented bilayers in the liquid crystalline phase. The bilayers are prepared from a perdeuterated phospholipid labeled with a pair of 19F atoms at the 7 position of the 2-sn acyl chain. Phospholipid-cholesterol or phospholipid-gramicidin interactions are characterized by measuring the relaxation rates as a function of the bilayer...
Bethe States of the integrable spin-s chain with generic open boundaries
Yang, Lijun; Cao, Junpeng; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie; Wang, Yupeng
2015-01-01
Based on the inhomogeneous T-Q relation and the associated Bethe Ansatz equations obtained via the off-diagonal Bethe Ansatz, we construct the Bethe-type eigenstates of the SU(2)-invariant spin-s chain with generic non-diagonal boundaries by employing certain orthogonal basis of the Hilbert space.
Algebraic Bethe Ansatz for O(2N) sigma models with integrable diagonal boundaries
Gombor, Tamas
2015-01-01
The finite volume problem of O(2N) sigma models with integrable diagonal boundaries on a finite interval is investigated. The double row transfer matrix is diagonalized by Algebraic Bethe Ansatz. The boundary Bethe Yang equations for the particle rapidities and the accompanying Bethe Ansatz equations are derived.
Characters in Conformal Field Theories from Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz
Kuniba, A.; Nakanishi, T; Suzuki, J.
1993-01-01
We propose a new $q$-series formula for a character of parafermion conformal field theories associated to arbitrary non-twisted affine Lie algebra $\\widehat{g}$. We show its natural origin from a thermodynamic Bethe ansatz analysis including chemical potentials.
On the algebraic Bethe ansatz: Periodic boundary conditions
Lima-Santos, A.
2006-01-01
In this paper, the algebraic Bethe ansatz with periodic boundary conditions is used to investigate trigonometric vertex models associated with the fundamental representations of the non-exceptional Lie algebras. This formulation allow us to present explicit expressions for the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the respective transfer matrices.
Pionierin der Religionspsychologie: Marianne Beth (1890-1984)
J.A. Belzen
2010-01-01
This article deals with the contributions to the psychology of religion made by Dr. Marianne Beth (1890-1984), an almost totally forgotten pioneer of the psychology of religion. The article especially contextualizes her initiative to turn "unbelief" into a topic for research in psychology of religio
Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXX chain with triangular boundaries and Gaudin model
Cirilo António, N.; Manojlović, N.; Salom, I.
2014-12-01
We implement fully the algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXX Heisenberg spin chain in the case when both boundary matrices can be brought to the upper-triangular form. We define the Bethe vectors which yield the strikingly simple expression for the off shell action of the transfer matrix, deriving the spectrum and the relevant Bethe equations. We explore further these results by obtaining the off shell action of the generating function of the Gaudin Hamiltonians on the corresponding Bethe vectors through the so-called quasi-classical limit. Moreover, this action is as simple as it could possibly be, yielding the spectrum and the Bethe equations of the Gaudin model.
Phase behavior of pure lipid bilayers with mismatch interactions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Zhengping; Laradji, Mohamed; Guo, Hong;
1992-01-01
Recently Corvera, Laradji, and Zuckermann (unpublished) showed that the multistate lattice model due to Pink, Green, and Chapman [Biochemistry 20, 6692 (1981)] with parameters obtained from fitting to thermodynamic data for saturated phospholipid bilayers does not exhibit a phase transition but c...
Hutsalyuk, A; Pakuliak, S Z; Ragoucy, E; Slavnov, N A
2016-01-01
We study integrable models with $\\mathfrak{gl}(2|1)$ symmetry and solvable by nested algebraic Bethe ansatz. We obtain a determinant representation for scalar products of Bethe vectors, when the Bethe parameters obey some relations weaker than the Bethe equations. This representation allows us to find the norms of on-shell Bethe vectors and obtain determinant formulas for form factors of the diagonal entries of the monodromy matrix.
Bethe-Salpeter bound-state structure in Minkowski space
Gutierrez, C; Frederico, T; Salmè, G; Viviani, M; Tomio, Lauro
2016-01-01
The quantitative investigation of the scalar Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space, within the ladder-approximation framework, is extended to include the excited states. This study has been carried out for an interacting system composed by two massive bosons exchanging a massive scalar, by adopting (i) the Nakanishi integral representation of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude, and (ii) the formally exact projection onto the null plane. Our analysis, on one hand, confirms the reliability of the method already applied to the ground state and, on the other one, extends the investigation from the valence distribution in momentum space to the corresponding quantity in the impact-parameter space, pointing out some relevant features, like (i) the equivalence between Minkowski and Euclidean transverse-momentum amplitudes, and (ii) the leading exponential fall-off of the valence wave function in the impact-parameter space.
Bethe-Salpeter bound-state structure in Minkowski space
Gutierrez, C.; Gigante, V.; Frederico, T.; Salmè, G.; Viviani, M.; Tomio, Lauro
2016-08-01
The quantitative investigation of the scalar Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space, within the ladder-approximation framework, is extended to include the excited states. This study has been carried out for an interacting system composed by two massive bosons exchanging a massive scalar, by adopting (i) the Nakanishi integral representation of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude, and (ii) the formally exact projection onto the null plane. Our analysis, on one hand, confirms the reliability of the method already applied to the ground state and, on the other one, extends the investigation from the valence distribution in momentum space to the corresponding quantity in the impact-parameter space, pointing out some relevant features, like (i) the equivalence between Minkowski and Euclidean transverse-momentum amplitudes, and (ii) the leading exponential fall-off of the valence wave function in the impact-parameter space.
Driving skyrmions in a composite bilayer
Wang, Zidong; Grimson, Malcolm J.
2016-07-01
Magnetic skyrmions and multiferroics are the most interesting objects in nanostructure science that have great potential in future spin-electronic technology. The study of multiferroic skyrmions has attracted much interest in recent years. This article reports magnetic Bloch skyrmions induced by an electric driving field in a composite bilayer (chiral-magnetic/ferroelectric bilayer) lattice. By using the spin dynamics method, we use a classical magnetic spin model and an electric pseudospin model, which are coupled by a strong magnetoelectric coupling in the dynamical simulations. Interestingly, we observe some skyrmionlike objects in the electric component either during the switching process or by applying a magnetic field, which is due to the connection between the electric and the magnetic structures.
Covariant Bethe-Salpeter wave functions for heavy hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In recent years the dynamics of heavy mesons and baryons has considerably simplified by the development of the so-called heavy quark effective theory (HQET). A covariant formulation of heavy meson and heavy baryon decays in the leading order of the HQET is presented. The method is based on a Bethe-Salpeter formulation in the limit of the heavy quark mass going to infinity. 15 refs, 4 figs
On the Bethe approximation to the reactance matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Bethe approximation to the reactance matrix is considered for electron-neutral-atom collisions. Analytic expressions are given for the matrix elements. For the special case of electron-neutral-atom scattering the sum rules of Burgess are simplified. Particular consideration is given to the problem of calculating cross sections for dipole transitions. Partial cross sections are presented for all non-exact resonance dipole transitions between hydrogen atom states, with n, n' = 11, 31, 51, 71, 91. (author)
Bethe-Peierls approximation and the inverse Ising model
Nguyen, H. Chau; Berg, Johannes
2011-01-01
We apply the Bethe-Peierls approximation to the problem of the inverse Ising model and show how the linear response relation leads to a simple method to reconstruct couplings and fields of the Ising model. This reconstruction is exact on tree graphs, yet its computational expense is comparable to other mean-field methods. We compare the performance of this method to the independent-pair, naive mean- field, Thouless-Anderson-Palmer approximations, the Sessak-Monasson expansion, and susceptibil...
How algebraic Bethe ansatz works for integrable model
Fadeev, L
1996-01-01
I study the technique of Algebraic Bethe Ansatz for solving integrable models and show how it works in detail on the simplest example of spin 1/2 XXX magnetic chain. Several other models are treated more superficially, only the specific details are given. Several parameters, appearing in these generalizations: spin s, anisotropy parameter \\ga, shift \\om in the alternating chain, allow to include in our treatment most known examples of soliton theory, including relativistic model of Quantum Field Theory.
GW and Bethe-Salpeter study of small water clusters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blase, Xavier, E-mail: xavier.blase@neel.cnrs.fr; Boulanger, Paul [CNRS, Institut NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Bruneval, Fabien [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Fernandez-Serra, Marivi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States); Institute for Advanced Computational Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States); Duchemin, Ivan [INAC, SP2M/L-Sim, CEA/UJF Cedex 09, 38054 Grenoble (France)
2016-01-21
We study within the GW and Bethe-Salpeter many-body perturbation theories the electronic and optical properties of small (H{sub 2}O){sub n} water clusters (n = 1-6). Comparison with high-level CCSD(T) Coupled-Cluster at the Single Double (Triple) levels and ADC(3) Green’s function third order algebraic diagrammatic construction calculations indicates that the standard non-self-consistent G{sub 0}W{sub 0}@PBE or G{sub 0}W{sub 0}@PBE0 approaches significantly underestimate the ionization energy by about 1.1 eV and 0.5 eV, respectively. Consequently, the related Bethe-Salpeter lowest optical excitations are found to be located much too low in energy when building transitions from a non-self-consistent G{sub 0}W{sub 0} description of the quasiparticle spectrum. Simple self-consistent schemes, with update of the eigenvalues only, are shown to provide a weak dependence on the Kohn-Sham starting point and a much better agreement with reference calculations. The present findings rationalize the theory to experiment possible discrepancies observed in previous G{sub 0}W{sub 0} and Bethe-Salpeter studies of bulk water. The increase of the optical gap with increasing cluster size is consistent with the evolution from gas to dense ice or water phases and results from an enhanced screening of the electron-hole interaction.
Linking Chains Together: String Bits And The Bethe Ansatz
Lübcke, M
2004-01-01
This thesis is divided into two parts. In the first part we focus mainly on certain aspects of the AdS/CFT correspondence. The AdS/CFT correspondence is a proposed duality between Type IIB superstring theory on AdS5 × S5 and N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. In the BMN limit string states located in the center of AdS5 rotate quickly around the equator of the S5 and correspond, in the dual theory, to operators constructed as long chains of sub-operators. This structure of the operators can be formulated as a spin chain and by using the Bethe ansatz their properties can be obtained by solving a set of Bethe equations. Having infinitely many sub-operators, there are methods for solving the Bethe equations in certain sectors. In paper III finite size corrections to the anomalous dimensions in the SU(2) sector are calculated to leading order. Inspired by the chain structure of the corresponding operators, the theory of string bits treats the strings as a discrete sets of points. This theory suffers...
Bethe states for the two-site Bose-Hubbard model: a binomial approach
Santos, Gilberto; Foerster, Angela; Roditi, Itzhak
2015-01-01
We calculate explicitly the Bethe vectors states by the algebraic Bethe ansatz method with the $gl(2)$-invariant $R$-matrix for the two-site Bose-Hubbard model. Using a binomial expansion of the n-th power of a sum of two operators we get and solve a recursion equation. We calculate the scalar product and the norm of the Bethe vectors states. The form factors of the imbalance current operator are also computed.
Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXX chain with triangular boundaries and Gaudin model
António, N Cirilo; Salom, I
2014-01-01
We implement fully the algebraic Bethe ansatz for the XXX Heisenberg spin chain in the case when both boundary matrices can be brought to the upper-triangular form. We define the Bethe vectors which yield the strikingly simple expression for the off shell action of the transfer matrix, deriving the spectrum and the corresponding Bethe equations. We explore further these results by obtaining the off shell action of the generating function of the Gaudin Hamiltonians on the Bethe vectors through the so-called quasi-classical limit.
Role of substrate induced electron-phonon interactions in biased graphitic bilayers.
Davenport, A R; Hague, J P
2016-08-17
Bilayers of graphitic materials have potential applications in field effect transistors (FETs). A potential difference applied between certain ionic bilayers made from insulating graphitic materials such as BN, ZnO and AlN could reduce gap sizes, turning them into useful semiconductors. On the other hand, opening of a small semiconducting gap occurs in graphene bilayers under applied field. The aim here is to investigate to what extent substrate induced electron-phonon interactions (EPIs) modify this gap change. We examine EPIs in several lattice configurations of graphitic bilayers, using a perturbative approach. The typical effect of EPIs on the ionic bilayers is an undesirable gap widening. The size of this gap change varies considerably with lattice structure and the magnitude of the bias. When bias is larger than the non-interacting gap size, EPIs have the smallest effect on the bandgap, especially in configurations with [Formula: see text] and AB structures. Thus careful selection of substrate, lattice configuration and bias strength to minimise the effects of EPIs could be important for optimising the properties of electronic devices. We use parameters related to BN in this article. In practice, the results presented here are broadly applicable to other graphitic bilayers, and are likely to be qualitatively similar in metal dichalcogenide bilayers such as MoS2, which are already of high interest for their use in FETs. PMID:27346288
Role of substrate induced electron-phonon interactions in biased graphitic bilayers
Davenport, A. R.; Hague, J. P.
2016-08-01
Bilayers of graphitic materials have potential applications in field effect transistors (FETs). A potential difference applied between certain ionic bilayers made from insulating graphitic materials such as BN, ZnO and AlN could reduce gap sizes, turning them into useful semiconductors. On the other hand, opening of a small semiconducting gap occurs in graphene bilayers under applied field. The aim here is to investigate to what extent substrate induced electron-phonon interactions (EPIs) modify this gap change. We examine EPIs in several lattice configurations of graphitic bilayers, using a perturbative approach. The typical effect of EPIs on the ionic bilayers is an undesirable gap widening. The size of this gap change varies considerably with lattice structure and the magnitude of the bias. When bias is larger than the non-interacting gap size, EPIs have the smallest effect on the bandgap, especially in configurations with A{{A}\\prime} and AB structures. Thus careful selection of substrate, lattice configuration and bias strength to minimise the effects of EPIs could be important for optimising the properties of electronic devices. We use parameters related to BN in this article. In practice, the results presented here are broadly applicable to other graphitic bilayers, and are likely to be qualitatively similar in metal dichalcogenide bilayers such as MoS2, which are already of high interest for their use in FETs.
Role of substrate induced electron–phonon interactions in biased graphitic bilayers
Davenport, A. R.; Hague, J. P.
2016-08-01
Bilayers of graphitic materials have potential applications in field effect transistors (FETs). A potential difference applied between certain ionic bilayers made from insulating graphitic materials such as BN, ZnO and AlN could reduce gap sizes, turning them into useful semiconductors. On the other hand, opening of a small semiconducting gap occurs in graphene bilayers under applied field. The aim here is to investigate to what extent substrate induced electron–phonon interactions (EPIs) modify this gap change. We examine EPIs in several lattice configurations of graphitic bilayers, using a perturbative approach. The typical effect of EPIs on the ionic bilayers is an undesirable gap widening. The size of this gap change varies considerably with lattice structure and the magnitude of the bias. When bias is larger than the non-interacting gap size, EPIs have the smallest effect on the bandgap, especially in configurations with A{{A}\\prime} and AB structures. Thus careful selection of substrate, lattice configuration and bias strength to minimise the effects of EPIs could be important for optimising the properties of electronic devices. We use parameters related to BN in this article. In practice, the results presented here are broadly applicable to other graphitic bilayers, and are likely to be qualitatively similar in metal dichalcogenide bilayers such as MoS2, which are already of high interest for their use in FETs.
π- and K-meson Bethe-Salpeter amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Independent of assumptions about the form of the quark-quark scattering kernel K, we derive the explicit relation between the flavor-nonsinglet pseudoscalar-meson Bethe-Salpeter amplitude ΓH and the dressed-quark propagator in the chiral limit. In addition to a term proportional to γ5, ΓH necessarily contains qualitatively and quantitatively important terms proportional to γ5γ·P and γ5γ·kk·P, where P is the total momentum of the bound state. The axial-vector vertex contains a bound state pole described by ΓH, whose residue is the leptonic decay constant for the bound state. The pseudoscalar vertex also contains such a bound state pole and, in the chiral limit, the residue of this pole is related to the vacuum quark condensate. The axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity relates these pole residues, with the Gell-Mann endash Oakes endash Renner relation a corollary of this identity. The dominant ultraviolet asymptotic behavior of the scalar functions in the meson Bethe-Salpeter amplitude is fully determined by the behavior of the chiral limit quark mass function, and is characteristic of the QCD renormalization group. The rainbow-ladder Ansatz for K, with a simple model for the dressed-quark-quark interaction, is used to illustrate and elucidate these general results. The model preserves the one-loop renormalization group structure of QCD. The numerical studies also provide a means of exploring procedures for solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation without a three-dimensional reduction. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Kondo lattice without Nozieres exhaustion effect.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kikoin, K.; Kiselev, M. N.; Materials Science Division; Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev; Ludwig-Maximilians Univ.
2006-01-01
We discuss the properties of layered Anderson/Kondo lattices with metallic electrons confined in 2D xy planes and local spins in insulating layers forming chains in the z direction. Each spin in this model possesses its own 2D Kondo cloud, so that the Nozieres exhaustion problem does not occur. The high-temperature perturbational description is matched to exact low-T Bethe-ansatz solution. The excitation spectrum of the model is gapless both in charge and spin sectors. The disordered phases and possible experimental realizations of the model are briefly discussed.
Physics over easy Breakfasts with Beth and physics
Azaroff, L V
2010-01-01
During a sequence of meals, the author relates the principal features of physics in easy-to-understand conversations with his wife Beth. Beginning with the studies of motion by Galileo and Newton through to the revolutionary theories of relativity and quantum mechanics in the 20th century, all important aspects of electricity, energy, magnetism, gravity and the structure of matter and atoms are explained and illustrated. The second edition similarly recounts the more recent application of these theories to nanoparticles, Bose-Einstein condensates, quantum entanglement and quantum computers. By
Bethe Ansatz Solutions of the Bose-Hubbard Dimer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jon Links
2006-12-01
Full Text Available The Bose-Hubbard dimer Hamiltonian is a simple yet effective model for describing tunneling phenomena of Bose-Einstein condensates. One of the significant mathematical properties of the model is that it can be exactly solved by Bethe ansatz methods. Here we review the known exact solutions, highlighting the contributions of V.B. Kuznetsov to this field. Two of the exact solutions arise in the context of the Quantum Inverse Scattering Method, while the third solution uses a differential operator realisation of the su(2 Lie algebra.
Integrability in three dimensions: Algebraic Bethe ansatz for anyonic models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sh. Khachatryan
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We extend basic properties of two dimensional integrable models within the Algebraic Bethe Ansatz approach to 2+1 dimensions and formulate the sufficient conditions for the commutativity of transfer matrices of different spectral parameters, in analogy with Yang–Baxter or tetrahedron equations. The basic ingredient of our models is the R-matrix, which describes the scattering of a pair of particles over another pair of particles, the quark-anti-quark (meson scattering on another quark-anti-quark state. We show that the Kitaev model belongs to this class of models and its R-matrix fulfills well-defined equations for integrability.
Tetraquark bound states in a Bethe-Salpeter approach
Heupel, Walter; Eichmann, Gernot; Fischer, Christian S.
2012-01-01
We determine the mass of tetraquark bound states from a coupled system of covariant Bethe-Salpeter equations. Similar in spirit to the quark-diquark model of the nucleon, we approximate the full four-body equation for the tetraquark by a coupled set of two-body equations with meson and diquark constituents. These are calculated from their quark and gluon substructure using a phenomenologically well-established quark-gluon interaction. For the lightest scalar tetraquark we find a mass of the o...
Spectra of heavy mesons in the Bethe-Salpeter approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fischer, Christian S.; Kubrak, Stanislav; Williams, Richard [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Giessen (Germany)
2015-01-01
We present a calculation of the spectrum of charmonia, bottomonia and B{sub c}-meson states with ''ordinary'' and exotic quantum numbers. We discuss the merits and limitations of a rainbow-ladder truncation of Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations and explore the effects of different shapes of the effective running coupling on ground and excited states in channels with quantum numbers J ≤ 3. We furthermore discuss the status of the X(3872) as a potential (excited) quark-antiquark state and give predictions for the masses of charmonia and bottomonia in the tensor channels with J= 2, 3. (orig.)
Ion beam mixing isotopic metal bilayers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fell, C.J. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Kenny, M.J. [CSIRO, Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics
1993-12-31
In order to obtain an insight into the mechanisms of ion-solid interactions, bilayer targets can be prepared from two different isotopes. A mixing study SIMS is to be carried out using specially grown monocrystalline bilayers of {sup 58}Ni / {sup 60}Ni. An important aspect of the work is the preparation of high quality single-crystal thin films. The Ni layers will be grown on the (110) surface of pure Ni and verified for crystallinity using Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction and Rutherford Backscattering channelling analysis. The Pd bilayers will be grown on a Pd (100) surface. RHEED will be used to confirm the two-dimensional crystallinity of the surface before and after deposition of each layer, and channelling used to confirm bulk film crystallinity. Single crystal substrates are currently being prepared. Analysis of the Ni (110) surface using RHEED at 9 kV shows a streak spacing which corresponds to a lattice spacing of 2.47 {+-} 0.09 Angstroms. 9 refs., 1 fig.
$\\Omega\\Omega$ interaction from 2+1 flavor lattice QCD
Yamada, Masanori; Sasaki, Kenji; Aoki, Sinya; Doi, Takumi(Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198, Japan); Hatsuda, Tetsuo(Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198, Japan); Ikeda, Yoichi; Inoue, Takashi; Ishii, Noriyoshi; Murano, Keiko; Nemura, Hidekatsu
2015-01-01
We investigate the interaction between $\\Omega$ baryons in the $^1S_0$ channel from 2+1 flavor lattice QCD simulations. On the basis of the HAL QCD method, the $\\Omega\\Omega$ potential is extracted from the Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter wave function calculated on the lattice by using the PACS-CS gauge configurations with the lattice spacing $a\\simeq 0.09$ fm, the lattice volume $L\\simeq 2.9$ fm and the quark masses corresponding to $m_\\pi \\simeq 700$ MeV and $m_\\Omega \\simeq 1970$ MeV. The $\\Omega\\Om...
$\\pi$ and K-meson Bethe-Salpeter Amplitudes
Maris, P
1997-01-01
Independent of assumptions about the form of the quark-quark scattering kernel, K, we derive the explicit relation between the flavour-nonsinglet pseudoscalar meson Bethe-Salpeter amplitude, Gamma_H, and the dressed-quark propagator in the chiral limit. In addition to a term proportional to gamma_5, Gamma_H necessarily contains qualitatively and quantitatively important terms proportional to gamma_5 gamma.P and gamma_5 gamma.k k.P, where P is the total momentum of the bound state. The axial-vector vertex contains a bound state pole described by Gamma_H, whose residue is the leptonic decay constant for the bound state. The pseudoscalar vertex also contains such a bound state pole and, in the chiral limit, the residue of this pole is related to the vacuum quark condensate. The axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity relates these pole residues; with the Gell-Mann--Oakes--Renner relation a corollary of this identity. The dominant ultraviolet asymptotic behaviour of the scalar functions in the meson Bethe-Salpeter a...
Correlation functions of the spin chains. Algebraic Bethe Ansatz approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spin chains are the basic elements of integrable quantum models. These models have direct applications in condense matter theory, in statistical physics, in quantum optics, in field theory and even in string theory but they are also important because they enable us to solve, in an exact manner, non-perturbative phenomena that otherwise would stay unresolved. The method described in this work is based on the algebraic Bethe Ansatz. It is shown how this method can be used for the computation of null temperature correlation functions of the Heisenberg 1/2 spin chain. The important point of this approach is the solution of the inverse quantum problem given by the XXZ spin chain. This solution as well as a simple formulae for the scalar product of the Bethe states, have enabled us to get the most basic correlation functions under the form of multiple integrals. The formalism of multiple integrals open the way for asymptotic analysis for a few physical quantities like the probability of vacuum formation. It is worth noticing that this formalism can give exact results for two-point functions that are the most important correlation functions for applications. A relationship has been discovered between these multiple integrals and the sum of the form factors. The results have been extended to dynamical correlation functions. (A.C.)
Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the Temperley-Lieb spin-1 chain
Nepomechie, Rafael I
2016-01-01
We use the algebraic Bethe ansatz to obtain the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the spin-1 Temperley-Lieb open quantum chain with "free" boundary conditions. We exploit the associated reflection algebra in order to prove the off-shell equation satisfied by the Bethe vectors.
In Defense of Today's Struggling Reader: What Policymakers Can Learn from Beth
Spencer, Tamara
2012-01-01
Beth attends a New York City K-8, dual-language (Spanish/English) public school where 96% of the students qualify as low-income, based on participation in the federally funded lunch program. Early in Beth's 1st-grade year, she was classified as a struggling reader, based on district-wide assessments that identified academic deficits in such skill…
Bethe ansatz matrix elements as non-relativistic limits of form factors of quantum field theory
M. Kormos; G. Mussardo; B. Pozsgay
2010-01-01
We show that the matrix elements of integrable models computed by the algebraic Bethe ansatz (BA) can be put in direct correspondence with the form factors of integrable relativistic field theories. This happens when the S-matrix of a Bethe ansatz model can be regarded as a suitable non-relativistic
Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the Temperley-Lieb spin-1 chain
Nepomechie, Rafael I.; Pimenta, Rodrigo A.
2016-09-01
We use the algebraic Bethe ansatz to obtain the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the spin-1 Temperley-Lieb open quantum chain with "free" boundary conditions. We exploit the associated reflection algebra in order to prove the off-shell equation satisfied by the Bethe vectors.
Analytical Bethe ansatz for the open AdS/CFT SU(1|1) spin chain
Nepomechie, Rafael I
2008-01-01
We prove an inversion identity for the open AdS/CFT SU(1|1) quantum spin chain which is exact for finite size. We use this identity, together with an analytic ansatz, to determine the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix and the corresponding Bethe ansatz equations. We also solve the closed chain by algebraic Bethe ansatz.
Off-diagonal Bethe ansatz solution of the XXX spin-chain with arbitrary boundary conditions
Cao, Junpeng; Shi, Kangjie; Wang, Yupeng
2013-01-01
With the off-diagonal Bethe ansatz method proposed recently by the present authors, we exactly diagonalize the $XXX$ spin chain with arbitrary boundary fields. By constructing a functional relation between the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix and the quantum determinant, the associated $T-Q$ relation and the Bethe ansatz equations are derived.
Off-diagonal Bethe ansatz solution of the XXX spin chain with arbitrary boundary conditions
Cao, Junpeng; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie; Wang, Yupeng
2013-10-01
Employing the off-diagonal Bethe ansatz method proposed recently by the present authors, we exactly diagonalize the XXX spin chain with arbitrary boundary fields. By constructing a functional relation between the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix and the quantum determinant, the associated T-Q relation and the Bethe ansatz equations are derived.
Specific heat of twisted bilayer graphene: Engineering phonons by atomic plane rotations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nika, Denis L. [E. Pokatilov Laboratory of Physics and Engineering of Nanomaterials, Department of Physics and Engineering, Moldova State University, Chisinau MD-2009, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Nano-Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering Program, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California—Riverside, Riverside, California, 92521 (United States); Cocemasov, Alexandr I. [E. Pokatilov Laboratory of Physics and Engineering of Nanomaterials, Department of Physics and Engineering, Moldova State University, Chisinau MD-2009, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Balandin, Alexander A., E-mail: balandin@ee.ucr.edu [Nano-Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering Program, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California—Riverside, Riverside, California, 92521 (United States)
2014-07-21
We have studied the phonon specific heat in single-layer, bilayer, and twisted bilayer graphene. The calculations were performed using the Born-von Karman model of lattice dynamics for intralayer atomic interactions and spherically symmetric interatomic potential for interlayer interactions. We found that at temperature T < 15 K, specific heat varies with temperature as T{sup n}, where n = 1 for graphene, n = 1.6 for bilayer graphene, and n = 1.3 for the twisted bilayer graphene. The phonon specific heat reveals an intriguing dependence on the twist angle in bilayer graphene, which is particularly pronounced at low temperature. The results suggest a possibility of phonon engineering of thermal properties of layered materials by twisting the atomic planes.
The Stability and Charge Carriers in Bilayer Silicene
Rui, Wang; Shaofeng, Wang; Xiaozhi, Wu
2013-01-01
The structure optimization, phonon, and ab initio ?nite temperature molecular dynamics calculations have been performed to predict that bilayer silicene has stable structure with AB stacking geometry and is more favorable energetically to synthesize than monolayer silicene, a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice with buckled geometry. Marvellously, its electronic bands show that the charge carriers behave like relativistic Dirac fermions with linear energy dispersions near the K points. An insig...
Quantum Hall effect in bilayer system with array of antidots
Pagnossin, I. R.; Gusev, G. M.; Sotomayor, N. M.; Seabra, A. C.; Quivy, A. A.; Lamas, T. E.; Portal, J. C.
2007-04-01
We have studied the Quantum Hall effect in a bilayer system modulated by gate-controlled antidot lattice potential. The Hall resistance shows plateaus which are quantized to anomalous multiplies of h/e2. We suggest that this complex behavior is due to the nature of the edge-states in double quantum well (DQW) structures coupled to an array of antidots: these plateaus may be originated from the coexistence of normal and counter-rotating edge-states in different layers.
Wang, Da-Wei; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Scully, Marlan O
2014-01-01
We show that the timed Dicke states of a collection of three-level atoms can form a tight-binding lattice in the momentum space. This lattice, coined the superradiance lattice (SL), can be constructed based on an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) system. For a one-dimensional SL, we need the coupling field of the EIT system to be a standing wave. The detuning between the two components of the standing wave introduces an effective electric field. The quantum behaviours of electrons in lattices, such as Bloch oscillations, Wannier-Stark ladders, Bloch band collapsing and dynamic localization can be observed in the SL. The SL can be extended to two, three and even higher dimensions where no analogous real space lattices exist and new physics are waiting to be explored.
Lattice polymers with hydrogen bondlike interactions
Buzano, C.; Pretti, M.
2002-12-01
We study the phase behavior of two lattice polymer models (self-avoiding walks) incorporating attractive short-range interactions between parallel chain sections, attempting to mimick hydrogen bonding between monomers. The investigation is carried out in the framework of the Bethe approximation on a hypercubic lattice. The former model, which includes attraction between parallel sections longer than one chain segment, has been recently studied in full detail in the two-dimensional case, by means of accurate numerical transfer matrix techniques, and displays a first-order transition from a swollen ("coil") state to a collapsed ordered ("solid") state. Our investigation on this model is mainly meant to show that the Bethe approximation is able to recover such a behavior, and to extend the result to three dimensions. The latter model is similar, but takes into account attractive interactions also between one segment long parallel sections, which have no reason to be neglected in principle. We obtain, both in two and three dimensions, two phase transitions: An ordinary theta-collapse from the coil state to an isotropic compact ("globule") state, and a first-order transition from the globule to the solid phase. Such results are compared with those of previously investigated polymer models, and their relevance to describe the formation of protein secondary structure is also briefly discussed.
A Weizsacker-Bethe type mass formula for hypernuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Theoretical estimates of hypernuclear binding energies are generally much larger than the empirical value and the disagreement is rather marked for the binding energy of sub(Λ)5He. Here we try to explain the so-called over-binding problem by way of introducing a Weizsacker-Bethe type mass formula used for ordinary nuclei. Using the most recent data on binding energies of hypernuclei, parameters of the hypernuclear mass formula are estimated by fitting a least-square curve as is the usual practice in nuclear physics. Theoretical predictions for hypernuclear binding energies are then made by using the formula as obtained above and results compared with experimental values. Agreement with experiment is found to be rather good and in particular the result obtained for sub(Λ)5He, although slightly larger than the observed value, has shown significant improvement over earlier estimates. (author)
Twist-three at five loops, Bethe ansatz and wrapping
Beccaria, Matteo; Forini, Valentina; Łukowski, Tomasz; Zieme, Stefan
2009-03-01
We present a formula for the five-loop anomalous dimension of Script N = 4 SYM twist-three operators in the fraktur sfraktur l(2) sector. We obtain its asymptotic part from the Bethe Ansatz and finite volume corrections from the generalized Lüscher formalism, considering scattering processes of spin chain magnons with virtual particles that travel along the cylinder. The complete result respects the expected large spin scaling properties and passes non-trivial tests including reciprocity constraints. We analyze the pole structure and find agreement with a conjectured resummation formula. In analogy with the twist-two anomalous dimension at four-loops wrapping effects are of order (log2M/M2) for large values of the spin.
Tetra quark bound states in a Bethe-Salpeter approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heupel, Walter; Eichmann, Gernot [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Fischer, Christian S., E-mail: christian.fischer@theo.physik.uni-giessen.de [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)
2012-12-05
We determine the mass of tetraquark bound states from a coupled system of covariant Bethe-Salpeter equations. Similar in spirit to the quark-diquark model of the nucleon, we approximate the full four-body equation for the tetraquark by a coupled set of two-body equations with meson and diquark constituents. These are calculated from their quark and gluon substructure using a phenomenologically well-established quark-gluon interaction. For the lightest scalar tetraquark we find a mass of the order of 400 MeV and a wave function dominated by the pion-pion constituents. Both results are in agreement with a meson molecule picture for the f{sub 0}(600). Our results furthermore suggest the presence of a potentially narrow all-charm tetraquark in the mass region 5-6 GeV.
Tetraquark bound states in a Bethe-Salpeter approach
Heupel, Walter; Fischer, Christian S
2012-01-01
We determine the mass of tetraquark bound states from a coupled system of covariant Bethe-Salpeter equations. Similar in spirit to the quark-diquark model of the nucleon, we approximate the full four-body equation for the tetraquark by a coupled set of two-body equations with meson and diquark constituents. These are calculated from their quark and gluon substructure using a phenomenologically well-established quark-gluon interaction. For the lightest scalar tetraquark we find a mass of the order of 400 MeV and a wave function dominated by the pion-pion constituents. Both results are in agreement with a meson molecule picture for the f_0(600). Our results furthermore suggest the presence of a potentially narrow all-charm tetraquark in the mass region 5-6 GeV.
Tetraquark bound states in a Bethe-Salpeter approach
Heupel, Walter; Eichmann, Gernot; Fischer, Christian S.
2012-12-01
We determine the mass of tetraquark bound states from a coupled system of covariant Bethe-Salpeter equations. Similar in spirit to the quark-diquark model of the nucleon, we approximate the full four-body equation for the tetraquark by a coupled set of two-body equations with meson and diquark constituents. These are calculated from their quark and gluon substructure using a phenomenologically well-established quark-gluon interaction. For the lightest scalar tetraquark we find a mass of the order of 400 MeV and a wave function dominated by the pion-pion constituents. Both results are in agreement with a meson molecule picture for the f0 (600). Our results furthermore suggest the presence of a potentially narrow all-charm tetraquark in the mass region 5-6 GeV.
Critical phenomena in one dimension from a Bethe ansatz perspective
Guan, Xiwen
2014-08-01
This article briefly reviews recent theoretical developments in quantum critical phenomena in one-dimensional (1D) integrable quantum gases of cold atoms. We present a discussion on quantum phase transitions, universal thermodynamics, scaling functions and correlations for a few prototypical exactly solved models, such as the Lieb-Liniger Bose gas, the spin-1 Bose gas with antiferromagnetic spin-spin interaction, the two-component interacting Fermi gas as well as spin-3/2 Fermi gases. We demonstrate that their corresponding Bethe ansatz solutions provide a precise way to understand quantum many-body physics, such as quantum criticality, Luttinger liquids (LLs), the Wilson ratio, Tan's Contact, etc. These theoretical developments give rise to a physical perspective using integrability for uncovering experimentally testable phenomena in systems of interacting bosonic and fermonic ultracold atoms confined to 1D.
Modified binary encounter Bethe model for electron-impact ionization
Guerra, M; Indelicato, P; Santos, J P
2013-01-01
Theoretical expressions for ionization cross sections by electron impact based on the binary encounter Bethe (BEB) model, valid from ionization threshold up to relativistic energies, are proposed. The new modified BEB (MBEB) and its relativistic counterpart (MRBEB) expressions are simpler than the BEB (nonrelativistic and relativistic) expressions because they require only one atomic parameter, namely the binding energy of the electrons to be ionized, and use only one scaling term for the ionization of all sub-shells. The new models are used to calculate the K-, L- and M-shell ionization cross sections by electron impact for several atoms with Z from 6 to 83. Comparisons with all, to the best of our knowledge, available experimental data show that this model is as good or better than other models, with less complexity.
Excited charmonium states from Bethe-Salpeter equation
Sauli, Vladimir
2011-01-01
We solve the Bethe-Salpeter equation for a system of a heavy quark-antiquark pair interacting with a screened linear confining potential. First we show the spinless QFT model is inadequate and fail to describe even gross feature of the quarkonia spectrum. In order to get reliable description the spine degrees of freedom has to be considered. Within the approximation employed we reasonably reproduce known radial excitation of vector charmonium. The BSE favors relatively large string breaking scale $\\mu\\simeq 350MeV$ . Using free charm quark propagators we observe that $J/\\Psi$ is the only charmonium left bellow naive quark-antiquark threshold $2m_c$, while the all excited states are situated above this threshold. Within the numerical method we overcome obstacles related with threshold singularity and discuss the consequences of the use of free propagators for calculation of excited states above the threshold.
Twist-three at five loops, Bethe Ansatz and wrapping
Beccaria, M; Lukowski, T; Zieme, S
2009-01-01
We present a formula for the five-loop anomalous dimension of N=4 SYM twist-three operators in the sl(2) sector. We obtain its asymptotic part from the Bethe Ansatz and finite volume corrections from the generalized Luescher formalism, considering scattering processes of spin chain magnons with virtual particles that travel along the cylinder. The complete result respects the expected large spin scaling properties and passes non-trivial tests including reciprocity constraints. We analyze the pole structure and find agreement with a conjectured resummation formula. In analogy with the twist-two anomalous dimension at four-loops, wrapping effects are of order log^2 M/M^2 for large values of the spin.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Basso, Benjamin, E-mail: bbasso@perimeterinstitute.ca [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Rej, Adam, E-mail: arej@ias.edu [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)
2014-02-15
Studying the scattering of excitations around a dynamical background has a long history in the context of integrable models. The Gubser–Klebanov–Polyakov string solution provides such a background for the string/gauge correspondence. Taking the conjectured all-loop asymptotic equations for the AdS{sub 4}/CFT{sub 3} correspondence as the starting point, we derive the S-matrix and a set of spectral equations for the lowest-lying excitations. We find that these equations resemble closely the analogous equations for AdS{sub 5}/CFT{sub 4}, which are also discussed in this paper. At large values of the coupling constant we show that they reproduce the Bethe equations proposed to describe the spectrum of the low-energy limit of the AdS{sub 4}×CP{sup 3} sigma model.
Universal Bethe ansatz solution for the Temperley–Lieb spin chain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rafael I. Nepomechie
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We consider the Temperley–Lieb (TL open quantum spin chain with “free” boundary conditions associated with the spin-s representation of quantum-deformed sl(2. We construct the transfer matrix, and determine its eigenvalues and the corresponding Bethe equations using analytical Bethe ansatz. We show that the transfer matrix has quantum group symmetry, and we propose explicit formulas for the number of solutions of the Bethe equations and the degeneracies of the transfer-matrix eigenvalues. We propose an algebraic Bethe ansatz construction of the off-shell Bethe states, and we conjecture that the on-shell Bethe states are highest-weight states of the quantum group. We also propose a determinant formula for the scalar product between an off-shell Bethe state and its on-shell dual, as well as for the square of the norm. We find that all of these results, except for the degeneracies and a constant factor in the scalar product, are universal in the sense that they do not depend on the value of the spin. In an appendix, we briefly consider the closed TL spin chain with periodic boundary conditions, and show how a previously-proposed solution can be improved so as to obtain the complete (albeit non-universal spectrum.
Universal Bethe ansatz solution for the Temperley-Lieb spin chain
Nepomechie, Rafael I.; Pimenta, Rodrigo A.
2016-09-01
We consider the Temperley-Lieb (TL) open quantum spin chain with "free" boundary conditions associated with the spin-s representation of quantum-deformed sl (2). We construct the transfer matrix, and determine its eigenvalues and the corresponding Bethe equations using analytical Bethe ansatz. We show that the transfer matrix has quantum group symmetry, and we propose explicit formulas for the number of solutions of the Bethe equations and the degeneracies of the transfer-matrix eigenvalues. We propose an algebraic Bethe ansatz construction of the off-shell Bethe states, and we conjecture that the on-shell Bethe states are highest-weight states of the quantum group. We also propose a determinant formula for the scalar product between an off-shell Bethe state and its on-shell dual, as well as for the square of the norm. We find that all of these results, except for the degeneracies and a constant factor in the scalar product, are universal in the sense that they do not depend on the value of the spin. In an appendix, we briefly consider the closed TL spin chain with periodic boundary conditions, and show how a previously-proposed solution can be improved so as to obtain the complete (albeit non-universal) spectrum.
Universal Bethe ansatz solution for the Temperley-Lieb spin chain
Nepomechie, Rafael I
2016-01-01
We consider the Temperley-Lieb (TL) open quantum spin chain with "free" boundary conditions associated with the spin-$s$ representation of quantum-deformed $sl(2)$. We construct the transfer matrix, and determine its eigenvalues and the corresponding Bethe equations using analytical Bethe ansatz. We show that the transfer matrix has quantum group symmetry, and we propose explicit formulas for the number of solutions of the Bethe equations and the degeneracies of the transfer-matrix eigenvalues. We propose an algebraic Bethe ansatz construction of the off-shell Bethe states, and we conjecture that the on-shell Bethe states are highest-weight states of the quantum group. We also propose a determinant formula for the scalar product between an off-shell Bethe state and its on-shell dual, as well as for the square of the norm. We find that all of these results, except for the degeneracies and a constant factor in the scalar product, are universal in the sense that they do not depend on the value of the spin. In an...
Heisenberg XXX Model with General Boundaries: Eigenvectors from Algebraic Bethe Ansatz
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samuel Belliard
2013-11-01
Full Text Available We propose a generalization of the algebraic Bethe ansatz to obtain the eigenvectors of the Heisenberg spin chain with general boundaries associated to the eigenvalues and the Bethe equations found recently by Cao et al. The ansatz takes the usual form of a product of operators acting on a particular vector except that the number of operators is equal to the length of the chain. We prove this result for the chains with small length. We obtain also an off-shell equation (i.e. satisfied without the Bethe equations formally similar to the ones obtained in the periodic case or with diagonal boundaries.
Heisenberg XXX Model with General Boundaries: Eigenvectors from Algebraic Bethe Ansatz
Belliard, Samuel; Crampé, Nicolas
2013-11-01
We propose a generalization of the algebraic Bethe ansatz to obtain the eigenvectors of the Heisenberg spin chain with general boundaries associated to the eigenvalues and the Bethe equations found recently by Cao et al. The ansatz takes the usual form of a product of operators acting on a particular vector except that the number of operators is equal to the length of the chain. We prove this result for the chains with small length. We obtain also an off-shell equation (i.e. satisfied without the Bethe equations) formally similar to the ones obtained in the periodic case or with diagonal boundaries.
Heisenberg XXX model with general boundaries: Eigenvectors from Algebraic Bethe ansatz
Belliard, S
2013-01-01
We propose a generalization of the algebraic Bethe ansatz to obtain the eigenvectors of the Heisenberg spin chain with general boundaries associated to the eigenvalues and the Bethe equations found recently by Cao et al. The ansatz takes the usual form of a product of operators acting on a particular vector except that the number of operators is equal to the length of the chain. We prove this result for the chains with small length. We obtain also an off-shell equation (i.e. satisfied without the Bethe equations) formally similar to the ones obtained in the periodic case or with diagonal boundaries.
Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the sl(2) Gaudin model with boundary
António, N Cirilo; Ragoucy, E; Salom, I
2015-01-01
Following Sklyanin's proposal in the periodic case, we derive the generating function of the Gaudin Hamiltonians with boundary terms. Our derivation is based on the quasi-classical expansion of the linear combination of the transfer matrix of the XXX Heisenberg spin chain and the central element, the so-called Sklyanin determinant. The corresponding Gaudin Hamiltonians with boundary terms are obtained as the residues of the generating function. By defining the appropriate Bethe vectors which yield strikingly simple off shell action of the generating function, we fully implement the algebraic Bethe ansatz, obtaining the spectrum of the generating function and the corresponding Bethe equations.
Nanoparticle-lipid bilayer interactions studied with lipid bilayer arrays
Lu, Bin; Smith, Tyler; Schmidt, Jacob J.
2015-04-01
The widespread environmental presence and commercial use of nanoparticles have raised significant health concerns as a result of many in vitro and in vivo assays indicating toxicity of a wide range of nanoparticle species. Many of these assays have identified the ability of nanoparticles to damage cell membranes. These interactions can be studied in detail using artificial lipid bilayers, which can provide insight into the nature of the particle-membrane interaction through variation of membrane and solution properties not possible with cell-based assays. However, the scope of these studies can be limited because of the low throughput characteristic of lipid bilayer platforms. We have recently described an easy to use, parallel lipid bilayer platform which we have used to electrically investigate the activity of 60 nm diameter amine and carboxyl modified polystyrene nanoparticles (NH2-NP and COOH-NP) with over 1000 lipid bilayers while varying lipid composition, bilayer charge, ionic strength, pH, voltage, serum, particle concentration, and particle charge. Our results confirm recent studies finding activity of NH2-NP but not COOH-NP. Detailed analysis shows that NH2-NP formed pores 0.3-2.3 nm in radius, dependent on bilayer and solution composition. These interactions appear to be electrostatic, as they are regulated by NH2-NP surface charge, solution ionic strength, and bilayer charge. The ability to rapidly measure a large number of nanoparticle and membrane parameters indicates strong potential of this bilayer array platform for additional nanoparticle bilayer studies.The widespread environmental presence and commercial use of nanoparticles have raised significant health concerns as a result of many in vitro and in vivo assays indicating toxicity of a wide range of nanoparticle species. Many of these assays have identified the ability of nanoparticles to damage cell membranes. These interactions can be studied in detail using artificial lipid bilayers, which
Bethe vectors for models based on the super-Yangian $Y(\\mathfrak{gl}(m|n))$
Pakuliak, S Z; Slavnov, N A
2016-01-01
We study Bethe vectors of integrable models based on the super-Yangian $Y(\\mathfrak{gl}(m|n))$. Starting from the super-trace formula, we exhibit recursion relations for these vectors in the case of $Y(\\mathfrak{gl}(2|1))$ and $Y(\\mathfrak{gl}(1|2))$. These recursion relations allow to get explicit expressions for the Bethe vectors. Using an antimorphism of the super-Yangian $Y(\\mathfrak{gl}(m|n))$, we also construct a super-trace formula for dual Bethe vectors, and, for $Y(\\mathfrak{gl}(2|1))$ and $Y(\\mathfrak{gl}(1|2))$ super-Yangians, show recursion relations for them. Again, the latter allow us to get explicit expressions for dual Bethe vectors.
BETHE ANSATZ FOR SUPERSYMMETRIC MODEL WITH?Uq[osp( 1｜2 ) ] SYMMETRY
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨文力
2001-01-01
Using the algebraic Bethe ansatz method, we obtain the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix of the supersymmetric model with Uq[osp(1｜2)] symmetry under periodic boundary and twisted boundary conditions.
Janus-Facedness of the Pion: Analytic Instantaneous Bethe-Salpeter Models
Lucha, Wolfgang
2016-01-01
Inversion enables the construction of interaction potentials underlying - under fortunate circumstances even analytic - instantaneous Bethe-Salpeter descriptions of all lightest pseudoscalar mesons as quark-antiquark bound states of Goldstone-boson nature.
Architecture and Function of Mechanosensitive Membrane Protein Lattices
Kahraman, Osman; Klug, William S; Haselwandter, Christoph A
2016-01-01
Experiments have revealed that membrane proteins can form two-dimensional clusters with regular translational and orientational protein arrangements, which may allow cells to modulate protein function. However, the physical mechanisms yielding supramolecular organization and collective function of membrane proteins remain largely unknown. Here we show that bilayer-mediated elastic interactions between membrane proteins can yield regular and distinctive lattice architectures of protein clusters, and may provide a link between lattice architecture and lattice function. Using the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) as a model system, we obtain relations between the shape of MscL and the supramolecular architecture of MscL lattices. We predict that the tetrameric and pentameric MscL symmetries observed in previous structural studies yield distinct lattice architectures of MscL clusters and that, in turn, these distinct MscL lattice architectures yield distinct lattice activation barriers. Our res...
Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the two species ASEP with different hopping rates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cantini, Luigi [Universite Paris-Sud, LPTMS, UMR8626, Bat. 100, Universite Paris-Sud 91405, Orsay Cedex (France); CNRS, LPTMS, UMR8626, Bat. 100, Universite Paris-Sud 91405, Orsay Cedex (France)
2008-03-07
An ASEP with two species of particles and different hopping rates is considered on a ring. Its integrability is proved, and the nested algebraic Bethe ansatz is used to derive the Bethe equations for states with arbitrary numbers of particles of each type, generalizing the results of Derrida and Evans. We also present formulae for the total velocity of particles of a given type and their limit given the large size of the system and the finite densities of the particles.
Bethe vectors of quantum integrable models based on Uq( gl-hat N)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study quantum Uq( gl-hat N) integrable models solvable by the nested algebraic Bethe ansatz. Different formulas are given for the right and left universal off-shell nested Bethe vectors. It is shown that these formulas can be related by certain morphisms of the positive Borel subalgebra in Uq( gl-hat N) into analogous subalgebra in Uq−1( gl-hat N). (paper)
Approximate, analytic solutions of the Bethe equation for charged particle range
Swift, Damian C.; McNaney, James M.
2009-01-01
By either performing a Taylor expansion or making a polynomial approximation, the Bethe equation for charged particle stopping power in matter can be integrated analytically to obtain the range of charged particles in the continuous deceleration approximation. Ranges match reference data to the expected accuracy of the Bethe model. In the non-relativistic limit, the energy deposition rate was also found analytically. The analytic relations can be used to complement and validate numerical solu...
Explicit Solutions of the Bethe Ansatz Equations for Bloch Electrons in a Magnetic Field
Hatsugai, Yasuhiro; Kohmoto, Mahito; Wu, Yong-Shi
1994-01-01
For Bloch electrons in a magnetic field, explicit solutions are obtained at the center of the spectrum for the Bethe ansatz equations of Wiegmann and Zabrodin. When the magnetic flux per plaquette is 1 / Q with Q an odd integer, distribution of the roots of the Bethe ansatz equation is uniform except at two points on the unit circle in the complex plane. For the semiclassical limit Q→∞, the wave function is
Bethe ansatz solution of the $\\tau_2$-model with arbitrary boundary fields
Xu, Xiaotian; Yang, Tao; Cao, Junpeng; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie
2016-01-01
The quantum $\\tau_2$-model with generic site-dependent inhomogeneity and arbitrary boundary fields is studied via the off-diagonal Bethe Ansatz method. The eigenvalues of the corresponding transfer matrix are given in terms of an inhomogeneous T-Q relation, which is based on the operator product identities among the fused transfer matrices and the asymptotic behavior of the transfer matrices. Moreover, the associated Bethe Ansatz equations are also obtained.
Hyperon stars in the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone theory
Baldo, Marcello; Schulze, H J
2000-01-01
In the framework of the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone theory, we determine a fully microscopic equation of state for asymmetric and $\\beta$-stable nuclear matter containing $\\sim$ and $\\la$ hyperons. We use the Paris and the new Argonne $Av_{18}$ two-body nucleon interaction, whereas the nucleon-hyperon interaction is described by the Njimegen soft-core model. We stress the role played by the three-body nucleon interaction, which produces a strong repulsion at high densities. This enhances enormously the hyperon population, and produces a strong softening of the equation of state, which turns out almost independent on the nucleon-nucleon interaction. We use the new equation of state in order to calculate the structure of static neutron stars. We obtain a maximum mass configuration with $M_{\\rm max}$ = 1.26 (1.22) when the Paris ($Av_{18}$) nucleon potential is adopted. Central densities are about 10 times normal nuclear matter density. Stellar rotations, treated within a perturbative approach, increase the value ...
Efficient implementation of core-excitation Bethe Salpeter equation calculations
Gilmore, K; Shirley, E L; Prendergast, D; Pemmaraju, C D; Kas, J J; Vila, F D; Rehr, J J
2016-01-01
We present an efficient implementation of the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) method for obtaining core-level spectra including x-ray absorption (XAS), x-ray emission (XES), and both resonant and non-resonant inelastic x-ray scattering spectra (N/RIXS). Calculations are based on density functional theory (DFT) electronic structures generated either by abinit or Quantumespresso, both plane-wave basis, pseudopotential codes. This electronic structure is improved through the inclusion of a GW self energy. The projector augmented wave technique is used to evaluate transition matrix elements between core-level and band states. Final two-particle scattering states are obtained with the NIST core-level BSE solver (NBSE). We have previously reported this implementation, which we refer to as ocean (Obtaining Core Excitations from Ab initio electronic structure and NBSE) [Phys. Rev. B 83, 115106 (2011)]. Here, we present additional efficiencies that enable us to evaluate spectra for systems ten times larger than previous...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Non-perturbative phenomena are essential to understanding quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of the strong interactions. The particles observed are mesons and baryons, but the fundamental fields are quarks and gluons. Most properties of the hadrons are inaccessible in perturbation theory. Aside from their mere existence, the most blatant example is the mass spectrum. The lack of an accurate, reasonably precise, calculation of the mass spectrum is a major piece of unfinished business for theoretical particle physics. In addition, a wide variety of other non-perturbative calculations in QCD are necessary to interpret ongoing experiments. For example, it is impossible to extract the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa angles without knowing matrix elements of operators in the K, D and B mesons. Furthermore, non-perturbative analyses of quarkonia can determine the strong coupling constant with uncertainties already comparable to perturbative analyses of high-energy data. These lectures cover lattice field theory, the only general, systematic approach that can address quantitatively the non-perturbative questions raised above. Sects. 2--8 explain how to formulate quantum field theory on a lattice and why lattice field theory is theoretically well-founded. Sect. 9 sketches some analytic calculations in scalar lattice field theory. They serve as an example of how lattice field theory can contribute to particle physics without necessarily using computers. Sect. 10 turns to the most powerful tool in lattice field theory: large-scale Monte Carlo integration of the functional integral. Instead of discussing algorithms in gory detail, the general themes of computational field theory are discussed. The methods needed for spectroscopy, weak matrix elements, and the strong coupling constant are reviewed. 52 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab
Magnon Hall effect in AB-stacked bilayer honeycomb quantum magnets
Owerre, S. A.
2016-09-01
Motivated by the fact that many bilayer quantum magnets occur in nature, we generalize the study of thermal Hall transports of spin excitations to bilayer magnetic systems. It is shown that bilayer magnetic systems can be coupled either ferromagnetically or antiferromagnetically. We study both scenarios on the honeycomb lattice and show that the system realizes topologically nontrivial magnon bands induced by alternating next-nearest-neighbor Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction. As a result, the bilayer system realizes both magnon Hall effect and magnon spin Nernst effect. We show that antiferromagnetically coupled layers differ from ferromagnetically coupled layers by a sign change in the conductivities as the magnetic field is reversed. Furthermore, Chern number protected magnon edge states are observed and propagate in the same direction on the top and bottom layers in ferromagnetically coupled layers, whereas the magnon edge states propagate in opposite directions for antiferromagnetically coupled layers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this article, we investigate the structures of the pseudoscalar mesons (π, K, D, Ds, B and Bs) in the framework of the coupled rainbow Schwinger-Dyson equation and ladder Bethe-Salpeter equation with the confining effective potential (infrared modified flat bottom potential). The Schwinger-Dyson functions for the u, d and s quarks are greatly renormalized at small momentum region and the curves are steep at about q2=1 GeV2 which indicates an explicitly dynamical symmetry breaking. The Euclidean time Fourier transformed quark propagators have no mass poles in the time-like region which naturally implements confinement. As for the c and b quarks, the current masses are very large, the renormalization are more tender, however, mass poles in the time-like region are also absent. The Bethe-Salpeter wavefunctions for those mesons have the same type (Gaussian type) momentum dependence and center around small momentum which indicate that the bound states exist in the infrared region. The decay constants for those pseudoscalar mesons are compatible with the values of experimental extractions and theoretical calculations, such as lattice simulations and QCD sum rules
N=6 super Chern-Simons theory S-matrix and all-loop Bethe ansatz equations
Ahn, Changrim
2008-01-01
We propose the exact S-matrix for the planar limit of the N=6 super Chern-Simons theory recently proposed by Aharony, Bergman, Jafferis, and Maldacena for the AdS_4/CFT_3 correspondence. Assuming SU(2|2) symmetry, factorizability and certain crossing-unitarity relations, we find the S-matrix including the dressing phase. We use this S-matrix to formulate the asymptotic Bethe ansatz. Our result for the Bethe-Yang equations and corresponding Bethe ansatz equations confirms the all-loop Bethe ansatz equations recently conjectured by Gromov and Vieira.
Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers.
Marquardt, Drew; Kučerka, Norbert; Wassall, Stephen R; Harroun, Thad A; Katsaras, John
2016-09-01
It is well known that cholesterol modifies the physical properties of lipid bilayers. For example, the much studied liquid-ordered Lo phase contains rapidly diffusing lipids with their acyl chains in the all trans configuration, similar to gel phase bilayers. Moreover, the Lo phase is commonly associated with cholesterol-enriched lipid rafts, which are thought to serve as platforms for signaling proteins in the plasma membrane. Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers has been studied extensively, and it has been shown - at least in some bilayers - to align differently from its canonical upright orientation, where its hydroxyl group is in the vicinity of the lipid-water interface. In this article we review recent works describing cholesterol's location in different model membrane systems with emphasis on results obtained from scattering, spectroscopic and molecular dynamics studies. PMID:27056099
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, K. F.; Yang, Fang; Song, Y. R. [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Canhua; Qian, Dong; Gao, C. L.; Jia, Jin-Feng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing 210093 (China)
2015-09-21
Ultra-thin Bi films show exotic electronic structure and novel quantum effects, especially the widely studied Bi (111) film. Using reflection high-energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy, we studied the structure and morphology evolution of Bi (111) thin films grown on Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. A strongly compressed, but quickly released in-plane lattice of Bi (111) is found in the first three bilayers. The first bilayer of Bi shows a fractal growth mode with flat surface, while the second and third bilayer show a periodic buckling due to the strong compression of the in-plane lattice. The lattice slowly changes to its bulk value with further deposition of Bi.
Hutsalyuk, A; Pakuliak, S Z; Ragoucy, E; Slavnov, N A
2016-01-01
We study scalar products of Bethe vectors in integrable models solvable by nested algebraic Bethe ansatz and possessing $\\mathfrak{gl}(2|1)$ symmetry. Using explicit formulas of the monodromy matrix entries multiple actions onto Bethe vectors we obtain a representation for the scalar product in the most general case. This explicit representation appears to be a sum over partitions of the Bethe parameters. It can be used for the analysis of scalar products involving on-shell Bethe vectors. As a by-product, we obtain a determinant representation for the scalar products of generic Bethe vectors in integrable models with $\\mathfrak{gl}(1|1)$ symmetry.
Use of the Bethe equation for inner-shell ionization by electron impact
Powell, Cedric J.; Llovet, Xavier; Salvat, Francesc
2016-05-01
We analyzed calculated cross sections for K-, L-, and M-shell ionization by electron impact to determine the energy ranges over which these cross sections are consistent with the Bethe equation for inner-shell ionization. Our analysis was performed with K-shell ionization cross sections for 26 elements, with L-shell ionization cross sections for seven elements, L3-subshell ionization cross sections for Xe, and M-shell ionization cross sections for three elements. The validity (or otherwise) of the Bethe equation could be checked with Fano plots based on a linearized form of the Bethe equation. Our Fano plots, which display theoretical cross sections and available measured cross sections, reveal two linear regions as predicted by de Heer and Inokuti [in Electron Impact Ionization, edited by T. D. Märk and G. H. Dunn, (Springer-Verlag, Vienna, 1985), Chap. 7, pp. 232-276]. For each region, we made linear fits and determined values of the two element-specific Bethe parameters. We found systematic variations of these parameters with atomic number for both the low- and the high-energy linear regions of the Fano plots. We also determined the energy ranges over which the Bethe equation can be used.
The stacking dependent electronic structure and optical properties of bilayer black phosphorus.
Shu, Huabing; Li, Yunhai; Niu, Xianghong; Wang, Jinlan
2016-02-17
By employing density-functional theory, the G0W0 method and Bethe-Salpter equation, we explore quasi-particle energy bands, optical responses and excitons of bilayer black phosphorus (BBP) with four different stacking patterns. All the structures are direct band gap semiconductors and the band gap is highly dependent on the stacking pattern, with a maximum of 1.31 eV for AB-stacking and a minimum of 0.92 eV for AD-stacking. Such dependence can be well understood by the tight-binding model in terms of the interlayer hopping. More interestingly, stacking sensitive optical absorption and exciton binding energy are observed in BBPs. For x-polarized light, more red-shift of optical adsorption appears in AA-stacking and the strong exciton binding energy in the AA-stacking bilayer can be as large as 0.82 eV, that is ∼1.7 times larger than that of AD-stacking bilayer. PMID:26845322
Modified Bethe formula for low-energy electron stopping power without fitting parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a modified Bethe formula for low-energy electron stopping power without fitting parameters for a wide range of elements and compounds. This formula maintains the generality of the Bethe formula and gives reasonable agreement in comparing the predicted stopping powers for 15 elements and 6 compounds with the experimental data and those calculated within dielectric theory including the exchange effect. Use of the stopping power obtained from this formula for hydrogen silsesquioxane in Monte Carlo simulation gives the energy deposition distribution in consistent with the experimental data. - Highlights: • We propose a modified Bethe formula for low-energy electron stopping power without fitting parameters. • Our formula is found based on the stopping power calculated by the dielectric theory including the exchange effect. • We calculate the energy deposition distribution of 3 keV electrons in 15 nm HSQ resist layer on Si substrate
Modeling dynamical electron scattering with Bethe potentials and the scattering matrix.
Wang, A; De Graef, M
2016-01-01
Bethe potentials were introduced by Bethe in 1928 as a first order perturbation approach to reducing the number of diffracted beams in dynamical electron scattering problems. The approach starts from the Bloch wave representation, and uses a threshold criterion to split the diffracted beams into two subsets, namely strong and weak beams. Since the use of Bloch wave based Bethe potentials for defect simulations is somewhat tedious, this paper applies the perturbation approach to the scattering matrix formalism, which is more readily adaptable for defect image simulations. The size of the dynamical matrix, and hence the computation time, can be reduced significantly. A threshold criterion for the separation of scattered beams into strong and weak sets is introduced. A general guideline in setting the threshold for strong or weak beam selection is discussed along with several parameters that may influence the threshold values, such as atomic number, accelerating voltage, structure complexity, incident beam tilt and temperature. PMID:26433091
The Barkas-Effect Correction to Bethe-Bloch Stopping Power
Porter, L. E.
A brief history of the discovery of the Barkas-effect correction to the Bethe-Bloch stopping power formula is presented, followed by a recounting of the initial theoretical calculations prepared as a quantitative explanation. A current version of the modified Bethe-Bloch formula is described in detail. An overview of the current capability to assess the validity of several existing formalisms for calculating the Barkas-effect correction term is provided, in the course of which discussion of numerous sources of uncertainty ensues. Finally, an opinion on the significance of this departure from Bethe-Bloch theory is offered, along with a presentation of a few recent developments and of some areas for focus in future exploration in the field of the stopping power of matter for charged particles.
Topologically Twisted SUSY Gauge Theory, Gauge-Bethe Correspondence and Quantum Cohomology
Chung, Hee-Joong
2016-01-01
We calculate partition function and correlation functions in A-twisted 2d $\\mathcal{N}=(2,2)$ theories and topologically twisted 3d $\\mathcal{N}=2$ theories containing adjoint chiral multiplet with particular choices of $R$-charges and the magnetic fluxes for flavor symmetries. According to Gauge-Bethe correspondence, they correspond to Heisenberg XXX and XXZ spin chain models. We identify the partition function as the inverse of the norm of the Bethe eigenstates. Correlation functions are identified as the coefficients of the expectation value of Baxter $Q$-operators. In addition, we consider correlation functions of 2d $\\mathcal{N}=(2,2)^*$ theory and their relation to equivariant quantum cohomology and equivariant integration of cotangent bundle of Grassmann manifolds. Also, we study the ring relations of supersymmetric Wilson loops in 3d $\\mathcal{N}=2^*$ theory and Bethe subalgebra of XXZ spin chain model.
Bethe Ansatz Matrix Elements as Non-Relativistic Limits of Form Factors of Quantum Field Theory
Kormos, M.; Mussardo, G.; Pozsgay, B.
2010-01-01
We show that the matrix elements of integrable models computed by the Algebraic Bethe Ansatz can be put in direct correspondence with the Form Factors of integrable relativistic field theories. This happens when the S-matrix of a Bethe Ansatz model can be regarded as a suitable non-relativistic limit of the S-matrix of a field theory, and when there is a well-defined mapping between the Hilbert spaces and operators of the two theories. This correspondence provides an efficient method to compu...
Soliton-dependent plasmon reflection at bilayer graphene domain walls
Jiang, Lili; Shi, Zhiwen; Zeng, Bo; Wang, Sheng; Kang, Ji-Hun; Joshi, Trinity; Jin, Chenhao; Ju, Long; Kim, Jonghwan; Lyu, Tairu; Shen, Yuen-Ron; Crommie, Michael; Gao, Hong-Jun; Wang, Feng
2016-08-01
Layer-stacking domain walls in bilayer graphene are emerging as a fascinating one-dimensional system that features stacking solitons structurally and quantum valley Hall boundary states electronically. The interactions between electrons in the 2D graphene domains and the one-dimensional domain-wall solitons can lead to further new quantum phenomena. Domain-wall solitons of varied local structures exist along different crystallographic orientations, which can exhibit distinct electrical, mechanical and optical properties. Here we report soliton-dependent 2D graphene plasmon reflection at different 1D domain-wall solitons in bilayer graphene using near-field infrared nanoscopy. We observe various domain-wall structures in mechanically exfoliated graphene bilayers, including network-forming triangular lattices, individual straight or bent lines, and even closed circles. The near-field infrared contrast of domain-wall solitons arises from plasmon reflection at domain walls, and exhibits markedly different behaviours at the tensile- and shear-type domain-wall solitons. In addition, the plasmon reflection at domain walls exhibits a peculiar dependence on electrostatic gating. Our study demonstrates the unusual and tunable coupling between 2D graphene plasmons and domain-wall solitons.
Bethe ansatz for an AdS/CFT open spin chain with non-diagonal boundaries
Zhang, Xin; Cui, Shuai; Nepomechie, Rafael I; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie; Wang, Yupeng
2015-01-01
We consider the integrable open-chain transfer matrix corresponding to a Y=0 brane at one boundary, and a Y_theta=0 brane (rotated with the respect to the former by an angle theta) at the other boundary. We determine the exact eigenvalues of this transfer matrix in terms of solutions of a corresponding set of Bethe equations.
Normalization and perturbation theory for tightly bound states of the spinor Bethe-Salpeter equation
L.G. Suttorp
1976-01-01
The normalisation integrals for the tightly-bound-state solutions of the spinor Bethe-Salpeter equation that have been derived recently are evaluated. Ghost states are found to appear when the continuous parameters characterising the type of fermion-boson interaction reach a critical value. Perturba
Exact solutions of the spinor Bethe-Salpeter equation for tightly bound states
L.G. Suttorp
1975-01-01
Exact solutions are obtained for the spinor Bethe-Salpeter equation that describes tightly bound states of spin-/sup 1///sub 2/ fermions with massless-boson exchange. The corresponding coupling constants form a discrete spectrum that depends continuously on the parameters characterizing the type of
Hadronic Observables from Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations
Sanchis-Alepuz, Helios
2015-01-01
In these proceedings we present a mini-review on the topic of the Dyson-Schwinger/Bethe-Salpeter approach to the study of relativistic bound-states in physics. In particular, we present a self-contained discussion of their derivation, as well as their truncation such that important symmetries are maintained.
Numerical solution of the spinor Bethe-Salpeter equation and the Goldstein problem
L.G. Suttorp
1978-01-01
The spinor Bethe-Salpeter equation describing bound states of a fermion-antifermion pair with massless-boson exchange reduces to a single (uncoupled) partial differential equation for special combinations of the fermion-boson couplings. For spinless bound states with positive or negative parity this
Calculation of Spin Observables for Proton-Neutron Elastic Scattering in the Bethe-Salpeter Equation
Kinpara, Susumu
2016-01-01
Bethe-Salpeter equation is applied to $p$-$n$ elastic scattering. The spin observables are calculated by the M matrix similar to $p$-$p$ case. The parameters of the meson-exchange model are used with the cut-off for the pion exchange interaction. Change of the M matrix indicates breaking of the charge independence in the nucleon-nucleon system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mishra, A.K., E-mail: mishra@imsc.res.i [Insitituto Nacional de Pesquidas Espaciais - INPE, P.O. Box 103, CP 515, S. J. Campos, SP 12245-970 (Brazil); Kishore, R., E-mail: kishore@las.inpe.b [Insitituto Nacional de Pesquidas Espaciais - INPE, P.O. Box 103, CP 515, S. J. Campos, SP 12245-970 (Brazil)
2009-10-15
The exact nested Bethe ansatz solution for the one dimensional (1-D) U infinity Hubbard model show that the state vectors are a product of spin-less fermion and spin wavefunctions, or an appropriate superposition of such factorized wavefunctions. The spin-less fermion component of the wavefunctions ensures no double occupancy at any site. It had been demonstrated that the nested Bethe ansatz wavefunctions in the U infinity limit obey orthofermi statistics. Gutzwiller projection operator formalism is the another well known technique employed to handle U infinity Hubbard model. In general, this approach does not lead to spin-less fermion wavefunctions. Therefore, the nested Bethe ansatz and Gutzwiller projection operator approach give rise to different kinds of the wavefunctions for the U infinity limit of 1-D Hubbard Hamiltonian. To compare the consequences of this dissimilarity in the wavefunctions, we have obtained the ground state energy of a finite system consisting of three particles on a four site closed chain. It is shown that in the nested Bethe ansatz implemented through orthofermion algebra, all the permissible 2{sup 3} spin configurations are degenerate in the ground state. This eight fold degeneracy of the ground state is absent in the Gutzwiller projection operator approach. This finding becomes relevant in the context of known exact U infinity results, which require that all the energy levels are 2{sup N}-fold degenerate for an N particle system.
The Spin Symmetry of Heavy Baryons in the Framework of the Bethe-Salpeter Equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CUI Jian-Ying; JIN Hong-Ying; WU Ji-Min
2001-01-01
We study the baryons containing a heavy quark in the framework of Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation. The most general forms of the BS wavefunctions are given. In the heavy-quark limit we simplify the BS equations and we show clearly that the spin symmetry exists in heavy baryon states.``
Bethe Ansatz from functional relations of open XXZ chain for new special cases
Murgan, R; Murgan, Rajan; Nepomechie, Rafael I.
2005-01-01
The transfer matrix of the general integrable open XXZ quantum spin chain obeys certain functional relations at roots of unity. By exploiting these functional relations, we determine the Bethe Ansatz solution for the transfer matrix eigenvalues for the special cases that all but one of the boundary parameters are zero, and the bulk anisotropy parameter is i\\pi/3, i\\pi/5 ,...
Wiegmann, P. B.; Zabrodin, A. V.
1993-01-01
We present a new approach to the problem of Bloch electrons in magnetic field,\\\\ by making explicit a natural relation between magnetic translations and the\\\\quantum group $U_{q}(sl_2)$. The approach allows to express the spectrum and\\\\\\ the Bloch function as solutions of the Bethe-Ansatz equations typical for com\\\\pletely integrable quantum systems
Dhar, Abhishek; Sriram Shastry, B.
2000-09-01
We present a calculation of the lowest excited states of the Heisenberg ferromagnet in 1D for any wave vector. These turn out to be string solutions of Bethe's equations with a macroscopic number of particles in them. They are identified as generalized quantum Bloch wall states, and a simple physical picture is provided for the same.
Dhar, Abhishek; Shastry, B. Sriram
2000-01-01
We present a calculation of the lowest excited states of the Heisenberg ferromagnet in 1-d for any wave vector. These turn out to be string solutions of Bethe's equations with a macroscopic number of particles in them. These are identified as generalized quantum Bloch wall states, and a simple physical picture provided for the same.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Born-Hartree-Bethe approximation for the calculation of total (elastic + inelastic) integral cross section for high-energy electron-atom and electron-molecule scattering containing no free parameter is formulated. Corresponding results are obtained for He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, H2 and N2 and compared with experimental data.
Texture of lipid bilayer domains
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Uffe Bernchou; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Midtiby, Henrik Skov;
2009-01-01
We investigate the texture of gel (g) domains in binary lipid membranes composed of the phospholipids DPPC and DOPC. Lateral organization of lipid bilayer membranes is a topic of fundamental and biological importance. Whereas questions related to size and composition of fluid membrane domain...
Detection of bilayer lipid with graphene nanoribbon
Akbari, Elnaz; Buntat, Zolkafle; Afroozeh, Abdolkarim; Zeinalinezhad, Alireza; Nilashi, Mehrbakhsh
2015-09-01
Single-layer graphene consists of sp 2-bonded carbon atoms arranged in a two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal lattice comprising a thin layer of single carbon atoms. Owing to its special characteristics including electrical, physical, and optical properties, graphene is considered more suitable for sensor applications than other materials. Moreover, it is possible to produce biosensors using electrolyte-gated field-effect transistors based on graphene (GFETs) to identify the alterations in charged lipid membrane properties. This paper illustrates how membrane thickness and electrical charge can result in a monolayer GFET, with emphasis on conductance variation. It is proposed that the thickness and electrical charge of the lipid bilayer are functions of carrier density, and equations relating these suitable control parameters were derived. Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) has been incorporated to obtain other model for conductance characteristic. The comparison between the analytical models and ANFIS with the experimental data extracted from previous work show an acceptable agreement. [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Cantilever bending based on humidity-actuated mesoporous silica/silicon bilayers.
Ganser, Christian; Fritz-Popovski, Gerhard; Morak, Roland; Sharifi, Parvin; Marmiroli, Benedetta; Sartori, Barbara; Amenitsch, Heinz; Griesser, Thomas; Teichert, Christian; Paris, Oskar
2016-01-01
We use a soft templating approach in combination with evaporation induced self-assembly to prepare mesoporous films containing cylindrical pores with elliptical cross-section on an ordered pore lattice. The film is deposited on silicon-based commercial atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers using dip coating. This bilayer cantilever is mounted in a humidity controlled AFM, and its deflection is measured as a function of relative humidity. We also investigate a similar film on bulk silicon substrate using grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), in order to determine nanostructural parameters of the film as well as the water-sorption-induced deformation of the ordered mesopore lattice. The strain of the mesoporous layer is related to the cantilever deflection using simple bilayer bending theory. We also develop a simple quantitative model for cantilever deflection which only requires cantilever geometry and nanostructural parameters of the porous layer as input parameters. PMID:27335753
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Santocanale, Luigi
2002-01-01
A μ-lattice is a lattice with the property that every unary polynomial has both a least and a greatest fix-point. In this paper we define the quasivariety of μ-lattices and, for a given partially ordered set P, we construct a μ-lattice JP whose elements are equivalence classes of games in a preor...
Kinyon, Michael
2012-01-01
Categorical skew lattices are a variety of skew lattices on which the natural partial order is especially well behaved. While most skew lattices of interest are categorical, not all are. They are characterized by a countable family of forbidden subalgebras. We also consider the subclass of strictly categorical skew lattices.
Bilayer Effects of Antimalarial Compounds.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicole B Ramsey
Full Text Available Because of the perpetual development of resistance to current therapies for malaria, the Medicines for Malaria Venture developed the Malaria Box to facilitate the drug development process. We tested the 80 most potent compounds from the box for bilayer-mediated effects on membrane protein conformational changes (a measure of likely toxicity in a gramicidin-based stopped flow fluorescence assay. Among the Malaria Box compounds tested, four compounds altered membrane properties (p< 0.05; MMV007384 stood out as a potent bilayer-perturbing compound that is toxic in many cell-based assays, suggesting that testing for membrane perturbation could help identify toxic compounds. In any case, MMV007384 should be approached with caution, if at all.
A new integral representation for the scalar products of Bethe states for the XXX spin chain
Kazama, Yoichi; Nishimura, Takuya
2013-01-01
Based on the method of separation of variables due to Sklyanin, we construct a new integral representation for the scalar products of the Bethe states for the SU(2) XXX spin 1/2 chain obeying the periodic boundary condition. Due to the compactness of the symmetry group, a twist matrix must be introduced at the boundary in order to extract the separated variables properly. Then by deriving the integration measure and the spectrum of the separated variables, we express the inner product of an on-shell and an off-shell Bethe states in terms of a multiple contour integral involving a product of Baxter wave functions. Its form is reminiscent of the integral over the eigenvalues of a matrix model and is expected to be useful in studying the semi-classical limit of the product.
Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the quantum group invariant open XXZ chain at roots of unity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Azat M. Gainutdinov
2016-08-01
Full Text Available For generic values of q, all the eigenvectors of the transfer matrix of the Uqsl(2-invariant open spin-1/2 XXZ chain with finite length N can be constructed using the algebraic Bethe ansatz (ABA formalism of Sklyanin. However, when q is a root of unity (q=eiπ/p with integer p≥2, the Bethe equations acquire continuous solutions, and the transfer matrix develops Jordan cells. Hence, there appear eigenvectors of two new types: eigenvectors corresponding to continuous solutions (exact complete p-strings, and generalized eigenvectors. We propose general ABA constructions for these two new types of eigenvectors. We present many explicit examples, and we construct complete sets of (generalized eigenvectors for various values of p and N.
Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the quantum group invariant open XXZ chain at roots of unity
Gainutdinov, Azat M
2016-01-01
For generic values of q, all the eigenvectors of the transfer matrix of the U_q sl(2)-invariant open spin-1/2 XXZ chain with finite length N can be constructed using the algebraic Bethe ansatz (ABA) formalism of Sklyanin. However, when q is a root of unity (q=exp(i pi/p) with integer p>1), the Bethe equations acquire continuous solutions, and the transfer matrix develops Jordan cells. Hence, there appear eigenvectors of two new types: eigenvectors corresponding to continuous solutions (exact complete p-strings), and generalized eigenvectors. We propose general ABA constructions for these two new types of eigenvectors. We present many explicit examples, and we construct complete sets of (generalized) eigenvectors for various values of p and N.
Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the quantum group invariant open XXZ chain at roots of unity
Gainutdinov, Azat M.; Nepomechie, Rafael I.
2016-08-01
For generic values of q, all the eigenvectors of the transfer matrix of the Uq sl (2)-invariant open spin-1/2 XXZ chain with finite length N can be constructed using the algebraic Bethe ansatz (ABA) formalism of Sklyanin. However, when q is a root of unity (q =e iπ / p with integer p ≥ 2), the Bethe equations acquire continuous solutions, and the transfer matrix develops Jordan cells. Hence, there appear eigenvectors of two new types: eigenvectors corresponding to continuous solutions (exact complete p-strings), and generalized eigenvectors. We propose general ABA constructions for these two new types of eigenvectors. We present many explicit examples, and we construct complete sets of (generalized) eigenvectors for various values of p and N.
Calculation of the relativistic Bethe logarithm in the two-center problem
Korobov, Vladimir I; Karr, Jean-Philippe
2013-01-01
We present a variational approach to evaluate relativistic corrections of order \\alpha^2 to the Bethe logarithm for the ground electronic state of the Coulomb two center problem. That allows to estimate the radiative contribution at m\\alpha^7 order in molecular-like three-body systems such as hydrogen molecular ions H_2^+ and HD^+, or antiprotonic helium atoms. While we get 10 significant digits for the nonrelativistic Bethe logarithm, calculation of the relativistic corrections is much more involved especially for small values of bond length R. We were able to achieve a level of 3-4 significant digits starting from R=0.2 bohr, that will allow to reach 10^{-10} relative uncertainty on transition frequencies.
Calculation of the relativistic Bethe logarithm in the two-center problem
Korobov, Vladimir I.; Hilico, L.; Karr, J.-Ph.
2013-06-01
We present a variational approach to evaluate relativistic corrections of order α2 to the Bethe logarithm for the ground electronic state of the Coulomb two-center problem. That allows us to estimate the radiative contribution at mα7 order in molecular-like three-body systems such as hydrogen molecular ions H2+ and HD+ or antiprotonic helium atoms. While we get ten significant digits for the nonrelativistic Bethe logarithm, calculation of the relativistic corrections is much more involved, especially for small values of bond length R. We were able to achieve a level of three to four significant digits starting from R=0.2 bohr, which will allow us to reach 10-10 relative uncertainty on transition frequencies.
A new integral representation for the scalar products of Bethe states for the XXX spin chain
Kazama, Yoichi; Komatsu, Shota; Nishimura, Takuya
2013-09-01
Based on the method of separation of variables due to Sklyanin, we construct a new integral representation for the scalar products of the Bethe states for the SU(2) XXX spin 1/2 chain obeying the periodic boundary condition. Due to the compactness of the symmetry group, a twist matrix must be introduced at the boundary in order to extract the separated variables properly. Then by deriving the integration measure and the spectrum of the separated variables, we express the inner product of an on-shell and an off-shell Bethe states in terms of a multiple contour integral involving a product of Baxter wave functions. Its form is reminiscent of the integral over the eigenvalues of a matrix model and is expected to be useful in studying the semi-classical limit of the product.
ODE/IM correspondence and Bethe ansatz for affine Toda field equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katsushi Ito
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We study the linear problem associated with modified affine Toda field equation for the Langlands dual gˆ∨, where gˆ is an untwisted affine Lie algebra. The connection coefficients for the asymptotic solutions of the linear problem are found to correspond to the Q-functions for g-type quantum integrable models. The ψ-system for the solutions associated with the fundamental representations of g leads to Bethe ansatz equations associated with the affine Lie algebra gˆ. We also study the A2r(2 affine Toda field equation in massless limit in detail and find its Bethe ansatz equations as well as T–Q relations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kitanine, N
2007-09-15
Spin chains are the basic elements of integrable quantum models. These models have direct applications in condense matter theory, in statistical physics, in quantum optics, in field theory and even in string theory but they are also important because they enable us to solve, in an exact manner, non-perturbative phenomena that otherwise would stay unresolved. The method described in this work is based on the algebraic Bethe Ansatz. It is shown how this method can be used for the computation of null temperature correlation functions of the Heisenberg 1/2 spin chain. The important point of this approach is the solution of the inverse quantum problem given by the XXZ spin chain. This solution as well as a simple formulae for the scalar product of the Bethe states, have enabled us to get the most basic correlation functions under the form of multiple integrals. The formalism of multiple integrals open the way for asymptotic analysis for a few physical quantities like the probability of vacuum formation. It is worth noticing that this formalism can give exact results for two-point functions that are the most important correlation functions for applications. A relationship has been discovered between these multiple integrals and the sum of the form factors. The results have been extended to dynamical correlation functions. (A.C.)
Horizontal Bilayer for Electrical and Optical Recordings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alf Honigmann
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Artificial bilayer containing reconstituted ion channels, transporters and pumps serve as a well-defined model system for electrophysiological investigations of membrane protein structure–function relationship. Appropriately constructed microchips containing horizontally oriented bilayers with easy solution access to both sides provide, in addition, the possibility to investigate these model bilayer membranes and the membrane proteins therein with high resolution fluorescence techniques up to the single-molecule level. Here, we describe a bilayer microchip system in which long-term stable horizontal free-standing and hydrogel-supported bilayers can be formed and demonstrate its prospects particularly for single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and high resolution fluorescence microscopy in probing the physicochemical properties like phase behavior of the bilayer-forming lipids, as well as in functional studies of membrane proteins.
Reversibly formed bilayer vesicles: Energetics and polydispersity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergstöm, M.
1997-01-01
statistical-mechanical factor that accounts for the fluctuations in composition, chain packing density and shape. We demonstrate that the free energy required to form a spherical vesicle is made up of two main contributions: the (size-independent) work of bending the constituent monolayers and the work of......Model calculations based on the multiple equilibrium approach indicate that the spontaneous formation of geometrically closed bilayer vesicles is geared primarily by the bilayer tension which in turn is largely determined by the work of bending the bilayer into a spherical vesicle. and a...... stretching the bilayer that is determined by the planar bilayer tension. A previously undiscovered contribution to the work of bending a vesicle bilayer, originating from geometrical packing constraints, is presented. On this basis we obtain vesicle size distributions with maxima located at radii several...
Quantum integrable systems, non-skew-symmetric r-matrices and algebraic Bethe ansatz
Skrypnyk, T.
2007-02-01
We prove the integrability of the general quantum Hamiltonian systems governed by an arbitrary non-skew-symmetric, so(3)-valued, nondynamical classical r-matrix with spectral parameters. We consider the most interesting example of these quantum integrable systems, namely, the so(3) "generalized Gaudin systems" in detail. In the case of an arbitrary r-matrix which is "diagonal" in the sl(2) basis we calculate the spectrum and the eigenvalues of the corresponding Hamiltonians using the algebraic Bethe ansatz technique.
Solution of the Bethe-Goldstone Equation without Partial Wave Decomposition
White, L; Sammarruca, F.
2013-01-01
We present a method for solving the nucleon-nucleon scattering equation without the use of a partial wave expansion of the scattering amplitude. After verifying the accuracy of the numerical solutions, we proceed to apply the method to the in-medium scattering equation (the Bethe-Goldstone equation) in three dimensions. A focal point is a study of Pauli blocking effects calculated in the (angle-dependent) three-dimensional formalism as compared to the usual spherical approximation. We discuss...
Drinfeld Twist and Symmetric Bethe Vectors of Open XYZ Chain with Non-Diagonal Boundary Terms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈曦; 冯俊; 郝昆; 吴可; 杨文力; 杨战营; 张耀中
2012-01-01
With the help of the Drinfeld twist or factorizing F-matrix for the eight-vertex solid-on-solid （SOS） model, we find that in the F-basis provided by the twist the two sets of pseudo-particle creation operators simultaneously take completely symmetric and polarization free form. This allows us to obtain the explicit and completely symmetric expressions of the two sets of Bethe states of the model.
Calculation of Spin Observables for Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering in the Bethe-Salpeter Equation
Kinpara, Susumu
2015-01-01
Bethe-Salpeter equation is applied to $p$-$p$ elastic scattering. The observables of spin are calculated in the framework of the M matrix using the two-body interaction potential. The parameter of the pseudovector coupling constant is adjusted so as to reproduce the spin singlet part. It is shown that the spin rotation $R(\\theta)$ and $A(\\theta)$ are improved by the resonance effect for ${}^{\\rm 1}S_{\\rm 0}$.
Bethe-ansatz equations for quantum Heisenberg chains with elliptic exchange
Inozemtsev, V. I.
1999-01-01
The eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian ${\\cal H}_{N}$ of $N$-sites quantum spin chains with elliptic exchange are connected with the double Bloch meromorphic solutions of the quantum continuous elliptic Calogero-Moser problem. This fact allows one to find the eigenvectors via the solutions to the system of highly transcendental equations of Bethe-ansatz type which is presented in explicit form.
Hierarchical Structure of Azbel-Hofstader Problem: Strings and loose ends of Bethe Ansatz
Abanov, A. G.; Talstra, J. C.; Wiegmann, P. B.
1997-01-01
We present numerical evidence that solutions of the Bethe Ansatz equations for a Bloch particle in an incommensurate magnetic field (Azbel-Hofstadter or AH model), consist of complexes-"strings". String solutions are well-known from integrable field theories. They become asymptotically exact in the thermodynamic limit. The string solutions for the AH model are exact in the incommensurate limit, where the flux through the unit cell is an irrational number in units of the elementary flux quantu...
Gluon bound state and asymptotic freedom derived from the Bethe--Salpeter equation
Fukamachi, Hitoshi; Nishino, Shogo; Shinohara, Toru
2016-01-01
In this paper we study the two-body bound states for gluons and ghosts in a massive Yang-Mills theory which is obtained by generalizing the ordinary massless Yang-Mills theory in a manifestly Lorentz covariant gauge. First, we give a systematic derivation of the coupled Bethe-Salpeter equations for gluons and ghosts by using the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis effective action of the composite operators within the framework of the path integral quantization. Then, we obtain the numerical solutions for the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude representing the simultaneous bound states of gluons and ghosts by solving the homogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation in the ladder approximation. We study how the inclusion of ghosts affects the two-gluon bound states in the cases of the standing and running gauge coupling constant. Moreover, we show explicitly that the approximate solutions obtained for the gluon-gluon amplitude are consistent with the ultraviolet asymptotic freedom signaled by the negative $\\beta$ function.
A Generalized Uhlenbeck and Beth Formula for the Third Cluster Coefficient
Larsen, Sigurd Yves; Amaya-Tapia, Alejandro
2016-01-01
Relatively recently (A. Amaya-Tapia, S. Y. Larsen and M. Lassaut. Ann. Phys., vol. 306 (2011) 406), we presented a formula for the evaluation of the third Bose fugacity coefficient - leading to the third virial coefficient - in terms of three-body eigenphase shifts, for particles subject to repulsive forces. An analytical calculation for a 1-dim. model, for which the result is known, confirmed the validity of this approach. We now extend the formalism to particles with attractive forces, and therefore must allow for the possibility that the particles have bound states. We thus obtain a true generalization of the famous formula of Uhlenbeck and Beth (G.E. Uhlenbeck and E. Beth. Physica, vol. 3 (1936) 729; E. Beth and G.E. Uhlenbeck. ibid, vol.4 (1937) 915) (and of Gropper (L. Gropper. Phys. Rev. vol. 50 (1936) 963; ibid vol. 51 (1937) 1108)) for the second virial. We illustrate our formalism by a calculation, in an adiabatic approximation, of the third cluster in one dimension, using McGuire's model as in our ...
Symmetry preserving truncations of the gap and Bethe-Salpeter equations
Binosi, Daniele; Chang, Lei; Papavassiliou, Joannis; Qin, Si-Xue; Roberts, Craig D.
2016-05-01
Ward-Green-Takahashi (WGT) identities play a crucial role in hadron physics, e.g. imposing stringent relationships between the kernels of the one- and two-body problems, which must be preserved in any veracious treatment of mesons as bound states. In this connection, one may view the dressed gluon-quark vertex, Γμa , as fundamental. We use a novel representation of Γμa , in terms of the gluon-quark scattering matrix, to develop a method capable of elucidating the unique quark-antiquark Bethe-Salpeter kernel, K , that is symmetry consistent with a given quark gap equation. A strength of the scheme is its ability to expose and capitalize on graphic symmetries within the kernels. This is displayed in an analysis that reveals the origin of H -diagrams in K , which are two-particle-irreducible contributions, generated as two-loop diagrams involving the three-gluon vertex, that cannot be absorbed as a dressing of Γμa in a Bethe-Salpeter kernel nor expressed as a member of the class of crossed-box diagrams. Thus, there are no general circumstances under which the WGT identities essential for a valid description of mesons can be preserved by a Bethe-Salpeter kernel obtained simply by dressing both gluon-quark vertices in a ladderlike truncation; and, moreover, adding any number of similarly dressed crossed-box diagrams cannot improve the situation.
Symmetry preserving truncations of the gap and Bethe-Salpeter equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Binosi, Daniele; Chang, Lei; Papavassiliou, Joannis; Qin, Si-Xue; Roberts, Craig D.
2016-05-01
Ward-Green-Takahashi (WGT) identities play a crucial role in hadron physics, e.g. imposing stringent relationships between the kernels of the one-and two-body problems, which must be preserved in any veracious treatment of mesons as bound states. In this connection, one may view the dressed gluon-quark vertex, Gamma(alpha)(mu), as fundamental. We use a novel representation of Gamma(alpha)(mu), in terms of the gluon-quark scattering matrix, to develop a method capable of elucidating the unique quark-antiquark Bethe-Salpeter kernel, K, that is symmetry consistent with a given quark gap equation. A strength of the scheme is its ability to expose and capitalize on graphic symmetries within the kernels. This is displayed in an analysis that reveals the origin of H-diagrams in K, which are two-particle-irreducible contributions, generated as two-loop diagrams involving the three-gluon vertex, that cannot be absorbed as a dressing of Gamma(alpha)(mu) in a Bethe-Salpeter kernel nor expressed as a member of the class of crossed-box diagrams. Thus, there are no general circumstances under which the WGT identities essential for a valid description of mesons can be preserved by a Bethe-Salpeter kernel obtained simply by dressing both gluon-quark vertices in a ladderlike truncation; and, moreover, adding any number of similarly dressed crossed-box diagrams cannot improve the situation.
Advances in solving the two-fermion homogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space
de Paula, W; Salmè, G; Viviani, M
2016-01-01
Actual solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation for a two-fermion bound system are becoming available directly in Minkowski space, by virtue of a novel technique, based on the so-called Nakanishi integral representation of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude and improved by expressing the relevant momenta through light-front components, i.e. $k^\\pm=k^0 \\pm k^3$. We solve a crucial problem that widens the applicability of the method to real situations by providing an analytically exact treatment of the singularities plaguing the two-fermion problem in Minkowski space, irrespective of the complexity of the irreducible Bethe-Salpeter kernel. This paves the way for feasible numerical investigations of relativistic composite systems, with any spin degrees of freedom. We present a thorough comparison with existing numerical results, evaluated in both Minkowski and Euclidean space, fully corroborating our analytical treatment, as well as fresh light-front amplitudes illustrating the potentiality of non perturbative calcula...
The connection of two-particle relativistic quantum mechanics with the Bethe-Salpeter equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show the formal equivalence between the wave equations of two-particle relativistic quantum mechanics, based on the manifestly covariant hamiltonian formalism with constraints, and the Bethe-Salpeter equation. This is achieved by algebraically transforming the latter so as to separate it into two independent equations which match the equations of hamiltonian relativistic quantum mechanics. The first equation determines the relative time evolution of the system, while the second one yields a three-dimensional eigenvalue equation. A connection is thus established between the Bethe-Salpeter wave function and its kernel on the one hand and the quantum mechanical wave function and interaction potential on the other. For the sector of solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation having non-relativistic limits, this relationship can be evaluated in perturbation theory. We also device a generalized form of the instantaneous approximation which simplifies the various expressions involved in the above relations. It also permits the evaluation of the normalization condition of the quantum mechanical wave function as a three-dimensional integral
Exploring Three-Nucleon Forces in Lattice QCD
Doi, Takumi; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Ikeda, Yoichi; Inoue, Takashi; Ishii, Noriyoshi; Murano, Keiko; Nemura, Hidekatsu; Sasaki, Kenji
2011-01-01
Three-nucleon forces (3NF) are investigated from two-flavor lattice QCD simulations. We utilize the Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter (NBS) wave function to determine two-nucleon forces (2NF) and 3NF in the same framework. As a first exploratory study, we extract 3NF through three nucleons aligned linearly with an equal spacing. This is the simplest geometrical configuration which reduces the huge computational cost of calculating the NBS wave function. Quantum numbers of the three-nucleon system are chosen to be (I, J^P)=(1/2,1/2^+) (the triton channel). Lattice QCD simulations are performed using N_f=2 dynamical clover fermion configurations at the lattice spacing of a = 0.156 fm on a 16^3 x 32 lattice with a large quark mass corresponding to m_\\pi= 1.13 GeV. We find repulsive 3NF at short distance in the triton channel. Several sources of systematic errors are also discussed.
Superdiffusion in supported lipid bilayers
Campagnola, Grace; Schroder, Bryce W; Peersen, Olve B; Krapf, Diego
2015-01-01
We study the diffusion of membrane-targeting C2 domains using single-molecule tracking in supported lipid bilayers. The ensemble-averaged mean square displacement (MSD) exhibits superdiffusive behavior. However, the time-averaged MSD of individual trajectories is found to be linear with respect to lag time, as in Brownian diffusion. These observations are explained in terms of bulk excursions that introduce jumps with a heavy-tail distribution. Our experimental results are shown to agree with analytical models of bulk-mediated diffusion and with numerical simulations.
Nonlinear optical properties of nitrogen-doped bilayer graphene
Anand, Benoy; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao M.; Philip, Reji; Sai, S. Siva Sankara
2013-06-01
The electronic properties of graphene can be controlled by substitutional doping to obtain p-type or n-type characteristics. To this end, bilayer graphene films are synthesized using CVD method and substitutionally doped with Nitrogen (N). Previously, XPS measurements done in tandem with Raman spectroscopy revealed that the rich chemistry between carbon and nitrogen can result in pyridinic, pyrrolic, or graphitic configurations. The nonlinear optical properties (NLO) of both pristine and N-doped graphene samples are studied in both nanosecond and femtosecond excitation regimes using open aperture Z-scan method. Similar to the previous observations with Raman spectroscopy, we see that the NLO properties are more sensitive to the local bonding environments which determine the defect density in the graphene lattice, rather than just the dopant percentage. Our results give more insights into the effect of defects on the NLO properties of doped graphene which help in tailor making graphene samples for applications like modelocking and optical switching.
Conductance and shot noise in strained bilayer graphene.
Pearce, Alexander J; Cavaliere, Fabio; Mariani, Eros
2013-09-18
We explore the effect of trigonal warping and of elastic deformations on the electronic spectrum of bilayer graphene devices, on their ballistic conductance as well as on the shot noise. Uniaxial strain distorts the lattice creating a uniform fictitious gauge field in the electronic Dirac Hamiltonian which ultimately causes a dramatic reconstruction in the trigonally warped electronic spectrum, inducing topological transitions in the Fermi surface. In this paper we present results of ballistic transport in bilayer graphene in the absence and presence of strain, with particular focus on noise and the Fano factor F. The inclusion of trigonal warping preserves the pseudo-diffusive value of F = 1/3 at the Dirac point, as calculated in the absence of trigonal warping terms. However, the range of energies which show pseudo-diffusive transport increases by orders of magnitude compared to the results stemming out of a parabolic spectrum and the applied strain acts to increase this energy range further. PMID:23963478
Campos, R G; Campos, Rafael G.; Tututi, Eduardo S.
2002-01-01
It is shown that the nonlocal Dirac operator yielded by a lattice model that preserves chiral symmetry and uniqueness of fields, approaches to an ultralocal and invariant under translations operator when the size of the lattice tends to zero.
Annular bilayer magnetoelectric composites: theoretical analysis.
Guo, Mingsen; Dong, Shuxiang
2010-01-01
The laminated bilayer magnetoelectric (ME) composites consist of magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers are known to have giant ME coefficient due to the high coupling efficiency in bending mode. In our previous report, the bar-shaped bilayer composite has been investigated by using a magnetoelectric-coupling equivalent circuit. Here, we propose an annular bilayer ME composite, which consists of magnetostrictive and piezoelectric rings. This composite has a much lower resonance frequency of bending mode compared with its radial mode. In addition, the annular bilayer ME composite is expected to respond to vortex magnetic field as well as unidirectional magnetic field. In this paper, we investigate the annular bilayer ME composite by using impedance-matrix method and predict the ME coefficients as a function of geometric parameters of the composites. PMID:20178914
Sober Topological Molecular Lattices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张德学; 李永明
2003-01-01
A topological molecular lattice (TML) is a pair (L, T), where L is a completely distributive lattice and r is a subframe of L. There is an obvious forgetful functor from the category TML of TML's to the category Loc of locales. In this note,it is showed that this forgetful functor has a right adjoint. Then, by this adjunction,a special kind of topological molecular lattices called sober topological molecular lattices is introduced and investigated.
Hydrocarbon chain conformation in an intercalated surfactant monolayer and bilayer
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
N V Venkataraman; S Vasudevan
2001-10-01
Cetyl trimethyl ammonium (CTA) ions have been confined within galleries of layered CdPS3 at two different grafting densities. Low grafting densities are obtained on direct intercalation of CTA ions into CdPS3 to give Cd0.93PS3(CTA)0.14. Intercalation occurs with a lattice expansion of 4.8 Å with the interlamellar surfactant ion lying flat forming a monolayer. Intercalation at higher grafting densities was effected by a two-step ion-exchange process to give Cd0.83PS3(CTA)0.34, with a lattice expansion of 26.5 Å. At higher grafting densities the interlamellar surfactant ions adopt a tilted bilayer structure. 13C NMR and orientation-dependent IR vibrational spectroscopy on single crystals have been used to probe the conformation and orientation of the methylene ‘tail’ of the intercalated surfactant in the two phases. In the monolayer phase, the confined methylene chain adopts an essentially all-trans conformation with most of the trans chain aligned parallel to the gallery walls. On lowering the temperature, molecular plane aligns parallel, so that the methylene chain lies flat, rigid and aligned to the confining surface. In the bilayer phase, most bonds in the methylene chain are in trans conformation. It is possible to identify specific conformational sequences containing a gauche bond, in the interior and termini of the intercalated methylene. These high energy conformers disappear on cooling leaving all fifteen methylene units of the intercalated cetyl trimethyl ammonium ion in trans conformational registry at 40 K.
"Nanocrystal bilayer for tandem catalysis"
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamada, Yusuke; Tsung, Chia Kuang; Huang, Wenyu; Huo, Ziyang; E.Habas, Susan E; Soejima, Tetsuro; Aliaga, Cesar E; Samorjai, Gabor A; Yang, Peidong
2011-01-24
Supported catalysts are widely used in industry and can be optimized by tuning the composition and interface of the metal nanoparticles and oxide supports. Rational design of metal-metal oxide interfaces in nanostructured catalysts is critical to achieve better reaction activities and selectivities. We introduce here a new class of nanocrystal tandem catalysts that have multiple metal-metal oxide interfaces for the catalysis of sequential reactions. We utilized a nanocrystal bilayer structure formed by assembling platinum and cerium oxide nanocube monolayers of less than 10 nm on a silica substrate. The two distinct metal-metal oxide interfaces, CeO2-Pt and Pt-SiO2, can be used to catalyse two distinct sequential reactions. The CeO2-Pt interface catalysed methanol decomposition to produce CO and H2, which were subsequently used for ethylene hydroformylation catalysed by the nearby Pt-SiO2 interface. Consequently, propanal was produced selectively from methanol and ethylene on the nanocrystal bilayer tandem catalyst. This new concept of nanocrystal tandem catalysis represents a powerful approach towards designing high-performance, multifunctional nanostructured catalysts
Kuramashi, Yoshinobu
2007-12-01
Preface -- Fixed point actions, symmetries and symmetry transformations on the lattice / P. Hasenfratz -- Algorithms for dynamical fennions / A. D. Kennedy -- Applications of chiral perturbation theory to lattice QCD / Stephen R. Sharpe -- Lattice QCD with a chiral twist / S. Sint -- Non-perturbative QCD: renormalization, O(A) - Improvement and matching to Heavy Quark effective theory / Rainer Sommer.
Zakrzewski, W J
2004-01-01
We consider some lattices and look at discrete Laplacians on these lattices. In particular we look at solutions of the equation $\\triangle(1)\\phi = \\triangle(2)Z$ where $\\triangle(1)$ and $\\triangle(2)$ are two such laplacians on the same lattice. We discuss solutions of this equation in some special cases.
Isogai, Takumi; Akada, Eri; Nakada, Sakiko; Yoshida, Naoya; Tero, Ryugo; Harada, Shunta; Ujihara, Toru; Tagawa, Miho
2016-03-01
The effect of divalent cations on lipid-bilayer-assisted DNA-functionalized nanoparticle (DNA-NP) assembly has been studied. We previously reported the lateral diffusion of DNA-NPs on planar lipid bilayer patches, owing to the mobility of lipid molecules in a supported lipid bilayer (SLB), and the resultant two-dimensional (2D) assembly of DNA-NPs. We here report the structural change of the assembled 2D DNA-NP lattices by magnesium ion concentration control on a successfully formed uniform SLB. In the magnesium-free buffer solution, DNA-NPs on SLB loosely assembled into quasi-hexagonal ordered lattices. In buffer solution containing 1 mM magnesium acetate, the interparticle distance of DNA-NPs decreased and the lattice structure became disordered. In buffer solution containing 5 mM magnesium acetate, the structure of DNA-NP arrays changed markedly and square lattices appeared. It is suggested that magnesium ions affected DNA molecules, which linked nanoparticles, and enabled the control of the structure of DNA-NP 2D arrays.
Coupled channel approach to strangeness S = -2 baryon-bayron interactions in Lattice QCD
Sasaki, Kenji; Doi, Takumi; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Ikeda, Yoichi; Inoue, Takashi; Ishii, Noriyoshi; Murano, Keiko
2015-01-01
The baryon-baryon interactions with strangeness S = -2 with the flavor SU(3) breaking are calculated for the first time by using the HAL QCD method extended to coupled channel system in lattice QCD. The potential matrices are extracted from the Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter wave functions obtained by the 2+1 flavor gauge configurations of CP-PACS/JLQCD Collaborations with a physical volume of 1.93 fm cubed and with m_pi/m_K = 0.96, 0.90, 0.86. The spatial structure and the quark mass dependence of the potential matrix in the baryon basis and in the SU(3) basis are investigated.
LETTER On the nonlinear response of a particle interacting with fermions in a 1D lattice
Zotos, X.
2010-12-01
By the Bethe ansatz method we study the energy dispersion of a particle interacting by a local interaction with fermions (or hard core bosons) of equal mass in a one-dimensional lattice. We focus on the period of the Bloch oscillations, which turns out to be related to the Fermi wavevector of the Fermi sea and in particular on how this dispersion emerges as a collective effect in the thermodynamic limit. We also discuss the adiabatic coherent collective response of the system to an applied field.
On the nonlinear response of a particle interacting with fermions in a 1D lattice
Zotos, X.
2010-01-01
By the Bethe ansatz method we study the energy dispersion of a particle interacting by a local interaction with fermions (or hard core bosons) of equal mass in a one dimensional lattice. We focus on the period of the Bloch oscillations which turns out to be related to the Fermi wavevector of the Fermi sea and in particular on how this dispersion emerges as a collective effect in the thermodynamic limit. We show by symmetry that the dispersion is temperature independent for a half-filled syste...
Isothermal vs. isentropic description of protoneutron stars in the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone theory
Burgio, G F
2009-01-01
We study the structure of hadronic protoneutron stars within the finite temperature Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone theoretical approach. Assuming beta-equilibrated nuclear matter with nucleons and leptons in the stellar core, with isothermal or isentropic profile, we show that particle populations and equation of state are very similar. As far as the maximum mass is concerned, we find that its value turns out to be almost independent on T, while a slight decrease is observed in the isentropic case, due to the enhanced proton fraction in the high density range.
Exact treatment of the Pauli exclusion operator in the nuclear matter Bethe-Goldstone equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We solve the Bethe-Goldstone equation in nuclear matter for the scattering of a nucleon of a few hundred MeV. The angular momentum coupling caused by the nonspherical part of the Pauli blocking operator is treated exactly. It is found that standard approximation of angle averaging the Pauli operator is quite accurate for bulk properties of the reaction matrix even at energies as high as 300 MeV. Our result justifies one of the common approximations previously untested in the microscopic calculation of the optical model potential
Femininity, Childhood and the Non-Making of a Sporting Celebrity: The Beth Tweddle Case
Cohen, R. L.
2013-01-01
Gymnastics is regularly classified as a feminine-appropriate sport, embodying grace and elegance. Furthermore, it is the Olympic sport which has regularly produced female sporting celebrities. Beth Tweddle is the most successful British gymnast of all time and the first to achieve international success, culminating in a medal at London 2012, yet she has received relatively little media coverage and few corporate endorsements. Employing a â€˜negative caseâ€™ methodology, this athleteâ€™s relat...
Ein Frankfurter Physiker, der die Welt veränderte : Hans Albrecht Bethes bewegtes Leben
Schmidt-Böcking, Horst (Prof. Dr.)
2008-01-01
Der Nobelpreisträger Hans Albrecht Bethe war einer der ganz großen Physiker des 20. Jahrhunderts. Er gilt als einer der Väter der modernen Quantenphysik. In seiner Bedeutung für die Entwicklung der modernen Physik kommt er selbst Werner Heisenberg oder Max Planck sehr nahe. Er ist in Frankfurt aufgewachsen, hat hier das Goethe-Gymnasium besucht und an der Universität Frankfurt studiert. 1933 musste er emigrieren, da seine Mutter jüdischen Glaubens war. In seiner Heimatstadt Frankfurt ist er b...
Nested Bethe Ansatz for Spin Ladder Model with Open Boundary Conditions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Jun-Fang; ZHANG Chun-Min; YUE Rui-Hong; LI Run-Ling
2005-01-01
The nested Bethe ansatz (BA) method is applied to find the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of the transfer matrix for spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions. Based on the reflection equation, we find the general diagonal solution, which determines the generalboundary interaction in the Hamiltonian. We introduce the spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions. By finding the solution K± of the reflection equation which determines the nontrivial boundary terms in the Hamiltonian, we diagonalize the transfer matrix of the spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions in the framework of nested BA.
Explicit Solutions of the Bethe Ansatz Equations for Bloch Electrons in a Magnetic Field
Hatsugai, Yasuhiro; Kohmoto, Mahito; Wu, Yong-Shi
1994-01-01
For Bloch electrons in a magnetic field, explicit solutions are obtained at the center of the spectrum for the Bethe ansatz equations recently proposed by Wiegmann and Zabrodin. When the magnetic flux per plaquette is $1/Q$ where $Q$ is an odd integer, distribution of the roots is uniform on the unit circle in the complex plane. For the semi-classical limit, $ Q\\rightarrow\\infty$, the wavefunction obeys the power low and is given by $|\\psi(x)|^2=(2/ \\sin \\pi x)$ which is critical and unnormal...
Quantum Group and Magnetic Translations. Bethe-Ansatz Solution for Azbel-Hofstadter Problem
Wiegmann, P. B.; Zabrodin, A. V.
1993-01-01
We present a new approach to the problem of Bloch electrons in magnetic ( sometimes called Azbel-Hofstadter problem) field, by making explicit a natural relation between the group of magnetic translations and the quantum group $U_{q}(sl_2)$. The approach allows us to express the "mid" band spectrum of the model and the Bloch wave function as solutions of the Bethe-Ansatz equations typical for completely integrable quantum systems. The zero mode wave functions are found explicitly in terms of ...
Quantum Group, Bethe Ansatz and Bloch Electrons in a Magnetic Field
Hatsugai, Y.; Kohmoto, M.; Wu, Y.-S.
1995-01-01
The wave functions for two dimensional Bloch electrons in a uniform magnetic field at the mid-band points are studied with the help of the algebraic structure of the quantum group $U_q(sl_2)$. A linear combination of its generators gives the Hamiltonian. We obtain analytical and numerical solutions for the wave functions by solving the Bethe Ansatz equations, proposed by Wiegmann and Zabrodin on the basis of above observation. The semi-classical case with the flux per plaquette $\\phi=1/Q$ is ...
Biotechnology Applications of Tethered Lipid Bilayer Membranes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joshua A. Jackman
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The importance of cell membranes in biological systems has prompted the development of model membrane platforms that recapitulate fundamental aspects of membrane biology, especially the lipid bilayer environment. Tethered lipid bilayers represent one of the most promising classes of model membranes and are based on the immobilization of a planar lipid bilayer on a solid support that enables characterization by a wide range of surface-sensitive analytical techniques. Moreover, as the result of molecular engineering inspired by biology, tethered bilayers are increasingly able to mimic fundamental properties of natural cell membranes, including fluidity, electrical sealing and hosting transmembrane proteins. At the same time, new methods have been employed to improve the durability of tethered bilayers, with shelf-lives now reaching the order of weeks and months. Taken together, the capabilities of tethered lipid bilayers have opened the door to biotechnology applications in healthcare, environmental monitoring and energy storage. In this review, several examples of such applications are presented. Beyond the particulars of each example, the focus of this review is on the emerging design and characterization strategies that made these applications possible. By drawing connections between these strategies and promising research results, future opportunities for tethered lipid bilayers within the biotechnology field are discussed.
Fusion and fission of fluid amphiphilic bilayers.
Gotter, Martin; Strey, Reinhard; Olsson, Ulf; Wennerström, Håkan
2005-01-01
The system water-oil (n-decane)-nonionic surfactant (C12E5) forms bilayer phases in a large concentration region, but, for a given oil-to-surfactant ratio, only in a narrow temperature range. In addition to the anisotropic lamellar phase (Lalpha) there is also, at slightly higher temperature, a sponge or L3-phase where the bilayers build up an isotropic structure extending macroscopically in three dimensions. In this phase the bilayer mid-surface has a mean curvature close to zero and a negative Euler characteristic. In this paper we study how the bilayers in the lamellar and the sponge phase respond dynamically to sudden temperature changes. The monolayer spontaneous curvature depends sensitively on temperature and a change of temperature thus provides a driving force for a change in bilayer topology. The equilibration therefore involves kinetic steps of fusion/fission of bilayers. Such dynamic processes have previously been monitored by temperature jump experiments using light scattering in the sponge phase. These experiments revealed an extraordinarily strong dependence of the relaxation time on the bilayer volume fraction phi. At phi magnetic resonance (2H-NMR) appear feasible. We here report on the first experiments concerned with the dynamics of the macroscopic phase transition sponge-lamellae by 2H-NMR. We find that the sponge-to-lamellae transition occurs through a nucleation process followed by domain growth involving bilayer fission at domain boundaries. In contrast, the lamellae-to-sponge transformation apparently occurs through a succession of uncorrelated bilayer fusion events. PMID:15715316
Gainutdinov, A M; Nepomechie, Rafael I; Sommese, Andrew J
2015-01-01
We consider the sl(2)_q-invariant open spin-1/2 XXZ quantum spin chain of finite length N. For the case that q is a root of unity, we propose a formula for the number of admissible solutions of the Bethe ansatz equations in terms of dimensions of irreducible representations of the Temperley-Lieb algebra; and a formula for the degeneracies of the transfer matrix eigenvalues in terms of dimensions of tilting sl(2)_q-modules. These formulas include corrections that appear if two or more tilting modules are spectrum-degenerate. For the XX case (q=exp(i pi/2)), we give explicit formulas for the number of admissible solutions and degeneracies. We also consider the cases of generic q and the isotropic (q->1) limit. Numerical solutions of the Bethe equations up to N=8 are presented. Our results are consistent with the Bethe ansatz solution being complete.
Spin dynamics of bilayer manganites
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Tapan Chatterji
2004-07-01
The results of inelastic and quasi-elastic neutron scattering investigations on the 40% hole-doped quasi-2D bilayer manganites La1.2Sr1.8Mn2O7 have been reviewed. The complete set of exchange interactions have been determined on the basis of a localized Heisenberg model. However, the spin wave dispersion in La1.2Sr1.8Mn2O7 shows softening close to the zone boundary and are also heavily damped especially close to the zone boundary and deviate from that expected for a simple Heisenberg model. A minimal double exchange model including quantum corrections can reproduce these effects qualitatively but falls short of quantitative agreement.
Bilayer-thickness-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins
Kahraman, Osman; Klug, William S; Haselwandter, Christoph A
2016-01-01
Hydrophobic thickness mismatch between integral membrane proteins and the surrounding lipid bilayer can produce lipid bilayer thickness deformations. Experiment and theory have shown that protein-induced lipid bilayer thickness deformations can yield energetically favorable bilayer-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins, and large-scale organization of integral membrane proteins into protein clusters in cell membranes. Within the continuum elasticity theory of membranes, the energy cost of protein-induced bilayer thickness deformations can be captured by considering compression and expansion of the bilayer hydrophobic core, membrane tension, and bilayer bending, resulting in biharmonic equilibrium equations describing the shape of lipid bilayers for a given set of bilayer-protein boundary conditions. Here we develop a combined analytic and numerical methodology for the solution of the equilibrium elastic equations associated with protein-induced lipid bilayer deformations. Our methodology al...
Berry phase transition in twisted bilayer graphene
Rode, Johannes C.; Smirnov, Dmitri; Schmidt, Hennrik; Haug, Rolf J.
2016-09-01
The electronic dispersion of a graphene bilayer is highly dependent on rotational mismatch between layers and can be further manipulated by electrical gating. This allows for an unprecedented control over electronic properties and opens up the possibility of flexible band structure engineering. Here we present novel magnetotransport data in a twisted bilayer, crossing the energetic border between decoupled monolayers and coupled bilayer. In addition a transition in Berry phase between π and 2π is observed at intermediate magnetic fields. Analysis of Fermi velocities and gate induced charge carrier densities suggests an important role of strong layer asymmetry for the observed phenomena.
Fragmented state of lipid bilayers in water
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Helfrich, W.; Thimmel, J.; Klösgen, Beate Maria
1999-01-01
The bilayers of some typical biological membrane lipids such as PC and DGDG disintegrate in a large excess of water to form an optically invisible dispersive bilayer phase. `Dark bodies' can be reversibly precipitated from it by raising the temperature. The dispersive phase probably consists...... of `knotted sticks', i.e. very thin nodular tubes of bilayer. After reviewing pertinent experimental and theoretical work we report on the discovery of a lower consolute point near room temperature in DGDG/water systems. Its existence shows that the dispersive phase and the dark bodies belong to the same...
Interquark potential with finite quark mass from lattice QCD.
Kawanai, Taichi; Sasaki, Shoichi
2011-08-26
We present an investigation of the interquark potential determined from the q ̄q Bethe-Salpeter (BS) amplitude for heavy quarkonia in lattice QCD. The q ̄q potential at finite quark mass m(q) can be calculated from the equal-time and Coulomb gauge BS amplitude through the effective Schrödinger equation. The definition of the potential itself requires information about a kinetic mass of the quark. We then propose a self-consistent determination of the quark kinetic mass on the same footing. To verify the proposed method, we perform quenched lattice QCD simulations with a relativistic heavy-quark action at a lattice cutoff of 1/a≈2.1 GeV in a range 1.0≤m(q)≤3.6 GeV. Our numerical results show that the q ̄q potential in the m(q)→∞ limit is fairly consistent with the conventional one obtained from Wilson loops. The quark-mass dependence of the q ̄q potential and the spin-spin potential are also examined.
Symmetry preserving truncations of the gap and Bethe-Salpeter equations
Binosi, Daniele; Papavassiliou, Joannis; Qin, Si-Xue; Roberts, Craig D
2016-01-01
Ward-Green-Takahashi (WGT) identities play a crucial role in hadron physics, e.g. imposing stringent relationships between the kernels of the one- and two-body problems, which must be preserved in any veracious treatment of mesons as bound-states. In this connection, one may view the dressed gluon-quark vertex, $\\Gamma_\\mu^a$, as fundamental. We use a novel representation of $\\Gamma_\\mu^a$, in terms of the gluon-quark scattering matrix, to develop a method capable of elucidating the unique quark-antiquark Bethe-Salpeter kernel, $K$, that is symmetry-consistent with a given quark gap equation. A strength of the scheme is its ability to expose and capitalise on graphic symmetries within the kernels. This is displayed in an analysis that reveals the origin of $H$-diagrams in $K$, which are two-particle-irreducible contributions, generated as two-loop diagrams involving the three-gluon vertex, that cannot be absorbed as a dressing of $\\Gamma_\\mu^a$ in a Bethe-Salpeter kernel nor expressed as a member of the class...
Ground State Mass Spectrum for Scalar Diquarks with Bethe-Salpeter Equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Zhi-Gang; WAN Shao-Long; YANG Wei-Min
2007-01-01
In this article,we study the structures of the pseudoscalar mesons π,K and the scalar diquarks Ua,Da,Sa in the framework of the coupled rainbow Schwinger-Dyson equation and ladder Bethe-Salpeter equation with the confining effective potential.The u,d,s quarks have small current masses,and the renormalization is very large,the mass poles in the timelike region are absent which implements confinement naturally.The Bethe-Salpeter wavefunctions of the pseudoscalar mesons π,K,and the scalar diquarks Ua,Da,Sa have the same type (Gaussian type) momentum dependence,center around zero momentum and extend to the energy scale about q2 = 1 GeV2,which happens to be the energy scale for the chiral symmetry breaking,the strong interactions in the infrared region result in bound (or quasi-bound) states.The numerical results for the masses and decay constants of the π and K mesons can reproduce the experimental values,and the ground state masses of the scalar diquarks Ua,Da,Sa are consistent with the existing theoretical calculations.We suggest a new Lagrangian which may explain the uncertainty of the masses of the scalar diquarks.
Solution to Bethe-Salpeter equation via Mellin-Barnes transform
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Allendes, Pedro [Concepcion Univ. (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Kniehl, Bernd [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kondrashuk, Igor; Rojas Medar, Marko [Univ. del Bio-Bio, Chillan (Chile). Dept. de Ciencias Basicas; Notte Cuello, Eduardo A. [Univ. de La Serena (Chile). Facultad de Ciencias
2012-06-15
We consider Mellin-Barnes transform of triangle ladder-like scalar diagram in d=4 dimensions. It is shown how multi-fold MB transform of the momentum integral corresponding to any number of rungs is reduced to two-fold MB transform. For this purpose we use Belokurov-Usyukina reduction method for four-dimensional scalar integrals in the position space. The result is represented in terms of Euler {psi}-function and its derivatives. We derive new formulas for MB two-fold integration in the complex planes of two complex variables. We demonstrate that these formulas solve Bethe-Salpeter equation. We comment on further applications of solution to Bethe-Salpeter equation for vertices in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We show that the recursive property of MB transforms observed in the present work for that kind of diagrams has nothing to do with quantum field theory, theory of integral transforms, or with theory of polylogarithms in general, but has an origin in a simple recursive property for smooth functions which can be shown by using basic methods of mathematical analysis.
A Bethe ansatz solvable model for superpositions of Cooper pairs and condensed molecular bosons
Hibberd, K. E.; Dunning, C.; Links, J.
2006-08-01
We introduce a general Hamiltonian describing coherent superpositions of Cooper pairs and condensed molecular bosons. For particular choices of the coupling parameters, the model is integrable. One integrable manifold, as well as the Bethe ansatz solution, was found by Dukelsky et al. [J. Dukelsky, G.G. Dussel, C. Esebbag, S. Pittel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004) 050403]. Here we show that there is a second integrable manifold, established using the boundary quantum inverse scattering method. In this manner we obtain the exact solution by means of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. In the case where the Cooper pair energies are degenerate we examine the relationship between the spectrum of these integrable Hamiltonians and the quasi-exactly solvable spectrum of particular Schrödinger operators. For the solution we derive here the potential of the Schrödinger operator is given in terms of hyperbolic functions. For the solution derived by Dukelsky et al., loc. cit. the potential is sextic and the wavefunctions obey PT-symmetric boundary conditions. This latter case provides a novel example of an integrable Hermitian Hamiltonian acting on a Fock space whose states map into a Hilbert space of PT-symmetric wavefunctions defined on a contour in the complex plane.
A Bethe ansatz solvable model for superpositions of Cooper pairs and condensed molecular bosons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hibberd, K.E. [Centre for Mathematical Physics, University of Queensland, 4072 (Australia); Dunning, C. [Institute of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Kent (United Kingdom); Links, J. [Centre for Mathematical Physics, University of Queensland, 4072 (Australia)]. E-mail: jrl@maths.uq.edu.au
2006-08-07
We introduce a general Hamiltonian describing coherent superpositions of Cooper pairs and condensed molecular bosons. For particular choices of the coupling parameters, the model is integrable. One integrable manifold, as well as the Bethe ansatz solution, was found by Dukelsky et al. [J. Dukelsky, G.G. Dussel, C. Esebbag, S. Pittel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 (2004) 050403]. Here we show that there is a second integrable manifold, established using the boundary quantum inverse scattering method. In this manner we obtain the exact solution by means of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. In the case where the Cooper pair energies are degenerate we examine the relationship between the spectrum of these integrable Hamiltonians and the quasi-exactly solvable spectrum of particular Schrodinger operators. For the solution we derive here the potential of the Schrodinger operator is given in terms of hyperbolic functions. For the solution derived by Dukelsky et al., loc. cit. the potential is sextic and the wavefunctions obey PT-symmetric boundary conditions. This latter case provides a novel example of an integrable Hermitian Hamiltonian acting on a Fock space whose states map into a Hilbert space of PT-symmetric wavefunctions defined on a contour in the complex plane.
Efficient on-the-fly interpolation technique for Bethe-Salpeter calculations of optical spectra
Gillet, Yannick; Giantomassi, Matteo; Gonze, Xavier
2016-06-01
The Bethe-Salpeter formalism represents the most accurate method available nowadays for computing neutral excitation energies and optical spectra of crystalline systems from first principles. Bethe-Salpeter calculations yield very good agreement with experiment but are notoriously difficult to converge with respect to the sampling of the electronic wavevectors. Well-converged spectra therefore require significant computational and memory resources, even by today's standards. These bottlenecks hinder the investigation of systems of great technological interest. They are also barriers to the study of derived quantities like piezoreflectance, thermoreflectance or resonant Raman intensities. We present a new methodology that decreases the workload needed to reach a given accuracy. It is based on a double-grid on-the-fly interpolation within the Brillouin zone, combined with the Lanczos algorithm. It achieves significant speed-up and reduction of memory requirements. The technique is benchmarked in terms of accuracy on silicon, gallium arsenide and lithium fluoride. The scaling of the performance of the method as a function of the Brillouin Zone point density is much better than a conventional implementation. We also compare our method with other similar techniques proposed in the literature.
Semi-classical analysis of the inner product of Bethe states
Bettelheim, Eldad
2014-01-01
We study the inner product of two Bethe states, one of which is taken on-shell, in an inhomogeneous XXX chain in the Sutherland limit, where the number of magnons is comparable with the length L of the chain and the magnon rapidities arrange in a small number of macroscopically large Bethe strings. The leading order in the large L limit is known to be expressed through a contour integral of a dilogarithm. Here we derive the subleading term. Our analysis is based on a new contour-integral representation of the inner product in terms of a Fredholm determinant. We give two derivations of the sub-leading term. Besides a direct derivation by solving a Riemann-Hilbert problem, we give a less rigorous, but more intuitive derivation by field-theoretical methods. For that we represent the Fredholm determinant as an expectation value in a Fock space of chiral fermions and then bosonize. We construct a collective field for the bosonized theory, the short wave-length part of which may be evaluated exactly, while the long...
Matveev, V. I.; Makarov, D. N.
2011-09-01
A simple method including nonperturbative shell corrections has been developed for calculating energy losses on complex atoms. The energy losses of fast highly charged ions on neon, argon, krypton, and xenon atoms have been calculated and compared with experimental data. It has been shown that the inclusion of the non-perturbative shell corrections noticeably improves agreement with experimental data as compared to calculations by the Bethe-Bloch formula with the standard corrections. This undoubtedly helps to reduce the number of fitting parameters in various modifications of the Bethe-Bloch formula, which are usually determined semiempirically.
Yangian symmetry, S-matrices and Bethe Ansatz for the AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} superstring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leeuw, M. de [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University (Netherlands)
2009-05-15
We discuss the relation between the recently derived bound state S-matrices for the AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} superstring and Yangian symmetry. We will study the relation between this Yangian symmetry and the Bethe ansatz. In particular we can use it to derive the Bethe equations for bound states. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Bilayer Hubbard model for 3He: a cluster dynamical mean-field calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inspired by recent experiments on bilayer 3He, we consider a bilayer Hubbard model on a triangular lattice. For appropriate model parameters, we observe a band-selective Mott transition at a critical chemical potential, μc, corresponding to the solidification of the fermions in the first layer. The growth of the effective mass on the metallic side (μ c) is cut off by a first order transition in which the first layer fermions drop out of the Luttinger volume and their spin degrees of freedom become locked in a spin singlet state. These results are obtained from a cluster dynamical mean-field calculation on an eight-site cluster with a quantum Monte Carlo cluster solver.
Self healing nature of bilayer graphene
Debroy, Sanghamitra; Pavan Kumar Miriyala, V.; Vijaya Sekhar, K.; Acharyya, Swati Ghosh; Acharyya, Amit
2016-08-01
The phenomenon of self healing of cracks in bilayer graphene sheet has been studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The bilayer graphene sheet was subjected to uniaxial tensile load resulting in initiation and propagation of cracks on exceeding the ultimate tensile strength. Subsequently, all forces acting on the sheet were removed and sheet was relaxed. The cracks formed in the graphene sheet healed without any external aid within 0.4 ps The phenomenon of self healing of the cracks in graphene sheet was found to be independent of the length of the crack, but occurred for critical crack opening distance less than 5 Å for AA stacked sheet and 13 Å for AB stacked bilayer graphene sheet. Self healing was observed for both AB (mixed stacking of armchair and zigzag graphene sheet) and AA (both sheets of similar orientation i.e. either armchair-armchair or zigzag-zigzag) stacking of bilayer graphene sheet.
Computer Simulations of Lipid Bilayers and Proteins
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sonne, Jacob
2006-01-01
The importance of computer simulations in lipid bilayer research has become more prominent for the last couple of decades and as computers get even faster, simulations will play an increasingly important part of understanding the processes that take place in and across cell membranes. This thesis...... entitled Computer simulations of lipid bilayers and proteins describes two molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies of pure lipid bilayers as well as a study of a transmembrane protein embedded in a lipid bilayer matrix. Below follows a brief overview of the thesis. Chapter 1. This chapter is a short...... rearrangements in BtuCD we employed perturbed elastic network calculations and biased MD simulations. Comparing the results of these calculations with two transport models proposed in the literature, we are able to favor one over the other. Our observations for BtuCD may be relevant for all ABC transporters...
Proximity induced superconductivity in bilayer graphene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bordaz, Julien; Wu, Fan [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Wolf, Michael; Beckmann, Detlef [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Loehneysen, Hilbert von [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Institute of Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Institute for Solid-State Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi [Advanced Materials Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan); Danneau, Romain [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Institute of Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany)
2013-07-01
Proximity induced superconductivity effect occurs when graphene is connected with close enough superconducting electrodes. Observations of Andreev reflection and induced supercurrents flowing through graphene sheets have already been reported in graphene. However, these effects have not been explored in bilayer graphene so far. By applying a perpendicular electric field, it is possible to open a gap in a bilayer graphene. This can be achieved in practice by designing a top gate in addition to the usual back gate. Our devices are produced on top of sapphire wafers by using transfer techniques and standard electron-beam lithography. The bilayers are sandwiched between two atomically flat hexagonal boron nitride multilayers which are both used as gate dielectric. By inducing a band gap into a bilayer graphene connected by two superconducting leads, the supercurrent could be switched off inducing a superconductor-insulator transition.
Lipid bilayers decorated with photosensitive ruthenium complexes
Bahreman, Azadeh
2013-01-01
In this thesis the thermal- and photo-substitution behavior of polypyridyl ruthenium complexes is described at the surface of lipid bilayers and in homogeneous solutions. It is shown that the successive thermal binding and light-induced unbinding of the cationic ruthenium complex at the surface of the lipid bilayer requires negatively charged liposomes and ruthenium complexes containing moderately hindered N-N bidentate ligands. Our results in homogeneous solution show that changing the steri...
Bilayers merge even when exocytosis is transient
Taraska, Justin W; Almers, Wolfhard
2004-01-01
During exocytosis, the lumen of secretory vesicles connects with the extracellular space. In some vesicles, this connection closes again, causing the vesicle to be recaptured mostly intact. The degree to which the bilayers of such vesicles mix with the plasma membrane is unknown. Work supporting the kiss-and-run model of transient exocytosis implies that synaptic vesicles allow neither lipid nor protein to escape into the plasma membrane, suggesting that the two bilayers never merge. Here, we...
Topological transformation of a surfactant bilayer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Le, T.D.; Olsson, U.; Mortensen, K.
2000-01-01
Surfactant lamellar phases are often complicated by the formation of multilamellar (onions) under shear, which can originate simply by shaking the sample. A systematic study has been performed on the C10E3-D2O system in which different bilayer structures under a steady shear flow were investigate......>(b), in the transformation from onion to plane to multiply connected bilayer structure as a function of temperature. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....
Twisted bi-layer graphene: microscopic rainbows
Campos-Delgado, J.; Algara-Siller, G.; Santos, C. N.; Kaiser, U.; Raskin, J.-P.
2013-01-01
Twisted bi-layer graphene (tBLG) has recently attracted interest due to the peculiar electrical properties that arise from its random rotational configurations. Our experiments on CVD-grown graphene from Cu foil and transferred onto Si substrates, with an oxide layer of 100 nm, reveal naturally-produced bi-layer graphene patches which present different colorations when shined with white light. In particular yellow-, pink- and blue- colored areas are evidenced. Combining optical microscopy, Ra...
Silica-based cationic bilayers as immunoadjuvants
Carmona-Ribeiro Ana M; da Costa Maria; Faquim-Mauro Eliana; Santana Mariana RA; Lincopan Nilton
2009-01-01
Abstract Background Silica particles cationized by dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) bilayer were previously described. This work shows the efficiency of these particulates for antigen adsorption and presentation to the immune system and proves the concept that silica-based cationic bilayers exhibit better performance than alum regarding colloid stability and cellular immune responses for vaccine design. Results Firstly, the silica/DODAB assembly was characterized at 1 mM NaCl, pH 6...
On Traveling Waves in Lattices: The Case of Riccati Lattices
Dimitrova, Zlatinka
2012-09-01
The method of simplest equation is applied for analysis of a class of lattices described by differential-difference equations that admit traveling-wave solutions constructed on the basis of the solution of the Riccati equation. We denote such lattices as Riccati lattices. We search for Riccati lattices within two classes of lattices: generalized Lotka-Volterra lattices and generalized Holling lattices. We show that from the class of generalized Lotka-Volterra lattices only the Wadati lattice belongs to the class of Riccati lattices. Opposite to this many lattices from the Holling class are Riccati lattices. We construct exact traveling wave solutions on the basis of the solution of Riccati equation for three members of the class of generalized Holling lattices.
Engineering novel optical lattices.
Windpassinger, Patrick; Sengstock, Klaus
2013-08-01
Optical lattices have developed into a widely used and highly recognized tool to study many-body quantum physics with special relevance for solid state type systems. One of the most prominent reasons for this success is the high degree of tunability in the experimental setups. While at the beginning quasi-static, cubic geometries were mainly explored, the focus of the field has now shifted toward new lattice topologies and the dynamical control of lattice structures. In this review we intend to give an overview of the progress recently achieved in this field on the experimental side. In addition, we discuss theoretical proposals exploiting specifically these novel lattice geometries. PMID:23828639
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shindler, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2007-07-15
I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)
Lattice degeneracies of fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a detailed description of the minimal degeneracies of geometric (Kaehler) fermions on all the lattices of maximal symmetries in n = 1, ..., 4 dimensions. We also determine the isolated orbits of the maximal symmetry groups, which are related to the minimal numbers of ''naive'' fermions on the reciprocals of these lattices. It turns out that on the self-reciprocal lattices the minimal numbers of naive fermions are equal to the minimal numbers of degrees of freedom of geometric fermions. The description we give relies on the close connection of the maximal lattice symmetry groups with (affine) Weyl groups of root systems of (semi-) simple Lie algebras. (orig.)
Gadjiev, S A
2001-01-01
Scattering amplitude of fermions and bosons in the ladder approximation at high energies is investigated. For the imaginary part of the scattering amplitude the set of Bethe-Salpeter type integral equations is constructed. Solutions of this set in the Regge asymptotic form are found. The impact of mass parameters on the behavior of the amplitude at high energies is studied.
Bethe Ansatz for Supersymmetric Model Constructed from Uq[osp(2|2)(2)] R-Matrix
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Wen-Li; ZHEN Yi
2001-01-01
Using the algebraic Bethe ansatz method, we obtain the eigenvalues of transfer matrix of the supersymmetric model constructed from the R-matrix of the twisted affine superalgebra Uq[osp(2|2)(2)] in periodic boundary condition and twisted boundary condition.``
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIE Chuan-Mei; LI Heng-Mei; WAN Shao-Long
2009-01-01
The wave functions and electromagnetic form factor of charged scalar mesons are studied with a modified vector-vector flat-bottom potential model under the framework of the Schwinger-Dyeon and Bethe-Salpeter equations.The obtained results agree well with other theories.
RKKY interaction in bilayer graphene
Mohammadi, Yawar; Moradian, Rostam
2015-12-01
We study the RKKY interaction between two magnetic impurities located on the same layer (intralayer case) or on different layers (interlayer case) in undoped bilayer graphene (BLG) in the four-bands model, by directly calculating the Green functions in the eigenvalues and eigenvectors representation. Our results show that both intra- and interlayer RKKY interactions between two magnetic impurities located on the same (opposite) sublattice are always ferromagnetic (antiferromagnetic). Furthermore we find unusual long-distance decay of the RKKY interaction in BLG. The intralyer RKKY interactions between two magnetic impurities located on the same sublattice, J AnAn(R) and J BnBn(R), decay closely as 1 /R6 and 1 /R2 at large impurity distances respectively, but when they are located on opposite sublattices the RKKY interactions exhibit 1 /R4 decays approximately. In the interlayer case, the RKKY interactions between two magnetic impurities located on the same sublattice show a decay close to 1 /R4 at large impurity distances, but if two magnetic impurities be on opposite sublattices the RKKY interactions, J A1B2(R) and J B1A2(R), decay closely as 1 /R6 and 1 /R2 respectively. Both intra- and interlayer RKKY interactions have anisotropic oscillatory factors which for intralayer case is equal to that for single layer graphene (SLG). Our results at weak and strong interlayer coupling limits reduce to the RKKY interaction of SLG and that of BLG in the two-bands approximation respectively.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Epelbaum E.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available We review recent progress on nuclear lattice simulations using chiral eﬀective ﬁeld theory. We discuss lattice results for dilute neutron matter at next-to-leading order, three-body forces at next-to-next-toleading order, isospin-breaking and Coulomb eﬀects, and the binding energy of light nuclei.
Bergner, Georg; Catterall, Simon
2016-08-01
We discuss the motivations, difficulties and progress in the study of supersymmetric lattice gauge theories focusing in particular on 𝒩 = 1 and 𝒩 = 4 super-Yang-Mills in four dimensions. Brief reviews of the corresponding lattice formalisms are given and current results are presented and discussed. We conclude with a summary of the main aspects of current work and prospects for the future.
Active Optical Lattice Filters
Gary Evans; MacFarlane, Duncan L.; Govind Kannan; Jian Tong; Issa Panahi; Vishnupriya Govindan; L. Roberts Hunt
2005-01-01
Optical lattice filter structures including gains are introduced and analyzed. The photonic realization of the active, adaptive lattice filter is described. The algorithms which map between gains space and filter coefficients space are presented and studied. The sensitivities of filter parameters with respect to gains are derived and calculated. An example which is relevant to adaptive signal processing is also provided.
Flat Band Quastiperiodic Lattices
Bodyfelt, Joshua; Flach, Sergej; Danieli, Carlo
2014-03-01
Translationally invariant lattices with flat bands (FB) in their band structure possess irreducible compact localized flat band states, which can be understood through local rotation to a Fano structure. We present extension of these quasi-1D FB structures under incommensurate lattices, reporting on the FB effects to the Metal-Insulator Transition.
Direct observation of lattice strain in Si1-xGex/Si crystals using planar channeling patterns
Breese, MBH; deKerckhove, DG; King, PJC; Smulders, PJM
1997-01-01
This paper describes the direct observation of lattice strain in channeling patterns produced by 3 MeV protons transmitted through strained Si1-xGex/Si bilayers close to planar channeling directions. Blocking lines arising from each layer can be separately resolved at certain alignments, whereas onl
Microscopic theoretical model study of band gap opening in AA-stacked bi-layer graphene
Sahu, Sivabrata; Parashar, S. K. S.; Rout, G. C.
2016-05-01
We address here a tight-binding theoretical model calculation for AA-stacked bi-layer graphene taking into account of a biased potential between two layers to study the density of states and the band dispersion within the total Brillouin zone. We have calculated the electronic Green's function for electron operator corresponding to A and B sub lattices by Zubarev's Green's function technique from which the electronic density of states and the electron band energy dispersion are calculated. The numerically computed density of states and band energy dispersions are investigated by tuning the biased potential to exhibit the band gap by varying the different physical parameters.
Strange hadronic stellar matter within the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone theory
Baldo, Marcello; Schulze, H J
2000-01-01
In the framework of the non-relativistic Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone theory, we derive a microscopic equation of state for asymmetric and $\\beta$-stable matter containing $\\Sigma^-$ and $\\Lambda$ hyperons. We mainly study the effects of three-body forces (TBFs) among nucleons on the hyperon formation and the equation of state (EoS). We find that, when TBFs are included, the stellar core is almost equally populated by nucleons and hyperons. The resulting EoS, which turns out to be extremely soft, has been used in order to calculate the static structure of neutron stars. We obtain a value of the maximum mass of 1.26 solar masses (1 solar mass $M_o \\simeq 1.99 \\cdot 10^{33} g$). Stellar rotations increase this value by about 12%.
Nuclear matter spectral function in the Bethe-Brueckner-Goldstone approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baldo, M.; Lo Monaco, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Catania, INFN, via S. Sofia 64, 95123, Catania (Italy)
2003-06-01
The microscopic many-body theory of the Nuclear Equation of State is discussed in the framework of the Bethe-Brueckner-Goldstone method. The expansion is extended up to the three hole-line diagrams contribution. Within the same scheme, the hole spectral function is calculated in nuclear matter to assess the relevance of nucleon-nucleon short-range correlations. The calculation is carried out by using several nucleon-nucleon realistic interactions. Results are compared with other approaches based on variational methods and transport theory. Discrepancies appear in the high-energy region, which is sensitive to short-range correlations, and are due to the different many-body treatment more than to the specific NN interaction used. Both nuclear matter Equation of State and spectral function appear to be dominated by two-body correlations. (orig.)
Mass of Y(3940) in Bethe-Salpeter equation for quarks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Xiaozhao [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Department of Foundational Courses, Taian (China); Lue, Xiaofu [Sichuan University, Department of Physics, Chengdu (China); The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); CCAST (World Laboratory), Beijing (China)
2015-03-01
The general form of the Bethe-Salpeter wave functions for the bound states composed of two vector fields of arbitrary spin and definite parity is corrected. Using the revised general formalism, we investigate the observed Y(3940) state, which is considered as a molecule state consisting of D{sup *0} anti D{sup *0}. Though the attractive potential between D{sup *0} and anti D{sup *0} including one light meson (σ, π, ω, ρ) exchange is considered, we find that in our approach the contribution from one-π exchange is equal to zero and consider SU(3) symmetry breaking. The obtained mass of Y(3940) is consistent with the experimental value. (orig.)
Nuclear magnetic polarizability and the slope of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn-Levinger-Bethe sum rule
Gorchtein, Mikhail
2015-01-01
Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn-Levinger-Bethe sum rule that relates the strength of the photoexcitation of the giant dipole resonance in a nucleus to the number of elementary scatterers-protons within that nucleus by means of a subtracted forward dispersion relation. I extend this dispersion relation consideration to the case of virtual photons and show that the size of the magnetic polarizability of a nucleus, under the assumption of a separation between the nuclear and hadronic scales, may be related to the slope of the transverse virtual photoabsorption cross section integrated over the energy. I check this approximate sum rule for the deuteron where necessary data is available, discuss possible applications and connection with other sum rules postulated in the literature.
All-loop Bethe ansatz equations for AdS3/CFT2
Borsato, Riccardo; Sfondrini, Alessandro
2012-01-01
Using the S-matrix for the d(2,1;alpha)^2 symmetric spin-chain of AdS3/CFT2, we propose a new set of all-loop Bethe equations for the system. These equations differ from the ones previously found in the literature by the choice of relative grading between the two copies of the d(2,1;alpha) superalgebra, and involve four undetermined scalar factors that play the role of dressing phases. Imposing crossing symmetry and comparing with the near-BMN form of the S-matrix found in the literature, we find several novel features. In particular, the scalar factors must differ from the Beisert-Eden-Staudacher phase, and should couple nodes of different masses to each other. In the semiclassical limit the phases are given by a suitable generalization of Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase.
All-loop Bethe ansatz equations for AdS3/CFT2
Borsato, Riccardo; Sax, Olof Ohlsson; Sfondrini, Alessandro
2013-04-01
Using the S-matrix for the {d}{{( {2, 1; α } )}^2} symmetric spin-chain of AdS3/CFT2, we propose a new set of all-loop Bethe equations for the system. These equations differ from the ones previously found in the literature by the choice of relative grading between the two copies of the {d}( {2, 1; α } ) superalgebra, and involve four undetermined scalar factors that play the role of dressing phases. Imposing crossing symmetry and comparing with the near-BMN form of the S-matrix found in the literature, we find several novel features. In particular, the scalar factors must differ from the Beisert-Eden-Staudacher phase, and should couple nodes of different masses to each other. In the semiclassical limit the phases are given by a suitable generalization of Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase.
Maggio, Emanuele; Kresse, Georg
2016-06-01
The correlation energy of the homogeneous electron gas is evaluated by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) beyond the Tamm-Dancoff approximation for the electronic polarization propagator. The BSE is expected to improve on the random-phase approximation, owing to the inclusion of exchange diagrams. For instance, since the BSE reduces in second order to Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, it is self-interaction free in second order. Results for the correlation energy are compared with quantum Monte Carlo benchmarks and excellent agreement is observed. For low densities, however, we find imaginary eigenmodes in the polarization propagator. To avoid the occurrence of imaginary eigenmodes, an approximation to the BSE kernel is proposed that allows us to completely remove this issue in the low-electron-density region. We refer to this approximation as the random-phase approximation with screened exchange (RPAsX). We show that this approximation even slightly improves upon the standard BSE kernel.
Kitanine, N; Niccoli, G
2014-01-01
We solve the longstanding problem to define a functional characterization of the spectrum of the transfer matrix associated to the most general spin-1/2 representations of the 6-vertex reflection algebra for general inhomogeneous chains. The corresponding homogeneous limit reproduces the spectrum of the Hamiltonian of the spin-1/2 open XXZ and XXX quantum chains with the most general integrable boundaries. The spectrum is characterized by a second order finite difference functional equation of Baxter type with an inhomogeneous term which vanishes only for some special but yet interesting non-diagonal boundary conditions. This functional equation is shown to be equivalent to the known separation of variable (SOV) representation hence proving that it defines a complete characterization of the transfer matrix spectrum. The polynomial character of the Q-function allows us then to show that a finite system of equations of generalized Bethe type can be similarly used to describe the complete transfer matrix spectru...
Born-Hartree-Bethe approximation in the theory of inelastic electron-molecule scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a new approximation in the theory of inelastic electron-atom and electron-molecule scattering. Taking into account the completeness property of atomic and molecular wavefunctions, considered in the Hartree approximation, and using Bethe's parametrization for electronic excitations during inelastic collisions via the mean excitation energy, we show that the calculation of the inelastic total integral cross-sections (TICS), in the framework of the first Born approximation, involves only the ground-state wavefunction. The final analytical formula obtained for the TICS, i.e. for the sum of elastic and inelastic ones, contains no adjusting parameters. Calculated TICS for electron scattering by light atoms and molecules (He, Ne, and H2) are in good agreement within the experimental data; results show asymptotic coincidence for heavier ones (Ar, Kr, Xe and N2).
Theory of x-ray absorption: a Bethe-Salpeter approach
Shirley, Eric L.
2002-03-01
First-principles calculations of x-ray absorption spectra of solids is a well-established field. The best known and most used treatments are probably those based on real-space multiple-scattering theory. Such Green's Function approaches are particular useful for incorporating electron damping effects (self-energy effects) that broaden spectral features at high electron kinetic energy. Near-edge structure can also be treated, and it can also be treated in super-cell calculations. In this talk, I will present results obtained using an alternative, reciprocal-space approach based on solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation, which is related to the Bethe-Salpeter method used to treat valence excitation signatures in optical absorption spectra. This amounts to solving the coupling equations of motion for the electron-core hole pair that is produced by x-ray absorption. Mutual localization of the electron and core hole in real space is realized by permitting the electron to exist as a wave-packet of Bloch states peaked near the core hole, governed by the excitation process and ensuing electron core-hole attraction. Because this approach permits state-of-the-art electron band structure calculations to be used to evaluate the electron wave function, this approach is particularly well suited for detailed near-edge structure. In presenting the approach and results obtained, particular attention is focused on (1) the role of the electron-hole interaction, (2) the need to deal with core-hole screening accurately, (3) the evaluation of accurate transition matrix elements between core states and Bloch states, and (4) computational-time scaling issues. This work has been done in collaboration with J.A. Soininen, J.J. Rehr, E.K. Chang, and others. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Deparment of Energy (DOE) Grant DE-FG03-97ER45623 and facilitated by the DOE Computational Materials Science Network (CMSN).
Piezoelectricity in asymmetrically strained bilayer graphene
Van der Donck, M.; De Beule, C.; Partoens, B.; Peeters, F. M.; Van Duppen, B.
2016-09-01
We study the electronic properties of commensurate faulted bilayer graphene by diagonalizing the one-particle Hamiltonian of the bilayer system in a complete basis of Bloch states of the individual graphene layers. Our novel approach is very general and can be easily extended to any commensurate graphene-based heterostructure. Here, we consider three cases: (i) twisted bilayer graphene, (ii) bilayer graphene where triaxial stress is applied to one layer and (iii) bilayer graphene where uniaxial stress is applied to one layer. We show that the resulting superstructures can be divided into distinct classes, depending on the twist angle or the magnitude of the induced strain. The different classes are distinguished from each other by the interlayer coupling mechanism, resulting in fundamentally different low-energy physics. For the cases of triaxial and uniaxial stress, the individual graphene layers tend to decouple and we find significant charge transfer between the layers. In addition, this piezoelectric effect can be tuned by applying a perpendicular electric field. Finally, we show how our approach can be generalized to multilayer systems.
Magnetoacoustic resonance in magnetoelectric bilayers
Filippov, D. A.; Bichurin, M. I.; Petrov, V. M.; Srinivasan, G.
2004-03-01
Layered composites of ferrite and ferroelectric single crystal thin films are of interest for studies on magnetoelectric interactions [1,2]. Such interactions result in unique and novel effects that are absent in single phase materials. For example, in a single crystal composite it is possible to control the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) parameters for the ferrite by means of hypersonic oscillations induced in the ferroelectric phase. The absorption of acoustic oscillations by the ferrite results in variation in FMR line shape and power absorbed. One anticipates resonance absorption of elastic waves when the frequency of elastic waves coincides with the precession frequency of magnetization vector. This work is concerned with the nature of FMR under the influence of acoustic oscillations with the same frequency as FMR. Bilayers of ferrite and piezoelectric single crystals are considered. Hypersonic waves induced in the piezoelectric phase transmit acoustic power into ferrite due to mechanical connectivity between the phases. That transmission depends strongly on interface coupling [3]. We estimate the resulting variations in ferromagnetic resonance line shape. Estimates of magnetoelectric effect at magnetoacoustic resonance are also given. In addition, dependence of absorption of acoustic power on sample dimensions and compliances, electric and magnetic susceptibilities, piezoelectric and magnetostriction coefficients is discussed. The theory provided here is important for an understanding of interface coupling and the nature of magnetoelastic interactions in the composites. 1. M. I. Bichurin and V. M. Petrov, Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 58, 2277 (1988) [Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 33, 1389 (1988)]. 2. M.I. Bichurin, I. A. Kornev, V. M. Petrov, A. S. Tatarenko, Yu. V. Kiliba, and G. Srinivasan. Phys. Rev. B 64, 094409 (2001). 3. M. I. Bichurin, V. M. Petrov, and G. Srinivasan, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7681 (2002). This work was supported by grants from the Russian Ministry of Education (
Droplet Microfluidics for Artificial Lipid Bilayers
Punnamaraju, Srikoundinya; Steckl, Andrew
2012-02-01
Droplet interface bilayer is a versatile approach that allows formation of artificial lipid bilayer membrane at the interface of two lipid monolayer coated aqueous droplets in a lipid filled oil medium. Versatility exists in the form of voltage control of DIB area, ability of forming networks of DIBs, volume control of droplets and lipid-oil, and ease of reformation. Significant effect of voltage on the area and capacitance of DIB as well as DIB networks are characterized using simultaneous optical and electrical recordings. Mechanisms behind voltage-induced effects on DIBs are investigated. Photo induced effect on the DIB membrane porosity is obtained by incorporating UVC-sensitive photo-polymerizable lipids in DIB. Photo-induced effects can be extended for in-vitro studies of triggered release of encapsulated contents across membranes. A droplet based low voltage digital microfluidic platform is developed to automate DIB formation, which could potentially be used for forming arrays of lipid bilayer membranes.
Layer resolved capacitive probing of graphene bilayers
Zibrov, Alexander; Parmentier, François; Li, Jia; Wang, Lei; Hunt, Benjamin; Dean, Cory; Hone, James; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Young, Andrea
Compared to single layer graphene, graphene bilayers have an additional ``which-layer'' degree of freedom that can be controlled by an external electric field in a dual-gated device geometry. We describe capacitance measurements capable of directly probing this degree of freedom. By performing top gate, bottom gate, and penetration field capacitance measurements, we directly extract layer polarization of both Bernal and twisted bilayers. We will present measurements of hBN encapsulated bilayers at both zero and high magnetic field, focusing on the physics of the highly degenerate zero-energy Landau level in the high magnetic field limit where spin, valley, and layer degeneracy are all lifted by electronic interactions.
Thermally activated conductivity in gapped bilayer graphene
Trushin, Maxim
2012-05-01
This is a theoretical study of electron transport in gated bilayer graphene —a novel semiconducting material with a tunable band gap. It is shown that the which-layer pseudospin coherence enhances the subgap conductivity and facilitates the thermally activated transport. The mechanism proposed can also lead to the non-monotonic conductivity vs. temperature dependence at a band gap size of the order of 10 meV. The effect can be observed in gapped bilayer graphene sandwiched in boron nitride where the electron-hole puddles and flexural phonons are strongly suppressed.
Temperature effect on plasmons in bilayer graphene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Patel, Digish K., E-mail: jdiggish@gmail.com; Sharma, A. C. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara-390002, Gujarat (India); Ashraf, S. S. Z. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ambavale, S. K. [Vishwakarma Government Engineering College Chandkheda, Ahmedabad-382424, Gujarat (India)
2015-06-24
We have theoretically investigated the plasmon dispersion and damping rate of doped bilayer graphene (BLG) at finite temperatures within the random phase approximation. Our computed results on plasmon dispersion show that plasmon frequency enhances with increasing temperatures in contrast to single layer graphene where it is suppressed. This can be attributed to the fact that the dynamic response of the electron gas or screening in bilayer graphene is different from that of single layer graphene. Further the temperature effect on damping rate is also discussed.
Lipstein, Arthur E
2014-01-01
We formulate the theory of a 2-form gauge field on a Euclidean spacetime lattice. In this approach, the fundamental degrees of freedom live on the faces of the lattice, and the action can be constructed from the sum over Wilson surfaces associated with each fundamental cube of the lattice. If we take the gauge group to be $U(1)$, the theory reduces to the well-known abelian gerbe theory in the continuum limit. We also propose a very simple and natural non-abelian generalization with gauge group $U(N) \\times U(N)$, which gives rise to $U(N)$ Yang-Mills theory upon dimensional reduction. Formulating the theory on a lattice has several other advantages. In particular, it is possible to compute many observables, such as the expectation value of Wilson surfaces, analytically at strong coupling and numerically for any value of the coupling.
In situ atomic force microscope imaging of supported lipid bilayers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaasgaard, Thomas; Leidy, Chad; Ipsen, John Hjorth;
2001-01-01
In situ AFM images of phospholipase A/sub 2/ (PLA/sub 2/) hydrolysis of mica-supported one- and two-component lipid bilayers are presented. For one-component DPPC bilayers an enhanced enzymatic activity is observed towards preexisting defects in the bilayer. Phase separation is observed in two-co...
Lattice Operators and Topologies
Eva Cogan
2009-01-01
Working within a complete (not necessarily atomic) Boolean algebra, we use a sublattice to define a topology on that algebra. Our operators generalize complement on a lattice which in turn abstracts the set theoretic operator. Less restricted than those of Banaschewski and Samuel, the operators exhibit some surprising behaviors. We consider properties of such lattices and their interrelations. Many of these properties are abstractions and generalizations of topological spaces. The approach is...
Bergner, Georg
2016-01-01
We discuss the motivations, difficulties and progress in the study of supersymmetric lattice gauge theories focusing in particular on ${\\cal N}=1$ and ${\\cal N}=4$ super Yang-Mills in four dimensions. Brief reviews of the corresponding lattice formalisms are given and current results are presented and discussed. We conclude with a summary of the main aspects of current work and prospects for the future.
Vector Lattice Vortex Solitons
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Jian-Dong; YE Fang-Wei; DONG Liang-Wei; LI Yong-Ping
2005-01-01
@@ Two-dimensional vector vortex solitons in harmonic optical lattices are investigated. The stability properties of such solitons are closely connected to the lattice depth Vo. For small Vo, vector vortex solitons with the total zero-angular momentum are more stable than those with the total nonzero-angular momentum, while for large Vo, this case is inversed. If Vo is large enough, both the types of such solitons are stable.
Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Monahan, Christopher
2014-11-01
I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.
Interfacing 2D and 3D Topological Insulators: Bi(111) Bilayer on Bi2Te3
Hirahara, Toru; Bihlmayer, Gustav; Sakamoto, Yusuke; Yamada, Manabu; Miyazaki, Hidetoshi; Kimura, Shin-Ichi; Blügel, Stefan; Hasegawa, Shuji
2012-02-01
Topological insulators (TI) are insulating materials but have metallic edge states that carry spin currents and are robust against nonmagnetic impurities [1]. While there have been a large number of reports on three-dimensional (3D) TI, only few works have been done in terms of two-dimensional (2D) TI. In the present paper, we report the successful formation of bilayer Bi, which was theoretically predicted to be a 2D TI [2]. We deposited bilayer Bi on a 3D TI Bi2Te3, which the lattice mismatch is very small. From angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements and ab initio calculations, the electronic structure of the system can be understood as an overlap of the band dispersions of bilayer Bi and Bi2Te3. Our results show that the Dirac cone is actually robust against nonmagnetic perturbations and imply a unique situation where the topologically protected one- and two-dimensional edge states are coexisting at the surface [3]. [0pt] [1] M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045 (2010).[0pt] [2] S. Murakami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 236805 (2006).[0pt] [3] T. Hirahara et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 166801 (2011).
Soliton-dependent plasmon reflection at bilayer graphene domain walls.
Jiang, Lili; Shi, Zhiwen; Zeng, Bo; Wang, Sheng; Kang, Ji-Hun; Joshi, Trinity; Jin, Chenhao; Ju, Long; Kim, Jonghwan; Lyu, Tairu; Shen, Yuen-Ron; Crommie, Michael; Gao, Hong-Jun; Wang, Feng
2016-08-01
Layer-stacking domain walls in bilayer graphene are emerging as a fascinating one-dimensional system that features stacking solitons structurally and quantum valley Hall boundary states electronically. The interactions between electrons in the 2D graphene domains and the one-dimensional domain-wall solitons can lead to further new quantum phenomena. Domain-wall solitons of varied local structures exist along different crystallographic orientations, which can exhibit distinct electrical, mechanical and optical properties. Here we report soliton-dependent 2D graphene plasmon reflection at different 1D domain-wall solitons in bilayer graphene using near-field infrared nanoscopy. We observe various domain-wall structures in mechanically exfoliated graphene bilayers, including network-forming triangular lattices, individual straight or bent lines, and even closed circles. The near-field infrared contrast of domain-wall solitons arises from plasmon reflection at domain walls, and exhibits markedly different behaviours at the tensile- and shear-type domain-wall solitons. In addition, the plasmon reflection at domain walls exhibits a peculiar dependence on electrostatic gating. Our study demonstrates the unusual and tunable coupling between 2D graphene plasmons and domain-wall solitons. PMID:27240109
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
The interaction kernel in the Bethe-Salpeter equation for quark-antiquark bound states is derived newly from QCD in the case where the quark and the antiquark are of different flavors. The technique of the derivation is the usage of the irreducible decomposition of the Green's functions involved in the Bethe-Salpeter equation satisfied by the quark-antiquark four-point Green's function. The interaction kernel derived is given a closed and explicit expression which shows a specific structure of the kernel since the kernel is represented in terms of the quark, antiquark and gluon propagators and some kinds of quark, antiquark and/or gluon three, four, five and six-point vertices. Therefore,the expression of the kernel is not only convenient for perturbative calculations, but also suitable for nonperturbative investigations.
Massless Lüscher terms and the limitations of the AdS3 asymptotic Bethe ansatz
Abbott, Michael C.; Aniceto, Inês
2016-05-01
In AdS5/CFT4 integrability the Bethe ansatz gives the spectrum of long strings, accurate up to exponentially small corrections. This is no longer true in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS3 ) space, as we demonstrate here by studying Lüscher F-terms with a massless particle running in the loop. We apply this to the classic test of Hernández and López, in which the s u (2 ) sector Bethe equations (including the one-loop dressing phase) should match the semiclassical string theory result for a circular spinning string. These calculations do not agree in AdS3×S3×T4 , and we show that the sum of all massless Lüscher F-terms can reproduce the difference.
Sciarappa, Antonio
2016-01-01
Bethe/Gauge correspondence as it is usually stated is ill-defined in five dimensions and needs a "non-perturbative" completion; a related problem also appears in three dimensions. It has been suggested that this problem, probably due to incompleteness of Omega background regularization in odd dimension, may be solved if we consider gauge theory on compact $S^5$ and $S^3$ geometries. We will develop this idea further by giving a full Bethe/Gauge correspondence dictionary on $S^5$ and $S^3$ focussing mainly on the eigenfunctions of (open and closed) relativistic 2-particle Toda chain and its quantized spectral curve: these are most properly written in terms of non-perturbatively completed NS open topological strings. A key ingredient is Faddeev's modular double structure which is naturally implemented by the $S^5$ and $S^3$ geometries.
Masoero, Davide; Raimondo, Andrea; Valeri, Daniele
2016-09-01
We assess the ODE/IM correspondence for the quantum g -KdV model, for a non-simply laced Lie algebra g. This is done by studying a meromorphic connection with values in the Langlands dual algebra of the affine Lie algebra g^{(1)} , and constructing the relevant {Ψ} -system among subdominant solutions. We then use the {Ψ} -system to prove that the generalized spectral determinants satisfy the Bethe Ansatz equations of the quantum g -KdV model. We also consider generalized Airy functions for twisted Kac-Moody algebras and we construct new explicit solutions to the Bethe Ansatz equations. The paper is a continuation of our previous work on the ODE/IM correspondence for simply-laced Lie algebras.
Sciarappa, Antonio
2016-10-01
Bethe/Gauge correspondence as it is usually stated is ill-defined in five dimensions and needs a "non-perturbative" completion; a related problem also appears in three dimensions. It has been suggested that this problem, probably due to incompleteness of Omega background regularization in odd dimension, may be solved if we consider gauge theory on compact S 5 and S 3 geometries. We will develop this idea further by giving a full Bethe/Gauge correspondence dictionary on S 5 and S 3 focussing mainly on the eigenfunctions of (open and closed) relativistic 2-particle Toda chain and its quantized spectral curve: these are most properly written in terms of non-perturbatively completed NS open topological strings. A key ingredient is Faddeev's modular double structure which is naturally implemented by the S 5 and S 3 geometries.
Masoero, Davide; Valeri, Daniele
2015-01-01
We assess the ODE/IM correspondence for the quantum $\\mathfrak{g}$-KdV model, for a non-simply laced Lie algebra $\\mathfrak{g}$. This is done by studying a meromorphic connection with values in the Langlands dual algebra of the affine Lie algebra ${\\mathfrak{g}}^{(1)}$, and constructing the relevant $\\Psi$-system among subdominant solutions. We then use the $\\Psi$-system to prove that the generalized spectral determinants satisfy the Bethe Ansatz equations of the quantum $\\mathfrak{g}$-KdV model. We also consider generalized Airy functions for twisted Kac--Moody algebras and we construct new explicit solutions to the Bethe Ansatz equations. The paper is a continuation of our previous work on the ODE/IM correspondence for simply-laced Lie algebras.
Anomalous Lattice Dynamics of Mono-, Bi-, and Tri-layer WTe2
Kim, YoungHee; Jhon, Young In; Park, June; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Seok; Jhon, Young Min
2015-01-01
Tungsten ditelluride (WTe2) is a layered material that exhibits excellent magnetoresistance and thermoelectric behaviors, which are deeply related with its distorted orthorhombic phase that may critically affect the lattice dynamics. Here, for the first time, we present comprehensive characterization of the Raman spectroscopic behavior of WTe2 from bulk to monolayer using experimental and computational methods. We discover that mono and bi-layer WTe2 can be easily identified by Raman spectros...
Electronic properties of graphene-based bilayer systems
Rozhkov, A. V.; Sboychakov, A. O.; Rakhmanov, A. L.; Nori, Franco
2016-08-01
This article reviews the theoretical and experimental work related to the electronic properties of bilayer graphene systems. Three types of bilayer stackings are discussed: the AA, AB, and twisted bilayer graphene. This review covers single-electron properties, effects of static electric and magnetic fields, bilayer-based mesoscopic systems, spin-orbit coupling, dc transport and optical response, as well as spontaneous symmetry violation and other interaction effects. The selection of the material aims to introduce the reader to the most commonly studied topics of theoretical and experimental research in bilayer graphene.
Lipid bilayers decorated with photosensitive ruthenium complexes
Bahreman, Azadeh
2013-01-01
In this thesis the thermal- and photo-substitution behavior of polypyridyl ruthenium complexes is described at the surface of lipid bilayers and in homogeneous solutions. It is shown that the successive thermal binding and light-induced unbinding of the cationic ruthenium complex at the surface of t
Bilayer Tablet via Microsphere: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piyushkumar Vinubhai Gundaraniya
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to develop bilayer tablets containing sustained release microspheres as one layer and immediate release as another layer. The proposed dosage form is intended to decrease the dosing frequency and the combined administration of an anti-diabetic agent. Several pharmaceutical companies are currently developing bi-layer tablets, for a variety of reasons: patent extension, therapeutic, marketing to name a few. To reduce capital investment, quite often existing but modified tablet presses are used to develop and produce such tablets. One such approach is using microspheres as carriers for drugs also known as micro particles. It is the reliable means to deliver the drug to the target site with specificity, if modified, and to maintain the desired concentration at the site of interest. Microspheres received much attention not only for prolonged release, but also for targeting of anti-diabetic drugs. Bilayer tablet via microsphere is new era for the successful development of controlled release formulation along with various features to provide a way of successful drug delivery system. Especially when in addition high production output is required. An attempt has been made in this review article to introduce the society to the current technological developments in bilayer and floating drug delivery system.
Electronic properties of a biased graphene bilayer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castro, Eduardo V; Lopes dos Santos, J M B [CFP and Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias Universidade do Porto, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Novoselov, K S; Morozov, S V; Geim, A K [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Peres, N M R [Centre of Physics and Departamento de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, P-4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Nilsson, Johan; Castro Neto, A H [Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Guinea, F [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)
2010-05-05
We study, within the tight-binding approximation, the electronic properties of a graphene bilayer in the presence of an external electric field applied perpendicular to the system-a biased bilayer. The effect of the perpendicular electric field is included through a parallel plate capacitor model, with screening correction at the Hartree level. The full tight-binding description is compared with its four-band and two-band continuum approximations, and the four-band model is shown to always be a suitable approximation for the conditions realized in experiments. The model is applied to real biased bilayer devices, made out of either SiC or exfoliated graphene, and good agreement with experimental results is found, indicating that the model is capturing the key ingredients, and that a finite gap is effectively being controlled externally. Analysis of experimental results regarding the electrical noise and cyclotron resonance further suggests that the model can be seen as a good starting point for understanding the electronic properties of graphene bilayer. Also, we study the effect of electron-hole asymmetry terms, such as the second-nearest-neighbour hopping energies t' (in-plane) and {gamma}{sub 4} (inter-layer), and the on-site energy {Delta}.
Electronic properties of a biased graphene bilayer.
Castro, Eduardo V; Novoselov, K S; Morozov, S V; Peres, N M R; Lopes dos Santos, J M B; Nilsson, Johan; Guinea, F; Geim, A K; Castro Neto, A H
2010-05-01
We study, within the tight-binding approximation, the electronic properties of a graphene bilayer in the presence of an external electric field applied perpendicular to the system-a biased bilayer. The effect of the perpendicular electric field is included through a parallel plate capacitor model, with screening correction at the Hartree level. The full tight-binding description is compared with its four-band and two-band continuum approximations, and the four-band model is shown to always be a suitable approximation for the conditions realized in experiments. The model is applied to real biased bilayer devices, made out of either SiC or exfoliated graphene, and good agreement with experimental results is found, indicating that the model is capturing the key ingredients, and that a finite gap is effectively being controlled externally. Analysis of experimental results regarding the electrical noise and cyclotron resonance further suggests that the model can be seen as a good starting point for understanding the electronic properties of graphene bilayer. Also, we study the effect of electron-hole asymmetry terms, such as the second-nearest-neighbour hopping energies t' (in-plane) and γ(4) (inter-layer), and the on-site energy Δ.
Localized plasmons in bilayer graphene nanodisks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Weihua; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N. Asger
2016-01-01
We study localized plasmonic excitations in bilayer graphene (BLG) nanodisks, comparing AA-stacked and AB-stacked BLG and contrasting the results to the case of two monolayers without electronic hybridization. The electrodynamic response of the BLG electron gas is described in terms of a spatially...
Capillary wrinkling of thin bilayer polymeric sheets
Chang, Jooyoung; Menon, Narayanan; Russell, Thomas
We have investigated capillary force induced wrinkling on a floated polymeric bilayer thin sheet. The origin of the wrinkle pattern is compressional hoop stress caused by the capillary force of a water droplet placed on the floated polymeric thin sheet afore investigated. Herein, we study the effect of the differences of surface energy arising from the hydrophobicity of Polystyrene (PS Mw: 97 K, Contact Angle: 88 º) and the hydrophilicity of Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA Mw: 99K, Contact Angle: 68 º) on two sides of a bilayer film. We measure the number and the length of the wrinkles by broadly varying the range of thicknesses of top (9 nm to 550 nm) and bottom layer (25 nm to 330 nm). At the same, there is only a small contrast in mechanical properties of the two layers (PS E = 3.4 GPa, and PMMA E = 3 GPa). The number of the wrinkles is not strongly affected by the composition (PS(Top)/PMMA(Bottom) or PMMA(Top)/PS(Bottom)) and the thickness of each and overall bilayer system. However, the length of the wrinkle is governed by the contact angle of the drop on the top layer of bilayer system. We also compare this to the wrinkle pattern obtained in monolayer systems over a wide range of thickness from PS and PMMA (7 nm to 1 μm). W.M. Keck Foundation.
Chiral electron transport in CVD bilayer graphene
Lee, Kyunghoon; Eo, Yun Suk; Kurdak, Cagliyan; Zhong, Zhaohui
2014-03-01
Charge carriers in bilayer graphene have a parabolic energy spectrum. Due to this band structure they are massive quasiparticles having a finite density of state at zero energy like other non-relativistic charge carriers in conventional two dimensional materials. However, they are massive Dirac fermions which have a chiral nature similar to the case of massless Dirac fermions in single layer graphene. Coupling of pseudospin and motion of charge carrier via chirality can result in dramatic consequence for transport in bipolar regime like Klein tunneling, Fabry-Perot interference, collimation of charge carrier, Veslago lens, etc. However, little attention has been paid to chiral dependent electron transport in bilayer graphene. Here we study these properties by probing phase coherent transport behavior in CVD bilayer graphene devices with sub-200nm channel length. Complex Fabry-Perot interference patterns are observed in resonant cavities defined by local gating. By applying Fourier analysis technique, we successfully analyze and identify the origin of each individual interference pattern in bipolar and monopolar regime. Our initial results also hint at the observation of cloaking of electronic states against chiral electrons in bilayer graphene.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choudhury, A.G.; Chowdhury, A.R. [Jadavpur Univ., Calcutta (India)
1996-08-01
Intertwining relations for the quantum R-matrix of the SU{sub p,q}(2) invariant spin chain are obtained and the corresponding face model is deduced. An important difference is seen to arise due to the asymmetry generated by the parameters p and q, which leads to a asymmetric face model. An algebraic Bethe ansatz is set up and solved with the help of these intertwining vectors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oelkers, N; Batchelor, M T; Bortz, M; Guan, X-W [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering and Mathematical Sciences Institute, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)
2006-02-03
We extend the exact periodic Bethe ansatz solution for one-dimensional bosons and fermions with {delta}-interaction and arbitrary internal degrees of freedom to the case of hard wall boundary conditions. We give an analysis of the ground-state properties of fermionic systems with two internal degrees of freedom, including expansions of the ground-state energy in the weak and strong coupling limits.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG ZhiGang; WAN ShaoLong; WANG KeLin
2001-01-01
The kaon electromagnetic form factor is calculated in the framework of coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation in rainbow approximation and Bethe-Salpeter equation in ladder approximation with the modified fiat-bottom potential,which is the combination of the flat-bottom potential with considerations for the infrared and ultraviolet asymptotic behaviours of the effective quark-gluon coupling. All our numerical results give good fit to experimental values and other theoretical results.``
Maksimova A.A.
2016-01-01
The article presents the analysis carried out by Ph. D. Beth Ann Beschorner (University of Iowa, USA) which concerns the training program for parents aimed at teaching them how to arrange the Dialogic reading with their childrenand and which makes it possible to conclude that due to the experience and direct contact with the written language in preschool age the idea of literacy was being formed. The article compares the empirical data obtained independently in different areas of scientific k...
Masoero, Davide; Raimondo, Andrea; Valeri, Daniele
2016-06-01
We study the ODE/IM correspondence for ODE associated to {widehat{mathfrak{g}}}-valued connections, for a simply-laced Lie algebra {mathfrak{g}}. We prove that subdominant solutions to the ODE defined in different fundamental representations satisfy a set of quadratic equations called {Ψ}-system. This allows us to show that the generalized spectral determinants satisfy the Bethe Ansatz equations.
Polyakov, S N; Denisov, V N; Mavrin, B N; Kirichenko, A N; Kuznetsov, M S; Martyushov, S Yu; Terentiev, S A; Blank, V D
2016-12-01
The insufficient data on a structure of the boron-doped diamond (BDD) has frustrated efforts to fully understand the fascinating electronic properties of this material and how they evolve with doping. We have employed X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering for detailed study of the large-sized BDD single crystals. We demonstrate a formation of boron-carbon (B-C) nanosheets and bilayers in BDD with increasing boron concentration. An incorporation of two boron atoms in the diamond unit cell plays a key role for the B-C nanosheets and bilayer formation. Evidence for these B-C bilayers which are parallel to {111} planes is provided by the observation of high-order, super-lattice reflections in X-ray diffraction and Laue patterns. B-C nanosheets and bilayers minimize the strain energy and affect the electronic structure of BDD. A new shallow acceptor level associated with B-C nanosheets at ~37 meV and the spin-orbit splitting of the valence band of ~6 meV are observed in electronic Raman scattering. We identified that the superconducting transitions occur in the (111) BDD surfaces only. We believe that the origin of Mott and superconducting transitions is associated with the two-dimensional (2D) misfit layer structure of BDD. A model for the BDD crystal structure, based on X-ray and Raman data, is proposed and confirmed by density functional theoretical calculation. PMID:26754937
Pressure-velocity relations in reservoir rocks: Modified MacBeth's equation
Grana, Dario
2016-09-01
The knowledge of the saturation and pressure effects on elastic properties is a key factor in reservoir monitoring. The relation between saturation changes and velocity variations is well known in rock physics and at seismic frequency it can be satisfactorily described by Gassmann's equations. The pressure effect still requires deeper investigations in order to be included in rock physics models for 4D studies. Theoretical models of velocity-pressure relations often do not match lab measurements, or contain empirical constants or theoretical parameters that are difficult to calibrate or do not have a precise physical meaning. In this work, I present a new model to describe the pressure sensitivity of elastic moduli for clastic rocks. The proposed model is an extension of MacBeth's relations. These equations are then integrated within a complete rock physics model to describe the relation between rock properties (porosity and clay content), dynamic attributes (saturation and pressure) and elastic properties. The proposed model is calibrated with laboratory measurements of dry samples over a wide range of pressure variations and then applied to well data to simulate different production scenarios. The complete rock physics model can then be used in time-lapse inversion to predict the distribution of dynamic property changes in the reservoir within an inversion workflow for reservoir monitoring.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Modarres, M., E-mail: mmodares@ut.ac.ir [Physics Department, University of Tehran, North-Kargar Ave., 1439955961 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tafrihi, A.; Hatami, A. [Physics Department, University of Tehran, North-Kargar Ave., 1439955961 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2012-04-01
The neutron matter equation of states of the so-called Bethe homework problem (NMESB) is obtained using the (extended) lowest order constrained variational ((E) LOCV), the lowest order factorized Iwamoto-Yamada (LOF) and the Fermi (hypernetted) chain (FC (FHNC)) formalisms. The FC and the FHNC approximations are performed, using the LOCV or the ELOCV correlation function. It is shown that, if the normalization constraint is satisfied, then the NMESB results by using the LOCV, the ELOCV, the FC and the FHNC formalisms, will become close together and agree well with the corresponding FHNC calculations performed by Zabolitzky (Z) with the parameterized Krotscheck and Takahashi (KT) correlation function. It is also demonstrated that the LOF and the FC calculations, evaluated by employing a parameterized correlation function, are far from the above results, particularly at high densities. Finally, in order to test the convergence of LOF approximation, the two- and the three-body normalization factors are calculated and it is shown that in the LOF approximation, the truncation of cluster expansion after the first few leading terms is not reliable (which is well known as the Emery difficulty).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The neutron matter equation of states of the so-called Bethe homework problem (NMESB) is obtained using the (extended) lowest order constrained variational ((E) LOCV), the lowest order factorized Iwamoto–Yamada (LOF) and the Fermi (hypernetted) chain (FC (FHNC)) formalisms. The FC and the FHNC approximations are performed, using the LOCV or the ELOCV correlation function. It is shown that, if the normalization constraint is satisfied, then the NMESB results by using the LOCV, the ELOCV, the FC and the FHNC formalisms, will become close together and agree well with the corresponding FHNC calculations performed by Zabolitzky (Z) with the parameterized Krotscheck and Takahashi (KT) correlation function. It is also demonstrated that the LOF and the FC calculations, evaluated by employing a parameterized correlation function, are far from the above results, particularly at high densities. Finally, in order to test the convergence of LOF approximation, the two- and the three-body normalization factors are calculated and it is shown that in the LOF approximation, the truncation of cluster expansion after the first few leading terms is not reliable (which is well known as the Emery difficulty).
Post-GW energies from an extended Bethe-Salpeter scheme
Maggio, Emanuele; Kresse, Georg
Hedin's breakthrough in many-body physics is a computationally manageable scheme to implicitly account for many-body effects thanks to the introduction of a self-energy, whose expression is known but in practice approximated by truncation at some order in the inter-particle interaction. Hedin's scheme allows the computation of quasi-particle addition and removal energies. The introduction of an added particle (or hole) to the system will trigger the formation of higher order neutral excitations (particle/hole pairs formation). The widespread GW approximation only partially accounts for these effects by replacing the bare interparticle interaction with a dressed one. Other effects are contained in the vertex function and are typically disregarded.In the present work, we move beyond the GW level by including vertex effects in the self-energy. This is implemented by expressing the self-energy in terms of the reducible two-particle scattering amplitude. The latter is related to the kernel of the Bethe-Salpeter equation and to the corresponding polarisation propagator. The proposed implementation allows us to evaluate the quality of quasi-particle spectra for a range of realistic solids and molecular systems.
Solving the inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space: the zero-energy limit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frederico, Tobias [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, DCTA, Dept. de Fisica, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Salme, Giovanni [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Viviani, Michele [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy)
2015-08-15
The inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation for an interacting system, composed of two massive scalars exchanging a massive scalar, is numerically investigated in the ladder approximation directly in Minkowski space, by using for the first time in the continuum an approach based on the Nakanishi integral representation. In this paper, the limiting case of zero-energy states is considered, thus extending an approach that has already been successfully applied to bound states. The numerical values of scattering lengths, are calculated for several values of the Yukawa coupling constant, by using two different integral equations that stem from the Nakanishi framework. Those low-energy observables are compared with (1) the analogous quantities recently obtained in literature, within a totally different framework, and (2) the non-relativistic evaluations, to illustrate the relevance of a nonperturbative, genuine field theoretical treatment in Minkowski space, even in the low-energy regime. Moreover, dynamical functions, like the Nakanishi weight functions and the distorted part of the zero-energy light-front wave functions are also presented. Interestingly, a highly non-trivial issue related to the abrupt change in the width of the support of the Nakanishi weight function, when the zero-energy limit is approached, is elucidated, ensuring a sound basis to the forthcoming evaluation of phase shifts. (orig.)
Numerical Generalization of the Bethe-Weizs\\"{a}cker Mass Formula
Mavrodiev, S Cht
2016-01-01
Based on the AME2012 nuclear database and the semi-empirical mass formula of Bethe and von Weizs\\"{a}cker we formulated and solved the inverse problem for its numerical generalization in step by step way. The established parametrization describes the measured nuclear masses of 2564 isotopes with an accuracy better than 2.6 MeV, starting from the number of protons $Z=1$ and number of neutrons $N=1$. The set of parameters $\\{a_{i}\\}$, $i=1,\\dots, {N}_{\\rm{total}}$ of our fit represent the solution of an overdetermined system of algebraic equations, which represent equalities between the binding energy $E_{B}^{\\rm{Expt}}(A_{j},Z_{j})$ and its model $E_{B}^{\\rm{Th}}(A_{j},Z_{j},\\{a_{i}\\})$, where $j=1,\\dots,2564$. The solution of the overdetermined system of equations has been obtained with the help of the Aleksandrov's auto-regularization method of Gauss-Newton type for ill-posed problems (Dubna FORTRAN code REGN). The explicit form of unknown functions was discovered in a step-by-step way using the LCH procedur...
CCCP Algorithms to Minimize the Bethe free energy of 3-SAT Problem
Habibulla, Yusupjan
2014-01-01
The k-sat problem is a prototypical constraint satisfaction problem. There are many algorithms to study k-sat problem, BP algorithm is famous one of them. But BP algorithm does not converge when $\\alpha$(constraint density)is bigger than some threshold value. In this paper we use CCCP (Concave Convex Procedure) algorithm to study 3-sat problem and we get better results than BP algorithm that CCCP algorithm still converges when BP algorithm does not converge. Our work almost builds on recent results by Yuille \\cite{Yuille2002} who apply the CCCP algorithm to Bethe and Kikuchi free energies and obtained two algorithms on 2D and 3D spin glasses. Our implementation of CCCP algorithm on 3-sat problem is some different from his implementation and we have some different views about CCCP algorithm's some properties. Some difference of these maybe because of CCCP algorithm have different properties and implementation process on different problem and some others of these are related to the CCCP algorithm itself. Our wo...
Mass of \\emph{Y}(4140) in Bethe-Salpeter equation for quarks
Chen, Xiaozhao; Shi, Renbin; Guo, Xiurong
2015-01-01
Using the general form of the Bethe-Salpeter wave functions for the bound states consisting of two vector fields given in our previous work, we investigate the molecular state composed of $D^{*+}_s$$D^{*-}_s$. However, for the SU(3) symmetry the component $D^{*+}_s$$D^{*-}_s$ is coupled with the other components $D^{*0}$$\\bar{D}^{*0}$ and $D^{*+}$$D^{*-}$. Then we interpret the internal structure of the observed \\emph{Y}(4140) state as a mixed state of pure molecule states $D^{*0}$$\\bar{D}^{*0}$, $D^{*+}$$D^{*-}$ and $D^{*+}_s$$D^{*-}_s$ with quantum numbers $J^P=0^+$. In this paper, the operator product expansion is used to introduce the nonperturbative contribution from the vacuum condensates into the interaction between two heavy mesons. The calculated mass of \\emph{Y}(4140) is consistent with the experimental value, and we conclude that it is a more reasonable scenario to explain the structure of Y (4140) as a mixture of pure molecule states.
Solving the inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation in Minkowski space: the zero-energy limit
Frederico, Tobias; Salmè, Giovanni; Viviani, Michele
2015-08-01
The inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equation for an interacting system, composed of two massive scalars exchanging a massive scalar, is numerically investigated in the ladder approximation directly in Minkowski space, by using for the first time in the continuum an approach based on the Nakanishi integral representation. In this paper, the limiting case of zero-energy states is considered, thus extending an approach that has already been successfully applied to bound states. The numerical values of scattering lengths, are calculated for several values of the Yukawa coupling constant, by using two different integral equations that stem from the Nakanishi framework. Those low-energy observables are compared with (1) the analogous quantities recently obtained in literature, within a totally different framework, and (2) the non-relativistic evaluations, to illustrate the relevance of a nonperturbative, genuine field theoretical treatment in Minkowski space, even in the low-energy regime. Moreover, dynamical functions, like the Nakanishi weight functions and the distorted part of the zero-energy light-front wave functions are also presented. Interestingly, a highly non-trivial issue related to the abrupt change in the width of the support of the Nakanishi weight function, when the zero-energy limit is approached, is elucidated, ensuring a sound basis to the forthcoming evaluation of phase shifts.
Effects of the projectile electronic structure on Bethe-Bloch stopping parameters for Ag
Moussa, D.; Damache, S.; Ouichaoui, S.
2010-06-01
Energy losses of protons and alpha particles in silver have been accurately measured under the same experimental conditions over the velocity range E=(0.192-2.595) MeV/amu using the transmission method. Deduced S(E) stopping powers are compared to most accurate ones from the literature, to values generated by the SRIM-2008 computer code and to ICRU-49 compilation. They were analyzed in the framework of modified Bethe-Bloch theory for extracting Ag target mean excitation and ionization potential, I, and Barkas effect parameter, b. Values of ( 466±5) eV and 1.20±0.01 for these two parameters were inferred from the proton S(E) data while the alpha particle data yielded values of (438±4) eV and 1.38±0.01, respectively. The ( I, b) stopping parameters thus exhibit opposite variations as the projectile charge increases, similarly as we have found previously for nickel [6]. This can be ascribed only to an effect of the projectile electronic structure at low velocities. The obtained results are discussed in comparison to previous ones reported in the literature.
Many-body-QED perturbation theory: Connection to the two-electron Bethe-Salpeter equation
Lindgren, I.; Salomonson, S.; Hedendahl, D.
2005-03-01
The connection between many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) and quantum electrodynamics (QED) is reviewed for systems of two fermions in an external field. The treatment is mainly based on the recently developed covariant-evolution-operator method for QED calculations (I. Lindgren, S. Salomonson, and B. Asen. Phys. Rep. 389, 161 (2004)), which is quite similar in structure to MBPT. At the same time, this procedure is closely related to the S-matrix and Green's-function formalisms and can therefore serve as a bridge connecting various approaches. It is demonstrated that the MBPT-QED scheme, when carried to all orders, leads to a Schrodinger-like equation, equivalent to the Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation. A Bloch equation in commutator form that can be used for an "extended" or quasi-degenerate model space is derived. This is a multi-state equation that has the same relation to the single-state BS equation as the standard Bloch equation has to the ordinary Schrodinger equation. It can be used to generate a perturbation expansion compatible with the BS equation even in the case of a quasi-degenerate model space.
Graphene antidot lattice waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Gunst, Tue; Markussen, Troels;
2012-01-01
We introduce graphene antidot lattice waveguides: nanostructured graphene where a region of pristine graphene is sandwiched between regions of graphene antidot lattices. The band gaps in the surrounding antidot lattices enable localized states to emerge in the central waveguide region. We model...... the waveguides via a position-dependent mass term in the Dirac approximation of graphene and arrive at analytical results for the dispersion relation and spinor eigenstates of the localized waveguide modes. To include atomistic details we also use a tight-binding model, which is in excellent agreement...... with the analytical results. The waveguides resemble graphene nanoribbons, but without the particular properties of ribbons that emerge due to the details of the edge. We show that electrons can be guided through kinks without additional resistance and that transport through the waveguides is robust against...
Digital lattice gauge theories
Zohar, Erez; Reznik, Benni; Cirac, J Ignacio
2016-01-01
We propose a general scheme for a digital construction of lattice gauge theories with dynamical fermions. In this method, the four-body interactions arising in models with $2+1$ dimensions and higher, are obtained stroboscopically, through a sequence of two-body interactions with ancillary degrees of freedom. This yields stronger interactions than the ones obtained through pertubative methods, as typically done in previous proposals, and removes an important bottleneck in the road towards experimental realizations. The scheme applies to generic gauge theories with Lie or finite symmetry groups, both Abelian and non-Abelian. As a concrete example, we present the construction of a digital quantum simulator for a $\\mathbb{Z}_{3}$ lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermionic matter in $2+1$ dimensions, using ultracold atoms in optical lattices, involving three atomic species, representing the matter, gauge and auxiliary degrees of freedom, that are separated in three different layers. By moving the ancilla atoms...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Södergren, Carl Anders; Risager, Morten S.
2015-01-01
It is well known that the angles in a lattice acting on hyperbolic n -space become equidistributed. In this paper we determine a formula for the pair correlation density for angles in such hyperbolic lattices. Using this formula we determine, among other things, the asymptotic behavior...... of the density function in both the small and large variable limits. This extends earlier results by Boca, Pasol, Popa and Zaharescu and Kelmer and Kontorovich in dimension 2 to general dimension n . Our proofs use the decay of matrix coefficients together with a number of careful estimates, and lead...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Catterall, Simon; Kaplan, David B.; Unsal, Mithat
2009-03-31
We provide an introduction to recent lattice formulations of supersymmetric theories which are invariant under one or more real supersymmetries at nonzero lattice spacing. These include the especially interesting case of N = 4 SYM in four dimensions. We discuss approaches based both on twisted supersymmetry and orbifold-deconstruction techniques and show their equivalence in the case of gauge theories. The presence of an exact supersymmetry reduces and in some cases eliminates the need for fine tuning to achieve a continuum limit invariant under the full supersymmetry of the target theory. We discuss open problems.
Habe, Tetsuro; Koshino, Mikito
2016-02-01
We study the electronic spin relaxation effect in the hole-doped monolayer and bilayer transition-metal dichalcogenide in the presence of the crystal defects. We consider realistic models of the lattice vacancy and actually estimate the spin relaxation rate using the multi-orbital tight-binding model. In the monolayer, the spin-relaxation time is found to be extremely long compared to the momentum relaxation time, and this is attributed to the fact that the spin hybridization in the band structure is suppressed by the mirror reflection symmetry. The bilayer TMD has a much shorter spin relaxation time in contrast, and this is attributed to stronger spin hybridization due to the absence of the mirror symmetry.
An Algorithm on Generating Lattice Based on Layered Concept Lattice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Chang-sheng
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Concept lattice is an effective tool for data analysis and rule extraction, a bottleneck factor on impacting the applications of concept lattice is how to generate lattice efficiently. In this paper, an algorithm LCLG on generating lattice in batch processing based on layered concept lattice is developed, this algorithm is based on layered concept lattice, the lattice is generated downward layer by layer through concept nodes and provisional nodes in current layer; the concept nodes are found parent-child relationships upward layer by layer, then the Hasse diagram of inter-layer connection is generated; in the generated process of the lattice nodes in each layer, we do the pruning operations dynamically according to relevant properties, and delete some unnecessary nodes, such that the generating speed is improved greatly; the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has good performance.
Optimality and uniqueness of the Leech lattice among lattices
Cohn, Henry; Kumar, Abhinav
2004-01-01
We prove that the Leech lattice is the unique densest lattice in R^24. The proof combines human reasoning with computer verification of the properties of certain explicit polynomials. We furthermore prove that no sphere packing in R^24 can exceed the Leech lattice's density by a factor of more than 1+1.65*10^(-30), and we give a new proof that E_8 is the unique densest lattice in R^8.
Shigaki, Kenta; Noda, Fumiaki; Yamamoto, Kazami; Machida, Shinji; Molodojentsev, Alexander; Ishi, Yoshihiro
2002-12-01
The JKJ high-intensity proton accelerator facility consists of a 400-MeV linac, a 3-GeV 1-MW rapid-cycling synchrotron and a 50-GeV 0.75-MW synchrotron. The lattice and beam dynamics design of the two synchrotrons are reported.
Bursa, Francis; Kroyter, Michael
2010-01-01
String field theory is a candidate for a full non-perturbative definition of string theory. We aim to define string field theory on a space-time lattice to investigate its behaviour at the quantum level. Specifically, we look at string field theory in a one dimensional linear dilaton background. We report the first results of our simulations.
Singh, Kevin; Geiger, Zachary; Senaratne, Ruwan; Rajagopal, Shankari; Fujiwara, Kurt; Weld, David; Weld Group Team
2015-05-01
Quasiperiodicity is intimately involved in quantum phenomena from localization to the quantum Hall effect. Recent experimental investigation of quasiperiodic quantum effects in photonic and electronic systems have revealed intriguing connections to topological phenomena. However, such experiments have been limited by the absence of techniques for creating tunable quasiperiodic structures. We propose a new type of quasiperiodic optical lattice, constructed by intersecting a Gaussian beam with a 2D square lattice at an angle with an irrational tangent. The resulting potential, a generalization of the Fibonacci lattice, is a physical realization of the mathematical ``cut-and-project'' construction which underlies all quasiperiodic structures. Calculation of the energies and wavefunctions of atoms loaded into the proposed quasiperiodic lattice demonstrate a fractal energy spectrum and the existence of edge states. We acknowledge support from the ONR (award N00014-14-1-0805), the ARO and the PECASE program (award W911NF-14-1-0154), the AFOSR (award FA9550-12-1-0305), and the Alfred P. Sloan foundation (grant BR2013-110).
Polymer bilayer structure via inkjet printing
Xia, Yajun; Friend, Richard H.
2006-04-01
We report the formation of a polymer bilayer structure by inkjet printing poly(9,9'-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) from p-xylene solution onto a poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-N-(4-butylphenyl)diphenylamine (TFB) thin film. Despite the compatibility of both polymers with the same organic solvent, a TFB layer under the later-deposited F8BT was directly observed through fluorescence microscopy. Micro-Raman spectroscopy reveals that this bottom layer is ˜10nm thick for a film made by inkjet printing F8BT onto a TFB film of ˜20nm thickness. The bilayer structure leads to enhanced efficiency for light-emitting diodes in comparison with devices made from spin-coated TFB:F8BT blend films.
The surface layer of cleaved bilayer manganites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recently, several informative reports have been published on spectroscopy experiments performed on cleaved surfaces of the bilayered colossal magnetoresistive manganite La2-2xSr1+2xMn2O7 (Konoto et al 2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 107201, Freeland et al 2005 Nat. Mater. 4 62, Mannella et al 2005 Nature 438 474, Roennow et al 2006 Nature 440 1025). For the detailed interpretation of these results, it is of importance to know exactly which layer within the crystal structure is exposed to the surface upon cleavage. Here we combine crystal structure arguments, scanning tunnelling microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements to demonstrate that the crystals cleave between the rare-earth rock-salt oxide layers, leaving one outermost rare-earth oxide layer before the first electronically active MnO bilayer
Fluctuations in lipid bilayers: Are they understood?
Schmid, Friederike
2013-01-01
We review recent computer simulation studies of undulating lipid bilayers. Theoretical interpretations of such fluctuating membranes are most commonly based on generalized Helfrich-type elastic models, with additional contributions of local "protrusions" and/or density fluctuations. Such models provide an excellent basis for describing the fluctuations of tensionless bilayers in the fluid phase at a quantitative level. However, this description is found to fail for membranes in the gel phase and for membranes subject to high tensions. The fluctuations of tilted gel membranes show a signature of the modulated ripple structure, which is a nearby phase observed in the pretransition regime between the fluid and tilted gel state. This complicates a quantitative analysis on mesoscopic length scales. In the case of fluid membranes under tension, the large-wavelength fluctuation modes are found to be significantly softer than predicted by theory. In the latter context, we also address the general problem of the relat...
Bilayer Graphene: An Electrically Tunable Semiconductor
Min, Hongki; Sahu, Bhagawan; Banerjee, Sanjay; MacDonald, Allan
2007-03-01
Using ab initio density functional theory calculations, we verify [1,2] that the energy band structure of bilayer graphene can be tuned by applying an external electric field. As the strength of the external electric field increases, the electronic spectrum of bilayer graphene changes from a that of a zero-gap semiconductor to that of a gapped semiconductor. From the ab initio calculations the external field dependence of the screened interlayer potential difference and tunneling amplitudes are extracted by fitting to a tight-binding model. We discuss the role of interlayer correlations in determining the size of the gap and the accuracy of local density approximation. [1] Edward McCann and Vladimir I. Fal'ko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 086805 (2006). [2] Taisuke Ohta, Aaron Bostwick,, Thomas Seyller, Karsten Horn, and Eli Rotenberg, Science 313, 951 (2006).
Vortex Physics in the Quantum Hall Bilayer
Fertig, H. A.; Murthy, Ganpathy
2013-06-01
There exists a strong analogy between the quantum Hall bilayer system at total filling factor ν = 1 and a thin film superfluid, in which the groundstate is described as a condensate of particle-hole pairs. The analogy draws support from experiments which display near dissipationless transport properties at low temperatures. However dissipation is always present at any accessible temperature, suggesting that in a proper description, unpaired vortex-like excitations must be present. The mechanism by which this happens remains poorly understood. A key difference between the quantum Hall bilayer and simpler thin-film superfluids is that the vortices, more properly called merons in the former context, are charged objects. We demonstrate that a model in which disorder induces merons in the groundstate, through coupling to this charge, can naturally explain many of the observed imperfect superfluid properties...
Rashba Spin-Orbit-Coupled Atomic Fermi Gases in a Two-Dimensional Optical Lattice
Koinov, Zlatko; Mendoza, Rafael
2015-11-01
The collective-mode excitation energy of a population-imbalanced spin-orbit-coupled atomic Fermi gas loaded in a two-dimensional optical lattice at zero temperature is calculated within the Gaussian approximation, and from the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the generalized random-phase approximation assuming the existence of a Sarma superfluid state. It is found that the Gaussian approximation overestimates the speed of sound of the Goldstone mode. More interestingly, the Gaussian approximation fails to reproduce the roton-like structure of the collective-mode dispersion which appears after the linear part of the dispersion in the Bethe-Salpeter approach. We investigate the speed of sound of a balanced spin-orbit-coupled atomic Fermi gas near the boundary of the topological phase transition driven by an out-of-plane Zeeman field. It is shown that the minimum of the speed of sound is located at the topological phase transition boundary, and this fact can be used to confirm the existence of a topological phase transition.
Negative differential resistance in bilayer graphene nanoribbons
Zahid, F.; Habib, KMM; Lake, RK
2011-01-01
Lack of a bandgap is one of the significant challenges for application of graphene as the active element of an electronic device. A bandgap can be induced in bilayer graphene by application of a potential difference between the two layers. The simplest geometry for creating such a potential difference is two overlayed graphene nanoribbons independently contacted. Calculations, based on density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism, show that transmission through ...
Interaction of small peptides with lipid bilayers.
Damodaran, K. V.; Merz, K M; Gaber, B P
1995-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulations of the tripeptide Ala-Phe-Ala-O-tert-butyl interacting with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers have been carried out. The lipid and aqueous environments of the peptide, the alkyl chain order, and the lipid and peptide dynamics have been investigated with use of density profiles, radial distribution functions, alkyl chain order parameter profiles, and time correlation functions. It appears that the alkyl chain region accommodates the peptides in the bi...
Edge states of zigzag bilayer graphite nanoribbons
Rhim, Jun-Won; Moon, Kyungsun
2008-01-01
Electronic structures of the zigzag bilayer graphite nanoribbons(Z-BGNR) with various ribbon width $N$ are studied within the tight binding approximation. Neglecting the inter-layer hopping amplitude $\\gamma_4$, which is an order of magnitude smaller than the other inter-layer hopping parameters $\\gamma_1$ and $\\gamma_3$, there exist two fixed Fermi points $\\pm k^*$ independent of the ribbon width with the peculiar energy dispersion near $k^*$ as $\\ve (k) \\sim \\pm (k-k^*)^N$. By investigating...
Hans A. Bethe Prize: Neutron Stars and Core-Collapse Supernovae
Lattimer, James
2015-04-01
Core-collapse supernovae lead to the formation of neutron stars, and both are sensitive to the dense matter equation of state. Hans Bethe first recognized that the matter in the collapsing core of a massive star has a relatively low entropy which prevents nuclear dissociation until nuclei merge near the nuclear saturation density. This recognition means that collapse continues until the core exceeds the saturation density. This prediction forms the foundation for modern simulations of supernovae. These supernovae sample matter up to about twice nuclear saturation density, but neutron stars are sensitive to the equation of state both near the saturation density and at several times higher densities. Two important recent developments are the discovery of two-solar mass neutron stars and refined experimental determinations of the behavior of the symmetry energy of nuclear matter near the saturation density. Combined with the assumption of causality, they imply that the radii of observed neutron stars are largely independent of their mass, and that this radius is in the range of 11 to 13 km. These theoretical results are not only consistent with expectations from theoretical studies of pure neutron matter, but also accumulated observations of both bursting and cooling neutron stars. In the near future, new pulsar timing data, which could lead to larger measured masses as well as measurements of moments of inertia, X-ray observations, such as from NICER, of bursting and other sources, and gravitational wave observations of neutron stars in merging compact binaries, will provide important new constraints on neutron stars and the dense matter equation of state. DOE DE-FG02-87ER-40317.
Simple polynomial approximation to modified Bethe formula low-energy electron stopping powers data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taborda, A., E-mail: ana.taborda@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-HOM/SDI/LEDI, BP-17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Desbrée, A. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-HOM/SDI/LEDI, BP-17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Reis, M.A. [C" 2TN, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, EN10 km139.7, 2685-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)
2015-08-01
A recently published detailed and exhaustive paper on cross-sections for ionisation induced by keV electrons clearly shows that electron phenomena occurring in parallel with X-ray processes may have been dramatically overlooked for many years, mainly when low atomic number species are involved since, in these cases, the fluorescence coefficient is smaller than the Auger yield. An immediate problem is encountered while attempting to tackle the issue. Accounting for electron phenomena requires the knowledge of the stopping power of electrons within, at least, a reasonably small error. Still, the Bethe formula for stopping powers is known to not be valid for electron energies below 30 keV, and its use leads to values far off experimental ones. Recently, a few authors have addressed this problem and both detailed tables of electron stopping powers for various atomic species and attempts to simplify the calculations, have emerged. Nevertheless, its implementation in software routines to efficiently calculate keV electron effects in materials quickly becomes a bit cumbersome. Following a procedure already used to establish efficient methods to calculate ionisation cross-sections by protons and alpha particles, it became clear that a simple polynomial approximation could be set, which allows retrieving the electronic stopping powers with errors of less than 20% for energies above 500 eV and less than 50% for energies between 50 eV and 500 eV. In this work, we present this approximation which, based on just six parameters, allows to recover electron stopping power values that are less than 20% different from recently published experimentally validated tabulated data.
A generalized Bethe-Weizsaecker mass formula for strange hadronic matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Bethe-Weizsaecker nuclear mass formula is extended to strange hadronic matter composed of nucleons, lambdas and cascade hyperons. The generalized formula contains several volume and symmetry terms constrained by phenomenologically determined λ-nuclear, ξ-nuclear and λλ interaction parameters and by hyperon-hyperon (λλ, λξ, ξξ) interaction parameters suggested by One-Boson-Exchange models. We find that hypernuclei are generally unstable to λλ → ξN conversion. For strange hadronic matter, as function of the baryon number A, the line of strong-interaction stability, along which a large strangeness fraction |S|/A ∼ 0.5 - 1.1 and a low charge fraction q/A approx-lt 0.2 hold, and no fission occurs, is determined. The binding energy per baryon increases monotonically to its bulk limit, B/A → 38 MeV, |S|/A → 1.1 and q/A → 0 for the parameters adopted here assuming that the hyperon species saturate at densities similar to those of protons and neutrons in nuclei. Even in the extreme limit of vanishingly small hyperon-hyperon interaction strengths, strange hadronic matter with B/A → 15 MeV, |S|/A → 0.7 and q/A → 0 in the bulk limit should exist; the mass formula reproduces semi-quantitatively recent mean-field calculations which implicitly assumed weak hyperon-hyperon interactions
Simple polynomial approximation to modified Bethe formula low-energy electron stopping powers data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A recently published detailed and exhaustive paper on cross-sections for ionisation induced by keV electrons clearly shows that electron phenomena occurring in parallel with X-ray processes may have been dramatically overlooked for many years, mainly when low atomic number species are involved since, in these cases, the fluorescence coefficient is smaller than the Auger yield. An immediate problem is encountered while attempting to tackle the issue. Accounting for electron phenomena requires the knowledge of the stopping power of electrons within, at least, a reasonably small error. Still, the Bethe formula for stopping powers is known to not be valid for electron energies below 30 keV, and its use leads to values far off experimental ones. Recently, a few authors have addressed this problem and both detailed tables of electron stopping powers for various atomic species and attempts to simplify the calculations, have emerged. Nevertheless, its implementation in software routines to efficiently calculate keV electron effects in materials quickly becomes a bit cumbersome. Following a procedure already used to establish efficient methods to calculate ionisation cross-sections by protons and alpha particles, it became clear that a simple polynomial approximation could be set, which allows retrieving the electronic stopping powers with errors of less than 20% for energies above 500 eV and less than 50% for energies between 50 eV and 500 eV. In this work, we present this approximation which, based on just six parameters, allows to recover electron stopping power values that are less than 20% different from recently published experimentally validated tabulated data
Sub-diffraction imaging with compensating bilayers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We derive a general expression for the material properties of a compensating bilayer, which is a pair of material layers which transfer the field distribution from one side of the bilayer to the other with resolution limited only by the deviation of the material properties from specified values. One of the layers can be free space, a special case of which is the perfect lens, but the layers need not have equal thickness. Compensating a thick layer of free space with a thin layer creates a focusing device with increased working distance, and employs an anisotropic material. It is also possible to achieve compensation of materials with property tensors that are neither positive nor negative definite. In this case, we refer to such media as indefinite, and we analyse, in detail, bilayers of these media which support coupling of internal propagating waves to incident waves of any transverse wave vector. In this case, we find that the enhanced spatial resolution provided by large transverse wave vectors is far less sensitive to loss than that of the perfect lens
Lipid bilayer vesicle generation using microfluidic jetting.
Coyne, Christopher W; Patel, Karan; Heureaux, Johanna; Stachowiak, Jeanne; Fletcher, Daniel A; Liu, Allen P
2014-01-01
Bottom-up synthetic biology presents a novel approach for investigating and reconstituting biochemical systems and, potentially, minimal organisms. This emerging field engages engineers, chemists, biologists, and physicists to design and assemble basic biological components into complex, functioning systems from the bottom up. Such bottom-up systems could lead to the development of artificial cells for fundamental biological inquiries and innovative therapies(1,2). Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) can serve as a model platform for synthetic biology due to their cell-like membrane structure and size. Microfluidic jetting, or microjetting, is a technique that allows for the generation of GUVs with controlled size, membrane composition, transmembrane protein incorporation, and encapsulation(3). The basic principle of this method is the use of multiple, high-frequency fluid pulses generated by a piezo-actuated inkjet device to deform a suspended lipid bilayer into a GUV. The process is akin to blowing soap bubbles from a soap film. By varying the composition of the jetted solution, the composition of the encompassing solution, and/or the components included in the bilayer, researchers can apply this technique to create customized vesicles. This paper describes the procedure to generate simple vesicles from a droplet interface bilayer by microjetting. PMID:24637415
Self-folding graphene-polymer bilayers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deng, Tao [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Yoon, ChangKyu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Jin, Qianru [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Li, Mingen [Department of Physics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Liu, Zewen [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gracias, David H., E-mail: dgracias@jhu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)
2015-05-18
In order to incorporate the extraordinary intrinsic thermal, electrical, mechanical, and optical properties of graphene with three dimensional (3D) flexible substrates, we introduce a solvent-driven self-folding approach using graphene-polymer bilayers. A polymer (SU-8) film was spin coated atop chemically vapor deposited graphene films on wafer substrates and graphene-polymer bilayers were patterned with or without metal electrodes using photolithography, thin film deposition, and etching. After patterning, the bilayers were released from the substrates and they self-folded to form fully integrated, curved, and folded structures. In contrast to planar graphene sensors on rigid substrates, we assembled curved and folded sensors that are flexible and they feature smaller form factors due to their 3D geometry and large surface areas due to their multiple rolled architectures. We believe that this approach could be used to assemble a range of high performance 3D electronic and optical devices of relevance to sensing, diagnostics, wearables, and energy harvesting.
Self-folding graphene-polymer bilayers
Deng, Tao; Yoon, ChangKyu; Jin, Qianru; Li, Mingen; Liu, Zewen; Gracias, David H.
2015-05-01
In order to incorporate the extraordinary intrinsic thermal, electrical, mechanical, and optical properties of graphene with three dimensional (3D) flexible substrates, we introduce a solvent-driven self-folding approach using graphene-polymer bilayers. A polymer (SU-8) film was spin coated atop chemically vapor deposited graphene films on wafer substrates and graphene-polymer bilayers were patterned with or without metal electrodes using photolithography, thin film deposition, and etching. After patterning, the bilayers were released from the substrates and they self-folded to form fully integrated, curved, and folded structures. In contrast to planar graphene sensors on rigid substrates, we assembled curved and folded sensors that are flexible and they feature smaller form factors due to their 3D geometry and large surface areas due to their multiple rolled architectures. We believe that this approach could be used to assemble a range of high performance 3D electronic and optical devices of relevance to sensing, diagnostics, wearables, and energy harvesting.
Electronic structure theory of weakly interacting bilayers
Fang, Shiang; Kaxiras, Efthimios
2016-06-01
We derive electronic structure models for weakly interacting bilayers such as graphene-graphene and graphene-hexagonal boron nitride, based on density functional theory calculations followed by Wannier transformation of electronic states. These transferable interlayer coupling models can be applied to investigate the physics of bilayers with arbitrary translations and twists. The functional form, in addition to the dependence on the distance, includes the angular dependence that results from higher angular momentum components in the Wannier pz orbitals. We demonstrate the capabilities of the method by applying it to a rotated graphene bilayer, which produces the analytically predicted renormalization of the Fermi velocity, Van Hove singularities in the density of states, and moiré pattern of the electronic localization at small twist angles. We further extend the theory to obtain the effective couplings by integrating out neighboring layers. This approach is instrumental for the design of van der Walls heterostructures with desirable electronic features and transport properties and for the derivation of low-energy theories for graphene stacks, including proximity effects from other layers.
Stability analysis of the pulmonary liquid bilayer.
Halpern, David; Grotberg, James
2010-11-01
The lung consists of liquid-lined compliant airways that convey air to and from the alveoli where gas exchange takes place. Because the airways are coated with a bilayer consisting of a mucus layer on top of a periciliary fluid layer, a surface tension instability can generate flows within the bilayer and induce the formation of liquid plugs that block the passage of air. This is a problem for example with premature neonates whose lungs do not produce sufficient quantities of surfactant and suffer from respiratory distress syndrome. To study this instability a system of coupled nonlinear evolution equations are derived using lubrication theory for the thicknesses of the two liquid layers which are assumed to be Newtonian. A normal mode analysis is used to investigate the initial growth of the disturbances, and reveals how the grow rate is affected by the ratio of viscosities λ, film thicknesses η and surface tensions δ of the two layers which can change by disease. Numerical solutions of the evolution equations show that there is a critical bilayer thickness ɛc above which closure occurs, and that a more viscous and thicker layer compared to the periciliary layer closes more slowly. However, ɛcis weakly dependent on λ, η and δ. We also examine the potential impact of wall shear stress and normal stress on cell damage. This work is funded by NIH HL85156.
Molecular dynamics modelling of EGCG clusters on ceramide bilayers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yeo, Jingjie; Cheng, Yuan; Li, Weifeng; Zhang, Yong-Wei [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, 138632 (Singapore)
2015-12-31
A novel method of atomistic modelling and characterization of both pure ceramide and mixed lipid bilayers is being developed, using only the General Amber ForceField. Lipid bilayers modelled as pure ceramides adopt hexagonal packing after equilibration, and the area per lipid and bilayer thickness are consistent with previously reported theoretical results. Mixed lipid bilayers are modelled as a combination of ceramides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids. This model is shown to be stable after equilibration. Green tea extract, also known as epigallocatechin-3-gallate, is introduced as a spherical cluster on the surface of the mixed lipid bilayer. It is demonstrated that the cluster is able to bind to the bilayers as a cluster without diffusing into the surrounding water.
Method of fabricating lipid bilayer membranes on solid supports
Cho, Nam-Joon (Inventor); Frank, Curtis W. (Inventor); Glenn, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Cheong, Kwang Ho (Inventor)
2012-01-01
The present invention provides a method of producing a planar lipid bilayer on a solid support. With this method, a solution of lipid vesicles is first deposited on the solid support. Next, the lipid vesicles are destabilized by adding an amphipathic peptide solution to the lipid vesicle solution. This destabilization leads to production of a planar lipid bilayer on the solid support. The present invention also provides a supported planar lipid bilayer, where the planar lipid bilayer is made of naturally occurring lipids and the solid support is made of unmodified gold or titanium oxide. Preferably, the supported planar lipid bilayer is continuous. The planar lipid bilayer may be made of any naturally occurring lipid or mixture of lipids, including, but not limited to phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinsitol, cardiolipin, cholesterol, and sphingomyelin.
Automatable lipid bilayer formation for ion channel studies
Poulos, Jason L.; Bang, Hyunwoo; Jeon, Tae-Joon; Schmidt, Jacob J.
2008-08-01
Transmembrane proteins and ion channels are important drug targets and have been explored as single molecule sensors. For these proteins to function normally they must be integrated within lipid bilayers; however, the labor and skill required to create artificial lipid bilayers have the limited the possible applications utilizing these proteins. In order to reduce the complexity and cost of lipid bilayer formation and measurement, we have modified a previously published lipid bilayer formation technique using mechanically contacted monolayers so that the process is automatable, requiring minimal operator input. Measurement electronics are integrated with the fluid handling system, greatly reducing the time and operator feedback characteristically required of traditional bilayer experiments. To demonstrate the biological functionality of the resultant bilayers and the system's capabilities as a membrane platform, the ion channel gramicidin A was incorporated and measured with this system.
Bilayer splitting and c-axis coupling in bilayer manganites showing colossal magnetoresistance.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jozwiak, C.; Graf, J.; Zhou, S. Y.; Bostwick, A.; Rotenberg, E.; Zheng, H.; Mitchell, J. F.; Lanzara, A.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of California at Berkeley; LBNL
2009-12-07
By performing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of the bilayer colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) manganite, La{sub 2-2x}Sr{sub 1+2x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7}, we provide the complete mapping of the Fermi-level spectral weight topology. Clear and unambiguous bilayer splitting of the in-plane 3d{sub x{sup 2}-y{sup 2}} band, mapped throughout the Brillouin zone, and the full mapping of the 3d{sub 3z{sup 2}-r{sup 2}} band are reported. Peculiar doping and temperature dependencies of these bands imply that as transition from the ferromagnetic metallic phase approaches, either as a function of doping or temperature, coherence along the c-axis between planes within the bilayer is lost, resulting in reduced interplane coupling. These results suggest that interplane coupling plays a large role in the CMR transition.
Bilayer splitting and c-axis coupling in CMR bilayer manganites
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jozwiak, Chris; Graf, Jeff; Zhou, Shuyun; Bostwick, Aaron; Rotenberg, Eli; Zheng, Hong; Mitchell, John; Lanzara, Alessandra
2009-09-03
By performing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of the bilayer colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) manganite, La2-2xSr1+2xMn2O7, we provide the complete mapping of the Fermi-level spectral weight topology. Clear and unambiguous bilayer splitting of the in-plane 3dx2-y2 band, mapped throughout the Brillouin zone, and the full mapping of the 3d3z2-r2 band are reported. Peculiar doping and temperature dependencies of these bands imply that as transition from the ferromagnetic metallic phase approaches, either as a function of doping or temperature, coherence along the c-axis between planes within the bilayer is lost, resulting in reduced interplane coupling. These results suggest that interplane coupling plays a large role in the CMR transition.
Spin qubits in antidot lattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Flindt, Christian; Mortensen, Niels Asger;
2008-01-01
and density of states for a periodic potential modulation, referred to as an antidot lattice, and find that localized states appear, when designed defects are introduced in the lattice. Such defect states may form the building blocks for quantum computing in a large antidot lattice, allowing for coherent...
Basis reduction for layered lattices
Torreão Dassen, Erwin
2011-01-01
We develop the theory of layered Euclidean spaces and layered lattices. We present algorithms to compute both Gram-Schmidt and reduced bases in this generalized setting. A layered lattice can be seen as lattices where certain directions have infinite weight. It can also be interpre
Ionic motion in PEDOT and PPy conducting polymer bilayers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zainudeen, Umer L.; Careem, M.A.; Skaarup, Steen
2006-01-01
Conducting polymer bilayers with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and polypyrrole (PPy), each containing dodecyl benzenesulfonate (DBS) as immobile dopant species, were synthesized galvanostatically. The electrochemical behaviour of the bilayers was investigated using cyclic voltammetry......, optical absorption spectroscopy and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) techniques. Two important conclusions of relevance for actuator performance were reached: It is possible to make a bilayer film that does not delaminate – the two polymers are compatible; and both polymers are active in...
Synthesis and sensing application of large scale bilayer graphene
Hong, Sung Ju; Yoo, Jung Hoon; Baek, Seung Jae; Park, Yung Woo
2012-02-01
We have synthesized large scale bilayer graphene by using Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) in atmospheric pressure. Bilayer graphene was grown by using CH4, H2 and Ar gases. The growth temperature was 1050^o. Conventional FET measurement shows ambipolar transfer characteristics. Results of Raman spectroscopy, Atomic Force microscope (AFM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) indicate the film is bilayer graphene. Especially, adlayer structure which interrupt uniformity was reduced in low methane flow condition. Furthermore, large size CVD bilayer graphene film can be investigated to apply sensor devices. By using conventional photolithography process, we have fabricated device array structure and studied sensing behavior.
Intercalation of small hydrophobic molecules in lipid bilayers containing cholesterol
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Worcester, D.L.; Hamacher, K.; Kaiser, H.; Kulasekere, R.; Torbet, J. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)
1994-12-31
Partitioning of small hydrophobic molecules into lipid bilayers containing cholesterol has been studied using the 2XC diffractometer at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. Locations of the compounds were determined by Fourier difference methods with data from both deuterated and undeuterated compounds introduced into the bilayers from the vapor phase. Data fitting procedures were developed for determining how well the compounds were localized. The compounds were found to be localized in a narrow region at the center of the hydrophobic layer, between the two halves of the bilayer. The structures are therefore intercalated structures with the long axis of the molecules in the plane of the bilayer.
Lattices of dielectric resonators
Trubin, Alexander
2016-01-01
This book provides the analytical theory of complex systems composed of a large number of high-Q dielectric resonators. Spherical and cylindrical dielectric resonators with inferior and also whispering gallery oscillations allocated in various lattices are considered. A new approach to S-matrix parameter calculations based on perturbation theory of Maxwell equations, developed for a number of high-Q dielectric bodies, is introduced. All physical relationships are obtained in analytical form and are suitable for further computations. Essential attention is given to a new unified formalism of the description of scattering processes. The general scattering task for coupled eigen oscillations of the whole system of dielectric resonators is described. The equations for the expansion coefficients are explained in an applicable way. The temporal Green functions for the dielectric resonator are presented. The scattering process of short pulses in dielectric filter structures, dielectric antennas and lattices of d...
Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics
Sachrajda, C. T.
2016-10-01
I review the the application of the lattice formulation of QCD and large-scale numerical simulations to the evaluation of non-perturbative hadronic effects in Standard Model Phenomenology. I present an introduction to the elements of the calculations and discuss the limitations both in the range of quantities which can be studied and in the precision of the results. I focus particularly on the extraction of the QCD parameters, i.e. the quark masses and the strong coupling constant, and on important quantities in flavour physics. Lattice QCD is playing a central role in quantifying the hadronic effects necessary for the development of precision flavour physics and its use in exploring the limits of the Standard Model and in searches for inconsistencies which would signal the presence of new physics.
Jipsen, Peter
1992-01-01
The study of lattice varieties is a field that has experienced rapid growth in the last 30 years, but many of the interesting and deep results discovered in that period have so far only appeared in research papers. The aim of this monograph is to present the main results about modular and nonmodular varieties, equational bases and the amalgamation property in a uniform way. The first chapter covers preliminaries that make the material accessible to anyone who has had an introductory course in universal algebra. Each subsequent chapter begins with a short historical introduction which sites the original references and then presents the results with complete proofs (in nearly all cases). Numerous diagrams illustrate the beauty of lattice theory and aid in the visualization of many proofs. An extensive index and bibliography also make the monograph a useful reference work.
Borsanyi, Sz; Kampert, K H; Katz, S D; Kawanai, T; Kovacs, T G; Mages, S W; Pasztor, A; Pittler, F; Redondo, J; Ringwald, A; Szabo, K K
2016-01-01
We present a full result for the equation of state (EoS) in 2+1+1 (up/down, strange and charm quarks are present) flavour lattice QCD. We extend this analysis and give the equation of state in 2+1+1+1 flavour QCD. In order to describe the evolution of the universe from temperatures several hundreds of GeV to several tens of MeV we also include the known effects of the electroweak theory and give the effective degree of freedoms. As another application of lattice QCD we calculate the topological susceptibility (chi) up to the few GeV temperature region. These two results, EoS and chi, can be used to predict the dark matter axion's mass in the post-inflation scenario and/or give the relationship between the axion's mass and the universal axionic angle, which acts as a initial condition of our universe.
Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics
Sachrajda, C T
2016-01-01
I review the the application of the lattice formulation of QCD and large-scale numerical simulations to the evaluation of non-perturbative hadronic effects in Standard Model Phenomenology. I present an introduction to the elements of the calculations and discuss the limitations both in the range of quantities which can be studied and in the precision of the results. I focus particularly on the extraction of the QCD parameters, i.e. the quark masses and the strong coupling constant, and on important quantities in flavour physics. Lattice QCD is playing a central role in quantifying the hadronic effects necessary for the development of precision flavour physics and its use in exploring the limits of the Standard Model and in searches for inconsistencies which would signal the presence of new physics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gupta, R.
1998-12-31
The goal of the lectures on lattice QCD (LQCD) is to provide an overview of both the technical issues and the progress made so far in obtaining phenomenologically useful numbers. The lectures consist of three parts. The author`s charter is to provide an introduction to LQCD and outline the scope of LQCD calculations. In the second set of lectures, Guido Martinelli will discuss the progress they have made so far in obtaining results, and their impact on Standard Model phenomenology. Finally, Martin Luescher will discuss the topical subjects of chiral symmetry, improved formulation of lattice QCD, and the impact these improvements will have on the quality of results expected from the next generation of simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A set of eight test lattices for the SSC have been devised for such purposes as the investigation of the dependences of chromatic properties and dynamic aperture on the type, field, physical aperture and errors of the magnets, on the sextupole correction scheme, on the tunes and on the cell phase advances. They are distinguished from realistic lattices in that certain features of the latter are missing - most notably the crossing magnets that bring the two counter-rotating proton beams into collision at the interaction points, and the utility insertions, which are the sites for the injection, beam abort, and radiofrequency systems. Furthermore the placement of magnets in the cells is simplified. 7 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The goal of the lectures on lattice QCD (LQCD) is to provide an overview of both the technical issues and the progress made so far in obtaining phenomenologically useful numbers. The lectures consist of three parts. The author's charter is to provide an introduction to LQCD and outline the scope of LQCD calculations. In the second set of lectures, Guido Martinelli will discuss the progress they have made so far in obtaining results, and their impact on Standard Model phenomenology. Finally, Martin Luescher will discuss the topical subjects of chiral symmetry, improved formulation of lattice QCD, and the impact these improvements will have on the quality of results expected from the next generation of simulations
Homomorphisms on Lattices of Measures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Norris Sookoo
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: Homomorphisms on lattices of measures defined on the quotient spaces of the integers were considered. These measures were defined in terms of Sharma-Kaushik partitions. The homomorphisms were studied in terms of their relationship with the underlying Sharma-Kaushik partitions. Approach: We defined certain mappings between lattices of Sharma-Kaushik partitions and showed that they are homomorphisms. These homomorphisms were mirrored in homorphisms between related lattices of measures. Results: We obtained the structure of certain homomorphisms of measures. Conclusion: Further information about homomorphisms between lattices of measures of the type considered here can be obtained by investigating the underlying lattices of Sharma-Kaushik partitions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The panel was attended by prominent physicists from most of the well-known laboratories in the field of light-water lattices, who exchanged the latest information on the status of work in their countries and discussed both the theoretical and the experimental aspects of the subjects. The supporting papers covered most problems, including criticality, resonance absorption, thermal utilization, spectrum calculations and the physics of plutonium bearing systems. Refs, figs and tabs
Aastrup, Johannes; Grimstrup, Jesper M.
2009-01-01
We present a separable version of Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG) based on an inductive system of cubic lattices. We construct semi-classical states for which the LQG operators -- the flux, the area and the volume operators -- have the right classical limits. Also, we present the Hamilton and diffeomorphism constraints as operator constraints and show that they have the right classical limit. Finally, we speculate whether the continuum limit, which these semi-classical states probe, can be defined...
Digital lattice gauge theories
Zohar, Erez(Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D-85748, Garching, Germany); Farace, Alessandro; Reznik, Benni; Cirac, J Ignacio
2016-01-01
We propose a general scheme for a digital construction of lattice gauge theories with dynamical fermions. In this method, the four-body interactions arising in models with $2+1$ dimensions and higher, are obtained stroboscopically, through a sequence of two-body interactions with ancillary degrees of freedom. This yields stronger interactions than the ones obtained through pertubative methods, as typically done in previous proposals, and removes an important bottleneck in the road towards exp...
All-electron Bethe-Salpeter calculations for shallow-core x-ray absorption near-edge structures
Olovsson, W.; Tanaka, I.; Mizoguchi, T.; Puschnig, P.; Ambrosch-Draxl, C.
2009-01-01
X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra are calculated by fully solving the electron/core-hole Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) in an all-electron framework. We study transitions from shallow core states, including the Mg L2,3 edge in MgO, the Li K edge in the Li halides LiF, LiCl, LiBr, and LiI, as well as Li2O. We illustrate the advantage of the many-body approach over a core-hole supercell calculation. Both schemes lead to strongly bound excitons, but the nonlocal treatment of the electr...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Radozycki, Tomasz [Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, College of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)
2015-09-15
The Lorentz transformation properties of the equal-time bound-state Bethe-Salpeter amplitude in the two-dimensional massless quantum electrodynamics (the so-called Schwinger model) are considered. It is shown that while boosting a bound state (a 'meson') this amplitude is subject to approximate Lorentz contraction. The effect is exact for large separations of constituent particles ('quarks'), while for small distances the deviation is more significant. For this phenomenon to appear, the full function, i.e. with the inclusion of all instanton contributions, has to be considered. The amplitude in each separate topological sector does not exhibit such properties. (orig.)
Sinky, Hussein Mohammed
The latest advances in radiation oncology emphasizes the importance of the theory of energy loss of charged particles through matter. Since the development of the Bethe-Bloch stopping power for heavy charged incident particles in 1930, many corrections have been proposed to improve this equation's theoretical approximation. The region of applicability of this formula, with respect to the velocity and the charge of the incident particle as well as the characteristics of the target, is restricted by the validity of the approximation adopted. One of the major unsolved problems is the relativistic treatment of the inner-shell electrons for medium and heavy target elements. The stopping power theory treats atomic electrons non-relativistically for these targets which put serious limitation on the theory because the basic sum rules on which the theory relies are not amenable to vigorous relativistic generalization as pointed out by Fano. To solve this problem we assume completeness by employing the Dirac Hamiltonian, and then present a semi-relativistic approach to order v 2/c2 following the Foldy-Wouthuysen-Transformation (FWT) to exclude the contributions from the negative-energy states. To establish this goal we developed a very elegant, practical, and accurate step-by-step procedure using Baker-Hausdroff Lemma to do the FWT to any desired order for any functions of coordinate or momentum operator, or to any entire functions of both coordinate and momentum operators. We applied this procedure to general function of position where the result is then applied to find the TRK and Bethe sum rules by using semirelativistic Hamiltonian. This procedure can be used to find any desired sum rule by doing more computation relations of the transformed Hamiltonian of the system with the transformed function of position. For example, Sk sum rule will require k times commutation relations to be calculated. The resulting Bethe sum rule relativistic correction is then used to find the
Dielectric lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dielectric lattice gauge theory models are introduced. They involve variables PHI(b)epsilong that are attached to the links b = (x+esub(μ),x) of the lattice and take their values in the linear space g which consists of real linear combinations of matrices in the gauge group G. The polar decomposition PHI(b)=U(b)osub(μ)(x) specifies an ordinary lattice gauge field U(b) and a kind of dielectric field epsilonsub(ij)proportionalosub(i)osub(j)sup(*)deltasub(ij). A gauge invariant positive semidefinite kinetic term for the PHI-field is found, and it is shown how to incorporate Wilson fermions in a way which preserves Osterwalder Schrader positivity. Theories with G = SU(2) and without matter fields are studied in some detail. It is proved that confinement holds, in the sense that Wilson loop expectation values show an area law decay, if the Euclidean action has certain qualitative features which imply that PHI = 0 (i.e. dielectric field identical 0) is the unique maximum of the action. (orig.)
Adamatzky, Andrew
2015-01-01
The book gives a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art research and engineering in theory and application of Lattice Automata in design and control of autonomous Robots. Automata and robots share the same notional meaning. Automata (originated from the latinization of the Greek word “αυτόματον”) as self-operating autonomous machines invented from ancient years can be easily considered the first steps of robotic-like efforts. Automata are mathematical models of Robots and also they are integral parts of robotic control systems. A Lattice Automaton is a regular array or a collective of finite state machines, or automata. The Automata update their states by the same rules depending on states of their immediate neighbours. In the context of this book, Lattice Automata are used in developing modular reconfigurable robotic systems, path planning and map exploration for robots, as robot controllers, synchronisation of robot collectives, robot vision, parallel robotic actuators. All chapters are...
Crystallographic Lattice Boltzmann Method.
Namburi, Manjusha; Krithivasan, Siddharth; Ansumali, Santosh
2016-01-01
Current approaches to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) are computationally quite expensive for most realistic scientific and engineering applications of Fluid Dynamics such as automobiles or atmospheric flows. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), with its simplified kinetic descriptions, has emerged as an important tool for simulating hydrodynamics. In a heterogeneous computing environment, it is often preferred due to its flexibility and better parallel scaling. However, direct simulation of realistic applications, without the use of turbulence models, remains a distant dream even with highly efficient methods such as LBM. In LBM, a fictitious lattice with suitable isotropy in the velocity space is considered to recover Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics in macroscopic limit. The same lattice is mapped onto a cartesian grid for spatial discretization of the kinetic equation. In this paper, we present an inverted argument of the LBM, by making spatial discretization as the central theme. We argue that the optimal spatial discretization for LBM is a Body Centered Cubic (BCC) arrangement of grid points. We illustrate an order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency for LBM and thus a significant progress towards feasibility of DNS for realistic flows. PMID:27251098
Crystallographic Lattice Boltzmann Method
Namburi, Manjusha; Krithivasan, Siddharth; Ansumali, Santosh
2016-06-01
Current approaches to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) are computationally quite expensive for most realistic scientific and engineering applications of Fluid Dynamics such as automobiles or atmospheric flows. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), with its simplified kinetic descriptions, has emerged as an important tool for simulating hydrodynamics. In a heterogeneous computing environment, it is often preferred due to its flexibility and better parallel scaling. However, direct simulation of realistic applications, without the use of turbulence models, remains a distant dream even with highly efficient methods such as LBM. In LBM, a fictitious lattice with suitable isotropy in the velocity space is considered to recover Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics in macroscopic limit. The same lattice is mapped onto a cartesian grid for spatial discretization of the kinetic equation. In this paper, we present an inverted argument of the LBM, by making spatial discretization as the central theme. We argue that the optimal spatial discretization for LBM is a Body Centered Cubic (BCC) arrangement of grid points. We illustrate an order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency for LBM and thus a significant progress towards feasibility of DNS for realistic flows.
Spin-3/2 Ising model AFM/AFM two-layer lattice with crystal field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Erhan Albayrak; Ali Yigit
2009-01-01
The spin-3/2 Ising model is investigated for the case of antiferromagnetic (AFM/AFM) interactions on the two-layer Bethe lattice by using the exact recursion relations in the pairwise approach for given coordination numbers q = 3, 4 and 6 when the layers are under the influences of equal external magnetic and equal crystal fields. The ground state, (GS) phase diagrams are obtained on the different planes in detail and then the temperature-dependent phase diagrams of the system are calculated accordingly. It is observed that the system presents both second- and first-order phase transitions for all q, therefore, tricritical points. It is also found that the system exhibits double-critical end points and isolated points. The model aiso presents two Néel temperatures, T_N, and the existence of which leads to the reentrant behaviour.
Toward lattice fractional vector calculus
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2014-09-01
An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity.
A Mechanical Lattice Aid for Crystallography Teaching.
Amezcua-Lopez, J.; Cordero-Borboa, A. E.
1988-01-01
Introduces a 3-dimensional mechanical lattice with adjustable telescoping mechanisms. Discusses the crystalline state, the 14 Bravais lattices, operational principles of the mechanical lattice, construction methods, and demonstrations in classroom. Provides lattice diagrams, schemes of the lattice, and various pictures of the lattice. (YP)
Potential description of the charmonium from lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kawanai, Taichi [Jülich Supercomputing Center, Jülich D-52425 (Germany); Sasaki, Shoichi [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)
2016-01-22
We present spin-independent and spin-spin interquark potentials for charmonium states, that are calculated using a relativistic heavy quark action for charm quarks on the PACS-CS gauge configurations generated with the Iwasaki gauge action and 2+1 flavors of Wilson clover quark. The interquark potential with finite quark masses is defined through the equal-time Bethe-Salpeter amplitude. The light and strange quark masses are close to the physical point where the pion mass corresponds to M{sub π} ≈ 156(7) MeV, and charm quark mass is tuned to reproduce the experimental values of η{sub c} and J/ψ states. Our simulations are performed with a lattice cutoff of a{sup −1} ≈ 2.2 GeV and a spatial volume of (3 fm){sup 3}. We solve the nonrelativistic Schrödinger equation with resulting charmonium potentials as theoretical inputs. The resultant charmonium spectrum below the open charm threshold shows a fairly good agreement with experimental data of well-established charmonium states.
Amazon, Jonathan J; Feigenson, Gerald W
2014-02-01
When liquid phases coexist at equilibrium but are not driven to minimize domain interfacial contact energy, the resulting patterns of phase domains can have important implications for living cells. In this study we explore some of the interactions and conditions that produce the stable patterned phases that are observed in model lipid mixtures. By use of Monte Carlo simulations we find that background curvature is important for the formation of patterned (modulated) phases. The interactions that stabilize nanoscopic phase separation are still not well understood. We show that inclusion of an electrostatic dipole repulsion with decay lengths as short as two to four lipid diameters can break up domains at the nanometer scale and that the location of the miscibility critical point is sensitive to this interaction. The use of a coarse-grained simulation raises questions about comparing parameters in simulations performed at different length scales. Using renormalization group techniques we show how to reconcile this problem, treating line tension as a running coupling constant. PMID:25353504
Intramolecular and Lattice Melting in n-Alkane Monolayers: An Analog of Melting in Lipid Bilayers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Herwig, K.W.; Matthies, B.;
1999-01-01
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and neutron diffraction experiments have been performed on n-dotriacontane (n-C32D66) monolayers adsorbed on a graphite basal-plane surface. The diffraction experiments show little change in the crystalline monolayer structure up to a temperature of similar...... to 350 K above which a large thermal expansion and decrease in coherence length occurs. The MD simulations provide evidence that this behavior is due to a phase transition in the monolayer in which intramolecular and translational order are lost simultaneously. This melting transition is qualitatively...
From lattice Hamiltonians to tunable band structures by lithographic design
Tadjine, Athmane; Allan, Guy; Delerue, Christophe
2016-08-01
Recently, new materials exhibiting exotic band structures characterized by Dirac cones, nontrivial flat bands, and band crossing points have been proposed on the basis of effective two-dimensional lattice Hamiltonians. Here, we show using atomistic tight-binding calculations that these theoretical predictions could be experimentally realized in the conduction band of superlattices nanolithographed in III-V and II-VI semiconductor ultrathin films. The lithographed patterns consist of periodic lattices of etched cylindrical holes that form potential barriers for the electrons in the quantum well. In the case of honeycomb lattices, the conduction minibands of the resulting artificial graphene host several Dirac cones and nontrivial flat bands. Similar features, but organized in different ways, in energy or in k -space are found in kagome, distorted honeycomb, and Lieb superlattices. Dirac cones extending over tens of meV could be obtained in superlattices with reasonable sizes of the lithographic patterns, for instance in InAs/AlSb heterostructures. Bilayer artificial graphene could be also realized by lithography of a double quantum-well heterostructure. These new materials should be interesting for the experimental exploration of Dirac-based quantum systems, for both fundamental and applied physics.
Web-based description of the space radiation environment using the Bethe-Bloch model
Cazzola, Emanuele; Calders, Stijn; Lapenta, Giovanni
2016-01-01
Space weather is a rapidly growing area of research not only in scientific and engineering applications but also in physics education and in the interest of the public. We focus especially on space radiation and its impact on space exploration. The topic is highly interdisciplinary, bringing together fundamental concepts of nuclear physics with aspects of radiation protection and space science. We give a new approach to presenting the topic by developing a web-based application that combines some of the fundamental concepts from these two fields into a single tool that can be used in the context of advanced secondary or undergraduate university education. We present DREADCode, an outreach or teaching tool to rapidly assess the current conditions of the radiation field in space. DREADCode uses the available data feeds from a number of ongoing space missions (ACE, GOES-13, GOES-15) to produce a first order approximation of the radiation dose an astronaut would receive during a mission of exploration in deep space (i.e. far from the Earth’s shielding magnetic field and from the radiation belts). DREADCode is based on an easy-to-use GUI interface available online from the European Space Weather Portal (www.spaceweather.eu/dreadcode). The core of the radiation transport computation to produce the radiation dose from the observed fluence of radiation observed by the spacecraft fleet considered is based on a relatively simple approximation: the Bethe-Bloch equation. DREADCode also assumes a simplified geometry and material configuration for the shields used to compute the dose. The approach is approximate and sacrifices some important physics on the altar of rapid execution time, which allows a real-time operation scenario. There is no intention here to produce an operational tool for use in space science and engineering. Rather, we present an educational tool at undergraduate level that uses modern web-based and programming methods to learn some of the most important
Effect of monoglycerides and fatty acids on a ceramide bilayer.
Akinshina, Anna; Das, Chinmay; Noro, Massimo G
2016-07-14
Monoglycerides and unsaturated fatty acids, naturally present in trace amounts in the stratum corneum (top layer of skin) lipid matrix, are commonly used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and health care formulations. However, a detailed molecular understanding of how the oil additives get incorporated into the skin lipids from topical application and, once incorporated, how they affect the properties and integrity of the lipid matrix remains unexplored. Using ceramide 2 bilayers as skin lipid surrogates, we use a series of molecular dynamics simulations with six different natural oil ingredients at multiple concentrations to investigate the effect of the oils on the properties and stability of the bilayers. The six oils: monoolein, monostearin, monoelaidin, oleic acid, stearic acid and linoleic acid - all having the same length of the alkyl chain, C18, but a varying degree of saturation, allow us to systematically address the effect of unsaturation in the additives. Our results show that at low oil concentration (∼5%) the mixed bilayers containing any of the oils and ceramide 2 (CER2) become more rigid than pure CER2 bilayers due to more efficient lipid packing. Better packing also results in the formation of larger numbers of hydrogen bonds between the lipids, which occurs at the expense of the hydrogen bonds between lipids and water. The mixed bilayers with saturated or trans-unsaturated oils remain stable over the whole range of oil concentration. In contrast, the presence of the oils with at least one cis-double bond leads to bilayer instability and complete loss of bilayer structure at the oil content of about 50-65%. Two cis-double bonds in the lipid tail induce bilayer disruption at even lower concentration (∼30%). The mixed bilayers remain in the gel phase (without melting to a fluid phase) until the phase transition to a non-bilayer phase occurs. We also demonstrate that the stability of the bilayer strongly correlates with the order parameter of the lipid
Bilayer-thickness-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins.
Kahraman, Osman; Koch, Peter D; Klug, William S; Haselwandter, Christoph A
2016-04-01
Hydrophobic thickness mismatch between integral membrane proteins and the surrounding lipid bilayer can produce lipid bilayer thickness deformations. Experiment and theory have shown that protein-induced lipid bilayer thickness deformations can yield energetically favorable bilayer-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins, and large-scale organization of integral membrane proteins into protein clusters in cell membranes. Within the continuum elasticity theory of membranes, the energy cost of protein-induced bilayer thickness deformations can be captured by considering compression and expansion of the bilayer hydrophobic core, membrane tension, and bilayer bending, resulting in biharmonic equilibrium equations describing the shape of lipid bilayers for a given set of bilayer-protein boundary conditions. Here we develop a combined analytic and numerical methodology for the solution of the equilibrium elastic equations associated with protein-induced lipid bilayer deformations. Our methodology allows accurate prediction of thickness-mediated protein interactions for arbitrary protein symmetries at arbitrary protein separations and relative orientations. We provide exact analytic solutions for cylindrical integral membrane proteins with constant and varying hydrophobic thickness, and develop perturbative analytic solutions for noncylindrical protein shapes. We complement these analytic solutions, and assess their accuracy, by developing both finite element and finite difference numerical solution schemes. We provide error estimates of our numerical solution schemes and systematically assess their convergence properties. Taken together, the work presented here puts into place an analytic and numerical framework which allows calculation of bilayer-mediated elastic interactions between integral membrane proteins for the complicated protein shapes suggested by structural biology and at the small protein separations most relevant for the crowded membrane
Bilayer-thickness-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins
Kahraman, Osman; Koch, Peter D.; Klug, William S.; Haselwandter, Christoph A.
2016-04-01
Hydrophobic thickness mismatch between integral membrane proteins and the surrounding lipid bilayer can produce lipid bilayer thickness deformations. Experiment and theory have shown that protein-induced lipid bilayer thickness deformations can yield energetically favorable bilayer-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins, and large-scale organization of integral membrane proteins into protein clusters in cell membranes. Within the continuum elasticity theory of membranes, the energy cost of protein-induced bilayer thickness deformations can be captured by considering compression and expansion of the bilayer hydrophobic core, membrane tension, and bilayer bending, resulting in biharmonic equilibrium equations describing the shape of lipid bilayers for a given set of bilayer-protein boundary conditions. Here we develop a combined analytic and numerical methodology for the solution of the equilibrium elastic equations associated with protein-induced lipid bilayer deformations. Our methodology allows accurate prediction of thickness-mediated protein interactions for arbitrary protein symmetries at arbitrary protein separations and relative orientations. We provide exact analytic solutions for cylindrical integral membrane proteins with constant and varying hydrophobic thickness, and develop perturbative analytic solutions for noncylindrical protein shapes. We complement these analytic solutions, and assess their accuracy, by developing both finite element and finite difference numerical solution schemes. We provide error estimates of our numerical solution schemes and systematically assess their convergence properties. Taken together, the work presented here puts into place an analytic and numerical framework which allows calculation of bilayer-mediated elastic interactions between integral membrane proteins for the complicated protein shapes suggested by structural biology and at the small protein separations most relevant for the crowded membrane
Rebolini, Elisa
2015-01-01
We present a range-separated linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) which combines a density-functional approximation for the short-range response kernel and a frequency-dependent second-order Bethe-Salpeter approximation for the long-range response kernel. This approach goes beyond the adiabatic approximation usually used in linear-response TDDFT and aims at improving the accuracy of calculations of electronic excitation energies of molecular systems. A detailed derivation of the frequency-dependent second-order Bethe-Salpeter correlation kernel is given using many-body Green-function theory. Preliminary tests of this range-separated TDDFT method are presented for the calculation of excitation energies of four small molecules: N2, CO2, H2CO, and C2H4. The results suggest that the addition of the long-range second-order Bethe-Salpeter correlation kernel overall slightly improves the excitation energies.
The role of lattice parameter in water adsorption and wetting of a solid surface.
Massey, A; McBride, F; Darling, G R; Nakamura, M; Hodgson, A
2014-11-21
Ice formation is a complex cooperative process that is almost invariably catalysed by the presence of an interface on which ice crystals nucleate. As yet there is no clear picture of what factors make a surface particularly good at nucleating ice, but the importance of having a template with a suitable lattice parameter has often been proposed. Here we report the contrasting wetting behaviour of a series of pseudomorphic surfaces, designed to form an ordered template that matches the arrangement of water in a bulk ice Ih(0001) bilayer. The close-packed M(111) surfaces (M = Pt, Pd, Rh, Cu and Ni) form a (√3 × √3) R30° Sn substitutional alloy surface, with Sn atoms occupying sites that match the symmetry of an ice bilayer. The lattice constant of the alloy changes from 4% smaller to 7% greater than the lateral spacing of ice across the series. We show that only the PtSn surface, with a lattice parameter some 7% greater than that of a bulk ice layer, forms a stable water layer, all the other surfaces being non-wetting and instead forming multilayer ice clusters. This observation is consistent with the idea that the repeat spacing of the surface should ideally match the O-O spacing in ice, rather than the bulk ice lattice parameter, in order to form a continuous commensurate water monolayer. We discuss the role of the lattice parameter in stabilising the first layer of water and the factors that lead to formation of a simple commensurate structure rather than an incommensurate or large unit cell water network. We argue that lattice match is not a good criteria for a material to give low energy nucleation sites for bulk ice, and that considerations such as binding energy and mobility of the surface layer are more relevant. PMID:25286238
Rich Polymorphic Behavior of Wigner Bilayers
Antlanger, Moritz; Kahl, Gerhard; Mazars, Martial; Šamaj, Ladislav; Trizac, Emmanuel
2016-09-01
Self-assembly into target structures is an efficient material design strategy. Combining analytical calculations and computational techniques of evolutionary and Monte Carlo types, we report about a remarkable structural variability of Wigner bilayer ground states, when charges are confined between parallel charged plates. Changing the interlayer separation, or the plate charge asymmetry, a cascade of ordered patterns emerges. At variance with the symmetric case phenomenology, the competition between commensurability features and charge neutralization leads to long range attraction, appearance of macroscopic charges, exotic phases, and nonconventional phase transitions with distinct critical indices, offering the possibility of a subtle, but precise and convenient control over patterns.
DNA nanostructures interacting with lipid bilayer membranes.
Langecker, Martin; Arnaut, Vera; List, Jonathan; Simmel, Friedrich C
2014-06-17
CONSPECTUS: DNA has been previously shown to be useful as a material for the fabrication of static nanoscale objects, and also for the realization of dynamic molecular devices and machines. In many cases, nucleic acid assemblies directly mimic biological structures, for example, cytoskeletal filaments, enzyme scaffolds, or molecular motors, and many of the applications envisioned for such structures involve the study or imitation of biological processes, and even the interaction with living cells and organisms. An essential feature of biological systems is their elaborate structural organization and compartmentalization, and this most often involves membranous structures that are formed by dynamic assemblies of lipid molecules. Imitation of or interaction with biological systems using the tools of DNA nanotechnology thus ultimately and necessarily also involves interactions with lipid membrane structures, and thus the creation of DNA-lipid hybrid assemblies. Due to their differing chemical nature, however, highly charged nucleic acids and amphiphilic lipids do not seem the best match for the construction of such systems, and in fact they are rarely found in nature. In recent years, however, a large variety of lipid-interacting DNA conjugates were developed, which are now increasingly being applied also for the realization of DNA nanostructures interacting with lipid bilayer membranes. In this Account, we will present the current state of this emerging class of nanosystems. After a brief overview of the basic biophysical and biochemical properties of lipids and lipid bilayer membranes, we will discuss how DNA molecules can interact with lipid membranes through electrostatic interactions or via covalent modification with hydrophobic moieties. We will then show how such DNA-lipid interactions have been utilized for the realization of DNA nanostructures attached to or embedded within lipid bilayer membranes. Under certain conditions, DNA nanostructures remain mobile on
Twisted CFT and bilayer Quantum Hall systems
Cristofano, G; Naddeo, A
2003-01-01
We identify the impurity interactions of the recently proposed CFT description of a bilayer Quantum Hall system at filling nu =m/(pm+2) in Mod. Phys. Lett. A 15 (2000) 1679. Such a CFT is obtained by m-reduction on the one layer system, with a resulting pairing symmetry and presence of quasi-holes. For the m=2 case boundary terms are shown to describe an impurity interaction which allows for a localized tunnel of the Kondo problem type. The presence of an anomalous fixed point is evidenced at finite coupling which is unstable with respect to unbalance and flows to a vacuum state with no quasi-holes.
Bilayer avalanche spin-diode logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A novel spintronic computing paradigm is proposed and analyzed in which InSb p-n bilayer avalanche spin-diodes are cascaded to efficiently perform complex logic operations. This spin-diode logic family uses control wires to generate magnetic fields that modulate the resistance of the spin-diodes, and currents through these devices control the resistance of cascaded devices. Electromagnetic simulations are performed to demonstrate the cascading mechanism, and guidelines are provided for the development of this innovative computing technology. This cascading scheme permits compact logic circuits with switching speeds determined by electromagnetic wave propagation rather than electron motion, enabling high-performance spintronic computing
Giant magnetoresistance in bilayer graphene nanoflakes
Farghadan, Rouhollah; Farekiyan, Marzieh
2016-09-01
Coherent spin transport through bilayer graphene (BLG) nanoflakes sandwiched between two electrodes made of single-layer zigzag graphene nanoribbon was investigated by means of Landauer-Buttiker formalism. Application of a magnetic field only on BLG structure as a channel produces a perfect spin polarization in a large energy region. Moreover, the conductance could be strongly modulated by magnetization of the zigzag edge of AB-stacked BLG, and the junction, entirely made of carbon, produces a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) up to 100%. Intestinally, GMR and spin polarization could be tuned by varying BLG width and length. Generally, MR in a AB-stacked BLG strongly increases (decreases) with length (width).
Reversible Polarization Rotation in Epitaxial Ferroelectric Bilayers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Guangqing; Zhang, Qi; Huang, Hsin-Hui;
2016-01-01
Polarization rotation engineering is a promising path to giant dielectric and electromechanical responses in ferroelectric materials and devices. This work demonstrates robust and reversible in- to out-of-plane polarization rotation in ultrathin (nanoscale) epitaxial (001) tetragonal PbZr0.3Ti0.7O3...... large-scale polarization rotation switching (≈60 μC cm−2) and an effective d 33 response 500% (≈250 pm V−1) larger than the PZT-R layer alone. Furthermore, this enhancement is stable for more than 107 electrical switching cycles. These bilayers present a simple and highly controllable means to design...
Finite volume treatment of pi pi scattering and limits to phase shifts extraction from lattice QCD
Albaladejo, M; Oset, E; Rios, G; Roca, L
2012-01-01
We study theoretically the effects of finite volume for pipi scattering in order to extract physical observables for infinite volume from lattice QCD. We compare three different approaches for pipi scattering (lowest order Bethe-Salpeter approach, N/D and inverse amplitude methods) with the aim to study the effects of the finite size of the box in the potential of the different theories, specially the left-hand cut contribution through loops in the crossed t,u-channels. We quantify the error made by neglecting these effects in usual extractions of physical observables from lattice QCD spectra. We conclude that for pipi phase-shifts in the scalar-isoscalar channel up to 800 MeV this effect is negligible for box sizes bigger than 2.5m_pi^-1 and of the order of 5% at around 1.5-2m_pi^-1. For isospin 2 the finite size effects can reach up to 10% for that energy. We also quantify the error made when using the standard Luscher method to extract physical observables from lattice QCD, which is widely used in the lite...
Deformation of giant lipid bilayer vesicles in shear flow
Haas, de K.H.; Blom, C.; Ende, van den D.; Duits, M.H.G.; Mellema, J.
1997-01-01
We describe experimental studies of the deformation of giant lipid bilayer vesicles in shear flow. The experiments are carried out with a counterrotating Couette apparatus. The deformation depends on the mechanical properties of the lipid bilayer, the vesicle radius, and the viscosity of the surroun
Tetracycline diffusion through phospholipid bilayers and binding to phospholipids.
Argast, M; Beck, C.F.
1984-01-01
The ability of tetracycline to pass through phospholipid bilayers by diffusion was investigated. Liposomes did not retain enclosed tetracycline. Accumulation of tetracycline was observed with liposomes containing entrapped Tet repressor protein. These results indicate that the drug can pass through lipid bilayers. The antibiotic was also shown to bind to liposomes and isolated phospholipids.
Fluid lipid bilayers: Intermonolayer coupling and its thermodynamic manifestations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Per Lyngs; Miao, Ling; Ipsen, John Hjorth
1998-01-01
A fluid membrane of lipid bilayer consists of two individual molecular monolayers physically opposed to each other. This unique molecular architecture naturally necessitates the need to treat a lipid-bilayer membrane as one entity of two coupled two-dimensional systems (monolayers), each of which...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The program presented here is restricted to the electron-hydrogen problem; however it is trivial to modify for use with any target which can be represented as a single electron outside a closed shell further many of the subroutines can be equally well applied to the scattering of an electron from any neutral system. Given the channel analysis the Bethe Reactance matrix elements are calculated for the specified L-range LMIN.LE.L.LE.LMAX, unitarised cross sections produced and the Burgess sum rules applied to calculate the cross sections in the weak coupling Bethe approximation for L.GE.LMAX. (orig./HSI)
Band-edge Bilayer Plasmonic Nanostructure for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy
Mousavi, S Hamed Shams; Atabaki, Amir H; Adibi, Ali
2014-01-01
Spectroscopic analysis of large biomolecules is critical in a number of applications, including medical diagnostics and label-free biosensing. Recently, it has been shown that Raman spectroscopy of proteins can be used to diagnose some diseases, including a few types of cancer. These experiments have however been performed using traditional Raman spectroscopy and the development of the Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) assays suitable for large biomolecules could lead to a substantial decrease in the amount of specimen necessary for these experiments. We present a new method to achieve high local field enhancement in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy through the simultaneous adjustment of the lattice plasmons and localized surface plasmon polaritons, in a periodic bilayer nanoantenna array resulting in a high enhancement factor over the sensing area, with relatively high uniformity. The proposed plasmonic nanostructure is comprised of two interacting nanoantenna layers, providing a sharp band-edge ...
Solid-state NMR paramagnetic relaxation enhancement immersion depth studies in phospholipid bilayers
Chu, Shidong
2010-11-01
A new approach for determining the membrane immersion depth of a spin-labeled probe has been developed using paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) in solid-state NMR spectroscopy. A DOXYL spin label was placed at different sites of 1-palmitoyl-2-stearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PSPC) phospholipid bilayers as paramagnetic moieties and the resulting enhancements of the longitudinal relaxation (T1) times of 31P nuclei on the surface of the bilayers were measured by a standard inversion recovery pulse sequence. The 31P NMR spin-lattice relaxation times decrease steadily as the DOXYL spin label moves closer to the surface as well as the concentration of the spin-labeled lipids increase. The enhanced relaxation vs. the position and concentration of spin-labels indicate that PRE induced by the DOXYL spin label are significant to determine longer distances over the whole range of the membrane depths. When these data were combined with estimated correlation times τc, the r-6-weighted, time-averaged distances between the spin-labels and the 31P nuclei on the membrane surface were estimated. The application of using this solid-state NMR PRE approach coupled with site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) may be a powerful method for measuring membrane protein immersion depth. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling in bilayer Bose-Einstein condensates
Su, S.-W.; Gou, S.-C.; Sun, Q.; Wen, L.; Liu, W.-M.; Ji, A.-C.; Ruseckas, J.; JuzeliÅ«nas, G.
2016-05-01
We explore a way of producing the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) for ultracold atoms by using a two-component (spinor) atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) confined in a bilayer geometry. The SOC of the Rashba type is created if the atoms pick up a π phase after completing a cyclic transition between four combined spin-layer states composed of two spin and two layer states. The cyclic coupling of the spin-layer states is carried out by combining an intralayer Raman coupling and an interlayer laser assisted tunneling. We theoretically determine the ground-state phases of the spin-orbit-coupled BEC for various strengths of the atom-atom interaction and the laser-assisted coupling. It is shown that the bilayer scheme provides a diverse ground-state phase diagram. In an intermediate range of the atom-light coupling two interlacing lattices of half-skyrmions and half-antiskyrmions are spontaneously created. In the strong-coupling regime, where the SOC of the Rashba type is formed, the ground state represents plane-wave or standing-wave phases depending on the interaction between the atoms. A variational analysis is shown to be in good agreement with the numerical results.
Rashba-type Spin-orbit Coupling in Bilayer Bose-Einstein Condensates
Su, S -W; Sun, Q; Wen, L; Liu, W -M; Ji, A -C; Ruseckas, J; Juzeliunas, G
2016-01-01
We explore a new way of producing the Rasba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) for ultracold atoms by using a two-component (spinor) atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) confined in a bilayer geometry. The SOC of the Rashba type is created if the atoms pick up a {\\pi} phase after completing a cyclic transition between four combined spin-layer states composed of two spin and two layer states. The cyclic coupling of the spin-layer states is carried out by combining an intralayer Raman coupling and an interlayer laser assisted tunneling. We theoretically determine the ground-state phases of the spin-orbit-coupled BEC for various strengths of the atom-atom interaction and the laser-assisted coupling. It is shown that the bilayer scheme provides a diverse ground-state phase diagram. In an intermediate range of the atom-light coupling two interlacing lattices of half- skyrmions and half-antiskyrmions are spontaneously created. In the strong-coupling regime, where the SOC of the Rashba-type is formed, the ground state repre...
Lattice Vibrations in Chlorobenzenes:
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reynolds, P. A.; Kjems, Jørgen; White, J. W.
1974-01-01
Lattice vibrational dispersion curves for the ``intermolecular'' modes in the triclinic, one molecule per unit cell β phase of p‐C6D4Cl2 and p‐C6H4Cl2 have been obtained by inelastic neutron scattering. The deuterated sample was investigated at 295 and at 90°K and a linear extrapolation to 0°K...... by consideration of electrostatic forces or by further anisotropy in the dispersion forces not described in the atom‐atom model. Anharmonic effects are shown to be large, but the dominant features in the temperature variation of frequencies are describable by a quasiharmonic model....
Asymmetric heat transfer from nanoparticles in lipid bilayers
Potdar, Dipti; Sammalkorpi, Maria
2015-12-01
Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to characterize the heat transfer properties of lipid bilayer - gold nanoparticle systems in which the nanoparticle acts as a heat source. The focus is on dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers and thiolated alcohol and alkyl functionalized nanoparticles as prototype hydrophilic and hydrophobic nanoparticles. We find hydrophilic nanoparticles which are partly in contact with the surrounding water environment are more efficient in transferring heat to the system than hydrophobic ones which reside surrounded by the membrane. This is because of the hydrogen bonding capability of the hydroxy pentanethiol and the more efficient heat conductivity through water than the lipid bilayer. Additionally, we find the heat conductance is strongly asymmetric and has a discontinuity between the bilayer leaflets. In total, the findings provide understanding on heat transport from localized heat sources in lipid bilayers and could bear significance, e.g., in engineering and controlling photoactivated triggering of liposomal systems.
Modeling constrained sintering of bi-layered tubular structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Kothanda Ramachandran, Dhavanesan; Ni, De Wei;
2015-01-01
Constrained sintering of tubular bi-layered structures is being used in the development of various technologies. Densification mismatch between the layers making the tubular bi-layer can generate stresses, which may create processing defects. An analytical model is presented to describe...... the densification and stress developments during sintering of tubular bi-layered samples. The correspondence between linear elastic and linear viscous theories is used as a basis for derivation of the model. The developed model is first verified by finite element simulation for sintering of tubular bi-layer system....... Furthermore, the model is validated using densification results from sintering of bi-layered tubular ceramic oxygen membrane based on porous MgO and Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95-d layers. Model input parameters, such as the shrinkage kinetics and viscous parameters are obtained experimentally using optical dilatometry...
Regulation of sodium channel function by bilayer elasticity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lundbaek, Jens A; Birn, Pia; Hansen, Anker J;
2004-01-01
kinetics of the protein conformational changes therefore will be regulated by the bilayer elasticity, which is determined by the lipid composition. This hydrophobic coupling mechanism has been studied extensively in gramicidin channels, where the channel-bilayer hydrophobic interactions link a...... "conformational" change (the monomerdimer transition) to an elastic bilayer deformation. Gramicidin channels thus are regulated by the lipid bilayer elastic properties (thickness, monolayer equilibrium curvature, and compression and bending moduli). To investigate whether this hydrophobic coupling mechanism could...... be a general mechanism regulating membrane protein function, we examined whether voltage-dependent skeletal-muscle sodium channels, expressed in HEK293 cells, are regulated by bilayer elasticity, as monitored using gramicidin A (gA) channels. Nonphysiological amphiphiles (beta...
Theoretical study on stability of hybrid bilayers
Silva, Thiago S.; de Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio; Azevedo, Sèrgio
2015-04-01
Motivated by the recent experimental realization of the hybrid nanostructure of graphene and boron nitride (h-BN) sheet, and studies of gap modulation by strain, we use first principles calculations based on density functional theory to investigate the effects of strain in hybrid bilayers composed of two monolayers of graphene with a nanodomain of {{B}3}{{N}3}. The calculations were made with two different approximations for the functional exchange-correlation, GGA and VDW-DF. We investigate the modification in the electronic structure and structural properties of various configurations of the hybrid bilayers. Among the configurations, those with Bernal stacking are found to be more stable when compared to the others. Studies of the compressive strain influence were made only in the structure that has been shown to be the most stable. We have found that the two approximations used in the calculations exhibit the same results for the electronic properties of all structures. The opening of the energy gap due to strain was possible in the calculations by using the GGA approximation, but the same does not happen in the calculations using the VDW-DF approximation. Our analysis shows that the VDW-DF approximation is better suited for studies involving surfaces.
Edge states of zigzag bilayer graphite nanoribbons
Rhim, Jun-Won; Moon, Kyungsun
2008-09-01
The electronic structures of zigzag bilayer graphite nanoribbons (Z-BGNRs) with various ribbon widths N are studied within the tight binding approximation. Neglecting the inter-layer hopping amplitude γ4, which is an order of magnitude smaller than the other inter-layer hopping parameters, there exist two fixed Fermi points ± k* independent of the ribbon width with a peculiar energy dispersion near k* as ɛ(k)~ ± (k-k*)N. By investigating the edge states of Z-BGNRs, we notice that the trigonal warping of the bilayer graphene sheets is reflected in the edge state structure. With the inclusion of γ4, the above two Fermi points are not fixed but drift toward the vicinity of the Dirac point with increasing width N, as shown by the finite scaling method, and the peculiar dispersions change to parabolic ones. The edge magnetism of Z-BGNRs is also examined by solving the half-filled Hubbard Hamiltonian for the ribbon using the Hartree-Fock approximation. We have shown that within the same side of the edges, the edge spins are aligned ferromagnetically for the experimentally relevant set of parameters.
Edge states of zigzag bilayer graphite nanoribbons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rhim, Jun-Won; Moon, Kyungsun [Department of Physics and Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kmoon@yonsei.ac.kr
2008-09-10
The electronic structures of zigzag bilayer graphite nanoribbons (Z-BGNRs) with various ribbon widths N are studied within the tight binding approximation. Neglecting the inter-layer hopping amplitude {gamma}{sub 4}, which is an order of magnitude smaller than the other inter-layer hopping parameters, there exist two fixed Fermi points {+-} k{sup *} independent of the ribbon width with a peculiar energy dispersion near k{sup *} as {epsilon}(k){approx} {+-} (k-k{sup *}){sup N}. By investigating the edge states of Z-BGNRs, we notice that the trigonal warping of the bilayer graphene sheets is reflected in the edge state structure. With the inclusion of {gamma}{sub 4}, the above two Fermi points are not fixed but drift toward the vicinity of the Dirac point with increasing width N, as shown by the finite scaling method, and the peculiar dispersions change to parabolic ones. The edge magnetism of Z-BGNRs is also examined by solving the half-filled Hubbard Hamiltonian for the ribbon using the Hartree-Fock approximation. We have shown that within the same side of the edges, the edge spins are aligned ferromagnetically for the experimentally relevant set of parameters.
Controlling the Electronic Structure of Bilayer Graphene
Ohta, Taisuke; Bostwick, Aaron; McChesney, Jessica; Seyller, Thomas; Horn, Karsten; Rotenberg, Eli
2007-03-01
Carbon-based materials such as carbon nanotubes, graphite intercalation compounds, fullerenes, and ultrathin graphite films exhibit many exotic phenomena such as superconductivity and an anomalous quantum Hall effect. These findings have caused renewed interest in the electronic structure of ultrathin layers of graphene: a single honeycomb carbon layer that is the building block for these materials. There is a strong motivation to incorporate graphene multilayers into atomic-scale devices, spurred on by rapid progress in their fabrication and manipulation. We have synthesized bilayer graphene thin films deposited on insulating silicon carbide and characterized their electronic band structure using angle-resolved photoemission. By selectively adjusting the carrier concentration in each layer, changes in the Coulomb potential led to control of the gap between valence and conduction bands [1]. This control over the band structure suggests the potential application of bilayer graphene to switching functions in atomic scale electronic devices. [1] T. Ohta, A. Bostwick, T. Seyller, K. Horn, E. Rotenberg, Science, 313, 951 (2006).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rasmussen, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Santa Fe Institute, NM (United States); Smith, J.R. [Santa Fe Institute, NM (United States)]|[Massachusetts Media Lab., Cambridge, MA (United States). Physics and Media Group
1995-05-01
We present a new style of molecular dynamics and self-assembly simulation, the Lattice Polymer Automaton (LPA). In the LPA all interactions, including electromagnetic forces, are decomposed and communicated via propagating particles, {open_quotes}photons.{close_quotes} The monomer-monomer bondforces, the molecular excluded volume forces, the longer range intermolecular forces, and the polymer-solvent interactions may all be modeled with propagating particles. The LPA approach differs significantly from both of the standard approaches, Monte Carlo lattice methods and Molecular Dynamics simulations. On the one hand, the LPA provides more realism than Monte Carlo methods, because it produces a time series of configurations of a single molecule, rather than a set of causally unrelated samples from a distribution of configurations. The LPA can therefore be used directly to study dynamical properties; one can in fact watch polymers move in real time. On the other hand, the LPA is fully discrete, and therefore much simpler than traditional Molecular Dynamics models, which are continuous and operate on much shorter time scales. Due to this simplicity it is possible to simulate longer real time periods, which should enable the study of molecular self-organization on workstations supercomputers are not needed.
Syer, D; Syer, D; Tremaine, S
1995-01-01
We describe a technique for solving the combined collisionless Boltzmann and Poisson equations in a discretised, or lattice, phase space. The time and the positions and velocities of `particles' take on integer values, and the forces are rounded to the nearest integer. The equations of motion are symplectic. In the limit of high resolution, the lattice equations become the usual integro-differential equations of stellar dynamics. The technique complements other tools for solving those equations approximately, such as N-body simulation, or techniques based on phase-space grids. Equilibria are found in a variety of shapes and sizes. They are true equilibria in the sense that they do not evolve with time, even slowly, unlike existing N-body approximations to stellar systems, which are subject to two-body relaxation. They can also be `tailor-made' in the sense that the mass distribution is constrained to be close to some pre-specified function. Their principal limitation is the amount of memory required to store ...
Convection-diffusion lattice Boltzmann scheme for irregular lattices
Sman, van der R.G.M.; Ernst, M.H.
2000-01-01
In this paper, a lattice Boltzmann (LB) scheme for convection diffusion on irregular lattices is presented, which is free of any interpolation or coarse graining step. The scheme is derived using the axioma that the velocity moments of the equilibrium distribution equal those of the Maxwell-Boltzman
Lattice Boltzmann Model for Compressible Fluid on a Square Lattice
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Cheng-Hai
2000-01-01
A two-level four-direction lattice Boltzmann model is formulated on a square lattice to simulate compressible flows with a high Mach number. The particle velocities are adaptive to the mean velocity and internal energy. Therefore, the mean flow can have a high Mach number. Due to the simple form of the equilibrium distribution, the 4th order velocity tensors are not involved in the calculations. Unlike the standard lattice Boltzmann model, o special treatment is need for the homogeneity of 4th order velocity tensors on square lattices. The Navier-Stokes equations were derived by the Chapman-Enskog method from the BGK Boltzmann equation. The model can be easily extended to three-dimensional cubic lattices. Two-dimensional shock-wave propagation was simulated
Entangling gates in even Euclidean lattices such as Leech lattice
Planat, Michel
2010-01-01
We point out a organic relationship between real entangling n-qubit gates of quantum computation and the group of automorphisms of even Euclidean lattices of the corresponding dimension 2n. The type of entanglement that is found in the gates/generators of Aut() depends on the lattice. In particular, we investigate Zn lattices, Barnes-Wall lattices D4, E8, 16 (associated to n = 2, 3 and 4 qubits), and the Leech lattices h24 and 24 (associated to a 3-qubit/qutrit system). Balanced tripartite entanglement is found to be a basic feature of Aut(), a nding that bears out our recent work related to the Weyl group of E8 [1, 2].
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Lattice-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) contrast, derived from coherent or incoherent scattering mechanisms, is finding application over a diverse range of problems on the atomic scale, particularly with the availability of coherent FEGs. Fundamental for the understanding of such contrast is the propagation within a crystal of a focused coherent probe formed by a collapsing spherical wave. Current Bloch wave descriptions construct the total wave function from a coherent superposition of Bloch states excited from a series of incident plane waves that span the full range of transverse momentum components in the focused probe. However this implementation of boundary conditions using phase-linked plane waves may be misleading in that the possibility of exciting antisymmetric states which provides the cross-talk between adjacent columns of atoms - appears at first sight to be excluded. We match the total probe wave function to a crystal wave function which incorporates all transverse momenta in the incident probe. This revised implementation of boundary conditions leads to a simple formula for excitation amplitude which enables the probe position dependent excitation of both symmetric and antisymmetric Bloch states to be predicted. Shortcomings of previous models for incoherent contrast are that interference between waves associated with mixed dynamic form factors for incoherent contrast is not addressed, and that an intensity contribution from dechannelled electrons is not taken into account. This simple revision of boundary conditions leads to a rigorous formulation for (i) coherent and (n) incoherent lattice resolution STEM contrast. The former (i) does not require principles of reciprocity to be invoked, and the latter (n) follows from a simple generalization of the theory of channelling contrast for ADF, BSE and ALCHEMI for an incident plane wave. Phase associated with products of transition amplitudes that occur in mixed
Design of Mott and topological phases on buckled 3d-oxide honeycomb lattices
Pentcheva, Rossitza
The honeycomb lattice, as realized e.g. in graphene, has rendered a robust platform for innovative science and potential applications. A much richer generalization of this lattice arises in (111)-oriented bilayers of perovskites, adding the complexity of the strongly correlated, multiorbital nature of electrons in transition metal oxides. Based on first principles calculations with an on-site Coulomb repulsion, here we provide trends in the evolution of ground states versus band filling in (111)-oriented (La XO3)2 /(LaAlO3)4 superlattices, with X spanning the entire 3d transition metal series. The competition between local quasi-cubic and global triangular symmetry triggers unanticipated broken symmetry phases, with mechanisms ranging from Jahn-Teller distortion, to charge-, spin-, and orbital-ordering. LaMnO3 and LaCoO3 bilayers, where spin-orbit coupling opens a sizable gap in the Dirac-point Fermi surface, emerge as much desired oxide-based Chern insulators, the latter displaying a gap capable of supporting room-temperature applications Further realizations of the honeycomb lattice and geometry patterns beyond the perovskite structure will be addressed. Research supported by the DFG, SFB/TR80.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yan, Jun; Jacobsen, Karsten W.; Thygesen, Kristian S.
2012-01-01
We present an efficient implementation of the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) for optical properties of materials in the projector augmented wave method Grid-based projector-augmented wave method (GPAW). Single-particle energies and wave functions are obtained from the Gritsenko, Leeuwen, Lenthe, a...
Magnetoelectric properties of particulate and bi-layer PMN-PT/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} composites
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mathe, V.L., E-mail: vlmathe@physics.unipune.ernet.in [Novel Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune, 411 007 Maharastra (India); Sheikh, A.D. [Novel Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune, 411 007 Maharastra (India); Srinivasan, G. [Physics Department, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309 (United States)
2012-03-15
Our studies comprise electrical dielectric and magnetoelectric properties of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (CFO) and Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}){sub 0.67}Ti{sub 0.33}O{sub 3} [PMN-PT] magnetoelectric composites. The individual phases were prepared by conventional ceramic method. The particulate composites of ferrite and ferroelectric phases were prepared in ferroelectric rich region. Presence of both the phases in the composites was confirmed using X-ray diffraction techniques. The scanning electron microscopic images recorded in backscattered mode were used to study the microstructure of composites. Lattice constant, dielectric constant, electrical resistivity, ferroelectric, and magnetic properties of individual as well as particulate composites were studied. Further the bi-layer composites were made using the discs obtained from the powders of individual phases where hot press technique was employed to obtain disc of individual phases. CFO phase used in bi-layer composites was obtained using chemical co-precipitation technique. Magnetoelectric (ME) measurements were carried out on both, particulate and layered magnetoelectric composites. Comparison of ME signal obtained from particulate and layered composites revealed that the layered composites gives superior magnetoelectric signal. ME data obtained for layered composites show good agreement with the theoretical model. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study on dielectric, electrical, ferroelectric, and magnetic properties of particulate magnetoelectric composite of PMN-PT/CFO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These properties are correlated with the magnetoelectric effect in particulate composites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetoelectric properties of particulate composites are compared with bilayer magnetoelectric composites of PMN-PT/CFO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetoelectric signal obtain for bilayer composites show good agreement with theoretical model suggested by Bichurin et al.
Excitonic surface lattice resonances
Humphrey, A. D.; Gentile, M. J.; Barnes, W. L.
2016-08-01
Electromagnetic resonances are important in controlling light at the nanoscale. The most studied such resonance is the surface plasmon resonance that is associated with metallic nanostructures. Here we explore an alternative resonance, the surface exciton-polariton resonance, one based on excitonic molecular materials. Our study is based on analytical and numerical modelling. We show that periodic arrays of suitable molecular nanoparticles may support surface lattice resonances that arise as a result of coherent interactions between the particles. Our results demonstrate that excitonic molecular materials are an interesting alternative to metals for nanophotonics; they offer the prospect of both fabrication based on supramolecular chemistry and optical functionality arising from the way the properties of such materials may be controlled with light.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We introduce a new framework for constructing black hole solutions that are holographically dual to strongly coupled field theories with explicitly broken translation invariance. Using a classical gravitational theory with a continuous global symmetry leads to constructions that involve solving ODEs instead of PDEs. We study in detail D=4 Einstein-Maxwell theory coupled to a complex scalar field with a simple mass term. We construct black holes dual to metallic phases which exhibit a Drude-type peak in the optical conductivity, but there is no evidence of an intermediate scaling that has been reported in other holographic lattice constructions. We also construct black holes dual to insulating phases which exhibit a suppression of spectral weight at low frequencies. We show that the model also admits a novel AdS3×ℝ solution
Branes and integrable lattice models
Yagi, Junya
2016-01-01
This is a brief review of my work on the correspondence between four-dimensional $\\mathcal{N} = 1$ supersymmetric field theories realized by brane tilings and two-dimensional integrable lattice models. I explain how to construct integrable lattice models from extended operators in partially topological quantum field theories, and elucidate the correspondence as an application of this construction.
Nuclear Physics and Lattice QCD
Savage, Martin J.
2005-01-01
Lattice QCD is progressing toward being able to impact our understanding of nuclei and nuclear processes. I discuss areas of nuclear physics that are becoming possible to explore with lattice QCD, the techniques that are currently available and the status of numerical explorations.
Network coding with modular lattices
Kendziorra, Andreas
2010-01-01
In [1], K\\"otter and Kschischang presented a new model for error correcting codes in network coding. The alphabet in this model is the subspace lattice of a given vector space, a code is a subset of this lattice and the used metric on this alphabet is the map d: (U, V) \\longmapsto dim(U + V) - dim(U \\bigcap V). In this paper we generalize this model to arbitrary modular lattices, i.e. we consider codes, which are subsets of modular lattices. The used metric in this general case is the map d: (x, y) \\longmapsto h(x \\bigvee y) - h(x \\bigwedge y), where h is the height function of the lattice. We apply this model to submodule lattices. Moreover, we show a method to compute the size of spheres in certain modular lattices and present a sphere packing bound, a sphere covering bound, and a singleton bound for codes, which are subsets of modular lattices. [1] R. K\\"otter, F.R. Kschischang: Coding for errors and erasures in random network coding, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, Vol. 54, No. 8, 2008
Charmed baryons on the lattice
Padmanath, M
2015-01-01
We discuss the significance of charm baryon spectroscopy in hadron physics and review the recent developments of the spectra of charmed baryons in lattice calculations. Special emphasis is given on the recent studies of highly excited charm baryon states. Recent precision lattice measurements of the low lying charm and bottom baryons are also reviewed.
Space charge and screening in bilayer graphene
Kolomeisky, Eugene B.; Straley, Joseph P.; Abrams, Daniel L.
2016-11-01
Undoped bilayer graphene is a two-dimensional semimetal with a low-energy excitation spectrum that is parabolic in the momentum. As a result, the screening of an arbitrary external charge Ze is accompanied by a reconstruction of the ground state: valence band electrons (for Z > 0) are promoted to form a space charge around the charge while the holes leave the physical picture. The outcome is a flat neutral object resembling the regular atom except that for Z\\gg 1 it is described by a strictly linear Thomas-Fermi theory. This theory also predicts that the bilayer’s static dielectric constant is the same as that of a two-dimensional electron gas in the long-wavelength limit.
Graphene-Templated Supported Lipid Bilayer Nanochannels.
Li, Wan; Chung, Jean K; Lee, Young Kwang; Groves, Jay T
2016-08-10
The use of patterned substrates to impose geometrical restriction on the lateral mobility of molecules in supported lipid membranes has found widespread utility in studies of cell membranes. Here, we template-pattern supported lipid membranes with nanopatterned graphene. We utilize focused ion beam milling to pattern graphene on its growth substrate, then transfer the patterned graphene to fresh glass substrates for subsequent supported membrane formation. We observe that graphene functions as an excellent lateral diffusion barrier for supported lipid bilayers. Additionally, the observed diffusion dynamics of lipids in nanoscale graphene channels reveal extremely low boundary effects, a common problem with other materials. We suggest this is attributable to the ultimate thinness of graphene. PMID:27362914
Combinatorics of giant hexagonal bilayer hemoglobins.
Hanin, L G; Vinogradov, S N
2000-01-01
The paper discusses combinatorial and probabilistic models allowing to characterize various aspects of spacial symmetry and structural heterogeneity of the giant hexagonal bilayer hemoglobins (HBL Hb). Linker-dodecamer configurations of HBL are described for two and four linker types (occurring in the two most studied HBL Hb of Arenicola and Lumbricus, respectively), and the most probable configurations are found. It is shown that, for HBL with marked dodecamers, the number of 'normal-marked' pairs of dodecamers in homological position follows a binomial distribution. The group of symmetries of the dodecamer substructure of HBL is identified with the dihedral group D6. Under natural symmetry assumptions, the total dipole moment of the dodecamer substructure of HBL is shown to be zero. Biological implications of the mathematical findings are discussed.
Population inversion in monolayer and bilayer graphene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The recent demonstration of saturable absorption and negative optical conductivity in the Terahertz range in graphene has opened up new opportunities for optoelectronic applications based on this and other low dimensional materials. Recently, population inversion across the Dirac point has been observed directly by time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (tr-ARPES), revealing a relaxation time of only ∼130 femtoseconds. This severely limits the applicability of single layer graphene to, for example, Terahertz light amplification. Here we use tr-ARPES to demonstrate long-lived population inversion in bilayer graphene. The effect is attributed to the small band gap found in this compound. We propose a microscopic model for these observations and speculate that an enhancement of both the pump photon energy and the pump fluence may further increase this lifetime. (paper)
Oxygen diffusion in bilayer polymer films
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poulsen, Lars; Zebger, Ingo; Tofte, Jannik Pentti;
2004-01-01
Experiments to quantify oxygen diffusion have been performed on polymer samples in which a film of poly(ethylene-co-norbornene) was cast onto a film of polystyrene which, in turn, was cast onto an oxygen-impermeable substrate. In the technique employed, the time evolution of oxygen transport...... through the film of poly(ethylene-co-norbornene) and into the polystyrene film was monitored using the phosphorescence of singlet oxygen as a spectroscopic probe. To analyze the data, it was necessary to solve Fick's second law of diffusion for both polymer films. Tractable analytical and numerical...... solutions were obtained for the problem. Moreover, the numerical solution is sufficiently general that it can be used to simulate oxygen concentration profiles in films consisting of more than two layers. Data obtained from the bilayer films yield a diffusion coefficient for oxygen in poly...
Lattice Induced Transparency in Metasurfaces
Manjappa, Manukumara; Singh, Ranjan
2016-01-01
Lattice modes are intrinsic to the periodic structures and their occurrence can be easily tuned and controlled by changing the lattice constant of the structural array. Previous studies have revealed excitation of sharp absorption resonances due to lattice mode coupling with the plasmonic resonances. Here, we report the first experimental observation of a lattice induced transparency (LIT) by coupling the first order lattice mode (FOLM) to the structural resonance of a metamaterial resonator at terahertz frequencies. The observed sharp transparency is a result of the destructive interference between the bright mode and the FOLM mediated dark mode. As the FOLM is swept across the metamaterial resonance, the transparency band undergoes large change in its bandwidth and resonance position. Besides controlling the transparency behaviour, LIT also shows a huge enhancement in the Q-factor and record high group delay of 28 ps, which could be pivotal in ultrasensitive sensing and slow light device applications.
Computing the writhe on lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Given a polygonal closed curve on a lattice or space group, we describe a method for computing the writhe of the curve as the average of weighted projected writhing numbers of the polygon in a few directions. These directions are determined by the lattice geometry, the weights are determined by areas of regions on the unit 2-sphere, and the regions are formed by the tangent indicatrix to the polygonal curve. We give a new formula for the writhe of polygons on the face centred cubic lattice and prove that the writhe of polygons on the body centred cubic lattice, the hexagonal simple lattice, and the diamond space group is always a rational number, and discuss applications to ring polymers
Fractional quantum Hall states in charge-imbalanced bilayer systems
Thiebaut, N.; Regnault, N.; Goerbig, M. O.
2013-01-01
We study the fractional quantum Hall effect in a bilayer with charge-distribution imbalance induced, for instance, by a bias gate voltage. The bilayer can either be intrinsic or it can be formed spontaneously in wide quantum wells, due to the Coulomb repulsion between electrons. We focus on fractional quantum Hall effect in asymmetric bilayer systems at filling factor nu=4/11 and show that an asymmetric Halperin-like trial wavefunction gives a valid description of the ground state of the system.
Modeling liquid crystal bilayer structures with minimal surfaces.
Enlow, J D; Enlow, R L; McGrath, K M; Tate, M W
2004-01-22
This paper describes a new convenient and accurate method of calculating x-ray diffraction integrated intensities from detailed cubic bilayer structures. The method is employed to investigate the structure of a particular surfactant system (didodecyldimethylammonium bromide in a solution of oil and heavy water), for which single-crystal experimental data have recently been collected. The diffracted peak intensities correlate well with theoretical structures based on mathematical minimal surfaces. Optimized electron density profiles of the bilayer are presented, providing new insight into key features of the bilayer structure.
The Strong Decays of Orbitally Excited $B^{*}_{sJ}$ Mesons by Improved Bethe-Salpeter Method
Wang, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Guo-Li; Fu, Hui-Feng; Jiang, Yue
2012-01-01
We calculate the masses and the strong decays of orbitally excited states $B_{s0}$, $B'_{s1}$, $B_{s1}$ and $B_{s2}$ by the improved Bethe-Salpeter method. The predicted masses of $B_{s0}$ and $B'_{s1}$ are $M_{B_{s0}}=5.723\\pm0.280 {\\rm GeV}$, $M_{B'_{s1}}=5.774\\pm0.330 {\\rm GeV}$. We calculate the isospin symmetry violating decay processes $B_{s0}\\to B_s \\pi$ and $B'_{s1}\\to B_s^* \\pi$ through $\\pi^0-\\eta$ mixing and get small widths. Considering the uncertainties of the masses, for $B_{s0}...
Bethe-Salpeter calculation of optical-absorption spectra of In2O3 and Ga2O3
Varley, Joel B.; Schleife, André
2015-02-01
Transparent conducting oxides keep attracting strong scientific interest not only due to their promising potential for ‘transparent electronics’ applications but also due to their intriguing optical absorption characteristics. Materials such as In2O3 and Ga2O3 have complicated unit cells and, consequently, are interesting systems for studying the physics of excitons and anisotropy of optical absorption. Since currently no experimental data is available, for instance, for their dielectric functions across a large photon-energy range, we employ modern first-principles computational approaches based on many-body perturbation theory to provide theoretical-spectroscopy results. Using the Bethe-Salpeter framework, we compute dielectric functions and we compare to spectra computed without excitonic effects. We find that the electron-hole interaction strongly modifies the spectra and we discuss the anisotropy of optical absorption that we find for Ga2O3 in relation to existing theoretical and experimental data.
Ammi, H.; Zemih, R.; Mammeri, S.; Allab, M.
2005-04-01
Recent stopping power measurements in thin polymeric films have been performed for protons of 0.4-3.5 MeV energies using the indirect transmission technique [H. Ammi, S. Mammeri, M. Chekirine, B. Bouzid, M. Allab, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 198 (2002) 5]. Experimental stopping data have been analyzed with the modified Bethe-Bloch formula and the mean excitation energies I have been then extracted from the data. Resulting values for each thin film are 76 ± 1 eV in Mylar, 70.8 ± 1 eV in Makrofol, 82.2 ± 1.2 eV in LR-115 and 55.4 ± 1 eV in Polypropylene. The I-extracted values are compared to those IB calculated by using the Bragg's rule.
Lattice gas cellular automata and lattice Boltzmann models an introduction
Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A
2000-01-01
Lattice-gas cellular automata (LGCA) and lattice Boltzmann models (LBM) are relatively new and promising methods for the numerical solution of nonlinear partial differential equations. The book provides an introduction for graduate students and researchers. Working knowledge of calculus is required and experience in PDEs and fluid dynamics is recommended. Some peculiarities of cellular automata are outlined in Chapter 2. The properties of various LGCA and special coding techniques are discussed in Chapter 3. Concepts from statistical mechanics (Chapter 4) provide the necessary theoretical background for LGCA and LBM. The properties of lattice Boltzmann models and a method for their construction are presented in Chapter 5.
$EE_8$-lattices and dihedral groups
Griess Jr., Robert L.; lam, Ching Hung
2008-01-01
We classify integral rootless lattices which are sums of pairs of $EE_8$-lattices (lattices isometric to $\\sqrt 2$ times the $E_8$-lattice) and which define dihedral groups of orders less than or equal to 12. Most of these may be seen in the Leech lattice. Our classification may help understand Miyamoto involutions on lattice type vertex operator algebras and give a context for the dihedral groups which occur in the Glauberman-Norton moonshine theory.
Anomalous Raman scattering and lattice dynamics in mono- and few-layer WTe2
Kim, Younghee; Jhon, Young In; Park, June; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Seok; Jhon, Young Min
2016-01-01
Tungsten ditelluride (WTe2) is a layered material that exhibits excellent magnetoresistance and thermoelectric behaviors, which are deeply related with its distorted orthorhombic phase that may critically affect the lattice dynamics of this material. Here, we report comprehensive characterization of Raman spectra of WTe2 from bulk to monolayer using experimental and computational methods. We find that mono and bi-layer WTe2 are easily identified by Raman spectroscopy since two or one Raman modes that are observed in higher-layer WTe2 are greatly suppressed below the noise level in the mono- and bi-layer WTe2, respectively. In addition, the frequency of in-plane A17 mode of WTe2 remains almost constant as the layer number decreases, while all the other Raman modes consistently blueshift, which is completely different from the vibrational behavior of hexagonal metal dichalcogenides. First-principles calculation validates experimental results and reveals that anomalous lattice vibrations in WTe2 are attributed to the formation of tungsten chains that make WTe2 structurally one-dimensional.Tungsten ditelluride (WTe2) is a layered material that exhibits excellent magnetoresistance and thermoelectric behaviors, which are deeply related with its distorted orthorhombic phase that may critically affect the lattice dynamics of this material. Here, we report comprehensive characterization of Raman spectra of WTe2 from bulk to monolayer using experimental and computational methods. We find that mono and bi-layer WTe2 are easily identified by Raman spectroscopy since two or one Raman modes that are observed in higher-layer WTe2 are greatly suppressed below the noise level in the mono- and bi-layer WTe2, respectively. In addition, the frequency of in-plane A17 mode of WTe2 remains almost constant as the layer number decreases, while all the other Raman modes consistently blueshift, which is completely different from the vibrational behavior of hexagonal metal dichalcogenides
A metastable HCP intermetallic phase in Cu-Al bilayer films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cha, Limei
2006-07-01
For the present study, three kinds of layered Cu/Al films have been fabricated. The first kind of samples were multilayered Cu/Al films deposited by sputtering on (001)Si. The individual layer thicknesses were 100 nm, 200 nm and 400 nm, while the total film thickness of 800 nm was kept constant, thus leading to multilayer systems with 8, 4 and 2 layers, respectively. The second type of samples were Cu/Al bilayer films grown on (0001) sapphire by sputtering, with individual layer thicknesses of 400 nm. The third type of samples were bilayer films (100 nm Cu and 100 nm Al) deposited on (0001)sapphire by MBE at room temperature. Applying conventional transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, different epitaxial growth behaviors were found in these films. All multilayer films from the first type were polycrystalline. The second type of films show a (111) FCC texture and possess intermetallic phases at the interfaces. HRTEM investigations displayed that along [111]FCC, the atomic structure of the interlayer has an ABAB stacking sequence, which is identical with a hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure in [0001] direction, but not with the ABCABC stacking sequence of Cu and Al in [111]FCC. The lattice parameters of the HCP structure at the interlayer were determined from a model which gave the best agreement between the experimental and simulated images. The parameters are: a=b=0.256 nm, c=0.419 nm, ?=120 , with the space group of P6m2. Furthermore, lattice distortion analysis revealed that the lattice parameters of the HCP phase are increasing from the near-Cu-side to the near-Al-side. The chemical composition of the interlayer was investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). EDS linescans were performed from pure Al to pure Cu layers. In order to examine the stability of this HCP phase, in-situ heating experiments were performed in the HRTEM at {proportional_to}600 C. Ex-situ heating experiments were performed at different temperatures to
Magnetotransport properties of La0.67Ca0.33MnO3/La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 bilayers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Feng Jia-Feng; Zhao Kun; Huang Yan-Hong; Zhao Jian-Gao; Han Xiu-Feng; Zhan Wen-Shan; Wong Hong-Kuen
2005-01-01
The perovskite bilayers La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 (LCMO) (100 nm) / La0.67Sr0.33MnO3(LSMO) (100 nm) and LSMO (100 nm) / LCMO (100 nm) are fabricated by a facing-target sputtering technique. Their transport and magnetic properties axe investigated. It is found that the transport properties between them are different obviously due to distinguishable structures, and the different lattice strains in both films result in the difference of metal-to-insulator transition. Only single-step magnetization loop appears in our bilayers from 5K to 320K, and the coercive force of LSMO/LCMO varies irregularly with a minimum ～ 2387A/m which is lower than that of LCMO and LSMO single layer films. The behaviour is explained by some magnetic coupling.
Toward lattice fractional vector calculus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity. (papers)
Tethered and Polymer Supported Bilayer Lipid Membranes: Structure and Function.
Andersson, Jakob; Köper, Ingo
2016-01-01
Solid supported bilayer lipid membranes are model systems to mimic natural cell membranes in order to understand structural and functional properties of such systems. The use of a model system allows for the use of a wide variety of analytical tools including atomic force microscopy, impedance spectroscopy, neutron reflectometry, and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Among the large number of different types of model membranes polymer-supported and tethered lipid bilayers have been shown to be versatile and useful systems. Both systems consist of a lipid bilayer, which is de-coupled from an underlying support by a spacer cushion. Both systems will be reviewed, with an emphasis on the effect that the spacer moiety has on the bilayer properties. PMID:27249006
Sub-wavelength antenna enhanced bilayer graphene tunable photodetector
Beechem, III, Thomas Edwin; Howell, Stephen W.; Peters, David W.; Davids, Paul; Ohta, Taisuke
2016-03-22
The integration of bilayer graphene with an absorption enhancing sub-wavelength antenna provides an infrared photodetector capable of real-time spectral tuning without filters at nanosecond timescales.
Capacitance Variation of Electrolyte-Gated Bilayer Graphene Based Transistors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hediyeh Karimi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum capacitance of electrolyte-gated bilayer graphene field-effect transistors is investigated in this paper. Bilayer graphene has received huge attention due to the fact that an energy gap could be opened by chemical doping or by applying external perpendicular electric field. So, this extraordinary property can be exploited to use bilayer graphene as a channel in electrolyte-gated field-effect transistors. The quantum capacitance of bi-layer graphene with an equivalent circuit is presented, and also based on the analytical model a numerical solution is reported. We begin by modeling the DOS, followed by carrier concentration as a function V in degenerate and nondegenerate regimes. To further confirm this viewpoint, the presented analytical model is compared with experimental data, and acceptable agreement is reported.
Electronic properties of asymmetrically doped twisted graphene bilayers
Trambly de Laissardière, Guy; Namarvar, Omid Faizy; Mayou, Didier; Magaud, Laurence
2016-06-01
Rotated graphene bilayers form an exotic class of nanomaterials with fascinating electronic properties governed by the rotation angle θ . For large rotation angles, the electron eigenstates are restricted to one layer and the bilayer behaves like two decoupled graphene layers. At intermediate angles, Dirac cones are preserved but with a lower velocity and van Hove singularities are induced at energies where the two Dirac cones intersect. At very small angles, eigenstates become localized in peculiar moiré zones. We analyze here the effect of an asymmetric doping for a series of commensurate rotated bilayers on the basis of tight-binding calculations of their band dispersions, density of states, participation ratio, and diffusive properties. While a small doping level preserves the θ dependence of the rotated bilayer electronic structure, larger doping induces a further reduction of the band velocity in the same way as a further reduction of the rotation angle.
Energy levels of hybrid monolayer-bilayer graphene quantum dots
Mirzakhani, M.; Zarenia, M.; Ketabi, S. A.; da Costa, D. R.; Peeters, F. M.
2016-04-01
Often real samples of graphene consist of islands of both monolayer and bilayer graphene. Bound states in such hybrid quantum dots are investigated for (i) a circular single-layer graphene quantum dot surrounded by an infinite bilayer graphene sheet and (ii) a circular bilayer graphene quantum dot surrounded by an infinite single-layer graphene. Using the continuum model and applying zigzag boundary conditions at the single-layer-bilayer graphene interface, we obtain analytical results for the energy levels and the corresponding wave spinors. Their dependence on perpendicular magnetic and electric fields are studied for both types of quantum dots. The energy levels exhibit characteristics of interface states, and we find anticrossings and closing of the energy gap in the presence of a bias potential.
Tethered and Polymer Supported Bilayer Lipid Membranes: Structure and Function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jakob Andersson
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Solid supported bilayer lipid membranes are model systems to mimic natural cell membranes in order to understand structural and functional properties of such systems. The use of a model system allows for the use of a wide variety of analytical tools including atomic force microscopy, impedance spectroscopy, neutron reflectometry, and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Among the large number of different types of model membranes polymer-supported and tethered lipid bilayers have been shown to be versatile and useful systems. Both systems consist of a lipid bilayer, which is de-coupled from an underlying support by a spacer cushion. Both systems will be reviewed, with an emphasis on the effect that the spacer moiety has on the bilayer properties.
Thermal stability of Mo/Au bilayers for TES applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mo/Au bilayers are among the most suitable materials to be used as transition-edge sensors (TES) in cryogenic microcalorimeters and bolometers, developed, among other fields, for space missions. For this purpose the thermal stability of TES at temperatures below 150 °C is a critical issue. We report on the dependence of functional properties (superconducting critical temperature, residual resistance and α) as well as on microstructure, chemical composition and interface quality for optimized high quality Mo/Au bilayers on annealing temperature and time. Data show that the functional properties of the bilayers remain stable at T C at T ≥ 200 °C are mainly due to an increase in the average Au grain size and to Au migration along the Mo grain boundaries at the Au/Mo interface. A way to stabilize the functional properties of the Mo/Au bilayers against temperature enhancements is proposed. (paper)
Influence of trigonal warping on interference effects in bilayer graphene
Kechedzhi, K.; Falko, Vladimir I; McCann, E.; Altshuler, B.L.
2007-01-01
Bilayer graphene (two coupled graphitic monolayers arranged according to Bernal stacking) is a two-dimensional gapless semiconductor with a peculiar electronic spectrum different from the Dirac spectrum in the monolayer material. In particular, the electronic Fermi line in each of its valleys has a strong p -> -p asymmetry due to a trigonal warping, which suppresses the weak localization effect. We show that weak localisation in bilayer graphene may be present only in devices with pronounced ...
Deformation of giant lipid bilayer vesicles in shear flow
Haas,; Blom, C.; Ende, van den, D.; Duits, M. H. G.; Mellema, J.
1997-01-01
We describe experimental studies of the deformation of giant lipid bilayer vesicles in shear flow. The experiments are carried out with a counterrotating Couette apparatus. The deformation depends on the mechanical properties of the lipid bilayer, the vesicle radius, and the viscosity of the surrounding Newtonian liquid. We show that the relevant mechanical parameter is the bending rigidity. A simple model has been developed that describes the deformation of a vesicle. This model takes therma...
Atomistic Simulations of Pore Formation and Closure in Lipid Bilayers
Bennett, W. F. Drew; Sapay, Nicolas; Tieleman, D. Peter
2014-01-01
Cellular membranes separate distinct aqueous compartments, but can be breached by transient hydrophilic pores. A large energetic cost prevents pore formation, which is largely dependent on the composition and structure of the lipid bilayer. The softness of bilayers and the disordered structure of pores make their characterization difficult. We use molecular-dynamics simulations with atomistic detail to study the thermodynamics, kinetics, and mechanism of pore formation and closure in DLPC, DM...
Constant helical pitch of the gramicidin channel in phospholipid bilayers.
Katsaras, J.; Prosser, R S; Stinson, R H; Davis, J H
1992-01-01
X-ray diffraction has been applied in measuring the helical pitch of the gramicidin channel in oriented bilayers of dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) at a polypeptide concentration of 9.1 mol %. The diffraction data show the helical pitch of gramicidin to be 4.7 +/- 0.2 A in both gel and liquid-crystalline phase bilayers, with and without monovalent cations. In addition, the width of the reflection due to the pitch of the helical gramicidin channel ...
Localized structures in Kagome lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saxena, Avadh B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bishop, Alan R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Law, K J H [UNIV OF MASSACHUSETTS; Kevrekidis, P G [UNIV OF MASSACHUSETTS
2009-01-01
We investigate the existence and stability of gap vortices and multi-pole gap solitons in a Kagome lattice with a defocusing nonlinearity both in a discrete case and in a continuum one with periodic external modulation. In particular, predictions are made based on expansion around a simple and analytically tractable anti-continuum (zero coupling) limit. These predictions are then confirmed for a continuum model of an optically-induced Kagome lattice in a photorefractive crystal obtained by a continuous transformation of a honeycomb lattice.
Borwein, J M; McPhedran, R C
2013-01-01
The study of lattice sums began when early investigators wanted to go from mechanical properties of crystals to the properties of the atoms and ions from which they were built (the literature of Madelung's constant). A parallel literature was built around the optical properties of regular lattices of atoms (initiated by Lord Rayleigh, Lorentz and Lorenz). For over a century many famous scientists and mathematicians have delved into the properties of lattices, sometimes unwittingly duplicating the work of their predecessors. Here, at last, is a comprehensive overview of the substantial body of
Fast simulation of lattice systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bohr, H.; Kaznelson, E.; Hansen, Frank;
1983-01-01
A new computer system with an entirely new processor design is described and demonstrated on a very small trial lattice. The new computer simulates systems of differential equations of the order of 104 times faster than present day computers and we describe how the machine can be applied to lattice...... models in theoretical physics. A brief discussion is also given of the various mathematical approaches for studying a lattice model. We used the computer on the X - Y model. In an actual QCD program an improved computer of such a kind is designed to be 102 times faster than ordinary machines...
Formation of supported lipid bilayers by vesicle fusion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lind, Tania Kjellerup; Cardenas Gomez, Marite; Wacklin, Hanna
2014-01-01
We have investigated the effect of deposition temperature on supported lipid bilayer formation via vesicle fusion. By using several complementary surface-sensitive techniques, we demonstrate that despite contradicting literature on the subject, high-quality bilayers can be formed below the main p...... observed during the deposition process by QCM-D correspond to vesicles absorbed on top of a continuous bilayer and not to a surface-supported vesicular layer as previously reported. © 2014 American Chemical Society.......We have investigated the effect of deposition temperature on supported lipid bilayer formation via vesicle fusion. By using several complementary surface-sensitive techniques, we demonstrate that despite contradicting literature on the subject, high-quality bilayers can be formed below the main...... phase-transition temperature of the lipid. We have carefully studied the formation mechanism of supported DPPC bilayers below and above the lipid melting temperature (Tm) by quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy under continuous flow conditions. We also measured the structure of lipid...
Robustly Engineering Thermal Conductivity of Bilayer Graphene by Interlayer Bonding
Zhang, Xiaoliang; Gao, Yufei; Chen, Yuli; Hu, Ming
2016-01-01
Graphene and its bilayer structure are the two-dimensional crystalline form of carbon, whose extraordinary electron mobility and other unique features hold great promise for nanoscale electronics and photonics. Their realistic applications in emerging nanoelectronics usually call for thermal transport manipulation in a controllable and precise manner. In this paper we systematically studied the effect of interlayer covalent bonding, in particular different interlay bonding arrangement, on the thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. It is revealed that, the thermal conductivity of randomly bonded bilayer graphene decreases monotonically with the increase of interlayer bonding density, however, for the regularly bonded bilayer graphene structure the thermal conductivity possesses unexpectedly non-monotonic dependence on the interlayer bonding density. The results suggest that the thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene depends not only on the interlayer bonding density, but also on the detailed topological configuration of the interlayer bonding. The underlying mechanism for this abnormal phenomenon is identified by means of phonon spectral energy density, participation ratio and mode weight factor analysis. The large tunability of thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene through rational interlayer bonding arrangement paves the way to achieve other desired properties for potential nanoelectronics applications involving graphene layers. PMID:26911859
Robustly Engineering Thermal Conductivity of Bilayer Graphene by Interlayer Bonding
Zhang, Xiaoliang; Gao, Yufei; Chen, Yuli; Hu, Ming
2016-02-01
Graphene and its bilayer structure are the two-dimensional crystalline form of carbon, whose extraordinary electron mobility and other unique features hold great promise for nanoscale electronics and photonics. Their realistic applications in emerging nanoelectronics usually call for thermal transport manipulation in a controllable and precise manner. In this paper we systematically studied the effect of interlayer covalent bonding, in particular different interlay bonding arrangement, on the thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. It is revealed that, the thermal conductivity of randomly bonded bilayer graphene decreases monotonically with the increase of interlayer bonding density, however, for the regularly bonded bilayer graphene structure the thermal conductivity possesses unexpectedly non-monotonic dependence on the interlayer bonding density. The results suggest that the thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene depends not only on the interlayer bonding density, but also on the detailed topological configuration of the interlayer bonding. The underlying mechanism for this abnormal phenomenon is identified by means of phonon spectral energy density, participation ratio and mode weight factor analysis. The large tunability of thermal conductivity of bilayer graphene through rational interlayer bonding arrangement paves the way to achieve other desired properties for potential nanoelectronics applications involving graphene layers.
Mechanism of unassisted ion transport across membrane bilayers
Wilson, M. A.; Pohorille, A.
1996-01-01
To establish how charged species move from water to the nonpolar membrane interior and to determine the energetic and structural effects accompanying this process, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of the transport of Na+ and Cl- across a lipid bilayer located between two water lamellae. The total length of molecular dynamics trajectories generated for each ion was 10 ns. Our simulations demonstrate that permeation of ions into the membrane is accompanied by the formation of deep, asymmetric thinning defects in the bilayer, whereby polar lipid head groups and water penetrate the nonpolar membrane interior. Once the ion crosses the midplane of the bilayer the deformation "switches sides"; the initial defect slowly relaxes, and a defect forms in the outgoing side of the bilayer. As a result, the ion remains well solvated during the process; the total number of oxygen atoms from water and lipid head groups in the first solvation shell remains constant. A similar membrane deformation is formed when the ion is instantaneously inserted into the interior of the bilayer. The formation of defects considerably lowers the free energy barrier to transfer of the ion across the bilayer and, consequently, increases the permeabilities of the membrane to ions, compared to the rigid, planar structure, by approximately 14 orders of magnitude. Our results have implications for drug delivery using liposomes and peptide insertion into membranes.
Predicting proton titration in cationic micelle and bilayer environments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morrow, Brian H.; Shen, Jana K. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201 (United States); Eike, David M.; Murch, Bruce P.; Koenig, Peter H. [Computational Chemistry, Modeling and Simulation GCO, Procter and Gamble, Cincinnati, Ohio 45201 (United States)
2014-08-28
Knowledge of the protonation behavior of pH-sensitive molecules in micelles and bilayers has significant implications in consumer product development and biomedical applications. However, the calculation of pK{sub a}’s in such environments proves challenging using traditional structure-based calculations. Here we apply all-atom constant pH molecular dynamics with explicit ions and titratable water to calculate the pK{sub a} of a fatty acid molecule in a micelle of dodecyl trimethylammonium chloride and liquid as well as gel-phase bilayers of diethyl ester dimethylammonium chloride. Interestingly, the pK{sub a} of the fatty acid in the gel bilayer is 5.4, 0.4 units lower than that in the analogous liquid bilayer or micelle, despite the fact that the protonated carboxylic group is significantly more desolvated in the gel bilayer. This work illustrates the capability of all-atom constant pH molecular dynamics in capturing the delicate balance in the free energies of desolvation and Coulombic interactions. It also shows the importance of the explicit treatment of ions in sampling the protonation states. The ability to model dynamics of pH-responsive substrates in a bilayer environment is useful for improving fabric care products as well as our understanding of the side effects of anti-inflammatory drugs.
Microporous device for local electric recordings on model lipid bilayers
Kaufeld, Theresa; Steinem, Claudia; Schmidt, Christoph F.
2015-01-01
A powerful approach for characterizing lipid membranes and embedded proteins is the reconstitution of model lipid bilayers. The extreme fragility of 5 nm thick bilayers is a challenge for device design and requires a trade off of stability against accessibility. We here present a microporous lab-on-chip device that allows us to form stable, solvent-free lipid bilayers from giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) in a geometry that provides a unique set of access possibilities. The device is constructed around a micro-fabricated silicon chip with clusters of 1 µm-diameter pores and provides optical access to the lipid bilayers for high-NA epifluorescence imaging. At the same time, solvent exchange is possible on both sides of the lipid bilayer. Complete coverage can be achieved with GUVs, so that voltages can be applied across the lipid bilayer and single-channel currents can be measured using external or integrated silver/silver chloride electrodes. We describe the micro-fabrication by standard cleanroom techniques and the characterization of the device by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. In proof-of-concept experiments we demonstrate that the device is capable of low-noise, single-ion-channel recordings. Electronic Supplementary Information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/b000000x/
Predicting proton titration in cationic micelle and bilayer environments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knowledge of the protonation behavior of pH-sensitive molecules in micelles and bilayers has significant implications in consumer product development and biomedical applications. However, the calculation of pKa’s in such environments proves challenging using traditional structure-based calculations. Here we apply all-atom constant pH molecular dynamics with explicit ions and titratable water to calculate the pKa of a fatty acid molecule in a micelle of dodecyl trimethylammonium chloride and liquid as well as gel-phase bilayers of diethyl ester dimethylammonium chloride. Interestingly, the pKa of the fatty acid in the gel bilayer is 5.4, 0.4 units lower than that in the analogous liquid bilayer or micelle, despite the fact that the protonated carboxylic group is significantly more desolvated in the gel bilayer. This work illustrates the capability of all-atom constant pH molecular dynamics in capturing the delicate balance in the free energies of desolvation and Coulombic interactions. It also shows the importance of the explicit treatment of ions in sampling the protonation states. The ability to model dynamics of pH-responsive substrates in a bilayer environment is useful for improving fabric care products as well as our understanding of the side effects of anti-inflammatory drugs
Fermionic Basis in Conformal Field Theory and Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz for Excited States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hermann Boos
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We generalize the results of [Comm. Math. Phys. 299 (2010, 825-866] (hidden Grassmann structure IV to the case of excited states of the transfer matrix of the six-vertex model acting in the so-called Matsubara direction. We establish an equivalence between a scaling limit of the partition function of the six-vertex model on a cylinder with quasi-local operators inserted and special boundary conditions, corresponding to particle-hole excitations, on the one hand, and certain three-point correlation functions of conformal field theory (CFT on the other hand. As in hidden Grassmann structure IV, the fermionic basis developed in previous papers and its conformal limit are used for a description of the quasi-local operators. In paper IV we claimed that in the conformal limit the fermionic creation operators generate a basis equivalent to the basis of the descendant states in the conformal field theory modulo integrals of motion suggested by A. Zamolodchikov (1987. Here we argue that, in order to completely determine the transformation between the above fermionic basis and the basis of descendants in the CFT, we need to involve excitations. On the side of the lattice model we use the excited-state TBA approach. We consider in detail the case of the descendant at level 8.
Charmonium-Nucleon Interaction from Quenched Lattice QCD with Relativistic Heavy Quark Action
Kawanai, Taichi; Sasaki, Shoichi; Hatsuda, Tetsuo
2009-10-01
Low energy charmonium-nucleon interaction is of particular interest in this talk. A heavy quarkonium state like the charmonium does not share the same quark flavor with the nucleon so that cc-nucleon interaction might be described by the gluonic van der Waals interaction, which is weak but attractive. Therefore, the information of the strength of cc-nucleon interaction is vital for considering the possibility of the formation of charmonium bound to nuclei. We will present the preliminary results for the scattering length and the interaction range of charmonium-nucleon s-wave scattering from quenched lattice QCD. These low-energy quantities can provide useful constraints on the phenomenological cc-nucleon potential, which is required for precise prediction of the binding energy of nuclear-bound charmonium in exact few body calculations. Our simulations are performed at a lattice cutoff of 1/a=2.0 GeV with the nonperturbatively O(a) improved Wilson action for the light quark and a relativistic heavy quark action for the charm quark. A new attempt of calculating the cc-nucleon potential through the Bethe-Salpeter wave function will be also discussed.
Colored-hadron distribution in hadron scattering in SU(2) lattice QCD
Takahashi, Toru T
2016-01-01
In color SU(2) lattice QCD, we investigate colored-diquark distributions in two-hadron scatterings by means of Bethe-Salpeter amplitudes on the lattice. With colored-diquark operators in the Coulomb gauge, we measure components of two colored diquarks realized as intermediate states via one gluon exchange (OGE) processes in hadron scattering. From the colored-diquark distributions, we estimate the dominant range of gluon (color) exchanges between closely located two hadrons. We find that the colored-diquark components are enhanced at the short range ($\\leq$0.2 fm) and their tails show the single-exponential damping. In order to distinguish the genuine colored-diquark components originating in the color exchange processes from trivial colored two-quark components contained in two color-singlet hadrons as a result of simple transformation of hadronic basis, we repeat the analyses on the artificially constructed gauge fields, where low- and high-momentum gluon components are decoupled and only restricted pair of...
Potential description of charmonium and charmed-strange mesons from lattice QCD
Kawanai, Taichi
2015-01-01
We present spin-independent and spin-spin interquark potentials for the charmonium and charmed-strange mesons, which are calculated in 2+1 flavor lattice QCD simulations using the PACS-CS gauge configurations generated at the lightest pion mass ($M_\\pi \\approx 156(7)$~MeV) with a lattice cutoff of $a^{-1}\\approx 2.2$ GeV and a spatial volume of $(3~{\\rm fm})^3$. For the charm quark, we use a relativistic heavy quark (RHQ) action with fine tuned RHQ parameters, which closely reproduce both the experimental spin-averaged mass and hyper-fine splitting of the $1S$ charmonium. The interquark potential and the quark kinetic mass, both of which are key ingredients within the potential description of heavy-heavy and heavy-light mesons, are determined from the equal-time Bethe-Salpeter (BS) amplitude. The charmonium potentials are obtained from the BS wave function of $1S$ charmonia ($\\eta_c$ and $J/\\psi$ mesons), while the charmed-strange potential are calculated from the $D_s$ and $D_s^{\\ast}$ heavy-light mesons. We...
Donaldson, Stephen H., Jr.; Lee, C. Ted; Chmelka, Bradley F.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.
2011-01-01
We establish and quantify correlations among the molecular structures, interaction forces, and physical processes associated with light-responsive self-assembled surfactant monolayers or bilayers at interfaces. Using the surface forces apparatus (SFA), the interaction forces between adsorbed monolayers and bilayers of an azobenzene-functionalized surfactant can be drastically and controllably altered by light-induced conversion of trans and cis molecular conformations. These reversible confor...
De Soto, F; Carbonell, J; Leroy, J P; Pène, O; Roiesnel, C; Boucaud, Ph.
2007-01-01
We present the first results of a quantum field approach to nuclear models obtained by lattice techniques. Renormalization effects for fermion mass and coupling constant in case of scalar and pseudoscalar interaction lagrangian densities are discussed.
Interacting atoms in optical lattices
Mentink, Johan; Kokkelmans, Servaas
2008-01-01
We propose an easy to use model to solve for interacting atoms in an optical lattice. This model allows for the whole range of weakly to strongly interacting atoms, and it includes the coupling between relative and center-of-mass motion via anharmonic lattice terms. We apply this model to a high-precision spin dynamics experiment, and we discuss the corrections due to atomic interactions and the anharmonic coupling. Under suitable experimental conditions, energy can be transferred between the...
Transport in Sawtooth photonic lattices
Weimann, Steffen; Real, Bastián; Cantillano, Camilo; Szameit, Alexander; Vicencio, Rodrigo A
2016-01-01
We investigate, theoretically and experimentally, a photonic realization of a Sawtooth lattice. This special lattice exhibits two spectral bands, with one of them experiencing a complete collapse to a highly degenerate flat band for a special set of inter-site coupling constants. We report the ob- servation of different transport regimes, including strong transport inhibition due to the appearance of the non-diffractive flat band. Moreover, we excite localized Shockley surfaces states, residing in the gap between the two linear bands.
Capacities on a finite lattice
Machida, Motoya
2011-01-01
In his influential work Choquet systematically studied capacities on Boolean algebras in a topological space, and gave a probabilistic interpretation for completely monotone (and completely alternating) capacities. Beyond complete monotonicity we can view a capacity as a marginal condition for probability distribution over the distributive lattice of dual order ideals. In this paper we discuss a combinatorial approach when capacities are defined over a finite lattice, and investigate Fr\\'{e}c...
Multifractal behaviour of -simplex lattic
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sanjay Kumar; Debaprasad Giri; Sujata Krishna
2000-06-01
We study the asymptotic behaviour of resistance scaling and ﬂuctuation of resistance that give rise to ﬂicker noise in an -simplex lattice. We propose a simple method to calculate the resistance scaling and give a closed-form formula to calculate the exponent, , associated with resistance scaling, for any . Using current cumulant method we calculate the exact noise exponent for -simplex lattices.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DeGrand, T. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics
1997-06-01
These lectures provide an introduction to lattice methods for nonperturbative studies of Quantum Chromodynamics. Lecture 1: Basic techniques for QCD and results for hadron spectroscopy using the simplest discretizations; lecture 2: Improved actions--what they are and how well they work; lecture 3: SLAC physics from the lattice-structure functions, the mass of the glueball, heavy quarks and {alpha}{sub s} (M{sub z}), and B-{anti B} mixing. 67 refs., 36 figs.
Baryon spectroscopy in lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Derek B. Leinweber; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; David Richards; Anthony G. Williams; James Zanotti
2004-04-01
We review recent developments in the study of excited baryon spectroscopy in lattice QCD. After introducing the basic methods used to extract masses from correlation functions, we discuss various interpolating fields and lattice actions commonly used in the literature. We present a survey of results of recent calculations of excited baryons in quenched QCD, and outline possible future directions in the study of baryon spectra.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
These lectures provide an introduction to lattice methods for nonperturbative studies of Quantum Chromodynamics. Lecture 1: Basic techniques for QCD and results for hadron spectroscopy using the simplest discretizations; lecture 2: Improved actions--what they are and how well they work; lecture 3: SLAC physics from the lattice-structure functions, the mass of the glueball, heavy quarks and αs (Mz), and B-anti B mixing. 67 refs., 36 figs
Lattice QCD: A Brief Introduction
Meyer, H. B.
A general introduction to lattice QCD is given. The reader is assumed to have some basic familiarity with the path integral representation of quantum field theory. Emphasis is placed on showing that the lattice regularization provides a robust conceptual and computational framework within quantum field theory. The goal is to provide a useful overview, with many references pointing to the following chapters and to freely available lecture series for more in-depth treatments of specifics topics.
Chiral symmetry and lattice fermions
Creutz, Michael
2013-01-01
Lattice gauge theory and chiral perturbation theory are among the primary tools for understanding non-perturbative aspects of QCD. I review several subtle and sometimes controversial issues that arise when combining these techniques. Among these are one failure of partially quenched chiral perturbation theory when the valence quarks become lighter than the average sea quark mass and a potential ambiguity in comparisons of perturbative and lattice properties of non-degenerate quarks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The frequency/wave-vector dispersion relation for the normal modes of vibration in the major symmetry directions of body-centred cubic rubidium has been measured at 120° K. The large (∼ 75 cm3) single crystal was aligned with either a [110] or a [100] axis vertical, and constant incident frequencies between 3.8 and 5.5 x 1012 c,s were employed. The measurements were taken with the McMaster University triple-axis spectrometer at Chalk River in the constant-Q mode of operation. The dispersion curves are similar in shape to those of sodium and potassium. The ratio for a set of 104 values of q common to both sets of data, is 1.667 ± 0.005 with a standard deviation for an individual ratio from the mean of 0.05. The homology of the lattice vibrations for Na and Rb is poorer than for K and Rb. A Born-von Kármán analysis of the measurements has been made, and it is found that third nearest neighbour forces must be included to obtain reasonable agreement. More distant neighbour forces improve the fit relatively little. Axially symmetric constraints do not change the force constants significantly. As expected, the force constant 1XY is larger than 1XX, which suggests that the forces between nearest neighbours are repulsive. The initial slopes of the dispersion curves are considerably larger than the slopes deduced from ultrasonic measurements. The errors, mainly in the ultrasonic measurements, are barely sufficient to account for the differences. (author)
Condensation energy of the superconducting bilayer cuprates
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Govind; Ajay; S K Joshi
2002-05-01
In the present work, we report the interplay of single particle and Cooper pair tunnelings on the superconducting state of layered high-c cuprate superconductors. For this we have considered a model Hamiltonian incorporating the intra-planar interactions and the contributions arising due to the coupling between the planes. The interplanar interactions include the single particle tunneling as well as the Josephson tunneling of Cooper pairs between the two layers. The expression of the out-of-plane correlation parameter which describes the hopping of a particle from one layer to another layer in the superconducting state is obtained within a Bardeen–Cooper–Schriefer (BCS) formalism using the Green’s function technique. This correlation is found to be sensitive to the various parameter of the model Hamiltonian. We have calculated the out-of-plane contribution to the superconducting condensation energy. The calculated values of condensation energy are in agreement with those obtained from the speciﬁc heat and the -axis penetration depth measurements on bilayer cuprates.
Magnetic Irreversibility in VO2/Ni Bilayers
de La Venta, Jose; Lauzier, Josh; Sutton, Logan
The temperature dependence of the coercivity and magnetization of VO2/Ni bilayers was studied. VO2 exhibits a well-known Structural Phase Transition (SPT) at 330-340 K, from a low temperature monoclinic (M) to a high temperature rutile (R) structure. The SPT of VO2 induces an inverse magnetoelastic effect that strongly modifies the coercivity and magnetization of the Ni films. In addition, the growth conditions allow tuning of the magnetic properties. Ni films deposited on top of VO2 (M) show an irreversible change in the coercivity after the first cycle through the high temperature phase, with a corresponding change in the surface morphology of VO2. On the other hand, the Ni films grown on top of VO2 (R) do not show this irreversibility. These results indicate that properties of magnetic films are strongly affected by the strain induced by materials that undergo SPT and that it is possible to control the magnetic properties by tuning the growth conditions.
Large intervals in the clone lattice
Goldstern, Martin; Shelah, Saharon
2002-01-01
We give three examples of large intervals in the lattice of (local) clones on an infinite set X, by exhibiting clones C_1, C_2, C_3 such that: (1) the interval [C_1, O] in the lattice of local clones is (as a lattice) isomorphic to {0,1,2, ...} under the divisibility relation, (2) the interval [C_2, O] in the lattice of local clones is isomorphic to the congruence lattice of an arbitrary semilattice, (3) the interval [C_3, O] in the lattice of all clones is isomorphic to the lattice of all fi...
A lexicographic shellability characterization of geometric lattices
Davidson, Ruth
2011-01-01
Geometric lattices are characterized as those finite, atomic lattices such that every atom ordering induces a lexicographic shelling given by an edge labeling known as a minimal labeling. This new characterization fits into a similar paradigm as McNamara's characterization of supersolvable lattices as those lattices admitting a different type of lexicographic shelling, namely one in which each maximal chain is labeled with a permutation of {1,...,n}. Geometric lattices arise as the intersection lattices of central hyperplane arrangements and more generally as the lattices of flats for matroids.
Gaind, Vaibhav
Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) has found many applications in in vitro imaging as an indicator of molecular activity. However, till now, in vivo FRET imaging has been restricted to near-surface multiphoton microscopy. Optical diffusion tomography (ODT) is an emerging tool for deep tissue imaging. In this work, FRET was incorporated in an ODT framework, thereby allowing FRET to be applied in deep tissue imaging. Using simulations and tissue phantom and small animal imaging experiments, the possibility of imaging molecular activity on the nanometer scale using macroscopic measurements is demonstrated. The diffusion equation model is limited to regions of high scatter and low absorption. The Bethe-Salpeter equation has been used extensively to explain various scattering phenomena and is more fundamental than the Boltzmann transport equation. In this work, the Bethe-Salpeter equation has been investigated for modeling photon transport in the non-diffusive regime.
Bruneval, Fabien; Hamed, Samia M.; Neaton, Jeffrey B.
2015-01-01
The predictive power of the ab initio Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) approach, rigorously based on many-body Green's function theory but incorporating information from density functional theory, has already been demonstrated for the optical gaps and spectra of solid-state systems. Interest in photoactive hybrid organic/inorganic systems has recently increased, and so has the use of the BSE for computing neutral excitations of organic molecules. However, no systematic benchmarks of the BSE for ...
Loginov, A Y
2002-01-01
Bethe-Salpeter equation for the massive particles with spin 1 is considered. The scattering amplitude decomposition of the particles with spin 1 by relativistic tensors is derived. The transformation coefficients from helicity amplitudes to invariant functions is found. The integral equations system for invariant functions is obtained and partial decomposition of this system is performed. Equivalent system of the integral equation for the partial helicity amplitudes is presented.
Interleaflet mixing and coupling in liquid-disordered phospholipid bilayers.
Capponi, Sara; Freites, J Alfredo; Tobias, Douglas J; White, Stephen H
2016-02-01
Organized as bilayers, phospholipids are the fundamental building blocks of cellular membranes and determine many of their biological functions. Interactions between the two leaflets of the bilayer (interleaflet coupling) have been implicated in the passage of information through membranes. However, physically, the meaning of interleaflet coupling is ill defined and lacks a structural basis. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of fluid phospholipid bilayers of five different lipids with differing degrees of acyl-chain asymmetry, we have examined interleaflet mixing to gain insights into coupling. Reasoning that the transbilayer distribution of terminal methyl groups is an appropriate measure of interleaflet mixing, we calculated the transbilayer distributions of the acyl chain terminal methyl groups for five lipids: dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC), stearoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (SOPC), oleoylmyristoylphosphatidylcholine (OMPC), and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC). We observed in all cases very strong mixing across the bilayer midplane that diminished somewhat with increasing acyl-chain ordering defined by methylene order parameters. A hallmark of the interleaflet coupling idea is complementarity, which postulates that lipids with short alkyl chains in one leaflet will preferentially associate with lipids with long alkyl chains in the other leaflet. Our results suggest a much more complicated picture for thermally disordered bilayers that we call distributed complementarity, as measured by the difference in the peak positions of the sn-1 and sn-2 methyl distributions in the same leaflet. PMID:26657692
Hydrogel-Stabilized Droplet Bilayers for High Speed Solution Exchange
Acharya, Shiv A.; Portman, Alexander; Salazar, Carl S.; Schmidt, Jacob J.
2013-11-01
Many applications utilizing artificial lipid bilayers require the ability to exchange the bilayer's solution environment. However, because of the instability of the bilayer, the rate of solution exchange is limited, which significantly hinders the measurement rate and throughput. We have developed an artificial bilayer system that can withstand high flow speeds, up to 2.1 m/s, by supporting the bilayer with a hydrogel. We demonstrated the ability to measure during flow by measuring the conductance of gramicidin-A channels while switching between solutions of two different compositions, recording a time to measure 90% change in current of approximately 2.7 seconds at a flow rate of 0.1 m/s. We also demonstrated a potential application of this system by measuring the conductance modulation of the rat TRPM8 ion channel by an agonist and antagonist at varying concentrations, obtaining 7-point IC50 and EC50 values in approximately 7 minutes and 4-point values within 4 minutes.