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Sample records for bilateral spastic cp

  1. Different horse's paces during hippotherapy on spatio-temporal parameters of gait in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Fabiane Nunes; Pinho, Alexandre Severo do; Kleiner, Ana Francisca Rozin; Salazar, Ana Paula; Eltz, Giovana Duarte; de Oliveira Junior, Alcyr Alves; Cechetti, Fernanda; Galli, Manuela; Pagnussat, Aline Souza

    2016-12-01

    Hippotherapy is often carried out for the rehabilitation of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP), with the horse riding at a walking pace. This study aimed to explore the immediate effects of a hippotherapy protocol using a walk-trot pace on spatio-temporal gait parameters and muscle tone in children with Bilateral Spastic CP (BS-CP). Ten children diagnosed with BS-CP and 10 healthy aged-matched children (reference group) took part in this study. The children with BS-CP underwent two sessions of hippotherapy for one week of washout between them. Two protocols (lasting 30min) were applied on separate days: Protocol 1: the horse's pace was a walking pace; and Protocol 2: the horse's pace was a walk-trot pace. Children from the reference group were not subjected to treatment. A wireless inertial measurement unit measured gait spatio-temporal parameters before and after each session. The Modified Ashworth Scale was applied for muscle tone measurement of hip adductors. The participants underwent the gait assessment on a path with surface irregularities (ecological context). The comparisons between BS-CP and the reference group found differences in all spatio-temporal parameters, except for gait velocity. Within-group analysis of children with BS-CP showed that the swing phase did not change after the walk pace and after the walk-trot pace. The percentage of rolling phase and double support improved after the walk-trot. The spasticity of the hip adductors was significantly reduced as an immediate result of both protocols, but this decrease was more evident after the walk-trot. The walk-trot protocol is feasible and is able to induce an immediate effect that improves the gait spatio-temporal parameters and the hip adductors spasticity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Easter Seals March of Dimes National Multiple Sclerosis Society United Cerebral Palsy (UCP) See all related organizations Publications Order NINDS Publications Definition Spasticity is a condition in which there is ...

  3. Effects of hippotherapy on gait parameters in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong-Yi; Chang, Hyun Jung; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Yumi; Lee, Peter K; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of hippotherapy on temporospatial parameters and pelvic and hip kinematics of gait in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy. Nonrandomized prospective controlled trial. Outpatient therapy center. Children (N=32) with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Function Classification System level 1 or 2. Hippotherapy (30 min twice weekly for 8 consecutive weeks). Temporospatial parameters and pelvic and hip kinematic parameters in 3-dimensional motion analysis, Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-88, and score for dimensions D (standing) and E (walking, running, jumping) of the GMFM, GMFM-66, and Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS). Hippotherapy significantly improved walking speed, stride length, and pelvic kinematics (average pelvic anterior tilt, pelvic anterior tilt at initial contact, pelvic anterior tilt at terminal stance). Scores for dimension E of the GMFM, GMFM-66 and PBS also increased. Hippotherapy provided by licensed health professionals using the multidimensional movement of the horse may be used in conjunction with standard physical therapy for improvement of gait and balance in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusic, Ana; Alimovic, Sonja

    2013-09-01

    Spasticity has been considered as a major impairment in cerebral palsy (CP), but the relationship between this impairment and motor functions is still unclear, especially in the same group of patients with CP. The aim of this investigation is to determine the relationship between spasticity and gross motor capability in nonambulatory children with spastic CP. Seventy-one children (30 boys, 41 girls) with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy and with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels IV (n=34) and V (n=37) were included in the study. The spasticity level in lower limbs was evaluated using the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale and the gross motor function with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88). Spearman's correlation analysis was used to determine the nature and the strength of the relationship. The results showed a moderate correlation between spasticity and gross motor skills (ρ=0.52 for the GMFCS level; ρ=0.57 for the GMFM-88), accounting for less than 30% of the explained variance. It seems that spasticity is just one factor among many others that could interfere with gross motor skills, even in children with severe forms of spastic CP. Knowledge of the impact of spasticity on motor skills may be useful in the setting of adequate rehabilitation strategies for nonambulatory children with spastic CP.

  5. Classification of Topographical Pattern of Spasticity in Cerebral Palsy: A Registry Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Susan M.; Carlin, John B.; Reddihough, Dinah S.

    2011-01-01

    This study used data from a population-based cerebral palsy (CP) registry and systematic review to assess the amount of heterogeneity between registries in topographical patterns when dichotomised into unilateral (USCP) and bilateral spastic CP (BSCP), and whether the terms diplegia and quadriplegia provide useful additional epidemiological…

  6. Cranial MRI findings in pediatric patients with bilateral spastic paralysis. Comparison with neonatal cranial echography and correlation with neurological sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Yushiro; Horikawa, Mizuho; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Utsunomiya, Hidetsuna; Okudera, Toshio; Fukuda, Seiichi; Hashimoto, Takeo; Nakamura, Yasuhiro.

    1994-01-01

    Fourteen patients with bilateral spastic paralysis (an average age of 2 years and 5 months) were examined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Common MRI findings were an enlarged cerebral ventricle, irregular wall, abnormal signal area in the vicinity of the cerebral ventricle, decrease in the content of white matter, and thickening of the callosum. These findings seemed to reflect pathological lesions in periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Of 3 patients who had been diagnosed as having cystic PVL on neonatal ultrasonography, 2 had cystic lesions in the corresponding areas on MRI. In the other patient with cystic PVL, membrane-like wall between the cyst and the enlarged cerebral ventricle was different from that seen definitely in porencephalie on spin density images. In patients in whom PVL was missed on neonatal ultrasonography, MRI demonstrated PVL. There was correlation between MRI findings and neurological sequelae: the severity of exercise function tended to correlate with the degree of decreased white matter; however, there was no correlation between spread of abnormal signal areas and the severity of exercise function. (N.K.)

  7. Cranial MRI findings in pediatric patients with bilateral spastic paralysis. Comparison with neonatal cranial echography and correlation with neurological sequelae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Yushiro; Horikawa, Mizuho; Matsuishi, Toyojiro (Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine); Utsunomiya, Hidetsuna; Okudera, Toshio; Fukuda, Seiichi; Hashimoto, Takeo; Nakamura, Yasuhiro

    1994-08-01

    Fourteen patients with bilateral spastic paralysis (an average age of 2 years and 5 months) were examined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Common MRI findings were an enlarged cerebral ventricle, irregular wall, abnormal signal area in the vicinity of the cerebral ventricle, decrease in the content of white matter, and thickening of the callosum. These findings seemed to reflect pathological lesions in periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Of 3 patients who had been diagnosed as having cystic PVL on neonatal ultrasonography, 2 had cystic lesions in the corresponding areas on MRI. In the other patient with cystic PVL, membrane-like wall between the cyst and the enlarged cerebral ventricle was different from that seen definitely in porencephalie on spin density images. In patients in whom PVL was missed on neonatal ultrasonography, MRI demonstrated PVL. There was correlation between MRI findings and neurological sequelae: the severity of exercise function tended to correlate with the degree of decreased white matter; however, there was no correlation between spread of abnormal signal areas and the severity of exercise function. (N.K.).

  8. Classification of topographical pattern of spasticity in cerebral palsy: a registry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Susan M; Carlin, John B; Reddihough, Dinah S

    2011-01-01

    This study used data from a population-based cerebral palsy (CP) registry and systematic review to assess the amount of heterogeneity between registries in topographical patterns when dichotomised into unilateral (USCP) and bilateral spastic CP (BSCP), and whether the terms diplegia and quadriplegia provide useful additional epidemiological information. From the Victorian CP Register, 2956 individuals (1658 males, 1298 females), born 1970-2003, with spastic CP were identified. The proportions with each topographical pattern were analysed overall and by gestational age. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess temporal trends. For the review, data were systematically collected on topographical patterns from 27 registries. Estimates of heterogeneity were obtained, overall and by region, reporting period and definition of quadriplegia. Among individuals born <32 weeks, 48% had diplegia, whereas the proportion for children born ≥ 32 weeks was 24% (p < 0.001). Evidence was weak for a temporal trend in the relative proportions of USCP and BSCP (p = 0.038), but much clearer for an increase in the proportion of spastic diplegia relative to quadriplegia (p < 0.001). The review revealed wide variations across studies in the proportion of diplegia (range 34-90%) and BSCP (range 51-86%). These findings argue against a topographical classification based solely on laterality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of Spasticity in Cerebral Palsy: Dependence of Catch Angle on Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Ning; Ren, Yupeng; Goldsmith, Ashlee; Gaebler, Deborah; Liu, Shu Q.; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate spasticity under controlled velocities and torques in children with cerebral palsy (CP) using a manual spasticity evaluator. Method: The study involved 10 children with spastic CP (six males, four females; mean age 10y 1mo, SD 2y 9mo, range 7-16y; one with quadriplegia, six with right hemiplegia, three with left hemiplegia; Gross…

  10. Gross motor function, functional skills and caregiver assistance in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) with and without cerebral visual impairment (CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, M.; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Steenbergen, B.; Schans, C.P. van der

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the level of gross motor function and functional skills in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and cerebral visual impairment (CVI) as well as caregiver assistance are lower in comparison with the corresponding group of children experiencing CP without CVI. Method: Data

  11. Gross motor function, functional skills and caregiver assistance in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) with and without cerebral visual impairment (CVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, Masoud; Rameckers, E.A.A.; Steenbergen, B.; van der Schans, Cees

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To determine whether the level of gross motor function and functional skills in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and cerebral visual impairment (CVI) as well as caregiver assistance are lower in comparison with the corresponding group of children experiencing CP without CVI. Method:

  12. Development of postural adjustments during reaching in infants with CP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, M; van der Fits, IBM; Stremmelaar, EF; Touwen, BCL

    1999-01-01

    The development of postural adjustments during reaching movements was longitudinally studied in seven infants with cerebral palsy (CP) between 4 and 18 months of age. Five infants developed spastic hemiplegia, one spastic tetraplegia, and one spastic tetraplegia with athetosis. Each assessment

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for epilepsy in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Rahmat

    2010-03-01

    Conclusions The prevalence of epilepsy in spastic CP is 39%. The risk factors for epilepsy in spastic CP are post central nervous system infection, and ocurrence of seizure in the first year of life. [Paediatr Indones. 2010;50:11-7].

  14. Intrathecal baclofen therapy in children with intractable spastic cerebral palsy: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, M.A.; Evers, S.M.A.A.; Ament, A.J.H.A.; van Raak, E.P.M.; Becher, J.G.; Rotteveel, J.; Vles, J.S.H.

    2008-01-01

    In a Dutch national study, we recently established the effectiveness and safety of continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion (CITB) in children with intractable spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Because prospective studies on the cost-effectiveness of CITB in children with spastic CP are lacking, we

  15. Intrathecal baclofen therapy in children with intractable spastic cerebral palsy: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, M.A.; Evers, S.M.; Ament, A.J.; Raak, E.P. van; Vles, J.S.; Becher, J.G.; Vermeulen, R.; Brouwer, O.F.; Maathuis, C.G.B.; Catsman-Berrevoets, C.E.; Gerritsen, J.; Geerts, M.J.; Jongerius, P.H.; Nieuwenhuizen, O.F.; Rotteveel, J.J.; Speth, L.A.; Stroink, H.; Ziel, E.G. van der

    2008-01-01

    In a Dutch national study, we recently established the effectiveness and safety of continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion (CITB) in children with intractable spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Because prospective studies on the cost-effectiveness of CITB in children with spastic CP are lacking, we

  16. Spasticity and Its Contribution to Hypertonia in Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Bar-On

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spasticity is considered an important neural contributor to muscle hypertonia in children with cerebral palsy (CP. It is most often treated with antispasticity medication, such as Botulinum Toxin-A. However, treatment response is highly variable. Part of this variability may be due to the inability of clinical tests to differentiate between the neural (e.g., spasticity and nonneural (e.g., soft tissue properties contributions to hypertonia, leading to the terms “spasticity” and “hypertonia” often being used interchangeably. Recent advancements in instrumented spasticity assessments offer objective measurement methods for distinction and quantification of hypertonia components. These methods can be applied in clinical settings and their results used to fine-tune and improve treatment. We reviewed current advancements and new insights with respect to quantifying spasticity and its contribution to muscle hypertonia in children with CP. First, we revisit what is known about spasticity in children with CP, including the various definitions and its pathophysiology. Second, we summarize the state of the art on instrumented spasticity assessment in CP and review the parameters developed to quantify the neural and nonneural components of hypertonia. Lastly, the impact these quantitative parameters have on clinical decision-making is considered and recommendations for future clinical and research investigations are discussed.

  17. Effect of whole-body vibration on muscle strength, spasticity, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CP) and is characterized by spasticity and muscle weakness of both lower limbs resulting in decreased walking ability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on muscle strength, spasticity, and ...

  18. Quantifying spasticity in individual muscles using shear wave elastography

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    Sarah F. Eby, BS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spasticity is common following stroke; however, high subject variability and unreliable measurement techniques limit research and treatment advances. Our objective was to investigate the use of shear wave elastography (SWE to characterize the spastic reflex in the biceps brachii during passive elbow extension in an individual with spasticity. The patient was a 42-year-old right-hand-dominant male with history of right middle cerebral artery-distribution ischemic infarction causing spastic left hemiparesis. We compared Fugl-Meyer scores (numerical evaluation of motor function, sensation, motion, and pain, Modified Ashworth scores (most commonly used clinical assessment of spasticity, and SWE measures of bilateral biceps brachii during passive elbow extension. We detected a catch that featured markedly increased stiffness of the brachialis muscle during several trials of the contralateral limb, especially at higher extension velocities. SWE was able to detect velocity-related increases in stiffness with extension of the contralateral limb, likely indicative of the spastic reflex. This study offers optimism that SWE can provide a rapid, real-time, quantitative technique that is readily accessible to clinicians for evaluating spasticity.

  19. Altered sense of agency in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Christensen, Mark S; Kliim-Due, Mette

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Background Children diagnosed with spastic Cerebral Palsy (CP) often show perceptual and cognitive problems, which may contribute to their functional deficit. Here we investigated if altered ability to determine whether an observed movement is performed by themselves (sense of agency...

  20. Spasticity complicating metrizamide myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earl, H M; Earl, C J; Kendall, B E

    1985-09-01

    Temporary but considerable increase in spasticity following myelography using metrizamide at 300 mgsI/ml concentration occurred in 4 patients. In 3 of the patients the diagnosis is uncertain, but it is likely to be some form of degenerative disease involving motor pathways in two of them; the fourth case has cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The spasticity might be related to the anticholinesterase activity of metrizamide or to competative inhibition by the deoxyglucose component of the metrizamide molecule of endogenous glucose metabolism.

  1. Intrathecal Baclofen Pump for Spasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To conduct an evidence-based analysis of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of intrathecal baclofen for spasticity. The Technology Spasticity is a motor disorder characterized by tight or stiff muscles that may interfere with voluntary muscle movements and is a problem for many patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), spinal cord injury (SCI), cerebral palsy (CP), and acquired brain injury (ABI).(1). Increased tone and spasm reduces mobility and independence, and interferes with activities of daily living, continence and sleep patterns. Spasticity may also be associated with significant pain or discomfort (e.g., due to poor fit in braces, footwear, or wheelchairs), skin breakdown, contractures, sleep disorders and difficulty in transfer. Goals of treatment are to decrease spasticity in order to improve range of motion, facilitate movement, reduce energy expenditure and reduce risk of contractures. Existing treatments include physical therapy, oral medications, injections of phenol or botulinum toxin, or surgical intervention. Baclofen is the oral drug most frequently prescribed for spasticity in cases of SCI and MS.(1) Baclofen is a muscle relaxant and antispasticity drug. In the brain, baclofen delivered orally has some supraspinal activity that may contribute to clinical side effects. The main adverse effects of oral baclofen include sedation, excessive weakness, dizziness, mental confusion, and somnolence.(2) The incidence of adverse effects is reported to range from 10% to 75%.(2) Ochs et al. estimated that approximately 25-30% of SCI and MS patients fail to respond to oral baclofen.(3;4) Adverse effects appear to be dose-related and may be minimized by initiating treatment at a low dose and gradually titrating upwards.(2) Adverse effects usually appear at doses >60 mg/day.(2) The rate of treatment discontinuation due to intolerable adverse effects has generally been reported to range from 4% to 27%.(2) When baclofen is

  2. EFFECTIVENESS OF FLOOR EXERCISES VERSES BALL EXERCISES ON SPINAL MOBILITY IN SPASTIC DIPLEGIC

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    Sumitra Sakhawalkar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this present study was to determine the Effectiveness of Floor Exercises versus Ball Exercises on spinal mobility in Spastic Diplegic. Methods: Institutional ethical committee permission was taken before starting the study. A sample of 70 Diplegic CP children was screened, and 40 meeting the inclusion criteria were selected for study were then randomly divided into two groups one control other experimental i.e. 20 in each group by chit method. Both the groups were assessed with spinal goniometry using Tape measurements for Thoracolumbar spine and Modified Schober's Test (MMSTbefore and after the treatment. Control group were given Floor exercise on a mat, and Swiss ball was giving experimental group Ball exercises for ten repetitions with 10-second hold, treatment time was 40 min per session for 3days per week for six weeks. Same sustained stretching technique for both groups in bilateral lower extremities for ten repetitions with 30 sec hold was given for, TA, Iliopsoas, Hamstrings, Hip Adductor, Rectus femoris. Result: Significant improvement was noted in the Intra-group comparison of both the groups from baseline to post six weeks of intervention p-value 0.001*** in both groups, and the Intergroup analysis using with tape measurements for Thoracolumbar spine (p-value and MMST (p-value 0.133NS. Conclusion: The present study concludes that there is a similar effect of both Floor Exercises versus Ball Exercises on spinal mobility in Spastic Diplegic.

  3. Clinical and neuroimaging profile of congenital brain malformations in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, W.; Okurowska-Zawada, B.; Sobaniec, W.; Goscik, M.; Olenski, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Analysis of the incidence of congenital brain malformations in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) in a hospital based study. Material and Methods: The present study included 74 boys and 56 girls with spastic tetraplegia, diplegia, and hemiplegia CP. Magnetic resonance imaging MRI findings were analyzed in children with CP. Results: Significant abnormalities relevant to the CP were evident on MRI in 124 (95.3%) subjects. Periventicular leukomalacia (PVL) was detected more frequently in children with spastic diplegia than in patients with tetraplegia or hemiplegia. Cerebral atrophy was found more often in the tetraplegic group compared to the diplegic patients. Porencephalic cysts were detected more often in children with spastic hemiplegia. Congenital brain anomalies were evident in 15 (10.7%) children with spastic CP. Brain malformations included: schizencephaly (5), agenesis corpus callosum (4), polymicrogyria (2), holoprosencephaly (2) and lissencephaly (2). Intractable epilepsy and mental retardation were observed more often in children with brain anomalies. Twelve patients with congenital brain malformations were born at term and three born at preterm. Conclusions: Neuroimaging results in children with CP may help determine the etiology and make better prognosis of CP. (authors)

  4. Using Telemedicine to Improve Spasticity Diagnosis Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-20

    Spasticity, Muscle; Muscular Diseases; Musculoskeletal Disease; Muscle Hypertonia; Muscle Spasticity; Neuromuscular Manifestations; Signs and Symptoms; Nervous System Diseases; Neurologic Manifestations

  5. Disruption of basal lamina components in neuromotor synapses of children with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyn G Robinson

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy (CP is a static encephalopathy occurring when a lesion to the developing brain results in disordered movement and posture. Patients present with sometimes overlapping spastic, athetoid/dyskinetic, and ataxic symptoms. Spastic CP, which is characterized by stiff muscles, weakness, and poor motor control, accounts for ∼80% of cases. The detailed mechanisms leading to disordered movement in spastic CP are not completely understood, but clinical experience and recent studies suggest involvement of peripheral motor synapses. For example, it is recognized that CP patients have altered sensitivities to drugs that target neuromuscular junctions (NMJs, and protein localization studies suggest that NMJ microanatomy is disrupted in CP. Since CP originates during maturation, we hypothesized that NMJ disruption in spastic CP is associated with retention of an immature neuromotor phenotype later in life. Scoliosis patients with spastic CP or idiopathic disease were enrolled in a prospective, partially-blinded study to evaluate NMJ organization and neuromotor maturation. The localization of synaptic acetylcholine esterase (AChE relative to postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor (AChR, synaptic laminin β2, and presynaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2 appeared mismatched in the CP samples; whereas, no significant disruption was found between AChR and SV2. These data suggest that pre- and postsynaptic NMJ components in CP children were appropriately distributed even though AChE and laminin β2 within the synaptic basal lamina appeared disrupted. Follow up electron microscopy indicated that NMJs from CP patients appeared generally mature and similar to controls with some differences present, including deeper postsynaptic folds and reduced presynaptic mitochondria. Analysis of maturational markers, including myosin, syntrophin, myogenin, and AChR subunit expression, and telomere lengths, all indicated similar levels of motor maturation in the two groups

  6. CP violation

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    Contents: CP Phenomenology: Introduction to CP Violation (C Jarlskog); CP-Violation in the K 0 -K 0 -System (K Kleinknecht); The Quark Mixing Matrix, Charm Decays and B Decays (S Stone); The Question of CP Noninvariance - As Seen through the Eyes of Neutral Beauty (I I Bigi et al.); In Search of CP Noninvariance in Heavy Quark Systems (L-L Chau); CP Violation at High Energy e + e - Colliders (J Bernabéu & M B Gavela); CP Violation in the Standard Model with Four Families (A Datta & E A Paschos); CP Effects When Neutrinos are their Own Antiparticles (B Kayser); On Spontaneous CP Violation Trigg

  7. Best seating condition in children with spastic cerebral palsy : One type does not fit all

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angsupaisal, Mattana; Dijkstra, Linze-Jaap; la Bastide-van Gemert, Sacha; van Hoorn, Jessika F.; Burger, Karine; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2017-01-01

    Background: The effect of forward-tilting of the seat surface and foot-support in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) is debated. Aim: To assess the effect of forward-tilting of the seat surface and foot-support in children with CP on kinematic head stability and reaching. Methods: Nineteen

  8. Efficacy of photobiomodulation therapy on masseter thickness and oral health-related quality of life in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues; Nascimento, Karla Santos; Carazzato, Simone; Barros, Alina Oliveira; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Diniz, Michele Baffi

    2017-08-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on bilateral masseter muscle thickness and amplitude of mouth opening in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP), and the impact on their oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL). Three groups were included: experimental CP group (EG: n = 26 with oral complaints), positive control CP group (PCG: n = 26 without complaints), and negative control group (NCG: n = 26 without CP). In the EG, the masseter muscles on both sides were irradiated with an infrared low-level Ga-Al-As laser (λ = 808 ± 3 nm, 120 mW) using a 3 J/cm 2 energy dose per site, with a 20 s exposure time per site (spot area: 4 mm 2 ; irradiance: 3 W/cm 2 ; energy delivery per point: 2.4 J) six times over six consecutive weeks. Masseter thickness, assessed through ultrasonography, and the amplitude of mouth opening were measured in the EG before and after six applications of PBMT and once in the PCG and NCG. The Parental-Caregiver Perception Questionnaire (P-CPQ) was used to evaluate OHRQOL. ANOVA, chi-square, t tests, and multilevel linear regression were used for statistical analysis. In the EG, the study results revealed average increments of 0.77 (0.08) millimeter in masseter thickness (P < 0.05) and 7.39 (0.58) millimeter for mouth opening (P < 0.05) and reduction in all P-CPQ domains (P < 0.001), except for social well-being. The six applications of PBMT increased masseter thickness and mouth opening amplitude and reduced the impact of spastic CP on OHRQOL.

  9. Hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Craig

    2018-01-01

    The hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a heterogeneous group of neurologic disorders with the common feature of prominent lower-extremity spasticity, resulting from a length-dependent axonopathy of corticospinal upper motor neurons. The HSPs exist not only in "pure" forms but also in "complex" forms that are associated with additional neurologic and extraneurologic features. The HSPs are among the most genetically diverse neurologic disorders, with well over 70 distinct genetic loci, for which about 60 mutated genes have already been identified. Numerous studies elucidating the molecular pathogenesis underlying HSPs have highlighted the importance of basic cellular functions - especially membrane trafficking, mitochondrial function, organelle shaping and biogenesis, axon transport, and lipid/cholesterol metabolism - in axon development and maintenance. An encouragingly small number of converging cellular pathogenic themes have been identified for the most common HSPs, and some of these pathways present compelling targets for future therapies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ocular disorders in children with spastic subtype of cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, A Taylan; Berk, A Tulin; Yaman, Aylin

    2013-01-01

    To document common ocular abnormalities in children with spastic subtype of cerebral palsy (CP) and to find out whether any correlation exists between their occurance and etiologic factors. Totally 194 patients with the diagnosis of spastic type CP were enrolled in this retrospective study. Detailed ophthalmic examinations were performed. Demographic data and neuroradiological findings were documented. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney U, Pearson Chi-square tests and Student's t tests were used in the statistical analysis. The mean age was 64.7±44.2 months on the first ophthalmic examination. Prevalences of diplegia (47.4%) and tetraplegia (36.1%) were found to be higher than the frequency of hemiplegia (16.5%) in our study population. Etiologic factor was asphyxia in 60.8% of the patients. Abnormal ocular findings were present in 78.9% of the patients. Statistically significant poor vision was detected in tetraplegia group among all the spastic ubtypes of CP (P=0.000). Anisometropia and significant refractive error were found in 14.4% and 70.1% of the patients, respectively. Thirty-six children (18.6%) had nystagmus and 107 children (55.2%) had strabismus. Lower gestational age and birth weight were statistically higher in patients with esotropia than exotropia (P=0.009 and P=0.024, respectively). Abnormal morphology of the optic disc was present in 152 eyes (39.2%). Severe periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) was found in 48 patients and statistically significant poor vision was detected in the presence of PVL (P=0.000). Spastic diplegic or tetraplegic CP patients with positive neuroradiological symptoms, younger gestational age and lower birth weight ought to have detailed ophthalmic examinations as early as possible to provide best visual rehabilitation.

  11. Ocular disorders in children with spastic subtype of cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Yaman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To document common ocular abnormalities in children with spastic subtype of cerebral palsy (CP and to find out whether any correlation exists between their occurance and etiologic factors. METHODS: Totally 194 patients with the diagnosis of spastic type CP were enrolled in this retrospective study. Detailed ophthalmic examinations were performed. Demographic data and neuroradiological findings were documented. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney U, Pearson Chi-square tests and Student’s t tests were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: The mean age was 64.7±44.2 months on the first ophthalmic examination. Prevalences of diplegia (47.4% and tetraplegia (36.1% were found to be higher than the frequency of hemiplegia (16.5% in our study population. Etiologic factor was asphyxia in 60.8% of the patients. Abnormal ocular findings were present in 78.9% of the patients. Statistically significant poor vision was detected in tetraplegia group among all the spastic ubtypes of CP (P=0.000. Anisometropia and significant refractive error were found in 14.4% and 70.1% of the patients, respectively. Thirty-six children (18.6% had nystagmus and 107 children (55.2% had strabismus. Lower gestational age and birth weight were statistically higher in patients with esotropia than exotropia (P=0.009 and P=0.024, respectively. Abnormal morphology of the optic disc was present in 152 eyes (39.2%. Severe periventricular leukomalacia (PVL was found in 48 patients and statistically significant poor vision was detected in the presence of PVL (P=0.000. CONCLUSION: Spastic diplegic or tetraplegic CP patients with positive neuroradiological symptoms, younger gestational age and lower birth weight ought to have detailed ophthalmic examinations as early as possible to provide best visual rehabilitation.

  12. Neuro-musculoskeletal simulation of instrumented contracture and spasticity assessment in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Krogt, Marjolein Margaretha; Bar-On, Lynn; Kindt, Thalia; Desloovere, Kaat; Harlaar, Jaap

    2016-07-16

    Increased resistance in muscles and joints is an important phenomenon in patients with cerebral palsy (CP), and is caused by a combination of neural (e.g. spasticity) and non-neural (e.g. contracture) components. The aim of this study was to simulate instrumented, clinical assessment of the hamstring muscles in CP using a conceptual model of contracture and spasticity, and to determine to what extent contracture can be explained by altered passive muscle stiffness, and spasticity by (purely) velocity-dependent stretch reflex. Instrumented hamstrings spasticity assessment was performed on 11 children with CP and 9 typically developing children. In this test, the knee was passively stretched at slow and fast speed, and knee angle, applied forces and EMG were measured. A dedicated OpenSim model was created with motion and muscles around the knee only. Contracture was modeled by optimizing the passive muscle stiffness parameters of vasti and hamstrings, based on slow stretch data. Spasticity was modeled using a velocity-dependent feedback controller, with threshold values derived from experimental data and gain values optimized for individual subjects. Forward dynamic simulations were performed to predict muscle behavior during slow and fast passive stretches. Both slow and fast stretch data could be successfully simulated by including subject-specific levels of contracture and, for CP fast stretches, spasticity. The RMS errors of predicted knee motion in CP were 1.1 ± 0.9° for slow and 5.9 ± 2.1° for fast stretches. CP hamstrings were found to be stiffer compared with TD, and both hamstrings and vasti were more compliant than the original generic model, except for the CP hamstrings. The purely velocity-dependent spasticity model could predict response during fast passive stretch in terms of predicted knee angle, muscle activity, and fiber length and velocity. Only sustained muscle activity, independent of velocity, was not predicted by our model. The

  13. Asphyxia-related risk factors and their timing in spastic cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene F.; Schendel, Diana; Grove, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of asphyxia-related conditions (reducing blood flow or blood oxygen levels in the fetus) with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) considering different gestational age groups and the timing of risk. Design Population-based case-control study. Setting Danish Cerebral...... Palsy Register in eastern Denmark and Danish Medical Birth Register. Population or Sample 271 singletons with spastic CP and 217 singleton controls, frequency matched by gestational age group, born 1982-1990 in eastern Denmark. Methods Data were abstracted from medical records, and a priori asphyxia...

  14. Changes in Muscle Activation Following Ankle Strength Training in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: An Electromyography Feasibility Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jamie E.; Ross, Sandy A.; Foreman, Matthew H.; Engsberg, Jack R.

    2013-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are likely to experience decreased participation in activities and less competence in activities of daily living. Studies of children with spastic CP have shown that strengthening programs produce positive results in strength, gait, and functional outcomes (measured by the Gross Motor Function Measure). No…

  15. Muscle activation patterns when passively stretching spastic lower limb muscles of children with cerebral palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Bar-On

    Full Text Available The definition of spasticity as a velocity-dependent activation of the tonic stretch reflex during a stretch to a passive muscle is the most widely accepted. However, other mechanisms are also thought to contribute to pathological muscle activity and, in patients post-stroke and spinal cord injury can result in different activation patterns. In the lower-limbs of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP these distinct activation patterns have not yet been thoroughly explored. The aim of the study was to apply an instrumented assessment to quantify different muscle activation patterns in four lower-limb muscles of children with CP. Fifty-four children with CP were included (males/females n = 35/19; 10.8 ± 3.8 yrs; bilateral/unilateral involvement n =  32/22; Gross Motor Functional Classification Score I-IV of whom ten were retested to evaluate intra-rater reliability. With the subject relaxed, single-joint, sagittal-plane movements of the hip, knee, and ankle were performed to stretch the lower-limb muscles at three increasing velocities. Muscle activity and joint motion were synchronously recorded using inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG from the adductors, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius. Muscles were visually categorised into activation patterns using average, normalized root mean square EMG (RMS-EMG compared across increasing position zones and velocities. Based on the visual categorisation, quantitative parameters were defined using stretch-reflex thresholds and normalized RMS-EMG. These parameters were compared between muscles with different activation patterns. All patterns were dominated by high velocity-dependent muscle activation, but in more than half, low velocity-dependent activation was also observed. Muscle activation patterns were found to be both muscle- and subject-specific (p<0.01. The intra-rater reliability of all quantitative parameters was moderate to good. Comparing RMS-EMG between

  16. Bone mineral density and insulin-like growth factor-1 in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazif, H; Shatla, R; Elsayed, R; Tawfik, E; Osman, N; Korra, S; Ibrahim, A

    2017-04-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have significant decrease linear growth rate and low bone mineral density (BMD). This study is to evaluate BMD in children with CP and its relation to the levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). This cross-sectional study was carried out on 58 children suffering from spastic CP with the age range 4-12 years compared to 19 controls. All assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measure BMD, serum level of IGF-1, and serum vitamin D. The patients were classified according to their GMFCS. Fractures were reported in seven (12.1%) of cases. Our study demonstrated that, IGF-1 level and BMD decrease in correlation with the severity of CP. IGF-1correlates positively with serum vitamin D, BMI, and BMD. CP children with severe GMFCS level or who use anticonvulsive drugs are at a high risk for low BMD and low levels of IGF-1. Both BMD and IGF-1 were significantly in low children with spastic CP; IGF-1 negatively correlates with the severity of osteopenia in children with spastic. Children with CP who are not independently ambulant or with severe GMFCS level or who use anticonvulsive drugs are at a high risk for developing low BMD.

  17. CP violation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    In the first two lectures, CP violation in the K system is pedagogically reviewed: its manifestations in the neutral K meson systems, in rare K meson decays and in decays of charged K mesons, and results from classical and current experiments, are discussed. In the third lecture, CP Violation in the B system and the forthcoming experimental tests will be discussed.

  18. CP violation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have just entered a period during which we expect considerable progress toward understanding CP violation. Here we review what we have learnt so far, and what is to be expected in the near future. To do this we cover the foundation of CP violation at a level which can be understood by physicists who are not working ...

  19. CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.

    1995-01-01

    We review the present status of the Standard Model of CP violation, which is based on a complex phase in the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. So far CP violation has been observed only in K 0 -K 0 mixing, consistent with a sizable phase. The implications of future CP nonconserving measusrements in K and B decays are discussed within the model. Direct CP violation in K→2π may be observed in the near future, however this would not be a powerful test of the model. B decays provide a wide variety of CP asymmetry measurements, which can serve as precise tests of the Standard Model in cases where the asymmetry is cleanly related to phases of CKM matrix elements. Some of the most promising cases are discussed. ((orig.))

  20. Spatial patterns of whole brain grey and white matter injury in patients with occult spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xuetao; Nie, Binbin; Wang, Hong; Duan, Shaofeng; Zhang, Zan; Dai, Guanghui; Ma, Qiaozhi; Shan, Baoci; Ma, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (SDCP) is a common type of cerebral palsy (CP), which presents as a group of motor-impairment syndromes. Previous conventional MRI studies have reported abnormal structural changes in SDCP, such as periventricular leucomalacia. However, there are roughly 27.8% SDCP patients presenting normal appearance in conventional MRI, which were considered as occult SDCP. In this study, sixteen patients with occult SDCP and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were collected and the data were acquired on a 3T MR system. We applied voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis to investigate whole brain grey and white matter injury in occult SDCP. By using VBM method, the grey matter volume reduction was revealed in the bilateral basal ganglia regions, thalamus, insula, and left cerebral peduncle, whereas the white matter atrophy was found to be located in the posterior part of corpus callosum and right posterior corona radiata in the occult SDCP patients. By using TBSS, reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) values were detected in multiple white matter regions, including bilateral white matter tracts in prefrontal lobe, temporal lobe, internal and external capsule, corpus callosum, cingulum, thalamus, brainstem and cerebellum. Additionally, several regions of white matter tracts injury were found to be significantly correlated with motor dysfunction. These results collectively revealed the spatial patterns of whole brain grey and white matter injury in occult SDCP.

  1. Postural control in children with spastic diplegia : Muscle activity during perturbations in sitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brogren, E; HaddersAlgra, M; Forssberg, H

    To clarify the neural mechanisms controlling equilibrium during sitting, and the implications for the optimal sitting position for children with CP, automatic postural adjustments after perturbations of the support surface during sitting were investigated in seven children with spastic diplegia and

  2. CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, F.J.

    1989-12-01

    Predictions for CP violation in the three generation Standard Model are reviewed based on what is known about the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. Application to the K and B meson systems are emphasized. 43 refs., 13 figs

  3. CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, H.

    1995-12-01

    In this talk the author briefly reviews the cosmological importance of CP violation and the status of calculations of baryogenisis in the context of the Standard Model. The author then turns to a discussion of Standard Model Predictions for CP violation in B decays, stressing the importance of multiple measurements to overconstrain the model parameters and thus search for indications of beyond-Standard-Model physics

  4. Functional electrical stimulation of the ankle dorsiflexors during walking in spastic cerebral palsy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Irene; Vles, Johannes S H; Soudant, Dan L H M; Witlox, Adhiambo M A; Staal, Heleen M; Speth, Lucianne A W M; Janssen-Potten, Yvonne J M; Coenen, Marcel; Koudijs, Suzanne M; Vermeulen, R Jeroen

    2017-12-01

    To assess the effect of functional electrical stimulation (FES) of ankle dorsiflexors in children and adolescents with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) during walking. A systematic review was performed using the American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine methodology and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Six databases were searched for studies applying interventions to patients aged younger than 20 years. Outcomes were classified according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Seven hundred and eighty abstracts were found, 35 articles were fully screened, and 14 articles were used for analysis. Only five articles (three studies) were of level I to III evidence. At ICF participation and activity level, there is limited evidence for a decrease in self-reported frequency of toe-drag and falls. At ICF body structure and function level, there is clear evidence (I-III) that FES increased (active) ankle dorsiflexion angle, strength, and improved selective motor control, balance, and gait kinematics, but decreased walking speed. Adverse events include skin irritation, toleration, and acceptation issues. There are insufficient data supporting functional gain by FES on activity and participation level. However, evidence points towards a role for FES as an alternative to orthoses in children with spastic CP. Effects of functional electrical stimulation (FES) point towards a potential role as an alternative to orthoses for patients with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Some evidence for a decrease in self-reported frequency of toe-drag and falls with the use of FES in spastic CP. Limited evidence for improvements in activity and participation in patients with spastic CP using FES. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  5. Understanding spasticity from patients' perspectives over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhimani, Rozina H; McAlpine, Cynthia Peden; Henly, Susan J

    2012-11-01

      The purpose of this paper was to report patients' understanding and perceptions of personal spasticity experiences over time.   Spasticity is an unpleasant and poorly understood experience associated with upper motor neuron disease.   An original qualitative study was conducted in 2008-2009.   Content analysis was used to extract meaning from the responses of 23 patients to semi-structured interviews during 7 days of acute rehabilitation for neurological diseases associated with spasticity. Findings.  Patients used words reflecting muscle tone and spasms to describe spasticity. Themes reflecting the spasticity experience over time were Ambiguous Experiences, Navigating Symptom Experience, Wounded Self, and Unending Journey.   Spasticity as experienced is complex, involving a wide range of unusual sensations sensitive to stressors in everyday life. Clinical evaluation of spasticity should include patient reports. Knowledge about patient word choice used to describe spasticity can enhance communication with healthcare providers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Botulinum toxin type A chemodenervation treatment in spastic forms of cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Kurenkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy (CP is one of the most serious outcomes of the perinatal lesion of central nervous system and the most common reason for neurological disability in children. Being the key cause of pathological dynamic stereotypes that frequently result in pathological posture and contractures, spasticity is critically important for CP. The use of botulinum toxin type A (BTA in complex treatment 2-6 years old CP patients allows significantly to improve motor abilities, help to change the surgical procedure, delay or even avoid some types of surgery. For elder children the use of BTA allows to improve local motor impairment. The treatment of spasticity in CP with BTA is safe (evidence level A and highly effective (evidence level A. It leads to the positive change of pathological dynamic stereotype, significantly improves gait, decreases muscle tone with Ashworth and Tardeu scales and rises the gross motor function score. Our own experience of onabotulinumtoxinA treatment as a part of complex therapy in 68 patients with spastic forms of CP demonstrates the significant improvement of motor function, most noticeable in younger patients(early pre-school age with GMFS I-III.

  7. Spasticity-assessment: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F.; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Klinge, Klaus Peter

    2006-01-01

    Study design:Review of the literature on the validity and reliability of assessment of spasticity and spasms.Objectives:Evaluate the most frequently used methods for assessment of spasticity and spasms, with particular focus on individuals with spinal cord lesions.Setting:Clinic for Spinal Cord...... Injuries, Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen, and Department of Medical Physiology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.Methods:The assessment methods are grouped into clinical, biomechanical and electrophysiological, and the correlation between these is evaluated.Results:Clinical methods......: For assessment of spasticity, the Ashworth and the modified Ashworth scales are commonly used. They provide a semiquantitative measure of the resistance to passive movement, but have limited interrater reliability. Guidelines for the testing procedures should be adhered to. Spasm frequency scales seem...

  8. Motor outcome differences between two groups of children with spastic diplegia who received different intensities of early onset physiotherapy followed for 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Toyoko; Pidcock, Frank S; Hayakawa, Katumi; Yamori, Yuriko; Shikata, Yuko

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the clinical effectiveness of early onset long-term intensive physiotherapy on motor development in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP). The study was a non-randomized cohort study with 62 months (mean) follow-up. The participants were ten infants who were first examined before 3 months of age corrected for prematurity. All had a gestational age of less than 33 weeks and a birth weight of less than 2000 g. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed periventricular white matter injury in nine subjects and moderate grade bilateral porencephaly in one. Five completed a full course of training of 52 months (mean), two did not receive therapy, and three received an insufficient course of therapy. The study was conducted at the Regional Center for Children with Disabilities including outpatient clinics and a school for children with special needs. The Vojta Method was used, which is an extensive family oriented physiotherapy program which uses isometric strengthening of muscles with tactile stimulation. Subjects were evaluated for the highest motor developmental level at the outcome evaluation 59 months (mean) after initiation of therapy. Four of the five who completed training could either stand still for 5 s or walk at the time of the outcome evaluation 52 months after the beginning of the therapy program. None of the five subjects with no training or insufficient training could accomplish this task when evaluated 64 months following therapy initiation. This was a statistically significant difference (P = 0.0278). A consistently applied physiotherapy program resulted in better motor outcomes in this group of children at risk for developing spastic diplegic CP.

  9. Passive muscle properties are altered in children with cerebral palsy before the age of 3 years and are difficult to distinguish clinically from spasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Lorentzen, Jakob; Sinkjær, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Clinical determination of spasticity is confounded by the difficulty in distinguishing reflex from passive contributions to muscle stiffness. There is, therefore, a risk that children with cerebral palsy (CP) receive antispasticity treatment unnecessarily. To investigate this, we aimed...... to determine the contribution of reflex mechanisms to changes in the passive elastic properties of muscles and tendons in children with CP. METHOD: Biomechanical and electrophysiological measures were used to determine the relative contribution of reflex and passive mechanisms to ankle muscle stiffness in 35...... tetraplegia. According to the Gross Motor Function Classification System, 31 children were classified in level I, two in level II, and two in level III. RESULTS: Only seven children with spastic CP showed reflex stiffness outside the range of the control children. In contrast, 20 children with spastic CP...

  10. Intramuscular Connective Tissue Differences in Spastic and Control Muscle: A Mechanical and Histological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Marije; Smeulders, Mark J.; Kreulen, Michiel; Huijing, Peter A.; Jaspers, Richard T

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) of the spastic type is a neurological disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with exaggerated tendon jerks. Secondary to the spasticity, muscle adaptation is presumed to contribute to limitations in the passive range of joint motion. However, the mechanisms underlying these limitations are unknown. Using biopsies, we compared mechanical as well as histological properties of flexor carpi ulnaris muscle (FCU) from CP patients (n = 29) and healthy controls (n = 10). The sarcomere slack length (mean 2.5 µm, SEM 0.05) and slope of the normalized sarcomere length-tension characteristics of spastic fascicle segments and single myofibre segments were not different from those of control muscle. Fibre type distribution also showed no significant differences. Fibre size was significantly smaller (1933 µm2, SEM 190) in spastic muscle than in controls (2572 µm2, SEM 322). However, our statistical analyses indicate that the latter difference is likely to be explained by age, rather than by the affliction. Quantities of endomysial and perimysial networks within biopsies of control and spastic muscle were unchanged with one exception: a significant thickening of the tertiary perimysium (3-fold), i.e. the connective tissue reinforcement of neurovascular tissues penetrating the muscle. Note that this thickening in tertiary perimysium was shown in the majority of CP patients, however a small number of patients (n = 4 out of 23) did not have this feature. These results are taken as indications that enhanced myofascial loads on FCU is one among several factors contributing in a major way to the aetiology of limitation of movement at the wrist in CP and the characteristic wrist position of such patients. PMID:24977410

  11. CP Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, R.

    1993-06-01

    The violation of the CP symmetry is a phenomenon, the origin of which is not yet well established and deserves a particular attention since it may be a fundamental property of Nature with very important consequences for the evolution of the universe. We propose in these lectures to have an overview of this phenomenon as we understand it so far. To this end, and after introducing the discrete space-time symmetries, we discuss the observation of the violation of the CP symmetry in the neutral kaon decays. We then derive the general formalism for any neutral system made of a particle and its antiparticle and discuss how CP violation is introduced. We show how this phenomenon is generated in the Standard Model of the electroweak interactions and what are the predictions that can be made. In particular we shall concentrate on the expected effects in the decays of mesons involving the b quark. We review the various possibilities for observing these effects, calculate their magnitudes and show how the consistency of the theory can be tested. Finally, we outline the experimental prospects for studying CP non conservation at an asymmetric B Factory to either verify the Standard Model mechanism or provide evidence for new physics. (author)

  12. [A case of medulla oblongata compression by tortuous vertebral arteries presenting with spastic quadriplegia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Takashi; Tateishi, Takahisa; Yamashita, Tamayo; Nagata, Shinji; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Kira, Jun-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    We report a 58-year-old man showing spastic paraparesis due to medulla oblongata compression by tortuous vertebral arteries. He noticed weakness of both legs and gait disturbance at the age of 58 years and his symptoms progressively worsened during the following several months. General physical findings were normal. Blood pressure was normal and there were no signs of arteriosclerosis. Neurological examination on admission revealed lower-limb-dominant spasticity in all four extremities, lower-limb weakness, hyperreflexia in all extremities with positive Wartenberg's, Babinski's and Chaddock's signs, mild hypesthesia and hypopallesthesia in both lower limbs, and spastic gait. Cranial nerves were all normal. Serum was negative for antibodies against human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 antibody. Nerve conduction and needle electromyographic studies of all four limbs revealed normal findings. Cervical, thoracic and lumbo-sacral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were all normal. Brain MRI and magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated bilateral tortuous vertebral arteries compressing the medulla oblongata. Neurovascular decompression of the right vertebral artery was performed because compression of the right side was more severe than that of the left side. Post-operative MRI revealed outward translocation of the right vertebral artery and relieved compression of the medulla oblongata on the right side. The patient's symptoms and neurological findings improved gradually after the operation. Bilateral pyramidal tract signs without cranial nerve dysfunction due to compression of the medulla oblongata by tortuous vertebral arteries are extremely rare and clinically indistinguishable from hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). Although we did not perform a genetic test for HSP, we consider that the spastic paraparesis and mild lower-limb hypesthesia were caused by compression of the medulla oblongata by bilateral tortuous vertebral arteries based on the post

  13. Spasticity Measurement Based on Tonic Stretch Reflex Threshold in Children with Cerebral Palsy Using the PediAnklebot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Germanotta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, objective measures are becoming prominent in spasticity assessment, to overcome limitations of clinical scales. Among others, Tonic Stretch Reflex Threshold (TSRT showed promising results. Previous studies demonstrated the validity and reliability of TSRT in spasticity assessment at elbow and ankle joints in adults. Purposes of the present study were to assess: (i the feasibility of measuring TSRT to evaluate spasticity at the ankle joint in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP, and (ii the correlation between objective measures and clinical scores. A mechatronic device, the pediAnklebot, was used to impose 50 passive stretches to the ankle of 10 children with CP and 3 healthy children, to elicit muscles response at 5 different velocities. Surface electromyography, angles, and angular velocities were recorded to compute dynamic stretch reflex threshold; TSRT was computed with a linear regression through angles and angular velocities. TSRTs for the most affected side of children with CP resulted into the biomechanical range (95.7 ± 12.9° and 86.7 ± 17.4° for Medial and Lateral Gastrocnemius, and 75.9 ± 12.5° for Tibialis Anterior. In three patients, the stretch reflex was not elicited in the less affected side. TSRTs were outside the biomechanical range in healthy children. However, no correlation was found between clinical scores and TSRT values. Here, we demonstrated the capability of TSRT to discriminate between spastic and non-spastic muscles, while no significant outcomes were found for the dorsiflexor muscle.

  14. Botulinum toxin treatment for limb spasticity in childhood cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito ePavone

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available CP is the most common cause of chronic disability in childhood occurring in 2 to 2.5/1000 births. It is a severe disorder and a significant number of patients present cognitive delay and difficulty in walking. The use of botulinum toxin (BTX has become a popular treatment for CP especially for spastic and dystonic muscles while avoiding deformity and pain. Moreover, the combination of physiotherapy, casting, orthotics and injection of BTX may delay or decrease the need for surgical intervention while reserving single-event, multi-level surgery for fixed musculotendinous contractures and bony deformities in older children. This report highlights the utility of BTX in the treatment of cerebral palsy in children. We include techniques for administration, side effects and possible resistance as well as specific use in the upper and lower limbs muscles

  15. Serial casting for neuromuscular flatfoot and vertical talus in an adolescent with hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Laurene A; OʼNeill, Lindsey M; Dobbs, Matthew B

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to explore assessment and serial casting intervention for painful rigid flatfoot deformities with vertical talus in an adolescent girl with hereditary spastic paraplegia who was nonambulatory. The participant's right foot underwent 2 phases of casting with correction first toward hindfoot inversion and then dorsiflexion. Because of a vertical talus, her left foot required an intermediate casting toward plantar flexion, inversion, and forefoot adduction prior to casting toward dorsiflexion. The patient improved despite the underlying progressive neuromuscular disorder. Pain ameliorated and she returned to supported standing and transfers. Spasticity decreased bilaterally and the flexibility of her foot deformities improved to allow orthotic fabrication in subtalar neutral. Results were maintained at 12 and 16 months. Individualized multiphase serial casting requires further investigation with patients such as those with hereditary spastic paraplegia.

  16. Developmental Profiles of Preschool Children With Spastic Diplegic and Quadriplegic Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Chen Lee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy (CP is a disorder of movement and posture control with multiple impairments. The clinical manifestations of CP vary among children. The aim of this study was to compare the developmental profiles of preschool children with either of two types of CP: spastic diplegic (SD CP and spastic quadriplegic (SQ CP. Relationships between the children's various developmental functions were also investigated. We recruited 137 children with spastic CP, aged 1-5 years (mean age = 3.7 ± 2.1 years, and we classified them into two groups: SD (n = 59 and SQ (n = 78. The comparison group comprised 18 children with typical development. Developmental functions were assessed in all the children, using the Chinese Child Development Inventory with the updated norms. This scale addressed eight functional domains: gross motor ability, fine motor ability, expressive language ability, concept comprehension ability, situation comprehension ability, self-help ability, personal-social skills, and general development. A development quotient (DQ was determined for each domain as a percentage of the developmental age divided by the chronological age. The developmental profiles of the CP subtypes were found to differ. Children with SQ were found to have lower DQs than those with SD (p < 0.01. There was also a difference in the distribution of DQs between the SD and SQ groups, although the lowest DQ in both groups was for the gross motor domain. An uneven delay in the development of gross motor function was found in both groups of children with CP. Motor functions, including gross motor and fine motor functions, were significantly related to self-help ability. Complex and significant correlations among developmental functions were also identified in children with CP. The findings in the present study may allow clinicians to anticipate the developmental profile of children with CP on the basis of whether they have the SD or SQ subtype. This, in turn, is likely to

  17. Swedish Massage and Abnormal Reflexes of Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Alizad

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Massage therapy is one of the most widely used complementary and alternative medicine therapies for children. This study was conducted to determine the effect of wedish massage on abnormal reflexes in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP. Methods: This study was a single blind clinical trial conducted on forty children with spastic CP who were recruited from clinics of the University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences. They were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The routine occupational therapy (OT techniques were performed during a 3 month-period in both groups. The intervention group also received Swedish massage for 30 minutes before every OT session. Primary, spinal, brain stem, midbrain, cortical and automatic reflexes were evaluated at the beginning of the study and 3 months later. The data analysis was done by parametric and nonparametric tests. Results: Finally, thirteen subjects in the intervention group and 14 subjects in the control group were remained and studied. The average ages in the intervention and control groups were 49.5 and 42.1 months respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in abnormal reflexes in the intervention group in comparison to the control (P>0.05. Discussion: Adding Swedish massage to traditional OT techniques had no significant effects on abnormal reflexes in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Evidently more research is required in order to completely reject the effects of Swedish massage on abnormal reflexes of children with CP.

  18. CP violation with an unbroken CP transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratz, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California,Irvine, California 92697-4575 (United States); Trautner, Andreas [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics und Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn,Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2017-02-21

    A CP conserving SU(3) gauge theory is spontaneously broken to T{sub 7} by the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of a 15-plet. Even though the SU(3)-CP transformation is not broken by the VEV, the theory exhibits physical CP violation in the broken phase. This is because the SU(3)-CP transformation corresponds to the unique order-two outer automorphism of T{sub 7}, which is not a physical CP transformation for the T{sub 7} states, and there is no other possible CP transformation. We explicitly demonstrate that CP is violated by calculating a CP odd decay asymmetry in the broken phase. This scenario provides us with a natural protection for topological vacuum terms, ensuring that θ G{sub μν}G̃{sup μν} is absent even though CP is violated for the physical states of the model.

  19. The effect of Sub-maximal exercise-rehabilitation program on cardio-respiratory endurance indexes and oxygen pulse in patients with spastic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Izadi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical or cardio-respiratory fitness are of the best important physiological variables in children with cerebral palsy (CP, but the researches on exercise response of individuals with CP are limited. Our aim was to determine the effect of sub-maximal rehabilitation program (aerobic exercise on maximal oxygen uptake, oxygen pulse and cardio- respiratory physiological variables of children with moderate to severe spastic cerebral palsy diplegia and compare with able-bodied children. Methods: In a controlled clinical trial study, 15 children with diplegia spastic cerebral palsy, were recruited on a voluntarily basis (experimental group and 18 subjects without neurological impairments selected as control group. In CP group, aerobic exercise program performed on the average of exercise intensity (144 beat per minute of heart rate, 3 times a week for 3 months. The time of each exercise session was 20-25 minutes. Dependent variables were measured in before (pretest and after (post test of rehabilitation program through Mac Master Protocol on Tantories cycle ergometer in CP group and compared with the control group. Results: The oxygen pulse (VO2/HR during ergometery protocol was significantly lower in CP group than normal group (P<0.05. No significant statistical difference in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max was found between groups. The rehabilitation program leads to little increase of this variable in CP group. After sub-maximal exercise in pretest and post test, the heart rate of patient group was greater than control group, and aerobic exercise leads to significant decrease in heart rate in CP patients(P<0.05. Conclusion: The patients with spastic cerebral palsy, because of high muscle tone, severe spasticity and involuntarily movements have higher energy cost and lower aerobic fitness than normal people. The rehabilitation exercise program can improve physiological function of muscle and cardio-respiratory endurance in these

  20. [Evaluation of pendulum testing of spasticity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cavorzin, P; Hernot, X; Bartier, O; Carrault, G; Chagneau, F; Gallien, P; Allain, H; Rochcongar, P

    2002-11-01

    To identify valid measurements of spasticity derived from the pendulum test of the leg in a representative population of spastic patients. Pendulum testing was performed in 15 spastic and 10 matched healthy subjects. The reflex-mediated torque evoked in quadriceps femoris, as well as muscle mechanical parameters (viscosity and elasticity), were calculated using mathematical modelling. Correlation with the two main measures derived from the pendulum test reported in the literature (the Relaxation Index and the area under the curve) was calculated in order to select the most valid. Among mechanical parameters, only viscosity was found to be significantly higher in the spastic group. As expected, the computed integral of the reflex-mediated torque was found to be larger in spastics than in healthy subjects. A significant non-linear (logarithmic) correlation was found between the clinically-assessed muscle spasticity (Ashworth grading) and the computed reflex-mediated torque, emphasising the non-linear behaviour of this scale. Among measurements derived from the pendulum test which are proposed in the literature for routine estimation of spasticity, the Relaxation Index exhibited an unsuitable U-shaped pattern of variation with increasing reflex-mediated torque. On the opposite, the area under the curve revealed a linear regression, which is more convenient for routine estimation of spasticity. The pendulum test of the leg is a simple technique for the assessment of spastic hypertonia. However, the measurement generally used in the literature (the Relaxation Index) exhibits serious limitations, and would benefit to be replaced by more valid measures, such as the area under the goniometric curve, especially for the assessment of therapeutics.

  1. Evaluation of low-level laser therapy in the treatment of masticatory muscles spasticity in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues; Diniz, Michele Baffi; Gouw-Soares, Sheila Cynthia; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro Brandão; Frigo, Lucio; Baeder, Fernando Martins

    2016-02-01

    Spasticity is a motor disorder frequently present in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). This study aimed to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the spasticity of the masseter and anterior temporal muscle fibers in children with CP over three weeks of intermittent laser exposures. The bite force (BF) of the masticatory muscles and the amplitude of mouth opening were evaluated before and after laser irradiation in 30 children with CP. Both sides of the masseter and temporalis muscles were irradiated with low-intensity diode laser pulses of 808-nm wavelength six times over three consecutive weeks. During the subsequent three weeks of postlaser exposures, although no laser treatment was applied, the evaluation parameters were measured and recorded. A significant improvement in the amplitude of mouth opening and a decrease in the BF were observed in the weeks following LLLT (Peffective short-term therapeutic tool. This method increased the amplitude of mouth opening and decreased the muscle tonus of children with spastic CP over a time course of three weeks of intermittent laser applications.

  2. [Bilateral torticollis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustos, T; Magdics, M

    1993-12-19

    Bilateral torticollis is a very rare form of a well known deformity i.e. muscular torticollis. This malformation might present a differential diagnostic problem both for orthopaedic surgeons and ophthalmologists, as well as, for neurologists. In agreement with the literature, the role of an injury during labour or defective embriogenesis is suggested to play a part.

  3. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EFFECTIVENESS OF OPEN VERSUS CLOSED KINETIC CHAIN EXERCISES TO IMPROVE GAIT IN SPASTIC DIPLEGIC CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trishna Saikia Baruah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral Palsy (CP describes a non- progressive but not unchanging disorder of movement and posture due to an insult to or anomaly of the developing brain. People with spastic diplegia typically walk slowly and have difficulties in performing activities such as walking running or jumping. Children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy are relied more on cadence to increase speed. Hence, the purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of open and closed kinetic chain (OKC and CKC exercises in improving gait in spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. Methods: 30 children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy of both genders with age 4-12 years was taken. Cadence and distance covered in 1Minute Walk Test was calculated before and after the test. The intervention for group A was CKC exercises and group B was OKC exercises for 3 days a week for 6 weeks and each session lasted for 30-45 minutes was given for both the groups. Results: Paired t-test was performed to find effectiveness of CKC and OKC improving gait in spastic diplegic CP to see the difference of means of 1minute walk, t = 10.789 which is significant (p = 0.000 and for cadence, t = 3.37 which is highly significant (p = 0.00 implying that cadence and distance covered in1minute walk was more with CKC exercises. Conclusion: Based on the result it is concluded that CKC exercises are effective in improving gait than OKC exercises in spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

  4. Co-segregation of Huntington disease and hereditary spastic paraplegia in 4 generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panas, Marios; Karadima, Georgia; Kalfakis, Nikolaos; Vassilopoulos, Dimitris

    2011-07-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by choreic hyperkinesias, cognitive decline, and psychiatric manifestations, caused by an increased number of CAG repeats in the IT15 gene on chromosome 4p16.3. Silver syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant form of complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia, characterized by lower limb spasticity in addition to amyotrophy of the small muscles of the hands. In addition to the previously identified locus SPG17 on chromosome 11q12-q14, a new locus (SPG38) on chromosome 4p16-p15 has been recently identified, a region that includes the HD gene. We present a Greek family with 5 members diagnosed with HD in 4 generations. All affected members also presented with clinical features of Silver syndrome showing severe spastic paraplegia and prominent atrophy of all small hand muscles bilaterally. None of the other family members showed features of either HD or spastic paraplegia. The reported coexistence of Silver syndrome with HD in 4 generations is not fortuitous, suggesting that these 2 distinct genetic disorders are in linkage disequilibrium. Although rare, it is reasonable to expect additional similar cases. Clinical neurologists should perhaps investigate this possibility in cases combining features of HD and involvement of the upper and lower motor neurons.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: spastic paraplegia type 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the arms; speech difficulties (dysarthria); difficulty swallowing (dysphagia); involuntary movements of the eyes (nystagmus); mild hearing ... AH, Warner TT. A clinical, genetic and biochemical study of SPG7 mutations in hereditary spastic paraplegia. Brain. ...

  6. Pharmacological management of spasticity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otero-Romero, Susana; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Comi, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Treatment of spasticity poses a major challenge given the complex clinical presentation and variable efficacy and safety profiles of available drugs. We present a systematic review of the pharmacological treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Methods...... improvement is seen with the previous drugs. Nabiximols has a positive effect when used as add-on therapy in patients with poor response and/or tolerance to first-line oral treatments. Despite limited evidence, intrathecal baclofen and intrathecal phenol show a positive effect in severe spasticity...... and suboptimal response to oral drugs. Conclusion: The available studies on spasticity treatment offer some insight to guide clinical practice but are of variable methodological quality. Large, well-designed trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of antispasticity agents and to produce evidence...

  7. Mania associated with complicated hereditary spastic paraparesis

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavendra B Nayak; Govind S Bhogale; Nanasaheb M Patil; Aditya A Pandurangi

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP) is an inherited group of neurological disorders with progressive lower limb spasticity. HSP can be clinically grouped into pure and complicated forms. Pure HSP is one without any associated neurological/psychiatric comorbidity. Depression is the most common psychiatric comorbidity. Presence of mania or bipolar affective illness with HSP is a rare phenomenon. We report a case of a 17-year-old boy who presented with classical features of HSP with complaints ...

  8. Cellular Pathways of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia*

    OpenAIRE

    Blackstone, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Human voluntary movement is controlled by the pyramidal motor system, a long CNS pathway comprising corticospinal and lower motor neurons. Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a large, genetically diverse group of inherited neurologic disorders characterized by a length-dependent distal axonopathy of the corticospinal tracts, resulting in lower limb spasticity and weakness. A range of studies are converging on alterations in the shaping of organelles, particularly the endoplasmic reticul...

  9. Intrathecal baclofen pump for spasticity: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    To conduct an evidence-based analysis of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of intrathecal baclofen for spasticity. Spasticity is a motor disorder characterized by tight or stiff muscles that may interfere with voluntary muscle movements and is a problem for many patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), spinal cord injury (SCI), cerebral palsy (CP), and acquired brain injury (ABI).(1). Increased tone and spasm reduces mobility and independence, and interferes with activities of daily living, continence and sleep patterns. Spasticity may also be associated with significant pain or discomfort (e.g., due to poor fit in braces, footwear, or wheelchairs), skin breakdown, contractures, sleep disorders and difficulty in transfer. Goals of treatment are to decrease spasticity in order to improve range of motion, facilitate movement, reduce energy expenditure and reduce risk of contractures. Existing treatments include physical therapy, oral medications, injections of phenol or botulinum toxin, or surgical intervention. Baclofen is the oral drug most frequently prescribed for spasticity in cases of SCI and MS.(1) Baclofen is a muscle relaxant and antispasticity drug. In the brain, baclofen delivered orally has some supraspinal activity that may contribute to clinical side effects. The main adverse effects of oral baclofen include sedation, excessive weakness, dizziness, mental confusion, and somnolence.(2) The incidence of adverse effects is reported to range from 10% to 75%.(2) Ochs et al. estimated that approximately 25-30% of SCI and MS patients fail to respond to oral baclofen.(3;4) Adverse effects appear to be dose-related and may be minimized by initiating treatment at a low dose and gradually titrating upwards.(2) Adverse effects usually appear at doses >60 mg/day.(2) The rate of treatment discontinuation due to intolerable adverse effects has generally been reported to range from 4% to 27%.(2) When baclofen is administered orally, only a small portion of the

  10. Bilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The bilateral agreements concern Brazil with United States relative to the co operation in nuclear energy, Germany with Russian Federation relative to the elimination and disposal of nuclear weapons; The multilateral agreements concerns the signature of the Protocols to amend the Paris and Brussels Conventions, the multilateral nuclear environmental programme in the Russian Federation, the status of Conventions in the field of nuclear energy. (N.C.)

  11. Validity and Inter-Rater Reliability of a Novel Bedside Referral Tool for Spasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-20

    Spasticity, Muscle; Muscular Diseases; Musculoskeletal Disease; Muscle Hypertonia; Muscle Spasticity; Neuromuscular Manifestations; Signs and Symptoms; Nervous System Diseases; Neurologic Manifestations

  12. [Spasticity and dynamic plantar pressure distribution measurements in hemiplegic spastic children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femery, V; Moretto, P; Renaut, H; Thévenon, A

    2001-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the plantar pressure distribution in nine hemiplegic spastic children to illustrate the dynamic alteration during stance phase linked spasticity grade. The graduation of the lower limbs muscle tone related to the Aschworth spasticity scale enabled us to identify two groups of hemiplegics subjects. The groups Asch 1 and Asch 3 have respectively presented a low and a strong spasticity. The peak pressures during consecutive gait cycles were determined under the feet of 30 healthy subjects and two cerebral palsy groups using a wearable footprint analysis system. A statistical study showed a similarity between the two disabled groups. Peak pressures under the midfoot were significantly higher compared to the control group. While the plantar pressure distribution profile was specific for each group under all other anatomical structures. The significant alterations were observed under the forefoot and hallux. Spasticity modifies the foot contact to ground and leads to a specific plantar pressure distribution profile linked to the spasticity grade. The equinovarus with clawed toes deformity due to higher spasticity seems to be an important factor in terminal stance phase perturbations. However spastic hemiplegic subjects seem to adopt a gait pattern in agreement with stability optimization criteria.

  13. Surgical correction of scoliosis in children with spastic quadriplegia: benefits, adverse effects, and patient selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Julian; Davies, Evan; Raich, Annie L; Dettori, Joseph R; Sherry, Ned

    2014-04-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of nonprogressive syndromes of posture and motor impairment associated with lesions of the immature brain. Spastic quadriplegia is the most severe form with a high incidence of scoliosis, back pain, respiratory compromise, pelvic obliquity, and poor sitting balance. Surgical stabilization of the spine is an effective technique for correcting deformity and restoring sitting posture. The decision to operate in this group of patients is challenging. The aim of this study is to determine the benefits of surgical correction of scoliosis in children with spastic quadriplegia, the adverse effects of this treatment, and what preoperative factors affect patient outcome after surgical correction. A systematic review was undertaken to identify studies describing benefits and adverse effects of surgery in spastic quadriplegia. Factors affecting patient outcome following surgical correction of scoliosis were assessed. Studies involving adults and nonspastic quadriplegia were excluded. A total of 10 case series and 1 prospective and 3 retrospective cohort studies met inclusion criteria. There was significant variation in the overall risk of complications (range, 10.9-70.9%), mortality (range, 2.8-19%), respiratory/pulmonary complications (range, 26.9-57.1%), and infection (range, 2.5-56.8%). Factors associated with a worse outcome were a significant degree of thoracic kyphosis, days in the intensive care unit, and poor nutritional status. Caregivers report a high degree of satisfaction with scoliosis surgery for children with spastic quadriplegia. There is limited evidence of preoperative factors that can predict patient outcome after scoliosis. There is a need for well-designed prospective studies of scoliosis surgery in spastic quadriplegia.

  14. Giant CP stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loden, L.O.; Sundman, A.

    1989-01-01

    This study is part of an investigation of the possibility of using chemically peculiar (CP) stars to map local galactic structure. Correct luminosities of these stars are therefore crucial. CP stars are generally regarded as main-sequence or near-main-sequence objects. However, some CP stars have been classified as giants. A selection of stars, classified in literature as CP giants, are compared to normal stars in the same effective temperature interval and to ordinary 'non giant' CP stars. There is no clear confirmation of a higher luminosity for 'CP giants', than for CP stars in general. In addition, CP characteristics seem to be individual properties not repeated in a component star or other cluster members. (author). 50 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  15. Effect of rhythmic auditory stimulation on gait performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Eunmi Emily

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS) for children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) in a clinical setting in order to determine its effectiveness in gait training for ambulation. RAS has been shown to improve gait performance in patients with significant gait deficits. All 25 participants (6 to 20 years old) had spastic CP and were ambulatory, but needed to stabilize and gain more coordinated movement. Participants were placed in three groups: the control group, the therapist-guided training (TGT) group, and the self-guided training (SGT) group. The TGT group showed a statistically significant difference in stride length, velocity, and symmetry. The analysis of the results in SGT group suggests that the self-guided training might not be as effective as therapist-guided depending on motivation level. The results of this study support three conclusions: (a) RAS does influence gait performance of people with CP; (b) individual characteristics, such as cognitive functioning, support of parents, and physical ability play an important role in designing a training application, the effectiveness of RAS, and expected benefits from the training; and (c) velocity and stride length can be improved by enhancing balance, trajectory, and kinematic stability without increasing cadence.

  16. SPASTICITY PATTERNS OF HAND MUSCLES AND BOTULINUM TOXIN THERAPY APPLICATION IN PATIENTS WITH CEREBRAL PALSY WITH UPPER LIMB INVOLVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Klochkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum toxin therapy is an effective and safe method of treatment of local spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy (CP. Calculation of botulinum toxin A (BTA dosage based on the spasticity patterns and functional capabilities of the patient proved effective for the hypertonic lower limb muscle spasm treatment and is being applied to BTA injections in hand muscles more often. The article presents contemporary scientific data and results of the original study of BTA injections efficacy for pathologic tension reduction in hand muscles of 52 patients with CP. The authors give detailed description of the upper limb spasticity patterns, their frequency and role in the pathological movement pattern formation. The authors propose BTA dosage calculation for the functional segments of upper limbs, which allows minimizing the total amount of the administered drug and avoiding excessive weakness. The authors have also conducted a follow-up analysis of changes in hand muscle tone for the period of 6 months after the first BTA injection, compared results of botulinum toxin therapy at various clinical forms of CP and given recommendations on the optimum duration of the follow-up period.

  17. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and motor and intellectual functioning in 86 patients born at term with spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Yurika; Onuma, Akira; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Sato-Shirai, Ikuko; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kobayashi, Satoru; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Inui, Takehiko; Kure, Shigeo; Haginoya, Kazuhiro

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the association between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns and motor function, epileptic episodes, and IQ or developmental quotient in patients born at term with spastic diplegia. Eighty-six patients born at term with cerebral palsy (CP) and spastic diplegia (54 males, 32 females; median age 20 y, range 7-42 y) among 829 patients with CP underwent brain MRI between 1990 and 2008. The MRI and clinical findings were analysed retrospectively. Intellectual disability was classified according to the Enjoji developmental test or the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (3rd edition). The median ages at diagnosis of CP, assignment of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, cognitive assessment, and MRI were 2 years (range 5 mo-8 y), 6 years (2 y 8 mo-19 y), 6 years (1 y 4 mo-19 y), and 7 years (10 mo-30 y) respectively. MRI included normal findings (41.9%), periventricular leukomalacia, hypomyelination, and porencephaly/periventricular venous infarction. The frequency of patients in GMFCS levels III to V and intellectual disability did not differ between those with normal and abnormal MRI findings. Patients with normal MRI findings had significantly fewer epileptic episodes than those with abnormal ones (p=0.001). Varied MRI findings, as well as the presence of severe motor dysfunction and intellectual disability (despite normal MRI), suggest that patients born at term with spastic diplegia had heterogeneous and unidentified pathophysiology. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.

  18. Body-Sensor-Network-Based Spasticity Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misgeld, Berno J E; Luken, Markus; Heitzmann, Daniel; Wolf, Sebastian I; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2016-05-01

    Spasticity is a common disorder of the skeletal muscle with a high incidence in industrialised countries. A quantitative measure of spasticity using body-worn sensors is important in order to assess rehabilitative motor training and to adjust the rehabilitative therapy accordingly. We present a new approach to spasticity detection using the Integrated Posture and Activity Network by Medit Aachen body sensor network (BSN). For this, a new electromyography (EMG) sensor node was developed and employed in human locomotion. Following an analysis of the clinical gait data of patients with unilateral cerebral palsy, a novel algorithm was developed based on the idea to detect coactivation of antagonistic muscle groups as observed in the exaggerated stretch reflex with associated joint rigidity. The algorithm applies a cross-correlation function to the EMG signals of two antagonistically working muscles and subsequent weighting using a Blackman window. The result is a coactivation index which is also weighted by the signal equivalent energy to exclude positive detection of inactive muscles. Our experimental study indicates good performance in the detection of coactive muscles associated with spasticity from clinical data as well as measurements from a BSN in qualitative comparison with the Modified Ashworth Scale as classified by clinical experts. Possible applications of the new algorithm include (but are not limited to) use in robotic sensorimotor therapy to reduce the effect of spasticity.

  19. CP Violation course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    The lecture introduces the concepts and phenomena of matter-antimatter symmetry violation, so-called "CP" violation. The lecture is organized in four courses, the first being devoted to a historical overview and an introduction into fundamental discrete symmetries. The second course introduces the most compelling CP-violating phenomena, and presents the first experimental discovery of CP violation in the neutral kaon system. The third course discusses how CP violation is beautifully incorporated into the Standard Model of particle interactions, and how modern B-meson "factories" provide precise tests of this picture. Finally, the fourth and last course introduces CP violation and the genesis of our matter world.

  20. Etiologic profile of spastic quadriplegia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Sunita; Shevell, Michael I

    2007-09-01

    The etiologic profile and possible predictors of etiology in children with spastic quadriplegia were assessed in a consecutive cohort of children with this motor impairment. Medical records from a single pediatric neurology practice over a 14-year interval were retrospectively and systematically reviewed. Variables comprised possible demographic, prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk factors. Of the 99 patients included in the study, 39 were premature (quadriplegia was 83%, with differing underlying etiologies depending on gestational age. These results should help guide physicians in investigating possible underlying etiologies in patients with spastic quadriplegia.

  1. CP violation in B decay

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Hitoshi

    2001-01-01

    We review the physics of CP violation in B decays. After introducing the CKM matrix and how it causes CP violation, we cover three types of CP violation that can occur in B decays: CP violation in mixing, CP violation by mixing-decay interference, and CP violation in decay.

  2. Bilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Ten bilateral agreements are presented. These are: 1) Co-operation agreement relating to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy between Argentina and EURATOM (1996); 2) Agreement on co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy between Argentina and Greece (1997); 3) Implementing arrangement for technical exchange and co-operation in the area of peaceful uses of nuclear energy between Argentina and the United States (1997); 4) Agreement concerning co-operation in nuclear science and technology between Australia and Indonesia (1997); 5) Implementation of the 1985 Agreement for co-operation concerning the peaceful uses of nuclear energy between the People's Republic of China and the United States (1998); 6) Protocol of co-operation between France and Lithuania (1997); 7) Agreement on co-operation in energy research, science and technology, and development between Germany and the United States (1998); 8) Agreement on early notification of a nuclear accident and exchange of information on nuclear facilities between Greece and Romania (1997); 9) Agreement on early notification of nuclear accidents and co-operation in the field of nuclear safety between Hungary and the Ukraine (1997); 10) Agreement in the field of radioactive waste management between Switzerland and the United States (1997). (K.A.)

  3. Spasticity: its physiology and management. Part IV. Current and projected treatment procedures for spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, B

    1977-04-01

    Today's prescriptions for treating spasticity may include pharmacological, surgical, or physical procedures. All derive their rationale from the classical concepts of decerebrate rigidity and of brain organization as discussed in Part I. This paper describes the advantages and disadvantages of these current treatment procedures and proposes that recent discoveries about the "recovery" capabilities of the central nervous system may influence the means for managing spasticity in the future.

  4. Treatment diary for botulinum toxin spasticity treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Bo; Iversen, Helle K; Frederiksen, Inge M S

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a treatment diary for patients receiving spasticity treatment including botulinum toxin injection and physiotherapy and/or occupational therapy. The diary focuses on problems triggered by skeletal muscle overactivity; agreed goals for treatment and the patient...

  5. Lower limb spasticity assessment using an inertial sensor: a reliability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterpi, I; Colombo, R; Caroli, A; Meazza, E; Maggioni, G; Pistarini, C

    2013-01-01

    Spasticity is a common motor impairment in patients with neurological disorders that can prevent functional recovery after rehabilitation. In the clinical setting, its assessment is carried out using standardized clinical scales. The aim of this study was to verify the applicability of inertial sensors for an objective measurement of quadriceps spasticity and evaluate its test–retest and inter-rater reliability during the implementation of the Wartenberg pendulum test. Ten healthy subjects and 11 patients in vegetative state with severe brain damage were enrolled in this study. Subjects were evaluated three times on three consecutive days. The test–retest reliability of measurement was assessed in the first two days. The third day was devoted to inter-rater reliability assessment. In addition, the lower limb muscle tone was bilaterally evaluated at the knee joint by the modified Ashworth scale. The factorial ANOVA analysis showed that the implemented method allowed us to discriminate between healthy and pathological conditions. The fairly low SEM and high ICC values obtained for the pendulum parameters indicated a good test–retest and inter-rater reliability of measurement. This study shows that an inertial sensor can be reliably used to characterize leg kinematics during the Wartenberg pendulum test and provide quantitative evaluation of quadriceps spasticity. (paper)

  6. Phenomenology of CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.

    1987-01-01

    A short survey of the theoretical status of CP violation is presented. The Standart Model is confronted with the present experimental situation. Possible future tests of our notions of CP violation are discussed, concentrating on rare K decays. Other promising reactions such as B decays are briefly reviewed. Among alternative models of CP violation, multi-Higgs extensions of the Standart Model, left-right symmetric gauge theories and minimal SUSY models are discussed. Finally, the relevance of generalized CP invariance is emphasized. 64 refs., 7 figs. (Author)

  7. Leptonic CP violation theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, C.

    2017-01-01

    I summarize the status of theoretical predictions for the yet to be measured leptonic CP phases, the Dirac phase δ and the two Majorana phases α and β. I discuss different approaches based on: (a) a flavor symmetry without and with corrections, (b) different types of sum rules and (c) flavor and CP...... symmetries. I show their predictive power with examples. In addition, I present scenarios in which low and high energy CP phases are connected so that predictions for the CP phases α, β and δ become correlated to the sign of the baryon asymmetry YB of the Universe that is generated via leptogenesis....

  8. Is CP violation maximal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.

    1984-01-01

    Two ambiguities are noted in the definition of the concept of maximal CP violation. The phase convention ambiguity is overcome by introducing a CP violating phase in the quark mixing matrix U which is invariant under rephasing transformations. The second ambiguity, related to the parametrization of U, is resolved by finding a single empirically viable definition of maximal CP violation when assuming that U does not single out one generation. Considerable improvement in the calculation of nonleptonic weak amplitudes is required to test the conjecture of maximal CP violation. 21 references

  9. Cortical somatosensory reorganization in children with spastic cerebral palsy: a multimodal neuroimaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOS ePAPADELIS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although cerebral palsy (CP is among the most common causes of physical disability in early childhood, we know little about the functional and structural changes of this disorder in the developing brain. Here, we investigated with three different neuroimaging modalities (magnetoencephalography (MEG, diffusion tension imaging (DTI, and resting state fMRI whether spastic CP is associated with functional and anatomical abnormalities in the sensorimotor network. Ten children participated in the study: four with diplegic CP (DCP, three with hemiplegic CP (HCP, and three typically-developing (TD children. Somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs were recorded in response to pneumatic stimuli applied to digits D1, D3, and D5 of both hands. Several parameters of water diffusion were calculated from DTI between the thalamus and the precentral and postcentral gyri in both hemispheres. The sensorimotor resting state networks (RSNs were examined by using an independent component analysis method. Tactile stimulation of the fingers elicited the first prominent cortical response at ~50 ms, in all except one child, localized over the primary somatosensory cortex (S1. In five CP children, abnormal somatotopic organization was observed in the affected (or more affected hemisphere. Euclidean distances were markedly different between the two hemispheres in the HCP children, and between DCP and TD children for both hemispheres. DTI analysis revealed decreased fractional anisotropy and increased apparent diffusion coefficient for the thalamocortical pathways in the more affected compared to less affected hemisphere in CP children. Rs-fMRI results indicated absent and/or abnormal sensorimotor RSNs for children with HCP and DCP consistent with the severity and location of their lesions. Our findings suggest an abnormal somatosensory processing mechanism in the sensorimotor network of children with CP possibly as a result of diminished thalamocortical projections.

  10. Modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy combined with Bimanual Training (mCIMT-BiT) in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy: how are improvements in arm-hand use established?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, P.B.M.; Jongerius, P.H.; Geerdink-van Nistelrooij, Y.A. van; Limbeek, J. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2011-01-01

    A recent randomized controlled trial indicated that modified Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy followed by Bimanual Training (mCIMT-BiT) is an effective intervention to improve spontaneous use of the affected upper limb in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP). The present study

  11. Tropical spastic paraparesis in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. de Castro Costa

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten possible cases of tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP in Northeastern Brazil (Ceará are presented. They show the typical symptoms and signs of TSP consisting of weakness of the lower limbs, spastic gait, hiperreflexia, bladder dysfunction and variable signs of posterior columns impairment. The laboratory examinations excluded other compressive, infective, degenerative or demyelinating lesions of their spinal cord. Our patients age ranged from 21 to 59 years, all were of black origin and all were of lower social class. There was a slight preponderance of females. An etiological implication of a retrovirus (HTLV-I has been shown for TSP, but for lack of technical conditions we could not determine it in our patients, and that stands as our subsequent step in those and further cases.

  12. Mania associated with complicated hereditary spastic paraparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra B Nayak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP is an inherited group of neurological disorders with progressive lower limb spasticity. HSP can be clinically grouped into pure and complicated forms. Pure HSP is one without any associated neurological/psychiatric comorbidity. Depression is the most common psychiatric comorbidity. Presence of mania or bipolar affective illness with HSP is a rare phenomenon. We report a case of a 17-year-old boy who presented with classical features of HSP with complaints of excessive happiness, irritability, increased self-esteem and decreased sleep since 1 month. The patient also had complex partial seizure ever since he had features of HSP. The patient′s father and younger sister suffer from pure HSP. The patient was diagnosed to have first episode mania with complicated HSP. The details of treatment and possible neurobiology are discussed in this case report.

  13. Hereditary spastic paraplegia with cerebellar ataxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J E; Johnsen, B; Koefoed, P

    2004-01-01

    Complex forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) are rare and usually transmitted in an autosomal recessive pattern. A family of four generations with autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP) and a complex phenotype with variably expressed co-existing ataxia, dysarthria......, unipolar depression, epilepsy, migraine, and cognitive impairment was investigated. Genetic linkage analysis and sequencing of the SPG4 gene was performed and electrophysiologic investigations were carried out in six individuals and positron emission tomography (PET) in one patient. The disease was linked...... in those individuals who were clinically affected by a complex phenotype consisting of HSP and cerebellar ataxia. Other features noted in this kindred including epilepsy, cognitive impairment, depression, and migraine did not segregate with the HSP phenotype or mutation, and therefore the significance...

  14. Mania associated with complicated hereditary spastic paraparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Raghavendra B; Bhogale, Govind S; Patil, Nanasaheb M; Pandurangi, Aditya A

    2011-07-01

    Hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP) is an inherited group of neurological disorders with progressive lower limb spasticity. HSP can be clinically grouped into pure and complicated forms. Pure HSP is one without any associated neurological/psychiatric comorbidity. Depression is the most common psychiatric comorbidity. Presence of mania or bipolar affective illness with HSP is a rare phenomenon. We report a case of a 17-year-old boy who presented with classical features of HSP with complaints of excessive happiness, irritability, increased self-esteem and decreased sleep since 1 month. The patient also had complex partial seizure ever since he had features of HSP. The patient's father and younger sister suffer from pure HSP. The patient was diagnosed to have first episode mania with complicated HSP. The details of treatment and possible neurobiology are discussed in this case report.

  15. [H reflex in patients with spastic quadriplegia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyama, Sahoko; Arimoto, Kiyoshi; Kimiya, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    Hoffmann reflex (H reflex) is an electrically elicited spinal monosynaptic reflex. H reflex was examined in 18 patients with spastic quadriplegia who had perinatal or postnatal problems. H reflex was elicitable in 11 patients for the abductor pollicis brevis (61.1%), 10 for the abductor digiti minimi (55.6%) and 16 for the abductor hallucis (88.9%). Because the abductor pollicis brevis and the abductor digiti minimi do not exhibit H reflex in normal subjects, it was suggested that the excitability of alpha motor neurons innervating these muscles was increased. H reflex was not detected for the extensor digitorum brevis in any patients, indicating the difference in the excitability among alpha motor neurons. In some patients, H reflex did not disappear under supramaximal stimuli. We conclude that the mechanism of evolution of H reflex in patients with spastic quadriplegia is different from that in normal subjects.

  16. The effect of botulinum toxin A (Botox) injections used to treat limb spasticity on speech patterns in children with dysarthria and cerebral palsy: A report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workinger, Marilyn Seif; Kent, Raymond D; Meilahn, Jill R

    2017-05-19

    Botulinum toxin A (Btx-A) injections are used to treat limb spasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) resulting in improved gross and fine motor control. This treatment has also been reported to have additional functional effects, but the effect of treatment on speech has not been reported. This report presents results of longitudinal speech evaluation of two children with CP given injections of Btx-A for treatment of limb spasticity. Speech evaluations were accomplished at baseline (date of injections) and 4- and 10-weeks post-injections. Improvements in production of consonants, loudness control, and syllables produced per breath were found. Parental survey also suggested improvements in subjects' speech production and willingness to speak outside the testing situation. Future larger studies are warranted to assess the nature of the changes observed related to Btx-A.

  17. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Patients with Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ağırman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSPP is a heterogeneous genetic disease characterized by progressive spasticity of lower extremities. Spasticity is a major cause of long-term disability in HSPP and significantly affects the functional life of patients. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is widely used in diagnosis and treatment of many neurological and psychiatric diseases. Although the positive impacts of rTMS for spasticity have been reported, no study has been found on HSPP. We present two HSPP patients treated with low frequency rTMS (20 minutes at a frequency of 1 Hz (1200 pulses, for a period of 10 treatment sessions.

  18. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Patients with Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ağırman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSPP is a heterogeneous genetic disease characterized by progressive spasticity of lower extremities. Spasticity is a major cause of long-term disability in HSPP and significantly affects the functional life of patients. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is widely used in diagnosis and treatment of many neurological and psychiatric diseases. Although the positive impacts of rTMS for spasticity have been reported, no study has been found on HSPP. We present two HSPP patients treated with low frequency rTMS (20 minutes at a frequency of 1 Hz (1200 pulses, for a period of 10 treatment sessions

  19. CP violation and modular symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Dent, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    We reconsider the origin of CP violation in fundamental theory. Existing string models of spontaneous CP violation make ambiguous predictions, due to the arbitrariness of CP transformation and the apparent non-invariance of the results under duality. We find an unambiguous modular CP invariance condition, applicable to predictive models of spontaneous CP violation, which circumvents these problems; it strongly constrains CP violation by heterotic string moduli. The dilaton is also evaluated a...

  20. CP violation and modular symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dent, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    We reconsider the origin of CP violation in fundamental theory. Existing string models of spontaneous CP violation make ambiguous predictions, due to the arbitrariness of CP transformation and the apparent noninvariance of the results under duality. We find a modular CP invariance condition, applicable to any predictive model of spontaneous CP violation, which circumvents these problems; it strongly constrains CP violation by heterotic string moduli. The dilaton is also evaluated as a source of CP violation, but is likely experimentally excluded. We consider the prospects for explaining CP violation in strongly coupled strings and brane worlds

  1. Hamstring contractures in children with spastic cerebral palsy result from a stiffer extracellular matrix and increased in vivo sarcomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lucas R; Lee, Ki S; Ward, Samuel R; Chambers, Henry G; Lieber, Richard L

    2011-05-15

    Cerebral palsy (CP) results from an upper motoneuron (UMN)lesion in the developing brain. Secondary to the UMNl esion,which causes spasticity, is a pathological response by muscle - namely, contracture. However, the elements within muscle that increase passive mechanical stiffness, and therefore result in contracture, are unknown. Using hamstring muscle biopsies from pediatric patients with CP (n =33) and control (n =19) patients we investigated passive mechanical properties at the protein, cellular, tissue and architectural levels to identify the elements responsible for contracture. Titin isoform, the major load-bearing protein within muscle cells, was unaltered in CP. Correspondingly, the passive mechanics of individual muscle fibres were not altered. However, CP muscle bundles, which include fibres in their constituent ECM, were stiffer than control bundles. This corresponded to an increase in collagen content of CP muscles measured by hydroxyproline assay and observed using immunohistochemistry. In vivo sarcomere length of CP muscle measured during surgery was significantly longer than that predicted for control muscle. The combination of increased tissue stiffness and increased sarcomere length interact to increase stiffness greatly of the contracture tissue in vivo. These findings provide evidence that contracture formation is not the result of stiffening at the cellular level, but stiffening of the ECM with increased collagen and an increase of in vivo sarcomere length leading to higher passive stresses.

  2. Post-operative Hypertension following Correction of Flexion Deformity of the Knees in a Spastic Diplegic Child: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Mohan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An adolescent boy with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy presented with crouch gait. He had bilateral severe flexion deformities of knees and hips. He was treated with single event multilevel surgery for the correction of deformities. Surgical procedures included bilateral adductor release, iliopsoas lengthening, bilateral femoral shortening and patella plication. Persistent hypertension was noted in the post-operative period. All causes of secondary hypertension were ruled out. Having persistent hypertension following the femoral shortening procedure is unusual. Antihypertensive medication controlled his blood pressure 15 months after surgery. Hypertension following correction of knee flexion deformity and limb lengthening is well known. Hypertension has not been described with the shortening osteotomy of the femur. Hypertension is a rare complication following the corrective surgery for the treatment of crouch gait. Blood pressure should be monitored during the post-operative period to detect such a rare complication.

  3. CP violation in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, C.O.

    Some aspects of CP violation in gauge theories are reviewed. The topics covered include a discussion of the Kobayashi-Maskawa six-quarks model, models of soft- CP violation (extended Higgs sector), the strong CP problem and finally some speculations relating CP violation and magnetic charges in non-abelian gauge theories. (Author) [pt

  4. Management of spastic hand by selective peripheral neurotomies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Selective peripheral neurotomies (SPN) are proposed when spasticity is focalized on muscles that are under the control of a single or few peripheral nerves. Objective: This study was done to evaluate the functional results of SPN of median and ulnar nerves in 10 patients who had spastic hyperflexion of the ...

  5. New insights into the pathophysiology of post-stroke spasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng eLi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Spasticity is one of many consequences after stroke. It is characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in resistance during passive stretch, resulting from hyperexcitability of the stretch reflex. The underlying mechanism of the hyperexcitable stretch reflex, however, remains poorly understood. Accumulated experimental evidence has supported supraspinal origins of spasticity, likely from an imbalance between descending inhibitory and facilitatory regulation of spinal stretch reflexes secondary to cortical disinhibition after stroke. The excitability of reticulospinal and vestibulospinal tracts has been assessed in stroke survivors with spasticity using non-invasive indirect measures. There are strong experimental findings that support the reticulospinal hyperexcitability as a prominent underlying mechanism of post-stroke spasticity. This mechanism can at least partly account for clinical features associated with spasticity and provide insightful guidance for clinical assessment and management of spasticity. However, the possible role of VST hyperexcitability can not be ruled out from indirect measures. In vivo measure of individual brainstem nuclei in stroke survivors with spasticity using advanced fMRI techniques in the future is probably able to provide direct evidence of pathogenesis of post-stroke spasticity.

  6. Spasticity, an impairment that is poorly defined and poorly measured

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malhotra, S.; Malhotra, S.; Pandyan, A.D.; Day, C.R.; Jones, Valerie M.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Objective: To explore, following a literature review, whether there is a consistent definition and a unified assessment framework for the term 'spasticity'. The congruence between the definitions of spasticity and the corresponding methods of measurement were also explored. Data sources: The search

  7. New insights into the pathophysiology of post-stroke spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Francisco, Gerard E

    2015-01-01

    Spasticity is one of many consequences after stroke. It is characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in resistance during passive stretch, resulting from hyperexcitability of the stretch reflex. The underlying mechanism of the hyperexcitable stretch reflex, however, remains poorly understood. Accumulated experimental evidence has supported supraspinal origins of spasticity, likely from an imbalance between descending inhibitory and facilitatory regulation of spinal stretch reflexes secondary to cortical disinhibition after stroke. The excitability of reticulospinal (RST) and vestibulospinal tracts (VSTs) has been assessed in stroke survivors with spasticity using non-invasive indirect measures. There are strong experimental findings that support the RST hyperexcitability as a prominent underlying mechanism of post-stroke spasticity. This mechanism can at least partly account for clinical features associated with spasticity and provide insightful guidance for clinical assessment and management of spasticity. However, the possible role of VST hyperexcitability cannot be ruled out from indirect measures. In vivo measure of individual brainstem nuclei in stroke survivors with spasticity using advanced fMRI techniques in the future is probably able to provide direct evidence of pathogenesis of post-stroke spasticity.

  8. A Descriptive Study of Lower Limb Torsional Kinematic Profiles in Children With Spastic Diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Anne-Laure; Ilharreborde, Brice; Megrot, Fabrice; Mallet, Cindy; Azarpira, Reza; Mazda, Keyvan; Presedo, Ana; Penneçot, Georges F

    2015-09-01

    Lower limb rotational anomalies in spastic diplegic children with cerebral palsy (CP) are common and difficult to identify through physical examination alone. The identification and treatment of the overall rotational disorders must be considered to restore physiological lever-arms lengths and lever-arms orientation.The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of lower limb rotational malalignment and to describe the distribution of the different kinematic torsional profiles in children with spastic diplegia. Instrumented gait analysis data from 188 children with spastic diplegia were retrospectively reviewed. None of the patients had undergone surgery previously or received botulinum toxin treatment within 6 months before the review. Kinematic data, collected at the midstance phase, included: pelvic, hip, and ankle rotation and foot progression angle. The prevalence of kinematic rotational deviations was 98.4%. Sixty-one percent of the children walked with an internal foot progression angle and 21% exhibited external alignment. The pelvis was internally rotated in 41% of the cases and externally in another 27%. Hip rotation was internal in 29% and external in 27% of the cases. Ankle rotation was internal in 55% and external in 16% of the cases. Lower limb rotational anomalies involved more than one level in 77% of the limbs. A kinematic compensatory deviation was identified in at least one level in 48% of the limbs. Kinematic rotational anomalies were identified in nearly all the 188 children in the study. The multilevel involvement of lower limb malalignment was not systematically associated with compensatory mechanisms between the levels. Ankle rotational anomalies were the most frequent cause of lower limb torsional deviations followed by pelvic malalignment. Level IV.

  9. Full Body Gait Analysis May Improve Diagnostic Discrimination Between Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia and Spastic Diplegia: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefoy-Mazure, A.; Turcot, K.; Kaelin, A.; De Coulon, G.; Armand, S.

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) and spastic diplegia (SD) patients share a strong clinical resemblance. Thus, HSP patients are frequently misdiagnosed with a mild form of SD. Clinical gait analysis (CGA) has been highlighted as a possible tool to support the differential diagnosis of HSP and SD. Previous analysis has focused on the lower-body…

  10. Does calf muscle spasticity contribute to postural imbalance? A study in persons with pure hereditary spastic paraparesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niet, M. de; Weerdesteyn, V.G.M.; Bot, S.T. de; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The contribution of spasticity to postural imbalance in patients with upper motor neuron syndrome is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the responses to support-surface perturbations in patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP). These patients typically suffer from

  11. CP violation in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    Electric dipole moments of large atoms are an excellent tool to search for CP violation beyond the Standard Model. These tell us about the electron EDM but also about CP-violating electron-nucleon dimension-6 operators that arise from Higgs-exchange. Rapid strides are being made in searches for atomic EDMs. Limits on the electron EDM approaching the values which would be expected from Higgs-exchange mediated CP violation have been achieved. It is pointed out that in this same kind of model if tan β is large the effects in atoms of the dimension-6 e - n operators may outweigh the effect of the electron EDM. (author) 21 refs

  12. Highlights of CP 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Various developing topics in CP violation are reviewed. There are many theoretical reasons to hope that the CKM paradigm may be incomplete. It is surely too soon to be claiming new physics in \\epsilon^\\prime/\\epsilon or in D^0-\\bar D^0 mixing, but rare K decays offer interesting places to search for new physics. It is probably also premature to see a clash between global CKM fits and current estimates of sin \\beta and \\gamma, where much more precise data will soon be available. There are interesting possibilities to look for CP violation in neutrino oscillations and in Higgs physics. Rapid progress can be expected now that CP violation is moving to the top of the particle physics agenda.

  13. COMPARISON BETWEEN PHYSIOLOGICAL COST INDEX IN HEALTHY NORMAL CHILDREN AS AGAINST AMBULATORY SPASTIC DIPLEGIC CEREBRAL PALSY (WITH AND WITHOUT ORTHOSIS IN THE AGE GROUP 6 TO 18 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swatia Bhise

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Efficacy of rehabilitation program for subjects with orthosis with objective measurement. The study aiming to objectively compare the PCI and walking speed of normal children with ambulatory spastic diaplegic. Also we aimed to analyze whether BMIhad impact on energy cost. Methods: 41 normal children and 41 community walking spastic diaplegic aged between 6 to 18 yrs. were assessed to compare the PCI. Speed of walking and heart rate were checked constantlyboth barefoot and in shoes in normal children and with and without conventional AFO in children with spastic diaplegic at their chosen velocities over four consecutive lengths of a 12.5m walkway i.e. total 50m.,Pre and Post readings are taken. Heart rate is affected by speed; PCI with speed of walking and heart rate was calculated for each child. Results: The mean PCI in shoes and barefoot was same in normal children i.e. 0.05 ±0.039beats/meter. The PCI for children with pathological gait i.e. spastic diaplegic without orthosis and with orthosis is 0.199 ±0.176 and 0.104± 0.093beats/meter appreciably greater than that for normal children(p less than 0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that walking with orthosis in spastic diplegic CP children showed higher costs of energy and slower walking speed compared normal children with age matched. The PCI of walking, with orthosis in children with spastic Diplegic cerebral palsy is less as compared to without orthosis i.e. gait is more energy efficient with orthosis. BMI doesn’t show any correlation with PCI further study may require.

  14. Topics in CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, H.R.

    1993-02-01

    Given the varied backgrounds of the members of this audience this talk will be a grab bag of topics related to the general theme of CP Violation. I do not have time to dwell in detail on any of them. First, for the astronomers and astrophysicists among you, I want to begin by reviewing the experimental status of evidence for CP violation in particle processes. There is only one system where this has been observed, and that is in the decays of neutral K mesons

  15. Topics in CP violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, H. R.

    1993-02-01

    Given the varied backgrounds of the members of this audience this talk will be a grab bag of topics related to the general theme of CP Violation. I do not have time to dwell in detail on any of them. First, for the astronomers and astrophysicists among you, I want to begin by reviewing the experimental status of evidence for CP violation in particle processes. There is only one system where this has been observed, and that is in the decays of neutral K mesons.

  16. Incidence of epilepsy among patients with cerebral palsy (CP in Yayasan Pemeliharaan Anak Cacat (YPAC – Medan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertin Sianturi

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a chronic condition due to cerebral function disorders. Epilepsy occurs as a common complication of many neurological disorders such as cerebral palsy (CP that can cause further brain damage if especially they are accompanied with prolonged seizure. The incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP varies, 25-35%. The high incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP suggests that these disorders has common or related origins. We carried out a retrospective study to determine the incidence of epilepsy among patients with CP registered July 1988 to June 1998 in YPAC Medan and to determine whether the incidence of epilepsy was different according to type of CP. Data was compiled from medical records, including name, sex, parity, mothers age, prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal history, and EEG resuts. Data were analysed using statistical computer program and its significance was evaluated by chi square test at p < 0.05. There were 67 cases with CP, 53 cases spastic CP, 13 cases mixed CP and one case dyskinetic CP. Of the 67 cases CP, 47.8% were male, 52.2% female with the mean age of 50.3 (SD 36.9 months. There were 25 (37.3% patients CP associated with epilepsy, 72% general seizures, 20% partial seizures, and 8% infantile spasm. The incidence of epilepsy was significantly different among patients with CP associated with the type of CP and gestational age, p < 0.05. We concluded that the incidence of epilepsy among patient with CP in YPAC Medan was 37.3% and showed significant difference in CP according to type and gestational age. (Med J Indones 2002; 11: 158-63 Keywords: epilepsy, cerebral palsy, obstetric history, gestational age

  17. MRI in spastic cerebral palsy - correlations with motor development and mental retardation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulal, W.; Sobaniec, W.; Kubas, B.

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of magnetic resonance (MR) has improved our understanding of the pathophysiology and early diagnosis of cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this study was to evaluate types of lesions on MR in children with CP in correlations with motor development, cognitive impairment and risk factors. Twenty-two children aged 4-17 years (boys 12, girls 10) with CP diplegia - 16 and tetraplegia - 6 were studied. Routine MR images were performed in all children. Results: All patients had periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) in MR findings. In addition three different degrees of MRI lesion patterns were defined: a mild pattern (nucleus lentiformis and thalamus) moderate (nucleus lentiformis, thalamus and pericentral region)and a severe pattern (nucleus lentiformis , thalamus, pericentral region and hippocampus). Significant correlations of the MR findings with the motor development and mental retardation were found. No significant relationships between the MR findings and the etiological factors (prematurity, low birthweight, Apgar score, sepsis, seizures, pre-eclamsia , and gestational age) were noted. MR imaging is useful in the evaluation structural abnormalities in the brains in the children with spastic diplegia and tetraplegia. (author)

  18. Outcome of medial hamstring lengthening in children with spastic paresis: A biomechanical and morphological observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberfehlner, Helga; Jaspers, Richard T; Rutz, Erich; Harlaar, Jaap; van der Sluijs, Johannes A; Witbreuk, Melinda M; van Hutten, Kim; Romkes, Jacqueline; Freslier, Marie; Brunner, Reinald; Becher, Jules G; Maas, Huub; Buizer, Annemieke I

    2018-01-01

    To improve gait in children with spastic paresis due to cerebral palsy or hereditary spastic paresis, the semitendinosus muscle is frequently lengthened amongst other medial hamstring muscles by orthopaedic surgery. Side effects on gait due to weakening of the hamstring muscles and overcorrections have been reported. How these side effects relate to semitendinosus morphology is unknown. This study assessed the effects of bilateral medial hamstring lengthening as part of single-event multilevel surgery (SEMLS) on (1) knee joint mechanics (2) semitendinosus muscle morphology and (3) gait kinematics. All variables were assessed for the right side only. Six children with spastic paresis selected for surgery to counteract limited knee range of motion were measured before and about a year after surgery. After surgery, in most subjects popliteal angle decreased and knee moment-angle curves were shifted towards a more extended knee joint, semitendinosus muscle belly length was approximately 30% decreased, while at all assessed knee angles tendon length was increased by about 80%. In the majority of children muscle volume of the semitendinosus muscle decreased substantially suggesting a reduction of physiological cross-sectional area. Gait kinematics showed more knee extension during stance (mean change ± standard deviation: 34±13°), but also increased pelvic anterior tilt (mean change ± standard deviation: 23±5°). In most subjects, surgical lengthening of semitendinosus tendon contributed to more extended knee joint angle during static measurements as well as during gait, whereas extensibility of semitendinosus muscle belly was decreased. Post-surgical treatment to maintain muscle belly length and physiological cross-sectional area may improve treatment outcome of medial hamstring lengthening.

  19. Beautiful CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunietz, I.

    1997-01-01

    CP violation is observed to date only in K 0 decays and is parameterizable by a single quantity ε. Because it is one of the least understood phenomena in the Standard Model and holds a clue to baryogenesis, it must be investigated further. Highly specialized searches in K 0 decays are possible. Effects in B decays are much larger. In addition to the traditional B d → J/ψK S , π + π - asymmetries, CP violation could be searched for in already existing inclusive B data samples. The rapid B s --anti B s oscillations cancel in untagged B s data samples, which therefore allow feasibility studies for the observation of CP violation and the extraction of CKM elements with present vertex detectors. The favored method for the extraction of the CKM angle γ is shown to be unfeasible and a solution is presented involving striking direct CP violation in charged B decays. Novel methods for determining the B s mixing parameter Δm are described without the traditional requirement of flavor-specific final states

  20. Cortical bone deficit and fat infiltration of bone marrow and skeletal muscle in ambulatory children with mild spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Daniel G; Singh, Harshvardhan; Miller, Freeman; Barbe, Mary F; Slade, Jill M; Pohlig, Ryan T; Modlesky, Christopher M

    2017-01-01

    Nonambulatory children with severe cerebral palsy (CP) have underdeveloped bone architecture, low bone strength and a high degree of fat infiltration in the lower extremity musculature. The present study aims to determine if such a profile exists in ambulatory children with mild CP and if excess fat infiltration extends into the bone marrow. Ambulatory children with mild spastic CP and typically developing children (4 to 11years; 12/group) were compared. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to estimate cortical bone, bone marrow and total bone volume and width, bone strength [i.e., section modulus (Z) and polar moment of inertia (J)], and bone marrow fat concentration in the midtibia, and muscle volume, intermuscular, subfascial, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) volume and intramuscular fat concentration in the midleg. Accelerometer-based activity monitors worn on the ankle were used to assess physical activity. There were no group differences in age, height, body mass, body mass percentile, BMI, BMI percentile or tibia length, but children with CP had lower height percentile (19th vs. 50th percentile) and total physical activity counts (44%) than controls (both pChildren with CP also had lower cortical bone volume (30%), cortical bone width in the posterior (16%) and medial (32%) portions of the shaft, total bone width in the medial-lateral direction (15%), Z in the medial-lateral direction (34%), J (39%) and muscle volume (39%), and higher bone marrow fat concentration (82.1±1.8% vs. 80.5±1.9%), subfascial AT volume (3.3 fold) and intramuscular fat concentration (25.0±8.0% vs. 16.1±3.3%) than controls (all pfat infiltration estimates, except posterior cortical bone width, were still present (all pchildren with CP compared to controls emerged (pchildren with mild spastic CP exhibit an underdeveloped bone architecture and low bone strength in the midtibia and a greater infiltration of fat in the bone marrow and surrounding musculature compared to typically

  1. CP violation in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saavedra, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: In the standard model CP violation is generated by a non trivial complex phase in the CKM matrix. The Standard Model does not predict the elements of the CKM matrix, they need to be experimentally measured. This will show if all the CP violation phenomena can be accounted by the complex phase or there are other contributing mechanisms which lie beyond the scope of Standard Model. It is of interest to overconstraint the so called unitary triangle by measuring each angle (α, β and γ) from the CP asymmetry that occurs in different decay modes. During the initial low luminosity period of the LHC a large effort will be concentrated in studying B physics, especially CP violation in the B 0 - B-bar 0 system, with the ATLAS detector. The features of the detector which are important for CP studies are: sharp trigger from the muon spectrometer (muons will be identify down to p T ≅ 5GeV, be able to distinguish electrons from hadrons (down to p T ≅ 1 GeV) with the Straw Tracker and Transition detector and high resolution of tracks, secondary vertices with the Semiconductor Tracker (resolution of 10-90 μm. For some decays modes ATLAS is expected to obtain larger sample of events than the B-factories that are being proposed. It has been calculated that the systematic error σ sin (2 α) = 0.06 and σ sin ( 2 β) = 0.027 which is comparable with other future experiments

  2. Effect of Adding Swedish Massage to Occupational Therapy on Muscle Tone of Spastic Cerebral Palsied Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzeh Sajedi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cerebral palsy is a nonprogressive disorder in body posture and movement, due to different etiologies. Different medical and rehabilitation interventions include massage have been used in these children. This study has been done to determine the effect of adding massage to occupational therapy on muscle tone of children with spastic cerebral palsy. Materials & Methods: This study was a double blind clinical trial. The children were recruited from clinics of University of Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences. The individuals were divided to intervention and control groups. The routine rehabilitation techniques were done in 3 months in both groups. The intervention group received massage for 30 minutes before rehabilitation. Muscle tonicity was evaluated at the beginning of the study and 3 months later by Ashworth test. The data analysis was done by parametric (t test, paired t test and nonparametric (Mann Whitney, Wilcoxon tests. Results: Thirteen subjects of case (intervention group and 14 subjects of control group were studied. The average age in case group and control group was 49.5, and 42.1 months respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in Tonicity of upper and lower limbs, trunk and neck between intervention group and control group (P>0/05. Conclusion: In general based on the results of this study, adding massage to occupational therapy had no effect on tonicity of spastic cerebral palsied children. Regarding to some effects of massage mentioned in different articles on physical abilities of children with C.P. as well as executive limitations in this research, it is not possible to reject the effects of homeopathy on physical abilities of children with C.P.

  3. Postural control during sit-to-stand movement and its relationship with upright position in children with hemiplegic spastic cerebral palsy and in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavão, Silvia L; Santos, Adriana N; Oliveira, Ana B; Rocha, Nelci A C F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare postural control in typically developing (TD) children and children with cerebral palsy (CP) during the sit-to-stand (STS) movement and to assess the relationship between static (during static standing position) and dynamic postural control (during STS movement) in both groups. The center of pressure (CoP) behavior of 23 TD children and 6 children with spastic hemiplegic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] I and II) was assessed during STS movement performance and during static standing conditions with the use of a force plate. The data obtained from the force plate were used to calculate CoP variables: anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) amplitudes of CoP displacement and the area and velocity of CoP oscillation. According to the Mann-Whitney test, children with CP exhibited higher CoP values in all of the analyzed variables during the beginning of STS movement. Pearson's correlation verified a positive correlation between the CoP variables during both static conditions and the performance of STS movement. Children with spastic hemiplegic CP present major postural oscillations during the beginning of STS movement compared with typical children. Moreover, the observed relationship between postural control in static and dynamic conditions reveals the importance of body control in the static position for the performance of functional activities that put the body in motion, such as STS movement.

  4. Postural control during sit-to-stand movement and its relationship with upright position in children with hemiplegic spastic cerebral palsy and in typically developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia L. Pavão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare postural control in typically developing (TD children and children with cerebral palsy (CP during the sit-to-stand (STS movement and to assess the relationship between static (during static standing position and dynamic postural control (during STS movement in both groups. METHOD: The center of pressure (CoP behavior of 23 TD children and 6 children with spastic hemiplegic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] I and II was assessed during STS movement performance and during static standing conditions with the use of a force plate. The data obtained from the force plate were used to calculate CoP variables: anteroposterior (AP and mediolateral (ML amplitudes of CoP displacement and the area and velocity of CoP oscillation. RESULTS: According to the Mann-Whitney test, children with CP exhibited higher CoP values in all of the analyzed variables during the beginning of STS movement. Pearson's correlation verified a positive correlation between the CoP variables during both static conditions and the performance of STS movement. CONCLUSIONS: Children with spastic hemiplegic CP present major postural oscillations during the beginning of STS movement compared with typical children. Moreover, the observed relationship between postural control in static and dynamic conditions reveals the importance of body control in the static position for the performance of functional activities that put the body in motion, such as STS movement.

  5. CP violation in K decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, F.J.

    1989-05-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental progress on the manifestation of CP violation in K decays, and toward understanding whether CP violation originates in a phase, or phases, in the weak mixing matrix of quarks is reviewed. 23 refs., 10 figs

  6. CP violation in B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, B.

    1990-01-01

    The study of CP-violating effects in B decays will be a good test of whether CP violation is caused by the known weak interaction. If this is its origin, then large, cleanly-predicted CP-violating effects are expected in certain neutral B decays to hadronic CP eigenstates. The phenomenology of CP violation in the B system is reviewed, and the genesis of these large effects is explained. In this it is shown that large, cleanly-predicted effects are also expected in some decays to states which are not CP eigenstates. The combined study of the latter decays and those to CP eigenstates may make it possible to obtain a statistically-significant CP-violating signal with fewer B mesons that would otherwise be required

  7. Severe Spastic Contractures and Diabetes Mellitus Independently Predict Subsequent Minimal Trauma Fractures Among Long-Term Care Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kuen; Leung, Man Fuk; Kwan, Chi Wai; Kwan, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    The study aimed to examine the epidemiology of hypertonic contractures and its relationship with minimal trauma fracture (MTF), and to determine the incidence and predictors of (MTF) in long-term care residents. This was a longitudinal cohort study of prospectively collected data. Participants were followed from March 2007 to March 2016 or until death. A 300-bed long-term care hospital in Hong Kong. All long-term care residents who were in need of continuous medical and nursing care for their activities of daily living. Information on patients' demographic data, severe contracture defined as a decrease of 50% or more of the normal passive range of joint movement of the joint, and severe limb spasticity defined by the Modified Ashworth Scale higher than grade 3, medical comorbidities, functional status, cognitive status, nutritional status including body mass index and serum albumin, past history of fractures, were evaluated as potential risk factors for subsequent MTF. Three hundred ninety-six residents [148 males, mean ± standard deviation (SD), age = 79 ± 16 years] were included for analysis. The presence of severe contracture was highly prevalent among the study population: 91% of residents had at least 1 severe contracture, and 41% of residents had severe contractures involving all 4 limbs. Moreover, there were a significant proportion of residents who had severe limb spasticity with the elbow flexors (32.4%) and knee flexors (33.9%) being the most commonly involved muscles. Twelve residents (3%) suffered from subsequent MTF over a median follow-up of 33 (SD = 30) months. Seven out of these 12 residents died during the follow-up period, with a mean survival of 17.8 months (SD = 12.6) after the fracture event. The following 2 factors were found to independently predict subsequent MTF in a multivariate Cox regression: bilateral severe spastic knee contractures (hazard ratio = 16.5, P contractures are common morbidities in long-term care residents

  8. The Influence of Age at Single-Event Multilevel Surgery on Outcome in Children with Cerebral Palsy Who Walk with Flexed Knee Gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svehlik, Martin; Steinwender, Gerhard; Kraus, Tanja; Saraph, Vinay; Lehmann, Thomas; Linhart, Wolfgang E.; Zwick, Ernst B.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Information on the timing and long-term outcome of single-event multilevel surgery in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP) walking with flexed knee gait is limited. Based on our clinical experience, we hypothesized that older children with bilateral spastic CP would benefit more from single-event multilevel surgery than younger…

  9. The Role of Exercise – Rehabilitation on Energy Cost and Metabolic Efficiency in Dipelegic Spastic Cerebral Palsy Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Izadi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the resting energy expenditure and metabolic efficiency before and after of aerobic exercise in spastic cerebral palsy children (mean age of 11 years and also to compare with those of normal children. Materials & Methods : Fifteen dipelegia spastic cerebral palsy children (experimental group participated in exercise–rehabilitation program by voluntarily and the peers eighteen able body children(control group were selected randomly. The experimental group(cp performed rehabilitation program for 3 months,3 session in week with work intensity(%HRR=462.5equal to144bpm of heart rate. The values were measured on tantory cycle ergometer according to Macmaster protocol.Results: Rest and exercise heart rate and exercise intensity(%HRR in patients decreased after rehabilitation program(P<0.05. The resting energy expenditure was similar in cp and normal groups. The rate of oxygen cost of patients decreased in post test(P<0.05 that showed increasing in metabolic efficiency.Conclusion: cerebral palsy children have greater exercise energy cost and lower cardiovascular fitness than normal children and exercise–rehabilitation leads to enhance of metabolic efficiency in this patients that is remarkable from clinical perception.

  10. Status in CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayard, L.

    1989-11-01

    Twenty-five years after the discovery of CP violation in the neutral Kaon system, we still dont know exactly the origin and the components of that weak non invariance. The two more precise experiments give slightly different answers concerning the direct way of CP violation NA 31 gives ε prime/ε incompatible with the Superweak Model (for which ε prime=0) and in agreement with Standard Model predictions compatible with both. Again, one needs new and precise results in order to conclude about ε prime. E731 and NA31 are actually working on their new data samples. Longer term ideas are also being discussed, looking for new experiments able to give ε prime/ε with a precision. Concerning CPT invariance the situation seems to be more clear

  11. LHCb CP violation

    CERN Document Server

    Vesterinen, Mika

    2016-01-01

    The study of $CP$ violation in the beauty hadron sector is a promising approach to search for the effects of physics beyond the Standard Model. Several recent measurements in this area from the LHCb experiment are reported in these proceedings. These are based on the Run-I dataset of 3~fb$^{-1}$ of data collected at proton-proton centre of mass energies of 7 and 8~TeV.

  12. MRI of autosomal dominant pure spastic paraplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, K.; Nielsen, J.E.; Fallentin, E.

    1997-01-01

    We examined 16 patients with autosomal dominant pure spastic paraplegia (HSP) and 15 normal controls matched for age and sex using MRI of the brain and spinal cord. Images were assessed qualitatively by two independent radiologists, blinded to the clinical diagnosis. Areas of the brain and corpus...... callosum on one midsagittal slice and the area of the brain on one axial slice were measured and a "corpus-callosum index" expressing the size of the corpus callosum relative to that of the brain was calculated. Cross-sectional areas and anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the spinal cord...... at the levels of C 2, C 5, T 3, T 6, T 9 and T 11 were measured. No significant differences between patients and controls were found on qualitative evaluation of the images. The patients had a significantly smaller corpus callosum and "corpus-callosum index" than controls. This finding, not reported previously...

  13. Gait Trainer for Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urhan, Oguzhan

    2001-01-01

    A device is developed to improve the walking ability of children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy, who have damages to the area of their brain which controls the muscle tone and that causes trouble walking...

  14. What's new in multiple sclerosis spasticity research? Poster session highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Ralf

    2017-11-01

    Each year at the Multiple Sclerosis Experts Summit, relevant research in the field of multiple sclerosis spasticity is featured in poster sessions. The main studies presented at this year's meeting are summarized herein.

  15. Hereditary spastic paraplegias: membrane traffic and the motor pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Blackstone, Craig; O’Kane, Cahir J.; Reid, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary movement is a fundamental way in which animals respond to, and interact with, their environment. In mammals, the main CNS pathway controlling voluntary movement is the corticospinal tract, which encompasses connections between the cerebral motor cortex and the spinal cord. Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a group of genetic disorders that lead to a length-dependent, distal axonopathy of fibres of the corticospinal tract, causing lower limb spasticity and weakness. Recent wo...

  16. Bilateral herpes zoster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh K

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of bilateral herpes zoster of lumbosacral region is reported in association with diabetes mellitus in a 55 years old female. The case is of interest due to bilateral distribution which is rare and sacral region involvement which is quite uncommon.

  17. Bilateral herpes zoster

    OpenAIRE

    Singh K; Bajaj A; Dwivedi N; Merchery A

    1993-01-01

    A case of bilateral herpes zoster of lumbosacral region is reported in association with diabetes mellitus in a 55 years old female. The case is of interest due to bilateral distribution which is rare and sacral region involvement which is quite uncommon.

  18. Effects of a Nintendo Wii exercise program on spasticity and static standing balance in spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatica-Rojas, Valeska; Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo; Méndez-Rebolledo, Guillermo; Guzman-Muñoz, Eduardo; Lizama, L Eduardo Cofré

    2017-08-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effects of a Nintendo Wii Balance Board (NWBB) intervention on ankle spasticity and static standing balance in young people with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP). Ten children and adolescents (aged 72-204 months) with SCP participated in an exercise program with NWBB. The intervention lasted 6 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 25 minutes for each session. Ankle spasticity was assessed using the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale (MMAS), and static standing balance was quantified using posturographic measures (center-of-pressure [CoP] measures). Pre- and post-intervention measures were compared. Significant decreases of spasticity in the ankle plantar flexor muscles (p balance in young people with SCP.

  19. Spasticity in Children with Cerebral Palsy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev-Olsen, Maria

    of reflex activity is unlikely to contribute to foot drop and toe walking in the children with CP. Antispastic treatment is therefore unlikely to benefit the children functionally and we argue that therapy and treatment strategies should rather be directed at passive muscle changes. Study III was performed...

  20. [Bilateral cochlear implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, J

    2017-07-01

    Cochlear implants (CI) are standard for the hearing rehabilitation of severe to profound deafness. Nowadays, if bilaterally indicated, bilateral implantation is usually recommended (in accordance with German guidelines). Bilateral implantation enables better speech discrimination in quiet and in noise, and restores directional and spatial hearing. Children with bilateral CI are able to undergo hearing-based hearing and speech development. Within the scope of their individual possibilities, bilaterally implanted children develop faster than children with unilateral CI and attain, e.g., a larger vocabulary within a certain time interval. Only bilateral implantation allows "binaural hearing," with all the benefits that people with normal hearing profit from, namely: better speech discrimination in quiet and in noise, as well as directional and spatial hearing. Naturally, the developments take time. Binaural CI users benefit from the same effects as normal hearing persons: head shadow effect, squelch effect, and summation and redundancy effects. Sequential CI fitting is not necessarily disadvantageous-both simultaneously and sequentially fitted patients benefit in a similar way. For children, earliest possible fitting and shortest possible interval between the two surgeries seems to positively influence the outcome if bilateral CI are indicated.

  1. Evaluation of Functional Electrical Stimulation to Assist Cycling in Four Adolescents with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Tokay Harrington

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP often have difficulty participating in exercise at intensities necessary to improve cardiovascular fitness. Functional electrical stimulation- (FES- assisted cycling is proposed as a form of exercise for adolescents with CP. The aims of this paper were to adapt methods and assess the feasibility of applying FES cycling technology in adolescents with CP, determine methods of performing cycling tests in adolescents with CP, and evaluate the immediate effects of FES assistance on cycling performance. Materials/Methods. Four participants (12–14 years old; GMFCS levels III-IV participated in a case-based pilot study of FES-assisted cycling in which bilateral quadriceps muscles were activated using surface electrodes. Cycling cadence, power output, and heart rate were collected. Results. FES-assisted cycling was well tolerated (n=4 and cases are presented demonstrating increased cadence (2–43 rpm, power output (19–70%, and heart rates (4-5% and decreased variability (8–13% in cycling performance when FES was applied, compared to volitional cycling without FES assistance. Some participants (n=2 required the use of an auxiliary hub motor for assistance. Conclusions. FES-assisted cycling is feasible for individuals with CP and may lead to immediate improvements in cycling performance. Future work will examine the potential for long-term fitness gains using this intervention.

  2. Pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oturai, Annette Bang

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a rare case of spontaneous pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy. A woman with a history of bilateral salpingectomy was admitted to hospital because of abdominal pain and positive urine HCG. Surprisingly, ultrasound confirmed a live intrauterine fetus. The pregnancy...... was unwanted, and the woman decided to terminate the pregnancy. She was offered diagnostic examination to localise a potential fistula, but she declined. In a MEDLINE search of English literature this is only the second case of spontaneous pregnancy following bilateral salpingectomy Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4/21...

  3. CP violating scalar Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Cid, A.; Hernández-Sánchez, J.; Keus, V.; King, S. F.; Moretti, S.; Rojas, D.; Sokołowska, D.

    2016-12-01

    We study an extension of the Standard Model (SM) in which two copies of the SM scalar SU(2) doublet which do not acquire a Vacuum Expectation Value (VEV), and hence are inert, are added to the scalar sector. We allow for CP-violation in the inert sector, where the lightest inert state is protected from decaying to SM particles through the conservation of a Z 2 symmetry. The lightest neutral particle from the inert sector, which has a mixed CP-charge due to CP-violation, is hence a Dark Matter (DM) candidate. We discuss the new regions of DM relic density opened up by CP-violation, and compare our results to the CP-conserving limit and the Inert Doublet Model (IDM). We constrain the parameter space of the CP-violating model using recent results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and DM direct and indirect detection experiments.

  4. Present status of CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, J.N.

    1989-06-01

    A review of the status of CP violation in kaons is given. Status of our knowledge of quark mixing angles in the standard six quark model is presented. The role Β d o - Βd o transition plays in this study is examined. A comparison of the estimates of CP violation effects from models beyond the standard one is given. Other experiments that have the capability of testing different CP violation models are also discussed. (Author) 35 refs., 6 figs., tab

  5. [New developments in spastic unilateral cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrier, S; Roubertie, A; Allard, D; Bonhomme, C; Gautheron, V

    2010-01-01

    Hemiplegic (or spastic unilateral) cerebral palsy accounts for about 30% of all cases of cerebral palsy. With a population prevalence of 0.6 per 1000 live births, it is the most common type of cerebral palsy among term-born children and the second most common type after diplegia among preterm infants. Many types of prenatal and perinatal brain injury can lead to congenital hemiplegia and brain MRI is the most useful tool to classify them with accuracy and to provide early prognostic information. Perinatal arterial ischemic stroke thus appears as the leading cause in term infants, whereas encephalopathy of prematurity is the most common cause in premature babies. Other causes include brain malformations, neonatal sinovenous thrombosis, parenchymal hemorrhage (for example due to coagulopathy or alloimmune thrombocytopenia) and the more recently described familial forms of porencephaly associated with mutations in the COL4A1 gene. In adjunction with pharmacologic treatment (botulinium neurotoxin injection), new evidence-based rehabilitational interventions, such as constraint-induced movement therapy and mirror therapy, are increasingly being used.

  6. MRI of autosomal dominant pure spastic paraplegia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krabbe, K.; Fallentin, E.; Herning, M.; Nielsen, J.E.; Fenger, K.

    1997-01-01

    We examined 16 patients with autosomal dominant pure spastic paraplegia (HSP) and 15 normal controls matched for age and sex using MRI of the brain and spinal cord. Images were assessed qualitatively by two independent radiologists, blinded to the clinical diagnosis. Areas of the brain and corpus callosum on one midsagittal slice and the area of the brain on one axial slice were measured and a ''corpus-callosum index'' expressing the size of the corpus callosum relative to that of the brain was calculated. Cross-sectional areas and anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the spinal cord at the levels of C 2, C 5, T 3, T 6, T 9 and T 11 were measured. No significant differences between patients and controls were found on qualitative evaluation of the images. The patients had a significantly smaller corpus callosum and ''corpus-callosum index'' than controls. This finding, not reported previously, might indicate that the disease process in pure HSP is not confined to the spinal cord. The anteroposterior diameters of the spinal cord at T 3 and T 9 were significantly smaller in patients than in controls. This might correspond to the degeneration of the pyramidal tracts and the dorsal columns described at neuropathological examination. (orig.). With 1 fig., 3 tabs

  7. MRI of autosomal dominant pure spastic paraplegia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krabbe, K.; Fallentin, E.; Herning, M. [Danish Research Center of Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre Hospital, Kettegaard alle 30, DK-2650 Hvidovre (Denmark); Nielsen, J.E.; Fenger, K. [Institute of Medical Biochemistry and Genetics, Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Section of Neurogenetics, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1997-10-01

    We examined 16 patients with autosomal dominant pure spastic paraplegia (HSP) and 15 normal controls matched for age and sex using MRI of the brain and spinal cord. Images were assessed qualitatively by two independent radiologists, blinded to the clinical diagnosis. Areas of the brain and corpus callosum on one midsagittal slice and the area of the brain on one axial slice were measured and a ``corpus-callosum index`` expressing the size of the corpus callosum relative to that of the brain was calculated. Cross-sectional areas and anteroposterior and transverse diameters of the spinal cord at the levels of C 2, C 5, T 3, T 6, T 9 and T 11 were measured. No significant differences between patients and controls were found on qualitative evaluation of the images. The patients had a significantly smaller corpus callosum and ``corpus-callosum index`` than controls. This finding, not reported previously, might indicate that the disease process in pure HSP is not confined to the spinal cord. The anteroposterior diameters of the spinal cord at T 3 and T 9 were significantly smaller in patients than in controls. This might correspond to the degeneration of the pyramidal tracts and the dorsal columns described at neuropathological examination. (orig.). With 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. Advances in the management of multiple sclerosis symptoms: pathophysiology and assessment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintoré, Mar

    2015-01-01

    Spasticity is a prevalent and troublesome symptom for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Common instruments to measure MS spasticity include the clinician-rated (modified) Ashworth scale and the patient-rated 0-10 spasticity Numerical Rating Scale (NRS). Current opinion is that measurement of MS spasticity should incorporate the patient's perspective. Other instruments to assess spasticity-associated symptoms such as the Penn spasms frequency scale, sleep quality NRS and pain NRS can assist in tracking MS spasticity evolution and inform management choices. Worsening spasticity reduces patient autonomy, impacts negatively on quality of life and increases health resource utilization and costs. Despite the wide range of issues associated with MS spasticity, undertreatment is common and standard treatment options (physiotherapy and classical oral therapies) often fail to provide adequate symptomatic control.

  9. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of complex hereditary spastic paraplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Eleanna; Tucci, Arianna; Manzoni, Claudia; Lynch, David S.; Elpidorou, Marilena; Bettencourt, Conceicao; Chelban, Viorica; Manole, Andreea; Hamed, Sherifa A.; Haridy, Nourelhoda A.; Federoff, Monica; Preza, Elisavet; Hughes, Deborah; Pittman, Alan; Jaunmuktane, Zane; Brandner, Sebastian; Xiromerisiou, Georgia; Wiethoff, Sarah; Schottlaender, Lucia; Proukakis, Christos; Morris, Huw; Warner, Tom; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Korlipara, L.V. Prasad; Singleton, Andrew B.; Hardy, John; Wood, Nicholas W.; Lewis, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The hereditary spastic paraplegias are a heterogeneous group of degenerative disorders that are clinically classified as either pure with predominant lower limb spasticity, or complex where spastic paraplegia is complicated with additional neurological features, and are inherited in autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X-linked patterns. Genetic defects have been identified in over 40 different genes, with more than 70 loci in total. Complex recessive spastic paraplegias have in the past been frequently associated with mutations in SPG11 (spatacsin), ZFYVE26/SPG15 , SPG7 (paraplegin) and a handful of other rare genes, but many cases remain genetically undefined. The overlap with other neurodegenerative disorders has been implied in a small number of reports, but not in larger disease series. This deficiency has been largely due to the lack of suitable high throughput techniques to investigate the genetic basis of disease, but the recent availability of next generation sequencing can facilitate the identification of disease-causing mutations even in extremely heterogeneous disorders. We investigated a series of 97 index cases with complex spastic paraplegia referred to a tertiary referral neurology centre in London for diagnosis or management. The mean age of onset was 16 years (range 3 to 39). The SPG11 gene was first analysed, revealing homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in 30/97 (30.9%) of probands, the largest SPG11 series reported to date, and by far the most common cause of complex spastic paraplegia in the UK, with severe and progressive clinical features and other neurological manifestations, linked with magnetic resonance imaging defects. Given the high frequency of SPG11 mutations, we studied the autophagic response to starvation in eight affected SPG11 cases and control fibroblast cell lines, but in our restricted study we did not observe correlations between disease status and autophagic or lysosomal markers. In the remaining

  10. Balneotherapy in treatment of spastic upper limb after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erceg-Rukavina, Tatjana; Stefanovski, Mihajlo

    2015-02-01

    After stroke, spasticity is often the main problem that prevents functional recovery. Pain occurs in up to 70% of patients during the first year post-stroke. A total of 70 patients (30 female and 45 male) mean age (65.67) participated in prospective, controlled study. ischaemic stroke, developed spasticity of upper limb, post-stroke interval balneotherapy and inability to follow commands. Experimental group (Ex) (n=35) was treated with sulphurous baths (31°-33°C) and controlled group (Co) with taped water baths, during 21 days. All patients were additionally treated with kinesitherapy and cryotherapy. The outcome was evaluated using Modified Ashworth scale for spasticity and VAS scale for pain. The significance value was sat at pbalneotherapy with sulphurous bath on spasticity and pain in affected upper limb. Reduction in tone of affected upper limb muscles was significant in Ex group (pbalneotherapy with sulphurous water reduces spasticity and pain significantly and can help in treatment of post-stroke patients.

  11. The prevalence of depression in hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahter, L; Braschinsky, M; Haldre, S; Gross-Paju, K

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of depression and sensitivity and specificity of the single-item interview 'Are you depressed?' for people with hereditary spastic paraplegia in Estonia. Single-item interview 'Are you depressed?' was used as a screening question for depression; all participants then completed the Beck Depression Inventory. People with hereditary spastic paraplegia identified from the epidemiological database who agreed to participate in the study. Beck Depression Inventory, clinical interview. The epidemiological database consisted of 59 patients with clinically confirmed diagnosis of hereditary spastic paraplegia. Forty-eight of these consented to participate in the study. The Beck Depression Inventory score was higher than cut-off point in 58% (28/48) and lower in 42% (20/48). Of the study group, 44% (21/48) had mild, 13% (6/48) moderate and one person revealed severe depression. There was a statistically significant correlation between Beck Depression Inventory score and level of mobility; no other significant correlations with other measures were detected. Of the participants, 54% (26/48) had subjective complaints about depression and answered 'Yes' to the single-item interview 'Are you depressed?'. The sensitivity of the one-item interview in the hereditary spastic paraplegia group was 75% and specificity 75%. Our results show that mild depression is prevalent among people with hereditary spastic paraplegia. Although the single question may be helpful, it cannot be relied upon entirely when assessing a person for depression.

  12. Cosmological CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1994-01-01

    Spinor fields are studied in infinite, topologically multiply connected Robertson-Walker cosmologies. Unitary spinor representations for the discrete covering groups of the spacelike slices are constructed. The spectral resolution of Dirac's equation is given in terms of horospherical elementary waves, on which the treatment of spin and energy is based in these cosmologies. The meaning of the energy and the particle-antiparticle concept is explained in the context of this varying cosmic background. Discrete symmetries, in particular inversions of the multiply connected spacelike slices, are studied. The violation of the unitarity of the parity operator, due to self-interference of P-reflected wave packets, is discussed. The violation of the CP and CPT invariance - already on the level of the free Dirac equation on this cosmological background - is pointed out.

  13. Percutaneous radiofrequency lesions adjacent to the dorsal root ganglion alleviate spasticity and pain in children with cerebral palsy: pilot study in 17 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Rhijn Lodewijk W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral palsy (CP may cause severe spasticity, requiring neurosurgical procedures. The most common neurosurgical procedures are continuous infusion of intrathecal baclofen and selective dorsal rhizotomy. Both are invasive and complex procedures. We hypothesized that a percutaneous radiofrequency lesion of the dorsal root ganglion (RF-DRG could be a simple and safe alternative treatment. We undertook a pilot study to test this hypothesis. Methods We performed an RF-DRG procedure in 17 consecutive CP patients with severe hip flexor/adductor spasms accompanied by pain or care-giving difficulties. Six children were systematically evaluated at baseline, and 1 month and 6 months after treatment by means of the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS, Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM and a self-made caregiver's questionnaire. Eleven subsequent children were evaluated using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS for spasticity, pain and ease of care. Results A total of 19 RF-DRG treatments were performed in 17 patients. We found a small improvement in muscle tone measured by MAS, but no effect on the GMFM scale. Despite this, the caregivers of these six treated children unanimously stated that the quality of life of their children had indeed improved after the RF-DRG. In the subsequent 11 children we found improvements in all VAS scores, in a range comparable to the conventional treatment options. Conclusion RF-DRG is a promising new treatment option for severe spasticity in CP patients, and its definitive effectiveness remains to be defined in a randomised controlled trial.

  14. Decreased contribution from afferent feedback to the soleus muscle during walking in patients with spastic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzaro, Nazarena; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk; Grey, Michael James

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the contribution of afferent feedback to the soleus (SOL) muscle activity during the stance phase of walking in patients with spastic stroke. A total of 24 patients with hemiparetic spastic stroke and age-matched healthy volunteers participated in the study. A robotic actuator...... by the Ashworth score. These results indicate that although the stretch reflex response is facilitated during spastic gait, the contribution of afferent feedback to the ongoing locomotor SOL activity is depressed in patients with spastic stroke....

  15. Clinical features and management of hereditary spastic paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Faber

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP is a group of genetically-determined disorders characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness of lower limbs. An apparently sporadic case of adult-onset spastic paraplegia is a frequent clinical problem and a significant proportion of cases are likely to be of genetic origin. HSP is clinically divided into pure and complicated forms. The later present with a wide range of additional neurological and systemic features. To date, there are up to 60 genetic subtypes described. All modes of monogenic inheritance have been described: autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked and mitochondrial traits. Recent advances point to abnormal axonal transport as a key mechanism leading to the degeneration of the long motor neuron axons in the central nervous system in HSP. In this review we aim to address recent advances in the field, placing emphasis on key diagnostic features that will help practicing neurologists to identify and manage these conditions.

  16. NIPA1 mutation in complex hereditary spastic paraplegia with epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, K; Møller, R S; Christensen, J

    2011-01-01

    or signs are found. Mutations in the NIPA1 gene have been reported to cause spastic paraplegia type 6 (SPG6) in 10 families. SPG6 is a rare form of autosomal dominantly inherited HSP associated with a pure phenotype; however, in one complex SPG6 family, idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) has been...... described and in addition, recurrent microdeletions at 15q11.2 including NIPA1 have been identified in patients with IGE. The purpose was to identify NIPA1 mutations in patients with pure and complex HSP. Methods: Fifty-two patients with HSP were screened for mutations in NIPA1. Results: One previously...... reported missense mutation c.316G>A, p.Gly106Arg, was identified in a complex HSP patient with spastic dysarthria, facial dystonia, atrophy of the small hand muscles, upper limb spasticity, and presumably IGE. The epilepsy co-segregated with HSP in the family. Conclusion: NIPA1 mutations were rare in our...

  17. Technologically-advanced assessment of upper-limb spasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posteraro, Federico; Crea, Simona; Mazzoleni, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    post stroke patients. METHODS: A new robotic device able to automatically assess upper-limb spasticity during passive and active mobilization has been developed. The elbow spasticity of five post stroke patients has been assessed by using the new device and by means of the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS......). After the first assessment, subjects were treated with botulin toxin injections, and then underwent 10 sessions of robotic treatments. After the treatment, subjects spasticity was assessed by using the robotic device and the MAS score. RESULTS: In four out of five patients, the botulin toxin injection...... and robotic treatment resulted in the improvement of the MAS score; in three patients the robotic measures were able to detect the MAS changes. In one subject botulin toxin was not effective and the robotic device was able to detect the lack of effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: By using the robotic device some...

  18. Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; King, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z 2 in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S 4 flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.

  19. Flavour physics and CP violation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is well known that the study of flavour physics and CP violation is very important to critically test the Standard Model and to look for possible signature of new physics beyond it. The observation of CP violation in kaon system in 1964 has ignited a lot of experimental and theoretical efforts to understand its origin and to look ...

  20. Testing New Indirect CP Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Yuval; Nir, Yosef; Perez, Gilad

    2009-01-01

    If new CP violating physics contributes to neutral meson mixing, but its contribution to CP violation in decay amplitudes is negligible, then there is a model independent relation between four (generally independent) observables related to the mixing: the mass splitting (x), the width splitting (y), the CP violation in mixing (1-|q/p|), and the CP violation in the interference of decays with and without mixing (φ). For the four neutral meson systems, this relation can be written in a simple approximate form: ytanφ≅x(1-|q/p|). In the K system, all four observables have been measured and obey the relation to excellent accuracy. For the B s and D systems, new predictions are provided. The success or failure of these relations will probe the physics that is responsible for the CP violation.

  1. CP-violation and instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, C.G.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of Yang-Mills instantons on CP-violating strong interactions are studied. Using simplified models of CP-noninvariant weak interactions, we calculate the induced strong CP-violation. Even in the simple examples studied, the CP-violating phase of a vacuum-to-vacuum transition amplitude differs in general from the phase of the determinant of the quark mass matrix multiplied by the topological charge of the background Yang-Mills field. Then several CP-violating phenomena such as eta → 2π decay and neutron electric dipole moment induced by instantons are studied. The result of our explicit calculation of eta → 2π decay strength verifies the current algebraic method used by Crewther et al. We also present a calculation of the instanton contribution, in the dilute gas approximation for instanton gas, to the electric dipole moment of a free quark without using 't Hooft's effective Lagrangian

  2. Hereditary spastic paraplegias: membrane traffic and the motor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Craig; O'Kane, Cahir J; Reid, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary movement is a fundamental way in which animals respond to, and interact with, their environment. In mammals, the main CNS pathway controlling voluntary movement is the corticospinal tract, which encompasses connections between the cerebral motor cortex and the spinal cord. Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a group of genetic disorders that lead to a length-dependent, distal axonopathy of fibres of the corticospinal tract, causing lower limb spasticity and weakness. Recent work aimed at elucidating the molecular cell biology underlying the HSPs has revealed the importance of basic cellular processes — especially membrane trafficking and organelle morphogenesis and distribution— in axonal maintenance and degeneration.

  3. Tilt table standing for reducing spasticity after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, R W

    1993-10-01

    A patient with a T12 spinal cord injury and intractable extensor spasms of the lower extremities participated in tilt table standing trial on 5 nonconsecutive days to determine if the intervention would affect his spasticity and spasms. Each day's standing trial was followed by an immediate reduction in lower extremity spasticity (measured using the modified Ashworth scale and pendulum testing). Standing was also accompanied by a reduction in spasms that lasted until the following morning. The reduction of spasms was particularly advantageous to the performance of car transfers. Tilt table standing merits further examination as a physical treatment of spasms that accompany central nervous system lesions.

  4. Converging cellular themes for the hereditary spastic paraplegias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Craig

    2018-05-10

    Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are neurologic disorders characterized by prominent lower-extremity spasticity, resulting from a length-dependent axonopathy of corticospinal upper motor neurons. They are among the most genetically-diverse neurologic disorders, with >80 distinct genetic loci and over 60 identified genes. Studies investigating the molecular pathogenesis underlying HSPs have emphasized the importance of converging cellular pathogenic themes in the most common forms of HSP, providing compelling targets for therapy. Most notably, these include organelle shaping and biogenesis as well as membrane and cargo trafficking. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Staged bilateral carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Engell, Hans Christian

    1986-01-01

    In a series of 56 staged bilateral carotid endarterectomies, new neurologic symptoms developed in 5% and 20% following the first and second procedure, respectively. All complications were transient or minor. The incidence of postendarterectomy hypertension was significantly higher following...... the second procedure, when operations were staged less than 3 weeks apart. A correlation between these hypertensive episodes and the occurrence of new neurologic symptoms could not be shown. However, as this correlation has been proved in several other reports, bilateral carotid endarterectomy is advised...... to be staged at least 3 weeks apart. In addition, a conservative attitude towards contralateral asymptomatic lesions is proposed....

  6. CP-Recursion in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvad, Anne Mette; Christensen, Ken Ramshøj; Vikner, Sten

    2017-01-01

    Based on data from extraction, embedded V2, and complementizer stacking, this paper proposes a cP/CP-analysis of CP-recursion in Danish. Because extraction can be shown to be possible from relative clauses, wh-islands, and adverbial clauses, and given that long extraction is successive......-cyclic, an extra specifier position has to be available as an escape hatch. Consequently, such extractions require a CP-recursion analysis, as has been argued for embedded V2 and for complementizer stacking. Given that CP-recursion in embedded V2 clauses does not allow extraction, whereas other types of CP......-recursion do, we suggest that embedded V2 is fundamentally different, in that main clause V2 and embedded V2 involve a CP (“big CP”), whereas all other clausal projections above IP are instances of cP (“little cP”). The topmost “little” c° has an occurrence feature that enables extraction but bars spell...

  7. Is CP a gauge symmetry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, K.; Kaplan, D.B.; Nelson, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Conventional solutions to the strong CP problem all require the existence of global symmetries. However, quantum gravity may destroy global symmetries, making it hard to understand why the electric dipole moment of the neutron (EDMN) is so small. We suggest here that CP is actually a discrete gauge symmetry, and is therefore not violated by quantum gravity. We show that four-dimensional CP can arise as a discrete gauge symmetry in theories with dimensional compactification, if the original number of Minkowski dimensions equals 8k+1, 8k+2 or 8k+3, and if there are certain restrictions on the gauge group; these conditions are met by superstrings. CP may then be broken spontaneously below 10 9 GeV, explaining the observed CP violation in the kaon system without inducing a large EDMN. We discuss the phenomenology of such models, as well as the peculiar properties of cosmic 'SP strings' which could be produced at the compactification scale. Such strings have the curious property that a particle carried around the string is turned into its CP conjugate. A single CP string renders four-dimensional space-time nonorientable. (orig.)

  8. Bilateral meandering pulmonary veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thupili, Chakradhar R.; Udayasankar, Unni [Pediatric Imaging, Imaging Institute Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Renapurkar, Rahul [Imaging Institute Cleveland Clinic, Thoracic Imaging, L10, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Meandering pulmonary veins is a rare clinical entity that can be mistaken for more complex congenital syndromes such as hypogenetic lung syndrome. We report imaging findings in a rare incidentally detected case of bilateral meandering pulmonary veins. We briefly discuss the role of imaging in diagnosing this condition, with particular emphasis on contrast-enhanced CT. (orig.)

  9. Bilateral Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1998-01-01

    Two unrelated boys, ages 8 and 5 years, with a syndrome of bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia (BPNH), regional cortical dysplasia, mild mental retardation, and frontonasal malformation (FNM) are reported from the Instituto di Neuropsychiatria Infantile, University of Pisa, Italy, and the Institute of Human Genetics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN.

  10. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Douglas class were classified in [3]; they are unilateral block shifts of arbitrary block size (i.e. dim H(n) can be anything). However, no examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1 were known until now.

  11. Synchronous, bilateral tonsillar carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nami Saber, Camelia; Grønhøj, Christian; Jensen, David Hebbelstrup

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is increasing, but data on the incidence of synchronous, bilateral tonsillar squamous cell carcinomas (BiTSCCs) is sparse. In this study, we report the incidence and tumour characteristics of BiTSCCs in a population-base...

  12. Bilateral breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eung Jo; Oh, Ki Keun

    1990-01-01

    We evaluate 311 breast cancer patients admitted to Yong Dong Severance Hospital Between October 1st 1985 and July 31th 1989, and were able to obtain the following conclusions. 1) There were 14(4.5%) bilateral breast cancers among the 311 confirmed breast cancers. 2) Among the bilateral breast cancers, 5(31%) were synchronous and 9(69%) metachronous. 3) Average interval between the first and the second breast cancer in metachronous cancers was 3.8 year(1-15 years). 4) Bilateral breast cancer was most prevalent in the fifth decade (6/14) with the mean age of 47 years. 5) Film mammogram and sonomammogram showed findings of typical breast malignancies. There was no additional specific findings for each cancer in bilateral breast cancers which was different from unilateral cancers. Therefor, in the patients with unilateral breast cancer, possibility of the second lesion in the contralateral side must be considered and a close follow up observation should be done for at least 3 years

  13. Attentional and executive impairments in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottcher, Louise; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Uldall, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are reported to have learning and social problems. The aim of the present study was to examine whether children with CP have impairments in attention or executive function.......Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are reported to have learning and social problems. The aim of the present study was to examine whether children with CP have impairments in attention or executive function....

  14. Fitzsimmons Syndrome: Spastic Paraplegia, Brachydactyly, and Cognitive Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armour, Christine M.; Humphreys, Peter; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.; Boycott, Kym M.

    2009-01-01

    Fitzsimmons syndrome is an infrequently described entity comprising slowly progressive spastic paraplegia, brachydactyly, and cone-shaped epiphyses, dysarthria, and low-normal intelligence. Five patients with this syndrome have been reported. The cause remains unknown. Here we describe a 16-year-old

  15. Neuropathic pain and spasticity: intricate consequences of spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnerup, Nanna Brix

    2017-01-01

    of SCI, and a careful examination and characterization of the symptoms and signs, are a prerequisite for understanding the relationship between neuropathic pain and spasticity and the intricate underlying mechanisms.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 11 July 2017; doi:10.1038/sc.2017.70....

  16. Modulation of back geometry in children with spastic diplegic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gehan H. El-Meniawy

    2011-11-29

    Nov 29, 2011 ... disability in childhood and may affect the child on several ... Children with spastic diplegia have significant weakness in ... The Formetric instrument system represents a reliable meth- .... The child was almost always feeling some degree of gentle ..... Growth and Developmental Disorder in Children and its.

  17. Motor activation in SPG4-linked hereditary spastic paraplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, KH; Nielsen, JE; Krabbe, Katja

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of motor cortical functional reorganisation in patients with SPG4-linked hereditary spastic paraplegia by exploring cortical motor activation related to movements of clinically affected (lower) and unaffected (upper) limbs. METHODS: T...

  18. Surgical management of spasticity | Enslin | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The management of patients with cerebral palsy and other causes of spasticity is a challenge to an entire rehabilitation team and to caregivers. In South Africa, neurosurgeons have had limited involvement in this field owing to a perceived lack of options, leaving the care of these patients largely in the hands of paediatric ...

  19. Spastic pelvic floor syndrome: Definition in double-exposure defaecography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helzel, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    Double-exposure defaecography and the so-called pinching test improve conventional defaecography in the diagnosis of functional rectal outlet disorders. In particular, the pinching test makes quantitative evaluation of the m. puborectalis possible. 'Spastic pelvic floor syndrome' is defined by quantitative parameters in double-exposure defaecography and the pinching test. (orig.) [de

  20. A retrospective neurocognitive study in children with spastic diplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirila, S; van der Meere, J; Korhonen, P; Ruusu-Niemi, P; Kyntaja, M; Nieminen, P; Korpela, R

    2004-01-01

    The study presents the results on neonatal cranial ultrasonography (US) and later intelligence (Wechsler Intelligence Scale-Third Edition and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised) and Neuropsychological assessments of 15 children with spastic diplegia. The assessments were

  1. Comparative study of muscular tonus in spastic tetra paretic cerebral palsy in children with predominantly cortical and subcortical lesions in computerized tomography of the skull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwabe, Cristina; Piovesana, Ana Maria Sedrez Gonzaga

    2003-01-01

    The objective was to compare distribution and intensity of muscular tonus in spastic tetra paretic cerebral palsy (CP), correlating the clinical data with lesion location in the central nervous system. Twelve children aged two to four years old with predominantly cortical lesions (six children) and subcortical lesions (six children) were included. The tonus was analyzed in the upper (UULL) and lower limbs (LLLL) based on Durigon and Piemonte protocol. The result showed that there was no significant difference regarding tonus intensity and distribution in the UULL and LLLL in both groups. Comparing the upper and lower limbs of subjects in the same group, the LLLL presented more asymmetry and higher tonus intensity than the UULL. It was concluded that in this study children with CP as a result of predominantly cortical or subcortical lesions present a similar deficit in tonus modulation, causing a symmetric and homogeneous distribution of hypertonicity, which is predominant in the LLLL. (author)

  2. Three Case Reports of Successful Vibration Therapy of the Plantar Fascia for Spasticity Due to Cerebral Palsy-Like Syndrome, Fetal-Type Minamata Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuki, Fusako; Tohyama, Satsuki

    2016-04-01

    Fetal-type Minamata disease is caused by the exposure to high concentrations of methylmercury in the fetal period and shows cerebral palsy-like clinical features. Relief of spasticity is a major task of rehabilitation to improve their activities of daily living. Here we report the effect of long-term vibration therapy on bilateral lower-limb spasticity in 3 patients with fetal-type Minamata disease. We used a simple, inexpensive, and noninvasive approach with hand-held vibration massagers, which were applied to the plantar fascia at 90 Hz for 15 minutes. The effect was observed soon after the first treatment and resulted in better performance of the repetitive facilitation. Vibration therapy for 1 year improved Modified Ashworth Scale for the ankle flexors in 2 cases. The labored gait improved and gait speed increased in another case. Continued vibration therapy for another 1 year further improved Modified Ashworth Scale score and range of motion of ankle dorsiflexion in 1 case. This case showed the decreased amplitude of soleus H-reflex after the 15-minute vibration therapy, suggesting that α-motor neuron excitability was suppressed. Vibration therapy using a hand-held vibration massager may offer safe and effective treatment for lower-limb spasticity in patients with chronic neurological disorders.

  3. Flavour Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The starting point of these lectures is an introduction to the weak interactions of quarks and the Standard-Model description of CP violation, where the central role is played by the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix and the corresponding unitarity triangles. Since the B-meson system will govern the stage of (quark) flavour physics and CP violation in this decade, it will be our main focus. We shall classify B-meson decays, introduce the theoretical tools to deal with them, investigate the requirements for non-vanishing CP-violating asymmetries, and discuss the main strategies to explore CP violation and the preferred avenues for physics beyond the Standard Model to enter. This formalism is then applied to discuss the status of important B-factory benchmark modes, where we focus on puzzling patterns in the data that may indicate new-physics effects, as well as the prospects for B-decay studies at the LHC.

  4. Flavour physics and CP violation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    status and prospectives of the flavour physics associated with the strange, charm and .... might reveal something completely unexpected. Standard Model weak ..... Thus, in order to have an observable CP violation effect in the SM, the mixing.

  5. TREATMENT OF THE SPASTICITY IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meholjić-Fetahović, Ajša

    2007-01-01

    Botulinum toxin is a natural purified protein and one of the strongest biological poisons - neurotoxin. It is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Its medical usage started in USA in 1981 and in Europe in 1992. There are seven different immune types of the toxin: A, B, C1, D, E, F and G. Toxin types A and B are used to decrease muscular spasticity. Botulinum toxin prevents the formation of acetylcholine from cholinergic nerve tissues in muscles, which in the end irreversibly destroys neuromuscular synapses. It is called temporary local chemodenervation. It does not affect the synthesis of acetylcholine. As it affects neuromuscular bond it also affects one of the symptoms of cerebral palsy - spasticity Decreasing the spasticity of children with cerebral palsy leads to the improvement of conscious movements, muscles are less toned, passive mobility is improved, orthosis tolerance is also improved, and the child is enabled to perform easier and better motor functions such as crawling, standing and walking. Since the action of Botulinum toxin is limited to 2-6 months, new neural collaterals are formed and neuromuscular conductivity is reestablished which in the end once again develops a muscular spasm. This leads to a conclusion that botulinum toxin should again be applied into spastic muscles. It is very important for good effect of Botulinum toxin to set the goals of the therapy in advance. The goals include improvement of a function, prevention of contractions and deformities, ease of care and decrease of pain for children with cerebral palsy. After application of botulinum toxin, it is necessary to perform adequate and intensive physical treatment with regular monitoring of effects. This work shows a case of a boy with spastic form of cerebral palsy. After being habilitated using Vojta therapy and Bobath concept and the conduct of certain physical procedures, botulinum toxin is administered into his lower limbs’ muscles and kinezitherapy intensified

  6. Treatment of the Spasticity in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajša Meholjić-Fetahović

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum toxin is a natural purified protein and one of the strongest biological poisons - neurotoxin. It is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Its medical usage started in USA in 1981 and in Europe in 1992. There are seven different immune types of the toxin: A, B, C1, D, E, F and G. Toxin types A and B are used to decrease muscular spasticity. Botulinum toxin prevents the formation of acetylcholine from cholinergic nerve tissues in muscles, which in the end irreversibly destroys neuromuscular synapses. It is called temporary local chemodenervation. It does not affect the synthesis of acetylcholine.As it affects neuromuscular bond it also affects one of the symptoms of cerebral palsy - spasticity Decreasing the spasticity of children with cerebral palsy leads to the improvement of conscious movements, muscles are less toned, passive mobility is improved, orthosis tolerance is also improved, and the child is enabled to perform easier and better motor functions such as crawling, standing and walking. Since the action of Botulinum toxin is limited to 2-6 months, new neural collaterals are formed and neuromuscular conductivity is reestablished which in the end once again develops a muscular spasm. This leads to a conclusion that botulinum toxin should again be applied into spastic muscles.It is very important for good effect of Botulinum toxin to set the goals of the therapy in advance. The goals include improvement of a function, prevention of contractions and deformities, ease of care and decrease of pain for children with cerebral palsy. After application of botulinum toxin, it is necessary to perform adequate and intensive physical treatment with regular monitoring of effects.This work shows a case of a boy with spastic form of cerebral palsy. After being habilitated using Vojta therapy and Bobath concept and the conduct of certain physical procedures, botulinum toxin is administered into his lower limbs’ muscles and

  7. The Effects of Varying Ankle Foot Orthosis Stiffness on Gait in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy Who Walk with Excessive Knee Flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkum, Yvette L; Buizer, Annemieke I; van den Noort, Josien C; Becher, Jules G; Harlaar, Jaap; Brehm, Merel-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Rigid Ankle-Foot Orthoses (AFOs) are commonly prescribed to counteract excessive knee flexion during the stance phase of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). While rigid AFOs may normalize knee kinematics and kinetics effectively, it has the disadvantage of impeding push-off power. A spring-like AFO may enhance push-off power, which may come at the cost of reducing the knee flexion less effectively. Optimizing this trade-off between enhancing push-off power and normalizing knee flexion in stance is expected to maximize gait efficiency. This study investigated the effects of varying AFO stiffness on gait biomechanics and efficiency in children with CP who walk with excessive knee flexion in stance. Fifteen children with spastic CP (11 boys, 10±2 years) were prescribed with a ventral shell spring-hinged AFO (vAFO). The hinge was set into a rigid, or spring-like setting, using both a stiff and flexible performance. At baseline (i.e. shoes-only) and for each vAFO, a 3D-gait analysis and 6-minute walk test with breath-gas analysis were performed at comfortable speed. Lower limb joint kinematics and kinetics were calculated. From the 6-minute walk test, walking speed and the net energy cost were determined. A generalized estimation equation (ppush-off power did not lead to greater reductions in walking energy cost. These findings suggest that, in this specific group of children with spastic CP, the vAFO stiffness that maximizes gait efficiency is primarily determined by its effect on knee kinematics and kinetics rather than by its effect on push-off power. Dutch Trial Register NTR3418.

  8. BoNT-A related changes of cortical activity in patients suffering from severe hand paralysis with arm spasticity following ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veverka, Tomáš; Hluštík, Petr; Tomášová, Zuzana; Hok, Pavel; Otruba, Pavel; Král, Michal; Tüdös, Zbyněk; Zapletalová, Jana; Herzig, Roman; Krobot, Alois; Kaňovský, Petr

    2012-08-15

    Investigations were performed to localize and analyze the botulinum toxin (BoNT-A) related changes of cerebral cortex activation in chronic stroke patients suffering from severe hand paralysis with arm spasticity. Effects on task- related cerebral activation were evaluated by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 14 patients (5 males, 9 females, mean age 55.3 years) suffering from upper limb post-stroke spasticity were investigated. The change of arm spasticity was assessed by using the modified Ashworth scale (MAS). FMRI sessions were performed before (W0), four weeks (W4) and 11 weeks (W11) after BoNT-A application. Patients were scanned while performing imaginary movement with the impaired hand. Group fMRI analysis included patient age as a covariate. BoNT-A treatment was effective in alleviation of arm spasticity. Mean MAS was at Week 0: 2.5 (SD 0.53), at Week 4: 1.45 (SD 0.38), at Week 11: 2.32 (SD 0.44). Task-related fMRI prior to the treatment showed extensive activation of bilateral frontoparietal sensorimotor cortical areas, anterior cingulate gyrus, pallidum, thalamus and cerebellum. Effective BoNT-A treatment (W4) resulted in partial reduction of active network volume in most of the observed areas, whereas BoNT-free data (W11) revealed further volume reduction in the sensorimotor network. On direct comparison, significant activation decreases associated with BoNT-A treatment were located in areas outside the classical sensorimotor system, namely, ipsilesional lateral occipital cortex, supramarginal gyrus and precuneus cortex. On comparison of W4 and W11, no activation increases were found, instead, activation further decreased in ipsilesional insular cortex, contralesional superior frontal gyrus and bilateral frontal pole. Whole brain activation patterns during BoNT-A treatment of post-stroke arm spasticity and further follow up document predominantly gradual changes both within and outside the classical sensorimotor system. Copyright © 2012

  9. Bilateral renal calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenevasan, G

    1974-01-01

    Bilateral renal calculi were present in 114 (10.7%) of 1,070 cases of proved urinary calculus admitted to the Urological Department of the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, during the period November 1968—May 1973. The management of bilateral renal calculi is discussed with reference to the first 100 cases in this series. The introduction of renography has greatly facilitated the decision as to which kidney should be operated on first. The management of patients with and without uraemia is discussed and the use of the modified V and V—Y incisions for the removal of staghorn calculi is described. Complications and results are briefly reviewed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 4Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:4845653

  10. Bilateral chronic subdural hematoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Nina Christine; Rom Poulsen, Frantz; Bergholt, Bo

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Bilateral chronic subdural hematoma (bCSDH) is a common neurosurgical condition frequently associated with the need for retreatment. The reason for the high rate of retreatment has not been thoroughly investigated. Thus, the authors focused on determining which independent predictors...... are associated with the retreatment of bCSDH with a focus on surgical laterality. METHODS In a national database of CSDHs (Danish Chronic Subdural Hematoma Study) the authors retrospectively identified all bCSDHs treated in the 4 Danish neurosurgical departments over the 3-year period from 2010 to 2012...... that a separated hematoma density and the absence of postoperative drainage were independent predictors of retreatment. CONCLUSIONS In bCSDHs bilateral surgical intervention significantly lowers the risk of retreatment compared with unilateral intervention and should be considered when choosing a surgical...

  11. Bilateral Wilms' tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, A.W.; Jaffe, N.; Folkman, M.J.; Cassady, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty children with bilateral Wilms' tumor were presented to the Children's Hospital Medical Center and Children's Cancer Research Foundation, Sidney Farber Cancer Institute, and Joint Center for Radiation Therapy (CHMC-CCRF, SFCI, JCRT) from January 1, 1956 to December 31, 1976. Of these 20, 16 had simultaneous and 4 had metachronous disease on presentation. All patients were treated with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Of the 16 patients with simultaneous disease, 10 (63%) are alive and free of disease 12+ to 175+ months post diagnosis and treatment, with median follow-up of 121 months. There were no long-term survivors in the metachronous group; all were dead of disease within 21 months from initial presentation of original tumor. With these data we relate prognosis to extent of disease and discuss a general approach to the management of bilateral Wilms' tumor

  12. Multilateral and bilateral agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, H.

    1993-01-01

    Finland has made both multilateral and bilateral agreements on the exchange of information related to radiation safety. The first arrangements for international agreements and exchange of information were made after the Chernobyl accident. In 1987, Finland joined the convention on early notification of a nuclear power accident coordinated by International Atomic Energy Agency. The convention is applied to accidents that cause of may cause emissions of radioactive substances that might affect the radiation safety of another country. Besides the convention on early notification, some other individual agreements have also been made. These include the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) system and power companies own information exchange systems. Finland has conducted bilateral agreements with the Nordic countries and the Soviet Union on the notification of accidents and exchange of nuclear power plant information. Today, Russia answers for the Soviet Union's contractual obligations. (orig.)

  13. Bilateral renal artery variation

    OpenAIRE

    Üçerler, Hülya; Üzüm, Yusuf; İkiz, Z. Aslı Aktan

    2014-01-01

    Each kidney is supplied by a single renal artery, although renal artery variations are common. Variations of the renal arteryhave become important with the increasing number of renal transplantations. Numerous studies describe variations in renalartery anatomy. Especially the left renal artery is among the most critical arterial variations, because it is the referred side forresecting the donor kidney. During routine dissection in a formalin fixed male cadaver, we have found a bilateral renal...

  14. File: International bilateral relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltin, Ch.; Rabouhams, J.; Bravo, X.; Rousseau, M.; Le Breton, S.; Saint Raymond, Ph.; Brigaud, O.; Pertuis, V.; McNair, J.; Sayers, M.R.; Bye, R.; Scherrer, J.

    1998-01-01

    Since its creation in 1973, the Authority of Safety was assigned missions in the international field with following objectives: to develop information exchanges with its foreign counterpart, to make know and to explain the French approach and practice; to give to concerned countries the useful information on french nuclear facilities situated near the border; This file shows with some examples, how bilateral relations allow to fill up these objectives and how the French Authority got the foreign experience. (N.C.)

  15. Idiopathic bilateral male breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rajan Kumar; Sinha, Mithilesh Kumar; Gaurav, Kumar; Kumar, Amar

    2014-03-10

    A 38-year-old man presented with bilateral breast swelling, along with pain and redness for 7 days. Bilateral axillary nodes were also palpable; which were multiple and discrete. A provisional diagnosis of bilateral breast abscess was made with suspicion of underlying malignancy. Incision and drainage through subareolar incision was performed and the adjoining tissue was excised and sent for histopathological examination.

  16. Measuring $CP$ violation with $\\Delta A_{CP}$ at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Alex

    2014-01-01

    The control of systematic uncertainties is a key component of many analyses performed at the Large Hadron Collider, and will only become more important as more data are taken during Run II. Many of the CP measurements performed using the LHCb detector have statistical precisions below the per cent level, and so particular care must be taken in this area. One technique for dealing with the various production and detection asymmetries which can mask the physics asymmetry of interest, and increase the measurement’s systematic uncertainty, is $\\Delta A_{CP}$ . The application of $\\Delta A_{CP}$ in three separate LHCb analyses of $D^{0}$ and $\\Lambda_{b}^{0}$ decays will be discussed, along with prospects for applying the technique to $\\Lambda_{c}^{+}$ decays.

  17. CpG + CpNpG Analysis of Protein-Coding Sequences from Tomato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asger; Nielsen, Rasmus; Wang, Ying

    2006-01-01

    We develop codon-based models for simultaneously inferring the mutational effects of CpG and CpNpG methylation in coding regions. In a data set of 369 tomato genes, we show that there is very little effect of CpNpG methylation but a strong effect of CpG methylation affecting almost all genes. We...... further show that the CpNpG and CpG effects are largely uncorrelated. Our results suggest different roles of CpG and CpNpG methylation, with CpNpG methylation possibly playing a specialized role in defense against transposons and RNA viruses....

  18. Validity of Modified Ashworth Scale as a Measure of Wrist Spasticity in Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Heidari

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There are some controversies about the value of modified Ashworth Scale (MAS for assessing spasticity. The goal of this study was to investigate if there is any correlation between scores obtained from MAS for wrist spasticity and electrophysiological recordings as the objective measure of spasticity. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 34 stroke patients were employed. Wrist spasticity was clinically measured by means of MAS. Also, an electromyogram (EMG machine was used to elicit Hmax and Mmax from the flexor carpi radialis muscle. Spearman’s correlation coefficient test was used to investigate potential correlation between clinically and electrophysiologically measures of spasticity. Results: The observed relation between MAS and EMG recordings was not statistically significant (rho=0.183, P>0.05. Discussion: Our findings suggest that MAS may be a useful tool for grading hypertonia, but it is not a valid measure of spasticity in selected patients.

  19. Computed tomographic findings in children with spastic diplegia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokochi, Kenji; Horie, Masayo; Inukai, Kazuhisa; Kito, Hideyuki; Shimabukuro, Satoshi; Kodama, Kazuo.

    1989-01-01

    Computed tomographic findings of 46 children with spastic diplegia examined at nine months to three years of age corrected for preterm births were analyzed. Both the size of the lateral ventricles measured by the width of the anterior horns, and the volume of the extracerebral low-density areas were enlarged in some patiens. Both enlargements did not, however, correlate to the severity of the motor abnormality in the patients. The low-density areas of the periventricular white matter, especially adjacent to the trigone, were reduced in many children, probably due to the atrophy of the cerebral white matter having periventricular leukomalacia. The anterior expansion of the white matter reduction from the trigone corresponded to the severer motor abnormality in the children with spastic diplegia. (author)

  20. Fatal bilateral dioctophymatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Liu, Caigang; Li, Fang; Zhou, Maoyi; Liu, Xiangyong; Niu, Yuanjie

    2010-12-01

    Dioctophyma renale is a parasite that frequently occurs in animals but rarely in humans. The present report describes the clinical observations of a D. renale infection in a 51-yr-old woman. Its clinical signs and diagnostic findings were unspecific until giant worms were observed in the urine and histological findings confirmed it was a D. renale infection. She refused treatment and died of bilateral renal function failure. This is the first confirmed report to follow the natural progression of D. renale infection in a human. Here, we discuss a conservative therapeutic approach and features associated with this parasitic infection.

  1. Recurrent Bilateral Focal Myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagafuchi, Hiroko; Nakano, Hiromasa; Ooka, Seido; Takakuwa, Yukiko; Yamada, Hidehiro; Tadokoro, Mamoru; Shimojo, Sadatomo; Ozaki, Shoichi

    This report describes a rare case of recurrent bilateral focal myositis and its successful treatment via methotrexate. A 38-year-old man presented myalgia of the right gastrocnemius in May 2005. Magnetic resonance imaging showed very high signal intensity in the right gastrocnemius on short-tau inversion recovery images. A muscle biopsy revealed inflammatory CD4+ cell-dominant myogenic change. Focal myositis was diagnosed. The first steroid treatment was effective. Tapering of prednisolone, however, repeatedly induced myositis relapse, which progressed to multiple muscle lesions of both lower limbs. Initiation of methotrexate finally allowed successful tapering of prednisolone, with no relapse in the past 4 years.

  2. Finding CP-violating Higgses

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinowski, Jan

    1999-01-01

    In a general two-Higgs-doublet model with CP violation in the Higgs sector, the three neutral physical Higgs bosons have no definite CP properties. A new sum rule relating Yukawa and Higgs-Z couplings implies that a neutral Higgs boson cannot escape detection at an e^+e^- collider if it is kinematically accessible in Z+Higgs, $b\\bar b+$Higgs and $t\\bar t+$Higgs production, irrespective of the mixing angles and the masses of the other neutral Higgs bosons. The implications of the sum rules for...

  3. On the strong CP problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowrick, N.J. (Dept. of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom)); McDougall, N.A. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1992-07-09

    We show that two well-known solutions to the strong CP problem, the axion and a massless quark, may be understood in terms of the mechanism recently proposed by Samuel where long-range interactions between topological charges may be responsible for the removal of CP violation. We explain how the axion and a QCD meson (identified as the {eta}' if all quarks are massless) suppress fluctuations in global topological charge by almost identical dynamical although the masses, couplings and relevant length scales are very different. Furthermore, we elucidate the precise origin of the {eta}' mass. (orig.).

  4. Clinical experiences with cannabinoids in spasticity management in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente Fernández, L; Monte Boquet, E; Pérez-Miralles, F; Gil Gómez, I; Escutia Roig, M; Boscá Blasco, I; Poveda Andrés, J L; Casanova-Estruch, B

    2014-06-01

    Spasticity is a common symptom among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aims to assess the effectiveness and safety of the combination of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) in clinical practice for the treatment of spasticity in MS. Retrospective observational study with patients treated with inhaled THC/CBD between April 2008 and March 2012. Descriptive patient and treatment variables were collected. Therapeutic response was evaluated based on the doctor's analysis and overall impression. Of the 56 patients who started treatment with THC/CBD, 6 were excluded because of missing data. We evaluated 50 patients (42% male) with a median age 47.8 years (25.6-76.8); 38% were diagnosed with primary progressive MS, 44% with secondary progressive MS, and 18% with relapsing-remitting MS. The reason for prescribing the drug was spasticity (44%), pain (10%), or both (46%). Treatment was discontinued in 16 patients because of ineffectiveness (7 patients), withdrawal (4), and adverse effects (5). The median exposure time in patients whose treatment was discontinued was 30 days vs 174 days in those whose treatment continued at the end of the study. THC/CBD was effective in 80% of patients at a median dose of 5 (2-10) inhalations/day. The adverse event profile consisted of dizziness (11 patients), somnolence (6), muscle weakness (7), oral discomfort (2), diarrhoea (3), dry mouth (2), blurred vision (2), agitation (1), nausea (1), and paranoid ideation (1). THC/CBD appears to be a good alternative to standard treatment as it improves refractory spasticity in MS and has an acceptable toxicity profile. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Reduction in spasticity in stroke patient with paraffin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, Peng; Zeng, Ming; Gu, Xudong; Liu, Yan; Xiao, Mingyue

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to confirm whether paraffin therapy offer clinical value in the treatment of spasticity due to stroke. Fifty-two patients with spasticity in the upper limb were included. The patients were randomized into the experimental group with paraffin therapy (n = 27) and the control group with placebo therapy (n = 25). The outcome measures besides temperature examination were undertaken at time points of 0 (T0), 2 (T1) and 4 weeks (T2) following therapy treatment. The extent of spasticity was measured using Modified Ashworth Score (MAS) during passive movement at the shoulder, elbow, wrist and finger joints. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the hemiplegic upper limb pain and functional activity of the upper limb motor function was evaluated by Brunnstrom recovery stage. All adverse events were recorded. MAS decreased significantly in Exp group compared with Con group, at the time points of T1 and T2, both before and immediately after paraffin therapy. Paraffin treatment failed to show remarkable improvement in pain compared with placebo-treated patient at movement at any time point. But VAS in Exp exhibited a tendency to decrease over time in shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand. With regard to the Brunnstrom score, patients in Exp showed significant improvement at the end of trial compared to the beginning. The values of temperature showed significant increment immediately after paraffin therapy at each time point in Exp group. Paraffin therapy may be a kind of noninvasive, promising method to reduce spasticity of stroke patients.

  6. Hereditary spastic paraplegia: More than an upper motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, L; Fenu, S; Stevanin, G; Durr, A

    2017-05-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a group of rare inherited neurological diseases characterized by extreme heterogeneity in both their clinical manifestations and genetic backgrounds. Based on symptoms, HSPs can be divided into pure forms, presenting with pyramidal signs leading to lower-limb spasticity, and complex forms, when additional neurological or extraneurological symptoms are detected. The clinical diversity of HSPs partially reflects their underlying genetic backgrounds. To date, 76 loci and 58 corresponding genes [spastic paraplegia genes (SPGs)] have been linked to HSPs. The genetic diagnosis is further complicated by the fact that causative mutations of HSP can be inherited through all possible modes of transmission (autosomal-dominant and -recessive, X-linked, maternal), with some genes showing multiple inheritance patterns. The pathogenic mutations of SPGs primarily lead to progressive degeneration of the upper motor neurons (UMNs) comprising corticospinal tracts. However, it is possible to observe lower-limb muscle atrophy and fasciculations on clinical examination that are clear signs of lower motor neuron (LMN) involvement. The purpose of this review is to classify HSPs based on their degree of motor neuron involvement, distinguishing forms in which only UMNs are affected from those involving both UMN and LMN degeneration, and to describe their differential diagnosis from diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation on spasticity after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Shin, Ji Cheol; Jung, Seungsoo; Jung, Tae-Min; Kim, Deog Young

    2015-07-08

    Spasticity is a common cause of long-term disability in poststroke hemiplegic patients. We investigated whether intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) could reduce upper-limb spasticity after a stroke. Fifteen hemiplegic stroke patients were recruited for a double-blind sham-controlled cross-over design study. A single session of iTBS or sham stimulation was delivered on the motor hotspot of the affected flexor carpi radialis muscle in a random and counterbalanced order with a 1-week interval. Modified Ashworth scale (MAS), modified Tardieu scale (MTS), H-wave/M-wave amplitude ratio, peak torque (PT), peak torque angle (PTA), work of affected wrist flexor, and rectified integrated electromyographic activity of the flexor carpi radialis muscle were measured before, immediately after, 30 min after, and 1 week after iTBS or sham stimulation. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed a significant interaction between time and intervention for the MAS, MTS, PT, PTA, and rectified integrated electromyographic activity (PiTBS compared with sham stimulation. However, the H-wave/M-wave amplitude ratio and work were not affected. MAS and MTS significantly improved for at least 30 min after iTBS, but the other parameters only improved immediately after iTBS (PiTBS on the affected hemisphere may help to reduce poststroke spasticity transiently.

  8. Cannabinoids in the management of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Malfitano

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Anna Maria Malfitano, Maria Chiara Proto, Maurizio BifulcoDipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di SalernoAbstract: The endocannabinoid system and cannabinoid-based treatments have been involved in a wide number of diseases. In particular, several studies suggest that cannabinoids and endocannabinoids may have a key role in the pathogenesis and therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS. In this study we highlight the main findings reported in literature about the relevance of cannabinoid drugs in the management and treatment of MS. An increasing body of evidence suggests that cannabinoids have beneficial effects on the symptoms of MS, including spasticity and pain. In this report we focus on the effects of cannabinoids in the relief of spasticity describing the main findings in vivo, in the mouse experimental allergic encephalomyelitis model of MS. We report on the current treatments used to control MS symptoms and the most recent clinical studies based on cannabinoid treatments, although long-term studies are required to establish whether cannabinoids may have a role beyond symptom amelioration in MS.Keywords: cannabinoids, multiple sclerosis, spasticity

  9. The Adverse Effect of Spasticity on 3-Month Poststroke Outcome Using a Population-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Belagaje

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several devices and medications have been used to address poststroke spasticity. Yet, spasticity’s impact on outcomes remains controversial. Using data from a cohort of 460 ischemic stroke patients, we previously published a validated multivariable regression model for predicting 3-month modified Rankin Score (mRS as an indicator of functional outcome. Here, we tested whether including spasticity improved model fit and estimated the effect spasticity had on the outcome. Spasticity was defined by a positive response to the question “Did you have spasticity following your stroke?” on direct interview at 3 months from stroke onset. Patients who had expired by 90 days (n=30 or did not have spasticity data available (n=102 were excluded. Spasticity affected the 3-month functional status (β=0.420, 95 CI=0.194 to 0.645 after accounting for age, diabetes, leukoaraiosis, and retrospective NIHSS. Using spasticity as a covariable, the model’s R2 changed from 0.599 to 0.622. In our model, the presence of spasticity in the cohort was associated with a worsened 3-month mRS by an average of 0.4 after adjusting for known covariables. This significant adverse effect on functional outcomes adds predictive value beyond previously established factors.

  10. Impact of Spasticity on Balance Control during Quiet Standing in Persons after Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rahimzadeh Khiabani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Balance impairments, falls, and spasticity are common after stroke, but the effect of spasticity on balance control after stroke is not well understood. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, twenty-seven participants with stroke were divided into two groups, based on ankle plantar flexor spasticity level. Fifteen individuals with high spasticity (Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS score of ≥2 and 12 individuals with low spasticity (MAS score <2 completed quiet standing trials with eyes open and closed conditions. Balance control measures included centre of pressure (COP root mean square (RMS, COP velocity, and COP mean power frequency (MPF in anterior-posterior and mediolateral (ML directions. Trunk sway was estimated using a wearable inertial measurement unit to measure trunk angle, trunk velocity, and trunk velocity frequency amplitude in pitch and roll directions. Results. The high spasticity group demonstrated greater ML COP velocity, trunk roll velocity, trunk roll velocity frequency amplitude at 3.7 Hz, and trunk roll velocity frequency amplitude at 4.9 Hz, particularly in the eyes closed condition (spasticity by vision interaction. ML COP MPF was greater in the high spasticity group. Conclusion. Individuals with high spasticity after stroke demonstrated greater impairment of balance control in the frontal plane, which was exacerbated when vision was removed.

  11. Bilateral acoustic neuromas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, V T; Byrnes, D P; Walby, A P; Kerr, A G

    1993-10-01

    This article reviews 12 patients with bilateral acoustic neuromas. The sex incidence was equal and the mean age at diagnosis was 26.2 years. The family history was positive in nine of the patients. Five patients have had incomplete surgical removal of acoustic neuromas on both sides. Two of them are completely deaf and the other three have severe sensorineural hearing loss in one ear and no hearing in the other ear. In five patients the tumour on one side has been operated on and the other side is being observed with at least short-term preservation of good hearing. The remaining two patients died of intra-cranial complications, one of them post-operatively. Four patients developed facial palsy immediately following surgery and one developed facial weakness 6 months after surgery. Guidelines are discussed for the care of these patients including the timing of surgery and alternative treatment options (observation, radio-surgery and chemotherapy). This is essentially a group of young individuals who have had multiple operations for bilateral acoustic tumours and associated manifestations and for whom the disease and the sequelae of treatment can be tragic.

  12. Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy Experience Difficulties Adjusting Their Gait Pattern to Weight Added to the Waist, While Typically Developing Children Do Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyns, Pieter; Van Gestel, Leen; Bar-On, Lynn; Goudriaan, Marije; Wambacq, Hans; Aertbeliën, Erwin; Bruyninckx, Herman; Molenaers, Guy; De Cock, Paul; Ortibus, Els; Desloovere, Kaat

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is increasing in the last decades, also in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Even though it has been established that an increase in weight can have important negative effects on gait in healthy adults and children, it has not been investigated what the effect is of an increase in body weight on the characteristics of gait in children with CP. In CP, pre and post three-dimensional gait analyses are performed to assess the effectiveness of an intervention. As a considerable amount of time can elapse between these measurements, and the effect of an alteration in the body weight is not taken into consideration, this effect of increased body weight is of specific importance. Thirty children with the predominantly spastic type of CP and 15 typically developing (TD) children were enrolled (age 3–15 years). All children underwent three-dimensional gait analysis with weight-free (baseline) and weighted (10% of the body weight added around their waist) trials. Numerous gait parameters showed a different response to the added weight for TD and CP children. TD children increased walking velocity, step- and stride length, and decreased double support duration with a slightly earlier timing of foot-off, while the opposite was found in CP. Similarly, increased ranges of motion at the pelvis (coronal plane) and hip (all planes), higher joint angular velocities at the hip and ankle, as well as increased moments and powers at the hip, knee and ankle were observed for TD children, while CP children did not change or even showed decreases in the respective measures in response to walking with added weight. Further, while TD children increased their gastrocnemius EMG amplitude during weighted walking, CP children slightly decreased their gastrocnemius EMG amplitude. As such, an increase in weight has a significant effect on the gait pattern in CP children. Clinical gait analysts should therefore take into account the negative

  13. CP violation in B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, H.R.

    1994-02-01

    She reviews how one can test the Standard Model predictions for CP violation. This test requires sufficient independent measurements to overconstrain the model parameters and thus be sensitive to possible beyond Standard Model contributions. She addresses the challenges for theory as well as for experiment to achieve such a test

  14. CP Violation and B Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, Helen R

    2001-01-01

    These lectures provide a basic overview of topics related to the study of CP Violation in B decays. In the first lecture, I review the basics of discrete symmetries in field theories, the quantum mechanics of neutral but flavor-non-trivial mesons, and the classification of three types of CP violation [1]. The actual second lecture which I gave will be separately published as it is my Dirac award lecture and is focused on the separate topic of strong CP Violation. In Lecture 2 here, I cover the Standard Model predictions for neutral B decays, and in particular discuss some channels of interest for CP Violation studies. Lecture 3 reviews the various tools and techniques used to deal with the hadronic physics effects. In Lecture 4, I briefly review the present and planned experiments that can study B decays. I cannot teach all the details of this subject in this short course, so my approach is instead to try to give students a grasp of the relevant concepts and an overview of the available tools. The level of these lectures is introductory. I will provide some references to more detailed treatments and current literature, but this is not a review article so I do not attempt to give complete references to all related literature. By now there are some excellent textbooks that cover this subject in great detail [1]. I refer students to these for more details and for more complete references to the original literature

  15. B physics and CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, H.

    2002-01-01

    These lectures provide a basic overview of topics related to the study of CP Violation in B decays. In the first lecture, I review the basics of discrete symmetries in field theories, the quantum mechanics of neutral but flavor-non-trivial mesons, and the classification of three types of CP violation. The actual second lecture which I gave will be separately published as it is my Dirac award lecture and is focussed on the separate topic of strong CP Violation. In Lecture 2 here, I cover the Standard Model predictions for neutral B decays, and in particular discuss some channels of interest for CP Violation studies. Lecture 3 reviews the various tools and techniques used to deal with the hadronic physics effects. In Lecture 4, I briefly review the present and planned experiments that can study B decays. I cannot teach all the details of this subject in this short course, so my approach is instead to try to give students a grasp of the relevant concepts and an overview of the available tools. The level of these lectures is introductory. I will provide some references to more detailed treatments and current literature, but this is not a review article so I do not attempt to give complete references to all related literature. By now there are some excellent textbooks that cover this subject in great detail. I refer students to these for more details and for more complete references to the original literature. (author)

  16. Flavour Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The starting point of these lectures is an introduction to the weak interactions of quarks and the Standard-Model description of CP violation, where the key element is the Cabibbo--Kobayashi--Maskawa matrix and the corresponding unitarity triangles. Since the B-meson system will govern the stage of (quark) flavour physics and CP violation in this decade, it will be -- after a brief look at the kaon system -- our main focus. We shall classify B-meson decays, introduce the theoretical tools to deal with them, explore the requirements for non-vanishing CP-violating asymmetries, and discuss B^0_q--B^0_q_bar mixing (q={d,s}). We will then turn to B-factory benchmark modes, discuss the physics potential of B^0_s mesons, which is particularly promising for B-decay experiments at hadron colliders, and emphasize the importance of studies of rare decays, which are absent at the tree level in the Standard Model, complement nicely the studies of CP violation, and provide interesting probes for new physics.

  17. CP violation in neutral B decays to non-CP-eigenstates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, B.

    1992-01-01

    If CP violation comes from complex phases in the quark mixing matrix, then neutral B decays to CP eigenstates will exhibit large, cleanly-predicted CP-violating effects. The authors show that the same is true of neutral B decays to several types of ''near-CP-eigenstates.'' By experimentally studying the latter decays as well as those to the CP eigenstates, one will be able to obtain more definitive information on CP violation from a given number of B mesons

  18. Bilateral tubercular mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kant Surya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast tuberculosis is a rare form of tuberculosis. Moreover the disease is often overlooked and misdiagnosed as carcinoma or pyogenic abscess. Reports on breast tuberculosis from India have been few; reported incidence of breast tuberculosis amongst the total number of mammary conditions varies between 0.64 and 3.59 per cent. Bilateral involvement is still more uncommon (3%. Most accepted view for spread of infection is centripetal lymphatic spread as axillary node involvement was shown to occur in 50 to 75 per cent of cases of tubercular mastitis. Here we re-port a case of a young female who presented with draining sinuses in the breast and no axillary lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of breast lump showed evidence of granulomatous mastitis. She was given therapeutic trial of four drug antitubercular treatment. Both the lump disappeared and sinus healed after six months of antitubercular treatment. Thus a retrospective diagnosis of tu-bercular mastitis was made.

  19. Bilateral triple renal arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestemalci, Turan; Yildiz, Yusuf Zeki; Yildirim, Mehmet; Mavi, Ayfer; Gumusburun, Erdem

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the variations of the renal artery has grown in importance with increasing numbers of renal transplants, vascular reconstructions and various surgical and radio logic techniques being performed in recent years. We report the presence of bilateral triple renal arteries, discovered on routine dissection of a male cadaver. On the right side, one additional renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta (distributed to superior pole of the kidney) and one other originated from the right common iliac artery (distributed to lower pole of the kidney). On the left side, both additional renal arteries originated from the abdominal aorta. Our observation has been compared with variations described in the literature and their clinical importance has been emphasized. (author)

  20. Idiopathic Bilateral Bloody Tearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrullah Beyazyıldız

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bloody tear is a rare and distinct clinic phenomenon. We report a case presenting with the complaint of recurrent episodes of bilateral bloody tearing. A 16-year-old girl presented to our clinic with complaint of bloody tearing in both eyes for 3 months. Bloody tearing was not associated with her menses. A blood-stained discharge from the punctum was not observed during the compression of both nasolacrimal ducts. Nasolacrimal passage was not obstructed. Imaging studies such as dacryocystography and gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of nasolacrimal canal were normal. Intranasal endoscopic evaluation was normal. We collected samples from bloody tears two times and pathological examination was performed. Pathological analysis showed lots of squamous cells and no endometrial cells; dysplastic cells were found. Further evaluations for underlying causes were unremarkable. No abnormalities were found in ophthalmologic, radiologic, and pathologic investigations. This condition is likely a rare abnormality and the least recognized aetiology for the idiopathic phenomenon.

  1. Bilateral Antepartum Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Alibeigi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antepartum mastitis is a rare condition, whereas postpartum orlactation mastitis is a common problem. This report introducesa case of complicated bilateral antepartum mastitis, which wastreated successfully by drain insertion and antibiotic therapy.The patient was a 23-year-old woman in the 23rd week of herfirst pregnancy. Her chief complaint was progressive swelling,redness and radicular pain in both breasts, which had beenstarted gradually from the 18th week of pregnancy. The patientwas admitted to hospital, and received oral and intravenous antibioticsempirically, which was not effective. The patient wastreated by drainage and oral antibiotic therapy. Based on theapproaches employed and the outcomes achieved it is suggestedthat early surgical insertion in the presence of fluid collection inantepartum mastitis will shorten hospitalization and course ofintravenous antibiotic therapy.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 327-330.

  2. Spinal Cord Stimulation for Spasticity: Historical Approaches, Current Status, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Sean J; Wilson, Saul; Johnson, Michael D; Machado, Andre; Frizon, Leonardo; Chardon, Matthieu K; Reddy, Chandan G; Gillies, George T; Howard, Matthew A

    2017-06-01

    Millions of people worldwide suffer with spasticity related to irreversible damage to the brain or spinal cord. Typical antecedent events include stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury, although insidious onset is also common. Regardless of the cause, the resulting spasticity leads to years of disability and reduced quality of life. Many treatments are available to manage spasticity; yet each is fraught with drawbacks including incomplete response, high cost, limited duration, dose-limiting side effects, and periodic maintenance. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS), a once promising therapy for spasticity, has largely been relegated to permanent experimental status. In this review, our goal is to document and critique the history and assess the development of SCS as a treatment of lower limb spasticity. By incorporating recent discoveries with the insights gained from the early pioneers in this field, we intend to lay the groundwork needed to propose testable hypotheses for future studies. SCS has been tested in over 25 different conditions since a potentially beneficial effect was first reported in 1973. However, the lack of a fully formed understanding of the pathophysiology of spasticity, archaic study methodology, and the early technological limitations of implantable hardware limit the validity of many studies. SCS offers a measure of control for spasticity that cannot be duplicated with other interventions. With improved energy-source miniaturization, tailored control algorithms, novel implant design, and a clearer picture of the pathophysiology of spasticity, we are poised to reintroduce and test SCS in this population. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  3. Clinical assessment of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy: a critical review of available instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtes, Vanessa A. B.; Becher, Jules G.; Beelen, Anita; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J.

    2006-01-01

    This study reviews the instruments used for the clinical assessment of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy, and evaluates their compliance with the concept of spasticity, defined as a velocity-dependent increase in muscle tone to passive stretch. Searches were performed in Medline, Embase,

  4. Botulinum therapy for poststroke spasticity of the lower extremity (clinical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Krylova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the topical problem – the medical rehabilitation of patients with poststroke spasticity. It describes clinical cases of patients with poststroke spasticity of the upper and lower extremities who have received combined therapy using botulinum toxin type A (Botox injections.

  5. Hindlimb spasticity after unilateral motor cortex lesion in rats is reduced by contralateral nerve root transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Haiyang; Ma, Fenfen; Zhang, Laiyin; Lu, Huiping; Gong, Jingru; Cai, Min; Lin, Haodong; Zhu, Yizhun; Hou, Chunlin

    2016-12-01

    Lower extremity spasticity is a common sequela among patients with acquired brain injury. The optimum treatment remains controversial. The aim of our study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of contralateral nerve root transfer in reducing post stroke spasticity of the affected hindlimb muscles in rats. In our study, we for the first time created a novel animal hindlimb spastic hemiplegia model in rats with photothrombotic lesion of unilateral motor cortex and we established a novel surgical procedure in reducing motor cortex lesion-induced hindlimb spastic hemiplegia in rats. Thirty six rats were randomized into three groups. In group A, rats received sham operation. In group B, rats underwent unilateral hindlimb motor cortex lesion. In group C, rats underwent unilateral hindlimb cortex lesion followed by contralateral L4 ventral root transfer to L5 ventral root of the affected side. Footprint analysis, Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex), cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) retrograde tracing of gastrocnemius muscle (GM) motoneurons and immunofluorescent staining of vesicle glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) on CTB-labelled motoneurons were used to assess spasticity of the affected hindlimb. Sixteen weeks postoperatively, toe spread and stride length recovered significantly in group C compared with group B (Pmotor cortex lesion-induced hindlimb spasticity in rats. Our data indicated that this could be an alternative treatment for unilateral lower extremity spasticity after brain injury. Therefore, contralateral neurotization may exert a potential therapeutic candidate to improve the function of lower extremity in patients with spastic hemiplegia. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Neural tension technique is no different from random passive movements in reducing spasticity in patients with traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jakob; Nielsen, Dorthe; Holm, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Neural tension technique (NTT) is a therapy believed to reduce spasticity and to increase range of motion (ROM). This study compared the ability of NTT and random passive movements (RPMs) to reduce spasticity in the knee flexors in 10 spastic patients with brain injury. Methods: An RCT...

  7. Flavour physics and CP violation

    CERN Document Server

    Nir, Y.

    2015-05-22

    We explain the many reasons for the interest in flavor physics. We describe flavor physics and the related CP violation within the Standard Model, and explain how the B-factories proved that the Kobayashi-Maskawa mechanism dominates the CP violation that is observed in meson decays. We explain the implications of flavor physics for new physics, with emphasis on the “new physics flavor puzzle”, and present the idea of minimal flavor violation as a possible solution. We explain why the values flavor parameters of the Standard Model are puzzling, present the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism as a possible solution, and describe how measurements of neutrino parameters are interpreted in the context of this puzzle. We show that the recently discovered Higgs-like boson may provide new opportunities for making progress on the various flavor puzzles.

  8. Constraints on the CP-Violating MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Arbey, A; Godbole, R M; Mahmoudi, F

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for observing CP violation in the MSSM with six CP-violating phases, using a geometric approach to maximise CP-violating observables subject to the experimental upper bounds on electric dipole moments. We consider constraints from Higgs physics, flavour physics, the dark matter relic density and spin-independent scattering cross section with matter.

  9. CP violation without elementary scalar fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichten, E.; Lane, K.; Preskill, J.

    1980-04-01

    Dynamically broken gauge theories of electroweak interactions provide a natural mechanism for generating CP violation. Even if all vacuum angles are unobservable, strong CP violation is not automatically avoided. In the absence of strong CP violation, the neutron electric dipole moment is expected to be of order 10 -24 e cm

  10. CP-violations in B decays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recent results on CP-violation measurements in decays from energy asymmetric -factory experiments are reported. Thanks to large accumulated data samples, CP-violations in decays in mixing-decay interference and direct CP-violation are now firmly established. The measurements of three angles of the unitarity ...

  11. ANNIVERSARY: 25 years without CP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riordan, Michael

    1989-01-01

    In 1964 a small group of Princeton University physicists led by Jim Cronin and Val Fitch performed a landmark experiment at Brookhaven. Using a double-arm spectrometer, they showed that long-lived neutral kaons occasionally decayed into a pair of pions - violating the hitherto sacrosanct CP symmetry of combined mirror reflection and particle-antiparticle switching. From May 21-26 scientists gathered at the Chateau de Blois, southwest of Paris, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of this achievement

  12. ANNIVERSARY: 25 years without CP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riordan, Michael

    1989-07-15

    In 1964 a small group of Princeton University physicists led by Jim Cronin and Val Fitch performed a landmark experiment at Brookhaven. Using a double-arm spectrometer, they showed that long-lived neutral kaons occasionally decayed into a pair of pions - violating the hitherto sacrosanct CP symmetry of combined mirror reflection and particle-antiparticle switching. From May 21-26 scientists gathered at the Chateau de Blois, southwest of Paris, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of this achievement.

  13. New look at CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.J.; Miller, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The CP-violating (CPV) kaonic matrix elements ε', ImA 0 , and ImA 2 are used to compute CPV observables in baryonic systems. The numerical results for the electric dipole moment and the difference between Λ and bar Λ decay parameters are similar to other approaches that use quark operators. Relations between the neutron electric dipole moment, CPV pion-nucleon coupling constants, and Λ-decay parameters are derived

  14. Cytosine methylation at CpCpG sites triggers accumulation of non-CpG methylation in gene bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Zabet, NR; Catoni, Marco; Prischi, F; Paszkowski, Jerzy Waclaw

    2017-01-01

    Methylation of cytosine is an epigenetic mark involved in the regulation of transcription, usually associated with transcriptional repression. In mammals, methylated cytosines are found predominantly in CpGs but in plants non-CpG methylation (in the CpHpG or CpHpH contexts, where H is A, C or T) is also present and is associated with the transcriptional silencing of transposable elements. In addition, CpG methylation is found in coding regions of active genes. In the absence of the demethylas...

  15. A boy with bilateral SUNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuković Cvetković, Vlasta; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2017-01-01

    secondary causes should be searched for vigorously if there are bilateral symptoms. Despite a number of therapeutic trials, effective management for the majority of SUNA patients is not available at present. Management of SUNA is often difficult. Case We report the case of a young boy with bilateral SUNA...

  16. Silicosis with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotedar Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentation with simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax is uncommon and usually in the context of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax.The association of pneumothorax and silicosis is infrequent and most cases are unilateral. Bilateral pneumothorax in silicosis is very rare with just a few reports in medical literature.

  17. Quark mixing and CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschos, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    These lectures present a pedagogical introduction to the topics quark mixing and CP violation. They explain how the mixing matrix comes about and reviews the values of constraints for its elements. The second chapter reviews the CP transformation properties of amplitudes and defines the quantities which are measured in the experiments. Then it reviews the theory of CP violation in the standard model. In addition to the phase and the angles introduced through the flavor matrix, numerical predictions also depend (a) on hadronic matrix elements of weak current operators and (b) the short distance expansion of effective Hamiltonians computed by methods of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). I also review these topics and present predictions for (ε'/ε) which are shown to be consistent with the experiments. Last but not least, the article is divided into sections which are as self-contained as possible. The article assumes a general knowledge of the electroweak theory. For guidance, the interested reader will find a table of contents at the end of the text. (author). 29 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  18. CP violation experiment at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiung, Yee B.

    1990-07-01

    The E731 experiment at Fermilab has searched for ''direct'' CP violation in K 0 → ππ, which is parametrized by var-epsilon '/var-epsilon. For the first time, in 20% of the data set, all four modes of the K L,S → π + π - (π 0 π 0 ) were collected simultaneously, providing a great check on the systematic uncertainty. The result is Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon) = -0.0004 ± 0.0014 (stat) ± 0.0006(syst), which provides no evidence for ''direct'' CP violation. The CPT symmetry has also been tested by measuring the phase difference Δφ = φ 00 - φ ± between the two CP violating parameters η 00 and η ± . We fine Δφ = -0.3 degrees ± 2.4 degree(stat) ± 1.2 degree(syst). Using this together with the world average φ ± , we fine that the phase of the K 0 -bar K 0 mixing parameter var-epsilon is 44.5 degree ± 1.5 degree. Both of these results agree well with the predictions of CPT symmetry. 17 refs., 10 figs

  19. Bilateral persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Tarun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of bilateral persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV in a 3-month-old male infant, who had bilateral leukokoria, is presented. The child was referred for imaging with a clinical suspicion of retinoblastoma. Gray-scale ultrasound evaluation revealed an echogenic band in the posterior segment of both globes, extending from the posterior surface of the lens capsule to the optic disc. Doppler examination revealed the presence of arterial flow in the band in both globes. Associated echogenic hemorrhage was also seen, which was confirmed by computed tomography. Most cases of PHPV are sporadic and unilateral, and bilateral PHPV is rare. The imaging features in this case suggest the diagnosis of bilateral PHPV and differentiate it from retinoblastoma. This entity, although infrequent, should be considered in the differential diagnosis while evaluating bilateral leukokoria.

  20. Procedure Oriented Torsional Anatomy of the Forearm for Spasticity Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou-Tan, Faye; Cianca, John; John, Joslyn; Furr-Stimming, Erin; Pandit, Sindhu; Taber, Katherine H

    2015-01-01

    : This is the second in a series of articles related to the concept of "torsional" anatomy. The objective of this article is to provide musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSKUS) anatomy of the forearm in the position of hemispastic flexion as a reference relevant to needle procedures. The MSKUS images were obtained in a healthy human subject. Marker dots were placed over common injection sites in the forearm for spasticity. The MSKUS probe was centered over each dot to obtain a cross-sectional view. A pair of MSKUS images was recorded for each site: the first in anatomic neutral and second in hemiparetic spastic position. The images were compared side to side. In addition, a video recording was made at each site to track the movement of the muscles and nerves during internal rotation. The pronator teres (PT) rotated medially and the brachialis and biceps tendon rotated in view. In addition, the median nerve became more superficial. The flexor carpi radialis rotated medially and was replaced by PT and the median nerve. The flexor carpi ulnaris and flexor digitorum profundus rotated medially and were replaced by the flexor carpi radialis, PT and median nerve. The flexor digitorum superficialis was replaced by the brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis brevis, and radial nerve. The brachioradialis was replaced by the extensor carpi radialis brevis and extensor digitorum communis. Intended muscle targets rotate out of view and injection range. These are replaced by other muscles and nerves that could inadvertently be injected. This potentially could result in both increased complications and decreased efficacy of the procedure. It is hoped that this series of images will increase the accuracy and safety of needle placement for spasticity injections in the forearm.

  1. Four-fold increase in direct costs of stroke survivors with spasticity compared with stroke survivors without spasticity: the first year after the event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Erik; Smits, Anja; Borg, Jörgen; Terént, Andreas

    2010-02-01

    The prevalence of spasticity after first-ever stroke is approximately 20%, but there are no health economic studies on costs associated with spasticity after stroke. The objective of our study was to estimate direct costs of stroke with spasticity for patients surviving up to 1 year after the stroke event in comparison to costs of stroke without spasticity. A representative sample of patients with first-ever stroke hospitalized at Uppsala University Hospital was eligible for our cross-sectional survey. All direct costs during 1 year were identified for each patient, including costs for hospitalization (acute and rehabilitation), primary health care, medication, and costs for municipality services. Swedish currency was converted to Purchasing Power Parities US dollar (PPP$). Median age (interquartile range) was 73 years (18), and the proportion of women was 48%. The majority of the direct costs (78%) was associated with hospitalization, whereas 20% was associated with municipality services during 1 year after a first-ever stroke. Only 1% of all direct costs were related to primary health care and 1% to medication. The level of costs for patients with stroke was correlated with the presence of spasticity as measured with the modified Ashworth scale (r(s)=0.524) and with the degree of disability as measured with modified Rankin Scale (r(s)=0.624). The mean (median, interquartile range) direct cost for stroke patients with spasticity was PPP$ 84,195 (72,116, 53,707) compared with PPP$ 21,842 (12,385, 17,484) for patients with stroke without spasticity (Pstroke survivors are 4 times higher than direct costs for patients with stroke without spasticity during the first year after the event.

  2. Neuromuscular properties of different spastic human joints vary systematically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbagheri, M M; Settle, K

    2010-01-01

    We quantified the mechanical abnormalities of the spastic wrist in chronic stroke survivors, and determined whether these findings were representative of those recorded at the elbow and ankle joints. System identification techniques were used to characterize the mechanical abnormalities of these joints and to identify the contribution of intrinsic and reflex stiffness to these abnormalities. Modulation of intrinsic and reflex stiffness with the joint angle was studied by applying PRBS perturbations to the joints at different joint angles over the range of motion. Age-matched healthy subjects were used as control.

  3. The meaning of spasticity to people with multiple sclerosis: what can health professionals learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Alex; Tod, Angela; Cramp, Mary; Mawson, Sue

    2013-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common disabling neurological condition affecting young adults. One third of people on an American registry of people with MS (PWMS) reported having activities affected by spasticity. The psychosocial effects of spasticity in people with MS have been shown to be distressing and detrimental to emotional and social relationships when investigated from a psychology perspective. This paper investigates the impact of spasticity on the lives of people living with MS from a physiotherapeutic perspective. This study involved 12 semi-structured interviews with individuals experiencing MS-related spasticity. Ten sets of data were analyzed following framework analysis principles. Results suggest spasticity effects life experience of these PWMS in diverse and complex ways. Physical, psychological and social consequences of spasticity are closely linked and can be far reaching. Therapists need to be aware of links between specific physical symptoms and their psychosocial consequences if they want to improve peoples' quality of life. This paper provides in depth qualitative research evidence for the complexity of the spasticity experience for each individual, strengthening the argument for a patient-centred approach to treatment. These results also support the case for targeted interventions with effectiveness recorded in a patient-centred way. • Spasticity is suggested here to affect the lives of individuals with multiple sclerosis in diverse and far reaching ways. Therapists need to investigate this fully in subjective assessment to impact on people's quality of life. • Direct links were identified between treatable physical symptoms and far reaching consequences of spasticity. • Knowledge about the complexity of the spasticity experience for each individual will allow therapists to target interventions appropriately and accurately record effectiveness in a patient-centred way.

  4. Functional Brain Correlates of Upper Limb Spasticity and Its Mitigation following Rehabilitation in Chronic Stroke Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Pundik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Arm spasticity is a challenge in the care of chronic stroke survivors with motor deficits. In order to advance spasticity treatments, a better understanding of the mechanism of spasticity-related neuroplasticity is needed. Objective. To investigate brain function correlates of spasticity in chronic stroke and to identify specific regional functional brain changes related to rehabilitation-induced mitigation of spasticity. Methods. 23 stroke survivors (>6 months were treated with an arm motor learning and spasticity therapy (5 d/wk for 12 weeks. Outcome measures included Modified Ashworth scale, sensory tests, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for wrist and hand movement. Results. First, at baseline, greater spasticity correlated with poorer motor function (P=0.001 and greater sensory deficits (P=0.003. Second, rehabilitation produced improvement in upper limb spasticity and motor function (P<0.0001. Third, at baseline, greater spasticity correlated with higher fMRI activation in the ipsilesional thalamus (rho=0.49, P=0.03. Fourth, following rehabilitation, greater mitigation of spasticity correlated with enhanced fMRI activation in the contralesional primary motor (r=-0.755, P=0.003, premotor (r=−0.565, P=0.04, primary sensory (r=−0.614, P=0.03, and associative sensory (r=−0.597, P=0.03 regions while controlling for changes in motor function. Conclusions. Contralesional motor regions may contribute to restoring control of muscle tone in chronic stroke.

  5. Association between spasticity and the level of motor function with quality of life in community dwelling Iranian young adults with spastic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Salehi Dehno

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Background: Consequences of cerebral palsy in adulthood can affect physical, psychological capabilities and quality of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between quality of life with spasticity and level of motor function in Iranian young adults with spastic cerebral palsy who were community dweller. Methods: In an analytical cross sectional study, 77 participants with spastic cerebral palsy (44 women، 33 men with age range of 20 to 40 years; (mean age 26.19±5 yr took part in this study. They were enrolled from three Raad Rehabilitation Goodwill complexes in Tehran and Karaj cities. All subjects were recruited through convenient sampling. Severity of Spasticity for knee flexors was measured with Modified Tardieu Scale. In addition, the level of motor function, and quality of life were assessed respectively through Gross Motor Function Classification System and World Health Organization Quality of life questionnaire (WHOQOL- BREF. To analyze data, Pearson and spearman correlation coefficient was used. Results: No correlation found between quality of life with knee flexor muscles spasticity and level of motor function (p> 0.05. Conclusion: Quality of life as a multi dimensional concept has been impacted by many factors such as physical status, environmental issues and culture. Possibly, severity of spasticity and level of function have a less pronounced effect on quality of life in community dwelling adults with cerebral palsy. 

  6. Upper limb therapy in children with cerebral palsy (CP – The Pirate Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawlak Marta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children with cerebral palsy (CP in the form of spastic hemiplegia experience numerous difficulties concerning an affected upper limb such as reaching for objects, gripping or manipulating them. These limitations affect their everyday activity. Conducting an effective and simultaneously an interesting therapy aimed at meeting the child’s individual needs and improving upper limb function is a challenge for a physiotherapist. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of upper limb therapy carried out within the project titled “The Pirate Group” based on Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT and Bimanual Training (BIT conducted in a specially arranged environment. Material and methods: The research included 16 children with CP in the form of spastic hemiplegia. Mean age of the study participants was 4.23 years. The children underwent a two-week Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT combined with Bimanual Training (BIT. In order to evaluate the effects of the therapy, each child underwent the Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA prior to the therapy and after its completion. Results: Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference (p<0.05 between the results of AHA prior to and after the therapy (t(14=9.12, p<0.0001. An improvement in the affected upper limb function was noted in all the children participating in the research. Conclusions: The project titled “The Pirate Group”, based on CIMT and BIT is an effective therapeutic intervention which improves spontaneous activity of the affected upper limb in children with hemiplegia.

  7. Some ideas for learning CP-theories

    OpenAIRE

    Fierens, Daan

    2008-01-01

    Causal Probabilistic logic (CP-logic) is a language for describing complex probabilistic processes. In this talk we consider the problem of learning CP-theories from data. We briefly discuss three possible approaches. First, we review the existing algorithm by Meert et al. Second, we show how simple CP-theories can be learned by using the learning algorithm for Logical Bayesian Networks and converting the result into a CP-theory. Third, we argue that for learning more complex CP-theories, an ...

  8. B decays and models for CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X.

    1996-01-01

    The decay modes B to ππ, ψK S , K - D, πK, and ηK are promising channels to study the unitarity triangle of the CP-violating Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. In this paper I study the consequences of these measurements in the Weinberg model. I show that using the same set of measurements, the following different mechanisms for CP violation can be distinguished: (1) CP is violated in the CKM sector only; (2) CP is violated spontaneously in the Higgs sector only; and (3) CP is violated in both the CKM and Higgs sectors. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  9. V2 and cP/CP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten; Christensen, Ken Ramshøj; Nyvad, Anne Mette

    2017-01-01

    As in Nyvad et al. (2017), we will explore a particular derivation of (embedded) V2, in terms of a cP/CP-distinction, which may be seen as a version of the CP-recursion analysis (de Haan & Weerman 1986; Vikner 1995 and many others). e idea is that because embedded V2 clauses do not allow extraction......, whereas other types of CP-recursion clauses do (Christensen et al. 2013a; 2013b; Christensen & Nyvad 2014), CP-recursion in embedded V2 is assumed to be fundamentally di erent from other kinds of CP-recursion, in that main clause V2 and embedded V2 involve a CP (“big CP”), whereas other clausal...... projections above IP are instances of cP (“little cP”)....

  10. CP invariance: a point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Gyan

    1983-01-01

    That the longlived component L of K 0 has both CP = +1 and CP = -1 modes of decay is often cited as evidence of violation of CP invariance. The careful ones find the compelling evidence to be the non-dilution of the regeneration interference pattern when the incident K 0 beam is mixed even substantially with anti-K 0 . However the two phenomena comprehensively imply that L has a CP = +1 component Lsub(+) and CP = -1 component Lsub(-) and that the longlived component of both K 0 and anti-K 0 are one and the same L. This does not demand abandoning CP invariance. It does imply that anti-K 0 is not the CP conjugate of K 0 . (author)

  11. Bilateral nephroblastoma - case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luczynska, E.; Aniol, J.

    2008-01-01

    Wilms tumor is the most common renal tumor in children Synchronous bilateral Wilms tumor (BWT) accounts for 5% of all patients registered to the National Wilms Tumor Study Group (NWSTG). A 28-year-old female patient was presented to Oncology Institute with right kidney tumor. Her left kidney was resected due to Wilms tumor in the sixth month of her life. Abdominal ultrasound was performed and demonstrated a massive right kidney tumor. Then the abdominal CT was undertaken with the use of 16-slice CT scanner, revealing rotation displacement of the right kidney, with signs of compensative overgrowth and displaced upwards. In the lower and peripheral part of the kidney a nodular mass 7 X 10 X 9 cm in size was visible. The tumor was well-demarcated, showing heterogeneous contrast enhancement, extending from the inferio-lateral renal pole.The tumor was adjacent to iliopsoas muscle and abdominal cavity walls; no infiltration of those structures was noted. Described lesion surrounded inferio-medial part of the kidney, approaching kidney pelvis without infiltrating them. Supero-anterior and medial part of the kidney showed normal structure with correct contrasted urine excretion. Lymph nodes enlargement within periaortal area was not detected. Surgical procedure was performed resulting in excision of the tumor with kidney preservation. Histopathology examination revealed nephroblastoma. The tumor was surrounded by a thin, fibrous capsule. Surrounding parenchyma and far tissue were not involved. The CT examination performed 4 months after nephron sparing surgery revealed: right kidney of 137 X 51 mm in size, normally located, with correct structure and function. Multislice abdominal CT have clearly visualized the tumor of the single kidney, showing precise localization of the mass with relation to the kidney pelvis and vessels, allowing for nephron sparing surgical excision. (authors)

  12. Speech Respiratory Measures in Spastic Cerebral Palsied and Normal Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Shemshadi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Research is designed to determine speech respiratory measures in spastic cerebral palsied children versus normal ones, to be used as an applicable tool in speech therapy plans.  Materials & Methods: Via a comparative cross-sectional study (case–control, and through a directive goal oriented sampling in case and convenience approach for controls twenty spastic cerebral palsied and twenty control ones with age (5-12 years old and sex (F=20, M=20 were matched and identified. All possible inclusion and exclusion criteria were considered by thorough past medical, clinical and para clinical such as chest X-ray and Complete Blood Counts reviews to rule out any possible pulmonary and/or systemic disorders. Their speech respiratory indices were determined by Respirometer (ST 1-dysphonia, made and normalized by Glasgow University. Obtained data were analyzed by independent T test. Results: There were significant differences between cases and control groups for "mean tidal volume", "phonatory volume" and "vital capacity" at a=0/05 values and these values in patients were less (34% than normal children (P<0/001. Conclusion: Measures obtained are highly crucial for speech therapist in any speech therapy primary rehabilitative plans for spactic cerebral palsied children.

  13. The use of hydrotherapy for the management of spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesiktas, N; Paker, N; Erdogan, N; Gülsen, G; Biçki, D; Yilmaz, H

    2004-12-01

    Spasticity is a major problem for the rehabilitation team. Physiotherapy is a vital component of therapy. Oral medication and other modalities such as heat, cold, ultrasound, electrical stimulation, and surgery (neuro-surgical or orthopedic) can also be used. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of hydrotherapy on spasticity and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). This is a control case matched study. Twenty SCI patients were divided into 2 groups and matched for age, gender, injury time, Ashworth scores, oral baclofen intake, American Spinal Injury Association, and FIM scores. The control group received passive range of motion exercise twice a day and oral baclofen for 10 weeks. The study group also received passive range of motion and oral baclofen, as well as 20 min of water exercises (at 71 degrees F, full immersion) 3 times per week. The authors evaluated spasm severity, FIM scores, oral baclofen intake, and Ashworth scales, between groups at the beginning and at the end of the treatment period. Both groups demonstrated a significant increase in FIM scores. However, the hydrotherapy group demonstrated a larger increase (P hydrotherapy group (P hydrotherapy produced a significant decrease in spasm severity (P hydrotherapy to the rehabilitation program can be helpful in decreasing the amount of medication required. Future studies must evaluate benefits of hydrotherapy for rehabilitation.

  14. Flavor Physics & CP Violation 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    "Flavor Physics & CP violation 2015" (FPCP 2015) was held in Nagoya, Japan, at Nagoya University, from May 25 to May 29 2015. This is the 13th meeting of the series of annual conferences started in Philadelphia, PA, USA in 2002. The aim of the conference is to review developments in flavor physics and CP violation, in both theory and experiment, exploiting the potential to study new physics at the LHC and future facilities. The topics include CP violation, rare decays, CKM elements with heavy quark decays, flavor phenomena in charged leptons and neutrinos, and also interplay between flavor and LHC high Pt physics. The FPCP2015 conference had more than 140 participants, including researchers from abroad and many young researchers (postdocs and students). The conference consisted of plenary talks and poster presentations. The plenary talks include 2 overview talks, 48 review talks, and 2 talks for outlook in theories and experiments, given by world leading researchers. There was also a special lecture by Prof. Makoto Kobayashi, one of the Nobel laureates in 2008. The poster session had 41 contributions. Many young researchers presented their works. These proceedings contain written documents for these plenary and poster presentations. The full scientific program and presentation materials can be found at http://fpcp2015.hepl.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp/. We would like to thank the International Advisory Committee for their invaluable assistance in coordinating the scientific program and in helping to identifying many speakers. Thanks are also due to the Local Organizing Committee for tireless efforts for smooth running of the conference and very enjoyable social activities. We also thank the financial supports provided by Japanese Scociety for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) unfer the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) "Probing New Physics with Tau-Lepton" (No. 26220706), by Nagoya University under the Program for Promoting the Enhancement of Research Universities, and

  15. Experience on CP1 turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moinaud, C.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of the experience acquired on the behaviour of the turbine itself, excluding alternators, superheaters... of the nuclear power plants of the French program contract CP1 (Fessenhein prototype): method of anomaly process (assumption, scenarios, calculations and hierarchy of the assumptions), study of the accidents on the shutdown valves and control valves (HP admission devices), on the LP admission devices, on the HP module (leakage at the parting line, bolt and screw accidents), on the LP module (diaphragm, diapragm support erosion, rotor anomaly, blade anomaly with rupture of the wire bracing), behaviour of the shafting and of the pillars (radial and axial floating) and at last global behaviour of the group [fr

  16. Bilateral Olecranon Tophaceous Gout Bursitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güzelali Özdemir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this case, we present a patient with the diagnosis of bilateral olecranon tophaceous gout. After the surgical treatment, there was no limitation of range of motion or wound problem at 6th month control.

  17. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkenborg, Marie-Louise; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating...... from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning...... embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral...

  18. Bilateral papillary renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossios, K.; Vazakas, P.; Argyropoulou, M.; Stefanaki, S.; Stavropoulos, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma is a subgroup of malignant renal epithelial neoplasms. We report the clinical and imaging findings of a case with multifocal and bilateral renal cell carcinoma which are nonspecific. (orig.)

  19. Bilateral internal laryngoceles mimicking asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif A Aksoy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngocele is an air-filled, abnormal dilation of the laryngeal saccule that extends upward within the false vocal fold, in communication with the laryngeal lumen. A case of 43-year-old male with bilateral internal laryngoceles, who has been treated as asthma for 4 years, is presented. The patient had dyspnea, cough, and excessive phlegm for a month and a late onset stridor. Flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscopy showed bilateral cystic enlargements of the false vocal folds and true vocal folds could not be visualized. Laryngeal CT without contrast enhancement showed bilateral internal laryngoceles. Submucosal total excision of bilateral cystic masses including parts of false vocal folds was performed. The symptoms resolved immediately after surgery. Although the incidence of internal laryngocele is rare, it should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of upper airway problems and diagnostic flexible nasopharnygolaryngoscopy is routinely indicated for airway evaluation in at-risk patients.

  20. The Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin A Intramuscular Injections in After-Stroke Spasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Karaçam

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Spasticity is a common dysfunction in stroke patients. It hinders the performance of everyday living activities and lowers the quality of life. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of botulinum toxin A therapy on various aspects, such as muscle tone, pain, daily living activities and disability. METHODS: Fifteen patients with stroke presenting with focal spasticity in the botulinum toxin outpatient unit were evaluated. Results before and after treatment were evaluated by applying different scales. Modified Ashworth Scale was applied for the severity of spasticity. The Medical Council Research Scale was used to test muscle power, and the disability scoring scale, Visual Analogue Pain Scale and Barthel index were the other measures tested. RESULTS: It was found that therapy with botulinum toxin A was effective in spasticity. The increased muscle tone and the disability scores decreased prominently after the treatment (p< 0.05. Lower values in pain scores (p< 0.05 also contributed to better functional outcome (p< 0.01. Along with the significantly good outcome according to the scales, the higher scores in quality of life, feeling of well-being, good performance during the physiotherapy sessions, and less medications needed for spasticity were also indications in commencing the therapy of botulinum toxin A in spasticity. CONCLUSION: Spasticity is a complicated condition causing serious disability. Botulinum toxin A is a preferred therapy when there is an increased motor activity. The effects of the agent are reversible and reliable. The duration of the treatment is long-lasting. Since botulinum toxin A is easily applied and the outcome in focal spasticity is favorable, it is recommended as the first-line choice in the treatment of focal spasticity

  1. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture ?

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Diogo Lino; Marques, Jos? Pedro; Lucas, Francisco Manuel; Fonseca, Fernando Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral patellar tendon rupture is a rare entity, often associated with systemic diseases and patellar tendinopathy. The authors report a rare case of a 34-year-old man with simultaneous bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon caused by minor trauma. The patient is a retired basketball player with no past complaints of chronic knee pain and a history of steroid use. Surgical management consisted in primary end-to-end tendon repair protected temporarily with cerclage wiring, followed by a s...

  2. Bilateral sarkoidose i glandula parotis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Pernille; Krogdahl, Annelise; Godballe, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We describe an unusual case of sarcoidosis in which the patient presented with a bilateral swelling of the parotid salivary glands and no other manifestation of the disease. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder of unknown cause in which there may be multiple exocrine involvement......, including the salivary glands. This case emphasises the importance of including sarcoidosis in the differential diagnosis of bilateral parotid swelling....

  3. Lipid myopathy associated with renal tubular acidosis and spastic diplegia in two brothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Y C; Tsau, Y K; Chu, L W; Young, C; Shen, Y Z

    2001-07-01

    Lipid myopathy is a group of disorders involving mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We describe two brothers, 3 years 8 months old and 2 years 9 months old, respectively, with progressive spastic diplegia, developmental delay, failure to thrive, and chronic metabolic acidosis who had lipid myopathy and renal tubular acidosis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed demyelinating changes in the periventricular white matter, which was compatible with spastic diplegia. These symptoms may be related to errors in fatty acid metabolism. Cerebral palsy had been misdiagnosed in both of these patients at another hospital. Therefore, for patients with late-onset and progressive spastic diplegia, detailed investigations for underlying diseases are warranted.

  4. Percutaneous epidural neurostimulation in modulation of paraplegic spasticity. Six case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R R; Cerullo, L J; McLone, D G; Gutierrez, F A; Lewis, V

    1979-01-01

    Six cases of paraplegic, post-traumatic spasticity, alleviated by percutaneous epidural neurostimulation with temporary or permanent implanted neuroelectrodes from the L1 to L4 intervertebral levels are presented. Modulation of this spasticity and secondary beneficial physiological effects were achieved, including regulation of bowel regimens, production of sweating and piloerection below the level of the lesion, and morning erections. The main advantages of percutaneous epidural neurostimulation in modulating spasticity are the avoidance of destructive neurosurgical procedures, the regulation of secondary physiological and autonomic responses, the avoidance of antispasticity medications, and the reversibility of the neurostimulation procedure.

  5. Hereditary spastic paraplegia and amyotrophy associated with a novel locus on chromosome 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilleur, K.G.; Traoré, M.; Sangaré, M.; Britton, A.; Landouré, G.; Coulibaly, S.; Niaré, B.; Mochel, F.; La Pean, A.; Rafferty, I.; Watts, C.; Littleton-Kearney, M. T.; Blackstone, C.; Singleton, A.; Fischbeck, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    We identified a family in Mali with two sisters affected by spastic paraplegia. In addition to spasticity and weakness of the lower limbs, the patients had marked atrophy of the distal upper extremities. Homozygosity mapping using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays showed that the sisters shared a region of extended homozygosity at chromosome 19p13.11-q12 that was not shared by controls. These findings indicate a clinically and genetically distinct form of hereditary spastic paraplegia with amyotrophy, designated SPG43. PMID:20039086

  6. SACS gene-related autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Suraj Menon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by late infantile onset spastic ataxia and other neurological features. Initially described in the Charlevoix-Saguenay region of Quebec, Canada, it is being increasingly reported from many other countries. Here, we present the case of a 20-year-old male from South India, who presented with progressive ataxia, spasticity, and peripheral neuropathy with imaging features and genetic testing suggestive of SACS gene-related ARSACS. The phenotypic variability from other cases and occurrence in a geographically distinct region is stressed upon to alert the clinicians to consider ARSACS in progressive ataxias.

  7. B decays and models for CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xiao Gang

    1995-12-01

    The decay modes B to π π,υK S , K - D, πK and ηK are promising channels to study the unitarity triangle of the CP violating Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. The consequences of these measurements in the Weinberg model are discussed. It is shown that measurements of CP violation in B decay can be used to distinguish Standard Model from Weinberg model and that the following different mechanisms for CP violation can be distinguished: 1) CP is violated in the CKM sector only; 2) CP is violated spontaneously in the Higgs sector only; and 3) CP is violated in both the CKM and Higgs sectors. 27 refs., 4 figs

  8. The Effects of Varying Ankle Foot Orthosis Stiffness on Gait in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy Who Walk with Excessive Knee Flexion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette L Kerkum

    Full Text Available Rigid Ankle-Foot Orthoses (AFOs are commonly prescribed to counteract excessive knee flexion during the stance phase of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP. While rigid AFOs may normalize knee kinematics and kinetics effectively, it has the disadvantage of impeding push-off power. A spring-like AFO may enhance push-off power, which may come at the cost of reducing the knee flexion less effectively. Optimizing this trade-off between enhancing push-off power and normalizing knee flexion in stance is expected to maximize gait efficiency. This study investigated the effects of varying AFO stiffness on gait biomechanics and efficiency in children with CP who walk with excessive knee flexion in stance. Fifteen children with spastic CP (11 boys, 10±2 years were prescribed with a ventral shell spring-hinged AFO (vAFO. The hinge was set into a rigid, or spring-like setting, using both a stiff and flexible performance. At baseline (i.e. shoes-only and for each vAFO, a 3D-gait analysis and 6-minute walk test with breath-gas analysis were performed at comfortable speed. Lower limb joint kinematics and kinetics were calculated. From the 6-minute walk test, walking speed and the net energy cost were determined. A generalized estimation equation (p<0.05 was used to analyze the effects of different conditions. Compared to shoes-only, all vAFOs improved the knee angle and net moment similarly. Ankle power generation and work were preserved only by the spring-like vAFOs. All vAFOs decreased the net energy cost compared to shoes-only, but no differences were found between vAFOs, showing that the effects of spring-like vAFOs to promote push-off power did not lead to greater reductions in walking energy cost. These findings suggest that, in this specific group of children with spastic CP, the vAFO stiffness that maximizes gait efficiency is primarily determined by its effect on knee kinematics and kinetics rather than by its effect on push-off power

  9. Multilevel Botulinum Toxin A (Abobotulinum Toxin A Injections in Spastic Forms of Cerebral Palsy: Retrospective Analysis of 8 Russian Centers Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Klochkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The contemporary application of Botulinum toxin A (BTA in cerebral palsy (CP implies multilevel injections both in on-label and off-label muscles. However, there is no single international opinion on the effective and safe dosages, target muscles, and intervals between the injections.Objective: Our aim was to analyze the Russian multicenter independent experience of single and repeated multilevel injections of Abobotulinum toxin А in patients with spastic forms of CP.Methods: 8 independent referral CP-centers (10 hospitals in different regions of Russia. Authors evaluated intervals between the injections, dosages of the BTA for the whole procedure, for the body mass, for the each muscle, and functional segment of the extremities.Results: 1872 protocols of effective BTA injections (1–14 repeated injections for 724 patients with spastic CP were included. The age of the patients was between 8 months to 17 years 4 months at the beginning of the treatment (with a mean of 3 years 10 months. Multilevel BTA injections were indicated for the majority (n = 634, 87.6% of the patients in all the centers. The medians of the dosages for the first BTA injection were between 30–31 U/kg (500 U, the repeated injections doses up to 45 U/kg (1000 U (in most centers. The median intervals between the repeated injections were 180–200 days in 484 (66.9% patients and 140–180 days in 157 (24.7% patients. In 2 centers, children with GMFCS IV–V were injected more often than others.Conclusion: Multilevel BTA injections were indicated for the most patients. The initial dose of Abobotulinum toxin A was 30–31 U/kg. The repeated injections dose could increase up to 40 U/kg. The repeated injections were done in 140–200 days after the previous injection.

  10. TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF PLAY THERAPY AND CHILD FRIENDLY CONSTRAINT INDUCED MOMEMENT THERAPY TO IMPROVE HAND FUNCTION IN SPASTIC HEMIPLEGIC CEREBRAL PALSY CHILDREN: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjuman Nahar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral Palsy (CP is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by nonprogressive lesion in the developing brain. The early central nervous system (CNS damage results in chronic physical disabilities and often includes sensory impairments. In addition CP is often associated with epilepsy and abnormalities of speech, vision, and intellect; it is the selective vulnerability of the brains motor systems that defines the disorder. Child friendly CIMT involves intensive targeted practice with the involved extremity coordination above and beyond their unilateral impairments. Ply Therapy is designed for active involvement of child in performing various tasks. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of constraint induced movement therapy and play therapy to improve hand function in spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy children. Methods: A sample of 30 patients was divided in two groups, each group having 15 children. Convenient sampling was done on the basis of base line assessment and diagnosis of their condition. Duration of the study was 3 months and data collection started at day 0 and at the end of 90 days. Children in group A wore a bivalve plaster cast on the non-involved upper extremity from shoulder to finger tips for the entire time during the session lasting for 2 hours and the plaster cast was removed at the end of the session. B group consists of 15 subjects who received play therapy. The treatment program was conducted individually and adjusted to current needs and abilities of each of the patients. Outcomes: Box and Block test, QOM scale and AOU scale. Results: It was found that there is an improvement in the hand function on application of child friendly CIMT in the patients with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy which was found significant using the Mann-Whitney U test (p≤0.005. Conclusion: In this study it has been found that the use of Child friendly CIMT and PLAY THERAPY produces significant improvement in hand

  11. Exploring CP Violation in the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Arbey, A.; Godbole, R.M.; Mahmoudi, F.

    2015-01-01

    We explore the prospects for observing CP violation in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) with six CP-violating parameters, three gaugino mass phases and three phases in trilinear soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters, using the CPsuperH code combined with a geometric approach to maximize CP-violating observables subject to the experimental upper bounds on electric dipole moments. We also implement CP-conserving constraints from Higgs physics, flavour physics and the upper limits on the cosmological dark matter density and spin-independent scattering. We study possible values of observables within the constrained MSSM (CMSSM), the non-universal Higgs model (NUHM), the CPX scenario and a variant of the phenomenological MSSM (pMSSM). We find values of the CP-violating asymmetry A_CP in b -> s gamma decay that may be as large as 3%, so future measurements of A_CP may provide independent information about CP violation in the MSSM. We find that CP-violating MSSM contributions to the...

  12. Superweak-like models of CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoura, L.

    1992-01-01

    I put forward a two-Higgs-doublet model in which CP violation is mediated only by the neutral Higgs bosons, via the mechanism of scalar-pseudoscalar mixing. In this model there is no CP violation in the exchange of either W bosons or of charged Higgs bosons. The model is therefore an approximate realization of the superweak theory of CP violation. It has only two basic CP-violating quantities. I point out that other models of this kind, but with more than two Higgs doublets, may also be built

  13. Modeling of axonal endoplasmic reticulum network by spastic paraplegia proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçın, Belgin; Zhao, Lu; Stofanko, Martin; O'Sullivan, Niamh C; Kang, Zi Han; Roost, Annika; Thomas, Matthew R; Zaessinger, Sophie; Blard, Olivier; Patto, Alex L; Sohail, Anood; Baena, Valentina; Terasaki, Mark; O'Kane, Cahir J

    2017-07-25

    Axons contain a smooth tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network that is thought to be continuous with ER throughout the neuron; the mechanisms that form this axonal network are unknown. Mutations affecting reticulon or REEP proteins, with intramembrane hairpin domains that model ER membranes, cause an axon degenerative disease, hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). We show that Drosophila axons have a dynamic axonal ER network, which these proteins help to model. Loss of HSP hairpin proteins causes ER sheet expansion, partial loss of ER from distal motor axons, and occasional discontinuities in axonal ER. Ultrastructural analysis reveals an extensive ER network in axons, which shows larger and fewer tubules in larvae that lack reticulon and REEP proteins, consistent with loss of membrane curvature. Therefore HSP hairpin-containing proteins are required for shaping and continuity of axonal ER, thus suggesting roles for ER modeling in axon maintenance and function.

  14. MR imaging of spastic diplegia. The importance of corpus callosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, K.; Kanda, T.; Hashimoto, K.; Okuno, Y.; Yamori, Y.; Yuge, M.; Ando, R.; Ozaki, N.; Tamamoto, A.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The MR findings in patients with spastic diplegia were investigated and the role of MR imaging in assessing the extent of brain injury was evaluated. Material and Methods: 39 male and 24 female patients (preterm/term 43/20) were imaged using a 0.5 T MR system. Results: The MR findings in term patients were quite different from those in preterm patients; 55% of the term patients showed normal and minimal changes on MR, whereas 90.7% of the 43 preterm children had periventricular leucomalacia. The deep cerebral white matter was the most frequently involved site. Objective measurements revealed significant reductions of the entire sagittal area of corpus callosum in diplegic patients in comparison with normal controls. The motor plasy severity correlated well with the extent of corpus callosum involvement. Conclusion: The corpus callosum appears to be a sensitive marker site for the assessment of the extent of white matter injury. (orig.)

  15. Motor activation in SPG4-linked hereditary spastic paraplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, KH; Nielsen, JE; Krabbe, Katja

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of motor cortical functional reorganisation in patients with SPG4-linked hereditary spastic paraplegia by exploring cortical motor activation related to movements of clinically affected (lower) and unaffected (upper) limbs. METHODS......: Thirteen patients and 13 normal controls matched for age, gender and handedness underwent O15-labelled water positron emission tomography during (1) right ankle flexion-extension, (2) right shoulder flexion-extension and (3) rest. Within-group comparisons of movement vs. rest (simple main effects......, the supplementary motor areas and the right premotor cortex compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Motor cortical reorganisation may explain this result, but as no significant differences were recognised in the motor response of the unaffected limb, differences in functional demands should also be considered...

  16. Chronic meningoencephalomyelitis with spastic spinal paralysis. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsuyama, Y; Thompson, L R; Yuki, I; Tanemori, H

    1973-01-01

    A case of chronic meningoencephalomyelitis in a 48-year-old housewife is presented. The onset was characterized by spastic paralysis of the lower extremities. The course was progressive with repeated remissions and exacerbations, and the patient died approximately 7 years after the onset of disease. Laboratory tests showed slightly increased cell count in the spinal fluid, accelerated sedimentation rate, positive CRP and RA, and increased ASLO and gamma globulin levels. Neuropathologic examination revealed such changes as perivascular cellular infiltration, glial nodules, poorly demarcated demyelination, and recent necrosis in the spinal cord and basal ganglia. Only mild inflammatory findings were noted in the telencephalon and brain stem. The clinicopathologic findings in this case supported a diagnosis of chronic meningoencepalomyelitis which could not be classified as any known type of encephalomyelitis. (auth)

  17. Hand muscles corticomotor excitability in hereditary spastic paraparesis type 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginanneschi, Federica; Carluccio, Maria A; Mignarri, Andrea; Tessa, Alessandra; Santorelli, Filippo M; Rossi, Alessandro; Federico, Antonio; Dotti, Maria T

    2014-08-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies on the pathways to the upper limbs have revealed inconsistent results in patients harboring mutations in SPAST/SPG4 gene, responsible for the commonest form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). This paper is addressed to study the corticomotor excitability of the pathways to the upper limbs in SPG4 subjects. We assessed the corticomotor excitability of hand muscles in 12 subjects belonging to 7 unrelated SPG4 families and in 12 control subjects by stimulus-response curve [input-output (I-O) curve]. All the parameters of the recruitment curve (threshold, V50, slope and plateau) did not differ significantly from those of the controls. Presence of upper limb hyper-reflexia did not influence the results of I-O curve. Considering the multiplicity of possible genes/loci accounting for pure HSPs, performing TMS analyses could be helpful in differential diagnosis of pure HSPs in the absence of other clinical or neuroimaging tools.

  18. Multigeneration family with dominant SPG30 hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Ricardo H; Schindler, Alice B; Blackstone, Craig

    2017-11-01

    Autosomal recessive KIF1A missense mutations cause hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) type SPG30, while recessive truncations lead to sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSN2C) and many de novo missense mutations are associated with cognitive impairment. Here, we describe family members across three generations with pure HSP. A heterozygous p.Ser69Leu KIF1A mutation segregates with those afflicted. The same variant was previously reported in a Finnish father and son with pure HSP as well as four members of a Sicilian kindred with more intrafamilial phenotypic variability. This further validates the pathogenicity of the p.Ser69Leu mutation and suggests that it may represent a mutation hot spot.

  19. 38 CFR 4.26 - Bilateral factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bilateral factor. 4.26... DISABILITIES General Policy in Rating § 4.26 Bilateral factor. When a partial disability results from disease... disability. The bilateral factor will be applied to such bilateral disabilities before other combinations are...

  20. Bilateral Endoscopic Medial Maxillectomy for Bilateral Inverted Papilloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Satoru; Kawano, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    Inverted papilloma (IP) is a benign tumor of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses that is unilateral in most cases. Bilateral IP, involving both sides of the nasal cavity and sinuses, is extremely rare. This paper describes a large IP that filled in both sides of the nasal cavity and sinuses, mimicking association with malignancy. The tumor was successfully treated by bilateral endoscopic medial maxillectomy (EMM). The patient is without evidence of the disease 24 months after surgery. If preoperative diagnosis does not confirm the association with malignancy in IP, endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) should be selected, and ESS, including EMM, is a good first choice of the treatment for IP. PMID:22953103

  1. Flexion synergy overshadows flexor spasticity during reaching in chronic moderate to severe hemiparetic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael D; Schut, Ingrid; Dewald, Julius P A

    2017-07-01

    Pharmaceutical intervention targets arm flexor spasticity with an often-unsuccessful goal of improving function. Flexion synergy is a related motor impairment that may be inadvertently neglected. Here, flexor spasticity and flexion synergy are disentangled to determine their contributions to reaching dysfunction. Twenty-six individuals participated. A robotic device systematically modulated shoulder abduction loading during ballistic reaching. Elbow muscle electromyography data were partitioned into windows delineated by elbow joint velocity allowing for the separation of synergy- and spasticity-related activation. Reaching velocity decreased with abduction loading (psynergy increased with abduction loading (psynergy is the predominant contributor to reaching dysfunction while flexor spasticity appears only relevant during unnaturally occurring passively supported movement. Interventions targeting flexion synergy should be leveraged in future stroke recovery trials. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of Sativex in neuropathic pain and spasticity in spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Sven Robert; Hansen, Rikke Bod Middelhede; Johansen, Inger Lauge

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Neuropathic pain and spasticity after spinal cord injury represent significant but still unresolved problems, which cause considerable suffering and reduced quality of life for patients with spinal cord injury. Treatment of neuropathic pain and spasticity is complicated and patients...... often receive incomplete relief from present available and recommended treatment. Cannabinoids has shown efficacy on both neuropathic pain and spasticity in patients with spinal cord injury, but the studies one the topic has been too small to make a general conclusion for patients with spinal cord...... injury. Aims: To investigate the effect of Sativex (cannabinoid agonist given as an oral mucosal spray), on neuropathic pain and spasticity in patients with spinal cord injury. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. We will include 30 patients with neuropathic pain...

  3. Bilateral spontaneous hemotympanum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou Nicolas C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common causes of hemotympanum are therapeutic nasal packing, epistaxis, blood disorders and blunt trauma to the head. Hemotympanum is characterized as idiopathic, when it is detected in the presence of chronic otitis media. A rare case of spontaneous bilateral hemotympanum in a patient treated with anticoagulants is presented herein. Case presentation A 72-year-old male presented with acute deterioration of hearing. In the patient's medical history aortic valve replacement 1 year before presentation was reported. Since then he had been administered regularly coumarinic anticoagulants, with INR levels maintained between 3.4 and 4.0. Otoscopy revealed the presence of bilateral hemotympanum. The audiogram showed symmetrical moderately severe mixed hearing loss bilaterally, with the conductive component predominating. Tympanograms were flat bilaterally with absent acoustic reflexes. A computerized tomography scan showed the presence of fluid in the mastoid and middle ear bilaterally. Treatment was conservative and consisted of a 10-day course of antibiotics, anticongestants and temporary interruption of the anticoagulant therapy. After 3 weeks, normal tympanic membranes were found and hearing had returned to previous levels. Conclusion Anticoagulant intake should be included in the differential diagnosis of hemotympanum, because its detection and appropriate treatment may lead to resolution of the disorder.

  4. Outcomes in spasticity after repetitive transcranial magnetic and transcranial direct current stimulations

    OpenAIRE

    Gunduz, Aysegul; Kumru, Hatice; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulations mainly consist of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation exhibits satisfactory outcomes in improving multiple sclerosis, stroke, spinal cord injury and cerebral palsy-induced spasticity. By contrast, transcranial direct current stimulation has only been studied in post-stroke spasticity. To better validate the efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulations in improving ...

  5. Effects of Prolonged Standing on Gait in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Yasser; Lovelace-Chandler, Venita; Zabel, Reta J.; McMillan, Amy Gross

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of prolonged standing on gait characteristics in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Six children with spastic cerebral palsy participated in this study with an average age of 6.5 years (SD = 2.5, range = 4.0-9.8 years). A reverse baseline design (A-B-A) was used over a 9-week period. During…

  6. Whole plant cannabis extracts in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowland Marie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis therapy has been considered an effective treatment for spasticity, although clinical reports of symptom reduction in multiple sclerosis (MS describe mixed outcomes. Recently introduced therapies of combined Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC and cannabidiol (CBD extracts have potential for symptom relief with the possibility of reducing intoxication and other side effects. Although several past reviews have suggested that cannabinoid therapy provides a therapeutic benefit for symptoms of MS, none have presented a methodical investigation of newer cannabinoid treatments in MS-related spasticity. The purpose of the present review was to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of combined THC and CBD extracts on MS-related spasticity in order to increase understanding of the treatment's potential effectiveness, safety and limitations. Methods We reviewed MEDLINE/PubMed, Ovid, and CENTRAL electronic databases for relevant studies using randomized controlled trials. Studies were included only if a combination of THC and CBD extracts was used, and if pre- and post-treatment assessments of spasticity were reported. Results Six studies were systematically reviewed for treatment dosage and duration, objective and subjective measures of spasticity, and reports of adverse events. Although there was variation in the outcome measures reported in these studies, a trend of reduced spasticity in treated patients was noted. Adverse events were reported in each study, however combined TCH and CBD extracts were generally considered to be well-tolerated. Conclusion We found evidence that combined THC and CBD extracts may provide therapeutic benefit for MS spasticity symptoms. Although some objective measures of spasticity noted improvement trends, there were no changes found to be significant in post-treatment assessments. However, subjective assessment of symptom relief did often show significant improvement post-treatment. Differences in

  7. Watsu approach for improving spasticity and ambulatory function in hemiparetic patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Seung Chul; Oh, Duck Won; Shim, Jae Hun

    2009-06-01

    This study reports the effect of Watsu as rehabilitation method for hemiparetic patients with stroke. Watsu consisted of 40 treatment sessions for 8 weeks, delivered underwater or at water surface level, it applied in three patients. Outcome measures included tools for assessing spasticity and ambulatory function. All patients showed decreased scores in the TAS and RVGA after Watsu application. Watsu was helpful in controlling spasticity and improving ambulatory function of the patients with hemiparesis.

  8. Effects of interactive games on motor performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    AlSaif, Amer A.; Alsenany, Samira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Motor control and muscle strength impairments are the prime reasons for motor behavior disorders in children with spastic cerebral palsy. These impairments lead to histological changes in muscle growth and the learning of motor skills. Therefore, such children experience reduced muscle force generation and decreased muscle flexibility. We investigated the effect of training with Nintendo Wii Fit games on motor performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Method...

  9. LHCb : Measuring $CP$ violation with $\\Delta A_{CP}$ at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Pearce, A

    2014-01-01

    Measurements are presented of direct $CP$ violation in $D^{0}$ meson decays in LHCb, using the $\\Delta A_{CP}$ technique, and a proposal is outlined to make similar measurements in the decays of the charmed baryon $\\Lambda_{c}^{+}$. The motivations for use of the $\\Delta A_{CP}$ method are discussed, along with the current results and future prospects.

  10. Achondroplasia Associated with Bilateral Keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar M. Al Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of bilateral keratoconus in association with achondroplasia. A 26-year-old male, with a known case of achondroplasia, complained of bilateral gradual deterioration in vision for the past few years. Slit lamp biomicroscopy showed bilateral central corneal protrusion and stromal thinning at the apex consistent with keratoconus. a trial of hard contact lens fitting failed to improve VA in the left eye (LE. Right eye (RE improved to 20/25. The patient underwent penetrating keratoplasty (PKP in his LE. Twenty-seven months postoperatively, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA was 20/30. Ophthalmologists should be aware that patients with achondroplasia who complain of poor vision should be suspected of having keratoconus once other more common conditions are ruled out.

  11. The use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (tens in the treatment of the spasticity - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahyan Wagner da Silva Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study it has as objective to argue the job of TENS in the spasticity, observing the main parameters, form of application and the mechanism for which TENS it acts in the spasticity. One is about a bibliographical revision based in the literature specialized selected scientific articles through search in the data base of scielo and of bireme, from the sources Medline and Lilacs. The studies found on the job of TENS in the spasticity, had pointed mainly that this chain reduces the spasticity significantly, in lower degrees. The stimulation electrical parameters had disclosed that TENS it (about 100Hz of raised frequency provides one better effect in the reduction of the spasticity. The types of TENS more used had been the conventional and the soon-intense one, however some studies had not presented the used duration of pulse, limit the determination of one better modality of TENS. Few studies had explained the mechanism of performance of the current related one. The ones that had made it, had pointed the release of opioid endogenous (Dynorphins for the central nervous system as main mechanism of performance, however this contrasts with the neurophysiologic bases of the high-frequency stimulation, that demonstrated better resulted in the joined studies. Still it is necessary more studies on the job of this modality of stimulation electrical in the spasticity, since important parameters as duration of pulse, time of application, numbers of attendance and performance mechanism remains without scientific evidence.

  12. Registration of 'CP 09-2392' Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    CP 09-2392’ (Reg. No.____; PI _____) sugarcane, a complex hybrid of Saccharum spp, was developed through cooperative research conducted by the USDA-ARS, the University of Florida, and the Florida Sugar Cane League, Inc., and was released to growers in June 2016. ‘CP 09-2392’ was selected from a cro...

  13. Spontaneous CP violation on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, Mikko

    2000-01-01

    At finite temperatures around the electroweak phase transition, the thermodynamics of the MSSM can be described by a three-dimensional two Higgs doublet effective theory. This effective theory has a phase where CP is spontaneously violated. We study spontaneous CP violation with non-perturbative lattice simulations, and analyse whether one could end up in this phase for any physical MSSM parameter values.

  14. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Diogo Lino; Marques, José Pedro; Lucas, Francisco Manuel; Fonseca, Fernando Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Bilateral patellar tendon rupture is a rare entity, often associated with systemic diseases and patellar tendinopathy. The authors report a rare case of a 34-year-old man with simultaneous bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon caused by minor trauma. The patient is a retired basketball player with no past complaints of chronic knee pain and a history of steroid use. Surgical management consisted in primary end-to-end tendon repair protected temporarily with cerclage wiring, followed by a short immobilization period and intensive rehabilitation program. Five months after surgery, the patient was able to fully participate in sport activities.

  15. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Lino Moura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bilateral patellar tendon rupture is a rare entity, often associated with systemic diseases and patellar tendinopathy. The authors report a rare case of a 34-year-old man with simultaneous bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon caused by minor trauma. The patient is a retired basketball player with no past complaints of chronic knee pain and a history of steroid use. Surgical management consisted in primary end-to-end tendon repair protected temporarily with cerclage wiring, followed by a short immobilization period and intensive rehabilitation program. Five months after surgery, the patient was able to fully participate in sport activities.

  16. The comparison of antioxidative and hepatoprotective activities of Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide (CP) and sulfated CP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cui; Chen, Jin; Li, Entao; Fan, Qiang; Wang, Deyun; Li, Peng; Li, Xiuping; Chen, Xingying; Qiu, Shulei; Gao, Zhenzhen; Li, Hongquan; Hu, Yuanliang

    2015-02-01

    Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide (CP) was extracted, purified and modified by chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method to obtain a sulfated CP (sCP). Their antioxidative activities in vitro were compared through the free radical-scavenging test. The results demonstrated that the scavenging capabilities of sCP were significantly stronger than those of CP. In vivo test, the mice hepatic injury model was prepared by BCG/LPS method, then administrated respectively with sCP and CP at three dosages, the biochemical indexes in serum, antioxidative indexes in liver homogenate and histopathological change in liver of the mice were compared. The results showed that in high (200mg/kg) and middle (150mg/kg) dosages of sCP groups, the contents of ALT, AST and TNF-α in serum and MDA in liver homogenate were significantly lower than those in the model group and numerically lower than those in the CP groups, the activities of SOD and GSH-Px in liver homogenate were significantly higher than those in the model group and numerically higher than those in the CP groups. In the model group there were obvious pathological changes in the liver, while in the sCP groups were near normal. These results indicate that sCP and CP possess antioxidative activity in vitro and in vivo, the activity of sCP is stronger than that of CP and sulfation modification can enhance the antioxidative and hepatoprotective activities of Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. CP nonconservation in dynamically broken gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, K.

    1981-01-01

    The recent proposal of Eichten, Lane, and Preskill for CP nonconservation in electroweak gauge theories with dynamical symmetry breaking is reviewed. Through the alignment of the vacuum with the explicit chiral symmetry breaking Hamiltonian, these theories provide a natural way to understand the dynamical origin of CP nonconservation. Special attention is paid to the problem of strong CP violation. Even through all vacuum angles are zero, this problem is not automatically avoided. In the absence of strong CP violation, the neutron electric dipole moment is expected to be 10 -24 -10 -26 e-cm. A new class of models is proposed in which both strong CP violation and large /ΔS/ = 2 effects may be avoided. In these models, /ΔC/ = 2 processes such as D/sup o/ D/sup -o/ mixing may be large enough to observe

  18. CP violation and the top quark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, D.

    1994-02-01

    We consider signals of CP violation in semi-leptonic decay of the top quark. We show that the transverse polarization asymmetries of the τ-lepton in the decay t → brv is extremely sensitive CP violation. As an illustration we consider CP phases arising from the charged Higgs exchange in the Weinberg three Higgs doublet model. Qualitatively, the polarization asymmetries are enhanced over rate or energy asymmetries by a factor of O(m t /m r ) ∼ 100 with a corresponding increase in sensitivity to CP violating parameters. We also examine τ polarization in b decays via b → cvr and find that may also be very effective in constraining CP violating effects such as those that arise from an extended Higgs sector

  19. Theory prospective on leptonic CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petcov, S.T.

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenology of 3-neutrino mixing, the current status of our knowledge about the 3-neutrino mixing parameters, including the absolute neutrino mass scale, and of the Dirac and Majorana CP violation in the lepton sector are reviewed. The problems of CP violation in neutrino oscillations and of determining the nature – Dirac or Majorana – of massive neutrinos are discussed. The seesaw mechanism of neutrino mass generation and the related leptogenesis scenario of generation of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe are considered. The results showing that the CP violation necessary for the generation of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe in leptogenesis can be due exclusively to the Dirac and/or Majorana CP-violating phase(s) in the neutrino mixing matrix U are briefly reviewed. The discrete symmetry approach to understanding the observed pattern of neutrino mixing and the related predictions for the leptonic Dirac CP violation are also reviewed.

  20. Muscle specific changes in length-force characteristics of the calf muscles in the spastic Han-Wistar rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annesofie Thorup; Jensen, Bente Rona; Uhlendorf, Toni L

    2014-01-01

    length, passive stiffness and passive force of spastic GA were decreased whereas those of spastic SO were increased. No mechanical interaction between the calf muscles and TA was found. As GA was lengthened, force from SO and PL declined despite a constant muscle-tendon unit length of SO and PL. However......, the extent of this interaction was not different in the spastic rats. In conclusion, the effects of spasticity on length-force characteristics were muscle specific. The changes seen for GA and PL muscles are consistent with the changes in limb mechanics reported for human patients. Our results indicate......The purpose of the present study was to investigate muscle mechanical properties and mechanical interaction between muscles in the lower hindlimb of the spastic mutant rat. Length-force characteristics of gastrocnemius (GA), soleus (SO) and plantaris (PL) were assessed in anesthetized spastic...

  1. Modeling neurodevelopment and cortical dysfunction in SPG11-linked hereditary spastic paraplegia using human induced pluripotent stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Himanshu Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited motor neuron diseases characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness of the lower limbs. Mutations in the Spastic Paraplegia Gene11 (SPG11), encoding spatacsin, cause the most frequent form of autosomal recessive HSP. SPG11 patients are clinically distinguishable from most other HSPs, by severe cortical atrophy and presence of a thin corpus callosum (TCC), associated with cognitive deficits. Partly due to l...

  2. Deviation from bimaximal mixing and leptonic CP phases in S4 family symmetry and generalized CP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Cai-Chang; Ding, Gui-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The lepton flavor mixing matrix having one row or one column in common with the bimaximal mixing up to permutations is still compatible with the present neutrino oscillation data. We provide a thorough exploration of generating such a mixing matrix from S 4 family symmetry and generalized CP symmetry H CP . Supposing that S 4 ⋊H CP is broken down to Z 2 ST 2 SU ×H CP ν in the neutrino sector and Z 4 TST 2 U ⋊H CP l in the charged lepton sector, one column of the PMNS matrix would be of the form (1/2,1/√2,1/2) T up to permutations, both Dirac CP phase and Majorana CP phases are trivial to accommodate the observed lepton mixing angles. The phenomenological implications of the remnant symmetry K 4 (TST 2 ,T 2 U) ×H CP ν in the neutrino sector and Z 2 SU ×H CP l in the charged lepton sector are studied. One row of PMNS matrix is determined to be (1/2,1/2,−i/√2), and all the three leptonic CP phases can only be trivial to fit the measured values of the mixing angles. Two models based on S 4 family symmetry and generalized CP are constructed to implement these model independent predictions enforced by remnant symmetry. The correct mass hierarchy among the charged leptons is achieved. The vacuum alignment and higher order corrections are discussed.

  3. CP violations in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriemma, Giulio

    2003-12-01

    The origin of the asymmetry between matter and antimatter that is evident in our part of the Universe is one of the open questions in cosmology, because the CPT symmetry between matter and antimatter seems to be absolutely conserved at microscopic level. We repeat here the classical proofs which exclude the viability of a Universe baryon symmetric on the average, or the observed asymmetry as an initial conditions. The current understanding is that the asymmetry should have been dynamically generated before nucleosynthesis, by B, C, and CP violating processes, acting out of thermodynamical equilibrium, as suggested by Sakharov in the 70's. The physical realizations of these conditions would be possible, in principle, also in the framework of the Standard Model of elementary particles, but the present limits on the mass of the higgs particle exclude this possibility. Finally we present the model of baryogenesis through leptogenesis, which is allowed by a minimal extension of the Standard Model, which has the appeal of being testable in future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments.

  4. Bilateral tension pneumothorax after acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Nurashikin

    2018-04-19

    Acupuncture is an ancient complementary medicine which is currently used worldwide. Many serious adverse events have been reported which include a spectrum of mild-to-fatal complications. However, the level of awareness with regard to complications is still low both to physicians and patients. We report a 63-year-old who presented with acute shortness of breath 2 hours after having had acupuncture. On examination, there was absent breath sound heard on the left lung and slightly reduced breath sound on the right lung. She had type 1 respiratory failure. Urgent chest radiograph confirmed bilateral pneumothorax which was more severe on the left with tension pneumothorax and mediastinal shift. Chest tubes were inserted bilaterally after failed needle aspiration attempts. Subsequently, the pneumothoraces resolved, and she was discharged well. The bilateral pneumothoraces caused by acupuncture were curable but could have been potentially fatal if diagnosis was delayed. This case report adds to the limited current literature on the complications of acupuncture leading to bilateral pneumothoraces. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Bilateral breast in brothers - abreast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altamash Mohammed Yusuf Shaikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynecomastia is a common occurrence in pubertal age group, and is physiological in up to 65 percent of cases. When occurs in the family it should be investigated in order not to miss on a treatable etiology. Two brothers within the same family, presenting with bilateral gynecomastia of different causes and requiring different treatment are presented.

  6. Physical therapy in patients with disorders of consciousness: Impact on spasticity and muscle contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, A; Wannez, S; Deltombe, T; Martens, G; Laureys, S; Chatelle, C

    2018-01-01

    Spasticity is a frequent complication after severe brain injury, which may prevent the rehabilitation process and worsen the patients' quality of life. In this study, we investigated the correlation between spasticity, muscle contracture, and the frequency of physical therapy (PT) in subacute and chronic patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). 109 patients with subacute and chronic disorders of consciousness (Vegetative state/Unresponsive wakefulness syndrome - VS/UWS; minimally conscious state - MCS and patients who emerged from MCS - EMCS) were included in the study (39 female; mean age: 40±13.5y; 60 with traumatic etiology; 35 VS/UWS, 68 MCS, 6 EMCS; time since insult: 38±42months). The number of PT sessions (i.e., 20 to 30 minutes of conventional stretching of the four limbs) was collected based on patients' medical record and varied between 0 to 6 times per week (low PT = 0-3 and high PT = 4-6 sessions per week). Spasticity was measured with the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) on every segment for both upper (UL) and lower limbs (LL). The presence of muscle contracture was assessed in every joint. We tested the relationship between spasticity and muscle contracture with the frequency of PT as well as other potential confounders such as time since injury or anti-spastic medication intake. We identified a negative correlation between the frequency of PT and MAS scores as well as the presence of muscle contracture. We also identified that patients who received less than four sessions per week were more likely to be spastic and suffer from muscle contracture than patients receiving 4 sessions or more. When separating subacute (3 to 12 months post-insult) and chronic (>12months post-insult) patients, these negative correlations were only observed in chronic patients. A logit regression model showed that frequency of PT influenced spasticity, whereas neither time since insult nor medication had a significant impact on the presence of spasticity. On

  7. Procedure-Oriented Torsional Anatomy of the Hand for Spasticity Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Joslyn; Cianca, John; Chiou-Tan, Faye; Pandit, Sindhu; Furr-Stimming, Erin; Taber, Katherine H

    To provide musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSKUS) images of hand anatomy in the position of hemiparetic flexion as a reference for spasticity injections. After a stroke, spasticity can result in anatomic distortion of the hand. Spasticity may require treatment with botulinum toxin or phenol injections. Anatomic distortion may decrease the accuracy of injections. Standard anatomic references are of limited utility because they are not in this spastic hemiparetic position. There presently is no anatomic reference in the literature for these spastic postures. This study is part three of a series examining torsional anatomy of the body. Ultrasound (US) images were obtained in a healthy subject. The muscles examined included the lumbricals and the flexor pollicis brevis. A marker dot was placed at each dorsal and palmar anatomic injection site for these muscles. The US probe was placed on these dots to obtain a cross-sectional view. A pair of US images was recorded with and without power Doppler imaging: the first in anatomic neutral and second in hemiparetic spastic positions. In addition, a video recording of the movement of the muscles during this rotation was made at each site. On the palmar view, the lumbricals rotated medially. On dorsal view, the lumbricals can be seen deep to the dorsal interossei muscles, with spastic position, and they become difficult to identify. The flexor pollicis brevis (FPB) muscle contracts with torsion, making abductor pollicis brevis (APB) predominately in view. The anatomic location of the lumbrical muscles makes them difficult to inject even with ultrasound guidance. However, recognizing the nearby digital vasculature allows for improved identification of the musculature for injection purposes. The FPB muscle also can be identified by its adjacent radial artery lateral to the flexor pollicus longus tendon. Normal anatomy of hand can become distorted in spastic hemiparesis. Diagnostic ultrasound is able to discern these anatomic

  8. The structure of completely positive matrices according to their CP-rank and CP-plus-rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickinson, Peter James Clair; Bomze, Immanuel M.; Still, Georg J.

    2015-01-01

    We study the topological properties of the cp-rank operator $\\mathrm{cp}(A)$ and the related cp-plus-rank operator $\\mathrm{cp}^+(A)$ (which is introduced in this paper) in the set $\\mathcal{S}^n$ of symmetric $n\\times n$-matrices. For the set of completely positive matrices, $\\mathcal{CP}^n$, we

  9. Strong CP, flavor, and twisted split fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri

    2005-01-01

    We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class. (author)

  10. Exploring CP violation in the MSSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbey, Alexandre; Ellis, John; Godbole, Rohini M; Mahmoudi, Farvah

    We explore the prospects for observing CP violation in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) with six CP-violating parameters, three gaugino mass phases and three phases in trilinear soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters, using the CPsuperH code combined with a geometric approach to maximise CP-violating observables subject to the experimental upper bounds on electric dipole moments. We also implement CP-conserving constraints from Higgs physics, flavour physics and the upper limits on the cosmological dark matter density and spin-independent scattering. We study possible values of observables within the constrained MSSM (CMSSM), the non-universal Higgs model (NUHM), the CPX scenario and a variant of the phenomenological MSSM (pMSSM). We find values of the CP-violating asymmetry [Formula: see text] in [Formula: see text] decay that may be as large as 3 %, so future measurements of [Formula: see text] may provide independent information about CP violation in the MSSM. We find that CP-violating MSSM contributions to the [Formula: see text] meson mass mixing term [Formula: see text] are in general below the present upper limit, which is dominated by theoretical uncertainties. If these could be reduced, [Formula: see text] could also provide an interesting and complementary constraint on the six CP-violating MSSM phases, enabling them all to be determined experimentally, in principle. We also find that CP violation in the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] couplings can be quite large, and so may offer interesting prospects for future [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] colliders.

  11. CP -symmetry of order 4 and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Igor P.

    2017-01-01

    Extended Higgs sectors offer rich opportunities for various forms of CP -violation. Here, we describe a new form of CP-conservation and discuss its consequences. We give a concrete example of a three-Higgs-doublet model dubbed CP4-3HDM with a CP -symmetry of order 4 and no other other accidental symmetries. If the vacuum conserves this symmetry, the model is CP -conserving with pairwise mass-degenerate extra neutral Higgs bosons. These fields cannot be classified as CP -even or CP -odd but they can be combined into complex physical fields which are CP -half-odd, that is, they pick up the i factor upon CP transformation. These CP -half-odd scalars can be Yukawa-coupled to the fermion bilinears in a CP -conserving way. We discuss fundamental and phenomenological features of the model, and stress a peculiar clash between the CP -symmetry and any convention for the particle-antiparticle assignment. (paper)

  12. Executive Functions in Youth With Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirila, Silja; van der Meere, Jaap J.; Rantanen, Kati; Jokiluoma, Maria; Eriksson, Kai

    Dependent on criteria used, between 35% and 53% of the participants with cerebral palsy fulfilled the criteria of clinically relevant executive function problems as defined by Conners' (1994) Continuous Performance Test. Executive function problems were noticed mainly in participants with bilateral

  13. Bilateral Endoscopic Medial Maxillectomy for Bilateral Inverted Papilloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Kodama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverted papilloma (IP is a benign tumor of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses that is unilateral in most cases. Bilateral IP, involving both sides of the nasal cavity and sinuses, is extremely rare. This paper describes a large IP that filled in both sides of the nasal cavity and sinuses, mimicking association with malignancy. The tumor was successfully treated by bilateral endoscopic medial maxillectomy (EMM. The patient is without evidence of the disease 24 months after surgery. If preoperative diagnosis does not confirm the association with malignancy in IP, endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS should be selected, and ESS, including EMM, is a good first choice of the treatment for IP.

  14. CP violation in the baryon sector

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Eluned Anne

    2017-01-01

    The study of CP violation in the baryon sector is still a relatively new field and offers the possibility to make many CP measurements which could complement those performed in the meson sector. This is especially true of late given the large number of baryons currently being produced at the LHC. Such measurements could help further over-constrain the CKM unitary triangle, as well as furthering our understand of baryongenesis. These proceedings will give an overview of the current state of the search for CP violation in the baryon sector.

  15. CP violation in CMS expected performance

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanescu, J

    1999-01-01

    The CMS experiment can contribute significantly to the measurement of the CP violation asymmetries. A recent evaluation of the expected precision on the CP violation parameter sin 2 beta in the channel B /sub d//sup 0/ to J/ psi $9 K/sub s//sup 0/ has been performed using a simulation of the CMS tracker including full pattern recognition. CMS has also studied the possibility to observe CP violation in the decay channel B/sub s//sup 0/ to J/ psi phi . The $9 results of these studies are reviewed. (7 refs).

  16. CP Violation in Single Top Quark Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Weigang [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We present a search for CP violation in single top quark production with the DØ experiment at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. CP violation in the top electroweak interaction results in different single top quark production cross sections for top and antitop quarks. We perform the search in the single top quark final state using 5.4 fb-1 of data, in the s-channel, t-channel, and for both combined. At this time, we do not see an observable CP asymmetry.

  17. Baryogenesis and standard model CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, P.

    1994-08-01

    The standard model possesses a natural source of CP violation contained in the phase of the CKM matrix. Whether the latter participated to the making of the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the observable universe is a fundamental question which has been addressed only recently. The generation of a CP observable occurs through interference of quantum paths along which a sequence of flavor mixings and chirality flips take place. The coherence of this phenomenon in the primeval plasma is limited by the fast quark-gluon interactions. At the electroweak era, this phenomenon of decoherence forbids a successful baryogenesis based on the sole CP violation of the CKM matrix

  18. The seesaw path to leptonic CP violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caputo, A.; Hernandez, P. [Universidad de Valencia and CSIC, Edificio Institutos Investigacion, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Paterna (Spain); CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Kekic, M.; Salvado, J. [Universidad de Valencia and CSIC, Edificio Institutos Investigacion, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Paterna (Spain); Lopez-Pavon, J. [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    Future experiments such as SHiP and high-intensity e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders will have a superb sensitivity to heavy Majorana neutrinos with masses below M{sub Z}. We show that the measurement of the mixing to electrons and muons of one such state could establish the existence of CP violating phases in the neutrino mixing matrix, in the context of low-scale seesaw models. We quantify in the minimal model the CP reach of these future experiments, and demonstrate that CP violating phases in the mixing matrix could be established at 5σ CL in a very significant fraction of parameter space. (orig.)

  19. The seesaw path to leptonic CP violation

    CERN Document Server

    Caputo, A.; Kekic, M.; López-Pavón, J.; Salvado, J.

    2017-04-24

    Future experiments such as SHiP and high-intensity $e^+ e^-$ colliders will have a superb sensitivity to heavy Majorana neutrinos with masses below $M_Z$. We show that the measurement of the mixing to electrons and muons of one such state could imply the discovery of leptonic CP violation in the context of seesaw models. We quantify in the minimal model the CP discovery potential of these future experiments, and demonstrate that a 5$\\sigma$ CL discovery of leptonic CP violation would be possible in a very significant fraction of parameter space.

  20. Flavor physics and CP violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Paoti; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, Wei-Shu

    2017-11-01

    We currently live in the age of the CKM paradigm. The 3 × 3 matrix that links (d , s , b) quarks to (u , c , t) in the charged current weak interaction, being complex and nominally with 18 parameters, can be accounted for by just 3 rotation angles and one CP violating (CPV) phase, with unitarity and the CKM phases triumphantly tested at the B factories. But the CKM picture is unsatisfactory and has too many parameters. The main aim of Flavor Physics and CP violation (FPCP) studies is the pursuit to uncover New Physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). Two highlights of LHC Run 1 period are the CPV phase ϕs of Bs mixing and Bs →μ+μ- decay, which were found to be again consistent with SM, though the saga is yet unfinished. We also saw the emergence of the P5‧ angular variable anomaly in B0 →K∗0μ+μ- decay and R K (∗) anomaly in B →K (∗)μ+μ- to B →K (∗)e+e- rate ratios, and the BaBar anomaly in B →D (∗) τν decays, which suggest possible New Physics in these flavor processes, pointing to extra Z‧, charged Higgs, or leptoquarks. Charmless hadronic, semileptonic, purely leptonic and radiative B decays continue to offer various further windows on New Physics. Away from B physics, the rare K → πνν decays and ε‧ / ε in the kaon sector, μ → e transitions, muon g - 2 and electric dipole moments of the neutron and electron, τ → μγ , μμμ , eee, and a few charm physics probes, offer broadband frontier windows on New Physics. Lastly, flavor changing neutral transitions involving the top quark t and the 125 GeV Higgs boson h, such as t → ch and h → μτ, offer a new window into FPCP, while a new Z‧ related or inspired by the P5‧ anomaly, could show up in analogous top quark processes, perhaps even link with low energy phenomena such as muon g - 2 or rare kaon processes. In particular, we advocate the potential new SM, the two Higgs doublet model without discrete symmetries to control flavor violation, as SM2. As we are

  1. Dorsal rhizotomy for children with spastic diplegia of cerebral palsy origin: usefulness of intraoperative monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulis, George; Brînzeu, Andrei; Sindou, Marc

    2018-04-13

    OBJECTIVE The utility of intraoperative neuromonitoring (ION), namely the study of muscle responses to radicular stimulation, remains controversial. The authors performed a prospective study combining ventral root (VR) stimulation for mapping anatomical levels and dorsal root (DR) stimulation as physiological testing of metameric excitability. The purpose was to evaluate to what extent the intraoperative data led to modifications in the initial decisions for surgical sectioning established by the pediatric multidisciplinary team (i.e., preoperative chart), and thus estimate its practical usefulness. METHODS Thirteen children with spastic diplegia underwent the following surgical protocol. First, a bilateral intradural approach was made to the L2-S2 VRs and DRs at the exit from or entry to their respective dural sheaths, through multilevel interlaminar enlarged openings. Second, stimulation-just above the threshold-of the VR at 2 Hz to establish topography of radicular myotome distribution, and then of the DR at 50 Hz as an excitability test of root circuitry, with independent identification of muscle responses by the physiotherapist and by electromyographic recordings. The study aimed to compare the final amounts of root sectioning-per radicular level, established after intraoperative neuromonitoring guidance-with those determined by the multidisciplinary team in the presurgical chart. RESULTS The use of ION resulted in differences in the final percentage of root sectioning for all root levels. The root levels corresponding to the upper lumbar segments were modestly excitable under DR stimulation, whereas progressively lower root levels displayed higher excitability. The difference between root levels was highly significant, as evaluated by electromyography (p = 0.00004) as well as by the physiotherapist (p = 0.00001). Modifications were decided in 11 of the 13 patients (84%), and the mean absolute difference in the percentage of sectioning quantity per radicular

  2. Spastic paraplegia proteins spastizin and spatacsin mediate autophagic lysosome reformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jaerak; Lee, Seongju; Blackstone, Craig

    2014-12-01

    Autophagy allows cells to adapt to changes in their environment by coordinating the degradation and recycling of cellular components and organelles to maintain homeostasis. Lysosomes are organelles critical for terminating autophagy via their fusion with mature autophagosomes to generate autolysosomes that degrade autophagic materials; therefore, maintenance of the lysosomal population is essential for autophagy-dependent cellular clearance. Here, we have demonstrated that the two most common autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia gene products, the SPG15 protein spastizin and the SPG11 protein spatacsin, are pivotal for autophagic lysosome reformation (ALR), a pathway that generates new lysosomes. Lysosomal targeting of spastizin required an intact FYVE domain, which binds phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Loss of spastizin or spatacsin resulted in depletion of free lysosomes, which are competent to fuse with autophagosomes, and an accumulation of autolysosomes, reflecting a failure in ALR. Moreover, spastizin and spatacsin were essential components for the initiation of lysosomal tubulation. Together, these results link dysfunction of the autophagy/lysosomal biogenesis machinery to neurodegeneration.

  3. Impaired Mitochondrial Dynamics Underlie Axonal Defects in Hereditary Spastic Paraplegias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Kyle; Mou, Yongchao; Xu, Chong-Chong; Shah, Dhruvi; Chang, Jaerak; Blackstone, Craig; Li, Xue-Jun

    2018-05-02

    Mechanisms by which long corticospinal axons degenerate in hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) are largely unknown. Here, we have generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients with two autosomal recessive forms of HSP, SPG15 and SPG48, which are caused by mutations in the ZFYVE26 and AP5Z1 genes encoding proteins in the same complex, the spastizin and AP5Z1 proteins, respectively. In patient iPSC-derived telencephalic glutamatergic and midbrain dopaminergic neurons, neurite number, length and branching are significantly reduced, recapitulating disease-specific phenotypes. We analyzed mitochondrial morphology and noted a significant reduction in both mitochondrial length and their densities within axons of these HSP neurons. Mitochondrial membrane potential was also decreased, confirming functional mitochondrial defects. Notably, mdivi-1, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial fission GTPase DRP1, rescues mitochondrial morphology defects and suppresses the impairment in neurite outgrowth and late-onset apoptosis in HSP neurons. Furthermore, knockdown of these HSP genes causes similar axonal defects, also mitigated by treatment with mdivi-1. Finally, neurite outgrowth defects in SPG15 and SPG48 cortical neurons can be rescued by knocking down DRP1 directly. Thus, abnormal mitochondrial morphology caused by an imbalance of mitochondrial fission and fusion underlies specific axonal defects and serves as a potential therapeutic target for SPG15 and SPG48.

  4. Effect of nutritional support in children with spastic quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Ozlem Bekem; Unalp, Aycan; Uran, Nedret; Dizdarer, Gülsen; Ozgonul, Figen Oksel; Conku, Aliye; Ataman, Hamide; Ozturk, Aysel Aydogan

    2008-11-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem in patients with cerebral palsy. We evaluated the effect of nutritional support on clinical findings in children with spastic quadriplegia. Feeding history, numbers of lower respiratory tract infections, and gastrointestinal and neurologic findings were evaluated via questionnaire. Weight, height, head circumference, midarm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness were measured. Height for age, weight for age, weight for height, body mass index, and weight and height z-scores were calculated. Clinical findings and anthropometric parameters were re-evaluated after nutritional support for 6 months. Forty-five patients were enrolled. No difference was evident between the first and the last height z-scores of 31 patients who completed the follow-up. Weight, height, weight z-scores, weight for age, weight for height, body mass index, midarm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness exhibited improvement. Moreover, a significant decrease in number of infections was evident. Frequency of seizures and Gross Motor Function Classification System status did not change. Constipation decreased significantly. Nutritional therapy revealed improvements in some anthropometric findings and a decrease in number of infections. Although there was no difference regarding motor development or seizure frequency, further studies with a longer follow-up are required.

  5. Esophageal hypomotility and spastic motor disorders: current diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, Miguel A; Zavala-Solares, Monica R; Coss-Adame, Enrique

    2014-11-01

    Esophageal hypomotility (EH) is characterized by abnormal esophageal peristalsis, either from a reduction or absence of contractions, whereas spastic motor disorders (SMD) are characterized by an increase in the vigor and/or propagation velocity of esophageal body contractions. Their pathophysiology is not clearly known. The reduced excitation of the smooth muscle contraction mediated by cholinergic neurons and the impairment of inhibitory ganglion neuronal function mediated by nitric oxide are likely mechanisms of the peristaltic abnormalities seen in EH and SMD, respectively. Dysphagia and chest pain are the most frequent clinical manifestations for both of these dysfunctions, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is commonly associated with these motor disorders. The introduction of high-resolution manometry (HRM) and esophageal pressure topography (EPT) has significantly enhanced the ability to diagnose EH and SMD. Novel EPT metrics in particular the development of the Chicago Classification of esophageal motor disorders has enabled improved characterization of these abnormalities. The first step in the management of EH and SMD is to treat GERD, especially when esophageal testing shows pathologic reflux. Smooth muscle relaxants (nitrates, calcium channel blockers, 5-phosphodiesterase inhibitors) and pain modulators may be useful in the management of dysphagia or pain in SMD. Endoscopic Botox injection and pneumatic dilation are the second-line therapies. Extended myotomy of the esophageal body or peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) may be considered in highly selected cases but lack evidence.

  6. Effects of repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation on upper-limb spasticity and impairment in patients with spastic hemiparesis: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewer, Carmen; Hartl, Sandra; Müller, Friedemann; Koenig, Eberhard

    2014-06-01

    To investigate short-term and long-term effects of repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rpMS) on spasticity and motor function. Monocentric, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial. Neurologic rehabilitation hospital. Patients (N=66) with severe hemiparesis and mild to moderate spasticity resulting from a stroke or a traumatic brain injury. The average time ± SD since injury for the intervention groups was 26 ± 71 weeks or 37 ± 82 weeks. rpMS for 20 minutes or sham stimulation with subsequent occupational therapy for 20 minutes, 2 times a day, over a 2-week period. Modified Tardieu Scale and Fugl-Meyer Assessment (arm score), assessed before therapy, at the end of the 2-week treatment period, and 2 weeks after study treatment. Additionally, the Tardieu Scale was assessed after the first and before the third therapy session to determine any short-term effects. Spasticity (Tardieu >0) was present in 83% of wrist flexors, 62% of elbow flexors, 44% of elbow extensors, and 10% of wrist extensors. Compared with the sham stimulation group, the rpMS group showed short-term effects on spasticity for wrist flexors (P=.048), and long-term effects for elbow extensors (P<.045). Arm motor function (rpMS group: median 5 [4-27]; sham group: median 4 [4-9]) did not significantly change over the study period in either group, whereas rpMS had a positive effect on sensory function. Therapy with rpMS increases sensory function in patients with severe limb paresis. The magnetic stimulation, however, has limited effect on spasticity and no effect on motor function. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Aspects of soft and spontaneous CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, P.H.; Harada, M.

    1999-01-01

    We study four different models for CP violation: the standard Kobayashi-Maskawa (KM) model, the aspon model of spontaneous breaking, and two models of soft breaking. In all except the standard model, the strong CP problem is addressed and solved. Testable predictions for the area of the unitarity triangle and for (ε ' /ε) K are emphasized. The issue of CP violation may well become the first place where the standard model of particle theory is shown definitively to be deficient. There are two reasons for expecting this to happen: (1) the strong CP problem is still not understood in the unadorned standard model and (2) the KM mechanism, although unquestionably present, may not provide the full explanation of ε K and (ε ' /ε) K . copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  8. CP violation in B and D decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigi, I.I.

    1986-06-01

    Non-leptonic B decays offer the best opportunity to discover the violation of CP invariance outside the neutral K system. Employing the Standard Model one predicts - with reasonable confidence - CP asymmetries of up to 205 (or even more in some cases). The branching ratios for the individual exclusive modes of interest are not expected to exceed the 10 -3 level in most cases; the identification of such decays poses non-trivial problems. It is shown that by summing intelligently over appropriate classes of decays one can greatly enhance statistics without jeopardizing the signal. Data that contain 10 6 produced B mesons would allow meaningful searches for CP violation. It is noted that ''New Physics'' could lead to CP asymmetries in D 0 decays of order 1%. Due to higher branching ratios one can search for such effects in samples of 10 6 produced D mesons. 7 refs

  9. Instantons, CP-violation and axions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, S. R.

    1980-07-01

    Some specific aspects of the developments in pseudoparticle solutions of Gauge theories are discussed. The general features of the Lagrangian are described. The concepts of instantons, confinement, O-vacua and CP nonconservation are explained.

  10. CP violation in b-hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00341004

    2016-01-01

    Latest LHCb measurements of $CP$ violation in b-hadrons are presented based on $pp$ collision data collected in 2011 and 2012 at centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}=7$ $\\rm TeV$ and $8\\ \\rm TeV$ respectively. The total integrated luminosity collected is 3.0 fb$^{-1}$. Results include recent measurements of $CP$ violation in $B_d$ and $B_s$ mixing, along with those of quantifying the effects of $b\\to c\\bar{c} s$ loop pollution. Standard Model $CP$ violation tests in loop transitions are discussed with results consistent with expectations. New decays of b-baryons are presented and preliminary studies of $CP$ violation are performed.

  11. A definition of maximal CP-violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, M.

    1985-01-01

    The unitary matrix of quark flavour mixing is parametrized in a general way, permitting a mathematically natural definition of maximal CP violation. Present data turn out to violate this definition by 2-3 standard deviations. (orig.)

  12. Bilateral pallidotomy for generalized dystonia Palidotomia bilateral para distonias generalizadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A. G. Teive

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bilateral pallidotomies in five patients with generalized dystonia. BACKGROUND: Generalized dystonias are frequently a therapeutic challenge, with poor responses to pharmacological treatment. GPi (globus pallidus internus pallidotomies for Parkinson's disease ameliorate all kinds of dyskinesias/dystonia, and recent studies reported a marked improvement of refractory dystonias with this procedure. METHODS: Five patients with generalized dystonias refractory to medical treatment were selected; one posttraumatic and four idiopathic. The decision to perform bilateral procedures was based on the predominant axial involvement in these patients. Dystonia severity was assessed with the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Scale (BFM. Simultaneous procedures were performed in all but one patient, who had a staged procedure. They were reevaluated with the same scale (BFM by an unblinded rater at 1, 2, 3, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 days post-operatively. RESULTS: The four patients with idiopathic dystonia showed a progressive improvement up to three months; the patient with posttraumatic dystonia relapsed at three months. One patient had a marked improvement, being able to discontinue all the medications. A mean decrease in the BFM scores of 52,58% was noted. One patient had a trans-operative motor seizure followed by a transient hemiparesis secondary to rack hemorrhage; other was lethargic up to three days after the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that bilateral GPi pallidotomies may be a safe and effective approach to medically refractory generalized dystonias; it can also be speculated that the posttraumatic subgroup may not benefit with this procedure.As distonias generalizadas são freqüentemente um desafio terapêutico, com pobres respostas aos tratamentos farmacológicos. As cirurgias estereotáxicas, como a palidotomia, têm sido utilizadas com êxito no tratamento da doença de Parkinson e estudos

  13. Immediate Sequential Bilateral Cataract Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Andresen, Jens; Erngaard, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to examine the benefits and harms associated with immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS) with specific emphasis on the rate of complications, postoperative anisometropia, and subjective visual function in order to formulate evidence......-based national Danish guidelines for cataract surgery. A systematic literature review in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane central databases identified three randomized controlled trials that compared outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or bilateral cataract surgery on two different dates. Meta-analyses were...... performed using the Cochrane Review Manager software. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE method (Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation). We did not find any difference in the risk of complications or visual outcome in patients randomized to ISBCS or surgery...

  14. First evidence for direct CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, A.C.

    1988-06-01

    The double ratio R of the relative decay rates of the short-and long-lived neutral kaons into two charged and two neutral pions was measured to be 0.980 ± 0.004 ± 0.005. The deviation of R from unity implies CP violation in the transition of the CP-odd K 2 into two pions with ε , / ε = (3.3 ± 1.1) X 10 -3

  15. Status of the CP-PACS Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukawa, A.

    1995-01-01

    The CP-PACS Project, which started in April 1992, is a five-year plan to develop a massively parallel computer for carrying out research in computational physics with primary emphasis on lattice QCD. This article describes the architectural design of the CP-PACS computer, the entire computing system including the front end and mass storage, and results of benchmarks for the expected performance for lattice QCD applications. ((orig.))

  16. Toimintaterapeuttinen nukkekoti CP-vammaisille lapsille

    OpenAIRE

    Ruotsalainen, Ulla; Tokola, Eveliina

    2009-01-01

    Toiminnallisen opinnäytetyön tarkoitus oli suunnitella ja rakentaa toimintaterapeuttinen nukkekoti CP-vammaisille lapsille. Työn toimeksiantajana oli toimintaterapeutti Päivi Raitanen Terapiapajalta. Työn tavoitteena oli toteuttaa mukana kuljetettava ja lapsen pyörätuolin pöytälevylle sopiva nukkekoti, jolla leikkiminen tukee CP-vammaisen lapsen toimintaterapiaa. Yleisimpiä tavoitteita ovat muun muuassa hienomotoristen taitojen, leikkitaitojen, syy-seuraussuhteiden ja visuaalisen hahmott...

  17. Heavy quarks and CP: Moriond 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1985-03-01

    The presentations at the Fifth Moriond Workshop on Heavy Quarks, Flavor Mixing, and CP Violation (La Plagne, France, January 13-19, 1985) are summarized. The following topics are reviewed. What's New (beyond the top, top quarks, bottom quarks, charm quarks, strange quarks, and others); why is all this being done (strong interactions and hadron structure, and electroweak properties); and what next (facilities and can one see CP violation in the B-anti B system). 64 refs., 10 figs

  18. Penguins and cp violation in β decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X.C.

    1996-11-01

    The measurement of the ε-parameter in the K 0 - K-bar 0 meson system is the only direct evidence for CP violation in the laboratory. The Standard Model (SM) of three generations with the source for CP violation arising from the phases in the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix is consistent with the experiment. An unique feature of this model is that the CKM matrix is a 3 x 3 unitary matrix. (author)

  19. Neutrino mass textures with maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Ichiro; Kitabayashi, Teruyuki; Yasue, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    We show three types of neutrino mass textures, which give maximal CP violation as well as maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing. These textures are described by six real mass parameters: one specified by two complex flavor neutrino masses and two constrained ones and the others specified by three complex flavor neutrino masses. In each texture, we calculate mixing angles and masses, which are consistent with observed data, as well as Majorana CP phases

  20. BILATERAL DUPLICATION OF RENAL ARTERIES

    OpenAIRE

    Prajkta A Thete; Mehera Bhoir; M.V.Ambiye

    2014-01-01

    Routine dissection of a male cadaver revealed the presence of bilateral double renal arteries. On the right side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta just above the main renal artery. On the left side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta about 1 cm above the main renal artery. Knowledge of the variations of renal vascular anatomy has importance in exploration and treatment of renal trauma, renal transplantation, renal artery embolization, su...

  1. China's Bilateral Currency Swap Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Zhitao, Lin; Wenjie, Zhan; Cheung, Yin-Wong

    2016-01-01

    We study the determinants of China’s bilateral local currency swap lines that were established since the recent global finance crisis. It is found that economic factors, political considerations, and institutional characteristics including trade intensity, economic size, strategic partnership, free trade agreement, corruption, and stability affect the decision of signing a swap line agreement. Once a swap line agreement decision is made, the size of the swap line is then mainly affected by tr...

  2. Simultaneous and staged bilateral total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Joergensen, Christoffer Calov; Husted, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral total hip arthroplasty (BTHA) and bilateral simultaneous total hip arthroplasty (BSTHA) are done increasingly. Previous studies evaluating outcomes after bilateral procedures have found different results. The aim of this study was to investigate length of hospital stay (LOS), 30 days...

  3. BILATERAL SINGLE SESSION URETEROSCOPY FOR URETERAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the feasibility, safety and success rate of bilateral single session rigid retrograde ureteroscopy (URS) for bilateral ureteral calculi. Patients and Methods: Thirty-five patients underwent bilateral single session ureteroscopic calculus removal. Results: Out of 70 renal units in 35 patients treated, ...

  4. CP and CP-PGN protect mice against MRSA infection by inducing M1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Li, Xiang-Xiang; Ma, Yuan; Xu, Jie; Zhao, Li-Na; Qian, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Xian-Feng; Shi, Jin-Fang; Han, Qing-Zhen

    2017-12-04

    Corynebacterium pyruviciproducens (C. pyruviciproducens, CP), as a newly discovered immunomodulator, has been confirmed to have a stronger immunoregulation than Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) of the traditional immune adjuvant, by previous experiments with model antigen ovalbumin and sheep red blood cells. Here, it was designed to assess its ability to resist methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), since MRSA as a vital gram positive pathogen is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. In this report, it was indicated that C. pyruviciproducens and its peptidoglycan (CP-PGN) could help to be against bloodstream infection of MRSA with raised survival rate, decreased bacteria load and alleviated systemic inflammation, and these effects of CP-PGN were more pronounced. However, the whole CP was inclined to prevent localized abdominal infection of MRSA from progressing to a systemic infection. And they showed the potential as a therapeutic drug alone or combined with vancomycin. The diversity of capacity of activating macrophages induced by CP and CP-PGN may result in distinct resistance to MRSA in different infection models. Furthermore, both CP and CP-PGN induced M1 macrophages. In conclusion, CP and its PGN could act as promising immune agents to treat and prevent MRSA infection.

  5. Identification of the neural component of torque during manually-applied spasticity assessments in children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bar-On, L.; Desloovere, K.; Molenaers, G.; Harlaar, J.; Kindt, T.; Aertbelien, E.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical assessment of spasticity is compromised by the difficulty to distinguish neural from non-neural components of increased joint torque. Quantifying the contributions of each of these components is crucial to optimize the selection of anti-spasticity treatments such as botulinum toxin (BTX).

  6. Bilateral cochlear implantation in a patient with bilateral temporal bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Ho; Shin, Myung Chul; Min, Hyun Jung; Park, Chul Won; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2011-01-01

    With the emphasis on bilateral hearing nowadays, bilateral cochlear implantation has been tried out for bilateral aural rehabilitation. Bilateral sensorineural hearing loss caused by head trauma can get help from cochlear implantation. We present the case of a 44-year-old man with bilateral otic capsule violating temporal bone fractures due to head trauma. The patient demonstrated much improved audiometric and psychoacoustic performance after bilateral cochlear implantation. We believe bilateral cochlear implantation in such patient can be a very effective tool for rehabilitation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Post-activation depression of soleus stretch reflexes in healthy and spastic humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Michael James; Klinge, Klaus; Crone, Clarissa

    2007-01-01

    Reduced depression of transmitter release from Ia afferents following previous activation (post-activation depression) has been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of spasticity. However, the effect of this mechanism on the myotatic reflex and its possible contribution to increased...... reflex excitability in spastic participants has not been tested. To investigate these effects, we examined post-activation depression in Soleus H-reflex responses and in mechanically evoked Soleus stretch reflex responses. Stretch reflex responses were evoked with consecutive dorsiflexion perturbations...... of the soleus stretch reflex and H-reflex decreased as the interval between the stimulus/perturbation was decreased. Similarly, the stretch-evoked torque decreased. In the spastic participants, the post-activation depression of both reflexes and the stretch-evoked torque was significantly smaller than...

  8. Treatment of os odontoideum in a patient with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpolat, Yusuf T; Fegale, Ben; Cheng, Wayne K

    2015-08-01

    Severe atlantoaxial instability due to os odontoideum in a patient with spastic cerebral palsy has not been well described. There is no consensus on treatment, particularly with regard to conservative or surgical options. Our patient was a 9-year-old girl with spastic cerebral palsy and unstable os odontoideum as an incidental finding. During the waiting period for elective surgical treatment, the patient developed respiratory compromise. Surgery was performed to reduce the subluxation and for C1-C2 arthrodesis and the girl regained baseline respiratory function. A CT scan was obtained 1 year after the initial surgery and revealed adequate maintenance of reduction and patency of the spinal canal. This patient highlights the fact that unstable os odontoideum can cause mortality due to respiratory distress in patients with spastic cerebral palsy. This is an important factor in deciding treatment options for cerebral palsy patients with low functional demand. We review the relevant literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. SPG20 mutation in three siblings with familial hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardour, Leila; Roelens, Filip; Race, Valerie; Souche, Erika; Holvoet, Maureen; Devriendt, Koen

    2017-07-01

    Troyer syndrome (MIM#275900) is an autosomal recessive form of complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia. It is characterized by progressive lower extremity spasticity and weakness, dysarthria, distal amyotrophy, developmental delay, short stature, and subtle skeletal abnormalities. It is caused by deleterious mutations in the SPG20 gene, encoding spartin, on Chromosome 13q13. Until now, six unrelated families with a genetically confirmed diagnosis have been reported. Here we report the clinical findings in three brothers of a consanguineous Moroccan family, aged 24, 17, and 7 yr old, with spastic paraplegia, short stature, motor and cognitive delay, and severe intellectual disability. Targeted exon capture and sequencing showed a homozygous nonsense mutation in the SPG20 gene, c.1369C>T (p.Arg457*), in the three affected boys. © 2017 Dardour et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Unstable gait due to spasticity of the rectus femoris: gait analysis and motor nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, R; Leboeuf, F; Rémy-Néris, O; Perrouin-Verbe, B

    2012-12-01

    We present the case of a 54 year-old man presenting with a right Brown-Séquard plus syndrome (BSPS) after a traumatic cervical spinal cord injury. After being operated on with selective tibial neurotomy and triceps surae lengthening because of a right spastic equinus foot, he developed a gait disorder at high speed. The patient complained about an instability of the right knee. Observational gait analysis exhibited an oscillating, flexion/extension motion of the right knee during stance, which was confirmed by gait analysis. Dynamic electromyographic recordings exhibited a clonus of the right rectus femoris (RF) during stance. The spastic activity of the RF and the abnormal knee motion totally reversed after a motor nerve block of the RF, as well as after botulinum toxin type A injection into the RF. We emphasize that complex, spastic gait disorders can benefit from a comprehensive assessment including gait analysis and nerve blocks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Skeletal Maturation and Mineralisation of Children with Moderate to Severe Spastic Quadriplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitaraman, Sadasivan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diminished bone mineral density and delayed skeletal maturation are common in children with spastic quadriplegia. Aim The purpose of our study was to evaluate the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) of children with moderate to severe spastic quadriplegia and its relationship with other variables like nutrition and growth. Materials and Methods This was a hospital based, cross- sectional, case-control study. Forty-two (28 males, 14 females) children with spastic quadriplegia and 42 (24 males, 18 females) healthy children were included in the study. BMD of cases and control were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). Radiographs of left hand and wrist of cases and controls were taken and bone age was determined. Results BMD values of upper extremity, lower extremity, thoraco-lumbar spine and pelvis in cases were lower than those of controls (p quadriplegia and nutritional status is an important contributing factor. PMID:27504366

  12. Mechanistic basis of an epistatic interaction reducing age at onset in hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Timothy; Allison, Rachel; Edgar, James R; Lumb, Jennifer H; Rodger, Catherine E; Manna, Paul T; Rizo, Tania; Kohl, Zacharias; Nygren, Anders O H; Arning, Larissa; Schüle, Rebecca; Depienne, Christel; Goldberg, Lisa; Frahm, Christiane; Stevanin, Giovanni; Durr, Alexandra; Schöls, Ludger; Winner, Beate; Beetz, Christian; Reid, Evan

    2018-05-01

    Many genetic neurological disorders exhibit variable expression within affected families, often exemplified by variations in disease age at onset. Epistatic effects (i.e. effects of modifier genes on the disease gene) may underlie this variation, but the mechanistic basis for such epistatic interactions is rarely understood. Here we report a novel epistatic interaction between SPAST and the contiguous gene DPY30, which modifies age at onset in hereditary spastic paraplegia, a genetic axonopathy. We found that patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia caused by genomic deletions of SPAST that extended into DPY30 had a significantly younger age at onset. We show that, like spastin, the protein encoded by SPAST, the DPY30 protein controls endosomal tubule fission, traffic of mannose 6-phosphate receptors from endosomes to the Golgi, and lysosomal ultrastructural morphology. We propose that additive effects on this pathway explain the reduced age at onset of hereditary spastic paraplegia in patients who are haploinsufficient for both genes.

  13. A literature review on the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin: An injection in post-stroke spasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ghasemi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A variety of techniques for the management of spasticity have been suggested, including positioning, cryotherapy, splinting and casting, biofeedback, electrical stimulation, and medical management by pharmacological agents, Botulinum toxin A (BTA is now the pharmacological treatment of choice in focal spasticity. BTA by blocking acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions accounts for its therapeutic action to relieve spasticity. Methods: A computerized search of Pub Med was carried out to find the latest result about efficacy of BTA in management of post stroke spasticity. Result: Among 84 articles were found, frothy of them included in this review and divided to lower and upper extremity. Conclusions: BTA is a treatment choice in reducing tone and managing post stroke spasticity .

  14. Synthesis and oxidation of CpIrIII compounds: functionalization of a Cp methyl group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park-Gehrke, Lisa S; Freudenthal, John; Kaminsky, Werner; Dipasquale, Antonio G; Mayer, James M

    2009-03-21

    [CpIrCl(2)](2) () and new CpIr(III)(L-L)X complexes (L-L = N-O or C-N chelating ligands; X = Cl, I, Me) have been prepared and their reactivity with two-electron chemical oxidants explored. Reaction of with PhI(OAc)(2) in wet solvents yields a new chloro-bridged dimer in which each of the Cp ligands has been singly acetoxylated to form [Cp(OAc)Ir(III)Cl(2)](2) () (Cp(OAc) = eta(5)-C(5)Me(4)CH(2)OAc). Complex and related carboxy- and alkoxy-functionalized Cp(OR) complexes can also be prepared from plus (PhIO)(n) and ROH. [Cp(OAc)Ir(III)Cl(2)](2) () and the methoxy analogue [Cp(OMe)Ir(III)Cl(2)](2) () have been structurally characterized. Treatment of [CpIrCl(2)](2) () with 2-phenylpyridine yields CpIr(III)(ppy)Cl () (ppy = cyclometallated 2-phenylpyridyl) which is readily converted to its iodide and methyl analogues CpIr(III)(ppy)I and CpIr(III)(ppy)Me (). CpIr(III) complexes were also prepared with N-O chelating ligands derived from anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid) and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (H(2)NCMe(2)COOH), ligands chosen to be relatively oxidation resistant. These complexes and were reacted with potential two-electron oxidants including PhI(OAc)(2), hexachlorocyclohexadienone (C(6)Cl(6)O), N-fluoro-2,4,6-trimethylpyridinium (Me(3)pyF(+)), [Me(3)O]BF(4) and MeOTf (OTf = triflate, CF(3)SO(3)). Iridium(V) complexes were not observed or implicated in these reactions, despite the similarity of the potential products to known CpIr(V) species. The carbon electrophiles [Me(3)O]BF(4) and MeOTf appear to react preferentially at the N-O ligands, to give methyl esters in some cases. Overall, the results indicate that Cp is not inert under oxidizing conditions and is therefore not a good supporting ligand for oxidizing organometallic complexes.

  15. [Management of symptoms associated with spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pablos, María Asunción; Costa-Frossard, Lucienne; García-Hernández, Carlos; García-Montes, Inmaculada; Escutia-Roig, Matilde

    To describe the role of nurses in the management of symptoms related to spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). A descriptive study was developed based on a questionnaire on spasticity in MS patients. The questionnarie was completed through an anonymous tele-voting system at a national meeting with nurses involved in the management of these patients. Apart from fatigue, according to the opinion of the participants, the spasticity symptom associated with MS most notified by patients was difficulty in walking, followed by spasms and pain. Participants thought that it is important that nursing takes: 1) a role in identifying these symptoms, 2) should focus on the detection of the triggering or aggravating factors, and 3) on providing support in the assessment of the level of spasticity. It is important to inform about the correct use of anti-spasticity drugs, how to adjust the dosage and side effects of treatments, including cannabinoids via an oromucosal spray, titrating its doses according to each patient, and monitoring its tolerability, efficacy and adherence. Although there are usually resources to follow up these patients, there are still important gaps, including the lack of a specific follow-up protocol. Although all the participants are experts in the management of patients with MS, there is still diversity in the functions they perform, and the available resources they have in their hospitals. Nurses act as a key element in the process of identification of symptoms, training and monitoring of these patients with spasticity in EM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Sensory Barrage Stimulation in the Treatment of Elbow Spasticity: A Crossover Double Blind Randomized Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovak, Martin; Chindo, Joseph; Nair, Krishnan Padmakumari Sivaraman; Reeves, Mark L; Heller, Ben; Barker, Anthony T

    2016-02-01

    To assess the feasibility of using a novel form of multichannel electrical stimulation, termed Sensory Barrage Stimulation (SBS) for the treatment of spasticity affecting the elbow flexor muscles and to compare this with conventional single-channel TENS stimulation. Altogether ten participants with spasticity of the flexor muscles of the elbow of Grade 2 or above on the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) were recruited to this crossover double blind randomized trial. The participants received two intervention sessions (SBS and TENS), one week apart in a randomized order. Both interventions were applied over the triceps brachii on the affected arm for a duration of 60 minutes. Spasticity was measured using the MAS. Secondary outcome measures were self-reported change in spasticity, measured on a visual analog scale (VAS, 0-100), and therapist-rated strength of elbow extension and strength of elbow flexion. Measurements were taken immediately before each intervention was applied, immediately after the intervention, and one hour after the intervention. Immediately after stimulation spasticity showed a significant reduction for both TENS and SBS groups assessed by MAS -0.9 ± 0.2 vs. -1.1 ± 0.2 and by VAS -15 ± 3 vs. -31 ± 8. For SBS this improvement in MAS was still present at one hour after the stimulation, but not for TENS. Altogether seven SBS responders and four TENS responders were identified. This study demonstrates the feasibility and practicality of applying the new concept of SBS. Promising results indicate it causes a reduction in spasticity. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  17. Development of a clinical spasticity scale for evaluation of dogs with chronic thoracolumbar spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Melissa J; Olby, Natasha J

    2017-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop a spasticity scale for dogs with chronic deficits following severe spinal cord injury (SCI) for use in clinical assessment and outcome measurement in clinical trials. ANIMALS 20 chronically paralyzed dogs with a persistent lack of hind limb pain perception caused by an acute SCI at least 3 months previously. PROCEDURES Spasticity was assessed in both hind limbs via tests of muscle tone, clonus, and flexor and extensor spasms adapted from human scales. Measurement of patellar clonus duration and flexor spasm duration and degree was feasible. These components were used to create a canine spasticity scale (CSS; overall score range, 0 to 18). Temporal variation for individual dogs and interrater reliability were evaluated. Gait was quantified with published gait scales, and CSS scores were compared with gait scores and clinical variables. Owners were questioned regarding spasticity observed at home. RESULTS 20 dogs were enrolled: 18 with no apparent hind limb pain perception and 2 with blunted responses; 5 were ambulatory. Testing was well tolerated, and scores were repeatable between raters. Median overall CSS score was 7 (range, 3 to 11), and flexor spasms were the most prominent finding. Overall CSS score was not associated with age, SCI duration, lesion location, or owner-reported spasticity. Overall CSS score and flexor spasm duration were associated with gait scores. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The CSS could be used to quantify hind limb spasticity in dogs with chronic thoracolumbar SCI and might be a useful outcome measure. Flexor spasms may represent an integral part of stepping in dogs with severe SCI.

  18. CP and other gauge symmetries in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dine, M.; Leigh, R.G.; MacIntire, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    We argue that CP is a gauge symmetry in string theory. As a consequence, CP cannot be explicitly broken either perturbatively or nonperturbatively; there can be no nonperturbative CP-violating parameters. String theory is thus an example of a theory where all θ angles arise due to spontaneous CP violation, and are in principle calculable

  19. Hydraulic bilateral construction robot; Yuatsushiki bilateral kensetsu robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehata, K.; Mori, N. [Kayaba Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-05-15

    Concerning a hydraulic bilateral construction robot, its system constitution, structures and functions of important components, and the results of some tests are explained, and the researches conducted at Gifu University are described. The construction robot in this report is a servo controlled system of a version developed from the mini-shovel now available in the market. It is equipped, in addition to an electrohydraulic servo control system, with various sensors for detecting the robot attitude, vibration, and load state, and with a camera for visualizing the surrounding landscape. It is also provided with a bilateral joy stick which is a remote control actuator capable of working sensation feedback and with a rocking unit that creates robot movements of rolling, pitching, and heaving. The construction robot discussed here, with output increased and response faster thanks to the employment of a hydraulic driving system for the aim of building a robot system superior in performance to the conventional model designed primarily for heavy duty, proves after tests to be a highly sophisticated remotely controlled robot control system. (NEDO)

  20. Simultaneous characterizations of reflex and nonreflex dynamic and static changes in spastic hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sun G.; Ren, Yupeng; Liu, Lin; Roth, Elliot J.; Rymer, W. Zev

    2013-01-01

    This study characterizes tonic and phasic stretch reflex and stiffness and viscosity changes associated with spastic hemiparesis. Perturbations were applied to the ankle of 27 hemiparetic and 36 healthy subjects under relaxed or active contracting conditions. A nonlinear delay differential equation model characterized phasic and tonic stretch reflex gains, elastic stiffness, and viscous damping. Tendon reflex was characterized with reflex gain and threshold. Reflexively, tonic reflex gain was increased in spastic ankles at rest (P hemiparesis may help to evaluate and treat them more effectively. PMID:23636726

  1. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Arun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it′s management both at the time of cleft lip repair

  2. Did the CP audits promote the enterprises' CP? A case study in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gang; Huang, Jun; Chen, Qing

    2002-03-09

    Seven enterprises that have had recent Cleaner Production (CP) audits in Beijing were interviewed to identify whether these enterprises implemented the audit recommendations. If enterprises did implement the recommendations, their reasons and the results were analyzed. Finally, some suggestions on how to promote enterprise-wide CP were given.

  3. Flavor and CP invariant composite Higgs models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, Michele; Weiler, Andreas

    2011-09-01

    The flavor protection in composite Higgs models with partial compositeness is known to be insufficient. We explore the possibility to alleviate the tension with CP odd observables by assuming that flavor or CP are symmetries of the composite sector, broken by the coupling to Standard Model fields. One realization is that the composite sector has a flavor symmetry SU(3) or SU(3) U x SU(3) D which allows us to realize Minimal Flavor Violation. We show how to avoid the previously problematic tension between a flavor symmetric composite sector and electro-weak precision tests. Some of the light quarks are substantially or even fully composite with striking signals at the LHC. We discuss the constraints from recent dijet mass measurements and give an outlook on the discovery potential. We also present a different protection mechanism where we separate the generation of flavor hierarchies and the origin of CP violation. This can eliminate or safely reduce unwanted CP violating effects, realizing effectively ''Minimal CP Violation'' and is compatible with a dynamical generation of flavor at low scales. (orig.)

  4. Flavor and CP invariant composite Higgs models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redi, Michele [CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; INFN, Firenze (Italy); Weiler, Andreas [CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    The flavor protection in composite Higgs models with partial compositeness is known to be insufficient. We explore the possibility to alleviate the tension with CP odd observables by assuming that flavor or CP are symmetries of the composite sector, broken by the coupling to Standard Model fields. One realization is that the composite sector has a flavor symmetry SU(3) or SU(3){sub U} x SU(3){sub D} which allows us to realize Minimal Flavor Violation. We show how to avoid the previously problematic tension between a flavor symmetric composite sector and electro-weak precision tests. Some of the light quarks are substantially or even fully composite with striking signals at the LHC. We discuss the constraints from recent dijet mass measurements and give an outlook on the discovery potential. We also present a different protection mechanism where we separate the generation of flavor hierarchies and the origin of CP violation. This can eliminate or safely reduce unwanted CP violating effects, realizing effectively ''Minimal CP Violation'' and is compatible with a dynamical generation of flavor at low scales. (orig.)

  5. CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the electron in muon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, A.

    1981-01-01

    A model of the weak interaction which contains intermediate vector bosons of the most general form and which admits CP violation in muon decay is used to calculate the CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the μ-decay electrons with inclusion of radiative corrections. It is shown that these corrections are important only at the beginning of the spectrum, and their contribution reduces the observed effects of the transverse polarization. The transverse polarization grows appreciably at electron energies close to the maximum energy and at small emission angles. It is expedient to search for the CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the electrons at energies E/sub e/ = 0.975E/sup max//sub e/ and emission angles theta = 25--35 0

  6. CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the electron in the muon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    In the most general weak interaction model with intermediate vector bosons, allowing CP breaking in the muon decay, CP- even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the μ-decay electrons is calculated taking into account the radiative corrections. It is shown that such corrections are essential only at the beginning of the spectrum reducing the observed transverse polarization effects. When the electron energy is close to its maximum and the emission angles are small, the transverse polarization considerably grows. Search for CP-even and CP-odd transverse polarization of the electrons should be carried out at energies Esub(e) approximately equal to O.975 Esub(e)sup(max) and emission angles THETA approximately equal to 25+35 deg [ru

  7. Lectures on Flavor Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamín

    2016-12-20

    These lectures on flavor physics are an introduction to the subject. First lec- ture: We discuss the meaning of flavor and the importance of flavor physics in restricting extensions of the Standard Model (SM) of Electroweak interactions. We explain the origin of the KM matrix and how its elements are determined. We discuss FCNC and the GIM mechanism, followed by how a principle of Minimal Flavor Violation leads to SM extensions that are safe as far as FCNC are concerned even if the new physics comes in at low, TeVish scales. This is illustrated by the example of B radiative decays ( b → sγ ). Second lecture: We then turn our attention to CP-violation. We start by presenting neutral meson mixing. Then we consider various CP-asymmetries, culminating in the theoretically clean interference between mixing and decay into CP eigenstates.

  8. CP asymmetries in semiinclusive B0 decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunietz, Isard

    1999-02-01

    It was recently pointed out that inclusive B^0(t) decays could show CP violation. The totally inclusive asymmetry is expected to be tiny [O(10^{-3})] because of large cancellations among the asymmetries in the charmless, single charm and double charm final states. Enriching particular final state configurations could significantly increase the CP-asymmetry and observability. Such studies can extract fundamental CKM (Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa) parameters, and (perhaps) even Delta m(B_s). A superb vertex detector could see CP violation with 10^5 (10^6) flavor-tagged B_s (B_d) mesons within the CKM model. Because the effects could be significantly larger due to new physics, they should be searched for in existing or soon available data samples.

  9. On the measurement of leptonic CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burguet Castell, J.; Gavela, M.B.; Gomez Cadenas, J.J.; Hernandez, P.; Mena, O.

    2001-01-01

    We show that the simultaneous determination of the leptonic CP-odd phase δ and the angle θ 13 from the subleading transitions ν e →ν μ and ν-bar e →ν-bar μ results generically, at fixed neutrino energy and baseline, in two degenerate solutions. In light of this, we refine a previous analysis of the sensitivity to leptonic CP violation at a neutrino factory, in the LMA-MSW scenario, by exploring the full range of δ and θ 13 . Furthermore, we take into account the expected uncertainties on the solar and atmospheric oscillation parameters and in the average Earth matter density along the neutrino path. An intermediate baseline of O(3000) km is still the best option to tackle CP violation, although a combination of two baselines turns out to be very important in resolving degeneracies

  10. A Case Report of Positive HTLV-I Infection with Bilateral Facial Weakness and Myelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazdeh

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Infection with human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I causes multiple neurologic disorder , due to the retroviruses.Spinal cord disease of this type is named TSP (tropical spastic paraparesis that were drawn to the attention of neurologists 45 years ago. The clinical picture is one of the slowly progressive paraparesis with increased tendon reflexes & Babinski signs ; disorder of sphincteric control is usually an early change. Paresthesia , reduced vibratory & position senses, & ataxia have been described. The diagnosis is confirmed by the detection the antibodies to the virus in serum . There are anecdotal reports of improvement with IV-administration of gammaglobulin. But HTLV1-infection has other clinical manifestations. This report presents a rare case with bilateral facial weakness as primary manifestation. This case is related to a 41 years old woman. The clinical picture was bilateral facial weekness and approximately after 2 months, she referred to hospital with myelitis. In primary exams and evaluation, the diagnose was HTLV-I infection. The diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of the antibodies against the virus in her serum. She dead after 2.5 months of the first sign due to disease severity and bulbar palsy. Possible transmission routes and the risk of encountering the disease outside endemic areas must be attended , and it is recommended to evaluate antibodies in the children of the patients.

  11. The CpG island searcher: a new WWW resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Daiya; Jones, Peter A

    2003-01-01

    Clusters of CpG dinucleotides in GC rich regions of the genome called "CpG islands" frequently occur in the 5' ends of genes. Methylation of CpG islands plays a role in transcriptional silencing in higher organisms in certain situations. We have established a CpG-island-extraction algorithm, which we previously developed [Takai and Jones, 2002], on a web site which has a simple user interface to identify CpG islands from submitted sequences of up to 50kb. The web site determines the locations of CpG islands using parameters (lower limit of %GC, ObsCpG/ExpCpG, length) set by the user, to display the value of parameters on each CpG island, and provides a graphical map of CpG dinucleotide distribution and borders of CpG islands. A command-line version of the CpG islands searcher has also been developed for larger sequences. The CpG Island Searcher was applied to the latest sequence and mapping information of human chromosomes 20, 21 and 22, and a total of 2345 CpG islands were extracted and 534 (23%) of them contained first coding exons and 650 (28%) contained other exons. The CpG Island Searcher is available on the World Wide Web at http://www.cpgislands.com or http://www.uscnorris.com/cpgislands/cpg.cgi.

  12. A possible explanation of the CP puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takhtamyshev, Georgij

    1996-03-01

    The problem of mirror-reflection symmetry (MRS) and time-reversal symmetry (TRS) in our world is discussed. The opinion is expressed, that well-known experiments on parity violation and CP-violation can be treated as signals of some new, yet unknown, level of matter. An hypothesis, which can be used as a base for some future model or theory is formulated. In the framework of this hypothesis, experiments will demonstrate parity violation or CP-violation do not contradict MRS or TRS conservation. (author). 14 refs

  13. CP violation in rare K decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.

    1990-01-01

    The investigation of rare K decays calls for a unified treatment of short- and long-distance aspects as provided by chiral perturbation theory. For the standard model with three generations, the theoretical predictions for signals of CP violation in those decays are reviewed. With direct CP violation as the main target, special emphasis is given to the charge asymmetries in charged K decays and to the especially rare decays K L → π 0 ll-bar. Time dependent rate asymmetries in K 0 decays and the longitudinal muon polarization in K L → μ + μ - are also discussed. 50 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  14. Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) Model based on Clinical Data Measurement towards Quantitative Evaluation of Upper Limb Spasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzi, A. Ahmad; Sidek, S. N.; Mat Rosly, H.; Daud, N.; Yusof, H. Md

    2017-11-01

    Spasticity is common symptom presented amongst people with sensorimotor disabilities. Imbalanced signals from the central nervous systems (CNS) which are composed of the brain and spinal cord to the muscles ultimately leading to the injury and death of motor neurons. In clinical practice, the therapist assesses muscle spasticity using a standard assessment tool like Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Modified Tardiue Scale (MTS) or Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA). This is done subjectively based on the experience and perception of the therapist subjected to the patient fatigue level and body posture. However, the inconsistency in the assessment is prevalent and could affect the efficacy of the rehabilitation process. Thus, the aim of this paper is to describe the methodology of data collection and the quantitative model of MAS developed to satisfy its description. Two subjects with MAS of 2 and 3 spasticity levels were involved in the clinical data measurement. Their level of spasticity was verified by expert therapist using current practice. Data collection was established using mechanical system equipped with data acquisition system and LABVIEW software. The procedure engaged repeated series of flexion of the affected arm that was moved against the platform using a lever mechanism and performed by the therapist. The data was then analyzed to investigate the characteristics of spasticity signal in correspondence to the MAS description. Experimental results revealed that the methodology used to quantify spasticity satisfied the MAS tool requirement according to the description. Therefore, the result is crucial and useful towards the development of formal spasticity quantification model.

  15. SPG10 is a rare cause of spastic paraplegia in European families.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schule, R.; Kremer, H.P.H.; Kassubek, J.; Auer-Grumbach, M.; Kostic, V.; Klopstock, T.; Klimpe, S.; Otto, S.; Boesch, S.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Schols, L.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: SPG10 is an autosomal dominant form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), which is caused by mutations in the neural kinesin heavy chain KIF5A gene, the neuronal motor of fast anterograde axonal transport. Only four mutations have been identified to date. OBJECTIVE: To determine the

  16. Autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia with peripheral neuropathy maps to chr12q23-24.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schule, R.; Bonin, M.; Durr, A.; Forlani, S.; Sperfeld, A.D.; Klimpe, S.; Mueller, J.C.; Seibel, A.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Bauer, P.; Schols, L.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) are genetically exceedingly heterogeneous. To date, 37 genetic loci for HSP have been described (SPG1-41), among them 16 loci for autosomal dominant disease. Notwithstanding, further genetic heterogeneity is to be expected in HSP, as various HSP

  17. SPG10 is a rare cause of spastic paraplegia in European families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuele, R.; Kremer, B. P. H.; Kassubek, J.; Auer-Grumbach, M.; Kostic, V.; Klopstock, T.; Klimpe, S.; Otto, S.; Boesch, S.; van de Warrenburg, B. P.; Schoels, L.

    Background: SPG10 is an autosomal dominant form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), which is caused by mutations in the neural kinesin heavy chain KIF5A gene, the neuronal motor of fast anterograde axonal transport. Only four mutations have been identified to date. Objective: To determine the

  18. Caregiver burden, productivity loss, and indirect costs associated with caring for patients with poststroke spasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Vaidyanathan; Graham, Glenn D; DiBonaventura, Marco D; Gillard, Patrick J; Goren, Amir; Zorowitz, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    Objective Many stroke survivors experience poststroke spasticity and the related inability to perform basic activities, which necessitates patient management and treatment, and exerts a considerable burden on the informal caregiver. The current study aims to estimate burden, productivity loss, and indirect costs for caregivers of stroke survivors with spasticity. Methods Internet survey data were collected from 153 caregivers of stroke survivors with spasticity including caregiving time and difficulty (Oberst Caregiver Burden Scale), Work Productivity and Activity Impairment measures, and caregiver and patient characteristics. Fractional logit models examined predictors of work-related restriction, and work losses were monetized (2012 median US wages). Results Mean Oberst Caregiver Burden Scale time and difficulty scores were 46.1 and 32.4, respectively. Employed caregivers (n=71) had overall work restriction (32%), absenteeism (9%), and presenteeism (27%). Caregiver characteristics, lack of nursing home coverage, and stroke survivors’ disability predicted all work restriction outcomes. The mean total lost-productivity cost per employed caregiver was US$835 per month (>$10,000 per year; 72% attributable to presenteeism). Conclusion These findings demonstrate the substantial burden of caring for stroke survivors with spasticity illustrating the societal and economic impact of stroke that extends beyond the stroke survivor. PMID:26609225

  19. The early markers for later dyskinetic cerebral palsy are different from those for spastic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einspieler, C; Cioni, G; Paolicelli, PB; Bos, AF; Dressler, A; Ferrari, F; Roversi, MF; Prechtl, HFR

    Qualitative abnormalities of spontaneous motor activity in new-borns and young infants are early predictive markers for later spastic cerebral palsy. Aim of this research was to identify which motor patterns may be specific for later dyskinetic cerebral palsy. In a large, prospectively performed

  20. On Denny-Brown's 'spastic dystonia' - What is it and what causes it?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jakob; Pradines, Maud; Gracies, Jean-Michel

    2018-01-01

    In this review, we will work around two simple definitions of two different entities, which most often co-exist in patients with lesions to central motor pathways: Spasticity is “Enhanced excitability of velocity-dependent responses to phasic stretch at rest”, which will not be the subject of thi...

  1. Reproducibility and validity of video screen measurements of gait in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunt, S.; van Kampen, P.M.; van der Krogt, M.M.; Brehm, M.A.; Doorenbosch, C.A.M.; Becher, J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the reproducibility and validity of video screen measurement (VSM) of sagittal plane joint angles during gait. Methods: 17 children with spastic cerebral palsy walked on a 10. m walkway. Videos were recorded and 3d-instrumented gait analysis was performed. Two investigators

  2. Reproducibility and validity of video screen measurements of gait in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunt, Sebastian; van Kampen, Petra J.; van der Krogt, Marjolein M.; Brehm, Merel-Anne; Doorenbosch, Caroline A. M.; Becher, Jules G.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the reproducibility and validity of video screen measurement (VSM) of sagittal plane joint angles during gait. METHODS: 17 children with spastic cerebral palsy walked on a 10m walkway. Videos were recorded and 3d-instrumented gait analysis was performed. Two investigators

  3. Efficacy of intrathecal baclofen delivery in the management of severe spasticity in upper motor neuron syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, Johan Swanik; Geertzen, J.H.B.

    In the treatment of patients with severe spasticity, intrathecal administration of baclofen (ITB) was introduced in order to exert its effect directly at the receptor sites in the spinal cord, and have better therapeutic efficacy with smaller drug doses compared to oral antispasmodic medications.

  4. The benefits of a comprehensive rehabilitation program in patients diagnosed with spastic quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogoveanu, O C; Tuțescu, N C; Kamal, D; Alexandru, D O; Kamal, C; Streba, C T; Trăistaru, M R

    2016-01-01

    Spastic quadriplegia has as an etiopathogenic substrate, a non-progressive brain lesion; however, the clinical manifestations of the disease evolve over time. Children diagnosed with spastic quadriplegia show a variety of symptoms in different areas: sensorimotor, emotional, cognitive, and social. The purpose of this study was to assess the functional status in patients diagnosed with spastic quadriplegia, who followed a complex medical rehabilitation program, during a year, and highlight the importance of using physical and kinetic techniques in improving their status. A total of 10 children diagnosed with spastic quadriplegia were included in the study and the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and manual ability classification system (MACS) were used to evaluate the functionality status of each patient. Every patient was evaluated initially (T1), after six months of program (T2), and after they completed the study. All the children were originally monitored daily, for 5 days per week for a period of one month, then two times a week for a year. A statistically significant difference regarding the modification of the GMFCS and MACS stage was found, which occurred between the first and the third evaluation. The inverse correlation of the statistical significance between the ages of patients and the decrease in GMFCS or MACS stage was highlighted; the younger the patient, the more the scale decreased. A direct link between the gross motor function and the manual ability was noticed. Applying a complex rehabilitation program has proven efficient by improving both the gross motor functionality and the manual ability.

  5. Heterozygous KIDINS220/ARMS nonsense variants cause spastic paraplegia, intellectual disability, nystagmus, and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Josifova, Dragana J.; Monroe, Glen R.; Tessadori, Federico; de Graaff, Esther; van der Zwaag, Bert; Mehta, Sarju G.; Harakalova, Magdalena; Duran, Karen J.; Savelberg, Sanne M. C.; Nijman, Isaäc J.; Jungbluth, Heinz; Hoogenraad, Casper C.; Bakkers, Jeroen; Knoers, Nine V.; Firth, Helen V.; Beales, Philip L.; van Haaften, Gijs; van Haelst, Mieke M.

    2016-01-01

    We identified de novo nonsense variants in KIDINS220/ARMS in three unrelated patients with spastic paraplegia, intellectual disability, nystagmus, and obesity (SINO). KIDINS220 is an essential scaffold protein coordinating neurotrophin signal pathways in neurites and is spatially and temporally

  6. Comparative study of muscular tonus in spastic tetra paretic cerebral palsy in children with predominantly cortical and subcortical lesions in computerized tomography of the skull; Estudo comparativo do tono muscular na paralisia cerebral tetraparetica em criancas com lesoes predominantemente corticais ou subcorticais na tomografia computadorizada de cranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwabe, Cristina [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Neurologia; Piovesana, Ana Maria Sedrez Gonzaga [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Ambulatorio Multidisciplinar de Paralisia Cerebral e Neurologia Infantil

    2003-09-01

    The objective was to compare distribution and intensity of muscular tonus in spastic tetra paretic cerebral palsy (CP), correlating the clinical data with lesion location in the central nervous system. Twelve children aged two to four years old with predominantly cortical lesions (six children) and subcortical lesions (six children) were included. The tonus was analyzed in the upper (UULL) and lower limbs (LLLL) based on Durigon and Piemonte protocol. The result showed that there was no significant difference regarding tonus intensity and distribution in the UULL and LLLL in both groups. Comparing the upper and lower limbs of subjects in the same group, the LLLL presented more asymmetry and higher tonus intensity than the UULL. It was concluded that in this study children with CP as a result of predominantly cortical or subcortical lesions present a similar deficit in tonus modulation, causing a symmetric and homogeneous distribution of hypertonicity, which is predominant in the LLLL. (author)

  7. Bilateral absence of musculocutaneous nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathada V Ravishankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial plexus is an important group of spinal nerve plexus that supplies the muscles of the upper limb via the ventral rami of the Cervical 5 - Thoracic 1 fibers of the spinal nerves. It is not uncommon to notice the variations during cadaveric dissections in many regions of the body, at different levels, such as, roots, trunks, division, cords, communications, and branches as reported in the literature. Although the nerve supply of the body musculature takes place in the fetal life itself, its course, branching pattern, innervations, and communication can show variable patterns as the fetal development progresses. One such anomaly was noticed during our routine cadaveric dissection in the Department of Anatomy, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belgaum, showing bilateral absence of the musculocutaneous nerve, which obviously drew the attention of the students of medicine, physiotherapy, and learning clinicians as well.

  8. Bilateral supernumerary primary maxillary canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Mukhopadhyay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary teeth are more common in the permanent than in primary dentition. In the primary dentition, the anomaly is most frequently observed in the maxillary lateral incisor region, followed by the maxillary midline where they are termed as mesiodens. Supernumerary teeth in the primary canine region are rare. This paper describes a rare case of nonsyndromic supernumerary primary maxillary canine distributed bilaterally in a 4-year-old boy. Both the supernumeraries resembled size and shape of normal primary canine. The right supplemental canine is high labially placed, whereas the left one is seen normally aligned in the dental arch distal to lateral incisor. One of the most significant sequelae of primary supernumerary teeth is their duplication in the permanent series. Radiographic examination of supernumerary primary canine did not indicate any such anomaly in the permanent dentition. The patient was kept under observation.

  9. Effect of a new physiotherapy concept on bone mineral density, muscle force and gross motor function in children with bilateral cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, C; Nikopoulou-Smyrni, P; Stabrey, A; Semler, O; Schoenau, E

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a new physiotherapy concept on bone density, muscle force and motor function in bilateral spastic cerebral palsy children. In a retrospective data analysis 78 children were analysed. The concept included whole body vibration, physiotherapy, resistance training and treadmill training. The concept is structured in two in-patient stays and two periods of three months home-based vibration training. Outcome measures were dual-energy x-ray absorption (DXA), Leonardo Tilt Table and a modified Gross Motor Function Measure before and after six months of training. Percent changes were highly significant for bone mineral density, -content, muscle mass and significant for angle of verticalisation, muscle force and modified Gross Motor Function Measure after six months training. The new physiotherapy concept had a significant effect on bone mineral density, muscle force and gross motor function in bilateral spastic cerebral palsy children. This implicates an amelioration in all International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health levels. The study serves as a basis for future research on evidence based paediatric physiotherapy taking into account developmental implications.

  10. Natural strong CP conservation in flipped physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frampton, P.H. (Institute of Field Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (USA)); Kephart, T.W. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (USA))

    1990-08-13

    A natural axion-free solution of the strong {ital CP} problem {ital at} {ital tree} {ital level} is noted within an E(6) grand unified theory. Using this as a springboard, it is shown that several flipped SU(5) theories which occur in superstring phenomenology contain within them a mechanism which enforces {bar {theta}}=0 at high accuracy.

  11. CP and B Physics: Progress and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1997-06-01

    This summary of the 2nd International Conference on B Physics and CP Violation (Honolulu, 24--27 March, 1997) contains, in addition to what is implied in the title, some extended remarks on the limitations of theory as well as speculations regarding nonperturbative enhancement of decay modes of the class b → s+ charmless hadrons

  12. CP violating phenomena and theoretical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.

    1987-01-01

    An introduction to CP violating phenomena is given and the standard model and its most popular low energy extensions in this context are reviewed. The discussion comprises the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model, left-right symmetry, the standard model with more than one Higgs doublet and gauged horizontal symmetries. (Author)

  13. Discrete symmetries, strong CP problem and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senjanovic, G.

    1993-05-01

    Spontaneous breaking of parity or time reversal invariance offers a solution to the strong CP problem, the stability of which under quantum gravitational effects provides an upper limit on the scale of symmetry breaking. Even more important, these Planck scale effects may provide a simple and natural way out of the resulting domain wall problem. (author). 22 refs

  14. Sigma decomposition: the CP-odd Lagrangian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hierro, I.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy); Merlo, L. [Instituto de Física Teórica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Rigolin, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy)

    2016-04-04

    In Alonso et al., http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2014)034, the CP-even sector of the effective chiral Lagrangian for a generic composite Higgs model with a symmetric coset has been constructed, up to four momenta. In this paper, the CP-odd couplings are studied within the same context. If only the Standard Model bosonic sources of custodial symmetry breaking are considered, then at most six independent operators form a basis. One of them is the weak-θ term linked to non-perturbative sources of CP violation, while the others describe CP-odd perturbative couplings between the Standard Model gauge bosons and an Higgs-like scalar belonging to the Goldstone boson sector. The procedure is then applied to three distinct exemplifying frameworks: the original SU(5)/SO(5) Georgi-Kaplan model, the minimal custodial-preserving SO(5)/SO(4) model and the minimal SU(3)/(SU(2)×U(1)) model, which intrinsically breaks custodial symmetry. Moreover, the projection of the high-energy electroweak effective theory to the low-energy chiral effective Lagrangian for a dynamical Higgs is performed, uncovering strong relations between the operator coefficients and pinpointing the differences with the elementary Higgs scenario.

  15. Masses, flavor mix and CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussard, L.

    2004-06-01

    The author describes the relationships between masses, mixing of flavors and CP violation. This document is divided into 4 chapters: 1) fermions' masses, 2) mixing of flavors and CP violation, 3) beauty physics and 4) neutrino physics. In chapter 1 an attempt is made to explain what is behind the concepts of lepton mass and quark mass. As for neutrinos, the only neutral fermion, Dirac's and Majorana's views are exposed as well as their consequences. Fermion flavors are mixed in the process of mass generation and this mix is responsible for the breaking of CP and T symmetries. In chapter 2 the author shows how the analysis of particle oscillations from neutral mesons (K 0 , D 0 , B d 0 and B s 0 ) and from neutrinos can shed light on CP violation. Chapter 3 is dedicated to the contribution of beauty physics to the determination of the unitary triangle, through the oscillations of beauty mesons. In chapter 4 the author reviews the experimental results obtained recently concerning neutrino mass and neutrino oscillations and draws some perspectives on future neutrino experiments. (A.C.)

  16. CP violation in exclusive B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numata, Ken

    1991-01-01

    We review some decay modes of B 0 or B-bar 0 , with which we measure CP violation or phases of Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix elements. For simplicity, we restrict the topics to the cases of B d 0 -B d -bar 0 system. (author)

  17. CP violation in B decays and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, R.; Strumia, A.

    1997-01-01

    CP violation in hadronic B decays is studied in a definite and well-motivated framework of flavour physics and supersymmetry. Possible deviations from the standard model both in mixing and in decay amplitudes are discussed. An attempt is made to describe an experimental strategy for looking at these deviations and for measuring the relevant parameters. (orig.)

  18. [Review of experiments measuring CP nonconservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gollin, G.D.

    1985-08-01

    Recent experiments setting limits on the magnitude of the ratio of two CP nonconservation parameters epsilon'/epsilon are discussed. Gauge theory calculations suggest that epsilon'/epsilon > .005, somewhat at odds with the results epsilon'/epsilon = -.0046 +- .0058 from a Chicago-Saclay measurement and epsilon'/epsilon = .0017 +- .0082 from a Yale-BNL experiment. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  19. A standard form for generalized CP transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.; Grimus, W.; Neufeld, H.

    1987-01-01

    The investigation of general CP transformations leads to transformations of the form U → W T UW with unitary matrices U, W. It is shown that a basis for weak eigenstates can always be chosen such that W T UW has a certain real standard form. (Author)

  20. CP violation in $b$ hadrons at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Hicheur, Adlene

    2017-01-01

    The most recent results on $CP$ violation in b hadrons obtained by the LHCb Collaboration with Run I and years 2015-2016 of Run II are reviewed. The different types of violation are covered by the studies presented in this paper.

  1. Disturbances of motor unit rate modulation are prevalent in muscles of spastic-paretic stroke survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, C. J.; Powers, R. K.; Rymer, W. Z.; Suresh, N. L.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke survivors often exhibit abnormally low motor unit firing rates during voluntary muscle activation. Our purpose was to assess the prevalence of saturation in motor unit firing rates in the spastic-paretic biceps brachii muscle of stroke survivors. To achieve this objective, we recorded the incidence and duration of impaired lower- and higher-threshold motor unit firing rate modulation in spastic-paretic, contralateral, and healthy control muscle during increases in isometric force generated by the elbow flexor muscles. Impaired firing was considered to have occurred when firing rate became constant (i.e., saturated), despite increasing force. The duration of impaired firing rate modulation in the lower-threshold unit was longer for spastic-paretic (3.9 ± 2.2 s) than for contralateral (1.4 ± 0.9 s; P unit was also longer for the spastic-paretic (1.7 ± 1.6 s) than contralateral (0.3 ± 0.3 s; P = 0.007) and control (0.1 ± 0.2 s; P = 0.009) muscles. This impaired firing rate of the lower-threshold unit arose, despite an increase in the overall descending command, as shown by the recruitment of the higher-threshold unit during the time that the lower-threshold unit was saturating, and by the continuous increase in averages of the rectified EMG of the biceps brachii muscle throughout the rising phase of the contraction. These results suggest that impairments in firing rate modulation are prevalent in motor units of spastic-paretic muscle, even when the overall descending command to the muscle is increasing. PMID:24572092

  2. Caregiver burden, productivity loss, and indirect costs associated with caring for patients with poststroke spasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapathy V

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Vaidyanathan Ganapathy,1 Glenn D Graham,2 Marco D DiBonaventura,3 Patrick J Gillard,1 Amir Goren,3 Richard D Zorowitz41Allergan, Irvine, CA, USA; 2Department of Veterans Affairs, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, New York, NY, USA; 4Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USAObjective: Many stroke survivors experience poststroke spasticity and the related inability to perform basic activities, which necessitates patient management and treatment, and exerts a considerable burden on the informal caregiver. The current study aims to estimate burden, productivity loss, and indirect costs for caregivers of stroke survivors with spasticity.Methods: Internet survey data were collected from 153 caregivers of stroke survivors with spasticity including caregiving time and difficulty (Oberst Caregiver Burden Scale, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment measures, and caregiver and patient characteristics. Fractional logit models examined predictors of work-related restriction, and work losses were monetized (2012 median US wages.Results: Mean Oberst Caregiver Burden Scale time and difficulty scores were 46.1 and 32.4, respectively. Employed caregivers (n=71 had overall work restriction (32%, absenteeism (9%, and presenteeism (27%. Caregiver characteristics, lack of nursing home coverage, and stroke survivors’ disability predicted all work restriction outcomes. The mean total lost-productivity cost per employed caregiver was US$835 per month (>$10,000 per year; 72% attributable to presenteeism.Conclusion: These findings demonstrate the substantial burden of caring for stroke survivors with spasticity illustrating the societal and economic impact of stroke that extends beyond the stroke survivor.Keywords: burden, caregiver, productivity, spasticity, stroke

  3. Gait asymmetry, ankle spasticity, and depression as independent predictors of falls in ambulatory stroke patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Sen Wei

    Full Text Available Falls are the leading cause of injury in stroke patients. However, the cause of a fall is complicated, and several types of risk factors are involved. Therefore, a comprehensive model to predict falls with high sensitivity and specificity is needed.This study was a prospective study of 112 inpatients in a rehabilitation ward with follow-up interviews in patients' homes. Evaluations were performed 1 month after stroke and included the following factors: (1 status of cognition, depression, fear of fall and limb spasticity; (2 functional assessments [walking velocity and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM]; and (3 objective, computerized gait and balance analyses. The outcome variable was the number of accidental falls during the 6-month follow-up period after baseline measurements.The non-faller group exhibited significantly better walking velocity and FIM scale compared to the faller group (P < .001. The faller group exhibited higher levels of spasticity in the affected limbs, asymmetry of gait parameters in single support (P < .001, double support (P = .027, and step time (P = .003, and lower stability of center of gravity in the medial-lateral direction (P = .008. Psychological assessments revealed that the faller group exhibited more severe depression and lower confidence without falling. A multivariate logistic regression model identified three independent predictors of falls with high sensitivity (82.6% and specificity (86.5%: the asymmetry ratio of single support [adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 2.2, 95% CI (1.2-3.8], the level of spasticity in the gastrocnemius [aOR = 3.2 (1.4-7.3], and the degree of depression [aOR = 1.4 (1.2-1.8].This study revealed depression, in additional to gait asymmetry and spasticity, as another independent factor for predicting falls. These results suggest that appropriate gait training, reduction of ankle spasticity, and aggressive management of depression may be critical to prevent falls in stroke patients.

  4. A Rare Entity: Bilateral First Rib Fractures Accompanying Bilateral Scapular Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gultekin Gulbahar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available First rib fractures are scarce due to their well-protected anatomic locations. Bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures are very rare, although they may be together with scapular and clavicular fractures. According to our knowledge, no case of bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures has been reported, so we herein discussed the diagnosis, treatment, and complications of bone fractures due to thoracic trauma in bias of this rare entity.

  5. A Rare Entity: Bilateral First Rib Fractures Accompanying Bilateral Scapular Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Gulbahar, Gultekin; Kaplan, Tevfik; Turker, Hasan Bozkurt; Gundogdu, Ahmet Gokhan; Han, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    First rib fractures are scarce due to their well-protected anatomic locations. Bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures are very rare, although they may be together with scapular and clavicular fractures. According to our knowledge, no case of bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures has been reported, so we herein discussed the diagnosis, treatment, and complications of bone fractures due to thoracic trauma in bias of this rare en...

  6. A Rare Entity: Bilateral First Rib Fractures Accompanying Bilateral Scapular Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbahar, Gultekin; Kaplan, Tevfik; Turker, Hasan Bozkurt; Gundogdu, Ahmet Gokhan; Han, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    First rib fractures are scarce due to their well-protected anatomic locations. Bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures are very rare, although they may be together with scapular and clavicular fractures. According to our knowledge, no case of bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures has been reported, so we herein discussed the diagnosis, treatment, and complications of bone fractures due to thoracic trauma in bias of this rare entity.

  7. Association between isometric muscle strength and gait joint kinetics in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallmeijer, A.J.; Baker, R.; Dodd, K.; Taylor, N.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between isometric muscle strength of the lower limbs and gait joint kinetics in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-five participants (11 males) with bilateral spastic CP, aged 14-22 years (mean: 18.9, sd: 2.0. yr)

  8. Color-tunable and high-efficiency organic light-emitting diode by adjusting exciton bilateral migration zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengqiang; Wu, Ruofan; Huang, Jiang; Yu, Junsheng

    2013-09-01

    A voltage-controlled color-tunable and high-efficiency organic light-emitting diode (OLED) by inserting 16-nm N,N'-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene (mCP) interlayer between two complementary emitting layers (EMLs) was fabricated. The OLED emitted multicolor ranging from blue (77.4 cd/A @ 6 V), white (70.4 cd/A @ 7 V), to yellow (33.7 cd/A @ 9 V) with voltage variation. An equivalent model was proposed to reveal the color-tunable and high-efficiency emission of OLEDs, resulting from the swing of exciton bilateral migration zone near mCP/blue-EML interface. Also, the model was verified with a theoretical arithmetic using single-EML OLEDs to disclose the crucial role of mCP exciton adjusting layer.

  9. Measurement of CP-Violating Asymmetries in B0 Decays to CP Eigenstates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, David B

    2001-02-26

    We present measurements of time-dependent CP-violating asymmetries in neutral B decays to several CP eigenstates. The measurement uses a data sample of 23 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric B Factory at SLAC. In this sample, we find events where one neutral B meson is fully reconstructed in a CP eigenstate containing charmonium and the flavor of the other neutral B meson is determined from its decay products. The amplitude of the CP-violating asymmetry, which in the Standard Model is proportional to sin2{beta}, is derived from the decay time distributions in such events. The result is sin2{beta} = 0.34 {+-} 0.20 (stat) {+-} 0.05 (syst).

  10. Measurement of CP-violating asymmetries in B0 decays to CP eigenstates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; De Bonis, I; Gaillard, J M; Jeremie, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Palano, A; Chen, G P; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Reinertsen, P L; Stugu, B; Abbott, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Clark, A R; Dardin, S; Day, C; Dow, S F; Elioff, T; Fan, Q; Gaponenko, I; Gill, M S; Goozen, F R; Gowdy, S J; Gritsan, A; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Jared, R C; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Karcher, A; Kerth, L T; Kipnis, I; Kluth, S; Kolomensky, Y G; Kral, J F; Lafever, R; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lewis, S A; Lionberger, C; Liu, T; Long, M; Lynch, G; Marino, M; Marks, K; Meyer, A B; Mokhtarani, A; Momayezi, M; Nyman, M; Oddone, P J; Ohnemus, J; Oshatz, D; Patton, S; Perazzo, A; Peters, C; Pope, W; Pripstein, M; Quarrie, D R; Rasson, J E; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Stone, R; Telnov, A V; von der Lippe, H; Weber, T; Wenzel, W A; Zisman, M S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Kirk, A; Knowles, D J; O'Neale, S W; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Koch, H; Krug, J; Kunze, M; Lewandowski, B; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Andress, J C; Barlow, N R; Bhimji, W; Chevalier, N; Clark, P J; Cottingham, W N; De Groot, N; Dyce, N; Foster, B; Mass, A; McFall, J D; Wallom, D; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Camanzi, B; Jolly, S; McKemey, A K; Tinslay, J; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Bukin, D A; Buzykaev, A R; Dubrovin, M S; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kolachev, G M; Korol, A A; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Salnikov, A A; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Y I; Telnov, V I; Yushkov, A N; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; McMahon, S; Stoker, D P; Ahsan, A; Buchanan, C; Chun, S; MacFarlane, D B; Prell, S; Rahatlou, S; Raven, G; Sharma, V; Burke, S; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Hale, D; Hart, P A; Kuznetsova, N; Kyre, S; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Witherell, M; Yellin, S; Beringer, J; Dorfan, D E; Eisner, A M; Frey, A; Grillo, A A; Grothe, M; Heusch, C A; Johnson, R P; Kroeger, W; Lockman, W S; Pulliam, T; Sadrozinski, H; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spencer, E N; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hanson, J E; Hitlin, D G; Metzler, S; Oyang, J; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Weaver, M; Yang, S; Zhu, R Y; Devmal, S; Geld, T L; Jayatilleke, S; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Bloom, P; Fahey, S; Ford, W T; Gaede, F; van Hoek, W C; Johnson, D R; Michael, A K; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Park, H; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Sen, S; Smith, J G; Wagner, D L; Blouw, J; Harton, J L; Krishnamurthy, M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Warner, D W; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dahlinger, G; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Eckstein, P; Futterschneider, H; Krause, R; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Otto, S; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Behr, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Ferrag, S; Fouque, G; Gastaldi, F; Matricon, P; Mora de Freitas, P; Renard, C; Roussot, E; T'Jampens, S; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Anjomshoaa, A; Bernet, R; Di Lodovico, F; Khan, A; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Falbo, M; Bozzi, C; Dittongo, S; Folegani, M; Piemontese, L; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Xie, Y; Zallo, A; Bagnasco, S; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Pallavicini, M; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patrignani, C; Pia, M G; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Morii, M; Bartoldus, R; Dignan, T; Hamilton, R; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Fischer, P A; Lamsa, J; McKay, R; Meyer, W T; Rosenberg, E I; Albert, J N; Beigbeder, C; Benkebil, M; Breton, D; Cizeron, R; Du, S; Grosdidier, G; Hast, C; Höcker, A; LePeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Truong, K; Valassi, A; Wormser, G; Bionta, R M; Brigljević, V; Brooks, A; Fackler, O; Fujino, D; Lange, D J; Mugge, M; O'Connor, T G; Pedrotti, B; Shi, X; van Bibber, K; Wenaus, T J; Wright, D M; Wuest, C R; Yamamoto, B; Carroll, M; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, M; Kay, M; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Aspinwall, M L; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gunawardane, N J; Martin, R; Nash, J A; Price, D R; Sanders, P; Smith, D; Azzopardi, D E; Back, J J; Dixon, P; Harrison, P F; Newman-Coburn, D; Potter, R J; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Williams, M I; Cowan, G; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McGrath, P; McMahon, T R; Salvatore, F; Scott, I; Vaitsas, G; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Ford, K; Li, Y; Pavlovich, J; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Boyd, J T; Fullwood, J; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Savvas, N; Simopoulos, E T; Thompson, R J; Weatherall, J H; Bard, R; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Lillard, V; Olsen, J; Roberts, D A; Schieck, J R; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Lin, C S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Wittlin, J; Brau, B; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Britton, D I; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Trischuk, J; Lanni, F; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Booke, M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenberg, V; Kroeger, R; Reep, M; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Beaulieu, M; Martin, J P; Nief, J Y; Seitz, R; Taras, P; Zacek, V; Nicholson, H; Sutton, C S; Cavallo, N; Cartaro, C; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; LoSecco, J M; Alsmiller, J R; Gabriel, T A; Handler, T; Heck, J; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Iwasaki, M; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Borsato, E; Colecchia, F; Dal Corso, F; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Marzolla, M; Michelon, G; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Torassa, E; Voci, C; Bailly, P; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; De La Vaissière, C; Del Buono, L; Genat, J F; Hamon, O; Le Diberder, F; Lebbolo, H; Leruste, P; Lory, J; Martin, L; Roos, L; Stark, J; Versillé, S; Zhang, B; Manfredi, P F; Ratti, L; Re, V; Speziali, V; Frank, E D; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J H; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bosi, F; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Simi, G; Triggiani, G; Walsh, J; Hairre, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Turnbull, L; Wagoner, D E; Albert, J; Bula, C; Fernholz, R; Lu, C; McDonald, K T; Miftakov, V; Sands, B; Schaffner, S F; Smith, A J; Tumanov, A; Varnes, E W; Bronzini, F; Buccheri, A; Bulfon, C; Cavoto, G; del Re, D; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Fratini, K; Lamanna, E; Leonardi, E; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Serra, M; Voena, C; Waldi, R; Jacques, P F; Kalelkar, M; Plano, R J; Adye, T; Claxton, B; Franek, B; Galagedera, S; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Lidbury, J; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Besson, P; Bourgeois, P; De Domenico, G; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Gosset, L; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Serfass, B; Vasseur, G; Yeche, C; Zito, M; Copty, N; Purohit, M V; Singh, H; Yumiceva, F X; Adam, I; Anthony, P L; Aston, D; Baird, K; Bartelt, J; Becla, J; Bell, R; Bloom, E; Boeheim, C T; Boyarski, A M; Boyce, R F; Bulos, F; Burgess, W; Byers, B; Calderini, G; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Coombes, R; Cottrell, L; Coupal, D P; Coward, D H; Craddock, W W; DeStaebler, H; Dorfan, J; Doser, M; Dunwoodie, W; Ecklund, S; Fieguth, T H; Field, R C; Freytag, D R; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G L; Grosso, P; Haller, G; Hanushevsky, A; Harris, J; Hasan, A; Hewett, J L; Himel, T; Huffer, M E; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kawahara, H; Keller, L; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Klaisner, L A; Kocian, M L; Krebs, H J; Kunz, P F; Langenegger, U; Langeveld, W; Leith, D W; Louie, S K; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacDonald, J; Manzin, G; Mariske, H; McCulloch, M; McShurley, D; Menke, S; Messner, R; Metcalfe, S; Moffeit, K C; Mount, R; Muller, D R; Nelson, D; Nordby, M; O'Grady, C P; O'Neill, F G; Oxoby, G; Pavel, T; Perl, J; Petrak, S; Putallaz, G; Quinn, H; Raines, P E; Ratcliff, B N; Reif, R; Robertson, S H; Rochester, L S; Roodman, A; Russell, J J; Sapozhnikov, L; Saxton, O H; Schietinger, T; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Seeman, J T; Serbo, V V; Skarpass, K; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Spanier, S M; Stahl, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Talby, M; Tanaka, H A; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weinstein, A J; White, J L; Wienands, U; Wisniewski, W J; Young, C C; Zioulas, G; Burchat, P R; Cheng, C H; Kirkby, D; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; De Silva, A; Henderson, R; Berridge, S; Bugg, W; Cohn, H; Hart, E; Weidemann, A W; Benninger, T; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Turcotte, M; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Di Girolamo, B; Gamba, D; Smol, A; Zanin, D; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Pompili, A; Poropat, P; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Brown, C M; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Charles, E; Dasu, S; Elmer, P; Hu, H; Johnson, J R; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Scott, I J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Zobernig, H; Kordich, T M; Moore, T B; Neal, H

    2001-03-19

    We present measurements of time-dependent CP-violating asymmetries in neutral B decays to several CP eigenstates. The measurement uses a data sample of 23x10(6) Upsilon(4S)-->BbarB decays collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric B Factory at SLAC. In this sample, we find events in which one neutral B meson is fully reconstructed in a CP eigenstate containing charmonium and the flavor of the other neutral B meson is determined from its decay products. The amplitude of the CP-violating asymmetry, which in the standard model is proportional to sin2beta, is derived from the decay time distributions in such events. The result is sin2beta = 0.34+/-0.20 (stat)+/-0.05 (syst).

  11. Gait Deviation Index, Gait Profile Score and Gait Variable Score in children with spastic cerebral palsy: Intra-rater reliability and agreement across two repeated sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Helle Mätzke; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg; Pedersen, Niels Wisbech; Overgaard, Søren; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders

    2015-07-01

    The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) and Gait Profile Score (GPS) are the most used summary measures of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, the reliability and agreement of these indices have not been investigated, limiting their clinimetric quality for research and clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the intra-rater reliability and agreement of summary measures of gait (GDI; GPS; and the Gait Variable Score (GVS) derived from the GPS). The intra-rater reliability and agreement were investigated across two repeated sessions in 18 children aged 5-12 years diagnosed with spastic CP. No systematic bias was observed between the sessions and no heteroscedasticity was observed in Bland-Altman plots. For the GDI and GPS, excellent reliability with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values of 0.8-0.9 was found, while the GVS was found to have fair to good reliability with ICCs of 0.4-0.7. The agreement for the GDI and the logarithmically transformed GPS, in terms of the standard error of measurement as a percentage of the grand mean (SEM%) varied from 4.1 to 6.7%, whilst the smallest detectable change in percent (SDC%) ranged from 11.3 to 18.5%. For the logarithmically transformed GVS, we found a fair to large variation in SEM% from 7 to 29% and in SDC% from 18 to 81%. The GDI and GPS demonstrated excellent reliability and acceptable agreement proving that they can both be used in research and clinical practice. However, the observed large variability for some of the GVS requires cautious consideration when selecting outcome measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Nintendo Wii™ Training on Occupational Performance, Balance, and Daily Living Activities in Children with Spastic Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy: A Single-Blind and Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasavun Uysal, Songül; Baltaci, Gül

    2016-10-05

    This study aimed at assessing how the addition of Nintendo Wii ™ (NW) system to the traditional therapy influences occupational performance, balance, and daily living activities in children with spastic hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy (CP). The present study is a single-blind and randomized trial involving 24 children aged 6-14 years, classified as level I or II on the Gross Motor Function Classification System. The children were allocated into two groups: an intervention and a control group, and their families participated in the study. The activity performance analysis of the children was undertaken by using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), functional balance was measured with the Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS), and activities of daily living were assessed with Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Twenty-four children with CP were randomly divided into two groups: intervention (n = 12) and control group (n = 12). All children in both groups continued their traditional physiotherapy program twice a week, 45 minutes per session, whereas the participants in the intervention group, additionally, were trained with NW, two other days of the week for 12 weeks, with each session lasting for 30 minutes. Self-care, mobility, PEDI total, PBS, and performance of COPM scores increased in the NW group after intervention. Self-care, mobility, and total PEDI increased in the control group as well. However, there was no statistically significant difference found between the groups, except for PBS (P < 0.05). NW contributed to the implementation of occupational performance, daily living activities, and functional balance. We recommend that NW could be used in the rehabilitation program to engage play-based activities with fun.

  13. Bilateral Simultaneous Macular Infarction with Spontaneous Visual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To report the rare and dramatic event of bilateral macular infarction in a sickle cell hemoglobinopathy (SS genotype) patient, resulting in bilateral severe reduction in visual acuity. Without any intervention, the patient's vision gradually improved over the follow‑up period. Central visual field defects however persisted.

  14. Bilateral microperc in a severe kyphoscoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dağgülli, Mansur; Penbegül, Necmettin; Dede, Onur; Utanğaç, Mehmet Mazhar

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is the standard modality for large renal calculi in normal and abnormal renal anatomic situations. This case report describes a 57-year-old male patient who presented with bilateral kidney stones and severe kyphoscoliosis. He had successfully been treated with a bilateral microperc technique.

  15. Infectious mononucleosis presenting as bilateral acute dacryocystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, P L; Ansons, A M; Patterson, A

    1990-01-01

    A case of infectious mononucleosis presenting as bilateral acute dacryocystitis in a 7-year-old girl is reported. Acute dacryocystitis is uncommon in this age group, and an underlying systemic illness should be suspected particularly when it is bilateral. Images PMID:2275940

  16. Bilateral elastofibroma dorsi: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Molini, L.; Ciortan, E.; Bianchi, S.

    2010-01-01

    Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare pseudotumoral lesion located in the periscapular region. Ultrasound can be used to evaluate its dimensions, margins, and internal structure. In the presence of bilateralism, diagnosis can be made on the basis of clinical and sonographic findings. The authors present a case of bilateral elastofibroma dorsi in which the clinical and ultrasound diagnosis was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging.

  17. Bilateral locked facets in the thoracic spine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Willems; Braakman, R. (Reinder); B. van Linge (Bert)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractTwo cases of traumatic bilateral locked facets in the thoracic spine are reported. Both patients had only minor neurological signs. They both made a full neurological recovery after surgical reduction of the locked facets. Bilateral locked facets are very uncommon in the thoracic spine.

  18. Bilateral spontaneous adrenal haemorrhage complicating acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pianta, M.; Varma, D. K.

    2007-01-01

    Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage is an event that mandates prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent primary adrenocortical insufficiency and potential death. Presentation can be non-specific and incidentally diagnosed with imaging alone, primarily CT. We present a case of acute pancreatitis with spontaneous bilateral adrenal haemorrhage and briefly discuss imaging and treatment implications

  19. A case of bilateral trench foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, S L; Leach, I H; Charnley, R M

    1993-12-01

    A case of severe bilateral trench foot is presented in a patient who lived rough for 3 weeks without removing his boots. Non-operative management yielded no clinical improvement and bilateral below-knee amputation was necessary. Histology revealed subcutaneous and muscle necrosis with secondary arterial thrombosis.

  20. A search for CP violation in hyperon decays by the hyper-CP experiment at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstrom, T.

    2002-01-01

    The Hyper-CP collaboration is performing a precision search for CP violation in hyperon decays, these decays are sensitive to sources of CP violation to which neutral kaon decays are not. The measured CP observable is proportional to the difference between the product of the Ξ and Λ decay α parameters and that of the CP-conjugate decays. About 2.5 billion fully-reconstructed Ξ - → Λπ - → pπ - π - and Ξ-bar + → Λ-barπ + → p-barπ + π + decays were taken in 2 fixed-target runs at Fermilab, allowing a statistical sensitivity of about 2.10 -4 in the CP asymmetry. These 2 runs gave us the largest sample of Ξ and Ω ever collected. An initial study has been done on a fraction of the data and we have obtained: A ΞΛ equals (-7±12(statistical)±6.2(systematic))*10 -4 . Other preliminary results are also presented in this series of slides

  1. Expanding phenotype of p.Ala140Val mutation in MECP2 in a 4 generation family with X-linked intellectual disability and spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Sophie; Maystadt, Isabelle; Boulanger, Sébastien; Vrielynck, Pascal; Destrée, Anne; Lederer, Damien; Moortgat, Stéphanie

    2016-10-01

    Mutations in MECP2 (MIM #312750), located on Xq28 and encoding a methyl CpG binding protein, are classically associated with Rett syndrome in female patients, with a lethal effect in hemizygous males. However, MECP2 mutations have already been reported in surviving males with severe neonatal-onset encephalopathy, or with X-linked intellectual disability associated with psychosis, pyramidal signs, parkinsonian features and macro-orchidism (PPM-X syndrome; MIM3 #300055). Here we report on the identification of the p.Ala140Val mutation in the MECP2 gene in 4 males and 3 females of a large Caucasian family affected with X-linked intellectual disability. Females present with mild cognitive impairment and speech difficulties. Males have moderate intellectual disability, impaired language development, friendly behavior, slowly progressive spastic paraparesis and dystonic movements of the hands. Two of them show microcephaly. The p.Ala140Val mutation is recurrent, as it was already described in 4 families with X-linked mental retardation and in three sporadic male patients with intellectual disability. We further delineate the phenotype associated with the p.Ala140Val mutation, illustrating a variable expressivity even within a given family, and we compare our patients with previous reported cases in the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Home-based Nintendo Wii training to improve upper-limb function in children ages 7 to 12 with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassee, Caroline; Hunt, Carolyn; Holmes, Michael W R; Lloyd, Meghann

    2017-05-17

    This pilot study compared a Nintendo Wii intervention to single-joint resistance training for the upper limb in children ages 7 to 12 with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Children were randomized to Wii training (n= 3), or resistance training (n= 3) and trained at home for 6 weeks. Pre, post and 4-week follow-up measures were collected. Outcome measures were the Melbourne Assessment (MA2), and ABILHAND-Kids, and grip strength. Compliance, motivation and feasibility of each intervention was explored using daily logbook responses and questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used. Three children improved in the MA2, two of which were in the Wii training group. Improvements in the ABILHAND-Kids were minimal for all participants. Grip strength improvements were observed in 3 participants, two of which were in the resistance training group. The Wii training group reported higher compliance and more consistently positive responses to motivation and feasibility questions. Therefore, Wii training may be an effective home-based rehabilitation strategy, and is worth exploring in a larger trial. Implications of Wii training in the context of motivation theory are discussed.

  3. Structural and Electrochemical Consequences of [Cp*] Ligand Protonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yun; Ramos-Garcés, Mario V; Lionetti, Davide; Blakemore, James D

    2017-09-05

    There are few examples of the isolation of analogous metal complexes bearing [η 5 -Cp*] and [η 4 -Cp*H] (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) complexes within the same metal/ligand framework, despite the relevance of such structures to catalytic applications. Recently, protonation of Cp*Rh(bpy) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridyl) has been shown to yield a complex bearing the uncommon [η 4 -Cp*H] ligand, rather than generating a [Rh III -H] complex. We now report the purification and isolation of this protonated species, as well as characterization of analogous complexes of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). Specifically, reaction of Cp*Rh(bpy) or Cp*Rh(phen) with 1 equiv of Et 3 NH + Br - affords rhodium compounds bearing endo-η 4 -pentamethylcyclopentadiene (η 4 -Cp*H) as a ligand. NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies confirm protonation of the Cp* ligand, rather than formation of metal hydride complexes. Analysis of new structural data and electronic spectra suggests that phen is significantly reduced in Cp*Rh(phen), similar to the case of Cp*Rh(bpy). Backbonding interactions with olefinic motifs are activated by formation of [η 4 -Cp*H]; protonation of [Cp*] stabilizes the low-valent metal center and results in loss of reduced character on the diimine ligands. In accord with these changes in electronic structure, electrochemical studies reveal a distinct manifold of redox processes that are accessible in the [Cp*H] complexes in comparison with their [Cp*] analogues; these processes suggest new applications in catalysis for the complexes bearing endo-η 4 -Cp*H.

  4. Higgs pair production in the MSSM with explicit CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, D.A.

    1999-07-01

    In the minimal supersymmetric standard model with explicit CP violation, associated production of the lightest Higgs boson with heavier ones is analyzed. Due to explicit CP violation, the Higgs bosons are no longer CP eigenstates so that both of the heavy Higgs bosons contribute to the process. While the radiative corrections in the Higgs sector turn out to be quite important, the vertex radiative corrections remain small as in the CP conserving theory. (author)

  5. Testing CP in K/sub μ/3 decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leurer, M.

    1989-01-01

    K factories will open the way for high-precision CP tests in K/sub μ/ 3 decays. The standard model does not predict CP breaking in this process. We consider here the effects of nonstandard interactions mediated by vector and scalar particles and by leptoquarks. We show that, for the only experimentally measurable quantity, vector particles alone never induce CP violation, and give a general expression for the CP breaking induced by scalars and leptoquarks

  6. Soft CP violation in K-meson systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero, J.C.; Nishi, C.C.; Pleitez, V.; Ravinez, O.; Rodriguez, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    We consider a model with soft CP violation which accommodates the CP violation in the neutral kaons even if we assume that the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix is real and the sources of CP violation are three complex vacuum expectation values and a trilinear coupling in the scalar potential. We show that for some reasonable values of the masses and other parameters the model allows us to explain all the observed CP violation processes in the K 0 -K 0 system

  7. Transcranial and spinal cord magnetic stimulation in treatment of spasticity: a literature review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzhova, Julia; Sinitsyn, Dmitry; Chervyakov, Alexander; Poydasheva, Alexandra; Zakharova, Maria; Suponeva, Natalia; Chernikova, Lyudmila; Piradov, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Spasticity is associated with various diseases of the nervous system. Current treatments such as drug therapy, botulinum toxin injections, kinesitherapy, and physiotherapy are not sufficiently effective in a large number of patients. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be considered as an alternative method of treatment. The purpose of this article was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of all available publications assessing the efficacy of repetitive TMS in treatment of spasticity. Search for articles was conducted in databases PubMed, Willey, and Google. Keywords included "TMS", "spasticity", "TMS and spasticity", "non-invasive brain stimulation", and "non-invasive spinal cord stimulation". The difference in scores according to the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) for one joint before and after treatment was taken as the effect size. We found 26 articles that examined the TMS efficacy in treatment of spasticity. Meta-analysis included 6 trials comprising 149 patients who underwent real stimulation or simulation. No statistically significant difference in the effect of real and simulated stimulation was found in stroke patients. In patients with spinal cord injury and spasticity, the mean effect size value and the 95% confidence interval were -0.80 and (-1.12, -0.49), respectively, in a group of real stimulation; in the case of simulated stimulation, these parameters were 0.15 and (-0.30, -0.00), respectively. Statistically significant differences between groups of real stimulation and simulation were demonstrated for using high-frequency repetitive TMS or iTBS mode for the M1 area of the spastic leg (P=0.0002). According to the meta-analysis, the statistically significant effect of TMS in the form of reduced spasticity was demonstrated only for the developed due to lesions at the brain stem and spinal cord level. To clarify the amount of the antispasmodic effect of repetitive TMS at other lesion levels, in particular in patients with

  8. The Effects of Exercise with TENS on Spasticity, Balance, and Gait in Patients with Chronic Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Junhyuck; Seo, Dongkwon; Choi, Wonjae; Lee, Seungwon

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a useful modality for pain control. TENS has recently been applied to decrease spasticity. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the addition of TENS to an exercise program reduces spasticity and improves balance and gait in chronic stroke patients. Material/Methods This was a single-blinded, multicenter, randomized controlled trial. Thirty-four ambulatory individuals with chronic stroke participated and were randoml...

  9. Somatosensory inputs by application of KinesioTaping: Effects on spasticity, balance, and gait in chronic spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica eTamburella

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leg paralysis, spasticity, reduced inter limb coordination and impaired balance are considered the chief limitations to overground ambulation in subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI. In the last years KinesioTaping (KT application has been proposed for enhancing sensory inputs, decreasing spasticity via proprioception feedback and relieving abnormal muscle tension. No studies addressed KT technique on SCI subjects: our goal was to analyze effects of ankle joint KT application on spasticity, balance and gait. Material and Methods: A randomized cross-over case control design was used to compare KT and conventional non-elastic silk tape (ST application’s effects in 11 chronic SCI subjects, AIS level D, with soleus/gastrocnemius (S/G muscles’ spasticity , balance and gait impairments. Treatment: 48 hours of either KT or ST treatment was followed after 1 week interval by a reverse protocol. Patient treated with KT were subjected to 48 hours of ST treatment and viceversa. Single Y-stripe of Cure©tape (KT and ST were applied to S and G with 0% stretch. Before and after 48 hours of KT and ST application, clinical data of range of motion (ROM, spasticity, clonus, pain, balance and gait were collected. Stabilometric platform assessment of Centre of Pressure (COP movements, bi-dimensional gait analysis and electromyograpich (EMG activity of S, G, Tibialis Anterior and Extensor Hallicus Lungus muscles were also collected. Results: Only After KT treatment significant effects on spasticity, clonus and COP movements, kinematic gait parameters and EMG activities were recorded. Comparison between KT and ST improvements pointed out significant differences for ROM, spasticity, clonus, pain, COP parameters and most of all kinematic gait data. Discussion: KT short term application reduces spasticity and pain and improves balance and gait performances in chronic incomplete SCI subjects.

  10. The CP 1 type separators-superheaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacio, G.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of the functionnement of the separators superheaters in the first French 900 MW PWR units (Fessenhein 1-2 and Bugey 2-3-4-5) and in the program CP 1 units: localization of the separators superheaters, design, tests and choice of the materials, description of the separators superheaters (shells, separators, superheater bundles, internal lagging, purging tank and condensate stank, steam line equipments); study of the various operation modes (nominals, transients, malfunctions, conservation during shutdowns) and the in service behaviour of the components; study of the modifications on the CP 1 equipments and their behaviour; description of the measures, tests and on site controls (controls during planned shutdowns and controls during service) [fr

  11. A CP violetion model of cosmological origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truppel, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    It's presented a model of spontaneous violation of the CP symmetry whose mechanism of symmetry breaking is of cosmological nature. The main feature is the conformal coupling of the field of a λφ 4 theory with a background gravitational field. We show that, for the open Friedmann model of the universe, the reason of the critical temperaTure for the symmetry restoration to the equilibrium temperature of the universe rrmains constant, so that either the symmetry breaking never happened or, if happened, it can't be reverted by means of thermal effects. Upon coupling the boson to a fermion, this symmetry breaking id related to the CP non-conservation in two distinct ways: violating the P and T symmetries, and violating the C and T symmetries. (author) [pt

  12. Bilateral bone conduction devices: improved hearing ability in children with bilateral conductive hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Catharina A J; Agterberg, Martijn J H; Cremers, Cor W R J; Hol, Myrthe K S; Snik, Ad F M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether children with bilateral conductive hearing loss benefit from their second device (i.e., the bilateral bone conduction device [BCD]). Speech recognition in noise was assessed in 10 children fitted with bilateral BCDs during childhood. Speech recognition was measured in 2 conditions with both BCDs active. Spatial resolution was tested with the Minimum Audible Angle test in the bilateral and monaural listening conditions. Children demonstrated an improvement in speech recognition when speech was presented from the front and noise was presented from the right-hand side as compared with both speech and noise being presented from the front. The minimum audible angle decreased from 57° in the best monaural condition to 13° in the bilateral condition. The audiological outcomes demonstrate the advantage of bilateral BCD fitting in children with bilateral conductive hearing loss.

  13. Origin of CP-violation through quark mass matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K.

    1990-01-01

    After a brief review of the CP violation models, we trace the origin of CP-phases from the phases of a class of quark mass matrices compatible with the calculability condition. The case of three generations corresponding to the standard milliweak CP model is discussed explicitly for the generic case of Fritzsch-type mass matrices. (orig.)

  14. James Cronin, CP Violation, and the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis James Cronin, CP Violation and the Pierre Auger Observatory matter over antimatter."1 "The experiment uncovered the CP [charge-parity] violation, or a with Additional Information Additional information about James Cronin and the charge-parity (CP

  15. Val L. Fitch, the CP Violation, and Antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Val L. Fitch, the CP Violation, and Antimatter Resources ) 'to verify a fundamental tenet of physics, known as CP [charge-parity] symmetry, by showing that two into two pi mesons. Cronin and Fitch had found an example of CP violation. The discovery's

  16. Neutrinos as a probe of CP-violation and leptogenesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Establishing CP-violation in the lepton sector is one of the most challenging future tasks in neutrino physics. The lepton mixing matrix contains one Dirac phase and, if neutrinos are Majorana particles, two additional CP-violating phases. I will review the main theoretical aspects of CP-violation in the lepton sector. Then, I will ...

  17. Light Higgs boson in THDM with explicit CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetzyanova, Eh.N.; Dolgopolov, M.V.; Smirnov, I.A.; Dubinin, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    The effective Lagrangian of the two-doublet Higgs sector with complex parameters is considered in the case of Minimal Supersymmetric Model with explicit CP violation. Light Higgs boson decay widths are calculated for the scenario with maximal mixing of CP even and CP odd states [ru

  18. A new look at CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.J.; Miller, G.A.

    1989-12-01

    The CP violating (CPV) kaonic matrix elements ε', ImA 0 , and ImA 2 , are used to compute CPV observables in baryonic systems. The numerical results for the electric dipole moment and the difference between Λ and Λ - decay parameters are similar to other approaches that use quark operators. Relations between the neutron electric dipole moment, CPV pion-nucleon coupling constants, and Λ decay parameters are derived

  19. NODAL interpreter for CP/M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oide, Katsunobu.

    1982-11-01

    A NODAL interpreter which works under CP/M operating system is made for microcomputers. This interpreter language named NODAL-80 has a similar structure to the NODAL of SPS, but its commands, variables, and expressions are modified to increase the flexibility of programming. NODAL-80 also uses a simple intermediate code to make the execution speed fast without imposing any restriction on the dynamic feature of NODAL language. (author)

  20. Status of CP violation in hyperon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X.G.; Steger, H.; Valencia, G.

    1991-01-01

    We update the estimate of CP violating observables in hyperon decays. We consider the effect of a heavy top quark, as well as recent bounds on the CKM angles. We present an estimate of the uncertainties associated with the evaluation of the hadronic matrix elements by comparing different models. We find that A(Λ - 0 ) is likely to occur at the 10 -5 level within the standard model, although it could reach 10 -4 . (orig.)

  1. CP violating mixings of toponium states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, U.

    1988-01-01

    In the present thesis the possibility of an admixture χ of the 2 1 P 1 toponium state which has the CP quantum number -1 to the 2 3 S 1 toponium state with CP quantum number +1 is discussed. The value of χ was estimated in 3 different models of the electroweak interaction. In the standard model the lowest contribution to χ is of 6th order in the weak coupling g or of 4th order in g and of 2nd order in the strong coupling g S . The Feynman diagrams which contribute to χ contain 2 loops. According to a crude estimate of these diagrams it is expected that they yield a contribution smaller than 10 -10 . In the model with extended Higgs sector - for a top-quark mass of 45 GeV - a value of 7x10 -4 resulted for χ. For a top-quark mass of 100 GeV it is expected that χ is even of the order of magnitude of 10 -2 . The large contributions originate from CP violating coupling neutral Higgs particles. In the right-left symmetric model two contributions to χ were calculated. The first one results from the exchange of the right- and left-handed W bosons. For a mass m R =500 GeV this contribution lies at χ ≅ 10 -14 . The second contribution is again based on the exchange of two neutral CP violating coupling Higgs particles. It lies in the order of magnitude at 10 -8 . Possibilities were indicated to find the estimated admixture χ in an experiment. A correlation in the 3-gluon decay of toponium and the decay of toponium into exclusive decays was discussed. (orig./HSI) [de

  2. CP-violation and electric dipole moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Dall, Matthias; Ritz, Adam, E-mail: aritz@uvic.ca [University of Victoria, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada)

    2013-03-15

    Searches for intrinsic electric dipole moments of nucleons, atoms and molecules are precision flavour-diagonal probes of new -odd physics. We review and summarise the effective field theory analysis of the observable EDMs in terms of a general set of CP-odd operators at 1 GeV, and the ensuing model-independent constraints on new physics. We also discuss the implications for supersymmetric models, in light of the mass limits emerging from the LHC.

  3. CP asymmetries in Strange Baryon Decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, I. I.; Kang, Xian-Wei; Li, Hai-Bo

    2018-01-01

    While indirect and direct CP violation (CPV) has been established in the decays of strange and beauty mesons, no CPV has yet been found for baryons. There are different paths to finding CP asymmetry in the decays of strange baryons; they are all highly non-trivial. The HyperCP Collaboration has probed CPV in the decays of single Ξ and Λ [1]. We discuss future lessons from {{{e}}}+{{{e}}}- collisions at BESIII/BEPCII: probing decays of pairs of strange baryons, namely Λ, Σ and Ξ. Realistic goals are to learn about non-perturbative QCD. One can hope to find CPV in the decays of strange baryons; one can also dream of finding the impact of New Dynamics. We point out that an important new era will start with the BESIII/BEPCII data accumulated by the end of 2018. This also supports new ideas to trigger {{J}}/{{\\psi }}\\to \\bar{{{Λ }}}{{Λ }} at the LHCb collaboration. Supported by National Science Foundation (PHY-1520966), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11335009, 11125525), Joint Large-Scale Scientific Facility Funds of the NSFC and CAS (U1532257), the National Key Basic Research Program of China (2015CB856700), Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, CAS, (QYZDJ-SSW-SLH003), XWK’s work is also supported by MOST (Taiwan) (104-2112-M-001-022)

  4. On the Nature of CP Pup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.; Orio, M.; Mukai, K.; Bianchini, A.; deMartino, D.; diMille, F.; Williams, R. E.

    2013-01-01

    We present new X-ray and optical spectra of the old nova CP Pup (nova Pup 1942) obtained with Chandra and the CTIO 4m telescope. The X-ray spectrum reveals a multi-temperature optically thin plasma reaching a maximum temperature of 36+19 keV 16 absorbed by local complex neutral material. The time resolved optical spectroscopy confirms the presence of the 1.47 hr period, with cycle-to-cycle amplitude changes, as well as of an additional long term modulation which is suggestive either of a longer pe- riod or of non-Keplerian velocities in the emission line regions. These new observational facts add further support to CP Pup as a magnetic cataclysmic variable (mCV). We compare the mCV and the non-mCV scenarios and while we cannot conclude whether CP Pup is a long period system, all observational evidences point at an intermediate polar (IP) type CV.

  5. CP Violation in Heavy MSSM Higgs Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Carena, M; Lee, J S; Pilaftsis, A; Wagner, C E M

    2016-01-01

    We introduce and explore new heavy Higgs scenarios in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with explicit CP violation, which have important phenomenological implications that may be testable at the LHC. For soft supersymmetry-breaking scales M_S above a few TeV and a charged Higgs boson mass M_H+ above a few hundred GeV, new physics effects including those from explicit CP violation decouple from the light Higgs boson sector. However, such effects can significantly alter the phenomenology of the heavy Higgs bosons while still being consistent with constraints from low-energy observables, for instance electric dipole moments. To consider scenarios with a charged Higgs boson much heavier than the Standard Model (SM) particles but much lighter than the supersymmetric particles, we revisit previous calculations of the MSSM Higgs sector. We compute the Higgs boson masses in the presence of CP violating phases, implementing improved matching and renormalization group (RG) effects, as well as two-loop RG...

  6. Quaternionic potentials and CP-violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Celso Chikahiro

    2000-01-01

    Full text follows: In the formulation of Quantum Mechanics by using a non-commutative ring of quaternions, we attempt to solve the Schroedinger equation with quaternionic potentials. Decay processes can easily be modeled by including complex imaginary potentials. Although, it could be explained as a transition between states under action of a perturbation. Purely imaginary quaternionic potentials can be used to describe CP-violation effects. The neutral kaon system, K 0 - K-bar 0 or K L - K S , represents an example of CP-violation phenomenon. The inclusion of quaternionic potentials imply a reformulation of the whole quantum theory. The use of a quaternionic algebra in discussing the Schroedinger equation leads to the lost of time reversal invariance (T), closely connected to CP violation by the well-known CPT theorem. In particular, we study the Schroedinger equation in presence of a quaternionic potential barrier given in terms of V, real potential acting in the region of width a, and jW, purely quaternionic potential acting in the region of width b. Different cases, |W|/V and b/a, are discussed in view of possible deviations of standard Quantum Mechanics. The complex linear Schroedinger equation is solved for stationary states. The explicit solution contains complex and quaternionic transmission/reflection coefficients. A wave packet treatment needs to make a more realistic and physical description. We briefly discuss possible interpretations and remaining questions. (author)

  7. Increased lower limb muscle coactivation reduces gait performance and increases metabolic cost in patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Martina; Ranavolo, Alberto; Conforto, Silvia; Martino, Giovanni; Draicchio, Francesco; Conte, Carmela; Varrecchia, Tiwana; Bini, Fabiano; Casali, Carlo; Pierelli, Francesco; Serrao, Mariano

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the lower limb muscle coactivation and its relationship with muscles spasticity, gait performance, and metabolic cost in patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis. Kinematic, kinetic, electromyographic and energetic parameters of 23 patients and 23 controls were evaluated by computerized gait analysis system. We computed ankle and knee antagonist muscle coactivation indexes throughout the gait cycle and during the subphases of gait. Energy consumption and energy recovery were measured as well. In addition to the correlation analysis between coactivation indexes and clinical variables, correlations between coactivation indexes and time-distance, kinematic, kinetic, and energetic parameters were estimated. Increased coactivity indexes of both knee and ankle muscles throughout the gait cycle and during the subphases of gait were observed in patients compared with controls. Energetic parameters were significantly higher in patients than in controls. Both knee and ankle muscle coactivation indexes were positively correlated with knee and ankle spasticity (Ashworth score), respectively. Knee and ankle muscle coactivation indexes were both positively correlated with energy consumption and both negatively correlated with energy recovery. Positive correlations between the Ashworth score and lower limb muscle coactivation suggest that abnormal lower limb muscle coactivation in patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis reflects a primary deficit linked to lower limb spasticity. Furthermore, these abnormalities influence the energetic mechanisms during walking. Identifying excessive muscle coactivation may be helpful in individuating the rehabilitative treatments and designing specific orthosis to restrain spasticity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of Botulinum Toxin Therapy on Postural Control and Lower Limb Intersegmental Coordination in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Dan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum toxin injections may significantly improve lower limb kinematics in gait of children with spastic forms of cerebral palsy. Here we aimed to analyze the effect of lower limb botulinum toxin injections on trunk postural control and lower limb intralimb (intersegmental coordination in children with spastic diplegia or spastic hemiplegia (GMFCS I or II. We recorded tridimensional trunk kinematics and thigh, shank and foot elevation angles in fourteen 3–12 year-old children with spastic diplegia and 14 with spastic hemiplegia while walking either barefoot or with ankle-foot orthoses (AFO before and after botulinum toxin infiltration according to a management protocol. We found significantly greater trunk excursions in the transverse plane (barefoot condition and in the frontal plane (AFO condition. Intralimb coordination showed significant differences only in the barefoot condition, suggesting that reducing the degrees of freedom may limit the emergence of selective coordination. Minimal relative phase analysis showed differences between the groups (diplegia and hemiplegia but there were no significant alterations unless the children wore AFO. We conclude that botulinum toxin injection in lower limb spastic muscles leads to changes in motor planning, including through interference with trunk stability, but a combination of therapies (orthoses and physical therapy is needed in order to learn new motor strategies.

  9. Influence of post-stroke spasticity on EMG-force coupling and force steadiness in biceps brachii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyle, Jennilee K; Mochizuki, George

    2018-02-01

    Individuals with spasticity after stroke experience a decrease in force steadiness which can impact function. Alterations in the strength of EMG-force coupling may contribute to the reduction in force steadiness observed in spasticity. The aim was to determine the extent to which force steadiness and EMG-force coupling is affected by post-stroke spasticity. This cross-sectional study involved individuals with upper limb spasticity after stroke. Participants were required to generate and maintain isometric contractions of the elbow flexors at varying force levels. Coefficient of variation of force, absolute force, EMG-force cross-correlation function peak and peak latency was measured from both limbs with surface electromyography and isometric dynamometry. Statistically significant differences were observed between the affected and less affected limbs for all outcome measures. Significant main effects of force level were also observed. Force steadiness was not statistically significantly correlated with EMG-force coupling; however, both force steadiness and absolute force were associated with the level of impairment as measured by the Chedoke McMaster Stroke Assessment Scale. Spasticity after stroke uncouples the relationship between EMG and force and is associated with reduced force steadiness during isometric contractions; however, these features of control are not associated in individuals with spasticity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A single trial of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) improves spasticity and balance in patients with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hwi-young; In, Tae Sung; Cho, Ki Hun; Song, Chang Ho

    2013-03-01

    Spasticity management is pivotal for achieving functional recovery of stroke patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a single trial of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on spasticity and balance in chronic stroke patients. Forty-two chronic stroke patients were randomly allocated into the TENS (n = 22) or the placebo-TENS (n = 20) group. TENS stimulation was applied to the gastrocnemius for 60 min at 100 Hz, 200 µs with 2 to 3 times the sensory threshold (the minimal threshold in detecting electrical stimulation for subjects) after received physical therapy for 30 min. In the placebo-TENS group, electrodes were placed but no electrical stimulation was administered. For measuring spasticity, the resistance encountered during passive muscle stretching of ankle joint was assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale, and the Hand held dynamometer was used to assess the resistive force caused by spasticity. Balance ability was measured using a force platform that measures postural sway generated by postural imbalance. The TENS group showed a significantly greater reduction in spasticity of the gastrocnemius, compared to the placebo-TENS group (p TENS resulted in greater balance ability improvements, especially during the eyes closed condition (p TENS provides an immediately effective means of reducing spasticity and of improving balance in chronic stroke patients. The present data may be useful to establish the standard parameters for TENS application in the clinical setting of stroke.

  11. Association of Early-Onset Spasticity and Risk for Cognitive Impairment With Mutations at Amino Acid 499 in SPAST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Meredith K; Humphreys, Peter; McMillan, Hugh J; Boycott, Kym M

    2018-04-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia is a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by lower extremity weakness and spasticity. Spastic paraplegia 4 (SPG4), caused by heterozygous mutations in the gene SPAST, typically causes a late-onset, uncomplicated form of hereditary spastic paraplegia in affected individuals. Additional clinical features in SPG4 have been reported on occasion, but no genotype-phenotype correlation has been established. Through targeted clinical testing, we identified 2 unrelated female patients with the same de novo p.Arg499His mutation in SPAST. Both patients presented with early-onset spasticity resulting in delayed motor milestones, which led to a diagnosis of cerebral palsy in one child and tethered cord in the other. Review of the literature identified several patients with mutations at amino acid 499 and early-onset symptoms associated with a risk of cognitive impairment. Early and accurate diagnosis of children with early-onset spasticity is important for informed prognosis and genetic counselling.

  12. Proximal femoral resection and articulated hip distraction with an external fixator for the treatment of painful spastic hip dislocations in pediatric patients with spastic quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampropulos, Mario; Puigdevall, Miguel H; Zapozko, Daniel; Malvárez, Héctor R

    2008-01-01

    We describe the results obtained with an alternative method of treatment for spastic painful hip dislocations in nonambulatory patients, which consists of a proximal femoral resection with capsular interposition arthroplasty, and the addition of a hinged external fixator for postoperative articulated hip distraction to allow for an immediate upright position and the ability to sit in a wheelchair. We performed this technique in three patients (four hips) with a mean age at the time of surgery of 15 years. Postoperatively, clinical improvement was observed in all four hips, with respect to pain relief, sitting tolerance, perineal care and functional range of motion.

  13. Acute Bilateral Superior Branch Vestibular Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario A. Yacovino

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapid onset of a bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH is often attributed to vestibular ototoxicity. However, without any prior exposure to ototoxins, the idiopathic form of BVH is most common. Although sequential bilateral vestibular neuritis (VN is described as a cause of BVH, clinical evidence for simultaneous and acute onset bilateral VN is unknown. We describe a patient with an acute onset of severe gait ataxia and oscillopsia with features compatible with acute BVH putatively due to a bilateral VN, which we serially evaluated with clinical and laboratory vestibular function testing over the course of 1 year. Initially, bilateral superior and horizontal semicircular canals and bilateral utricles were impaired, consistent with damage to both superior branches of each vestibular nerve. Hearing was spared. Only modest results were obtained following 6 months of vestibular rehabilitation. At a 1-year follow-up, only the utricular function of one side recovered. This case is the first evidence supporting an acute presentation of bilateral VN as a cause for BVH, which would not have been observed without critical assessment of each of the 10 vestibular end organs.

  14. Bilateral optic neuropathy in acute cryptococcal meningitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Zhe Ngoo; Li Min Evelyn Tai; Wan Hazabbah Wan Hitam; John Tharakan

    2016-01-01

    We reported a case of cryptococcal meningitis presenting with bilateral optic neuropathy in an immunocompetent patient. A 64-year-old Malay gentleman with no medical comorbidities presented with acute bilateral blurring of vision for a week, which was associated with generalised throbbing headache and low grade fever. He also had som-nolence and altered consciousness. Visual acuity in both eyes was no perception of light with poor pupillary reflexes. Extraocular muscle movements were normal. Anterior segments were unremarkable bilaterally. Fundoscopy revealed bilateral optic disc swelling. CT scan of the brain showed multifocal infarct, but no meningeal enhancement or mass. Cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure was normal, while its culture grew Cryptococcus neoformans. A diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis with bilateral optic neuropathy was made. Patient was treated with a six-week course of intravenous flu-conazole and started concomitantly on a fortnight's course of intravenous amphotericin B. After that, his general condition improved, but there was still no improvement in his visual acuity. On reviewing at two months post-initiation of treatment, fundi showed bilateral optic atrophy. Bilateral optic neuropathy secondary to cryptococcal meningitis was rare. The prognosis was guarded due to the sequelae of optic atrophy. Anti-fungal medication alone may not be sufficient to manage this condition. However, evidence for other treatment modalities is still lacking and further clinical studies are required.

  15. Bilateral, independent juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørkenborg, M-L; Frendø, M; Stavngaard, T; Von Buchwald, C

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a benign, vascular tumour that primarily occurs in adolescent males. Despite its benign nature, aggressive growth patterns can cause potential life-threatening complications. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is normally unilateral, originating from the sphenopalatine artery, but bilateral symptoms can occur if a large tumour extends to the contralateral side of the nasopharynx. This paper presents the first reported case of true bilateral extensive juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma involving clinically challenging pre-surgical planning and surgical strategy. A 21-year-old male presented with increasing bilateral nasal obstruction and discharge. Examination revealed tumours bilaterally and imaging demonstrated non-contiguous tumours. Pre-operative angiography showed strictly ipsilateral vascular supplies requiring bilateral embolisation. Radical removal performed as one-step, computer-assisted functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed. The follow-up period was uncomplicated. This case illustrates the importance of suspecting bilateral juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in patients presenting with bilateral symptoms. Our management, including successful pre-operative planning, enabled one-step total removal of both tumours and rapid patient recovery.

  16. Fibromuscular Dysplasia Presenting with Bilateral Renal Infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doody, O.; Adam, W. R.; Foley, P. T.; Lyon, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) describes a group of conditions which cause nonatheromatous arterial stenoses, most commonly of the renal and carotid arteries, typically in young women. We report a rare case of bilateral segmental renal infarction secondary to FMD in a young male patient. His initial presentation with loin pain and pyrexia resulted in a delay in the definitive diagnosis of FMD. He was successfully treated with bilateral balloon angioplasty. The delayed diagnosis in this patient until the condition had progressed to bilateral renal infarcts highlights the need for prompt investigation and diagnosis of suspected cases of FMD.

  17. Spastic paraplegia and OXPHOS impairment caused by mutations in paraplegin, a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial metalloprotease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casari, G; De Fusco, M; Ciarmatori, S; Zeviani, M; Mora, M; Fernandez, P; De Michele, G; Filla, A; Cocozza, S; Marconi, R; Dürr, A; Fontaine, B; Ballabio, A

    1998-06-12

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is characterized by progressive weakness and spasticity of the lower limbs due to degeneration of corticospinal axons. We found that patients from a chromosome 16q24.3-linked HSP family are homozygous for a 9.5 kb deletion involving a gene encoding a novel protein, named Paraplegin. Two additional Paraplegin mutations, both resulting in a frameshift, were found in a complicated and in a pure form of HSP. Paraplegin is highly homologous to the yeast mitochondrial ATPases, AFG3, RCA1, and YME1, which have both proteolytic and chaperon-like activities at the inner mitochondrial membrane. Immunofluorescence analysis and import experiments showed that Paraplegin localizes to mitochondria. Analysis of muscle biopsies from two patients carrying Paraplegin mutations showed typical signs of mitochondrial OXPHOS defects, thus suggesting a mechanism for neurodegeneration in HSP-type disorders.

  18. The effect of spasticity, sense and walking aids in falls of people after chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyuer, Ferhan; Oztürk, Ahmet

    2007-05-15

    To study the effects of spasticity, sensory impairment, and type of walking aid on falls in community dwellers with chronic stroke. Functional Independence Measure (FIM) Instrument, Joint Position Sense Evaluation (JPS), the Rivermead motor assessment scale (RMA), Ashworth Scale, Tinetti Assessment Tool were used to assess 100 cases. Fifty-three of the cases were grouped as nonfallers, 36 as one-time fallers and 11 as repeat fallers. These 3 groups were found to be different from each other in respect to FIM, Tinetti test and RMA (p cane, 41.9% high cane). According to Ordinal logistic regression analysis, it was found that the possibility of fall increased (p fall of the individuals with stroke decreased (p falls, spasticity is also an indicator for chronic stroke patients, as is motor impairment, functional situation, impairment of balance and walking. Sensory impairment, using a walking aid and the type were found to be ineffective.

  19. [Intrathecal baclofen therapy for spastic paraparesis due to aortic dissecting aneurysm; recent progress in treatment strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, T; Akagawa, H; Ochiai, T; Hayashi, M; Goto, S; Taira, T; Okada, Y

    2009-11-01

    A 48-year-old man suffered from acute dissection of thoracic aortic aneurysm which eventually led to replacement of the ascending aorta with a tube graft. During this clinical course, circulatory failure in intercostal artery resulted in spinal cord infarction followed by moto-sensory disturbance below Th7 dermatomic area. Seven months later, spasticity with pain in both lower extremities became conspicuous that was uncontrollable by any oral medication. Eventually the patient underwent the implantation of continuous infusion pump for intrathecal baclofen therapy (ITB). The clinical condition was remarkably improved and now has been well controlled. ITB, authorized by Japanese Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare in 2006, has notable therapeutic effects on spasticity derived from any sort of central nervous disorder. More promotive enlightenment if ITB is indispensable for enhancement of its medical benefit in Japan.

  20. Assessing the immediate impact of botulinum toxin injection on impedance of spastic muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Shin, Henry; Li, Le; Magat, Elaine; Li, Sheng; Zhou, Ping

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the immediate impacts of Botulinum Toxin A (BoNT-A) injections on the inherent electrical properties of spastic muscles using a newly developed electrical impedance myography (EIM) technique. Impedance measures were performed before and after a BoNT-A injection in biceps brachii muscles of 14 subjects with spasticity. Three major impedance variables, resistance (R), reactance (X) and phase angle (θ) were obtained from three different configurations, and were evaluated using the conventional EIM frequency at 50kHz as well as multiple frequency analysis. Statistical analysis demonstrated a significant decrease of resistance in the injected muscles (Multiple-frequency: R pre =25.17±1.94Ohm, R post =23.65±1.63Ohm, ptoxin effects on the muscle. This study demonstrated high sensitivity of the EIM technique in the detection of alterations to muscle composition. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cognitive dysfunction in hereditary spastic paraplegias and other motor neuron disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Faber

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP is a diverse group of single-gene disorders that share the predominant clinical feature of progressive lower limb spasticity and weakness. More than 70 different genetic subtypes have been described and all modes of inheritance are possible. Intellectual dysfunction in HSP is frequent in recessive forms but rare in dominant families. It may manifest by either mental retardation and/or cognitive decline. The latter may be subtle, restricted to executive dysfunction or may evolve to severe dementia. The cognitive profile is thought to depend largely on the genetic subtype of HSP, although wide phenotypic variability within the same genetic subtype and also within the same family can be found.

  2. A longitudinal study of the bilateral benefit in children with bilateral cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asp, Filip; Mäki-Torkko, Elina; Karltorp, Eva; Harder, Henrik; Hergils, Leif; Eskilsson, Gunnar; Stenfelt, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    To study the development of the bilateral benefit in children using bilateral cochlear implants by measurements of speech recognition and sound localization. Bilateral and unilateral speech recognition in quiet, in multi-source noise, and horizontal sound localization was measured at three occasions during a two-year period, without controlling for age or implant experience. Longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses were performed. Results were compared to cross-sectional data from children with normal hearing. Seventy-eight children aged 5.1-11.9 years, with a mean bilateral cochlear implant experience of 3.3 years and a mean age of 7.8 years, at inclusion in the study. Thirty children with normal hearing aged 4.8-9.0 years provided normative data. For children with cochlear implants, bilateral and unilateral speech recognition in quiet was comparable whereas a bilateral benefit for speech recognition in noise and sound localization was found at all three test occasions. Absolute performance was lower than in children with normal hearing. Early bilateral implantation facilitated sound localization. A bilateral benefit for speech recognition in noise and sound localization continues to exist over time for children with bilateral cochlear implants, but no relative improvement is found after three years of bilateral cochlear implant experience.

  3. On the determination of CP-even and CP-odd components of a mixed CP Higgs boson at e+e- linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dova, Maria Teresa; Ferrari, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    We present a method to investigate the CP quantum numbers of the Higgs boson in the process e + e - ->Zφ at a future e + e - linear collider (LC), where φ, a generic Higgs boson, is a mixture of CP-even and CP-odd states. The procedure consists of a comparison of the data with predictions obtained from Monte Carlo simulations corresponding to the productions of scalar and pseudoscalar Higgs and the interference term which constitutes a distinctive signal of CP violation. We present estimates of the sensitivity of the method from Monte Carlo studies using hypothetical data samples with a full LC detector simulation taking into account the background signals

  4. Overlapping molecular pathological themes link Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies and hereditary spastic paraplegias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Vincent; Clowes, Virginia E; Reid, Evan

    2013-08-01

    In this review we focus on Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathies and hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs). Although these diseases differ in whether they primarily affect the peripheral or central nervous system, both are genetically determined, progressive, long axonopathies that affect motor and sensory pathways. This commonality suggests that there might be similarities in the molecular pathology underlying these conditions, and here we compare the molecular genetics and cellular pathology of the two groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of joint mobilization on the H Reflex amplitude in people with spasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Parra, Julio Ernesto; Henao Lema, Claudia Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of ankle joint mobilization on the H reflex amplitude of thesoleus muscle in people with spasticity. Materials and methods: A quasi-experimental study withcrossover design and simple masking was conducted in 24 randomized subjects to initiate thecontrol or experimental group. Traction and rhythmic oscillation were applied for five minutesto the ankle joint. H wave amplitude changes of Hoffmann reflex (electrical equivalent of themonosynaptic spinal reflex) w...

  6. Delayed finger tapping and cognitive responses in preterm-born male teenagers with mild spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Mei, Xi; Chen, Andrew C N

    2015-02-01

    Information on fine motor and basic cognitive functions in spastic diplegia is sparse in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate index finger's tapping speed and cognitive functions in categorization and old/new recognition of pictures in patients with mild spastic diplegia. Fifteen preterm-born male teenagers with mild spastic diplegia and 15 healthy male teenagers participated in this study. Finger-tapping tests and cognitive tests were performed on all participants. Outcomes were compared between the two groups. In the finger-tapping tests, the tapping speed was significantly slower in patients than in controls. In the tests of tapping one key persistently and tapping two keys alternately, the reaction time gaps between the left and right digits were larger in patients than in controls. In the categorization tests, the accuracies and reaction times for animal/plant and girl face pictures, but not for boy face pictures, were significantly worse in patients than in controls. In the recognition tests, the accuracies for old/new, animal/plant, and boy/girl face pictures were significantly lower in patients than in controls. The reaction times for old/new, animal/plant, and new face pictures, but not for old face pictures, were significantly longer in patients compared with controls. Our results demonstrate delayed finger tapping and cognitive responses in preterm-born male teenagers with mild spastic diplegia. Our experimental paradigm is sensitive for the study of fine motor and cognitive functions between patients and healthy controls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Non-motor Symptoms In Patients With Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia Caused By Spg4 Mutations.

    OpenAIRE

    Servelhere, K R; Faber, I; Saute, J A M; Moscovich, M; D'Abreu, A; Jardim, L B; Teive, H A G; Lopes-Cendes, I; Franca, M C

    2016-01-01

    Non-motor manifestations are frequently overlooked in degenerative disorders and little is known about their frequency and clinical relevance in SPG4 hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG4-HSP). Thirty patients with SPG4-HSP and 30 healthy controls answered the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Brief Pain Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory. Student's t test was used to compare groups and linear regression was used to assess correlations. Patients had higher fatigue sc...

  8. USE OF BOTULINUM TOXIN TYPE A IN THE TREATMENT OF SPASTICITY IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Lazić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy has an incidence of about 1-2 per 1000 live births, and in spite of the progress of neonatal medicine, it seems that the incidence will not subside in the near future. The most important characteristic of cerebral palsy is movement abnormality: spasticity, chorea, athetosis, ataxia, dystonia, as well as their different combinations. About 70% of children who suffer from cerebral palsy also suffer from some form of spasticity. Spasticity is a type of muscle hypertonicity characterized by rapid increase in resistance to passive stretching of muscles. The interest for botulinum toxin application in the treatment of spasticity has dramatically increased in the last 10 years. Botulinum toxin is the most powerful neurotoxin that is found in nature. It is produced by anaerobic bacteria – clostridium botulinum. It is produced in eight serotypes of which type A is the most commonly used. Botulinum toxin blocks neuromuscular transmission and causes irreversible weakness of the treated muscle. It has been used since 1993 in the treatment of cerebral palsy in children. The toxin effect is permanent and it results in irreversible denervation. Functional recovery is possible after 2-4 months, due to sprouting of nerve endings and the formation of new synaptic contacts. Treatment with botulinum toxin is safe. Adverse effects are rare, temporary and completely reversible. Application of botulinum toxin prevents or reduces contractures and deformities, and thus delays or avoids surgical treatment. Yet, physical therapy, which prolongs and improves the effects of botulinum toxin, remains an essential and most important form of therapy in the treatment of children with cerebral palsy.

  9. The contribution of cognition and spasticity to driving performance in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Thomas D; Rosenthal, Theodore J; Roberts, Erica; Lampinen, Sara; Scott, J Cobb; Allen, R Wade; Corey-Bloom, Jody

    2008-09-01

    To examine the independent and combined impact of cognitive dysfunction and spasticity on driving tasks involving high cognitive workload and lower-limb mobility in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Single-visit cohort study. Clinical research center. Participants included 17 drivers with MS and 14 referent controls. The group with MS exhibited a broad range of cognitive functioning and disability. Of the 17 patients with MS, 8 had significant spasticity in the knee used to manipulate the accelerator and brake pedals (based on the Modified Ashworth Scale). Not applicable. A brief neuropsychologic test battery and 2 driving simulations. Simulation 1 required participants to maintain a constant speed and lane position while attending to a secondary task. Simulation 2 required participants to adjust their speed to accelerations and decelerations of a lead car in front of them. Patients with MS showed greater variability in lane position (effect size, g=1.30), greater difficulty in maintaining a constant speed (g=1.25), and less ability to respond to lead car speed changes (g=1.85) compared with controls. Within the MS group, in a multivariate model that included neuropsychologic and spasticity measures, cognitive functioning was the strongest predictor of difficulty in maintaining lane position during the divided attention task and poor response time to lead car speed changes, whereas spasticity was associated with reductions in accuracy of tracking the lead car movements and speed maintenance. In this preliminary study, cognitive and physical impairments associated with MS were related to deficits in specific components of simulated driving. Assessment of these factors may help guide the clinician regarding the types of driving behaviors that would put patients with MS at an increased risk for an automobile crash.

  10. Oculodentodigital Dysplasia Presenting as Spastic Paraparesis: The First Genetically Confirmed Korean Case and a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kye Won Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disease caused by mutations of the human gap junction alpha 1 gene, which encodes the protein Connexin-43. Patients with ODDD may present with neurological deficits with a typical pleiotropic combination of characteristic craniofacial, ophthalmological, phalangeal, and dental anomalies. In this report, we describe the first genetically confirmed Korean ODDD patient, who presented with spastic paraparesis. We will also review the neurological aspects of ODDD as reported in the literature.

  11. Progression of scoliosis in patients with spastic quadriplegia after the insertion of an intrathecal baclofen pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Glen M; Lauder, Anthony J

    2007-11-15

    Medical and radiographic review of 19 consecutive patients with spastic quadriplegia before and after intrathecal baclofen pump insertion with special attention paid to progression of scoliosis. Many orthopedic surgeons who treat spastic quadriplegic patients have noticed a trend of marked scoliosis progression after the administration of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) via subcutaneous pump and catheter. The purpose of this study is to quantify scoliosis progression in this patient population before and after baclofen administration and compare this to published natural history data. The authors had noted rapid progression of scoliosis in spastic quadriplegic patients after intrathecal baclofen pump insertion. This had been noted at other centers, but no significant statistical analysis had been done comparing prepump to postpump scoliosis progression in these patients. To document the magnitude and rate of scoliosis progressions after the placement of an ITB pump, the charts and radiographs of 19 consecutive nonambulatory patients with spastic quadriplegia and an ITB pump were reviewed. To document the rate of scoliosis progression, each patient had at least 2 pre and 2 postpump insertion spinal radiographs made. All radiographs were made with the patients in the supine position without orthoses. A board-certified orthopedic surgeon reviewed these radiographs. Skeletal maturity was assessed using Risser grading. Catheter tip location and rate of baclofen administration were recorded. For 19 patients with complete radiographic data, average Cobb angles were 10.2 degrees before pump insertion and 25 degrees at an average of 20.9 months after pump insertion (P quadriplegia and ITB pump. The authors are now performing spinal fusions for curves that exceed 40 degrees to 50 degrees in the presence of an ITB pump as recommended by previous reviews of scoliosis and accompanying quadriplegia.

  12. Evaluation of Spasticity Variations at the Elbow Joint of CVA Patients According to the Biomechanical Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Soleimanzadeh-Ardabili

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The goal of the present study was to evaluate spasticity variations by increase the velocity of motion and MAS value in the elbow flexor and extensor muscles at extension and flexion of CVA patients elbow joint according to the biomechanical indices. Materials & Methods: Fifteen adult patients with a history of stroke and upper-extremity spasticity volunteered to participate in this study and fifteen healthy subjects were recruited in order to establish the control group. The degree of spasticity was evaluated for each patient using the MAS. CPM tests were imposed in elbow extension and flexion and the biomechanical indices were calculated at each of the following velocities: 15, 45, 75 and 120 º/s. Results: It seemed a regular increment of the viscoelastic and viscose stiffness indices by increasing the velocity of motion and the rate of MAS value in both extension and flexion in all test groups and also there was significant regular increment of elastic stiffness index by increasing the velocity in both extension and flexion between the control group and group 1 and also irregular increment between group1 and group 2 and 3 and also the effect of mentioned index was decreased at higher level of MAS. Conclusion: it seemed the more effect of elastic stiffness in spasticity in CVA patients at lower level of MAS and more effect of viscose stiffness in higher level of MAS and also results showed the increment of viscose stiffness by increment of speed of motion and the rate of MAS.

  13. CP violation outside the standard model phenomenology for pedestrians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    So far the only experimental evidence for CP violation is the 1964 discovery of K L →2π where the two mass eigenstates produced by neutral meson mixing both decay into the same CP eigenstate. This result is described by two parameters ε and ε'. Today ε ∼ its 1964 value, ε' data are still inconclusive and there is no new evidence for CP violation. One might expect to observe similar phenomena in other systems and also direct CP violation as charge asymmetries between decays of charge conjugate hadrons H ± → f ± . Why is it so hard to find CP violation? How can B Physics help? Does CP lead beyond the standard model? The author presents a pedestrian symmetry approach which exhibits the difficulties and future possibilities of these two types of CP-violation experiments, neutral meson mixing and direct charge asymmetry: what may work, what doesn't work and why

  14. CP asymmetries in the supersymmetric trilepton signal at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornhauser, S.; Drees, M.; Dreiner, H.; Eboli, O.J.P.; Kim, J.S.; Kittel, O.

    2012-01-01

    In the CP-violating Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, we study the production of a neutralino-chargino pair at the LHC. For their decays into three leptons, we analyze CP asymmetries which are sensitive to the CP phases of the neutralino and chargino sector. We present analytical formulas for the entire production and decay process, and identify the CP-violating contributions in the spin correlation terms. This allows us to define the optimal CP asymmetries. We present a detailed numerical analysis of the cross sections, branching ratios, and the CP observables. For light neutralinos, charginos, and squarks, the asymmetries can reach several 10%. We estimate the discovery potential for the LHC to observe CP violation in the trilepton channel. (orig.)

  15. Analysis list: Cp190 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cp190 Cell line,Embryo,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/...target/Cp190.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Cp190.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Cp190.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Cp190.Cell_l...ine.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Cp190.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Cp190.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/

  16. Clinical experience with THC:CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis-related spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Jürgen; Feneberg, Wolfgang; Meier, Martin; Pöllmann, Walter

    2014-09-01

    This detailed medical charts' data collection study conducted at a multiple sclerosis (MS) clinic in Germany evaluated the effectiveness of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray in patients with resistant MS spasticity. Over a 15-month timeframe, THC:CBD spray was initiated in 166 patients. Mean follow-up was 9 months. In all, 120 patients remained on treatment for a response rate of 72%. THC:CBD spray was used as add-on therapy in 95 patients and as monotherapy in 25 patients to achieve best-possible therapeutic results. Among responders, the mean spasticity 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS) score decreased by 57%, from 7.0 before treatment to 3.0 within 10 days of starting THC:CBD spray. The mean dosage was 4 sprays/day. Most patients who withdrew from treatment (40/46) had been receiving THC:CBD spray for less than 60 days. Main reasons for treatment discontinuation were: adverse drug reactions, mainly dizziness, fatigue and oral discomfort (23 patients; 13.9%); lack of efficacy (14 patients; 8.4%); or need for a baclofen pump (9 patients; 5.4%). No new safety signals were noted with THC:CBD spray during the evaluation period. In this routine clinical practice setting at an MS clinic in Germany, THC:CBD spray was effective and well tolerated as add-on therapy or as monotherapy in a relevant proportion of patients with resistant MS spasticity.

  17. Muscle torque of healthy individuals and individuals with spastic hemiparesis after passive static streching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukawa DE Freitas, Sérgio Takeshi; DE Carvalho Abreu, Elizângela Márcia; Dos Reis, Mariane Cecilia; DE Souza Cunha, Bruna; Souza Moreira Prianti, Tamires; Pupio Silva Lima, Fernanda; Oliveira Lima, Mário

    2016-01-01

    Spasticity is one of the main causes of contracture, muscle weakness and subsequent functional incapacity. The passive static stretching can be included as having the purpose of increasing musculoskeletal flexibility, however, it also can influence the muscle torque. The objective is to verify the immediate effect of passive static stretching in the muscle strength of healthy and those who present spastic hemiparesis. There were assessed 20 subjects, 10 spastic hemiparetic (EG) and 10 healthy individuals (CG), including both sexes, aged between 22 and 78 years. The torque of extensor muscles of the knee was analyzed using isokinetic dynamometer. Results have shown that EG has less muscle torque compared to CG ( p torque after stretching ( p torque of CG after performing the program that was prescribed. Immediately after the passive stretch, a significant torque decrease can be seen in hypertonic muscle; it is believed that this reduction may be associated with the physiological overlap between actin and myosin filaments and so preventing the muscle to develop a maximum contraction.

  18. IMPACT OF BODY WEIGHT SUPPORTED BACKWARD TREADMILL TRAINING ON WALKING SPEED IN CHILDREN WITH SPASTIC DIPLEGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada El Sayed Abd Allah Ayoub

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: A lot of the ambulating children with spastic diplegia were able to walk with flexed hips, knees and ankles this gait pattern is known as crouch gait. The most needed functional achievement of diplegic children habilitation is to be able to walk appropriately. The development of an independent and efficient walking is one of the main objectives for children with cerebral palsy especially those with spastic diplegia. Method: Twenty children with spastic diplegia enrolled in this study, they were classified into two groups of equal number, eligibility to our study were ages ranged from seven to ten years, were able to ambulate, They had gait problems and abnormal gait kinematics. The control group (A received selected physical therapy program based on neurodevelopmental approach for such cases, while the study group (B received partial body weight supported backward treadmill training in addition to regular exercise program. Gait pattern was assessed using the Biodex Gait Trainer II for each group pre and post three months of the treatment program. Results: There was statistically significant improvement in walking speed in the study group (P<0.05 with significant difference when comparing post treatment results between groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: These findings suggested that partial body weight supported backward treadmill training can be included as a supplementary therapeutic modality to improve walking speed and functional abilities of children with diplegic cerebral palsy.

  19. Catheter Migration After Implantationan Intrathecal Baclofen Infusion Pump for Severe Spasticity: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Chou Li

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of intrathecal baclofen infusion pump implantation complicated by migration of the catheter tip. A 55-year-old man required an intrathecal baclofen infusion for severe spasticity 4 years after a cervical spinal cord injury with incomplete tetraparesis. Twelve months after initial implantation of the device, the patient began to experience a recurrence of trunk tightness and spasticity. Subsequent X-ray and computed tomography evaluations of the catheter system revealed pooling of contrast medium outside of the intrathecal distribution in the lumbar subcutaneous region of the back and therefore migration of the pump catheter tip. At surgical revision, emphasis was placed on minimizing the length of catheter outside of the spine and securing the catheter in the supraspinous fascia with a right-angled anchor. The distance between the anchors and the entry point of the catheter into the supraspinous fascia was also reduced to prevent slipping when the patient bends forward. After surgery, the patient's spasticity improved and, 1 year later, he has experienced no further complications during follow-up, requiring an average baclofen dose of 150 mg/day. Here, we describe several surgical methods intended to secure the intrathecal catheter and prevent catheter migration. Other complications related to catheter failure are also highlighted.

  20. Neurological manifestations in individuals with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, G A S; Yoshikawa, G T; Koyama, R V L; Fujihara, S; Martins, L C S; Medeiros, R; Quaresma, J A S; Fuzii, H T

    2016-02-01

    A cross-sectional observational study was conducted. The aim was to analyze the clinical-functional profile of patients diagnosed with HTLV-1 (human T-lymphotropic virus type 1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in the Amazon region. Reference center for HTLV in the city of Belém, state of Pará, Brazil. Muscle strength, muscle tone, balance and the need for gait assistance among patients with HAM/TSP were evaluated. Among the 82 patients infected with HTLV-1, 27 (10 men and 17 women) were diagnosed with HAM/TSP. No statistically significant difference in muscle tone or strength was found between the lower limbs. Muscle weakness and spasticity were predominant in the proximal lower limbs. Patients with HAM/TSP are at a high risk of falls (P=0.03), and predominantly use either a cane or a crutch on one side as a gait-assistance device (P=0.02). Patients with HAM/TSP exhibit a similar clinical pattern of muscle weakness and spasticity, with a high risk of falls, requiring gait-assistance devices.

  1. A hereditary spastic paraplegia mutation in kinesin-1A/KIF5A disrupts neurofilament transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Anthony

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary spastic paraplegias are a group of neurological disorders characterized by progressive distal degeneration of the longest ascending and descending axons in the spinal cord, leading to lower limb spasticity and weakness. One of the dominantly inherited forms of this disease (spastic gait type 10, or SPG10 is caused by point mutations in kinesin-1A (also known as KIF5A, which is thought to be an anterograde motor for neurofilaments. Results We investigated the effect of an SPG10 mutation in kinesin-1A (N256S-kinesin-1A on neurofilament transport in cultured mouse cortical neurons using live-cell fluorescent imaging. N256S-kinesin-1A decreased both anterograde and retrograde neurofilament transport flux by decreasing the frequency of anterograde and retrograde movements. Anterograde velocity was not affected, whereas retrograde velocity actually increased. Conclusions These data reveal subtle complexities to the functional interdependence of the anterograde and retrograde neurofilament motors and they also raise the possibility that anterograde and retrograde neurofilament transport may be disrupted in patients with SPG10.

  2. Epidemiological, humanistic, and economic burden of illness of lower limb spasticity in adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alison Martin,1 Seye Abogunrin,1 Hannah Kurth,2 Jerome Dinet2 1Evidera, London, UK; 2Ipsen, Boulogne Billancourt Cedex, France Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiological, humanistic, and economic burden of illness associated with adult lower limb spasticity (LLS and its complications. Methods: A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE identified 23 studies published between January 2002 and October 2012 that assessed the epidemiology, impact, and resource use associated with LLS. A hand-search of four neurology conferences identified abstracts published between 2010 and 2012. Results: LLS was found to occur in one third of adults after stroke, half to two thirds with multiple sclerosis, and three quarters with cerebral palsy. LLS limits mobility and reduces quality of life. No clear association was found between LLS and occurrence of pain, development of contractures, or risk of falls. Conclusion: The evidence on the burden of LLS and its complications is surprisingly limited given the condition's high prevalence among adults with common disorders, such as stroke. Further research is needed to clarify the impact of LLS, including the likelihood of thrombosis in spastic lower limbs. The dearth of high-quality evidence for LLS suggests a lack of awareness of, and interest in, the problem, and therefore, the unmet need among patients and their carers. Keywords: muscle spasticity, cost of illness, complications, quality of life

  3. Effects of interactive games on motor performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSaif, Amer A; Alsenany, Samira

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] Motor control and muscle strength impairments are the prime reasons for motor behavior disorders in children with spastic cerebral palsy. These impairments lead to histological changes in muscle growth and the learning of motor skills. Therefore, such children experience reduced muscle force generation and decreased muscle flexibility. We investigated the effect of training with Nintendo Wii Fit games on motor performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Forty children with cerebral palsy spastic diplegia aged 6-10 years diagnosed with level-3 functional capabilities according to the Gross Motor Classification System (GMFCS) were enrolled. Participants were divided randomly into equal groups: group (A) that practiced with the Nintendo Wii Fit game for at least 20 minutes/day for 12 weeks and group (B) that underwent no training (control group). The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (mABC-2) was used to assess motor performance, because it mainly involves motor tasks very similar to those involved in playing Nintendo Wii Fit games, e.g., goal-directed arm movements, balancing, and jumping. [Results] There were significant improvements in the subscales of the motor performance test of those who practiced with the Nintendo Wii, while the control group showed no significant changes. [Conclusion] Using motion interactive games in home rehabilitation is feasible for children with cerebral palsy.

  4. A new approach to assess the spasticity in hamstrings muscles using mechanomyography antagonist muscular group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Eddy; Scheeren, Eduardo M; Nogueira-Neto, Guilherme N; Button, Vera Lúcia da S N; Nohama, Percy

    2012-01-01

    Several pathologies can cause muscle spasticity. Modified Ashworth scale (MAS) can rank spasticity, however its results depend on the physician subjective evaluation. This study aims to show a new approach to spasticity assessment by means of MMG analysis of hamstrings antagonist muscle group (quadriceps muscle). Four subjects participated in the study, divided into two groups regarding MAS (MAS0 and MAS1). MMG sensors were positioned over the muscle belly of rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) muscles. The range of movement was acquired with an electrogoniometer placed laterally to the knee. The system was based on a LabVIEW acquisition program and the MMG sensors were built with triaxial accelerometers. The subjects were submitted to stretching reflexes and the integral of the MMG (MMG(INT)) signal was calculated to analysis. The results showed that the MMG(INT) was greater to MAS1 than to MAS0 [muscle RF (p = 0.004), VL (p = 0.001) and VM (p = 0.007)]. The results showed that MMG was viable to detect a muscular tonus increase in antagonist muscular group (quadriceps femoris) of spinal cord injured volunteers.

  5. The role of kinesiotaping combined with botulinum toxin to reduce plantar flexors spasticity after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag-Saygi, Evrim; Cubukcu-Aydoseli, Koza; Kablan, Nilufer; Ofluoglu, Demet

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of kinesiotaping as an adjuvant therapy to botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injection in lower extremity spasticity. This is a single-center, randomized, and double-blind study. Twenty hemiplegic patients with spastic equinus foot were enrolled into the study and randomized into 2 groups. The first group (n=10) received BTX-A injection and kinesiotaping, and the second group (n=10) received BTX-A injection and sham-taping. Clinical assessment was done before injection and at 2 weeks and 1, 3, and 6 months. Outcome measures were modified Ashworth scale (MAS), passive ankle dorsiflexion, gait velocity, and step length. Improvement was recorded in both kinesiotaping and sham groups for all outcome variables. No significant difference was found between groups other than passive range of motion (ROM), which was found to have increased more in the kinesiotaping group at 2 weeks. There is no clear benefit in adjuvant kinesiotaping application with botulinum toxin for correction of spastic equinus in stroke.

  6. New approaches in the management of spasticity in multiple sclerosis patients: role of cannabinoids

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    Paul F Smith

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Paul F SmithDepartment of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandAbstract: Cannabinoids such as Cannabis-based medicinal extracts (CBMEs are increasingly being used in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis (MS. They have been shown to have a beneficial effect on spasticity; however, this evidence is largely based on subjective rating scales. Objective measurements using the Ashworth scale have tended to show no significant effect; however, the validity of this scale has been questioned. The available clinical trial data suggest that the adverse side effects associated with using CBMEs are generally mild, such as dry mouth, dizziness, somnolence, nausea and intoxication. However, most of these trials were run over a period of months and it is possible that other adverse side effects could develop with long-term use. There may be reason to be concerned about the use of therapeutic cannabinoids by adolescents, people predisposed to psychosis and pregnant women.Keywords: multiple sclerosis, spasticity, cannabinoids, Cannabis

  7. Botulinum toxin therapy for treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis: review and recommendations of the IAB-Interdisciplinary Working Group for Movement Disorders task force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Dirk; Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Bohlega, Saeed; Chahidi, Abderrahmane; Chung, Tae Mo; Ebke, Markus; Jacinto, L Jorge; Kaji, Ryuji; Koçer, Serdar; Kanovsky, Petr; Micheli, Federico; Orlova, Olga; Paus, Sebastian; Pirtosek, Zvezdan; Relja, Maja; Rosales, Raymond L; Sagástegui-Rodríguez, José Alberto; Schoenle, Paul W; Shahidi, Gholam Ali; Timerbaeva, Sofia; Walter, Uwe; Saberi, Fereshte Adib

    2017-01-01

    Botulinum toxin (BT) therapy is an established treatment of spasticity due to stroke. For multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity this is not the case. IAB-Interdisciplinary Working Group for Movement Disorders formed a task force to explore the use of BT therapy for treatment of MS spasticity. A formalised PubMed literature search produced 55 publications (3 randomised controlled trials, 3 interventional studies, 11 observational studies, 2 case studies, 35 reviews, 1 guideline) all unanimously favouring the use of BT therapy for MS spasticity. There is no reason to believe that BT should be less effective and safe in MS spasticity than it is in stroke spasticity. Recommendations include an update of the current prevalence of MS spasticity and its clinical features according to classifications used in movement disorders. Immunological data on MS patients already treated should be analysed with respect to frequencies of MS relapses and BT antibody formation. Registration authorities should expand registration of BT therapy for spasticity regardless of its aetiology. MS specialists should consider BT therapy for symptomatic treatment of spasticity.

  8. A case of bilateral tubal pregnancy

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    Ayano Funamizu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral tubal pregnancy is very rare and occurs in only 1 out of every 200,000 spontaneous pregnancies. In this case, a 29-year-old woman with a history of primary infertility underwent treatment with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, and became pregnant. A gestational sac (GS was not detected in the uterus and transvaginal ultrasonography (USG revealed GS with fetal heartbeat in the left adnexa at 7 weeks and 6 days of gestation. The patient underwent laparoscopic surgery and ultimately, bilateral tubal pregnancy was diagnosed. Consequently, bilateral fallopian tube resection was performed. Afterwards, she conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART and delivered vaginally. This case suggests that even if a GS is found in one fallopian tube by USG, it is important to evaluate the other fallopian tube carefully. Keywords: bilateral tubal pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, human menopausal gonadotropin, laparoscopy

  9. Bilateral nasolabial cysts associated with recurrent dacryocystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrmizakis, Dionysios E; Lachanas, Vassilios A; Benakis, Antonios A; Velegrakis, George A; Aslanides, Ioannis M

    2005-05-01

    Nasolabial cysts are rare, nonodontogenic, soft-tissue, developmental cysts occurring inferior to the nasal alar region. They are thought to arise from remnants of the nasolacrimal ducts and they are frequently asymptomatic. We report a rare case of bilateral nasolabial cysts accompanied by bilateral chronic dacryocystitis. A 48-year-old woman suffering from bilateral chronic dacryocystitis was referred to our department for endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy. She had undergone external dacryocystorhinostomy on the left side a few years earlier. Physical examination and computed tomography scan revealed nasolabial cysts bilaterally inferior to the nasal alar region. The cysts were removed via a sublabial approach and endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy was performed on the right side. Ten months after surgery, the patient was asymptomatic. There may be a correlation, due to embryological reasons, between the presence of nasolabial cysts and the presence of chronic dacryocystitis. Both can be corrected surgically, under the same anaesthesia, without visible scar formation.

  10. THE EUROPEAN UNION’S BILATERAL APPROACH

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    Ludmila BORTA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The EU is a world economic power and a major trading partner for most countries. All the time, this region has been interested and has acted towards a free and fair trade. The decrease and even the elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers in the world trade are among the main objectives of the EU strategy for international trade. At the moment, the elusive outcome of the WTO Doha Round has led to the proliferation of bilateral trade agreements worldwide. Although the EU remains committed to further development of the multilateral trading system, however, the EU still has appealed also to the development of bilateral trade relations. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the current bilateral dimension of the common commercial policy of the EU. In conclusion, to describe this bilateral approach of the EU we are using one word, namely “diversity”.

  11. FLOWING BILATERAL FILTER: DEFINITION AND IMPLEMENTATIONS

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    Maxime Moreaud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The bilateral filter plays a key role in image processing applications due to its intuitive parameterization and its high quality filter result, smoothing homogeneous regions while preserving the edges of the objects. Considering the image as a topological relief, seeing pixel intensities as peaks and valleys, we introduce a way to control the tonal weighting coefficients, the flowing bilateral filter, reducing "halo" artifacts typically produced by the regular bilateral filter around a large peak surrounded by two valleys of lower values. In this paper we propose to investigate exact and approximated versions of CPU and parallel GPU (Graphical Processing Unit based implementations of the regular and flowing bilateral filter using the NVidia CUDA API. Fast implementations of these filters are important for the processing of large 3D volumes up to several GB acquired by x-ray or electron tomography.

  12. EXERTIONAL RHABDOMYOLYSIS OF THE BILATERAL ADDUCTOR MAGNUS

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    Tolga Saka

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a case study of a person (63 year-old man, who has been using statins for 18 years, with rhabdomyolysis of the bilateral adductor muscles associated with strenuous and prolonged eccentric exercises (hiking in a hot environment. Clinical examination showed predominantly on the right side muscle swelling and palpational pain of the bilateral adductor muscle groups and bilateral tibial edema. His serum creatine kinase (CK level was 12218 IU/L. T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR images showed a high signal intensity in the bilateral adductor muscles of the hip. The patient did not develop complications and returned to his previous performance level in 30 days following adequate hydration and resting of the affected muscles. Strenuous eccentric exercise should be avoided during the course of statin use and clinicians should be aware of present observations when considering the significance of acute CK elevations in patients on statin treatment

  13. Bilateral Tubal Pregnancy without Known Risk Factor

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    Hyacinthe Zamané

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bilateral ectopic gestation is very rare. The authors report a case diagnosed and taken care of at Yalgado Ouedraogo Teaching Hospital, Ouagadougou. It was a 30-year-old patient with no known pathological history. She had presented at the obstetric emergencies with a state of hypovolemic shock by haemoperitoneum with digestive disorders, pelvic pain, vaginal bleeding, and a mention of delayed menstruation. The ultrasound coupled with the urinary immunological pregnancy test confirmed the diagnosis of ruptured ectopic pregnancy and a bilateral form was suspected. A laparotomy in emergency confirmed the diagnosis of bilateral ectopic gestation with a right ampullary unruptured pregnancy and a left isthmic ruptured gestation. A bilateral salpingectomy was performed and counseling was made for the use of medical help of procreation in case of future need of pregnancy.

  14. Bilateral calcaneal epiphysiolysis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, J; Pèlach, M; Font, C; Cairo, J

    2013-01-01

    A case of bilateral calcaneal epiphysiolysis in a six-month-old female Dobermann Pinscher is described in this report. The absence of a traumatic event and the clinical, radiographic and histopathological abnormalities led us to the diagnosis of simultaneous bilateral epiphysiolysis of the calcaneus. A tension band and a type II transarticular external fixator were placed. The clinical signs were resolved only temporarily because of the gravity of the bone changes.

  15. Recurrent Bilateral Breast Abscesses after Sternotomy

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    Hamza Cinar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Median sternotomy is the most commonly used incision in cardiothoracic procedures. Development of breast abscess after sternotomy is a very rare situation. We present a case of sternal wound infection with recurrent bilateral breast abscess after sternotomy. Our case is the first and only case in the literature due to the presence of sternal wound infection with recurrent bilateral breast abscess after sternotomy.

  16. Cutaneous metastasis of bilateral renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Fariba; Alizadeh, Mansur; Noroozinia, Farahnaz; Moradi, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignant lethal tumour with high potential of metastasis. However, metastasis from RCC to the skin is much less common. It is virtually a sign of poor prognosis. We represent a 42 years old man with bilateral RCC of clear cell type followed by metastasis to the scalp one month later. In this case the relatively young age of the patient, bilaterality of RCC and occurance of skin metastasis in the absence of recurrent kidney tumour are interesting.

  17. Bilateral anophthalmia with septo-optic dysplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Jana, Manisha; Sharma, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Bilateral anophthalmia is a rare entity and association with septo-optic dysplasia is an even rare condition. The condition is characterized by absent eyeballs in the presence of eyelids, conjunctiva or lacrimal apparatus. Though anophthalmia can be diagnosed clinically, imaging plays a crucial role in delineating the associated anomalies. In addition, often clinical anophthalmia may prove to be severe microphthalmia on imaging. We describe the imaging findings in an infant with bilateral ano...

  18. Bilateral anophthalmia with septo-optic dysplasia

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    Manisha Jana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral anophthalmia is a rare entity and association with septo-optic dysplasia is an even rare condition. The condition is characterized by absent eyeballs in the presence of eyelids, conjunctiva or lacrimal apparatus. Though anophthalmia can be diagnosed clinically, imaging plays a crucial role in delineating the associated anomalies. In addition, often clinical anophthalmia may prove to be severe microphthalmia on imaging. We describe the imaging findings in an infant with bilateral anophthalmia and septo-optic dysplasia.

  19. Bilateral cerebellopontine arachnoid cyst: A rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anand; Sharma, Achal; Mittal, Radhey S; Gandhi, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral cerebellopontine angle (CPA) arachnoid cysts (ACs) are very rare: only one case is reported in literature. Pathogenesis of those cysts is unknown; they are thought to be congenital. The presenting symptoms of CPA AC are frequently nonspecific or otological. The management of ACs of the CPA is controversial. We are reporting two cases of bilateral CPA AC with their pathophysiology and review of literature.

  20. BILATERAL CHOROIDAL EXCAVATION IN JUVENILE LOCALIZED SCLERODERMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Mackenzie L; Day, Shelley

    2018-01-01

    To describe a case of bilateral choroidal excavation in a patient with juvenile localized scleroderma. Case report. An asymptomatic 12-year-old boy with localized scleroderma presented for examination and was found to have bilateral areas of choroidal excavation temporal to the fovea. Previous reports of ocular complications of localized scleroderma have primarily described adnexal and anterior segment changes. This is the second report of choroidal changes in a patient with localized scleroderma, and the first in a pediatric patient.